Every discipline has its own subject matter. In the case of the history discipline, the main subject matter is the past (Hepp 5). In the discipline, past facts and interpretations give meaning to the things that shape people’s current way of life.
Facts refer to “persons, places, things, and events that people agree are true or have happened” (Hepp 3) while interpretations refer to “the processes of selecting facts and making sense of them” (Hepp 3). Some of the things of the past, which determine the way people act, and what they believe in include people’s culture and religions.
By inferring that people’s actions and beliefs are shaped by culture, it means that the people’s “customs, institutions and achievements” (Hepp 24) influence their beliefs and actions. On the hand, religion encompasses “a belief in and the worship of a superhuman controlling power” (Hepp 24).
Since the thesis of this paper is how historians study history by deploying religion, the paper will answer this by focusing on how beliefs and worshiping super deities impact people’s actions and way of life.
One of the fundamental aspects that define differing societies is their inability to fully embrace each other. This means that they indulge in conflicts with one another. A historian seeking to understand why some communities or societies have animosities with one another would endeavor to garner facts of the likely historical circumstances that may lead to conflicts among the two societies under concern.
Subscripting to different religions is one of such incredible departures that may prompt people to engage in conflicts. For instance, the battle between Palestinians and Israelites may be attributed to their religious historical differences (Hepp 24).
Similar religion-ignited conflicts were also observed among Catholics and the Protestants (Fernandez-Armesto 502). However, it is crucial to note that not all conflicts that are experienced in the world surface themselves as having been ignited by religious differences. Rather, such battles surface as conflicts over a certain tangible material such as land even though the perspectives of religion may be enshrined in the conflict.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More History is concerned about the narrative past of the way of life of people and how it not only impacts their past but also their present way of life. Therefore, it is substantive to argue that historians investigate the cultural artifacts of people. Such artifacts are inseparable from religion (Fernandez-Armesto 225).
This makes people to have different beliefs even though they may believe in the same God. To exemplify this argument, Hepp argues, “the god of Christianity is not only the god of Judaism but also the god of Islam” (32).
This means that cultural artifacts of people such as the heroes of the religion or the prophets who interpreted the religion create the boundaries in what the people subscribing to particular religion believe in.
Therefore, historians seeking to understand and explain the differences between ways of life of people that are differentiated along their religious affiliations will not seek to base facts on the super deity that the members of a given religion worship but on the religious heroines who attached meaning of what a person subscribing to particular religion demands to do. For instance, Islam “revealed its final form by Prophet Mohammad” (BBC Para.7) while Christianity is “based on the teachings of Jesus Christ” (BBC Para. 5).
Indeed, rationalization of people’s actions is based on religious faith inclinations. Even though this may not be the case in the modern world in which people embrace change, in the traditional world, this argument may be sufficiently true.
Hepp reinforces this argument when he argues, “in a traditional society, where change is often seen as bad, people turn first to religion to make sense of their world” (33). Consequently, religion has played central roles in making people’s cultural history.
The development of the world civilization is owed to the existence of differing religions. For instance, it is immensely difficult to study the development of both social and economic pillars of regions such Asia specifically in countries such as India without referring to Buddhism and Hinduism (Fernandez-Armesto 332).
We will write a custom Essay on How Historians Study History by Use of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this perspective, Hepp particularly believes that both religions “share a common heritage and both have key roles in the historical development of eastern civilizations centered on India and spreading throughout Asia” (37). Similarly, western religions also have common paradigms that are shared amid the religious divide. They all share the belief in a common deity of Judaism.
Religions stand as ample foundations on which historians can base historical facts of people in a bid to trace changes in the ways of interaction as time progresses from the time of inception of the religions to their current state. Unlike the modern age where people have become integrated and united, the history of how different religions started is a subtle indicator that people were traditionally segregated either on racial or tribal lines.
For instance, Hinduism was a tribal religion when it started in about 4000 years ago (Hepp 38). Essentially, the Aryan tribe, which was nomadic, subscribed to the region. It is based on three pillars. These are the belief in multiples gods, “a castle system of fixed social classes, and the belief in almost endless cycle of reincarnation” (Hepp 38).
Even though it entailed a small region established on tribal basis, it has now grown to attract membership of about 900 million people across the world. Similarly, Judaism also started as a tribal region.
This means that the main mechanism of increasing membership was through growth of the tribes subscribing to the religion. While it was only open to people sharing common ethnic backgrounds and cultural traits, as time advanced, it opened up to welcome even people of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
The two examples make it clear that, apart from the modern technological developments, which have made people more integrated, evolvement of religion constitutes an additional mechanism of integrating people across the globe despite the fact that differences in between religions exist (Fernandez-Armesto 417).
Therefore, historians’ attempts to study history through deployment of religion as one of the scholarly facets remain valid and instrumental. Without religion, mechanisms of tying people of different social and ethic divides together would significantly be reduced.
Consequently, it could be immensely hard to have places, things, events, and persons that a collective number of people significantly perceive as true. Therefore, studying about the past of the various people would end up being hard since it is almost impossible to study the past of people across the world by studying people individually.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Historians Study History by Use of Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusively, the focus of the paper was to develop an argument on the manner in which religion capacitates historians to study history. In this end, the paper held that religion enables historians to trace the variations of the interactive process of people besides fostering development for world civilizations.
It also forms the foundation of understanding the present ways of life of people based on their past occupations. Additionally, it aids in explaining why some people would engage in conflicts with others.
Works Cited BBC. Religions: Featured Religions and Beliefs, 2012. Web. www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions
Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. The World – A Brief History, Combined Volume. New Jersey, NJ: Pearson, 2009. Print. Hepp, John. Lecture Notes: Historical Foundations of the Modern world. The US: Wilkes University. Print.
Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements Essay essay help: essay help
Church-sect Theory Scholars have tried to classify religious movements by coming up with ways through which religious movements form. The most extensively employed categorization is the church-sect typology. The church-sect theory states that churches, sects, and cults form a continuum with declining effect on society. Groups that decide to break away from the mainstream religious organizations form sects.
Therefore, sects are never in good terms with other members of society because their members are perceived as perverts. This explains why sects tend to be in constant conflicts with society.
Sects are different from cults and religious movements because they do not have new teachings but instead deviates from the teachings of the mainstream church. Scholars utilize the attitudes of sect members and their level of involvement in society to determine their culture.
The church-sect theory is mostly used to differentiate sects from denominations and churches. The theory originated from the writings of Max Weber. As previously observed, the church-sect theory suggests that categorization of religions is a gamut that ranges from a protest-like sects to the symmetry preserving religion. The church represents the religious norms and standards of society.
In other words, churches are the custodians of religion in a certain society. In this regard, religious competition is not tolerated in such societies because it may bring about tension and mistrust. A perfect example of a church is the Islamic religion, which does give room for religious freedoms. Unlike sects, churches claim universality meaning that each member of society should be included.
Moreover, churches enjoy monopolies implying that they always try to eliminate all forms of competitions. In fact, the church has the endorsement of the state. State organs, such as the military, the judiciary, and the executive support it. During state functions, churches will always be invited to offer prayers and spiritual guidance.
Denominations are also different from sects but almost similar to churches. Just like churches, denominations are always in good terms with the state and may even influence the government to implement its policies. Unlike churches, denominations tolerate theological diversity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that members are free to criticize the beliefs of a particular denomination. Unlike sects, members are not involved so much in its affairs. However, the level of involvement is intent as compared to churches. Sects are new religious groups that are established by disgruntled individuals.
They always come up with new teachings, claiming that the mainstream church does not provide freedoms and openness. Sects are differentiated from denominations because low class individuals form them. For instance, sects can discourage their members from wearing jewelry and expensive ornaments that are often associated with the reach. After their establishment, sects take three major paths.
One of them is dissolution path. This happens when members come to the realization that they cannot achieve their objectives by following the teachings of the sect. Another path is institutionalization. This happens when the sect is forced to embrace the features of the denomination in order to comply with the law. The third path is the development into a denomination. This happens when a sect finally becomes a denomination.
Religious Conflict Conflicts in the church are evident in all parts of the world. It is noted that all religious groups experience conflicts. For instance, Hindu, Islam, Christianity, and other traditional religions have been faced with serious conflicts. A number of factors cause these conflicts.
If some individuals tend to control the affairs of the church, conflicts would be inevitable. In India, the Hindu religion experienced conflicts because the son of the rajah tended to control the affairs of the mainstream religion.
The leader was accused of favoring his relatives in the appointment of priests. In China, a different religious belief referred to as Taoism emerged to oppose Confucianism mainly because of personal differences. In the bible, the apostles differed over some issues.
For instance, the apostles of Jesus differed from the apostles of John over baptism. The apostles of Jesus believed that baptism would convince the followers to embrace the teachings of the bible.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the apostles of John, they believed that an individual had to repent before being baptized. The apostles of Jesus believed that an individual had to believe before being baptized. This means that repentance and belief were the causes of disagreement.
In the modern religion, there is an existing conflict between Roman Catholic and Protestantism. Catholic believes that people should be loyal to the church because the pope is the representative of Jesus Christ on earth. The central act of worship for Catholics is the Mass.
Grace is provided through the seven sacraments. Even though Protestantism concurs with Catholic over a number of teachings, the main conflict centers on the bible.
Protestants believe in the New Testament and have four major convictions. One of the beliefs is that an individual should relate directly with God as opposed to using priests. Moreover, the bible should be perceived as the word of God. Protestants observe that God works through miracles.
Online Media Products and Services Case Study essay help online free
Napster is an online music store that was developed as an online file sharing service. Originally, Napster concentrated on sharing of music files coded in MP3 format. This service was pioneered by Shawn Fanning, and it was aimed at sharing music files among users.
This marked a revolution in the music industry, thereby forming a platform on which online music services are based. It emerged as a powerful promotion tool for various artists and bands including the Dispatch band. Dispatch band is an American independent band that was formed in 1996.
Previously, the band had neither experienced formal promotion nor radio play. Through Napster’s peer to peer file sharing services, the band promoted its music to higher levels. As a result, the Dispatch band toured and performed in many cities, which they had never imagined before (Biagi, 2012).
The most significant aspect of Napster file sharing services is the active involvement of the audience. In this respect, many users or audiences were actively involved in receiving and sharing information. Napster technology facilitated easy sharing of music files in MP3 format among the users.
In regards to Dispatch band, display of their music in Napster enabled the band’s music to reach many audiences. This was attributed to Napster’s interface that was user friendly. This allowed easy downloading of music copies that could have been hard to get.
This included old songs, concert songs, and even the recordings that had not been released. In addition, the majority of users enjoyed downloading and trading music at no extra costs. In addition, Napster allowed users to create their music profiles where they could compile their own albums.
However, users chose the music on the basis of their values, beliefs, culture, background, experiences, interest, and education. Through this strategy, users could develop their social constraints of reality (Croteau, Hoynes, and Milan, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the contrary, the influence of the active audience on media can lead to harm. First, it can lead to the users narrowing and limiting themselves to certain dimensions. For example, users may isolate themselves and relate with only those whom they like.
Through Napster, users may isolate themselves in sharing music to certain people or groups like the Dispatch band. Secondly, group polarization can be a common occurrence. This takes shape where a group with views attracting much attention tends to absorb even the minority. The Dispatch band’s popularity amongst the majority triggered its influence to the minority (Croteau, Hoynes, and Milan, 2012).
As far as isolation of individual users is concerned, online media play a significant role. This can lead to various adverse effects. However, this is not common for all online media companies. As mentioned, the success of the Dispatch band group was attributed to Napster’s online services.
This portrays that Napster did not contribute to isolation of users since the Dispatch band music reached many users prompting widespread tours and concerts. This shows that it contributed to bringing togetherness amongst the users. Despite the challenges, Napster ensured diversification of ideologies that promoted social construction.
With respect to isolation, online media can overcome this challenge as in the case of the Dispatch band. The Dispatch band had no prior promotion or radio play that could have influenced polarization. Therefore, no dominant position influenced users towards them. Instead, it was at free will because the group was not formally known (Biagi, 2012).
References Biagi, S. (2012). Media/impact: An introduction to mass media. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Croteau, D., Hoynes, W.,
Media and Technologies as Agents of Socialization Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In the modern world, cloud computing has reshaped the usage of the web, as well as the storage of data in most companies. Cloud computing is a specialized technology that runs sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Furthermore, the new technology helps in the manipulation of files obtained from Google docs and Gmail.
In the field of information technology, cloud computing would mean a network of computers. These computers are used as service-oriented tools. Their major role is to transmit software and information. Websites can only be displayed in computers and servers.
However, cloud technology is different because it uses information from computers as a collective virtual computer. This means that all applications have the capacity of running independently, without relying on servers or server configurations. In other words, cloud technology allows information to float around freely. This implies that the hardware is not important (Croteau, Hoynes,
Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Childhood construction is a vital aspect in determining child intervention within the child protection system. Parents possess a natural responsibility to intervene in their children’s lives. Childhood is recognized as an important status by the religious and secular world. For example, throughout the ages, religious teachings have encouraged parents to protect their children from any kind of harm (Shonkof and Meisels 68).
The need that adults posses of intervening in the lives of their children has shaped the way adults understand and construct childhood. There are many reasons why parents intervene in their children’s lives.
First, they view childhood as a stage in life that is defined by helplessness and vulnerability, hence making it necessary for them to offer protection to children (Shonkof and Meisels 70). Secondly, they view children as human beings who should enjoy their full human rights.
Thirdly, they believe that investing in children by protecting them is investing in the success of the future society (Shonkof and Meisels 71).
Many child interventions are determined by the construction of childhood as a vulnerable stage in human development that requires adult security. Ineffective construction of childhood promotes the idea that children as less knowledgeable and not deserving of power to make decisions.
Discussion The perspective of adults and the perspective of young people lead to different childhood constructions. However, the understanding of childhood in both cases determines child intervention within the child protection system. For example, young people consider abuse as the use of power by adults to control the behaviour of children and young people (Mason and Falloon 9).
As an intervention strategy, young people consider negotiation as an effective method of preventing child abuse. However, this may be ineffective because children consider the power to disclose cases of abuse as their right.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they claim that it enables them to handle such situations appropriately (Mason and Falloon 9). Interventions based on the perspective of young people may be ineffective because young people may decide to conceal information regarding cases of abuse. Reasons for information concealment include intimidation and fear of harm by abusers.
Research and literature on child abuse is mainly focused on the perspectives of adults. Children are considered as not being knowledgeable and as such, their opinions are of little or no help in formulating intervention programs (Mason and Falloon 12). This assumption has led to the marginalization of children as potential contributors in child intervention policies.
The perspective has labeled child abuse as a social problem that should be solved by those in power and has contributed in aggravating the problem. Abusers are considered the abused, and the abused are considered the abusers (Mason and Falloon 9).
It is important to take children’s opinions and perspectives into consideration. For example, a study by Parton et al (1997) found out that children’s opinions are only used to supplement adult opinions in child abuse cases. Ignoring the opinions of children has led to poor intervention programs.
There is a distinct difference between children’s and adults’ perspectives of abuse. In order to provide effective intervention, it is important to consider children’s definition of abuse. Children define abuse as the subjection to adult power and control, emotional hurt, being looked down upon and being denied a chance to voice their opinions (Bagnato 46).
Children’s perspective is different from the adults’ perspective, which considers children as less knowledgeable and unable to determine what is good for themselves. This results in ineffective child intervention efforts.
Adults should allow children to participate in discussions, give them freedom to choose what they want and take time to explain the consequences of the decisions that they make on their behalf (Bagnato 48). In addition, the views of children should be prioritized in interventions, and decisions should be made with the interests of the child as priority.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A rights based approach constructs children as human beings who have rights that should be respected (Brambring et al 82). In addition, it considers children as important contributors to society and as investments that are the foundation of the future. The 1994 Geneva Declaration and the 1959 United Nations Declaration were some of the first laws that offered child intervention, although in an inadequate way (Brambring et al 85).
They constructed children as dependent on adults because they are weak. They clearly stipulated the value of children to society, and hence the need to protect them. The first law that applied the rights based approach was the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
The treaty comprises 54 articles that give children various rights. These rights include social, economic, political and cultural rights (Shonkof and Meisels 98). For example, Article 12 gives children the right to be listened to and the right to be involved in any decision making process that affects them (Brambring et al 89).
This leads to participation, a concept that recognizes children as part of the society, and as persons with rights that should be respected. The participation concept constructs children as human beings with rights and responsibilities. This perspective delegates certain responsibilities to children and other responsibilities to adults in order to strike a balance (James et al 52).
The rights based approach encourages children to participate in decision making through expressing their views and opinions. In most cases, adults make the final decision in cases that involve child intervention. However, these decisions should include the views and opinions of children. The participation approach has many benefits that make it an efficient approach to child intervention.
It helps children protect themselves because by voicing their opinions, they avoid situations that could amount to abuse (James et al 55). Children who are encouraged to express their views are able to challenge situations that abuse their rights. Therefore, children are less vulnerable to abuse when they are encouraged to express themselves (James 109). This approach is beneficial and effective.
However, it has many drawbacks. First, adults may take the rights of children lightly because many cultures place little value on the rights of children. Secondly, adults may refuse to give children power to participate in decision making because they believe that they know what is god for their children (James et al 58). Many adults feel that by giving children power, they encourage them to be disrespectful.
The idealistic perspective constructs childhood as a human development stage that is a period of innocence and carefree behaviours. This perspective stipulates that children should not be given adult responsibilities such as involvement in decision-making processes (James 122).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Proponents of the idealistic perspective discourage the participation of children in intervention decisions and as such, influence child intervention negatively. Failing to involve children in decision making discourages them from expressing their opinions on matters that are important to them.
This approach is ineffective because children’s understanding of abuse is different from adults’ understanding of abuse. As such, adults make decisions that do not align with the needs and rights of children.
Conclusion Childhood construction is a critical aspect in determining child intervention in the child protection system. Parents possess a natural urge to intervene in their children’s lives. Childhood construction takes several approaches depending on how it is understood. Many child interventions are determined by the construction of children as vulnerable, weak and in need of protection.
Other constructions view children as valuable human beings who have rights and form the foundation for the future. In order to provide effective intervention, it is important to consider children’s definition of abuse.
Some adults consider children as less knowledgeable and unable to determine what is good for themselves. This results in ineffective child intervention efforts that fail to fully protect children from abuse.
To ensure that child interventions are effective, adults should allow children to participate in discussions concerning child intervention, give children freedom to choose what they want, and take time to explain the consequences of the decisions that they make on their behalf.
The participation concept constructs children as human beings with rights and responsibilities. This perspective delegates certain responsibilities to children and others to adults in order to create a balance.
The approach encourages children to participate in decision making through expressing their views and opinions. Efficient childhood construction views children as valuable human beings with rights and in need of protection.
Works Cited Bagnato, Stephen. Authentic Assessment for Early Childhood Intervention: Best Practices. New York: Guilford Press, 2009. Print.
Brambring, Michael, Rauh, Hellgard, and Belmann, Andeas. Early Childhood Intervention: Theory, Evaluation and Practice. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1996. Print.
James, Allison and James, Adrian. Constructing Childhood: Theory, Policy and Social Practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print.
James, Allison. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Mason, Jan and Falloon, Jan. A Children’s Perspective on Child Abuse. Children Australia, 24.3 (1999): 9-13. Print.
Shonkof, Jack, and Meisels, Samuel. Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. London: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” and “Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen” Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen
Differences between the two declarations
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen This document was conceptualized by parliament of France during the French Revolution (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The document was categorical that men were born in freedom and deserved equal treatment. The document maintained that the rulers of government had a duty to protect and safeguard these natural rights.
The declaration stated that any form of political mandate was derived from the masses. Members of the French National Assembly appreciated the need to uphold and safeguard rights of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The declaration contained a list of natural and inalienable rights and privileges of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59).
However, the declaration was categorical that all rights and privileges demanded a sense of duty and responsibility.
This declaration ensured that the actions of the executive and legislative arm of government upheld the rights and dignity of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The declaration ensured that all citizens lived in harmony and in absolute respect for constitutional provisions regarding natural rights.
The declaration had provisions regarding the rights of man and the citizen. All men were born in equality and freedom. According to the declaration, any political undertaking should be geared towards preservation of rights of man. Those rights include: freedom, riches, and agitation for rights.
The nation was declared to be the sole owner of all sovereign powers and all individual power was to be derived from the sovereign entity (Anderson, 1908, p.60). Liberty was defined as the ability to do anything that does not contravene the rights of man.
The law was granted the ability to stop any actions that posed danger to the rights of men (Anderson, 1908, p.60). Law was meant to protect all people. All had a right to participate in making laws. Man could only be arrested or held in isolation after the law granted such provision (Anderson, 1908, p.60). The law allowed punishment for wrongdoing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was to be carried out in accordance to established legal guidelines. Under the law, every man was held as innocent unless guilt was proven in a court of law. The declaration granted man the right to express opinion on condition that the opinion did not contravene law and order.
The right to opinion was considered a basic right of every man (Anderson, 1908, p.61). The rights of man were to be checked and maintained by an institution for the good of all.
Citizens were granted a right to remit taxes to the government at will, and for the common good. Society had to guarantee the rights of man and uphold them in accordance with the constitution. The declaration was clear on the right of man to hold and manage private property (Anderson, 1908, p.61).
Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen This document was authored by Olympe De Gouges in 1791. She argued that in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, the rights of women were not catered for (Levy, Applewhite, and Johnson, 1980, p.87).
She was concerned that women were not granted a right to vote, right to hold legislative office, and other fundamental rights that were granted to men.
Of importance to her, was the fact that women were not granted a right to education (Levy, et al., 1980, p.87). She argued that the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen did not cater for the welfare of women. This reality prompted her to write the Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
She wondered why men were conspiring to deny women their rights (Levy, et al., 1980, p89). She felt that men were acting inappropriately and had no right to oppress women. She argued that men had no right to control women since women were intellectually equal to men.
We will write a custom Essay on “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” and “Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She demanded that women be allowed the right to hold public office. She argued that discrimination against women was the fundamental cause for wickedness in leadership (Levy, et al., 1980, p.91). She argued that women had rights and privileges that were natural and God-given.
The document held that woman was born in freedom and equal to man. Woman was also guaranteed the right to engage in political association. The document was very categorical that woman was entitled to equal treatment as man (Levy, et al., 1980, p.94).
Differences between the two declarations The two documents were different in terms of authorship and intent. One was authored to safeguard the rights of man. It was constituted by individuals who had the sole aim of propagating patriarchy. The Declaration for Rights of Man was concerned with the welfare of man.
Its contents were insensitive to gender concerns. The document propagated the view that men were superior to women. Women were not entitled to hold any form of power. Women were meant to remain at home. Women had no right to hold or manage property.
On the other hand, the Declaration for the Rights of Woman was authored by an individual who was disappointed by the contents of the Declaration for the Rights of Man. she protested the unfair treatment that was directed towards woman. She argued that all persons were born equal in freedom.
She felt woman was entitled to equal rights as man. Essentially, the declaration for rights of man was about the rights of man, while the declaration for rights of woman was meant to protest on the unfair treatment that was visited upon woman.
References Anderson, F. (1908). The Constitution and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France, 1789-1907. New York: Russell and Russell.
Levy, D., Applewhite, H., and Johnson, M. (1980). Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789- 1795. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
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Education in the third world Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
One of the most notable forums for education funding in third world countries is the World Education Forum, which was held in Dakar. The meeting led to development of a framework for the achievement of education for all. It outlined the roles that civil society, international donors and national donors would play in the achievements of this objective (DFID, 2008).
Additionally, a call to action for the Millennium Development Goals in 2007 reinforced education funding from multilateral partners. Therefore, education funding in poor countries occurs through a myriad of donor avenues.
One of these routes is the UN fund as administered through UNESCO. Furthermore, several non governmental organizations also participate in the provision of these resources and they may have divergent objectives.
Prior to allocation of resources to third world nations, donors often analyze the political will of the concerned government and its ability to commit to the funds. Additionally, they assess them on the basis of their level of transparency or the education policies that exist.
These recipient governments need to cooperate with members of civil society in education matters, as well. However, not all donor organizations follow such rigorous procedures. Some of them may choose to donate funds to a country that lacks these qualities, but may invest in capacity-building among those nations (UNESCO, 2006).
Non governmental support for education in third world countries may come in the form of debt relief schemes, budget support (general or sector), pooled funds, or through specific projects. These projects may be carried out through recipient governments or through parallel systems. Sector wide support aims to create a budgetary framework for education.
General budget support systems mostly focus on development and implementation pro-poor reforms, of which education is part. Sector budget support caters to progressive sectors in governments, while pooled funds deal with programs or budget lines intended on tackling such problems. In addition, specific projects cater to the civil society and private sector education programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These projects may take the form of bursary support or grants given to specific students in target countries. Additionally, some private schools may have difficulties in running their programs, so these NGOs can either subsidize their activities or assist in development of subsidies. Others may offer grants for schools in general.
In certain circumstances, non governmental or UN support for education has led to an increase in the level of funds dedicated to education in the recipient countries. It has also increased the number of children that access education. Therefore, education quality and accessibility have improved out of these efforts. Some poor countries have become more accountable because of UN requirements for transparency.
They have heightened their capacities for management of finances for education. These governments have also started dialoging with members of the private sector. On the flipside, analysts argue that financial aid from non governmental organizations or the UN leads to unsustainable development, as most receiving governments rarely think about scaling up their education strategies.
Underdeveloped nations may gain from aid for education in one year and loose it in the next year. Consequently, beneficiaries of educational policies may suffer. Since most funding organizations tend to focus on basic issues in education, a number of them may forget about other important sectors of education.
For instance many NGOs dwell on funding primary-education stakeholders in third world countries, yet a number of these beneficiaries will not have finances to go through secondary education.
Therefore, inequality persists in certain levels of education. Poor judgment on the part of NGOs leads to inefficient use of the aid and a dependency syndrome. In certain situations, little or no positive outcomes are reported after continual engagement with NGOs or the UN thus causing wastage of funds (GPE, 2012).
Countries and NGOs may fail to reach tangible outcomes when implementing donor programs for education because of a number of reasons. Sometimes the receiving country may allocate resources inefficiently. As mentioned earlier, many governments focus on primary education and leave out secondary education.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Education in the third world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to the above, some of the partnering institutions do not manage their recurrent expenditure efficiently. When NGOs fail to analyze an institution’s ability to do this, then they set themselves up for failure. Alternatively, they may find that budget management is a problem but may opt not to do anything about it.
One solution is teaching and monitoring those institutions’ cost containment efforts. Inefficient management of the flow of children in these programs may also be a problem. Sometimes repetition rates may be too high or examination policies unfavorable.
Certain learning institutions may not deploy teachers effectively, and this may lead to underperformance. Donor programs may sometimes fail to cost share or even recover costs during implementation of the scheme.
The ineffectiveness of donor funding for education in third world countries may also stem from failures on the part of the donors. For instance, if funding agencies do not align their objectives with priorities among national governments, then failure is bound to occur.
Issues of harmonization of donor efforts may also undermine outcomes. For example, a country may be receiving aid from over 30 NGOs, but those groups may not belong to any global organization.
Furthermore, they may not share information between one another, and this could lead to overlaps, and piecemeal outcomes. Donor organizations may sometimes fail to consider the number of parties that are already working in a certain country.
As a result, some nations may be overfunded while others might be underfunded. It is necessary to review the multiplicity of donor missions and commitment before plunging into such a program (Lewin, 2008).
Occasionally, failure of NGOs to achieve sustainable outcomes in education may stem from challenges on both sides of the divide; that is, the third world country as well as the donor nation. In certain circumstances, an NGO’s support may do more harm than good for a country’s education system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in the third world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When aid leads to high transaction costs, then it is not worthwhile to pursue it. Third world countries need to have the audacity to reject assistance from certain aid agencies if this effect will arise.
When a country possesses several donating organizations, then it may need to coordinate its donor procedures. If multiple languages are involved and the receiving country has to deal with many projects, then the transaction costs may offset the benefits of the initiatives.
It is recommended that the UN, along with other NGOs, harmonize their efforts through donor-to-donor and donor-to-receiving country alignment. Governments should take ownership of development programs by planning and designing them.
These third world countries should create plans for tracking success. Additionally, both NGOs and aid recipients should create principles for mutual accountability, which will lead to better outcomes.
References DFID (2008). Core script one education for all: Cross-whitehall narrative. London: Department for International Development.
GPE (2012). Aid effectiveness. Web.
Lewin, K. (2008, February). Strategies for sustainable financing of secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa. African Human Development series, 136.
UNESCO (2006). Aid flows to education. Web.
Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
China’s Revolutionary Marriage
The Marriage Law
Promulgation and Implementation
The Disappointment Stage
Introduction This analysis focuses on the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s and the impact it had on the society. Importantly, the essay will detail the successes and failures that were witnessed as a result of the reforms.
In essence, the paper will explore how marriage was revolutionized and the overall impact of the reforms, which were initiated in 1950s. To achieve this objective, relevant information will be sourced from authentic books, written by reputable authors.
China’s Revolutionary Marriage In understanding marriage revolutionary under communism, it is essential to underscore the role of politics in the entire reform process, and how politicians used their positions to influence the society. For example, the People’s Republic of China was founded by students of Karl Marx, who believed that the marriage system was supposed to change based on the existing economic structure (Johnson 91).
As a result, the Chinese communists embarked on reconstructing their marriage system after the founding of the socialist state in 1949. Following the ratification of the new marriage law in 1950, the reforms were extended to the rest of the nation even though they had only been tested in the border areas.
As a result, most Chinese got used to the new freedom by the time the campaigns ended in 1953. Nevertheless, the process was met with some resistance, which triggered the need for a compromise between the state and its people as a way of attaining a balance (Diamant 30).
During this revolutionary period, the new marriage law led to certain changes, which ended up shaping the marriage system in the country. For example, romantic love was detached from considerations of matrimony and was replaced with the importance of loyalty to the party, matched political ideals, and revolutionary passions (Johnson 92).
Additionally, the state controlled the lives of its people through the introduction of the danwei. In this regard, marriage became a complicated process that entailed application, investigation, and registration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The revolutionized marriage got rooted in the system, allowing its application to all Chinese across the country (Diamant 41). The following segments explain the marriage law of 1950 and how it affected the country’s marriage system.
The Marriage Law The marriage law was promulgated in May 1950, by the People’s Republic of China, a move, which was seen by leaders as a way of eliminating the old productive relationships and structure, to develop a socialist system of marriage. In other words, the law was aimed at liberating men and women from the bondage of the old system by conforming to a social system of development (Johnson 92).
Socialists believed that the old system was barbarian and backward. It therefore necessitated the introduction of a system, which would promote social productivity as well as the elimination of the old marriage system.
During the first year of the marriage reforms, communist leaders joined forces with the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation to study the new law. They carried out research on various issues by collecting data from different places.
They studied the marriage laws of the Soviet and border areas, Soviet Union laws, and regulations from the New Democratic Eastern European countries (Johnson 93). Importantly, the spirit of this group was in line with the past marriage regulations of the CPP, which included bringing to an end the feudal marriage system, promoting freedom in marriage, and equality between men and women, with more emphasis to the latter.
Promulgation and Implementation This occurred between 1950 and 1953 when the socialists focused on replacing the old system of marriage with the one, which they considered to be better for the people of China. Notably, the government launched propaganda that traversed the entire leadership, advocating for change (Johnson 115).
Several nongovernmental organizations joined the efforts of the state, including the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation, All-China Federation of Trade Unions, and the Central Committee of Youth League among others. The implementation period can generally be divided into two major stages; 1950-1951 and 1952-1953.
We will write a custom Essay on Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Disappointment Stage Even though the purpose of the new law was to establish a different marriage system, which was inclined towards socialism, the state mainly focused on adjusting marital relations, during the first year of its promulgation. As a result, it adopted various methods, not only to reach the masses but also to influence those who were reached.
Some of these methods included but not limited to broadcasting, art performances, public discussions, and literature (Johnson 115). The state worked towards changing the attitude of its people towards traditional marriage. By the end of the first year, tremendous strides had been made across the country.
For instance, the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation was satisfied with the fact that most Chinese youths were able to challenge the decisions made by their parents, regarding marriage. Women also became more enthusiastic about the reforms as they managed to overcome the connection with the old system of social relationships (Hershatter 5).
Due to this understanding, there was an increase in the number of marriage lawsuits as men and women advanced their marital rights. Despite the fact that the new marriage law was affecting both men and women, most of the reported cases were made by women, indicating that majority of them advocated for change.
It is believed that the first year of promulgating the law led to massive public consciousness about the law across the country, which was the goal of the communist government. However, the achievements realized during this time did not meet the expectations of women in the country and those of the sponsoring political party.
There were various problems that were observed by women’s associations like the increase in the number of women who were prosecuted under the new law (Johnson 116). There were also rising cases of women committing suicide during the first year of promulgation, with Shadong registering 1245 female suicide cases, while 10,000 were either murdered or abused in marriage in Zhongnan.
The implementation of the new marriage law turned out to be ineffective because of feudal thoughts, which remained in the minds of some leaders that were in-charge of the process. This was known to the central government from the time the idea of implementing the law was conceived.
Based on this possibility, the Communist Party of China strongly condemned misconduct among its members upon the endorsement of the new law, in April, 1950. In order to deal with such cases and minimize their occurrence, the government was concerned with training and educating all the cadres, who were in-charge of various areas in the country (Johnson 118).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, nongovernmental organizations like the Women’s Federation were equally involved in dealing with marriage cases as a way of helping the local courts in prosecuting criminals.
It is doubtless that the Communist Party of China was committed to the success of the law through all the mechanisms, which were available. For instance, the party dealt with its members who interfered with marriage freedom directly without allowing such individuals to be punished by civil and legal legislations.
During the first year of implementing the law, its success was uneven across the country as some cadres had played a significant role in eliminating traditional marriage customs while others had not taken the task seriously. While the state had taken a leading initiative in implementing the marriage reforms, it is worth noting that the process was not smooth in every region.
In some cases, the law was resisted as residents adhered to the old marriage traditions, thus interfering with marriage freedom, which was enshrined in the new law. This was however blamed on the cadres who were in-charge of the affected areas.
As a result, arranged marriages remained common, women oppression continued with an increase in the number of related suicide and homicide cases. Some of the supporters of the traditional practices remained cruel to women and became a stumbling block to their success. For example, several women were murdered as a result of abusive relationships in Huoqu County in 1950.
It was quite ironical that cadres in the affected areas took no action against perpetrators of such inhumane actions but went ahead to criticize the victims, arguing that the affected women were out of their mind, and deserved death.
Some judicial organizations were also blamed for the unsuccessful implementation of the new marriage law; they delayed sentences and gave tempered penalties. These sent a wrong message to men who did not fear serving a jail term of two years for killing their wives (Hershatter 97).
It is important to note that the Chinese traditionalists believed that marriage was a domestic affair, which was not supposed to be governed by the laws of the state. As a general principle, all marriage problems were to be addressed and settled within the family, through the leadership of senior members, related to the husband.
Consequently, the new marriage reforms initiated by the state were seen as external interference, aimed at imposing totalitarian control on the family. It was this misunderstanding that led to panic and resistance within the public domain as some people avoided the cadres.
Among other reasons, it was believed that most Chinese men were worried with the freedom for one to seek divorce as it was stated in the new marriage law. In this regard, there was total fear among men since divorce would imply lose of the daughter-in-law, property and the right to take care of children without any form of compensation.
This would therefore introduce one to eternal loneliness and total detachment from the family. Based on this analysis, it can be argued that the first year of implementing marriage reforms in China was characterized by mixed outcomes of success and failure, as there was uneven acceptance of the reforms around the country.
Urban Success Despite the uneven response during the first two years, the government remained determined to promote the success of the reforms. In 1953, it initiated investigations, aimed at revealing the implementation of the new law and the performance of cadres, through propaganda (Hershatter 332).
According to the state, there was need for cadres to change their approach in implementing the new laws by adopting educational principles rather than coercion, which was commonly observed in land reforms. As a result, this approach turned out to be successful, especially in urban areas (Johnson 138).
This was achieved through proper training of the cadres with a sole aim of equipping them with knowledge and skills, which were vital in changing the minds of people regarding marriage.
Other strategies, which were employed, included solving the problems of the masses by answering their questions, use of models, and removal of the offender’s name from the public. Moreover, the authorities focused on voluntary participation in propaganda programs as compared to compulsory involvement by the government.
By September 1954, significant achievements had been realized in Beijing, including a drop in cases of women abuse, as masses accepted marriage freedom and denounced trading of marriage (Diamant 178). High level of this acceptance was registered among urban residents, teachers, and university students. On the other hand, partial success was reported among industrial workers and people with rural background.
With regard to children, most of them were not confident enough to make independent marriage decisions (Johnson 139). Despite this success, most girls believed that money was the foundation of love.
They therefore put into consideration the economic status of the man before accepting marriage. Nonetheless, the issue of inequality remained a major problem as it involved the entire society, thus calling for more time in order to influence more people.
Marriage problems Before the success of marriage reforms was declared, Civil Affairs Bureau of the People’s Government of Beijing reported a wide range of problems, which were facing the reform process in September 1954. In fact, problems related to feudal customs were common in 1960s, as cadres and parents got involved in the marriages of their children.
Additionally, buying and selling of marriages became common as the bride’s family requested for monetary gifts and expensive feasts before accepting the marriage proposal (Johnson 150). Farmers were also neglected as potential husbands since they lacked enough cash.
Most authorities argued that these problems were as a result of discontinuity of the marriage law movement. Many leaders opted for regular propaganda education and government inspections in order to maintain the spirit of freedom in marriage.
Conclusion In general, promulgation of the new marriage law in 1950s was the first step that was undertaken by the CCP’s revolution agenda. Importantly, the transition between the customs of the state and the thoughts of people could not be achieved easily. It required constant effort in changing the perception of the masses.
Despite the fact that the marriage campaign across the country ended in 1953, investigations, which were carried out later revealed that the transition required a longer period of time, than three years (Diamant 209). Notably, the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s was partially successful.
This was mainly based on the approach, which was adopted by the state in turning the masses away from their marriage traditions. Importantly, the fear of divorce dominated the resistance of men towards marriage freedom, enshrined in the new marriage law. As a result, most of the efforts towards freedom in marriage were fruitless.
Works Cited Diamant, Neil. Revolutionizing the Family: Politics, Love, and Divorce in Urban and Rural China, 1949-1968. California: University of California Press, 2000. Print.
Hershatter, Gail. The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China’s Collective Past. California: University of California Press, 2011. Print.
Johnson, Kay. Women, the Family, and Peasant Revolution in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.
The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres) is located in France. The Cathedral is traditionally discussed as an example of the French High Gothic style, and the history of this building is associated with the 12th -13th centuries. The Cathedral of Chartres is famous for its remarkable architectural structure and unique stained glass panels and windows.
The Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres is one of the most interesting examples of the Cathedral’s stained glasses. The window consists of two parts which are dated from different centuries.
The window can be observed at the south side of the Cathedral, and its composition is made from twenty-four specific segments.
The upper part of the window was made during the 12th century, and the researchers accentuate it could be located in the earlier Romanesque building destroyed by the fire when the other part of the composition was created after the Cathedral’s reconstruction in order to meet the requirements of the Gothic style.
The research on the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres was traditionally conducted in relation to the problem of the glass or window reconstruction with references to the peculiarities of the Romanesque and Gothic styles.
The most important investigations on the issue of the chronology and characteristic features of the glass design are developed by Frankl and Connick in the 20th century. The most interesting works of the 21st century are provided by Harris, Klein, and Horst Janson and Anthony Janson.
Harris focuses on the Belle Verriere Window in the context of the history of the stained glass; Kleiner, Horst Janson and Anthony Janson present general discussions of the design of the Cathedral of Chartres and its windows from the perspective of the history of art and design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The specific features of the stained glasses in relation to the play of light and shadow with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres are discussed in the article “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety” written by Charles Connick and first published in 1932.
The researcher pays attention to such characteristics of stained glasses as the possibility to change colors under the influence of sunlight. Thus, various lights affect the changes and vibrations in colors and tones, accentuating this or that part of the composition.
The public’s perception of the central figure of the Virgin Mary can change according to different lights. In his work, Connick also emphasizes the importance of flanking buttresses for creating the complex picture. Connick’s article is important for discussing the art impact of the stained glasses containing the definite religious meaning with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres1.
In his article ‘The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral” which was published in 1963, Paul Frankl focuses on the particular features of the glass and windows’ reconstruction provided in the Cathedral during several centuries.
The reconstruction was organized in several stages, and it was caused by the fact of destroying the Romanesque cathedral in 1194. The researcher states that only four windows could be used in the further design of the cathedral which was worked out according to the principles of the Gothic style. The Belle Verriere Window was saved as the part of the Romanesque apse, and it was used in the design of the Gothic Cathedral2.
Providing the complete chronological history of using the stained glasses in the Cathedral of Chartres, Frankl also concentrates on the history of Belle Verriere Window’s reconstruction. This glass was inserted in Lancet 14 in the south part of the Cathedral.
Regarding the window’s design, the researcher focuses on the fact of adding such components to the glass as kneeling angels and the pictures of Temptations of Christ in order to respond to the significant dimensions of the traditional Gothic window. Frankl also pays attention to the peculiarities of combining the principles of Romanesque style with the elements of the Gothic architecture and design3.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The idea to discuss the stained glasses not only as the objects of art and religion but also as the things depicting the philosophical notions is developed by Harris in her article “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century” which was published in 2008.
The researcher analyzes all the examples of the stained glasses in the Cathedral of Chartres concentrating on the correlation of their symbolic significance with the aspects of Heidegger’s phenomenological philosophy. From this point, the Belle Verriere Window can be discussed as the image within the image which has the features of the cultic traditions.
The conclusions made by Harris are based on the analysis of the elements of the window’s central part created in the 12th century and of the surrounding components made by the masters of the thirteenth century. The researcher’s work is significant for discussing the religious and philosophical meaning of this piece of art with references to the history of creating its later components which depict the definite rituals4.
In spite of the fact today a lot of information about the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window’s design is presented in the works oriented to the history of the Western art in general, the authors of these books provide the important details on the window’s design with references to the history of the stained glass and based on the proper research in the field.
Thus, in his work, Kleiner focuses on the effects of flying buttresses and such elements of the design as the depiction of the young Virgin Mary on the red background with the dove of the Holy Spirit as the variant of interpreting the tradition5. In their turn, Horst Janson and Anthony Janson concentrate on the elements of painting with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres as painting with glass and painting on glass6.
To conclude, it is important to note that the mentioned researches and works do not provide the complete discussion of the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres in relation to all the aspects and details of the object.
That is why, it is necessary to work out the further research in order to discuss the issues associated with the point that the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres is the culturally and religiously significant art of design.
From this point, it is possible to follow the approach used by Anne Harris in her research and examine the components of the window’s pictures as the objects of the religious tradition and cultic elements with references to their colors and composition.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the fact of combining the elements of the Romanesque and Gothic style to present the complex composition of the Belle Verriere Window should be discussed from the perspective of adding not only new elements to the design but also new meanings to the whole composition.
Bibliography Connick, Charles J. “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety”. Stained Glass Bulletin 27, no. 5 (1932): 1-6.
Frankl, Paul. “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”. The Art Bulletin 45, no. 4 (1963): 301-322.
Harris, Anne F. “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century”. Different Visions: A Journal of New Perspectives on Medieval Art 1, no. 9 (2008): 1-30.
Janson, Horst Woldemar, and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art: The Western Tradition. USA: Prentice Hall Professional, 2004.
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. USA: Cengage Learning, 2008.
Footnotes Charles J. Connick, “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety”, Stained Glass Bulletin 27, no. 5 (1932).
Paul Frankl, “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”, The Art Bulletin 45, no. 4 (1963), 319.
Paul Frankl, “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”, 319.
Anne F. Harris, “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century”, Different Visions: A Journal of New Perspectives on Medieval Art 1, no. 9 (2008).
Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective (USA: Cengage Learning, 2008), 349.
Horst Woldemar Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art: The Western Tradition (USA: Prentice Hall Professional, 2004).
History of Somali Piracy Crises in 2009 Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Somali has stirred up and attracted global interventions to address various problems that have a common origin. Among many problems resulted from Somalia piracy, its coastline is more pronounced. Case problems do not give answers but gather different opinions, which should be integrated to come up with the best remedy.
The paper will outline two forms of case problems in relation to how a natural resource would dynamically relate with human activity. This will show how different interactions would result in highly negative impact both nationally and globally.
Case problem could be in the form of a given situation that would require different opinions. Consequently, it could be in the form of a report prepared and presented to be reviewed by a government official to see its relevance and seek for possible solutions (Gardner et al, 2008).
Somali piracy crises in 2009 led to devastating effects in different sectors both nationally and globally. The case study is a typical example of the interaction and dependency that exist between human activities and natural environment. Despite the fact that humans are in control of the environment, their interaction can result in impacts that cannot be predicted.
The Somali coastline has many shores so fishing industry is well pronounced in the region. Political instability in 1991 was associated with unregulated fishing and dumping of waste along the coastline by foreign states. Uncontrolled fishing was associated with trespassing and increased minor crime rates later transformed into major piracy attacks (Beeton et al, 2006).
The piracy crises affected social, political and economic factors in Somalia and other states. Military deployment by twenty four countries was done with the aim of suppressing piracy. The most directly affected organizations adopted tolerance approach.
For example, shipping factories avoided the routes that had a high risk of piracy. Ships sailed at a higher speed when around Somali, that was a strategy associated with increased expenditure on fuel.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The London conference held to tackle piracy issue considered collaborative approaches in reduction of the threat. Long-term solutions discussed included international interventions that would donate funds to ensure that state boundaries would be under tight security (Daly, 2007).
The threat of security was specific on the Shabab terrorists that had both long-term and short-term impacts on the entire world. Recently, Kenya has succeeded in suppression of the threat that involved military action deployment in Kismayu where the Shabab culture is rooted.
Eritrea has been reprimanded by the neighbor states due to the postulations that it supplied Somali with weapons (Garnaut, 2008). Interventions should be addressed towards reducing the influence of Eritrea and boosting the efforts of Kenya and Somali in overcoming the Shabab.
Food insecurity as a result of maltreatment from the Shabab claimed lives of about 80000 residents through famine and drought. International organizations have stepped in with relief aid for the victims. It should, however, be noted that this form of relief should not be overemphasized so as to reduce dependency.
Sustainable and long-term interventions like income generating activities need to be encouraged among the residents so as to solve the problem permanently. In the business field, interventions would include adoption of international monetary fund.
Credit facilities allocation in Somali would positively impact many fields both locally and globally. Collaboration with pirates would involve diplomatic actions that would settle the long dated dispute between Somali and foreign states. Adoption of this strategy would mean that Somali would voluntary stop piracy. Consequently, the foreign states would stop dumping waste along Somali coastline (Daly, 2007).
References Beeton, RJS, Buckley, KI, Jones, GJ, Morgan, D, Reichelt, RE
A History of the Cuban Revolution Essay custom essay help
The Cuban Revolution was an organized revolt led by Fidel Castro. The main reason behind the revolution was to overthrow the dictatorial regime of Fulgencio Batista. Fidel and his army men initiated the revolution in the year 1952. This was after Fulgencio Batista seized power following an election.
Fulgencio had been the country’s president from 1940 to 1952. The president decided to cancel the 1952 elections after realizing that he would lose. Batista decided to grab power and remained the country’s leader until the end of the revolution in December 1958 (Thomas, 2008).
After decades of unemployed and poor leadership, the people of the Cuba wanted their country to be democratic and successful. Some of these people included Fidel Castro, Ruz Raul Castro, Alberto Bayo and Che Guevara.
Fidel Castro and his men attacked various camps and cities to overthrow Batista’s regime. Throughout the revolution period, Castro used both large and small armies against Batista’s armies.
In 1958, Batista and his team realized that Fidel was definitely winning the battle. They decided to loot everything and fled. After seven years, Fidel and his team continued to fight without surrender. In early 1959, Guevara and his men captured the city of Havana.
It was victory for the revolutionists thereby making the country free. Historians have argued that the revolution was necessary because it brought new changes and better governance in the country. The revolution helped the people fight a dictatorial regime that had oppressed them for years (Chomsky, 2010).
The Cuban Revolution resulted in new governance and management in the country. There are certain good aspects realized at the end of the revolution. On the other hand, the revolution resulted in certain bad aspects as highlighted in the discussion below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Castro became the president, there were new reforms and progressive ideas that improved the living conditions of the people. The Communist Government decided to introduce some new laws. These laws provided equality for women and Black Cubans.
The government also improved medical facilities and communication in the country. Historians have agreed that the end of the revolution brought new aspects that favored the population of Cuba (Thomas, 2008). For instance, the government improved the quality of health by constructing more medical institutions and facilities.
With improved education, more professionals were able to provide quality health services in the country. The revolution marked the end of inequality and discrimination in Cuba. The people become free after the revolution. The people became aware of their liberties and rights.
The president emphasized on good foreign policies for countries in Africa. The African foreign policy helped different countries in the continent gain their independence from the colonialists.
It is acknowledgeable that the new government improved the quality of education in Cuba. As well, the level of prostitution decreased due to new policies and creation of new jobs. These aspects made Cuba a successful nation than it had been during the time of Batista (Chomsky, 2010).
On the other hand, the revolution resulted in several bad aspects. For instance, many people died during the period of the revolution. There was no freedom because of the insecurity created by the revolution.
After several years, the Communist government dishonored the rights of Cuban people. The other negative aspect of the revolution was the lack of democracy. The new regime became autocratic thereby limiting the rights and democratic liberties of the Cuban people.
We will write a custom Essay on A History of the Cuban Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Chomsky, A. (2010). A History of the Cuban Revolution. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Thomas, H. (2008). Cuba or The Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Da Capo Press.
The Facts about Religion and Its Historical Development Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Religion is the worship and belief in a supernatural power, especially a god or gods. Different people belong to different religions depending on their beliefs and ideologies. Most of the religions practiced in the world today began over 2,000 years ago. From the course materials, various ‘facts’ have been identified about religion and its historical development.
The first fact about religions during the pre-1500 period is that they formed an important part of human culture. During the period, religion and culture were two elements that united people in different regions. People depended on gods for revelation, healing and spiritual guidance (Lecture Notes). They did not visit a doctor or specialist for healing or revelation.
The second fact is that no one can judge whether a given religion has the right beliefs or not. All the major religions have their own unique beliefs and faiths. The outstanding fact is that human beings cannot decide whether the views, teachings and beliefs of the religions are wrong or right.
This explains why there are differences in these major religions. The other important discovery is that members of a particular religion place their faith in that religion alone (Lecture Notes). This fact has made religions very complicated to understand. Human beings are free to make their own decisions about faith and beliefs without the influence of other people.
The third fact about religions during the traditional world is obtained from the book The World: A Brief History: Combined Volume by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto. During the period, most of the civilizations were promoted by these ancient religions. During the traditional world, religious practices brought people together thereby promoting development.
This made it easier for them to work together and promote social development. Architects wanted to build long-lasting churches and mosques. As a result, the world began to civilize slowly by slowly (Fernandez-Armesto 52). Most of the ancient civilizations are linked to the people’s religious practices. These religions led to the establishment of modern systems of education and leadership.
The other fact from the book is that all the major world religions began during or before the Traditional World. These religious groups have retained their religious practices and ideologies for very many years. During the time, people from different religious groups could not coexist freely.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals belonging to different religions habited different geographical regions during the traditional period (Fernandez-Armesto 57). The traditional world occupied the entire world until 1500 when things began to change. The traditional world was characterized by slow growth, lack of communication and poor living conditions. The world was also isolated due to geographical distances.
The BBC website states another fact that Christianity was the world’s biggest religion and faith during the pre-1500 period. The website goes further to say that the religion was founded on the views and teaching of Jesus Christ. Majority of Christians believed that Christ showed them the way towards eternal justice and peace (“Religion” par. 2).
Christians believe in the existence of one Supreme God, but in Him there are three elements: God the Son, the Father and the Holy Ghost. The believers worshiped in special houses called synagogues. The early Christians considered the Bible as the Holy Book. The Bible consisted of the New and Old Testament. This has remained the same even in the modern and present world.
Works Cited Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. The World – A Brief History, Combined Volume. New York: Pearson, 2009. Print.
Religions 2012. Web.
Abu Dhabi Municipality Information Systems Essay essay help free
Management information systems are ways through which organizations utilize technology to manage workers and make appropriate decisions (Oz, 2009). They assist managers to collect and analyze data on diverse issues. They enable managers to obtain information on customers, staff, sales and production among others.
Information systems also assist organizations to control all business processes. Some of the well-known information systems are supply chain, customer relations, project management and human capital management information systems (Laudon, Price
Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry Essay college admission essay help
Executive Summary Suncoast Gold Macadamias Limited is the leading macadamia product processing company in Australia. In an effort to maximise profit, the firm has incorporated the concept of product diversification. As a result, it has managed to develop a strong product portfolio.
On average, the company’s annual turnover amounts to AUD $ 30 million. Over the years, the firm has nurtured a strong base with regard to tangible and intangible resources.
Suncoast Gold Macadamia Limited has also developed numerous unique capabilities and core competencies that have contributed to considerable improvement in the firm’s competitive advantage. In a bid to deal with the problem of climate change, it is critical for the firm to formulate programs that would minimise its weakness with regard to decline in nut production.
As its target investment destination, Saudi Arabia presents numerous opportunities for the firm to exploit as illustrated by the country’s characteristics such as the wage rate, population size, economic growth, exchange rate, the political environment, and government policy on trade.
The firm will be required to develop effective competitive strategies to deal with the prevailing competition in the market to penetrate the market successfully. Some of the modes of entry that the firm can consider include sole-ownership, joint ventures, and exporting.
Of the three options, exporting is the most appropriate entry point into the Saudi Arabian market. In a bid to be successful in its market entry, the firm should conduct comprehensive market research to understand the market dynamics of Saudi Arabia. Upon entering the market successfully, the firm should consider adopting foreign direct investment.
Introduction Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited is a public company that operates within the Australian macadamia industry. The company was founded in 1985 and it operates as a cooperative.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its core line of business entails production, processing, and supplying of high quality macadamias. Since its inception, the firm has been very successful due to incorporation of effective business and corporate level strategies (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
In an effort to attain its profit maximisation objective, the firm has adopted market expansion as one of its business level strategies. Suncoast Gold Macadamias Limited has successfully managed to establish itself in both the local and international market.
Currently, the firm ranks as the global leader in the macadamia industry. Despite its presence in the international market, there are some economies where the firm has not penetrated.
One of these countries is Saudi Arabia, which is currently an emerging economy according to business scholars. The purpose of this assignment is to analyse the market entry modes that Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited can incorporate in its international market entry strategy.
Ownership Over the past 28 years, Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has undergone significant growth from being a small business establishment to becoming an international leader in the macadamia industry.
Currently, the firm has a substantial annual turnover of approximately AUD $ 30 million. More than AUD $ 21 million of the firm’s total sales are generated from exports, while the domestic market only accounts for AUD $ 9 million (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
Tangible resources Since its inception, the firm’s management has been committed towards establishing a strong competitive advantage. One source of the firm’s competitiveness is effective nut processing technology. The firm has implemented modern nut processing facilities.
We will write a custom Essay on Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has been conducting major plant upgrade by integrating state-of-the-art technology. In 2012, the firm purchased two machines of the most modern sorting technologies in the industry, which significantly enhanced the firm’s competitiveness.
For example, its output increased with 50 per cent (Pilcher 2012). In a bid to improve its competitiveness with regard to plant technology, the firm has also purchased a multi-scan machine.
The machine has made separation of bad and good nuts more easily in addition to separating nuts based on their weight and colour before cracking. The firm has also established a supplier network of 135 suppliers to ensure that its products are easily accessed in its domestic market.
Intangible resources In addition to tangible resources, Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has accumulated various intangible resources. The management team appreciates that the firm’s success is greatly dependent on the effectiveness and efficiency of its human capital.
Employee development is one of the elements that the firm has taken into account and to achieve this, the firm has formulated a staff training and education program. The program aims at imparting new knowledge to employees.
In addition, the firm is committed to nurturing a strong relationship with its customers, suppliers, and employees (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
In its domestic and international market, the firm has nurtured a strong positive reputation due to its operational efficiency, provision of high quality services, and development of an all-inclusive client service, which has contributed towards development in the level of customer loyalty.
Capabilities The firm has developed numerous macadamia brands to appeal the diverse customer product needs. The firm has integrated the concept of value addition. The firm supplies different variety of macadamia products such as macadamia oil, chocolate coated, macadamia shortbread, and macadamia nuts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The firm has also developed sufficient capability with regard to packaging. Additionally, the firm ensures that its brands are packaged according to customer specifications. The firm has also developed the capability with regard to supplying fresh and high quality macadamia (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
Core competencies The firm’s success in an industry that is characterised y intense competition has arisen from development of effective core competences. One of the firm’s core competences relates to the provision of high quality macadamias. The firm ranks as the first macadamia company to attain internationally recognised quality within the industry.
The firm is also effective in quality management, which it has attained through assimilation of effective quality management systems. Suncoast Gold Macadamias core competencies also emanate from the high rate of innovation that it undertakes.
Its innovative ability has played a critical role in enhancing the firm’s competitive advantage. The firm utilises macadamia waste products by generating energy and thus it has managed to minimise the cost energy necessary for its operation.
Weaknesses The major source of the firm’s weakness is the high degree of susceptibility to nature. The firm has experienced a poor season due to bad weather over the past few years (The Australian Business Journal 2011). Bad weather adversely affects the firm’s profitability due to decline in the volume of production.
However, with numerous environmental conservation measures being undertaken by the government and other environmental stakeholder, the firm expects that climatic conditions will improve considerably.
Location advantage Saudi Arabia’s economy is mainly oil-based. The country has the largest proven oil reserves globally. Its rich oil reserves have played an important role in the country’s economic growth and development. In 2011, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was estimated to be $676.7 billion, which is an increment from its $635.6 billion in 2010 (Index Mundi 2012).
By the end of 2011, it was estimated that the country would undergo a real GDP growth rate of more than 6.5 per cent. The country’s total population is estimated to be 28 million. Additionally, the country has a relatively low rate of unemployment. By the end of 2011, unemployment rate stood at 10.9 per cent (Index Mundi 2012).
The country’s snapshot shows that there is a high probability of Suncoast Gold Macadamias succeeding in its profit maximisation by entering in Saudi Arabia. The high rate of economic growth coupled with the relatively low rate of unemployment means that the country will experience an increment in per capita income.
Ultimately, there will be an increment in consumer’s purchasing power. The country’s high population means that the firm can increase its customer base by identifying relevant target customer group. The attractiveness of the country is also enhanced by Saudi Arabia’s recent ascent to the World Trade Organisation. Its ascent will present an opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias to increase its customer base.
Customers Saudi Arabians are becoming more concerned with consumption of healthy food products. This transformation has arisen from an increment in cases of diabetes and obesity problems amongst the old and young. A report by Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health showed that the rate of diabetes in the country is approximately 30 per cent.
Some of the factors that have been attributed to cause diabetes include increased introduction of western diets to the country, adoption of sedentary lifestyles, and growth in the number of supermarkets. Growth in the level of awareness regarding the health risk of such food products will contribute towards change in consumer purchasing behaviour.
Therefore, the shift in consumer purchasing habits presents a high opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias attracting more customers. Saudi Arabia is also characterised by a large number of middle and high-income customers and educated customers.
This customer category is the largest consumer of diet products such as the macadamia products produced by Suncoast Gold Macadamias. These customers are more concerned with the nutritional value and quality of the food products in their purchasing patterns (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d).
Politics In 2011, the country experienced an increment in calls for speedy reforms with regard to governance mainly from intellectuals. However, the country has not experienced major incidences of political instability in the recent past compared to other Arab countries, which experienced the effects of Arab Spring in 2011.
The political stability being experienced in Saudi Arabia presents a good opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamia to enter the market. According to Klug (2006), a country’s attractiveness is increased by the prevailing peace and tranquillity due to political stability.
Government policy (taxes and tariffs) The Saudi Arabian government is greatly concerned with enhancing the country’s economic growth. Promoting foreign investment is one of the strategies that the government has adopted. A number of measures such as the abolition of taxes and trade restrictions have been implemented in an effort to foster foreign investment.
The government has designed the country’s economy based on free enterprise and thus no limitations on imports and exports of goods and services. This aspect means that Saudi Arabia has a favourable business environment for foreign firms (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d.).
Wage rate For a considerable duration, the Saudi Arabian government had not imposed any minimum wage for employees. However, in an effort to deal with unemployment, the government recently instituted SAR 3,000 as the minimum wage (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d).
Exchange rate The Saudi Arabian Riyal is relatively stable to most major currencies such as the Australian dollar. The current exchange rate of the Riyal to the Australian dollar is AUD $ 1 to 3.7 Saudi Riyal. This rate of exchange will make it possible for the firm to venture into the Saudi Arabian market more cost effectively for the firm will require a few AUD dollars to enter the market.
Competitor analysis In its operations, Suncoast Gold Macadamias will face intense competition from other confectionary companies operating in Saudi Arabia. Some of these companies include:
Al Nukaly International Trading Company: -This firm has been in operation in Saudi Arabia for a number of decades, since its inception in 1932. In its operation, the firm has developed a strong workforce of approximately 100 employees.
Bahadi Company: – Since its inception, this firm has established itself effectively in the international market. Currently, the firm has established an effective operational base in Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and Africa.
Anwar Al-Mustafa: – The firm was established in 2000 and has over the past decade managed to penetrate the nuts industry in Saudi Arabia. It has also managed to develop a substantial financial base with its turnover estimated to be US $ 0.5 million.
Competitor threats The above-mentioned competitors pose a number of threats to Suncoast Gold Macadamias. One source of threat arises from the fact that these firms have incorporated the concept of product diversification in their operations. Some of the products that these firms deal with include nuts, dried fruits, coffee, spices, chocolate, nuts, bakery, candy, and crackers.
Consequently, the firms have managed to offer consumers a wide range of products. Ultimately, competitors have managed to develop a substantial level of customer loyalty. Therefore, Suncoast Gold Macadamias will experience a significant challenge in developing a substantial market base.
Suncoast Gold Macadamias opportunities Despite the intense competition in Saudi Arabia, Suncoast Gold Macadamias has a considerable competitive edge that will contribute to its success. One source of the firm’s competitiveness relates to its ability to produce high quality macadamia products. The firm has incorporated the concept of quality assurance in an effort to ensure a high level of food security.
Considering the increase in the degree of health consciousness amongst the consumers, there is a high probability of Suncoast Gold Macadamia attracting customers. This arises from the fact that its products have high nutritional values.
For example, macadamia oil is not in any way associated with the rise in cases of obesity. Additionally, the high population in Saudi Arabia also presents an opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias to increase its sales revenue by employing aggressive marketing.
Modes of market entry Firms seeking to venture the international market should consider making effective strategic decisions on the mode of market entry to adopt (Agarwal
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Price and Quantity Adjustments for Australian Tourism and Hospitality Products Report a level english language essay help
Executive summary The Australian tourism and hospitality industry has continued to grow tremendously. Currently, the sector contributes significantly to the country’s GDP. Despite global threats such as terrorism and economic depression, the sector has continued to bolster impressive results.
However, with the growing competition from other countries such as South Africa, USA, and China, many factors need to be considered to gain a competitive edge. Price and quantity demanded are the principal guidelines to setting prices of facilities in this sector. As such, the country should endeavour to provide competitive prices as well as the right quantity to its domestic and international tourists.
Price and Quantity Adjustments for Australian Tourism and Hospitality Products
The impact on the market for Australian tourism products of a decrease in the price of tourism products in the United States
A decrease in the price of United States tourism products will have a significant effect on the demand for Australian tourism products. This will affect the demand curve of Australian tourism products. This phenomenon can be best explained using the traditional demand and supply curve.
Figure 1: Demand and Supply of Hospitality Products 10 50 100 150 200 250
Assuming the graph is representative of the current Australian tourism demand and supply trend, we can conclude that the quantity demanded of hospitality products is 100 units at a price of 15. This is, therefore, our Australian market equilibrium.
However, it is generally accepted that marketing, technological advancements, and pricing policies of competitors can easily destabilise market equilibrium. Nada and Sarath notes that since the United States and Australian tourism industry share a lot, any changes in market activities in one region, easily affect the other party1. By reducing the prices of its products, the United States will attract more tourist, local, and international, to use its affordable facilities. This will consequently reduce the demand for Australian tourism products, which will be viewed by many tourists as too expensive. In this case, services become substitutes for one another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the effect is price motivated, there will be a movement along the demand curve, but not a shift of the demand curve. The quantity demanded would thus, drop from 100 units to say 50 units. This drop will represent a downward movement along the demand curve.
These changes will influence quantity exchanged and price differently. To retain its tourism market, the Australian marketing authority may step in to reduce prices of its facilities. According to Singh, Australia being “one of the leading tourist destinations,” this option presents a good opportunity for curbing loss of market2. Otherwise, the Australian quantity will reduce. However, according to Tourism Australia, the reduction will not be very significant considering that international tourism only represents 27% of the country’s tourism earnings.3
The impact on the market for hotel rooms if the price of airline flights increases
Increase in flight prices affects the demand for travel negatively. Many people, even those who had planned for their trips, find it easy cancelling them when travel prices go up. In fact, air travel and accommodation demands are complimentary goods. Any change in the price of such a good affects the price of its complimentary good.
Figure 2: Demand for Accommodation
Increase in the cost of flight will affect the demand curve; it will shift to the left. As shown in figure 2, an increase in the cost of air travel leads to a decrease in the demand for accommodation. Dwyer
Foreigners Changing China Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Historical overview of China
The influence of foreigners on industrial growth in China
Introduction Most researchers are making attempts to link the industrial transformation in China to the developments of the 19th and 20th centuries. The most critical question to ask about the growth of industries in China is the country’s growth with the relations it had with other countries like Japan, the Soviet Union, The United States, and the United Kingdom among other nations.
The history of the transformation of China in various fields can be traced from the early years of the 19th century. The transformation of industries in China cannot be explored without talking about the role that was played by a substantial number of countries. There is a substantial amount of historical data that points to the fact that the course of development in China was greatly shaped by the activities of foreign countries.
Among these countries are the Great Britain, the United States, Japan, and the former Soviet Union. In this paper, it is argued that the growth of industries in China in the 19th and 20th centuries was significantly influenced by both positive and negative relations between China and other countries.
This paper explores the transformation of industries in China between 1830 and 1990. This period denotes a cut across two centuries, the 19th century when there were a lot of political developments in China and the 20th century, when the political upheaval was patterned by the pursuance of economic reforms that later saw China’s industrial triumph at the global level.
The paper centres on the influence of foreign countries, in particular the political and economic influence of foreign countries in the growth of industry in China for the mentioned period.
Historical overview of China The question that ought to be asked is how China has managed to attain the prevailing level of industrial growth and to what level other countries like Japan played a role in shaping industrial growth in China. As observed in the introduction, China is a country that has had a long history dating as early as the 16th century.
However, the current l level of industrial development in China can be traced from the 19th century. China had a lot of political issues in the 18th and 19th century, which impacted upon the development path of the country. The most critical thing to note is that China has had relations with different countries since the 17th century. Therefore, the interaction of these countries with China must have, in one way or another, impacted upon the industrial development in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One important element in the development history of China is the age of fragility that was experienced from the later years of the 18th century into the entire 19th century. The historical antecedents of the 20th century denote that China made contacts with a substantial number of countries, which shaped the political and economic developments in the country. It is important to note that the change in the political set-up of China in the mid of the 20th century is the main landmark in the industrial transformation of China.
According to Hays (para. 1), China attracted a number of foreigners in the ancient years, who later came to influence the pattern of industrial development. The ancient years denote the period between the 17th century and the 20th century. The contact between the Chinese and the British was not only based on colonial relations, but also on economic conducts with British companies. This also applies to other countries that began relating to China later.
The birth of the Chinese economy and industrial sector began with the penetration of Britain in China. The British staged its concession in one of the most commercially developed towns of Shanghai in the year 1842. This was followed by a French concession, which was set up in the year 1847.
Russians, Germans and the Japanese came in later, although they all came in before the end of the 19th century. By 1930, the population and industry in Shanghai had grown greatly, making it the largest trading town in Asia. This implies that the town had the capacity to attract a substantial number of foreigners from the Asian region and beyond, who were interested in trading activities (Hays para. 2-4).
The influence of foreigners on industrial growth in China One of the main developments in China that has given China a global attention is the rate at which Industrial transformation has taken place in the country. As observed earlier, China, just like a number of the influential economies in the world, has not grown devoid of interactions and influence from other countries.
While a substantial number of historical texts seem to focus on the comparison between the path of industrial growth of China and other developed countries, there seems to be a minimal number of texts focusing on the nature of changes in China’s industry from the 18th century. However, there are a number of historians who have focused on the factors that have shaped the economic changes in China over time (Bickers 29).
According to Bickers (29), the contemporary developments in China are highly connected to the recent and the ancient patterns of relations between China and other countries, for instance Britain. The question that ought to be asked is to what extent foreigners impacted on the changes in the industry in China from the early years of the 19th century to the industrial orientation in the later years of the 20th century.
We will write a custom Essay on Foreigners Changing China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the most critical parts in the explanation of the economic changes in China is its contact with Britain. During the later years of the 18th and the entire 19th century, China was marked by a lot of territorial wars. The main areas of interest in these wars are that they depict the nature of relations between China and other countries. Between 1854 and 1950, a substantial number of Britons settled in China (Parsons 3).
The Britons settled in Shanghai, which later became one of the earliest centres to urbanize. The royal navy was bestowed with the responsibility of guarding Shanghai during the 32 years of British colonial control over Shanghai. The presence of the British in the country encouraged the growth of trade activities in the country, and by effect transformed the minds of the Chinese population that had been highly involved in war.
The Anglo Chinese trade is argued to have played a significant role in shaping the trading environment in China, which in turn encouraged the growth of industry and development in China. Trade was accompanied with the setting up of business bases and industries (Bickers 30-31).
The other critical areas in the history of industrial change in China can be traced in the activities of the 1920s and 1930s. This period is marked by the search for a world order after the end of the Second World War. During this period China was still under Maoism. Under the philosophy of Maoism, China went through a period of economic standstill.
While the size of industrialization in China has expanded greatly, beating the size of industry and economic magnitude in Japan, it still remains evident that Japan developed earlier than China. This is justified by the activities of the 20th century. Japan is often termed as one of the main aggressor countries in the Second World War.
The most vital question to ask is why Japan was termed as the cause of the Second World War. An exploration of history denotes the conquest of China by Japan in the early 1930s. China was rich in natural resources, like iron ore other minerals, which are vital for industrial development. The most critical area to observe in the conquest is the impact of the conquest of Japan and the effect it had on the industrial change in China (LaFleur 84-85).
According to Wong (60), China had a number of traditional industries that had prevailed for a long period of time. However, it is important to note that the influence of Japan on industrial growth in China can be explored from two perspectives. These include: the issue of destabilization of the ancient industry through the conquest and the encouragement of transformation from the traditional industry to modern industry.
Irrespective of the approach that is taken, there is a resounding linkage between the industrial transformation in China and the relations between China and Japan. Most of the traditional industries in China were agricultural-based. Prior to the conquest of 1937 by Japan, traditional industries were vital elements of the economy of most of the Chinese provinces. However, after the conquest, a significant number of changes were put in place in China.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreigners Changing China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The realization of the country that more profitable and flexible industries could be developed in China became real. Modern craft industries were built out of the influence of the Japanese in the country. The conquest of China and the operations of the Japanese in the country necessitated a transformation from an agricultural market oriented economy to an agrarian commercial economy.
The commercialization feature was quite critical in the industrialization of the country. In spite of the defeat of the Japanese and the subversion of the conquest, the economy of China continued to commercialize, with the scale of the prevailing industries being broadened (Wong 67).
Apart from the involvement with China in the post-world war I period, Japan had also engaged with China in the late 1800s. The Japanese are said to have played a critical role in the development of Dalian. The Japanese took over the development of the town from the Russians.
This town was a major fishing centre in China that prevailed up to the later years of the 19th century. The Russians had begun by transforming Dalian to make it one of the deep-water ports in China (Weisl 5). By the 1920s, Shanghai, which was one of the largest industrial centres and towns in Asia, was already receiving a large number of foreigners besides the British who had settled in the region earlier.
The country received numbers of foreigners ranging into tens of thousands, who had fled away from the developments of the First World War. The European refugees were running away from the Nazism in Europe. The presence of such a population in Shanghai was a mark of the expansion of trade and industries arising from the commercial activities of each group of refugees who were residing in the town (Hays para. 20).
The main area of focus in the historical development of industry in China is the period of rapid industrial growth that was witnessed since the mid of the 20th century. Several questions are often posed about the approach of China to industrial growth and the level at which foreign nationals have played in China’s industrial change.
No one can doubt the observation that China is one of the countries whose industry transformed at a high speed in the last half of the twentieth century. However, a substantial number of people argue that the phase of the industrial revolution in China from the mid of the 20th century was largely based on the self-realization of the country and the subsequent implementation of effective policies by the Chinese government.
This observation is based on the fact that the policy of China during this period isolated the participation of foreigners in the local economy of China. This cancels out the issue of the influence of foreigners in the growth of the industry. Nonetheless, the foreign influence must be applauded for influencing industrial growth in China before the period of rapid industrialization (Nayar 19).
Conclusion China is one of the countries in the world that has had a long history of political and economic development. The influence of foreigners in industrial change and growth in China can be traced from the movement of the British in China. While the influence of foreigners in the growth of industry in China is appreciated, the most critical part in the history of China’s industrial transformation drives away the direct participation of foreigners.
Works Cited Bickers, Robert. “China’s Age of Fragility.” History Today 61.3(2011): 29-36. Print.
Hays, Jeffrey. Foreigners And Chinese In The 19th And 20th Centuries, 2008. Web.
LaFleur, Robert A. China: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.
Nayar, Baldev. “The Geopolitics of China’s Economic Miracle.” China Report 40.1(2004): 19-47. Print.
Parsons, Timothy. The British Imperial Century: 1815-1914 : A World History Perspective. Lanham [u.a.: Rowman
The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the life of Sir Francis Walsingham
Work of Sir Francis Walsingham
Walsinghan and the development of intelligence
Introduction The growth of nationalism in most countries and the establishment of national intelligence systems are highly based on the work of Sir Francis Walsingham. The field of intelligence has undergone several changes due to changes in the available modes of information flow, storage and communication. In spite of this, there are still a substantial number of pointers that show that the contribution of early resource persons is still valid in the contemporary exercise of intelligence.
This is a pointer to the fact that early contributions in intelligence were significant since they act as a basis on which the contemporary modalities of intelligence are built. Francis Walsingham is one of the earliest people in history who contributed greatly to the development of intelligence (“The New Encyclopaedia Britannica” 783).
Walsingham was born in the year 1532 and died in the year 1590. The question that ought to be explored is how significant Walsingham is in the field of intelligence in the contemporary times given the fact that his works in intelligence were accomplished before the year 1600. The modern changes in the practice of intelligence cannot totally stand without reference to the critical ancient works that were done in the field.
The contribution of Walsingham in the field of intelligence was based on the nature of work practices and tasks that he accomplished as he worked as the principal secretary to the British Royal Monarchy, Queen Elizabeth I (Budiansky 1-5). In this paper, it is argued that while Sir Francis Walsingham lived four centuries ago, his contribution is still highly valued in the development of modern practitioners in the field of intelligence.
This paper explores the life of Sir Francis Walsingham. Of relevance in the paper is the discussion of the nature of work and tasks that he was involved in and how they shaped the field of intelligence then and in the contemporary times. The paper begins by summing the life of Sir Francis Walsingham.
This is followed by a deeper look into the work of Walsingham, especially the work of Sir Francis Walsingham as a secretary to Queen Elizabeth 1. The last part of the paper carries comparative discussion of the works of Walsingham and the contemporary practices in the field of intelligence.
In this paper, several questions are answered. These are: What was the early life of Sir Francis Walsingham like? What led to the appointment of Sir Francis Walsingham as the secretary to Queen Elizabeth 1?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What special work did Sir Francis Walsingham do in ancient England, which makes him an icon in the study of intelligence in the modern times? What were the shortfalls of Walsinghan as an agent and how did the full affect the development of intelligence? An exploration of these questions broadens the discussion, thereby making the paper elaborate on the subject.
Overview of the life of Sir Francis Walsingham As observed in the introduction, Sir Francis Walsingham lived more than four centuries ago. Walsingham was born in a large family of gentry. He was born in the year 1532 at Foots Cray. The father to Sir Walsingham was a lawyer. Walsingham was deceased of his father in 1534. His family was well connected.
The status of his family enabled him to travel in Europe after his university. Walsingham, studied at the King’s College in Cambridge with a set other Protestants, but he did not sit for a degree owing to his high social status as a protestant (“The New Encyclopaedia Britannica” 784).
At the age of 20 years, Walsingham started pursuing a course in law at Gray’s Inn, which was a top qualifying body for lawyers in England. This was in the year 1552, after he had travelled in different parts of Europe. He was a committed Protestant during the period of rule of Queen Mary I of England.
This made him to join other expatriates who had moved into exile in Switzerland and Italy. He returned to England after the death of Queen Mary I, who was heading the Catholic Church in England. Walsingham ascended in power to take the position of a coterie. He was charged with administering in the state of Elizabethan in religious issues, both at home and in the diaspora.
It is important to mention that his rise to power was highly backed by a group of people to whom he had been exiled with during the Reign of Elizabeth I. The most notable former exiles who backed him to power are Earl of Bedford and Francis Russell. He was first elected to the Elizabeth parliament in the year 1559. He was reelected to the parliament in the year 1563, but under a different constituency under the support Earl of Bedford (Hadden and Henry 112).
Walsingham got married in the year 1562 to a daughter of one of the top political figures in the United Kingdom, Sir George Barne, who was the Lord Mayor of the city of London between 1552 and 1553. His wife died two years into his marriage, leaving behind a son who was to be taken care of by Walsingham.
We will write a custom Essay on The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He married another daughter of a political figure in the year 1566, who bore him a daughter. In the year 1967, two of the stepsons of Walsingham died out of a gunpowder accident, which occurred at Appuldurocombe. Walsingham championed the course for the Huguenots in 1958.
In his course, he developed close working relations with his predecessor in the Lyme Regis Constituency, Nickolas Throckmorton. Throckmorton was a former British Ambassador to France. To neutralize the schemes formulated against Elizabeth, Walsingham joined William Cecil in 1959. This was the beginning point for the recognition and a beginning of his carrier as an aide to the Queen of England (Fitzgerald para 1-2).
Work of Sir Francis Walsingham An exploration of the early life of Walshingham, as has been done, is a critical factor in noting the nature of developments that resulted in his appointment as the secretary to the Queen of England and later his works in fostering British intelligence as he worked for the Royal monarch.
The early life of Sir Francis Walsingham denotes an upheaval of events, which are argued to have shaped the life and career of Walsingham. According to Adams (60-61), the history of the work relations between queen and Walsingham, who was the Queen’s chief agent, is often complex. T
he complexity of the relationship is expounded by the manner in which Walsingham worked. Therefore, it is vital to unearth the nature of work relations between Walsingham and Queen to capture the various natures of work practices between Walsinghan and Queen and get insights into the role of Walsingham as the chief spymaster of the Queen of England (Hadden and Henry 112).
According to Fitzgerald (para. 1), Walsingham occupied a key operational position in the Queens court. This took place from 1573 to 1590 when he died. He is often cited as one of the main people who established the boundaries of conventional intelligence and began a revolution in intelligence tactics, which are still highly deployed by governments in the contemporary times by most agencies of governments.
The first rule of Walsingham in government came in the year 1567 when he was assigned to the role of breaking up a plan of assassinating Queen Elizabeth I, which is widely referred to as the Ridolf Plot. It can be said that this was a purely intelligence role and pointing to the latter role that he occupied in the Queen’s rule.
With the support of other agents, Walsingham managed to break up that plot, thereby freeing the Queen. A substantial number of people argue that this role made a turnaround in the working relationship between Walsingham and Queen (Fitzgerald para. 10).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the year 1578, Walsingham was sent on various missions in European nations by the Queen. These countries included France and Holland. This helped him in establishing strong contacts with Francis Drake. By 1854, he had developed an unveiling view that Britain needed to intervene in European conflicts; for instance, the conflict between Belgium and the Netherlands.
He also oversaw the establishment of a pro-Britain government in Scotland. After the year 1854, he spent most of his time preparing the country for war due to the escalation of conflicts in Spain. He carried with the espionage work till he died in the year 1590 (Fitzgerald para. 19-21).
According to The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (783), Walsingham found a lot of favor with the Queen, resulting in his appointment by Queen in 1570 to back up the Protestant Huguenots of France in their diplomatic standstill with Charles IX, who was the then King of France. He also succeeded in fostering the negotiation between Charles IX and the Huguenots. This resulted in his appointment as the Ambassador to France.
His appointment as the England’s ambassador to France was another great milestone in his life. It helped him to establish stronger alliances with the key political and religious figures, such as the King of France and the Huguenots who aided in the revolt against the Catholic Spain.
However, his work as an ambassador to France did not auger well with his career in intelligence. The main reason for this argument is that the revolt against the Catholic Spain led to the deaths of a substantial number of Protestant Huguenots, whom he was meant to protect.
This took place in what is referred to as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris. While this was seen as a blow to his works as an intelligent jury, a substantial number of historians termed the St. Bartholomew’s Massacre as another critical event that streamlined the career of Walsingham in intelligence. This is explained by the developments that later took place upon his return from France in 1573 (Fitzgerald para. 10-13).
It is argued that the attempt to revolt against the Catholic Spain exuded more confidence in him by the Queen of England, who promoted him to become her principal secretary in 1576. Prior to his appointment as the principal secretary to the Queen, Walsingham was serving as the manager of England, managing both the domestic and foreign affairs for the Queen of England. His allegiance and service to the Queen was later recognized when the Queen awarded him with the title ‘Sir’ in the year 1577.
This was yet another turning point in the life and work of Wlsingham as it gave him more power and fame to discharge his work as the principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I. The tittle meant that he could be more recognized in England, as well as other foreign states. He fully engaged in espionage and other pieces of intelligence work, working as the chief agent in England. Till his death, he was involved in a number of intelligence works, which established a high profile of British intelligence (Fitzgerald para. 14-18).
Walsinghan and the development of intelligence The question that ought to be asked at this point concerns the significance of Walsinghan in contemporary government intelligence. A substantial number of researchers argue that this can be explicated through a deeper look at his work as the principal secretary to the Queen.
An assessment of the rise of Walsinghan to become the principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I show that Walsingham was a great strategist and a master of intelligence, a feature that was later to be replicated in the manner in which he discharged intelligence work for British (Adams 60-61).
The development of modern espionage work is highly attributed to Walsingham. The political status of England can be used to show the nature of security that the country had during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. This gives a basis from which one can easily argue for the resounding works of Walsingham in fostering intelligence work.
According to Louis (184), Elizabethan England was one of the most advanced states in the ancient times. The state had a substantial number of things that it could boast of. During that time, the state was the main centre of trading activities in Europe. England produced Shakespeare and was beginning to establish colonies across the world (Louis 184).
According to Louis (184), England had a constricted military power, something that exposed it to constant dangers of being invaded by states that had proved to be militarily active during that period. These states included France and Spain. Compared to England and Spain, England was incapacitated in both the navy and the land military power, thus it could not easily withstand the power of the countries that posed threat to it.
Therefore, Elizabeth, the Queen of England, was forced to battle the enemies by using wits since he had no power to wage a physical battle against them. The battle of wits was one of the indicators of the deployment of intelligent tactics to neutralize the threat that was posed on England.
The main Weapon by Queen was Sir Francis Walsingham. Walsingham operated under the title of the principal secretary to the Queen. However, through his work Walsingham came out as a spymaster to Queen. One notable achievements of Wlsingham as a spymaster to the Queen was his ability to trump the Catholic states with a formidable force, which was stronger than the Spain’s armada espionage (Fitzgerald para. 16-18).
Therefore, it comes out that it is important to base on the political and religious status of states since these two were the main pillars of security at that period in history. Religious and political strife were a common source of tension and conflict between nations. It is argued that Walsigham invented the art, as well as science, which acted as a basic foundation on which modern espionage has been built upon.
The modern intelligence work is highly built around the development of spy agencies by governments, who check on the developments that are bound to threaten the security of the states. An example of the spy agency that has been developed in the world today is the US Federal Bureau of Investigations, which uses agents to spy on certain developments. Similarly, there are other espionage agencies that have been established in a substantial number of states in the world today.
The only main area of difference between espionage in the Walsingham times and the modern times is the applications of tactics by the agent. Modern espionage applies a lot of technology in advancing spy work, unlike in the past where these technologies did not exist. His espionage tactics led England under the leadership of Queen to become an empire.
One resounding thing in the modern government intelligence is the planting of agents in diverse regions. This is a tactic that was purely borrowed from the espionage tactics of Walsingham (Louis 184).
Mandelbaum (12) observed that the 16th century in the history of England marked the period of the emergence of science and reason from the dark ages, where there was a lot of reliance on superstition. During this period, there was a great challenge in the deployment of science in development since science coexisted with superstition. Superstition was rampant, thence, a great impediment to the development and deployment of science in intelligence.
There were close ties between the religion and the operation of the state, thereby making difficult for the state to eliminate the reliance on superstition as the means of predicting and reacting to events. Therefore, the deployment of science at this point in time was a highly remarkable development.
As observed earlier in this paper, Walsingham was able to apply science in his spy work. One resounding question here concerns the ability of Walsingham to deploy science in an environment that had minimal foundations in science. Walsingham is mentioned among the first people to advance intelligence work for the Queen of England.
The relevance of Walsingham in British intelligence is founded in the vitality of the information that he was able to gather and avail to the Queen. It could be said that his closeness to the queen was an additive factor for his recognition in the history of intelligence. While the connectedness of Walsingham with the queen cannot be ruled out, it is important for one to ascertain the way in which he got the attention of the Queen (Mandelbaum 13).
Mandelbaum (16) argued that Walsingham got attention by virtue of the activities that he had been involved in. The queen saw the potential of a great spymaster in queen out of the initiatives of espionage, which he had been involved in and the level of success that had been attained in the initiatives.
The Queen noted the potential of Wlsingham to execute national intelligence operations in England through his participation in domestic counterintelligence. Another thing that comes out here concerns the nature of spy missions that were launched and executed under the leadership of Walsingham as the chief spy agent of the Queen of England.
Upon his appointment as the spymaster for the Queen, he deployed a desirable level of creativity be deploying agents, as well as the utilization of personal knowledge in science to execute a number of espionage missions. Most of the spy missions that were established and managed by Walsingham turned out positive. He was able to arrange for foreign reports on all the foreigners who resided in England at that time.
The intelligence works of Walsingham are said to have withstood the occult nature of political times in which he was working. His ability to eliminate all forms of threats through intelligence vindicated his ability and his appointment and recognition as the father of ancient British intelligence (Mandelbaum 17).
Having discovered the weakness of the country, Walsingham thought of the idea of implanting agents to spy for the State in diverse states in Europe. The rationale behind the implantation of agents was to spy on the political development in the regions in which they were implanted. The main areas of focus for the agents were the political events in the regions and their implications on the security of England.
Walsingham deployed agents in each of the foreign courts that prevailed in Europe, as well as within the conspiracies of domestic plotters. This enabled him to thwart repeated efforts by foreign countries to launch attacks on the British soil. The application of science in intelligence also began with Walsignham, where he is argued to have used the new mathematical science of code breaking to intercept messages between ambassadors and kings.
This enabled him to learn of the developments between states without necessarily availing his agents in certain regions of Europe. He also established subtle disinformation camps, which were used in foiling England foes and beguiling her allies. The scheme was effective in capturing “Mary Queens of Scots” during her attempt to assassinate “Queen Elizabeth 1”.
Walsingham was a genius in covert operations and his techniques have remained exemplary in the modern exercise of espionage. The assurance of security and the establishment of England as an empire are highly attributed to the work of Walsingham (Louis 184).
Literature on the work of Walsingham denotes a certain kind of power that made him to discharge his work in a firm way. It is argued that Walsingham did not fully subject himself under the Queen; rather, he executed certain decisions devoid of the direction and command from his supposed boss- Queen Elizabeth I.
However, what matters is the validity of the decisions and their contributions to the stabilization of security in England. One of the examples that are offered is the execution of the Queen of Scots after the discovery that she was planning for the assassination of Queen Elizabeth I.
One main concern by researchers of Walsingham’s works concerns the question of whether he owed his allegiance to the Queen or to his work as the lead spy agent of the Queen. Some researchers base on the methods that were used by Walsingham to justify their opinion (“The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I” 261-262).
Standardizing the methods that were used by John often results in the negative view about a number of tactics that he deployed in eliminating threats to the Queen and England. This opens up into the evaluation of the standards of espionage and to what level the standards ought to be adhered to.
Among the debates that surrounded the work of Walsingham was his view that Elizabeth had miscalculated his steps in failing to prosecuting Mary in the Ridolphi Plot. The trial and subsequent execution of Mary is termed as one of the most unheeding episodes over 20 year’s work of Walsingham, yet it still does not draw away his contribution to the establishment of the pillars of intelligence in England and the other parts of the world.
During the discharge his duties, he emphasized on the use of espionage tactics through verbal and written tactics. This is what aided him in most of the courses that were pursued under his leadership, thereby resulting into his depiction as the father of intelligence (Adams 60).
Conclusion Sir Francis Walsingham is termed as the father of the modern intelligence. This paper has explored the life and work history of Sir Francis Walsingham in order to ascertain the worth of this assertion. From the discussion in the paper, it can be concluded that the basis of modern national intelligence systems is strongly founded on the works of Walsingham as he worked as a semester for Queen Elizabeth I.
He developed and deployed different spy techniques like the use of spy agents, something that is highly replicated in modern espionage tactics by governments.
Works Cited “The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.” Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1998. Print.
“The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I.” Contemporary Review 294.1705(2012): 261-262. Print.
Adams, Simon. “The Queen’s Agent.” History Today 62.1 (2012): 60-61. Print.
Budiansky, Stephen. Her Majesty’s Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage. New York, NY: Viking, 2005. Print.
Fitzgerald, Peter. Sir Francis Walsingham. n.d. Web. http://www.thefinertimes.com/Spies/sir-francis-walsingham.html
Hadden, Briton, and Henry R. Luce. Time. New York: Time Inc., 1923. Print.
Louis, Kruh. “Sir Francis Walsingham.” Cryptologia 30.2(2006): 184-184. Print.
Mandelbaum, W. Adam. “The 16th-Century Founders of British Intelligence often used Sorcery to Obtain Information.” Military History 21.3(2004), 12-13. Print.
Eminence Green: Patagonia Corporation Essay essay help online free
Introduction This article highlights how an entity created a niche for itself in the corporate world. Patagonia, the entity in question was founded by Yvon Chouinard and operates in the sporting sector. Yvon turned his passion for outdoor and adventurous activities into a viable business venture. Subsequently, he embarked on a path which has culminated in the creation of an entity that has challenged conventional corporate philosophies.
The article also details the impacts of research, innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship skills in Yvon’s business. This has allowed the entity to deviate from the strategies adopted by most corporations. As such, Patagonia has become the ideal corporation, which has established a balance between capitalism and corporate social responsibility (CSR). In most corporations, capitalism and the need to generate profits has resulted in the erosion of values on which entities were based.
Yvon has adopted a radical approach in corporate management. He is unwilling to compromise on numerous policies that Patagonia has adopted.
Most entities begin as private companies. Nonetheless, they go public once they become a force in the market. This is a path which Yvon is unwilling to pursue. Such a corporate choice would change the policies of the organization in entirety as the management would focus on maximizing the shareholders’ value rather than undertaking policies which will benefit the clients in terms of value delivery.
The entity has diverted from convectional human resource management hence; employees are key stakeholders in the organization. Moreover, the organization has adopted a culture, which is relevant to the organization’s industry. This is crucial for motivating employees and leaving a long lasting image in the clients’ minds in regard to its culture and services.
The model adopted by this organization has created a precedent that many organizations cannot emulate. The current corporate world is dominated by large monopolistic entities that make it tough for small organizations to break into the mainstream market. Patagonia, via its inspiration founder Yvon, provides an example of how small entities can establish a market segment that large entities cannot take over.
I believe that creativity and innovation will be central to the success of smaller entities. An example of an innovation in Patagonia is the development of swim suits that are more comfortable and attractive. These qualities denote some of the customers’ main concerns. The large entities have been unable to reach this milestone, giving Patagonia a competitive edge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above accomplishments are also attributable to partnerships with various entities in the polyester and cotton production sector. Yvon has been brilliant at establishing strategic partnerships, which have spurred Patagonia forward. Such partnerships have given this entity a competitive edge that many entities in the sector cannot achieve.
Based on the strategic, managerial and operational decisions that Patagonia has implemented, it would only be logical to acknowledge Yvon’s skills in corporate matters. He has been honoured by many institutions for being a key player in transforming corporate governance. He has realized this by leaning away from corporate governance that is primarily motivated by capitalism.
The ideas postulated in the passage have multiple applications in real life. Many potential investors face questions such as how do I start a business? Which sector is the most profitable? How will my business perform against the powerful businesses? The article answers these queries by revealing how Yvon turned his passion into a viable commercial venture. The ideas in the passage reveal how he addressed those queries. In real life, potential entrepreneurs should invest in sectors that they are passionate about.
Conclusion I have noted with concern that many other important issues of corporate governance have taken precedence over profitability. These issues include conservation of the environment and CSR. The entity spends large amounts of its revenues on such undertakings. Such policies would be treasonous in the current corporate world. The radical approach to management adopted by Yvon has contributed massively to Patagonia’s success. Moreover, its failure to go public has enabled Patagonia to retain its corporate innocence.
Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Diversification of Dippin’Dots
The corporate strategy applied by the company
The business level strategy applied by the company
The company entrepreneurial strategy
How the company managing intellectual assets
The cross border strategy the company is using
Introduction Founded and incorporated in 1988, Dippin’Dots Inc. specializes in making ice cream. Originally, the company was targeting the American market but later diversified into the world market. The company is touted as the “Ice Cream of the Future” meaning its products were targeting the younger generation.
Though the company markets were majorly domestic, it expanded into the international markets majorly in the middle and the Far East Asian countries including Japan, Philippines South Korea as well as Australia. Today, Dippin’Dots products could be shopped from major stores, shopping malls, water parks, amusement parks and all festivity venues all over the world.
The report will be examining the expansion strategies used by companies in particular the case of Dippin’Dots Inc. The case study analysis of Dippin’Dots Inc. will be looking at the company diversification strategies including its corporate level strategies, the business level strategies, the entrepreneurial strategies, and the cross border strategies. The analysis will also include how the company is managing its intellectual properties.
Diversification of Dippin’Dots Dippin’Dots Inc. is a highly diversified company particularly in terms of products as well as its operations. The company started with a single product line and operation. The company began by selling BB-size pellets of flash frozen ice cream that was combined with some two dozen flavors.
The products were majorly sold to franchisees and the national account. However, by 2010, the company has diversified its operations as well as its product lines. The product lines included Dot Delicacies that targeted the international market. The Dippin’Dots expansion strategy contributed to the production of more product line moving away from ice creams to uniquely brewed coffee.
The technology used in the manufacture of these products is similar. The instant freezing below the normal freezing point that was used in the production of the ice cream was also applied in the production of new product lines such as the coffee brews. The sales strategy also improved. Before, the company was targeting the younger generation however, its target market has matured and the new products was targeting the older generation. Therefore, the company is diversified both in terms of products as well as in terms of market.
The corporate strategy applied by the company Dippin’Dots Inc. is using related corporate strategy where the company is using its operations to expand and remain competitive into the market. Since the company was already in the ice cream and related industry, the major issue in the corporate strategy is how to put together its operations to boost its combined performance, leverage its value chain fits and establish its investment priorities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first corporate strategy is to sell its products to franchisees both within the United States and internationally. However, during the flat periods the company was faced with a dilemma of whether to reduce the number of franchisees or increase the number of franchisees. Increasing the number of franchisees means additional cost to the company amid flattened market.
However, the company strategy of expanding into the new market remains. The popularity and reputation of the company products has enabled its expansion into the new market. It must keep its franchises at operational level particularly when the market continues to flatten.
Nevertheless, the company is quit stringent when taking advantage of the franchising opportunities. In fact, the company is exploiting two area of monopolizing opportunities that are characterized by an even and storage. That is event-based and store based monopolizing prospects.
The company invested huge amounts for it to acclaim some of the locations, which are suitable for its business. In addition, the company has to ensure that its stores are located in areas close to big restaurants, visible and have good combination of persons on foot and auto traffic. All its franchisees in the world have these similarities. Moreover, its products must also be sold in major social events.
Besides its organized franchising strategy, the company is efficient in its value chain management. The company products are distributed to the franchisees stores within the shortest time possible before its competitors. The way the company manages its distribution channels add value and make the corporation be more competitive.
In addition, the super-cold conditions the company products are made in and stored increases the complexity of the company products. Therefore, the company products could not be found in the normal freezers both at homes and at the normal stores.
Moreover, the products must be transported in special containers and sold in their own stores. Under such conditions, the company must be effective and efficient in its distribution of the products to the market. The efficiency in value chain management becomes the competitive advantage to the company.
We will write a custom Essay on Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The business level strategy applied by the company Even though the company is selling ice creams and brewed coffee, the products are highly differentiated making the Dippin’Dots products unique and attractive in the market. The Dippin’Dots ice creams and brewed coffee have diverse flavors that differentiate them from other brewed coffee and ice creams.
The ice creams were manufactured in flash-frozen beads that were typically served in vending packages or cups. On average, the ice creams have 90 calories and 9 grams of fat depending with the kind of flavor. The quantity of calories and fats are lower compared with other ice creams.
In fact, Dippin’Dots is a combination of the old-fashioned handmade ice creams and the space age technology. Their minute round droplets of ice creams that are manufactured under sub-zero temperatures, given out at similar temperatures characterize Dippin’Dots’ products.
The freezing process is achieved using liquid nitrogen making the Dippin’Dots’ ice creams maintain their taste and originality that could not be found in any other product. The sub-zero temperatures nearly take away the entire entrapped ice and air making Dippin’Dots’ ice cream has clean aroma and tough feel.
Not only Dippin’Dots find new ways of making ice cream but the products have proved to be much more flavorfully and richer than the normal ice creams. In essence, the Dippin’Dots products are differentiated from the competitions in terms of nutrients and richness. The market need ice creams with low fats but increased calories.
With technological advantage in production, the company offers products at low cost. In other words, the company products are affordable and are of high quality compared to the competing products. In addition, the company first position in the industry has enabled its products to be sold globally particularly on new markets. The innovativeness in the product line has also increased the company competitiveness in both domestic and international markets.
The company entrepreneurial strategy Dippin’Dots is taking any opportunity to market its products or introduce its products into the market. After reinventing the frozen dessert the company patented the technology used and opened the stores where the product have to sold.
Within a few days after introducing the product into the market, it is distributed to the franchisees, the company stores as well as other selling points around the world. The product was transported from the production point to other destinations around world through either tracts or ships. The huge product delivery was attributed to marketing strategies that the company had put in place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, all its franchisees were putting half of the revenue into marketing or rather advertising the products. The company always targeted the younger generation and will always put in place strategies to get them attracted. Often, the firm associates its products with the celebrities. Most of the company products are being sold at parks and sports venues as well as schools. Therefore, the company will take every opportunity to market and sell its products at any opportune moment.
Given the fact that there are quite a number of similar products in the market, Dippin’Dots continues to differentiate its products according to the needs of the market. The company will always conduct the market research to understand and know the market needs and develop a product accordingly. In addition, the company increased its marketing including advertising, which has enabled its products to be known across the market niche.
How the company managing intellectual assets The company successes have been attributed to the way the company have been managing its human resources. The company was started as a family business. However, as the business expands it required more innovative personnel to run most of its expanded functionalities. The business required marketers, the chief executives, and the franchisees managers as well as the stores managers. The way the company operates and manages in value chain requires highly innovative personnel.
With the type of structure, competitiveness of the industry and products, the company requires knowledge based strategy that is mainly personalization with some degrees of codification. In other words, the company required personnel that will increase its key strategic activities in the value chain management that will in turn make its products be distinctive in the market.
Moreover, the company requires personnel that understand the corporate, business and entrepreneurial strategies in order to increase its competitive advantage. In other words, the company requires a group of experts that will foster new inventions and new technologies, which will in turn enable the company continue producing unique products that will increase its competitive advantage.
So far, the company has retained its founder and inventor Jones as chief executive to chart the way forward. As chief executive of the company, Jones is investing in research and development to create conventional ice cream product that has super frozen dots embedded in it.
Jones was developing a new product that could withstand conventional freezers while preserving the super frozen dots in the ice cream. While these could only solve the domestic problem, Jones has to invent new products for its international markets. Jones came up with Dots Delicacies commonly known as the as the Dots Treats to be introduced in the international market.
Moreover, the company has started its online venture by selling some of its products through its website. The purchases could be made online and the products delivered according to the specification of the customers. The company has also branched out and increased its coffee based products. In fact, the coffee products were manufactured based on new concepts. For instance, frappe and espresso that could be eaten by spoon or could be made into hot coffee drinks by just adding water and milk.
The other untapped market that Jones and his team tried to enter was the market of healthy ice cream. Jones and its team, as a healthier alternative to ice cream, introduced the low fat frozen beaded dessert called Chillz made with all natural sweetner. The highly innovative team made this product targeting public schools and was distributed to schools through vending channels.
Despite the development of new products, the company experiences and resources were directed in the ice cream manufacturing and scoop shop retailing business. Dealing with supermarkets chains and vending distribution firms proved to be challenging to the firm.
However, opportunities could still be pursued through the enlargement of the franchise and national account business for scoop shops and vending machines. The company chief executive and his team has to continue assessing the situation and choose the best alternative option that would ensure the growth of the company.
In essence, the company has utilized its human resources accordingly to ensure that its products remain competitive. Moreover, the technological knowhow of the founder has enable the firm retain its leadership in product development. The distinct products in the market has enabled the firm retain its competitive advantage. Therefore, proper use of the firm’s knowledge increases its competitiveness in the both domestic and international market.
The cross border strategy the company is using In the cross border strategy, the firm is selling standardized products that are adaptable to the local market. For instance, the company is selling ice creams and brewed coffee, which is unique and highly differentiated making the Dippin’Dots products attractive to the international and local market.
The Dippin’Dots ice creams and brewed coffee have diverse flavors that further differentiate them from other brewed coffee and ice creams being manufactured elsewhere in the world. In addition, the ice creams are being manufactured in flash-frozen droplets that were classically served in retailing packages or special made saucers.
The characteristic that is unique only to the Dippin’Dots products. Moreover, the attributes adds more value compared to other products manufactured by other companies selling in the global market. In terms of content, the ice creams have high calories and low fat depending with the kind of flavor. The high calories and low fats of the company ice creams increase the products likability internationally.
In fact, Dippin’Dots is a combination of the old-fashioned handmade ice creams and the space age expertise, a unique combination that could not be found with any company. The other innovativeness in the company products that enable international market penetration includes the product shapes, which are for all time in miniature round droplets.
In addition, the products are frozen below zero temperatures by liquid nitrogen that does not remove the original flavor as do the freezing process in other products. The originality of flavor is what differentiates Dippin’Dots products. Moreover, the sub-zero temperatures practically get rid of the entire rapt ice and air making the final product has spanking new taste and solid touch.
All these characteristics could hardly be found in most of the products in the international market. The internationalization strategy that the firm has adopted enabled its products to be sold in most of the stores globally. Though the company might use other strategies in its global expansion, internationalization becomes the major strategy.
Human resource management: Price Waterhouse Coopers Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Human resource can be defined as the individuals’ contributions to an organization in terms of efforts, skills and capabilities, thus enabling the organization to maintain its existence. On the other hand, human resource management (HRM) is the division of the organization that deals with the management of human resource (Dessler, 2008, p. 4).
Human resource management can be looked at in two different perspectives: First, human resource management is the personnel or support function in the firm. They provide backing to the HRM issues to keep workers in line, or individuals who are directly involved in the production process. Secondly, Human resource management is a duty of the senior level staff. Whether in the formal or informal sector, the management of employees is always a function of the managers (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).
The management and staffing in organizations are done by individuals and without these individual organizations cannot exist. As a matter of fact, the prospect and challenges of developing and managing an organization is normally caused by individual-related problems that originate within them (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
On the other hand, individual-related problems often originate from the misconception that all people are equal and deserve equal treatment in organizations. However, this is far from the truth. No two humans are precisely the same, even with identical or fraternal twins. Each and every individual is unique both physically and psychologically (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
Even among individuals who are almost the same physically they must have different psychological characteristics. A number of them will be sociable, others snobbish; some will be gifted, others not. The point this study is trying to bring up is that the disparities among individuals in an organization call for more attention in order to maximize their potential. It also enables the organization to enhance efficiency and optimize the use of its human capital (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
Managing human capital is an important role of the managers because of the current changes both within and without the organization. Studies have shown over and over again that HRM practices cam makes a significant, feasible difference in terms of crucial organizational results (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).
Maintaining a high level HRM system promotes strengthens employee commitment and loyalty which is very important in attaining business objectives. This applies to all types of businesses whether public or private. The success of any organization depends on the ability of the human resource department to acquire and assign individuals to a right job and pass on to them the necessary skills and knowledge (Wexley