Introduction The study of macroeconomics has become very important in the contemporary world of business and economic practices. Generally, macroeconomics involves decision made by households and firms (including government), more so in relation of how the scarce resources can be allocated in order to effectively carry out production, trade and consumption.
Viewed from a different perspective, the success of economic practices depend on the levels of demand and supply prevailing in a certain market environment, which tend to have influence on price level of products and the general consumers’ purchase behaviour.
Moreover, the effect of macroeconomic variables on the economy’s gross domestic product determines the success of an economy mainly in relation to employment levels, investment, inflation levels, and resource distribution among others.
An organization’s external environment is normally affected by the remote environment, the industry environment, and the operating environment, all of which are macroeconomic aspects that may in one way or another affect the profitability of an organization both in the short and long term.
In a national level, macroeconomic forces influence the level of government participation in economic activities as well as influencing government’s decisions pertaining to economy’s capital structure.
In this case, macroeconomic variables determine the level of gross national income of a country, which is usually measured by net worth of economic activities including production in the economy over a specific period of time, mostly one fiscal year.
One notable aspect of macroeconomics is the fact that economic growth rate tends to change frequently due to volatility of households’ living standards and changes in income distribution among different groups of people in a country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, given that it is not always possible to maintain equity and status quo in an economy, GNP tends to focus on measuring the scale of income and wealth inequalities in the country.
Therefore, it is worth noting that, as the GDP measures the economic value of all final goods and services in the economy in a fiscal year, it becomes a valuable determinant and indicator of a country’s economic status.
According to Barro (2008, pp 2), performance of the overall economy matters to the citizens of a country because it influences incomes, job prospects and prices; therefore, it is important for the government to understand how macroeconomics work. Generally, macroeconomics are usually characterized by various variables that include among others the “health of an economy: aggregate output or income, the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, and the interest rate” (Barro, 2008).
First, unemployment is a common phenomenon in most countries; however, the level of unemployment differs from one country to another depending on the number of non-working labor force in a country. In simple terms, labor force includes the working population as well as people who are in process of hunting for jobs; however, people who are voluntarily unemployed (either formally or informally) are disqualified from this definition of labor force. Nevertheless, it is impossible to bring down the rate of unemployment to zero in an ideal economy.
The second macroeconomic variable is inflation rate, which is simply described as the tendency of general price levels rising relative to the production capacity in the economy over a given period of time. In other words, there is a high supply of money in the hands of households and firms in the economy thus increasing the aggregate demand beyond the aggregate supply, thus forcing prices of goods and services to rise.
One significant measure of inflation is the consumer price index and producer price index applicable to households and firms for the purchase of consumer goods and producer goods respectively. In addition to this, the GDP price deflator is also used as an inflation measure particularly on national and public goods and services.
The third variable of macroeconomics is the health of the economy, which is measured by the economy’s GDP. Normally, the production of goods and services usually generates income within the specific period of production, thus GDP measures the economic value of products at the prevailing market prices during the period under consideration; however, recycled goods are eliminated from this calculation.
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Critical Thinking in Problem Solving Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Description of the first problem
Description of the second problem
Using persuasive thinking to solve the first problem
Using scientific thinking to solve the first problem
Description of the first problem The first problem situation is about the use of cell phone while driving. The use of cell phone while behind the wheel has proved to very catastrophic to road users.
The habit has led to the death of many people. The common practice disorients the attention of the driver and endangers the lives of other individuals using the road (Cain
Leadership in Organisations Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Findings and Evaluation
Introduction Leadership in an organization has become a prerequisite for the success of the organization. Therefore leadership is a major determinant for the performance of the organization; either to succeed in the administration or fail in doing so. As a result, several works have emerged to address the issue of leadership in the organization setting.
However, this paper attempts to analyze and evaluate leadership aspects such as the theory, strategies and roles in the article “Development and Application of the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire” by Kets De Vries, Vrignaud, Agrawal and Florent-Treacy (2010).
Findings and Evaluation The article is about a survey instrument known as Leadership Archetype Questionnaire (LAQ) that is designed to help the leader improve on their leadership and also formulate strategies that will lead to the development of the organization. LAQ as an instrument, is designed to mould leaders upon eight principles which are, “strategist, change-catalyst, builder, innovator, processor, coach, communicator and transactor” (Kets De Vries, 2010: 2850).
The article suggests that LAQ as instrument helps the leaders to interact with their followers since the former can not operate in isolation (Gronn, 2002). This is especially true because in designing the LAQ, an interview must be conducted in order to establish the behavior of the leaders (executive).
Leaders have been known to have common roles therefore they can assist each other in the performance of their duties in order to achieve the goal of their organization (Mintzberg, 1973). According to Mintzberg, the ten roles of a leader are, “figurehead, liaison, monitor, disseminator, leader, spokesman, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, negotiator and resource allocator, interpersonal, informational and decisional roles” (p. 34).
The article describes LAQ as a tool which enhances effectiveness in the roles of leaders in an organization. Effectiveness of the leaders is determined by the composition of the team of leaders in terms of individual differences, role and contribution (Belbin, 1996; 2003).
Belbin (2003) observed this fact about the LAQ and he distinguished nine team roles of the leaders which make them to be effective in their functioning. The roles included; shaper, implementer, resource investigator, plant, monitor, evaluator, coordinator, completer and team worker. He further suggested that balanced team of leader were effective in the performance of their function while the reverse is true about unbalanced team leaders (executives).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article suggests that LAQ can be used to assess the behavior pattern of the leaders. This is particularly important because it helps in identifying the character of the leaders and the areas that they are effective in the given archetypes.
It is absolutely true that leadership positions or people with intentions of becoming leaders belong to a self selected group and hence not all people can become leaders.
For instance, Ket de Vries (2006) notes that there are few people with self-defeating, dependent, depressive or detached personalities. However the article suggests there is possibility of a particular individual to fit in various leadership archetypes due to the many characteristics and behavior that he possess.
The article notes that the LAQ is intended for use in training and coaching. The behavior of the leaders towards the colleagues, subordinates, bosses and other stakeholders’ matters most since it determines the success of the organization (Ket de Vries, 2001).
He notes that some leaders fail in their administration of duties due to their behaviors. This is especially true because the leaders act as an example to rest of the members and his character will greatly influence others.
The author(s) of the article argue that in order for an effective team to be created, each individual needs to reflect his preferred leadership behavior. The article notes that one has to know himself before understanding the behaviors of others and the authors have given a perfect example concerning emergent definition of leadership. The article cites the approach that is used to interpret various permutations of leadership including the behavior other than the essentials and notions of leadership (Bresnen, 1995).
The article is essential for the leaders of organization because it provides the leaders with strategies to overcome challenges in their organization.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership in Organisations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the author cites that no leader can stand in isolation and therefore each member requires the support of one another. An individual who has strengths in certain function may be left to perform the duties while his weaknesses may be compensated by other individuals in the organization.
The article has done well in the provision of reliable statistics about the eight leadership archetypes. This is because the design of LAQ was in 360 degree format and it was multidimensional. As a result, the model of LAQ has breadth and comprehensiveness and allows for a rich representation of individuality rather than compelling people into specific categories.
To add on, the authors of the article have given sufficient statistic about the leadership archetypes and various sources have been cited as evidence. It follows that the information that it is in the article is reliable to be used by the leaders of the organization and for education purposes.
Practical implications The writers of the article are justified to conclude that leadership behavior is highly complex transformation in which many factors contribute to it. This is because the leadership behavior can not be studied in isolation from other factor such as genetic predisposition and social influences.
For instance, preferential behavior will be created as a character trait through the combination of genetic predisposition and socializing influences. It is also worthy to note that leadership archetypes form an interactive process between the individual and the surrounding and it is never independent.
It is obvious that the LAQ will assist the leaders in assessing the roles of the executive in order to meet the challenges that may be encountered in the organization. This is because it identifies the weaknesses of the leaders and therefore design strategies to overcome the weaknesses.
After reading the article about LAQ, leaders are likely to optimize their interaction with their followers after understanding their behavioral preference and behavior in leadership. This technical know how will help leaders in making of their decision and also will assist them in communication skills.
This article is also important to leaders since it may help them in shaping and designing of effective organizational teams. This is because the article highlights LAQ as an effective tool in understanding character, competence and roles of the leaders in an organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in Organisations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By designing functional teams, coordination will be enhanced allowing for a more efficient organization. Teams working together will also help in maximum productivity from employees as they try to develop healthy competition. Finally, coordinating teams will allow the organization to consolidate the different team objectives and goals into a single goal for the organization.
Reference List Belbin, R.M., 1996. Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Belbin, R.M.,2003. Management Teams: Why they Succeed or Fail. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Bresnen, M., 1995. All Things to All People? Perceptions, Attributions, and Constructions of Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(4), pp. 495–513.
Gronn, P., 2002. Distributed Leadership as a Unit of Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), pp. 423–451.
Kets de Vries, M.F.R., 2001. The Leadership Mystique. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Kets de Vries, M.F.R., 2006. The Leader on the Couch. London: Wiley.
Kets De Vries, M.F.R., Vrignaud, P., Agrawal, A. and Florent-Treacy, E., 2010. Development and application of the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(15), 2848 — 2863.
Mintzberg, H., 1973. The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper
Social Cultural Causes Of Crime Analytical Essay best essay help
Crime is one of the most commonly occurring phenomena in any given society in the world. Crime has been termed as any behavior that violates established law and norms and is contrary to societal expectations (Lectric Law Library Para 2). Criminologists have done research studies to try and establish the causes of crime and the reasons why people commit crimes.
Some of the proposed factors for the occurrence of crime and why people violate the law include economic factors such as economic inequalities that lead to poverty. Social and cultural factors (social and family laws) have also been proposed as possible causes of crime.
Other than the level of education, criminologists argue that crime can be learned and that the environment may expose one to crime. Psychologists have also argued that there are some psychological deficiencies that may lead people to engage in deviant behavior (Melkonyan 2011). Although there are commonly occurring factors for the causation of crime, debate is still ranging on the real reasons for the trends and rates of crime in different parts of the world.
There has also been efforts to describe measure required to eradicate crime through managing its causes and crime (deviant behavior) itself, to punishing lawbreakers. Some of these methods have been successful while others have not. There is need to highlight the social cultural factors of crime and describe the necessary positive measures to prevent the occurrences of crime.
The leading causes of crime in the society are a combination of social cultural factors in the society. Society can thus be blamed for leading people to commit crime as it exposes individuals to environments that make it necessary to commit crime.
Certain norms in the society have to be adhered to and as such this makes people to remain depended on them for pleasure. Such dependency can therefore lead to an addiction on these behaviors and as such, the behaviors become part of everyday life. Such routinely harmless activities as taking a cold shower for temporary relief and relaxation may soon turn to dependency on the action.
When the activity is skipped the body craves for it or any of its alternatives (Shannonhouse 1). Extended exposure to these cultural practices however leads to stimulus satiation and as such, the body demands for a stronger alternative for reprieve. Should the body be denied this reprieve then a severe medical condition could ensue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At this point, an individual may turn to drugs or alcohol as a means of reprieve and thus become dependent on them (Shannonhouse 1). Dependency on such drug ands alcohol leads to addition. Such drugs lead to acute pleasure and may also cause intoxication to a person. Such intoxication is dangerous as it can impair judgment and make the person’s overrate their abilities.
This false self-concept may lead one to commit crime (Shannonhouse 2).Therefore some harmless societal behaviors are the unseen factors that lead to a person to addiction and dependency on abused substances for temporary pleasure. What may appear as the search of pleasure could in fact end up as the cause for suffering.
Criminals can also be victims of the social environments in which they live in and as such, remain exposed or even forced to become criminals to survive in those environments. Personal relationships and the people around a person may lead one to commit crime.
This is true according to the convictions of Lord Longford, a Christian reformer and a prisoners’ rights activist who fought for the reformation of the British prison laws. Lord Longford in his defense of Myra Hindley, argues that she was a victim of her lovers criminal nature and manipulative tendencies as such was not as guilty as her lover and serial killer Mr. Brady (Stanley 1).
The argument in this and many other quarters are that Miss Hindley criminal nature was influenced by her association with Mr. Brady. According to Longford, this is how many criminals are made and thus they deserve a second chance (Stanley 2).
From the above arguments, it can be deduced that these factors exist by the mere occurrence of the vulnerability of the human beings. Human beings are vulnerable to their social and physical environments as well as their biological make up. Myra Hindley was vulnerable towards the influence of her lover and partner in crime.
These factors that lead to crime can be altered positively thereby helping to reduce crime rates in the society. According to Longford the separation of the victim of crime from the agent of crime is enough to delineate learned crime. This is because the factors that lead to a person committing crime have been severed and a person naturally reforms back to their usual selves. As such, criminals should be released upon sufficient proof that the relationships that lead to their committing crime have been severed completely.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Cultural Causes Of Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accompanying this is the spiritual principle of forgiveness, a conviction the staunch Catholic Lord Longford held. As s such Myra Hindley ought to have been forgiven and released on parole: her lover did not qualify for parole, meaning that there was no chance of reunion. This is a way of reforming a convicted criminal who deserve a second chance (Stanley 1).
Dependency and addiction to drugs is not always a bad thing as it can be used for other purposes other than the search for short-lived pleasure. Addiction to such substances as tea or steak soup may be use for medical reasons and as such not an entirely occurrences.
As such a person may only crave for such things only when in medical condition that demands their intake Shannonhouse 4). Shannonhouse (3) further contends that not all of intoxicating substances lead to a negative addiction. Dependency on alcohol may lead one to alter behavior negatively ad engage in criminal activities as alcohol “robs a man his self possession” (4).
However, there are other substances such as opium that invigorates in a man the essence of order civility and harmony. As such intake of certain substances such as opium, when done in the right manner thus is a sense of reducing the chances of occurrence of crime.
Crime is a product of the society and the environment created by the society. Some of the daily societal beliefs and practices are done so repetitively that the individual becomes dependent on them and it may lead to addiction. Addiction may in effect be nudging a person towards deviant behavior.
However not all addiction is negative; it all depends on the motive and the type of substance in use. While addiction is a cause of criminal behavior, some criminal may be victims of crime as they were vulnerable to the environment or forced to commit the crime. In such case, they can be redeemed by alienating them form the influencer and thus crime is combated.
Works Cited Lect Law Review. Crime. Lect Law Library. Web.
Melkonyan, Amalia. Causes of Crime. Scribd, 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Cultural Causes Of Crime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shannonhouse, Rebecca. Under the Influence: The Literature of Addiction. Web.
Stanley, Alessandra . The Faithful Aristocrat, Seduced by a Killer. New York Times 2007. Web.
Defamiliarization Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Defamiliarization- Definition Defamiliarization refers to the artistic practice of compelling the audience to view the familiar in an unfamiliar or rather strange way so as to improve the perception of what is already familiar. Also known as ostranenie, the term defamiliarization was first used by Shklovsky in 1917 in the study, interpretation, discussion as well as evaluation of literature (Stacey, 1977)
The reason of applying this art is to pass on the sensation of items as they are viewed rather than what they are known to be. This approach is a means of forcing people to experience the day to day happenings that are ordinary in new-fangled fashion through the application of art language. The artist by doing that creates a swing from the anticipated, ordinary in addition to normal form of perception into a new world exposure.
According to Shklovsky (1990), this method of art is intended to challenge the mind of the reader that she or he is compelled to perceive the ordinary differently and thus be glad about the text form and not just the meaning and the content. Defamiliarization boosts the pall of repetition that is unproductive including the modus operandi and political arguments that are often jammed by tendentiousness or even corruption. This ensures a renewed deliberation a probable result of art.
Another role played by defamiliarisation is the adjustment of the mind in a manner of sweeping unpreparedness; to ensure the suspension of doubt. The mind of a person is forced to rethink the position in the world through spending of effort.
The chief aim of applying this approach is to defamiliarize the usual or prosaic perceiptions. This is usually attained by application of such big collection of “deviant” linguistic tools such as metonymy, symbolism, metaphor, rhyme, rhythm as well as sophisticated patterning of sounds plus sense.
How to do things with words by Austin
This is probably one of the highly applauded works by Austin. In this book Austin tries to apply the art of defamiliarization where he tries to make the reader of this piece of literature to view what they know in a different perspective. The creation of imaginary worlds as well as objects is what Austin applies as a means of defamiliarization (Theo, 1986).
He tries to move from the predominant believe that the main objective of sentences is to stipulate facts, being “true” on instances when they manage and “false” on instances when they fail on that objective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Austin (1976) explores how some cases of language appear by their mere utterance, lead to performance of a certain act- saying leads to something being done. For instance, if someone promises to perform a task, it is the definite utterance that is promising.
In defamiliarization, Austin (1976) argues that sentences that contain truth values form a miniature part of the variety of statements. He tries to categorize statements into either performatives or constatives where the former is construed to mean statements that perform certain acts while the latter means those statements that describes the states of affairs.
He introduces the performative utterance where he argues that as such do not carry truth values. For instance Austin (1976) proposes that, once something goes off beam as pertaining to such a performative statement, it can be said to be “unhappy”, maybe “infelicitous” instead of being false as is ordinarily viewed.
In further usage of defamiliarization, Austin refers to these false statements as “misfires” where for example the said act is purported and rather does not take place. The distinction according to Austin between performatives and constatives is but illusionary.
He classifies acts pertaining utterances as: lucutionary-the face value of the statement itself, Illocutionary- the act’s contextual purpose and perlucutionary- the outcome of the act on the listener (Stokes, 2007). The 3 speech act could be illustrated by an example where a person states, “its cold”, which is a locutionary act portraying how one is feeling. It can as well be taken in the situation of a house with an open window, as an act (illocutionary) a demand to have the window closed.
As the one who hears the utterance responds by closing the window, the very words have performed an action. The title of this book can be said to be locutionary, implying that every time one applies words, he/she does an act. The book has a perlocutionary act of trying to convince the reader to believe in the accuracy of the supposition.
Conclusion Looking at this entire framework that Austin is trying to put fourth, it is evident that he is trying to convince the reader that each utterance (with few exceptions) constitutes an act. This therefore constitutes defamiliarization in that he is forcing the reader to perceive what is familiar (utterances) in unfamiliar way (utterances are indeed actions).
We will write a custom Essay on Defamiliarization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Austin, John. How To Do Things With Words; 2nd Ed, Oxford University Press, 1976
Shklovsky, Viktor. “Art as Device”, in Theory of Prose, translated by, Benjamin Sher, Dalkey: Archive Press, 1990.
Stacey Robert. Defamiliarization in language and literature: Michigan, Syracuse University Press, 1977
Stokes, Philip. Philosophy, the Great Thinkers, Capella, 2007.
Theo, Henry. Linguistics and the study of literature, Rodopi, 1986.
Making the Incompatible Come Together: On Language, Power and Identity Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Because of the versatility of human culture, the issues seemingly different may have a lot in common. Thus, the issue of language can be closely interconnected with the idea of power, while the latter can be intertwined with the concept of identity.
Tracing the way people build their relationships and become a part of the society, one will find the explanation of such interrelation between the concepts which could seem so distanced from each other.
Language, Power and Identity: The Links That Make a Man According to Lakoff’s ideas, there is a certain connection between the concepts of language, identity and power. Explaining it with the examples of how a human nature works, Lakoff demonstrates that the three notions make the core of human’s existence and its essence.
It is quite obvious that language is closely connected with a man’s identity. Possessing the knowledge of a language means belonging to a particular ethnic group, which, in its turn, means that a man belongs to a certain nationality. Thus, the links between the language and the culture cannot be doubted.
It is worth noticing that the links between the language and the power are much more entangled than one could have thought. Making the explorers of the phenomenon plunge into the depth of human’s psychology and people’s instincts inherited from ancestors, people use their language as the power tool for them to control the situation. As Lakoff notices, this is the phenomenon of the so-called “political use of language”.
Driving the example, of lawyers’ dependence on the language which (s)he uses, Lakoff comes to the sudden yet logical conclusion which says that power is physical, and language is power; thus, it can be suggested that language is quite a physical tool.
Applying the Theory to the Reality To demonstrate the efficiency of Lakoff’s theory in practice, it could be a good idea to take certain institution as an example. One of the most obvious cases is the example of mass-media institution. Enjoying rather great influence, they make an efficient use of language. Tracing the way the mass-media impacts the people, it becomes obvious that the theory of Lakoff is completely true.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With such influential tools as the famous “magical thinking” at hand, the modern mass-media shapes people’s ideas of a certain event, situation or phenomenon. Thus, it can be suggested that the mass media as an institution possesses certain power over people’s minds, making them think in certain way.
Because of its hierarchy which allows to influence all ranks of society, mass media possesses great power over people. Gripping the television, magazines and even pictures (photojournalism), it confirms the idea of Lakoff completely.
It could be argued though that people are not always subjected to the outer influence, since they can produce a judgement of their own; however, in this case the authority of the source of information must be taken into account. It is quite doubtful that one would try to make his/her own vision of the situation if the plausible explanation has already been suggested to him/her.
Not to follow the blazed trail of the commonplace opinion, one has to consider the other possibilities, which is rather tiresome. In addition, mass media forms people’s idea of identity; this is especially topical for the political editions.
Thus, Lakoff’s theories can be easily proved taking any institution as an example. Because of the peculiarities of human’s nature, the language-politics-power sequence cannot be changed. Whatever happens, it will always work as the most efficient tool of gaining power and authority.
American Government, Its Functions and Branches Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances and Federalism
Introduction In a constitutional form of government, the government is structured in a way that the constitution is the principal guiding document. A constitution generally comprises a set of fundamental guiding principles and laws established to be the overall principals based on which a state is governed, and no institution or individual should be above them. America is governed by a written constitution.
The American Government follows the federal system and is referred to as The Federal Government of the United States made up of the fifty states with the government seat located in Washington D.C, which is neutral as it is not located in any state (Woll 98).
Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances and Federalism The separation of powers in the American Government means that power is not concentrated in one area but divided into different branches. In this format, the US government is divided into three branches of which each has separate and independent mandates and responsibilities and none is more important than the other is, rather they compliment one another.
Namely, they are the executive, judiciary and legislature. The powers of these branches is clearly stipulated in the U.S. Constitution but the fine specifications are in the laws enacted by Congress
These branches represent the federal government. The executive powers are mainly vested in the president, the judiciary mainly represented by the Supreme Court and congress for the legislature.
Though these branches are sub autonomous they have been given powers to check each other to ensure none misuses its powers. The Legislature is mainly represented by Congress (senate and house of representative), and has the powers to make and amend laws.
It also has the powers to check the Executive in the following ways: with a two third majority they can overrule the presidential vetoes, presidential appointments and treaties made are approved by senate, legislature has the power in regarding funding of executive actions and through impeachment, the legislature can remove a sitting president. The Congress has the mandate to declare war and designing major policies especially foreign policies. It also approves various budget proposals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In checking the Judiciary, the Legislature is the one responsible for making lower courts, approves appointment of judges and may remove judges through impeachment (Quirk
The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction One of foremost characteristics of today’s post-industrial living is the dramatically increased degree of populations’ mobility, reflected by exponentially mounting rates of inbound immigration in just about every Western country.
As it was pointed out by Neumayer (2005): “Total [immigration] applications in Europe increased tremendously from the early 1980s to the early 1990s, from a total of 592,000 to 2.65 million, falling somewhat during the latter half of the 1990s but staying at a fairly high level of 1.93 million” (45).
And, given the fact that, as of today, Western societies’ demographic fabric undergoes a rapid transformation, this poses an additional challenge to maintaining these societies’ inner integrity.
The reason for this is simple – as practice shows, newly arrived immigrants (especially those from Third World countries) often experience severe hardships, while trying to acclimatize, which in its turn, lessens their chances to become productive citizens.
After all, as Katz and Lowenstein (1999) had rightly noted: “Immigration involves a permanent change not only in place of residence but, even more significantly, in lifestyle, values, norms, and language” (43). Nevertheless, it is namely immigrants’ children who appear especially vulnerable to being exposed to drastic changes in culturally linguistic environment, because unlike adults, they often lack the full spectrum of cognitive and analytical capacities, which would have smoothed up the process of their acclimatization.
Given the fact that in children’s lives, the factor of emotional attachment plays rather important role, it comes as not a particular surprise that, after having immigrated to a new country, along with their parents, children often end up indulging in socially withdrawn mode of existence. According to Aronowitz (1984): “Children who moved [due to immigration of their parents] were generally found to be more withdrawn and less well accepted by their peers.
They were also rated by their teachers as being more emotionally maladjusted” (240). At the same time, it would be wrong to assume that, due to earlier mentioned adjustment-related considerations, immigrant youth should be thought of as being necessarily disadvantaged, in social sense of this word.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After all, according to recent statistical surveys, the foreign-born children of Asian immigrants to America, often account for as much 40% of country’s student population, majoring in math, physics, chemistry and software designing.
According to Brandon (2002): “Research suggests that many of the concerns about the well-being of children in immigrant families are unwarranted. The evidence suggests that children in immigrant families do as well as or better than U.S.-born children” (417).
Therefore, it will only be logical, on our part, to assume that along with factors that hamper immigrant children’s chances to attain social prominence in newly acquired home countries, there are also factors that provide these children with certain advantage, during the course of them trying to get a good education and to establish themselves socially.
In this paper, we will aim to explore what accounts for these factors at length and to come up with the set of recommendations as to what we believe should represent research-priorities, regarding the discussed subject matter, in the future.
Analytical review of literature Cultural factors
Ever since late sixties, when immigration policies in most Western countries have been conceptually revised, in order for them to be correlative with governmentally endorsed policy of multiculturalism, the immigration pattern to these countries have undergone a substantial transformation.
In his article, Zhou (1997) provides us with the insight onto the qualitative essence of such a pattern, as applied to U.S: “According to the Immigration and Nationalization Service, of the 7.3 million immigrants admitted to the United States during the 1980s (not counting undocumented immigrants), 87% came from Asia and the Americas, compared to the 8.8 million admitted during the 1910s who were predominantly from Europe” (65).
The implications of such an apparent demographic shift in recent immigration patterns are quite obvious – unlike what it is usually being the case with European immigrants to America and other Western countries, the growing number of immigrants from Third World now face an acute challenge of adjusting to the cultural matrix of Western living.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason for this simple – given the fact that the bulk of newly arrived immigrants come from essentially traditional societies, they experience a particularly hard time, while trying to adjust to clearly defined secular (post-industrial) realities of today’s Western living. And, it is needless to mention, of course, that these people’s children experience similar problems, as well.
According to Hernandez (1999): “Research suggests that immigrant children experience acculturative stress as they adjust to a foreign culture, learn a new language, and try to fit into mainstream youth society” (303). The validity of this statement is best illustrated in regards to children from families of Pakistani immigrants.
Whereas; in Pakistan, these children have been taught to respect parental authority as their foremost priority in life, after having found themselves in a new country, Pakistani adolescents ended up being taught something entirely different – namely, the fact that, according to Western secular law, parents are being simply in no position to forcibly expose their children to different forms of religious or culturally religious dogmatism.
In their article, where they discuss adjustment-related challenges, faced by children from families of Pakistani immigrants in Canada, Wakil and Wakil (1981) state: “[In Canadian schools] Pakistani children were allowed considerable freedom, while choosing in favor of a professional career…
Compared with the practices in the ‘old country’, where the older male wields the final authority in deciding the amount of education and the type of occupation for the youngsters, this change indicates a rather remarkable departure from the traditional pattern” (933).
In other words, regarding the children of Pakistani immigrants, there can be very little doubt as to the fact that the manner in which they are being brought up in Western countries’ public schools differs rather dramatically from the manner of their domestic upbringing. It goes without saying, of course, that this exposes these children to a certain cognitive dichotomy, which in its turn, slows down the process of their assimilation.
The same suggestion applies to children from families of Latin-American immigrants. Apparently, while being exposed to the realities of Western living, these children also get to experience the sensation of emotional uncomfortableness with the fact that the lifestyles of their newly acquired peers do not correlate with the ‘traditional values’, which are being usually professed by their parents.
In his book, Artico (2003) was able to define the actual root of an earlier mentioned inconsistency with perfect clarity: “The traditional Western culture gives much value to personality traits associated with individualism, such as self-confidence and independence, whereas Latino culture is sociocentric, placing great importance in interpersonal obligation, respect for others, and personal dignity, usually expressed through proper demeanor” (34).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, without denying the fact that there is a number of cultural obstacles, on the way of immigrant children integrating into a host society, it appears that very often, the foremost obstacle represent these children’s parents, due to the sheer extent of their intellectual inflexibility.
Nevertheless, as today’s Western socio-political realities indicate, the cultural aspect of immigrant children’s assimilation continue to become less acutely defined, which can be explained by the essence of demographic dynamics with Western societies.
In the article, from which we have already quoted, Zhou states: “Many immigrant children attend public schools in their neighborhood with a clear numerical majority of minority students.
In Los Angeles County, for example, 57 unified school districts out of a total of 83 contain over half of foreign-born nonwhite students” (59). Thus, there are good reasons to believe that in very near future, immigrant children will experience less and less difficulties, while trying to adjust to the cultural workings of a host society.
What also appears to affect the qualitative specifics of immigrant children’s ability to adjust to socio-political realities of a newly acquired homeland, is their parents’ social status. As practice shows, after having immigrated to a particular Western country, these people often realize themselves being unable to find adequately paid jobs.
And, as it was pointed out by Hernadez in the book from which we have already quoted: “Because paid work by parents is the primary source of family income for most children, the number of parents who work for pay and whether they work part time or full time are key determinants of whether children live in poverty, in middle-class comfort, or in luxury” (24).
In other words, what contributes rather significantly to the fact that, comparing to their peers, immigrant children often find themselves in disadvantaged position, is their parents’ continuous struggle, aimed at attainment of social prominence.
And, it is important to understand that, despite what it is being commonly assumed, immigrant parents’ lack of education or their lessened ability to socialize with native-born citizens, does not necessarily explain hardships that they face, while looking for good jobs.
For example, it became a well-established practice in such countries as U.S. and Canada, for newly arrived immigrants from countries of former Soviet Union, who used to be top-surgeons, to be offered employment as nurses, at best.
The fact that these people possess an extensive experience in performing complex surgeries, is not being taken into consideration, which is why, upon having arrived to U.S. or Canada, health care professionals from former Soviet Union often come to realize that their university diplomas are being essentially useless.
It is needless to mention, of course, that such situation results in the children of these immigrants being deprived of a number of educational and consequently educational opportunities.
Nevertheless, it is namely in immigrant families from Third World countries, where children appear being especially disadvantaged, in social context of this word. The reason for this is quite apparent – given the fact that in these families, the average number of children often goes to as high as 5-10; it represents an acute challenge for the parents to be able to take care of their children’s even basic needs.
The statistical data, regarding the discussed subject matter, contained in Hernandez’s book, is being perfectly illustrative, in this respect: “Overall, the relative poverty rate for children in immigrant families [in U.S.] was 33 percent, compared to 24 percent for children in native-born families in the 1990 census… Poverty rates for children in immigrant families exceeded those for children in native-born families by 5 and 9 percentage points” (32).
What worsens the situation even further is that, as time goes on, the percentage of immigrant children who are being denied eligibility for just about any form of social assistance, due to the illegal status of their parents, increases rather exponentially.
The validity of this suggestion appears especially self-evident in regards to continuously increasing rate of illegal immigrants within the overall population of Hispanics in America.
According to Hanson (2006): “The distinguishing feature of Mexican immigration is that most new arrivals enter the United States illegally. In 2004, there were an estimated 5.9 million unauthorized Mexican immigrants in U.S… Thus, 56 percent of Mexican immigrants appear to lack permission to be in the country” (870).
And, as it was pointed out by Hernandez: “Children who are illegal immigrants are ineligible for most public benefits and services and, under welfare reform, those who are legal immigrants but not citizens may also be ineligible for important medical and social services” (56).
It goes without saying that, apart from having been spared of a number of social and educational opportunities, which native-born adolescents take for granted, children from families of illegal immigrants are being subjected to a continuous stress, originating in their fear of being deported.
And, as practice shows, the severity of these children’s psychological stress even doubles, as the consequence of their continuous exposal to emanations of subtle racism, even if such racism assumes legally legitimate forms.
As was noted by De Genova (2006): “The elusiveness of immigration law, and its relative invisibility in producing ‘illegality,’ requires the spectacle of ‘enforcement’, which renders a racialized migrant’s ‘illegality’ visible” (436). While being aware of their actual ‘otherness’, immigrant children have a particularly hard time trying to be comfortable with the fact that at schools, they get to be taught of their ‘sameness’.
Given the fact that the native language of most immigrant children is being different from the official language of a country where they came to live with their parents, it comes as not a particular surprise that, while striving to integrate into a new environment, they often face the issue of linguistic adaptation.
In its turn, this often causes them to experience what Igoa (1995) refers to as the sensation of ‘uprooting’: “If there is one characteristic of the uprooting experience that appears to be shared by all immigrant children irrespective of nationality, economic status, family stability, or any other factor, it is the silent stage when the children experience the school culture as different from their own and when their inability to communicate with peers is caused by a language or cultural difference” (38).
The problems with communication are more likely to be experienced by children, whose native language is being sintaxically different from any of Indo-European languages.
In its turn, this partially explains why in English speaking countries, the representatives of second and even third generation of Chinese immigrants, speak with a noticeable accent. According to Sung (1985): “The language barrier was the problem most commonly mentioned by the immigrant children of Chinese origin. Frequently, language looms largest because it is the conduit through which we interact with other people” (256).
Nevertheless, even though immigrant children of Asian (specifically Chinese) background do initially experience many problems, related to the process of their linguistic adjustment, they usually prove themselves quite capable of overcoming their ‘linguistic shyness’ with ease. Their possession of a high IQ helps them rather drastically, in this respect.
As Booth (1997) had put it: “These immigrants (from India, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea, and China), are perhaps the most skilled ever to come to the United States. Their class origins help explain the popularization of Asians as a ‘model minority’” (23). This explains earlier mentioned phenomenon that, as of today, students of Asian origin are being overrepresented in Western universities’ technical departments, which subjects them to subtle forms of discrimination.
For example, regarding the adolescents from Chinese immigrant families who want to study in universities, there are much stricter entrance requirements. The official explanation for this is that these youngsters often lack linguistic skills, to be admitted to the places of higher learning.
However, the real reason for this is much simpler – in American universities, there is almost a complete absence of native-born Blacks and Hispanics, majoring in highly technical disciplines, such as chemistry, architecture, physics, math, engineering and software designing.
In its turn, this undermines the fundamental premise of multiculturalism, based upon the assumption that all people are equal, regardless of their ethnic background. This is exactly the reason why Asian immigrant youth is now facing poorly masked racism in a number of Western countries that take pride in the strength of their adherence to the ideals of multicultural living – whatever the ironic it might sound.
From what has been said earlier, it appears that, even though that the problem of immigrant children and adolescents’ linguistic acclimatization can indeed be defined as rather pressing, it should not be thought of as ‘thing in itself’.
After all, comparing to what it is usually the case with adult immigrants, children are being much more capable of picking up foreign language, especially when forced to practice this language in their everyday lives. Therefore, it is namely immigrant parents’ insistence in endowing their young ones with respect towards ‘traditional values’, which slows down the process of children’s linguistic adjustment.
Moreover, it also contributes to the rise of domestic tensions between parents and children in immigrant families. In their article, Tseng and Fuligni (2000) came up with perfectly legitimate suggestion that immigrant children’s often strongly defined linguistic uncomfortableness derives out of their parents’ lack of intellectual flexibility: “Because English lacks honorifics or terms of respect present in some languages, adolescents’ use of the English language with native-speaking parents may be associated with distancing between them” (467).
In other words, even though that many immigrant children do not think of speaking a foreign language as particularly challenging, they nevertheless try not to over abuse their newly acquired linguistic skills, especially in the presence of their traditionally minded parents. As a result, their linguistic proficiency suffers a great deal of damage.
What also represents a major obstacle, on the way of immigrant children attaining finesse in the language of a host country, is the fact that, upon having immigrated to Western countries, immigrants from Third World tend to choose in favor of a ‘communal living’ – that is, they settle in the areas known for the abundance of their previously arrived compatriots. In his article, Zubrinsky (2003) states:
“Chain migration patterns common among both Hispanic and Asian immigrants concentrate rapidly growing groups in a small number of metropolitan areas – and within a small number of neighborhoods within an area – increasing their isolation and decreasing exposure to out-groups” (172).
Therefore, the factor of immigrant children’s linguistic adaptability should be discussed within the context of objectively existing socio-political preconditions, which affect the extent of these children’s ability to adjust to a new language and to the set of socio-cultural values, associated with it.
Nowadays, many anthropologists and political scientists discuss the issue of what defines immigrant children’s psychological well-being, in regards to their varying ability to adopt a so-called ‘hybrid identity’. Given the fact that, ever since 20th century’s sixties, world’s immigration flows had adopted an undeniable West-bounded direction, it comes as not a surprise that the bulk of today’s immigrants come from countries that used to be subjected to Europe’s colonial domination.
What it means is that, after having lived in Western society for a while, their inborn identity of former colonial subjects comes into conflict with their newly adopted identity of Westerners, at least in formal sense of this word. In its turn, this causes the workings of immigrant children’s psyche to construct an entirely new ‘ambivalent’ identity, the specifics of which are being emphasized by the extent of these children’s ‘visible ethnicity’.
One of the most prominent theoreticians of ‘hybrid identity’, Homi Bhabha (1985) defines the essence of such an identity in the following manner: “Hybridity is not a problem of genealogy or identity between two different cultures which can then be resolved as an issue of cultural relativism.
Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and individuation that reverses the effects of the colonialist disavowal, so that other ‘denied’ knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of its authority – its rules of recognition” (156).
According to the author, ‘hybrid identity’, which he believes immigrant children and adolescents to be endowed with, often extrapolates itself in these youngsters’ tendency to choose in favor of socially inappropriate behavior.
As of today, there are a number of illustrative examples, which confirm the validity of Bhabha’s suggestion. The most recent one is the forced deportation of 500 Chechen refugees from Norway that had taken place in February of 2011. Even though that many of these people have lived in Norway for as long seven years, Norwegian authorities simply declared that Chechens are not being welcomed in Norway any longer.
One of the factors that contributed to Norwegian authorities’ decision to deport all Chechens back to Russia was the manner in which Chechen children and adolescents behaved themselves socially, while going as far as committing the acts of gang-rape, looting stores and beating native-born Norwegians to death.
Nevertheless, it would be wrong to think of this as the confirmation of young Chechens’ inborn ‘viciousness’ but rather as yet additional proof to the fact that these youngsters indeed posses of a post-colonial ‘ambivalent identity’, which they happened to explore with little too much enthusiasm.
After all, in Britain, immigrant children and adolescents of Jamaican and Trinidadian ethnic backgrounds are also being known for their rather violent attitudes. Yet, nobody would dare to suggest that they would have to be deported, as they happened to hold British passports.
Therefore, it is important to understand that, the seeming inconsistency in how immigrant children are expected to behave and how they behave in reality, derives out of the very process of these individuals’ continuous integration into a host society, which in its turn, causes immigrant children to profess the values of a ‘hybrid identity’.
As Dummett (2001) had suggested: “The children of immigrants — given an acceptance of them by the surrounding society… will retain some of the customs of their parents, but will regard themselves as full members of the national community into which they were brought: in their eyes, that national community now embraces their customs and their culture as well as those traditional to that country” (18).
Thus, the fact that, after having moved to Western countries, immigrant children and adolescents do often experience an identity crisis, sublimated in their tendency to violently oppose these countries’ customs, represents another important challenge on the way of their assimilation.
Nevertheless, there are good reasons to think that, as time goes on, this challenge will be losing its present acuteness, simply because Western societies continue to grow increasingly multicultural.
In the previous part of this paper, we have elaborated on factors that are assumed counter-productive, within the context of immigrant children trying to adjust to the new environment. Nevertheless, there are also certain psychological traits, the endowment with which, seem to provide immigrant children with a certain advantage, while proceeding with studies and while making the best of their lives in a new country. These traits can be generally outlined as follows:
Given the fact that, prior to immigrating to a new country with their parents, children and adolescents have experienced the realities of their actual homeland, it makes them naturally predisposed towards adopting an analytical stance, when it comes to assessing socio-political realities of a country where they came to live. And, one’s ability to adopt such a stance early in life is the key to his or her educational and consequently professional successfulness.
The reason for this is simple – due to the qualitative essence of their former life’s experiences, immigrant children’s ability to compare and contrast appears undeniably higher, when evaluated against that of their native-born peers, which in its turn, creates objective preconditions for these children to be endowed with rationalistic mindset, by the time they grow up.
Such our suggestion fully correlates with the results of Levels, Dronkers and Kraaykamp’s (2008) study: “We found that, ceteris paribus, immigrant children and the children of immigrants from countries with a lower level of economic development perform particularly well in school” (848). Apparently, unlike what it is being usually the case with their native-born peers, most immigrant children know perfectly well how to make a distinction between relevant and irrelevant types of knowledge.
For example, children that came from war-torn countries, will never believe in the objectiveness of a variety of moralistically sounding but essentially meaningless notions, such as ‘sanctity of life’, which native-born Westerners naively consider to represent an undeniable truth-value.
And, given the fact that the empirical sciences have nothing to do with people’s wishful thinking but solely with scientifically proven facts, it does not come as a big surprise that the percentage of former ‘immigrant children’, among today’s Western scientists, increases rather dramatically.
For example, it has been estimated that, as of 2008, 60% of Microsoft’s most prominent software engineers consisted of naturalized citizens from Russia, China and India, many of which came to U.S. as children, without knowing even few words in English.
As practice shows, comparing to their peers, immigrant children appear much more goal-oriented and cynical. They are fully aware that in this life, nothing is ‘given’ but rather ‘taken’. And, unlike many of their native-born counterparts, they are more capable of addressing life’s challenges as stoics, as opposed to be preoccupied with whining about ‘world’s injustices’.
It is often being the case that, after having arrived to a new country, the parents of immigrant children realize that they would have to indulge in heavy physical labor, in order to be able to meet ends. This naturally exposes their children to the prospect of not only having to rely upon themselves, while striving to attain social prominence, but also to the prospect of being required to assist parents in their daily routine.
The manner, in which many families of Chinese immigrants to America go about ensuring their well-being, is being particularly illustrative, in this respect.
In her article, Gorman (1998) provides us with the clue as to what accounts for the specifics of parenting in the families of Chinese immigrants to America: “Chinese mothers emphasize their children’s relationships with others rather than their children’s psychological attributes… Authoritarian parenting has not been found to be associated with poor academic achievement among Chinese families” (73).
Even today, it is not an utterly uncommon sight to see Chinese youth working at the restaurant by night and studying at university by day. And, we do not only refer to what it is being the case in U.S., but also to what it is being the case in other Western countries.
As we had mentioned earlier, immigrant children’s possession of a ‘hybrid mentality’, often causes them to think of utilization of violence as the ultimate tool for solving conflicts with their peers and with adults, who in their view, represent an ‘oppressive authority’.
This, however, should not be thought of as necessarily a bad thing. On the contrary – it is namely those who, during the early stages of their lives, have learned how to stand their ground that will have a better chance of growing up into productive and responsible citizens.
Nowadays, even a brief glance at bullying-related statistical data, reveals an undeniable fact that in Western countries, 90% of those who have been victimized by bullies are native-born Whites.
According to Sugden (2008): “White children are much more likely to be bullied than any other ethnic group – reversing racial stereotypes surrounding playground abuse, Government research indicates. Two thirds of children from white families say they had been bullied in the last three years but less than half of children of Indian origin make the same assertion” (Times Online).
As time goes by, more and more White children and adolescents in Western countries choose in favor of social absenteeism, as the form of their existential mode. They lock themselves up in their rooms and play computer games all day long, while being utterly terrified of a prospect of venturing out on the street – hence, deserving to referred to as ‘nerds’ to the full extent of this word.
The children of newly arrived ethnic immigrants, on the other hand, do not seem to have any psychological anxieties, on the account of their ‘smartness’, simply because unlike what it is the case with many of their native-born White counterparts, while in the ‘old country’, they had never been subjected to any form of ideological brainwashing.
Therefore, we would like to reinstate once again that the possession of a fighting spirit, is immigrant children’s another psychological trait, which makes them more than capable to adjust to the social and cultural realities of just about any Western country.
Interviews with four foreign-born residents of Ukraine The following are the interviews, conducted with two representatives of Armenian Diaspora in Ukraine and also with two other individuals that fall into the category of ‘immigrant children’, who since their arrival to this country, had found themselves being surrounded by an unfamiliar cultural and linguistic environment, and who had undergone the process of culturally linguistic adjustment.
Emma Petrosyan (17 years old). Student at British International School in Kiev.
Emma, as far as I understand, you have not been born in Ukraine. Would you be please so kind to tell me how did you end up living in Ukraine?
I came to Ukraine four years ago with my father and mother. Around that time, my dad set up a construction company in Kiev and offered me to relocate to this city, as well.
In other words, before coming here, you did not know much about Ukraine, its language and its customs?
Oh no. Even before I have relocated here for good, I had a very good idea as to what Ukraine is all about. You see, our family have many relatives in Ukraine, who have resided here for a long time. For example, my father’s aunty has been living in Dnepropetrovsk since 1979.
You speak English very well, indeed. Is it solely the consequence of you attending British International School or maybe there is more to it?
I would have to say that, without having attended this school, I would not be able to learn much English at all. In Ukrainian regular schools, students are not being given a good opportunity to study English. One of my friends, who studies in one of such schools, has been telling me that they only have two English classes per week, during the course of which they get to learn grammar mostly, without being given much of a chance to practice their skills in that language.
While at the school, are you being required to speak English all the time?
Yes. All of the subjects in our school are being taught exclusively in English. Most school’s the teachers are actually British citizens and they do not tolerate students conversing to each other in any other language but English, even during the breaks.
But, don’t you think that, while being required to speak English all the time, when at school, you might lose a grip of your native language and also of Ukrainian language, in which I assume you are being proficient?
Actually, ever since my early years in Armenia, I have learned Russian to the extent that I consider it being nothing short of my native language. In Kiev, everybody speak Russian, which is why I never needed to learn much of Ukrainian – only uneducated peasants from country’s Western parts, who come to Kiev looking for low paid jobs, speak that kind of a language.
But, isn’t Ukrainian the only country’s official language?
Officially, it is. But in reality, most of well educated people in this country do not even consider it language per se – it is more of a peasant dialect, which is why it lacks words of technological significance. For example, the term ‘wheel bearing’ can be translated to Russian as ‘podshypnik’, whereas there is simply no equivalent to this word in Ukrainian.
While Yuschenko (former Ukrainian President) was in the office, he hired a bunch of ‘language experts’ from Galicia, so that they would simply invent Ukrainian words, which never existed in reality.
I’ve heard from a friend of mine, who studies in one of Kiev’s Ukrainian schools, that once she had gotten a bad grade, simply because she referred to a car as ‘avtomobil’, instead of referring to it as ‘avtivka’ – as Yushenko’s ‘experts’ used to be insisting.
One time, I was invited to take part in filming of a local TV show – people who were talking on camera, tried to speak Ukrainian, but as soon as cameras were turned off, all of them would switch back to speaking Russian (laughs).
So, in other words, you did not experience much of a problem, while adjusting to Ukraine’s linguistic environment?
I guess you could say so. I speak English and Russian fluently – all that it is being required from just about anybody, in order to feel comfortable in this country, unless you want to have a career in taking care of livestock in some of Ukraine’s remote villages. Then, you would have to learn Ukrainian.
Apart from having to undergo a linguistic adjustment, did you experience any other assimilation-related challenges?
Well… every once in a while, I get to encounter racists. Most of them utterly unintelligent people from country’s Western regions, who for some strange reason believe that Ukraine belongs solely to them. Good thing most of these individuals are really not in position to impose their racist views upon others. Still, my dad has to periodically deal with this type of people, while conducting his business. It does not bother him much though – one cannot be getting offended at those who were born genetically and intellectually deficient.
Thank you very much Emma. Your replies to my questions were indeed rather enlightening.
Armen Hachaturyan (17 years old). Student at Meridian International School in Kiev.
Armen, could you please me a little about yourself?
I was born in Armenia and I lived most of my life there. My family immigrated to Ukraine two years ago, so I live here now.
I am interested to hear whether you consider yourself being fully comfortable living in this country. And, if so, how did you manage to get adjusted to the local realities?
Actually, I like living here very much. Of course, you cannot refer to Ukraine as a Western country, in full sense of this word, but I still like it better then Armenia – comparing to what it used to be the case in Erevan (Armenian capital), there is a multitude of culturally and ethnically different people in Kiev, which is why I find residing in this city intellectually stimulating. In fact, I consider myself having similar mentality with Ukrainians – after all, just as it is being the case with Ukraine, Armenia used to be the part of Soviet Union. So, my naturalization occurred very much on its own.
Did you find it any hard adjusting to the new linguistic environment, while here?
I do not think it was particularly hard for me to get adjusted. I studied Russian language since I went to elementary school in Erevan, so I consider this language being almost as native as Armenian. And, in Kiev, most people speak Russian. Yet, my parents insisted that I attend English-speaking school, so that I would have a better career prospects.
Are you being required to speak English all the time, while at school?
Most of the subjects are being taught to us in English, but we do have Russian and Ukrainian classes. To be honest, I cannot say that I’ve been excelling in Ukrainian a whole lot, which kind of troubles me, as I am planning to enter Shevchenko’s University, I after I graduate from school. You see, in that university, all of the entrance examinations are exclusively in Ukrainian.
Why wouldn’t you apply an extra effort, while gaining proficiency in that language?
I would not mind doing it, but I find it little hard. In order for just about anyone to get a good grip of a particular language, he or she would have to be provided with an opportunity to practice it. But, who am I going to practice it with, apart from practicing it with the teacher, during Ukrainian classes? All the people that I know here speak Russian. I mean, I do speak Ukrainian, but not to the extent of being able to pass exams in it. To make things worse, our teacher of Ukrainian language always talk to me in a way as if she never ceases to be angry with my mere presence in this country. I think she hates me, simply because I happened to have a darker skin.
Is it really so? What are her attitudes towards other school’s students?
She definitely treats Ukrainian students better. I guess she belongs to this Ukrainian nationalist party ‘Svoboda’, which is why, while talking to me, she always stresses out that I am being nothing but a guest. But, in Kiev, she is being just as much of a guest as me – people always spoke Russian here, and it is only after Stalin occupied Eastern part of Poland in 1939, that Ukrainian nationalists started to move to Kiev by trainloads. If she continues giving me troubles, I will file a complaint against her. My parents pay good money so that I would be able to get a good education. And, I don’t think that hearing about how great were Ukrainian Nazi collaborators, during the course of WW2, should be the part of getting such an education.
It is quite strange to hear this from you. I thought teachers’ task has always been helping students to attain self-confidence, especially when foreign-born students that study in international schools are being concerned.
That is what I thought too. Unfortunately, there are still many nationalistically minded educators in this country, who seem to derive a sick pleasure out of degrading immigrant youth. Still, I think that the things will get better – Ukrainian new President Yanukovich appears being open-minded individual, which is why he recalled former President’s decree that proclaimed Ukrainian main Nazi collaborator Bandera a ‘hero’.
What do you think of your experiences in socializing with ordinary Ukrainians? Do you find them open-minded as well?
Most of them are absolutely normal people, who are being simply concerned with trying to make living. And, once people start enjoying better standards of living, due to their hard work, they effectively cease regarding nationalistic nonsense seriously. I believe that citizens’ value should be assessed in regards to their ability to function as productive members of society, and not in regards to whether they can be defined as representatives of a ‘native folk’ or not.
Do you think that your Ukrainian classmates are sharing such your opinion?
Yes I do. Most of them come from well-off families, which mean they had a chance to travel the world. And, those who had visited foreign countries, are being naturally predisposed towards becoming tolerant individuals. Nevertheless, there are still a few students, who while being perfectly aware of the fact that I do not speak Ukrainian very well, would never cease referring to me in this language, even though they could have done it in Russian with ease. I think, it makes them feel special.
Armen, do you and your parents spend much time socializing with other Armenians in Kiev?
In fact, we do. My father owes Armenian restaurant in Kiev, so we always get too meet compatriots. Most of these people have managed to become well-established citizens in Ukraine. And, I guess what had helped them in this respect, is the fact that the members of Armenian Diaspora in Ukraine always try to help each other in time of need.
Thank you for your willingness to talk to me Armen. I make sure I will be checking your dad’s restaurant as soon as possible.
You are very welcome.
Alisha Evert (16 years old). Student at Kiev International School.
Alisha, thank you for agreeing to be interviewed. Could you please introduce yourself, before we proceed?
I’m the daughter of a diplomat from South Africa. I have been living in Ukraine for one year now. My father is going to be promoted at the embassy, so I guess I’ll be living here for at least another few years.
I understand you study in an English speaking school. Does it leave you with much of a chance to learn about local language, culture and customs?
To be honest, I am not a very fast learner of foreign cultures. But, the more I stay in Ukraine, the more I grow comfortable with the way of life here. It’s just I can help missing South African food.
I don’t know if you have heard, but many people in Ukraine like eating ‘salo’ (raw pork back), would you ever consider trying that?
My dad told me about this. I actually still find it hard to believe that he was not joking. I mean, how can you eat that?
Well, that is something many Ukrainians are being proud of. By the way, have you made any friends with local children yet?
I have, there are many Ukrainian students in the school where I study, but they don’t act like most of ordinary Ukrainian children do.
Why is that?
This is because they consider themselves being so much better than the rest. It costs their parents about $2000 per month to have them studying here; whereas, I heard that many ordinary Ukrainians make as little as $300 per month.
Are they being any racist towards you?
Some of them. But most of them are Ok.
I’ve heard there are classes in Ukrainian and Russian at your school, are you being required to attend them.
Not really but I still do. I’d like to learn Russian language. There is that girl Natasha, with whom I’ve made really good friends. She helps me with learning Russian. I now can understand a lot of what is being said on TV.
I’m sure you have met many Ukrainian people. In which way, do you think they are being different from South Africans?
Well, they like to drink a lot. They don’t like to say hello to each other. There is much anger in the air. However, this is not because these people are bad, but because most of them are poor by even African standards.
What do you like about Kiev?
I like the fact that this is a very safe city. Even though many Ukrainians are rather angry, they are not violent. In Johannesburg, where I grew up, there are whole areas, where normal people try not to go to, because they can be easily killed or raped right out on the street. In Kiev, you can go just about anywhere and you’ll still be Ok.
Do you think you might ever consider settling in Ukraine for good?
If local winters weren’t quite as cold, I would.
Thank you Alisha.
Nguen Lmao (16 years old). An illegal immigrant from Vietnam. [The original interview was conducted in Russian].
Nguen, please tell me about yourself and about what had prompted you to come to Ukraine.
I grew up in Vietnam in a very poor family of ten, where I was the youngest kid. About three years ago, two of my older brothers decided to try to come to France and they offered me to join them. Of course, we could not immigrate to this country legally, so we decided to make our way there onboard of a commercial ship.
So, I guess Ukraine is not the final point of your destination?
Originally, it wasn’t and it still isn’t. We’ve managed to come to Odessa, while hiding in one of those containers onboard of a sea-freighter. Then, we tried crossing Ukrainian border with Poland, but we failed and my two brothers ended up being caught by Ukrainian border patrol. As far as I’m being aware of, they have been deported back to Vietnam, but I’ve never heard from them since. I was more lucky, because I managed to escape from Ukrainian authorities. Now, I live in Kiev.
What do you do for living?
There is a large Vietnamese community in Kiev. These people provided me with the place to stay and also gave the gob of a salesperson at one of city’s open markets.
You speak Russian very well. How long did it take you to learn this language?
Maybe like two of three months. I had no option but to learn Russian quickly, otherwise I wouldn’t be able to get a job. This is like when they throw you into the river so that you learn how to swim – it’s whether you start swimming or die.
Do you find living as an illegal immigrant pleasurable?
Well, I don’t starve here at least; whereas, back in Vietnam, I used to starve constantly. I don’t really care for the fact that I don’t have a passport. Every time police comes to the market with an inspection, I simply bribe them with a few cartons of cigarettes and they leave me alone.
So, I guess you’ve proven yourself more than capable adjusting to the realities of living in Ukraine.
Yes, in fact, while selling stuff at the market, I make more money than many native-born Ukrainians do, especially those who work for the state, such as teachers, for example. I owe this country nothing, just as it owes me nothing. All I want is to be left in peace.
What are your plans for the future? Are you going to stay in Ukraine forever?
Do I look like a crazy person? Of course, I’m not going to stay here forever. Right now, I’m just trying to save enough money, so that I’d be able to afford a trip to France.
We talk of an illegal trip here, right?
Please, spare me of your moralistic overtones. Is it illegal to be trying to get a better life? I have a dream – I want to live in France, and I’m willing to do just about all that it takes for my dream to come true. We only live once, you know.
Do you think you’ll be able to adjust to living in France, if you manage to get there?
Well, I’ve managed to adjust to living in Ukraine, and this is not the best country in the world, believe me. I guess you’re forgetting that Vietnam used to be French colony – my grandfather taught me French language. All I need is to get there.
Do you think maybe, at some point in your life, you would have to look into getting an education?
Yes, eventually I will look into that. In fact, I’ve always dreamt of becoming a doctor. But, as of today, I’m simply in no position to be giving it much of a thought.
Have you ever indulged in violent behavior, while in Ukraine?
Forgive me, but I don’t have all day long to talk to you. I have some business to take care of.
Thank you anyways.
Discussion We believe that the data, related to immigrant children’s varying ability to adjust to the socio-cultural environment of a new country, which we had obtained while conducting earlier provided interviews, largely supports paper’s initial suggestions. For example, all four interviewees pointed out to the fact that learning new language did not represent much of a challenge to them.
Partially, this can be explained by the fact that, as it appears from interviews’ contexts, Emma, Armen, Alisha and Nguen, are not being particularly preoccupied with celebrating their ‘ethnic uniqueness’.
In its turn, this correlates with paper’s earlier expressed suggestion that children’s ability to adjust to a new linguistic environment corresponds to the extent of their keenness to spent time with parents in counter-geometrical progression. In other words – the more time immigrant children spend socializing with their peers, the quicker they master new country’s language.
Nevertheless, these interviews brought to light something that has not been theorized upon in paper’s earlier parts – namely the fact that, in Ukraine, immigrant children’s chances to get a grip of the language that serves as universally recognized communicational medium (Russian), are being undermined by the governmental authorities’ insistence that, along with Russian, they must also learn Ukrainian.
And yet, neither of interviewees indicated that they really did need to learn this language, in order for them to be able to feel socially and culturally comfortable in Ukraine. Apparently, Ukrainian language had long ago ceased serving as communicational medium of any practical value, due to its lack of semiotic adequateness, and instead, became nothing less of a cultural fetish.
In its turn, this allows us to draw certain parallels between linguistic challenges, faced by immigrant children in Ukraine and the challenges, faced by immigrant children in Ireland. After all, just as Ukrainian language being considered native to Ukraine, Gaelic language is being considered native to Ireland.
Moreover, just as most Ukrainians prefer to communicate in Russian, most Irish prefer to communicate in English. As it was rightly pointed out by Suarez (2005): “The value of Gaelic is low. Globally, it is a marginal language.
Although there is some economic value for those who speak it, the economic costs of not speaking English are much higher than the costs of not speaking Gaelic” (464). Nevertheless, unlike what it is the case in Ukraine, newly arrived immigrants to Ireland are not being forced to learn essentially ‘dead’ language, simply because governmental bureaucrats want them to.
Therefore, whatever the paradoxically it might sound; it is namely Nguen’s illegal status, which had caused the process of his linguistic acclimatization to proceed in particularly smooth manner.
The reason for this is simple – unlike what it is being the case with the rest of interviewees, Nguen never aimed at establishing himself socially in Ukraine, which is why he only needed to learn Russian, as the language of trade (and also the language of science and high culture, we might add).
Recommendations The earlier conducted analytical review of literature, interviews with Ukraine’s four foreign-born residents, and the concluding discussion, allows us to come up with the set of recommendations as to what researchers, who explore subjects similar to that of this paper, should consider focusing their attention upon in the future:
Studying the qualitative aspects of a correlation between immigrant children’s progress in adjusting to socio-political, cultural and linguistic environment of a new country and the particulars of their ethnic affiliation.
Exploring what accounts for artificially created obstacles on the way of immigrant children’s linguistic integration into a host society, on the part of governmental authorities.
Assessing how the specifics of children’s immigration status reflect on their ability to assimilate.
Defining societal subtleties of how immigrant children go about constructing their self-identity and how they expect others to perceive such their newly acquired identity.
Investigating the effects of immigrant children’s behavioral attitudes on their assimilation-related capacities.
References Aronowitz, Michael “The Social and Emotional Adjustment of Immigrant Children: A Review of the Literature.” International Migration Review 18.2 (1984): 237-257.
Artico, Ceres. Latino Families Broken by Immigration: The Adolescent’s Perceptions. New York: LFB Scholarly, 2003.
Beissinger, Mark “Identity in Formation: The Russian‐Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad Source.” The American Journal of Sociology 105.1 (1999): 294-296.
Bhabha, Homi “Signs Taken for Wonders: Questions of Ambivalence and Authority under a Tree Outside Delhi, May 1817.” Critical Inquiry 12 (1985): 150-165.
Booth, Alan., Crouter, Ann
History of the Networking Technology Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents As compared to what is happening today
Physical Aspect of Networking
The telegraph was perfected in the 1850s. Decades later, the telephone became a household fixture in the early 20th century. But even with the radio and the telephone becoming household fixtures in most modern homes, the whole world and particularly the United Kingdom was not exactly moving at a frenetic pace. Phones made it easier but there is a significant delay when it comes to accessing information.
A person has to be on both ends of the line to communicate. This system is far outmoded when compared to Information Technology that has swept the globe. A person can access information 24 hours a day, all year round. This enhances the decision-making process. It radicalised the way people do business. However, these things could not have been possible without networking technology.
As compared to what is happening today It has to be pointed out that even as late as the middle part of the e 20th century, it was still very expensive to communicate across continents. Calling overseas is not a practical proposition unless the call is extremely urgent. During those days, many households in Europe did not even own a telephone.
But after the invention of the Internet in the latter part of the twentieth century, the world began to enter the Digital Age. As a result the way people communicate to each other went into overdrive. It can be argued that people are now living in a networked society.
Information Systems Before going any further it is important to have a clear understanding of what a network is all about. A basic definition of a network is to have two or more computers that are linked together so that information can be exchanged between them. The development of computer networks is the answer to the urgent need of the modern day workplace to have the ability to receive and send information quickly and efficiently.
Robert Thierauf explains it this way, “Today’s worldwide marketplace provides not only more customers, suppliers, and competitors but also increased complexity for the decision-making process.
The speed of communication simultaneously makes the environment less stable and predictable and reduces the available time for examining business information, knowledge, and intelligence” (p. 65). There is therefore a need for a more sophisticated IT infrastructure that can help managers make the right decisions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shifting needs, rapid changes in technology and the increasing sophistication of the hackers are the major reasons why developers and creators of a company’s IT infrastructure are focused in creating systems that both efficient and secure. The number one challenge for modern management information systems is the creation of a seamless IT architecture that can ensure an error free e-business.
This is extremely difficult to do for an organisation that relies on internet and telecommunication networks in order to conduct businesses in multiple locations all over the world (Stevens, p.20). The solution is the creation of a highly-reliable, easy-to-use and secure Intranet as well as Extranet technology.
Intranet The Intranet is basically a network that is limited to internal usage within the company. This is its limitation because the system can only be used by the employees and all the staff that works in the said organization. However, the upside to this arrangement is the significant savings that it can bring when it comes to their communication needs. Aside from that the flow of information is significantly enhanced.
An Intranet will allow for the creation of a system that can handle large volumes of information and yet the company need not hire a hundreds of employees to maintain it. An airline company for instance can have an Intranet that is managed by a staff of just 16 IT professionals (Times Online, p.1). In the case of one airline company the use of the Intranet allows for the creation of cost-saving methods that enhanced the profitability of the said organisation. One study revealed the following:
cabin crew and check-in staff carry out a range of activities from booking annual leave to obtaining the weather reports needed for each flight. Engineering staff can get the details needed to maintain the aircraft … The crews come in , use the self-service terminals to print off everything they require, such as fuel reports, go to the aircraft and fly (Times Onine, p.1).
This is an efficient system indeed. However, it is severely limited when it comes to coverage because it has no use to their customers. Most of the time an Intranet is comprised of computer terminals and computer networks within the company headquarters. It can be accessed from a satellite office, from a remote location, however, it is still a closed system because only employees and staff can use it. This is the reason why the Extranet was developed.
Extranet If a company decides to use an Extranet then it has to be protected from hackers and corporate spies (Flouris
Vision statement Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Vision statement is one of the most important concepts of any company or organization aiming to realize its dreams in the current volatile market situation. The effectiveness, applicability and realization of any vision of a company depend on how well the vision statement is developed. This paper discusses the effective elements, merits and shortcomings of the vision of Microsoft Company.
Vision Statement Microsoft Company is one of the most successful companies in the world. The success may be attributed to their vision statement: “To be led by a globally diverse workforce that consistently delivers outstanding business results, understands the various cultural demands of a global marketplace, is passionate about technology and the promise it holds to tap human potential, and thrives in a corporate culture where inclusive behaviors are valued” (Microsoft 1).
Effective Elements A good vision must be realistic in terms of what the organization wants to achieve. A vision must make sense to all the organization fraternity since it is the inspiration tool for the organization employees and thus must be credible.
The vision must be attractive to an extent that the whole organization fraternity wants to be part of the organizations’ future dream. A vision looks into the future and thus it should clearly capture the future and bridges it with the present (Cowings, 1991).
The effective elements of a vision statement are clear in Microsoft vision statement. Globally diverse workforce covers the global coverage dream; a workforce that delivers outstanding business results may be what everyone in the organization likes to be part of, workforce that is sensitive to culture diversity of their customers will ensure company’s relevance to all the global cultures.
The vision statement has also considered the changes in technology with time and thus passionate about it, realizes the importance of human potential in realizing its dreams. Most importantly the vision appreciates the importance of working as a unit in its corporate culture where inclusive behavior is valued.
Merits It can be argued that Microsoft has realized its vision with time due to the effectiveness of its vision statement. Microsoft is currently led by global workforce that continues to grow even more, they have been able to achieve outstanding business results with ever increasing profits every year and may continue in this trend in future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have been able to accommodate all cultures of the world and their products are appreciated all over the world. They have been at the forefront of advancement in information and technology with their up to date products. By tapping into human potential they have been able to develop genius products which represent work of competent workforce.
Shortcomings Microsoft may claim to envision a globally diverse workforce but most of its operations are more or less centralized. It may be hard to realize this vision in places such as developing countries where they may have not invested enough. Meeting cultural demands of the global market may be unrealistic due to the wide diversity.
It can also be argued that the vision statement is not unique and may apply to any other related company a contrast to what Maurer claims “Each vision is unique. If you create a good vision statement, it will apply only to your organization; it cannot be transferred to another industry” (Maurer, 2000, p. 5).
Conclusion Microsoft vision was discussed and found to be effective in terms of being credible, realistic, attractive and sensitive to the future. However some elements of the vision may not be realistic and their vision may not be unique to the company alone but all in all it has brought the corporation to its present success state.
References Cowings, A. (1991). Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. AUF. Web.
Maure, B. (2000). How to Create a Vision (or Compelling Goal) Statement. Rick Maurer. Web.
Microsoft. (2011). A Vision and Strategy for the Future. Microsoft Corporation. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Vision statement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Final Solution Expository Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Toward the end of the eighteenth century the Jews in German were well established. The Jews knew much about the German culture and had made it part of their lives. The Jews and Germans coexisted peacefully until Adolf Hitler became the German leader. In early nineteenth century a very bad incident took place in Germany which will forever be remembered by all the Germans and Jews.
The Germans led by Adolf Hitler were bent on killing all the Jews in what was termed as the final solution. Hatred was turned to the Jews by the Germans who believed that their misery (the Germans) was due to the presence of the Jews in Germany. This paper seeks to explain how the “The Final Solution” evolved, how it was organized, by whom it was carried out, when it was authorized and implemented and its effects.
The Final Solution Background Information
Adolf Hittler was appointed as a German leader in the presidential election held in 1932 and was named the president then. The First World War emerged to be a big blow to the German security. They then had to look for new ways to strengthen their country. With time some magazine started to spread out propaganda concerning the Jews.
Elections were conducted to increase political strength of Hittler. The laws governing the country were modified. It was argued that the Jewish were responsible for the alteration in the German culture. Hittler was against the Jewish two years after the election. The Jewish were viewed as outcasts and some laws were made to get rid of them (Bendersky 1).
It is believed that the killing of the Jewish was planned towards the end of 1941(Holocaust history 1). Based on some prophesy that the future was to be worse, the Jewish started fleeing out of the country but were restricted by the strict immigration rule from neighboring countries.
Some of the countries tried to solve the immigration process but were unsuccessful. On being pushed too much, the Jewish refused to take commands given to them and assassinated one the top German official. This provoked the government to arrest the Jews and many of them lost their lives and most of their property (Jewish virtual library 1; Bendersky 2).
The worst period for the Jews dawned at the start of the Second World War. The German security was determined to get rid of the Jews. They were divided into different troops. Jews were shot dead and buried. At the start of 1942, a meeting to enforce the operation was conducted.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that the process was to be carried out on a large scale. There were so many death camps which were used to get rid of the Jews (United States 1). Some countries attacked Germany to force it surrender killing the Jews. Some of these countries included: America, Britain and the Soviet Union. This led to the end of the Second World War.
Statistics of those who died
It is worth noting that the number of Jews who were killed was just too huge. It was a display of hatred at the highest level. A simple analysis of the number of Jews who fell shows the following facts:
Aurischwitz II was declared a killing center by Himmler. Approximately 1,000,000 Jews from many parts of Europe were killed here.
Approximately 2,700,000 Jews were murdered in death camps and killing centers by the police and the German SS. In total about 6,000,000 Jews, were murdered. This number accounts for two thirds of the Jews in Europe and one third of Jews in the world. (Aurischwitz 1)
It recorded that the Germans systematically collected all the Jews from various parts of Germany and subjected them to some sort of sorting out whereby those who were declared fit were sent to work in various industries and the others who formed the majority were sent to the gas chambers for their death.
It is worth noting that only a small fraction of the Jews were declared fit thus most of them faced the gas chambers in the various killing centers which had been set up for the purposes of eliminating the Jews (Aurischwitz 1). The final solution has inspired the shooting of many movies based on these massacres with a good examples being escape from Sobibor.
Conclusion The final solution is one of the worst actions in history that happened to the Jews. The massive killing was inhuman and should not be allowed to happen again. This left many injured physically and psychologically. Were it not for the intervention of other countries probably the Jews would have been eliminated. Killing in such a large scale order is being witnessed even in the present day.
We will write a custom Essay on The Final Solution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking examples of third world countries like Rwanda, it can be argued that still massacres take place though to a small extent.
New policies should therefore be instituted across the world to avoid harassment of any group of people irrespective of their race, religion or numbers. As a matter of fact such kinds of massacres often lead to lifelong grudges which can easily lead to a nation attacking another one.
Works Cited Aurischwitz. Holocaust History. Holocaust Encyclopedia, n.d. Web.
Bendersky, James. A concise history of Nazi Germany. New York: Rowman
Theory of modern art: Rationalization Analytical Essay a level english language essay help
Buchloh observes the cyclical appearance of action and reaction in art since the advent of Cubism, and infers from this that art reflects somehow the state of society.
In the associated readings, the authors make some similar points about the tidal movement between realism and abstraction, although they are not uniformly as focused on the socio-political content or significance of the current art trends.
In all cases, the authors make a distinction between visually reproducing reality, on the one hand, and ignoring it to some degree, on the other hand. These observations accurately describe the changes that occurred in art over the first decades of the 20th century.
However, it is not always convincing, from the perspective of 2011, to read these often-inflexible assertions about the directional progression of art, and its potential connection to politics.
Buchloh asserts that art responds to the oppression of the regimes then current in the country where the artist lives and/or works. He asks,
“Is there a simple causal connection, a mechanical reaction, by which growing political oppression necessarily and irreversibly generates traditional representation? Does the brutal increase of restrictions in socio-economic and political life unavoidably result in the bleak anonymity and passivity of the compulsively mimetic modes that we witness, for example, in European painting of the mid- 1920s and early I 930s?”
He is contending that artists react to the limiting atmosphere around them by hearkening back to representational styles. He is damning of all figurative content as a throwback, a return to outdated and played-out concepts and goals, formed by the political environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While he does not come right out and declare his political affiliation, his attitude towards capitalism is very hostile. He speaks of the “bankruptcy of capitalist economics” and, for example, accuses capitalism of using war as its final economic solution to the persistent problems of utilizing every person’s skills and keeping them fed.
He also seems not to be friendly to fascism. What seems to bother him about all political systems is the way that people are managed and controlled, for example via “managed unemployment.” 
The authors in the readings all have grasped that something quite significant has changed in art. They all have seen, as Apollinaire notes, that there is occurring either a return to earlier forms of painting, or adoption of a variety of elements from earlier times (Classicism and Romanticism), or from disparate cultures, technologies, or genres.
Buchloh regards this sort of re-definition of self as a desperate clinging to a lost role of centrality and importance. He calls the painters of Cubism and its immediate neighbors in time and development, “senile old rulers.”
However all these protestations might also have been simply an effort on the part of artists in the early decades of the 20th century to make sense of the transforming world around them. This was especially a challenge given the demoralizing upset of World War I.
These authors, many of them artists themselves, focus more than Buchloh does on the appearance and content of the art itself. They seem more interested in what comes next in art. This, itself, was a novel question to be asking, after so many centuries of slow, almost indistinguishable change.
Jeanneret and Ozenfant, in particular, appear to be trying to lay out a path for art to follow so that their work can result in, “an objectification of the entire world.” This involves, for them, creating order by selecting from among many elements. They aim to present the viewer with something that is, “free of conventions” and, “universal.”
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of modern art: Rationalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the reference to conventions may evoke the hated and reviled bourgeoisie, the main thrust of this article seems to be anti-political. This seems to be a perhaps deliberate attempt to move art distinctly outside the whole mess of politics and social movements.
This does not actually contradict Buchloh’s insistence on a connection between the system of governance and the forms of art. Buchloh would probably contend that wanting to be outside current politics is actually a commentary on the impact of current politics!
Carra focuses on the artist’s treatment of line and color and light. He claims for artists a goal of, “creation, not the imitation of phenomena”. He sees artists as in dialogue only with other artists, “listening to ourselves”. This is another expression of the artist as separate, outside, standing apart from politics and social movements.
Gleizes is the exception to this apparent willful obliviousness of the socio-political universe that surrounds them. He notes in his 1920 essay on the Dadaist movement that the social and political and class situation has been changing rapidly, and that people have being thrown about by the violence of events. His is the most explicit expression, among these readings, of an awareness of art as a marker of class distinctions.
He points out that the upper and lower classes are being deliberately separated and set at odds. This is perhaps not surprising, since the Dadaists were specifically interested in a democratization of art and the de-professionalization of the creation of art.
Buchloh is heavy-handed in suggesting that all figurative or representational art is a symptom of oppression. The other authors are looking at art less through the prism of political science than as artists themselves. Both are probably seeing a truth in the situation, but from different perspectives.
Buchloh lays his ideas out at the end of his essay, as follows:
“The aesthetic attraction of these eclectic painting practices originates in a nostalgia of the moment in the past when the painting modes to which they refer had historical authenticity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of modern art: Rationalization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But the spectre of derivativeness hovers over every contemporary attempt to resurrect figuration, representation, and traditional modes of production, This is not so much because they actually derive from particular precedents, but because their attempt to re-establish forlorn aesthetic positions immediately situates them in historical secondariness.
That is the price of instant acclaim achieved by affirming the status quo under the guise of innovation. The primary function of such cultural re-presentations is the confirmation of the hieratics of ideological domination.”
Bibliography Apollinaire, Guillaume. “The New Spirit .” In Art in Theory: 1900 to 2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 228-230. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Buchloh, Benjamin D. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting.” First appeared in the periodical October, volume 16, Spring, 1981, 39-68. Republished in Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts, by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, edited by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, 222-238. London: Phaedon Press, 1992.
Carra, Carlo. “Our Antiquity.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C Harrison and P. Wood. Carra- Our Antiquity p232-p236. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Gleize, Albert. “The Dada Case.” In Art in Theory, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 242- 245. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Jeanneret, Charles Edouard (Le Corbusier), and Amedee Ozenfant. “Purism.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 239- 242. OXfprd: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Footnotes Buchloh, Benjamin. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting’”. October. 1981, Volume 16, Spring. Published in Frascina, Francis and Jonathan Harris, eds. Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts. (London: Phaidon Press, 1992). Page 222.
Buchloh, p. 223
Buchloh, p. 223
Buchloh, p. 223
Apollinaire, Guillaume. “The New Spirit and the Poets”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 229. For example, artists incorporated pieces of newspaper text, collage-fashion, into paintings.
Buchloh, Page 233.
Jeanneret, Charles Edouard, and Ozenfant, Amedee. ‘Purism”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 242.
Carra, Carlo. “Our Antiquity”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. 2002. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 244
Carra, page 232.
Gleizes, Albert. “The Dada Case”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. 2002. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 242.
Gleizes, page 244
Buchloh, page 237
Fashion and Identity Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fashion reinforces personal identity
Fashion erodes individual identity
Introduction The relationship between man, fashion and identity has always been intriguing. Man is in a constant search of identify, something that will make him unique and identifiable. A unique tool to enhance a person’s identity is fashion. Fashion industry is driven by creativity and as such results in many designs.
The debate in this issue is which of the two has a bigger influence on the other. There are differing opinions on this subject each with sufficient proof on the power and the influences that each has on the other. Werner (n.d.) argues that the search for personal identity is the primary preoccupation of the contemporary generation.
The drive towards identifying who a person is comes about due to fear and uncertainty of the person’s purpose in life. Thus identifying a specific persona becomes the key to personal development and growth in life. Werner continues to argue that the contemporary generation is deceived to think that personal identity is determined by the physical attributes in a person.
Many people take too much care of their physical looks and would go to great lengths to enhance their outward appearance in the effort to enhance their identity. In this regard, people are concerned with their levels of education and would proceed to acquire educational qualifications.
This is intended to improve a person knowledge and intelligence, therefore helping to form their persona identity. Other than education, people take great care how they dress. Dressing is taken as a mode of identifying who a person is. People who see themselves as official tend to dress officially all the times. People dressing style is also a way of trying to enhance ones identity.
A man may dress sharply to stand out in a crowd. Women, perceive themselves as beautiful put on make up several and adornment to enhance this perceived identify. Adornments and beautification are a means of enhancing a persons unique attributes and make them look different in a crowd. Werner (n.d.) questions this method of forming and identifying a person and says that it is quit deceptive.
A person identity cannot be formed by physical attributes and out wards appearance. Other important factors help to form a person identity. Such things are concerned with a person inner attributes such as the soul and are spiritual. Werner (n.d.) concludes that a person spiritual belief influences person’s attitudes towards life and generally, who a person eventually becomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MAS (2006) infer that it is impossible to hide a person identity as people are constantly giving out signs of who they are. These arguments purports that a person identity is somewhat inherent.
A person’s identity can be identified from the simple things that people do. Such things as email addresses reveal a lot about a person’s identify. Studying such physical attributes as fingerprints, facial expression, names and DNA configuration can reveal a lot about a person.
These things have in them cues that can be used to unravel a person identity. Thus, it becomes impossible to hide the real person. Any attempt to do so is deceptive. A person’s identity is associated with a good reputation. This means that identity is the foundation of reputation. A good reputation enhances a personal success in life (Werner, n.d.; MAS, 2006).
It guarantees a person better jobs, ease in career advancement, improved social status and allows the individual other privileges. MAS (2006) explains that attempt to hide a persons true self are disastrous and results in a person gaining a bad reputation the society and the disadvantages that comes with it.
From the arguments above it is important to note the formation of a personal identity is crucial. People general direction is driven by their personal identity.
The out ward look is just a reflection of an individuals identity, but not what forms it. How people look on the outwards is a reflection of their beliefs and customs. The spiritual faculties form a person’s beliefs and customs. These beliefs are unique to each person and thus help to form involuntarily the main character traits that make a unique identity in a person.
These characteristics are expressed in more physical ways such as dressing code and general mannerisms. These characteristics are what make people identifiable in a society and give us a persona different from other individuals. This is [personal identity.
We will write a custom Essay on Fashion and Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The relationship between fashion and personal identity is peculiar. In this debate, the biggest question is which of the two has the greatest influence over the other or whether the two are mutually dependent. Fashion and human personality theorist all agree that each cannot exist without the other.
This is because fashion is way of dressing only expressible through people and the same is true for people: it is difficult to see people without looking at fashion. Thus, it becomes an interesting debate as to whether it is fashion that reinforces a person identity or vice versa. Fashion theorists are also aware that both fashion and personal identity are subject to evolution and thus keep changing with time.
As such, there is always a great confusion as to which of the two is the agent of the said change. The confusion arises from the fact that each fashion as well as personal identity seem to have an inherent ability to stand o its own. However, debaters of this motion do not realize that the debate always focuses on the mutual dependency between these two phenomena.
Fashion reinforces personal identity Ffion (2011) explains that the post second world war heralded liberalization and democratization of societies all over the world. One of the biggest marks of liberalization is the rise of a consumerism culture. Contemporary societies have acquired an insatiable habit of indiscriminately consuming and as such, producers have resulted to mass production.
The same is true for the fashion industry. People have acquired a taste for fashionable clothing and are consuming fashion products at an alarming rate. A look through fashion malls will reveal an existing insatiable appetite for fashion clothing as well accessories by people of all works of life.
Clothing since time immemorial has been the key towards unraveling a person identity (Ffion, 2011). Other than the obvious reason to cover nakedness and protects a person from extreme wearer conditions, Clothes are a means through which man communicates a powerful message about himself.
People use clothes as a means to enhance the message they want to portray to the society and hope that wearing these elicit the right response from others (Essay.org, 2011).
As such, people have to dress in the right way according to the character they want to enhance. Clothes emphasize the positions and roles that people play in the society. (Essay.org, 2011) compares fashion to art, which “sculptures and gives to its architect any form of creation the architects desires.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fashion and Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, fashion reacts to the desires of the architects and thus gives back creative designs that are relevant to person’s character and roles in the society. Further more, fashion enhances the different gender roles that different gender plays in the society.
It gives clothes that define a woman as feminine, in response to the feminine character of a woman and masculine clothes that a man demands. As such clothes becomes a clear distinction between men and women. Thus, fashion is responding to gender identities.
Ffion (2011) argues that people use clothes “to celebrate personal identities.” People wear cloths that express a strong personal beliefs and character. Ffion (2011) gives an example where women celebrate their personal identity through clothes and explains they may wear floral and brightly colored cloths to appreciate their love for nature and their cultural backgrounds.
This illustrates that the reason why Marie-Ange Guilleminot made clothing items with remains of the material from the Hiroshima bombsite to express “her grief and sorrow and show solidarity with the family of the victims.”
Different communities have different dressing style unique to them. The Hindu community has their sarongs, while the Scot male proudly wears the kilt as a way of identifying one self as a scot.
The Muslim woman will wear the Hijab to portray a religious identity while a Nigerian will were a brightly colored outfit that portrays the African identity. These dressing style are a strong reflection of a person’s cultural identity and are deliberately worn by people to express their personal identity through cultural norms
Other than communicating whom we are, clothes have a very big influence on our personality. (Essay.org, 2011) explains that Business executive’s wears suit to while musicians and sports people will be more casual.
They want to enhance their personal traits that is concurrent with their profession. Grant (2007) agrees with this argues and adds that an “individual negotiates through the dress.” Fashion thus forms part of an individuals language. Clothing is a language that a person uses to relay to the outside world desirable message about who they are.
Ffion (2011) explains that Marina Abramovic tried to controversially prove that clothe cannot be removed from a person identity. Mariah stood naked in a street and watched people’s reaction to her nudity. Of course, people were astonished that a person could dare remove her identity and stand in public naked.
This portrays that cloths are part of us and they help strengthen a person positive reputation. Lack of clothes is thus taken as lack of positive dignity. As explained earlier persons identity is associated with a positive reputation that puts the person at an advantaged position in the society.
Removing cloths from oneself is thus assumed to be removing a person positive identity, which leaves one without an identity that results to a negative reputation (MAS, 2006). It thus can be conclude that removing of clothe is stripping oneself of personal identity as such leaving one naked (without an identity).
Winter (2004) also supports that clothes portrays who we are by highlight the works of Van Dyke Lewis, a fashion God father and scholar who has spent a significant part of his life studying fashion.
Winter explains that despite the fact that clothes identify which ethnic group people come from they also identify from which part of the world a person comes from as well as the people’s individual roles in the society.
Lewis, Winter (2004) explains, has spent his entire life studying the black African fashion. This race has a particular way of clothing themselves that enhances their racial background.
During one of his fashion research in London, Lewis has paid particular attention to all the black people in the crowd and was rightly able to identify from which part of the world each came from simply by observing their dress code. This is because each of these person carried with them a certain trait about them that betrayed from which city, town or neighborhood each came from.
Essay (2011) support this further and argues that a clothing is a reflection of unique personal attributes and that personal identity can be interchangeably used with cultural identity. Clothes are part of peoples culture. By choosing to wear certain cloths people have voluntarily chosen to portray their cultural identify and their cultural roots of a person.
Still pertaining to culture, there has evolved a material cultures, a liberal group of individuals who want to dress in ways that do not conform to traditional dressing codes.
These people want freedom to dress the way they want without being restricted to the conventional dressing norms. Clothes are a sense of freedom and a spirit of adventure. They were wear clothes that are outside their cultural boundaries to adventure.
Clothes become a way of breaking cultural norms and experiencing the world beyond (Essay.org, 2011). As such, the fashion industry is evolving and responding to this new class of individuals and gives them creative designs that are suited their free spirited selves. Other clothing adornments are other items of fashion that enhance a persons identity.
People are nowadays adornments to express their dissatisfaction with traditional cultural norms. Tattoos are a way of expressing a distaste with conventional rules and thus a way of seeking freedom. It is a way of bode modification that seek to celebrate a free spirited individual who has managed to break cultural rules (Sanders, 1998).
Suffice to say that fashion is the tool that reinforces who a person is. People use clothes not only to express their personal traits but also to identify themselves with different cultures.
Clothes are not just mere tools for covering nakedness but also protect the persona in the wearer. People deliberately choose clothes that suit their personal characteristics. They are therefore a branding tool, a tool that helps the individuals to appreciate, celebrate and reinforce personal identity.
Fashion erodes individual identity As much as the power of the individual identify I emphases the power of fashion on the person cannot be ignored. Fashion still has its influence on the individual and to a great extent influences that a person becomes. This means that people respond to the latest fashion trends and thus try to align their identify to the dictates of these trends.
Human psychologist argues that human beings have tendency to change behaviors to fit in a certain context (Simply Psychology 2011). People thus change their behavior, attitudes, norms and beliefs fit in certain contexts. Such conformity is driven by the fear of rejection by a social group or the entire society. Conformity may be voluntary or involuntary.
Where it is voluntary, a person makes conscious choice out of fear and thus eventually changes behavior to be accommodated in a given setup. People thus experience an overwhelming sense of the group dynamics over individual identity and are attracted to the group. However, their personal identity is a hindrance towards finding a comfortable place in the group.
As such, they have to drop it and adapt what the social group ascribes to. When conformity occurs involuntarily, a person is either forced to adapt certain behavior as dictated by their roles in the society. In this case, people are forced to behave in certain manner that fits the group dynamic or risk rejection.
A student in a religiously affiliated school may be forced to change dress code to fit in that a particular school. A company may enforce strict dress and general behavior code for all employees to fit into the company policy. In such a company, formal dressing becomes the norm. Suit and ties are the every day apparel.
Therefore, all employees are forced to change their individual identikit in dressing. Involuntary conformity can also happen when a person lacks knowledge and thus seeks it from external (group) sources. In such a case a person is unknowingly influenced by social dynamics and eventually changes behavior as society dictates.
Conformity is prevalent in the world of fashion. This can be attributed to mass production of fashion labels that target mass sales. Marketing of these mass labels are enforcing a fashion sense to the unsuspecting public. Many fashion designs such as Versace, Christian Dior and others open fashion stores in many parts of the world to with the mass market as the target.
Because of the prestige that is associated with these brands people wear them not out of personal identity built because of the strong sense of fashion that comes with wearing them.
Bollier and Racine (2003) explains that “fashion permeates so many aspects of our lives that we fail to appreciate the social ecology that supports it” and as such has an enormous influence not only on the society built on the individual.
The industry it has an inherent power of creativity and thus produces fashionable garment with lightning speed and enforces the new fashion on people. As such, fashion industry thrives, on competition churning out creative design to protect its markets share and its brand.
As a result, several fashion labels have dominated the fashion industry. Many people in efforts to feel fashionable buy and wear these brands not in respect to their personal identity but in respect to fashion.
They want to feel that they belong to a social class that is conscious to fashion trends. Therefore, they will just move in any direction that fashion takes them. If the new trend demands wearing of faded jeans that id the trend they adapt. The same can be said of adornments.
Such kind of conformity has permeated into the American society. A look at the society will reveal that the individually is slowly but significantly loosing personal touch.
The individual in this society is slowly succumbs to the dictates of fashion so much that even the moral and cultural fabric of the society if affected. Americans are slowly adapting to wearing casual wear especially jeans and T-shirts. This conformity is so powerful, that it is slowly finding its way in the corporate sector.
Modern American professional world is adapting to the notion of dress down Friday, an idea that allows workers to tone down their official attire. In response to the notion, the American worker including some of the top CEO’s do wear jeans and T-shirts every Friday to work. (Rasband , 2010).
Rasband (2010) continues to explain that a study reveals that the average American owns more jeans and T-shirt s today than they did several years ago. A casual look at the ordinary American in shopping malls, hospitals airports, churches, sport stadiums, streets, cafes or any other place will revel that there are more people wearing jean and T-shirts than another type of clothing.
This jeans and T-shirts dressing code almost becomes a movement a phenomena Levi Straus has termed as “the most significant apparel trend of the century” (Rasband , 2010). Such conformity has eroded the American sense of personal touch as more American are falling prey to the jeans and T-shirts movement and thus limits the choices that American have on fashion.
Pittman and Townsend (n.d.) explains that such lack of choice in proposal apparel is the result of consumerism and mass production in the fashion industry, and results in loss of personal identity.
Consumerism in fashion is focused on quantity (and unfashionable clothing) rather than quality. It thus leads to a shortage of fashion wear that can enhance people’s individual identity. Rather it leads to e enhancement of social identity.
(Rasband , 2010) explain that the erosion of personal identify by fashion has not been without consequences. The jeans and T-shits movement puts every one o the same level at the work place and in effect, productivity of employees has notably declined.
Casual wears hinders a person productivity in the workplace as the person has retreated into the confront zone and thus lucks the necessary motivation to work. The teaching profession has been greatly affected by such erosions of culture.
American teachers have adopted casual wear and have ended looking more like the students they teach. The effect is a decline in discipline in American schools. (Rasband , 2010) concludes that dressing and in similar fashion makes Americans “look alike and thus begin to feel and act alike.”
The variety that is necessary to make a well-formed society is thus lost. The lack of variety in personal identity means that there is also a limitation in personal beliefs customs and norms. The average American has thus lost the ability to be different and to rise above the societal norms.
Conclusion It can be sufficiently concluded that fashion and man cannot be separated. They have a mutually dependent relationship. Man has had a significant influence in fashion industry. People have used fashion designs as away of communicating personal identities. They wear clothes that enhance their personal characteristics.
A person will wear dreadlocks to communicate ac message about personal beliefs and attitudes. There is also the evolvement of the free material culture, a group of people that believe I moving beyond conventional dressing codes in emphasis of their free spirit self.
Any attempts thus to remove dress is seen as an attempt to strip a person of their persons al identity. As such personal identity is embedded in a persons dressing style. Removing a dress is tantamount to removing your dress. However, fashion cannot be ignored in the way it influences a person’s character. There have been instances that a fashion erodes a personal identity leaving the person exposed to adhere to group dynamics.
This has been the effect of consumerism culture prevalent in the contemporary society. Consumerism culture leads to mass production. Fashion designers have thus responded to this phenomenon by creating massive designs and adapted exploitative marketing technique to force people to buy predetermined designs. Thus, people drop their unique dressing styles in favor of the mass culture.
This in effect affects the person identity as people star to behave in the same way. As such fashion becomes wastefully and unethical because it erodes not only the identify of a person but also of the entire society. This has lead to an emergence of a class of l fashion theorist with ethical views about sustainable fashion models.
Ethical fashionistas say that there is need to reverse the mass consumerism not only to protect the erosion of person identities but also to protect the environment. This will be done through recycling fashion design and material (Pittman and Townsend, 2003). Rasband (2010) explains that there is a way out the current wasting of personal identity in the society.
People can be very deliberate in their dressing style but not dress in response to mass fashion demands but to what the are personally comfortable with in respect to the situation they are in. the jeans and t-shirts are not entirely wrong but should be only worn at the right time and for the right purpose.
Reference List Bollier, D.,
The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners Essay college essay help: college essay help
This paper aims at reaching curriculum developers and educators to bring into focus the need to integrate ICT in the contemporary education system.
Introduction Following the currently advancing technology across the world, various strategies have been established to reduce the gaps between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and education, especially in science education. With the current highly interconnected world, there has been a global need to motivate and involve learners in science-related studies for better future of the current generation (Baer 43).
After critical review of various literature materials on science education, the use of ICT in classroom teaching has been found to impacts a lot on the overall motivation of students towards learning. Considering the revealed importance of the use of ICT and digital technology in classroom teaching, there arises great need on integrating classroom experiences with the new technology.
Significance of ICT in Education Information and Communications Technology is the strategy of using the current technological means to facilitate effective passage of information from one identity to another. According to Prensky (27), a blend of technology and traditional means of teaching is not only effective but necessary if we are considering the current generation of students.
As it has been observed, students in the contemporary society are technologically tuned. Being products of online world, these students are keen to explore new innovations. On this basis, the reflection of these generational changes in classroom pedagogy would enhance more learning, since students would be more interested and motivated.
As reported by Robson (33) there has been great need to incorporate into our classrooms the same combination of desirable goals, interesting choices, immediate and useful feedback and opportunities to level up that engage students in their favorite computer applications. By so doing, we will be cultivating and cherishing deeper learning among the students, as they would have high interests in learning using the technological appliances.
Involvement of students in discussions in various topics including class activities, curriculum development, teaching method, school organization has been found to be quite important (Prensky 35). This will make the teachers to understand how the students of 21st century i.e. the Digital Natives think. Certainly, this will help the teachers to change in the pedagogy for their students for better learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kress (15) considers the use of podcasts, discussion boards and MSN to study and communicate in classroom teaching as an effective strategy, since this will engage students far better than in the previous days.
The suggestion made by Stoll et al (20) is very enticing in the sense that, use of ICT in classroom instruction helps to show a new dimension of teaching students with technology and how they impact on the students’ learning outcome would be, if we use technology in different way rather than in the normal manner.
As a result, such strategy will help in engaging and motivating students towards science and math. Considering the contemporary society dominated by scientific innovations and inventions, the ICT strategy makes learning relevant, as learners would concentrate on new technologies.
If teachers realize the vast capabilities of Digital Learning Objects (DLO) they will find out how to help students to actively participate and motivated in learning and thus increase their level of confidence (Robson 46).
Through the use of DLO, learners would be exposed to real life application of the knowledge gained, which would make them more confident in learning through actual applications. This forms a basis for making learning more learner-oriented since the main focus is to make learners more efficient in the outside world activities.
Engagement and self assessment can be improved by a change in classroom philosophy and change in pedagogy by thinking about the change in students’ emotional change and their involvement with ICT and internet. With digital support and change in classroom pedagogy, it will help to think the way Poole (56) recommended (thinking about achievement, looking for evidence, working with other people, overcoming barriers, and reframing the task).
Hence this will connect the students in cognitive, affective and operative way. In this case, the result should be more student engagement and self assessment and deeper learning.
We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Strategy to Enhance Successful Implementation of ICT in Education Teachers need to be trained to use ICT and e-learning applications in the classroom. To establish an e-learning environment in the school system, teachers and software and hardware companies need to operate together. Kress (63) considers this as a very important strategy, since it is through efficient teaching with the technology, where deeper learning among learners would be realized.
Through good trained teachers on the contemporary technology, students will find it efficient to capture the basic concepts required in a specific teaching. As depicted by Robson (39), for efficiency and accuracy in teaching using DLO, teachers ought to be apparently oriented to these teaching resources in their training programs. This will prepare them to be efficient in their classroom pedagogy using ICT.
To move educational technology to the next level, good collaboration is important between educators and designers of technological applications. It is important to note that, talking about games is not just about playing cards; it is about far advanced gaming that includes strategy, experiment, information, involvement of proper knowledge (Huizinga 107). It is through game strategy that learners will be able to develop psychomotor skills, capable of enhancing efficiency in real life application of the knowledge gained.
The compatibility of the games should be taken under consideration. The initial cost involvement is very important (Dave 74). In this case, educators should select the games and DLO that are compatible with the available technological appliances, so as to avoid extra costs of purchasing other expensive machines. More specifically, it is very crucial for educators to evaluate the technological applications, with respect to the already available appliances to avoid high initial costs.
Educational technology should be frequently tested, and removal of any unnecessary content done, for the meaningful implication in the classroom (Gee 41).With games used in the curriculum with definite content, designers must be very careful whether the information is correct or not. More precisely, educational technology like games should be frequently reviewed, tested and updated accordingly so as to make them more accurate in teaching.
Importantly, the consideration of gender issues is very crucial before the actual implementation of games in curriculum. This is on the basis that, males think and reason differently from females due to the difference in the nature.
On this consideration therefore, gender issue should not be overlooked while designing games for specific subjects in the curriculum. For instance, suppose we use ICT as a tool for classroom instructional pedagogy, trained teachers from this sector are required, who will efficiently incorporate the pedagogy with the technology.
Consequently, it would be possible for learners to conceptualize the required learning from the digital games used. According to Prensky (27), “…efficiency and accuracy in learning would only be realized if learners are involved in a more interactive learning environment, facilitated by a competitive teaching team…” Generally, due to the popularity nature of the digital games among teenagers, it is highly recommendable that curriculums be modified to integrate games education learning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion It can therefore be concluded that, with the use of online games in classroom pedagogy, more learning among learners would be realized. Through the use of games in classroom pedagogy, the knowledge gained in the classroom would be more relevant to learners. As a result, learners would end up being oriented to real life application of the knowledge gained in classroom.
On this basis therefore, it is highly recommendable for the curriculum developers to incorporate games as learning activities, both to the students’ learning institutions and teacher training programs.
Works Cited Arch, Gregory. Information and Communications Technology in Education: Theory, Methods Practice. New York: Woodside Publishers, 2010.
Baer, Richard. The Ultimate Mystery of Computer Games. Washington: New Technology Publishers, 2008.
Dave, Michael. The art of Digital Learning Objects and their Impacts. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2007.
Gee, Johnston. What Information Technology has to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. Palgrave: Macmillan Publishers, 2005.
Huizinga, Jackson. The Role of ICT in Culture Transformation. London: Routledge Publishers, 2006.
Kress, Georgia. Literacy in the New Media Age (Literacies). New York: Routledge Publishers, 2007.
Poole, Seth. Psychological Role of Computed Games and Other Automated Teaching Appliances. San Francisco: Arcade Publishing, 2006.
Prensky, Marshall. Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2007.
Robson, Charlotte. (2007). Learning in the New Era: a Guide for Curriculum Developers. London: Routledge Publishers, 2009.
Stoll, D. et al. High Technology Heretic: The Need of Computers in the Classroom and Other Reflections. Sydney: Computer Contrarian, Doubleday
Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay argumentative essay help
This essay is an analysis of “She Had Some Horses” by Joy Harjo. It also demonstrates what common themes are used by the poet in her other lyrics. Harjo is currently on faculty in the English Department at the University of Arizona (Velie 287). A creative powerhouse, Harjo has published 12 books of poetry and two children’s books (Velie 287).
She is also an accomplished musician, saxophone player, dancer, painter,screenwriter and feminist (Scarry 1). Of Cherokee descent, Harjo graduated from the Iowa Writer’s Workshop at the University of Iowa and is a member of the Muscogee Creek Nation of Oklahoma (Scarry 1).
Harjo’s early influences include time spent at an all Indian boarding school in 1967, during which the environment devoted to Native American creativity directly inspired her poetic leanings. Harjo also cites a Galway Kinnell poetry reading, the first poetry reading she ever attended, as an event that made literature appear viable and correct as a vocation when she was a fledgeling poet (Scarry 1).
Best known as a poet, Harjo’s thematic use of animals appears regularly in her poetic works, particularly the horse. Harjo’s most well-received book of poetry to date, She Had Some Horses, was published in 1983 by Thunder’s Mouth Press. This paper details Harjo’s use of animal imagery and its thematic resonance in her most powerful poems.
For Harjo, the horse represents Harjo’s dualistic view of the human condition, at once urban and simultaneously of nature. The classic example of this “psychic dualism” occurs in the title poems of Harjo’s She Had Some Horses (Scarry 1).
In his analysis of “She Had Some Horses”, critic Dan Bellm characterized the poem as “a long litany of the `horses’ inside a woman who is trying to become whole” (Scarry 1). However, the poem transcends the physical manifestation of a woman and encompasses a broader view of humanity.
In this poem, J.Harjo’s perspective on the fundamental dualism of human nature shines as she personifies a slew of horses engaged in decidedly urban and social pursuits. That’s the principal meaning of “She Had Some Horses”. The lyrics speak of “horses who cried in their beer,” a haunting image of addiction, as well as “horses who were much too shy, and kept quiet in stalls of their own making” (Harjo 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lines like these show the reader Harjo’s dualistic themes of freedom and captivity; both imposed and self-generated. In the same poem the reader witnesses “horses who spit at male queens who made them afraid of themselves” and “horses who called themselves, “spirit” and kept their voices secret and to themselves” (Harjo 6).
Herein the reader feels the urban experience of hate, racism and homophobia, juxtaposed with the spiritual element, the propensity of humans to simultaneously aspire to higher realms while mired in hatred, conformity and separation. Harjo’s brilliant use of metaphor explodes in such passages as “She had horses who got down on their knees for any saviour. She had horses who thought their high price had saved them. She had horses who tried to save her, who climbed in her bed at night and prayed as they raped her” (Harjo 6). The quote from the poem is as disturbing as it is beautiful, which speaks to Harjo’s overall point – no human being is perfect, and we are all a work in progress.
Harjo’s horses also appear regularly in lyrical studies of addiction, such as in the poem Night Out. “I have seen you in the palms of my hands, late nights in the bar, just before the lights are about to be turned on. You are powerful horses by then, not the wrinkled sacks of thin, mewing spirit that lay about the bar early in the day, waiting for minds and bellies” (Velie 287).
Let’s turn to the analysis of another poem by Joy Harjo. In Night Out, we see Harjo’s dualism once again, this time through the freeing effect of intoxication. The men and women of the bar begin as “wrinkled sacks of thin, mewing spirit,” but regain their natural state – like horses – via alcohol, wherein they transform into “powerful horses” (Velie 287). The metaphor of an animal as the natural state that people easily regain is probably Harjo’s favourite poetic convention.
Harjo paints a dark portrait of addiction in Night Out, as a means to regain lost power, albeit ephemerally – “Your voice screamed out from somewhere in the darkness, another shot, anything to celebrate this deadly thing called living” (Velie 287).
However, Harjo’s poem remains an honest appraisal of the appeal of alcohol and other addictive substances to those of living in the urban environment, simply because these inebriants offer a way back to self-esteem and freedom.
The thematic use of horse imagery in the poem What I Should Have Said also illustrates Harjo’s theme of escape – escape back to the halcyon days of Native American freedom, as well as escape to the internal “safe” fantasies of the mind designed to make urban life bearable.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lines in What I Should Have Said that best illustrate this idea include “We are horses knocked out with tranquillizers, sucked into a deep, deep sleeping for the comfort and anaesthesia death. We are caught between clouds and wet earth, and there is no motion either way” (Velie 288). The analysis of Harjo’s poem called What I Should Have Said demonstrates that the horse there is the creature that exists between two worlds.
Joy Harjo’s poetry also employs the horse as a metaphor for the creative process. We witness this usage of the horse most clearly in Harjo’s poem Explosion from her 1983 collection She Had Some Horses. “But maybe the explosion was horses, bursting out of the crazy earth near Okemah.
They were a violent birth, flew from the ground into trees, to wait for evening nightmares to come after them: then into the dank, wet fields of Oklahoma, then their birth cords tied into the molten heart (Harjo 26). In Explosion, the horse comes to symbolize the act of creation itself.
In summary, Joy Harjo employs poetic images of the horse and effectively uses the theme of the horse as a live conduit between the urban world and the natural world.
Harjo’s poems traverse rich interior landscapes that echo the visible world while simultaneously showing its flaws and ugliness. Joy Harjo’s poetic prowess has ranked her firmly in the upper echelon of Native American writers. Her poems divulge a “very personal vision of reality, with images from her own culture illuminating the wider American landscape” (Scarry 1).
Harjo’s work does not shy away from the controversial settings of addiction, pain, loss and its impact on Native American culture. However, her poems are of such high quality that they transcend social justice poetry and become instead a means to communicate the universal human condition.
Harjo’s extensive use of the horse to “deal fluidly with the themes of past and present—in historic and even prehistoric terms” as well as the personification of urban strife through the dualistic nature of the horse, deepens her work and speaks to a broader audience (Scarry 1).
Works Cited Harjo, Joy. She Had Some Horses. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1983. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Scarry, John. “Joy Harjo: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. 3rd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 1994. Web.
Velie, Alan R. American Indian literature: An Anthology. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Print.
Professionalism and Ethics Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Professionalism and ethics are key factors in a job setting. These two aspects work hand in hand. Engineering is no different case. Ethics seeks to evaluate deeply on moral aspects. It entails the practices that the staff carries out in an establishment. It incorporates; good value, code of conduct, moral value, principles and virtues. The ethics enable one to outlay professionalism in undertaking his engineering career.
Professional ethics helps a lot in proficiency and comprehending problems encountered in this field. Ethics assists one to know the good and bad sides of a person in a work setting. Engineering ethics are the codes of standard applied in the field of engineering. These ethics portray good conducts in professional engineers.
In accordance with the innovation in science and technology one needs to uphold high moral standard in terms of principle and practices. It concentrates on doing the right action with out inconveniencing other parties. In engineering one needs guidelines that propel him or her to success in this field. The guidelines are set values that give the ability to make correct choices, decisions and action. Not all values are equal.
It all depends with the perception of a person and his/her experience. One can modify and create beliefs that define his identity. Thus he may hold characters such as social skills, peace among co-workers, truth and honesty. Perseverance, discernment and accuracy are also values that one needs to have in order to relay services professionally. This boosts his moral behavior and upholds professional skills.
In addition to values and morals a professional needs work ethics. These ethics ought to be principled and easy to interpret. Employing attitudes of work value will need a lot of motivation in order to succeed. This goes along way to increase the productivity and overall performance in engineering.
In the work place the relationship among co-workers and employees in the organization, depends heavily on the ethics. The engineers tactfully apply the code of ethics to tackle problems encountered in the field. The engineer should offer high standard of service to the client. He should work towards achieving set objectives as part of strengthening his skills in the profession (Naagarazan 41).
Moral issues may arise at certain times in an organization. This will require one to apply professionalism to tackle such issues. Issues such as resource crouch may lead one to be manipulated and unethical termination of projects. Another issue is applying double standards in making decisions and selection of projects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management may seek to fulfill their interest more than the employees. The employees may develop poor attitude to providing services to the consumers.
These issues can be sorted through normative inquiry where norms are used to guide the employees and the management to run the organization. The management should come in strongly to offer a neutral field for implementation of these norms.
Another way of curbing moral issues is by conceptual inquiry where all the employees are directed and informed of the concepts and principles. Factual or descriptive inquiry is another way to solve the moral issues arising in an organization. This inquiry provides information about practices and effectiveness of the system.
When one upholds professionalism he or she expects to be loyal to the organization, have high level of integrity, be knowledgeable and applies tact in undertaking tasks of the organization. He should be a social catalyst and serve the management and other employees without biasness.
The professional conduct helps to gain trust in the public and improve professional development (Naagarazan 39). Professionalism in the public domain determines how resources and other activities are carried out. A professional will bear responsibility of his work in the sense that he becomes liable and accountable for action he takes in the organization. By carrying out his duty well, he gets appraisal from the management due to his success.
A competent professional will strive to meet the requirement of the client. It is highly recommended that clients confidentiality to be observed. This is also part of professionalism since the client builds trust in the employee.
Other attributes of a competent professional is to respect the management and other employees as well as the client. Courtesy when communicating to client will boost confidence in the engineer from the client perspective. They should also be ready to offer services to a diverse population.
We will write a custom Essay on Professionalism and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employee should avoid fraud and misuse of resources at all times. Above all discipline is very important. In a sum up professionalism is the equality of being honest and faithful to the profession. Always honor the law and observe rules and regulation of the State.
Professionalism may be hindered by a number of factors such as poverty levels and high level for illiteracy in the society. Most engineers may take advantage of these situations in the society and offer substantial services to them. To curb this situation the engineers should be given adequate remuneration to refrain them from exploiting the less fortunate (Philip 74). Professionalism and ethics work hand in hand.
For one to be a successful professional he or she needs to have all the ethics values and virtues. Successful engineers are as a result of the moral behaviors and work ethics they endorse in their day to day undertaking. If these ethics are advocated world wide then the world will absolutely have more engineers who are professionally fit.
Work Cited Naagarazan, Ramayan. Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values. New Delhi: New Age International, 2006. Print.
Philip, Sadler. Management consultancy: a handbook for best practice. London: Kogan Page Publishers, 2002. Print.
Use Cvp Analysis for business decision making Analytical Essay essay help free
CVP is the cost-volume-profit analysis that deals specifically with how profits plus costs changes with the change in volumes. It determines how those changes in the volume and the costs influences organizations income for operations and the net income. There are several assumptions made in doing the cost-volume –profit analysis.
Some of the assumptions are; that everything produced must be sold, the costs changes only when activity changes, the fixed costs and variable costs for each unit are constant, the selling price is also constant and that the business unit sells different products. In the restaurant with 90 seats, total revenue for the sales annually is $975000. Further, the restaurant is usually open for 52 weeks in a year where by, it serves lunch and breakfast for 6 days in a week and dinner for 7 days in a week.
The seats turnover in a day is 1.2 times for the breakfast, 1.25 times for the lunch and 1.20 times for the dinner. The above revenues on sales per year are then broken down between the meals served in the following percentage; dinner takes 50% of the revenue, breakfast 20% and lunch takes 30 %( Mudida, 2003, pg.45)
To calculate the average check by meal period in the restaurant there is need to know the sales revenue estimate in the next year. Breakfast accounts for 20% of the sales revenue, which is $975000 translating to $195000 of the sales revenue for the next year. Revenue from lunches takes 30% of the year’s sales revenue, which translates to $292500. Dinner takes the rest of the remaining percentage for sales revenue, which is 50%, and the amount is $487500.
The average revenue per week for the breakfast is $195000 divided by the 52 weeks, which gives an average of $3750. For lunch, the average per week is $292500 divided by 52 weeks, which is $5625 and lastly, is the sales revenue per week for serving dinner, which is $487500, divided by 52 weeks, which is $9375(Powell, 1993, pg.118).
Moreover, breakfast service is 6 times in a week, which will give an average per day of $3750 divided by 6, which is $625 per day. Lunch service is for six times in a week giving an average per day on sales as $937.5. For dinner, the average sales revenue per week is $9375 divided by seven since dinner service is seven times per week.
This gives an average of $1339 per day. Therefore, to get the exact average checks per meal we need to check the seats turnover. The seats are 90 and so the turnover being 1.2 times for breakfast, then the average check per meal for the breakfast is $625 divided 90*1.2, which gives an average of $5.78, which is approximately $6.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Same procedure applies for lunch, which is $937.5, divided by 90*1.25 translating to an average check per meal of $8.33, which is approximately $8. For the dinner, the average check per meal is $1339 divided by 90*1.2 giving $12.398, which is approximately $12 per meal (Hardwick, Khan, Langmead, 1994, pg.8).
To increase sales revenue going by the above calculations, adjust meal prices upwards to the available customer base. The price per meal for the breakfast can be reviewed to $7, that for lunch to $10 and for dinner to $15 per meal.
To achieve this, improve the service quality and ease to which customers get services from the restaurant. The second method is by increasing the customer base through making sure that more people know the services in the restaurant.
To achieve this, use advertisements and other business promotion techniques. It is also possible to increase revenue through the introduction of other services that accompany the meals such as soft drinks. This will also go along way to increase the sales revenue and the customer turnover (Cafferky, worth, 2010, pg.15).
References Cafferky, M