Introduction From the past, the center of attention for those in leadership tends to be on power and control. However, great thinkers in the past came to appreciate that it would be very beneficial if the government was to be inclined to people’s interest as opposed to the personal interests of its leader.
This new view of life was only possible due to the philosophers present in European enlightenment. This period began in 1600 to 1800 A.D. and is the age of enlightenment. This is because it is considered as the period that led to contemporary philosophical thought. It consists of the age of reason beginning 1600 to 1700 A.D. when Europeans struggled to free their minds from being control by both state and church leaders.
The struggle took place in different sectors such as religion, where leaders wanted to be free to develop knowledge about God and man relationship. There was also struggle between citizens and the government, where citizens viewed government abuses as interfering with the inherent rights of the people. The period from 1700 to 1800 A.D is The Enlightenment. In the period, citizens were highly exploited by the ruling elites.
They faced problems such as unemployment, starvation, and disease world over. Many people rose up in this period to resist this kind of oppression. Philosophers in these periods applied reason in attacking religious extremism, intolerance, and superstition, things that they viewed as obstacles to development of freethinking. Consequently, enlightenment had influence in almost all areas including politics, economy, religion, and social.
Discussion Influence on Religion
The period led to transformation in religious beliefs by many people. While previous scholars were concerned with religious questions on organization of the church, the new philosophers were interested in role of individual’s in the society as well as in secular study of society.
They criticized the church because it exerted great pressures on society. For instance, the manner in which the church charged taxes to peasants. In addition, the ruling elite considered the church as important for building a better government and society. However, by accepting reasoning as a way of explaining various sides of human life, different types of people including deists and atheists emerged.
Atheists consists of a group of people who do not subscribe to any religious believe, while the deist are believers in God but do not consider him to be in control of what happens in the world. Some of the deist like Voltaire considered Christianity as the main cause of fanaticism and oppression to humanity. Enlightenment therefore made leaders to develop some form of tolerance in religious differences.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People in Paris considered Voltaire an intelligent man, but he had to run away from France after a quarrel with a nobleman. His escape and new life in England made him an admirer of the new country, especially because of its press freedom, religious tolerance and political freedom.
He argued that despite England having thirty religions, they all coexisted peacefully something that he considered impossible to happen in France. His use this to criticize France in for tolerating royal absolutism, lack of freedom of thought and religious tolerance. Philosophers criticizing royal absolutism like him demonstrated the dissatisfaction among middle-class.
Many people considered Voltaire a humorous writer, which made his work very popular and therefore most influential. He used both Candide and Ignorant philosopher works to challenge the absence of religious intolerance. For instance, he argued in ignorant philosopher, that many atrocities have been committed because of religion such as catholic. As a result, he called for philosophers to look back at many of these atrocities to demand for religious toleration (Spielvogel 520).
Through establishment of salons, philosophers exchanged different types of knowledge in places that did not have religious or political leaders influence. These social gatherings played an important role because in their time the government exercised a lot of censorship.
Therefore, within these salons, philosophers could discuss ideas that they would otherwise hesitate to put across. Since they did not have freedom to publish whatever they wanted, they called for freedom of expression. In addition, Salons led by women thinkers helped to empower women in many ways such as raising funds to publish women work. In most case, these Salons meant to shape public opinions in a well-regulated manner.
The period also influenced social hierarchy. Philosophers challenged the nobles’ indulgence in special treatments. Its influence on social ranking was not easy because philosophers too enjoyed some special treatments in social places. Those in the Middle-class were elevated in this period as they mixed freely with the nobles in the Salons and other social gatherings. Voltaire was one of the philosophers belonging to the Middle class.
Separation of power that Montesquieu popularized in his analysis of the England constitution is one of the major political influences to western civilization cause by enlightenment. His analysis was influential in political thoughts because it put across the need to have some checks and balance achieved through this kind of separation (Spielvogel 518).
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Did the Age of Enlightenment Influence Western Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his argument he was convinced that a political system like that of England with separate powers of the judiciary, legislature and executive, which ensured each arm is controlled, was essential to have a state that has greatest security and freedom. His work was later translated into English. This enabled American philosophers like James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton to read the work. As a result, they included its philosophy in the American constitution.
There was also believe that nature did not make people evil but rather its due to poor legislations, bad models and education (Perry 254).Philosophers like Locke trough their work argued that human mind is like a blank slate at birth. This inferred that people were not automatically sinners, since they knew nothing at birth. Environment was therefore a decisive force in the development of intelligence or character.
According to his argument, a new society can develop through transforming the environment and focusing people to the right kind of influences. These new environment could be developed by creating new laws that were based on reasons. He argued that a government could only be legitimate if the governed agree in what he termed as a social contract. Rebellion to him was inevitable in absence of such a contract (Staufenberg 210).
This took place in the late 1760s, as philosophers who had matured in the age of enlightenment furthered the beliefs of their ancestors. One such philosopher was Baron Paul d’Holbach. He advocated for stringent atheism and materialism (Spielvogel 522). He argued that God was not important for people to live a moral life. In his argument, he called for morality that stems from knowledge that, what a person does in this world is punishable here and not in the other world.
Another influential philosopher of the time is Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He considered the laws as impinging on people’s freedom and argued for a general free will. To him, to achieve people freethinking everybody must follow what is best for all. He challenged the belief that parliament should make laws for everybody based on his argument for involvement of each individual in creating these laws. His work therefore influenced the adaptation of true democracy.
Rousseau’s work that argued a woman should be educated on domains that she naturally performs her duties like nurturing raised debate on gender issues (Spielvogel 523). Some philosophers considered Women in the enlightenment period as naturally inferior to men and male domination over them was widely accepted.
For instance, they considered roles played by women, as resulting from their biological composition. Therefore, many male writers disregarded women intellectuals arguing that male were naturally superior. Some philosophers like Diderot though argued that there was little difference between the two.
Conclusion Philosophers that emerged in the age of enlightenment played great roles in influencing western civilization. During their time, there was a lot of inequality between social classes. Consequently, as they traversed the world, they learnt a lot about nature and used their work, to influence public opinions. They challenged existence of religious intolerance, royal absolutism, and absence of freedom of thought. Since most of them were from France these atrocities were common.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Did the Age of Enlightenment Influence Western Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They considered the elites in power and church doctrines especially those of Catholics as the main perpetrators of these atrocities. They proposed various solutions to address these inequalities. More so, philosophers who had grown in this period extended in their own arguments the knowledge of their predecessors. For instance, we can view participation democracy that Rousseau proposed as a way of extending the separation of power suggested by Montesquieu.
Works Cited Perry, Marvin. Western Civilization: A Brief History. Wadsworth. Cengage Learning. 2010. Print
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Since 1500. Wadsworth. Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Staufenberg, Gw. Building Blocks of Western Civilization. Xlibris Corporation. 2011. Print.
Differences between state of nature, state of war and United States constitution Essay best college essay help
There are various differences between John Locke’s state of nature, state of war and the United States constitution. People have a perfect freedom on most of their actions in state of nature. They can dispose of their possession in any manner they deem suitable without having to seek for court consent or ask for permission from any related parties. The United States constitution gives the American people a right to enjoy their freedom under conditions that they are bid by law and their activities do not contravene other parties’ rights.
The state of the nature allows the equality where everybody has equal powers and responsibilities. The United States constitution allows individuals to have an authority and responsibilities. Legal procedures of attaining particular jurisdiction, authority and rank are well stipulated. These procedures include being elected by United States people, being appointed by the judiciary, legislature or the executive arm of the government in accordance with the law.
The state of the nature allows people the state of liberty to dispose of themselves or their possession in nobler instances. According to the United States constitution, everybody is at liberty on condition that he/she does not interfere with other people or public rights and freedom. The state of the nature teaches all people on spirit of being equal and independent. It contradicts the United States constitution where one’s independence is restricted if it is against the governing law or it threatens public interest.
In the state of the nature, servants are considered slaves and property of the sovereign master. The United States constitution amendment 13, bill of rights prohibits slavery unless it is a form of punishment to a crime committed by an individual. In latter circumstance, it must be confirmed that the suspect committed the crime before is punished. The nature of the state accords the jurisdiction to take law in the hands of people.
This means that individuals have the right to punish criminals to extend they feel it best suites the severity of crime they have committed. According to the United States constitution all criminal offences are tried and determined in a judicial court of law. Judges or magistrates assess the magnitude of violation and gives appropriate punishment in accordance to the law. Under the United States constitution amendment 8 of bill rights offenders are not excessively punished or charged excessive fines.
In the state of the nature, any one offended has the right to punish the responsible person for the offence committed against him but according to the United States constitution judicial legal process is followed. Offended goes to judicial court for judge or magistrate to determine his case. In the state of the nature, individuals have jurisdiction in prosecutorial of law. No judicial framework is followed to settle disputes between individuals. The state of the nature prohibits superiority and advocates for equality among the members.
In the state of the nature, no one has a power to punish another man from a different country which has the same state of the laws nature because they are deemed equal and have the same powers. Additionally, the alien acknowledges that no man has more power over him and he is equal hence no one should punish him. This is contrary to the United States constitution because it authorizes punishment of alien in accordance to laws of the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A man can quit and declare himself free from being subjected to the governing nature of the state laws while every person is subject to the laws of the United States constitution. One ceases being subjected to these laws by quitting being a member of the United States. An offended man in the state of the nature has the right to seek compensation from the offender.
A third party is justified to intervene and force the offender to compensate the offended without any legal authority. The offended has the right to punish the offender, and the demand compensation inform of goods or services from the offender as a right of self preservation.
While according to the United States constitution, a person offended has no right to punish the offender neither appropriate goods nor services from the offender. Their disputes are resolved in a criminal justice court by a magistrate or judge. They also determine whether a compensation or a punishment fits the offence. In the United States constitution, a third party can not come in to determine disputes without legal authority or power.
In the state of the nature, a man can do anything to safe his life including endangering another man’s life to extend of killing him. The United States constitution bill of rights prohibits such actions to end another man’s life. The state of the nature allows punishment of offenders to the same degree or severity of the crime committed. It states that each transgression should be punished to same degree and severity in order to back ill the offender, make him repent or terrify others who plan to commit the same offence.
In the United States constitution, amendment 8 of bill of rights excessive bail, fine or punishment is prohibited. In the state of the nature, every one is executive in himself and individuals can judge their own cases but in the United States constitution roles, criteria of appointment, mandate and duration of tenure for the executive, judicial and legislature is specified.
The state of the war creates enmity and can cause people destruction the same way a man may destroy any threatening lion or wolf. This is contrary to the United States constitution because the bill of rights protects all its citizens from all kind of invasion and attacks. Additionally, courts of law are established to protect interest of everybody in the United States.
In the state of the war, a man can put another man in his absolute power to compel him against his freedom. This is a way of having another man as slave. The United States constitution guarantees protection of its peoples’ interests by those in authority. Also, amendment 13 bill of rights of the United States constitution, slavery is abolished and everyone is set free from any form of slavery.
We will write a custom Essay on Differences between state of nature, state of war and United States constitution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the state of the war, a man can kill a thief who has not hurt him but has declared a threat on him or he has tried to put him under his power by stealing money from him. The United States constitution protects each of its people from such malicious damage or injury.
In conclusion, comparing John Locke’s state of the nature and the state of the war with the United States constitution, it is evident that they have distinct differences in political aspect, power and individuals rights. The state of the nature gives everyone in the society a lot of freedom and it does not consider the protecting individuals’ rights.
How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Religion is one of the world’s phenomena that have undergone significant evolutions which have resulted into intriguing transformation of beliefs and traditions. Cutting across the plane, these religions have rich histories and carry elements which make them unique. They have also played a major role in shaping the norms, behavior and culture of millions of people globally. In this regard, it is important to understand existing differences and similarities among religions of the world (Molloy 3).
This is so crucial in appreciating the beliefs and traditions of others as they relate to who they are. In this regard, this essays explores how Mahayana differs from early Buddhism in terms of practices, believes and overall doctrine. To achieve this objective, relevant information has been gathered from both the college library and online sources like journals, books and websites.
Mahayana analysis According to theological and historic findings, Mahayana began in India between 100 B.C.E and 100 C.E. This was as a result of a debate which was going on explaining the appropriate Buddhist teachings and rituals, monastic discipline and discussions about the continued existence of Buddha even after his death. Additionally, it is has been argued that the nature of enlightenment which engulfed people further contributed to this emergence (Molloy 149).
Importantly, Mahayana was formerly impacted by several Buddhist schools of thought that were common in India during that time. As these practices spread within and outside India, aspects of the indigenous religious practices were also absorbed and assimilated. Some of these indigenous religious traditions included but not limited to Bon, Taoism and Confucianism. Hinduism also played a major role in influencing Mahayana.
Even though there has been no consensus on the founder of Mahayana, credit has been given to Nagarjuna, a philosopher along with other prominent people like Asanga and Vasubandhu. The controversy behind this is that each of the figures mentioned in the foundation of the tradition went ahead to establish their own sub-schools within Mahayana (Molloy 150).
It therefore follows that there is no particular person who can be identified as the core founder of Mahayana. Earliest Mahayana texts were mainly composed of several texts referred to as “Prajnaparamita” or translated as “Perfection of Wisdom”.
Although this aspect of the school may not be remembered by many, it forms the basic foundation of countless Mahayana schools which exist today. Other early texts which were considered important were “Sadharmapundarika” and “Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra” (Patheos 1). As a general observation, Mahayana thoughts have become quite recognizable and influential in several parts of the world and in Western philosophy where it has been manifested through religious teachings and numerous ethical teachings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Mahayana emphasized several things, the book received extraordinary recognition and respect. Hundreds of books were written by experts and distributed to people all over as they were of great significance and sometimes worshipped. Other theological analysts argue that this move was mainly aimed at suppressing and countering the supremacy of stupa veneration in several Buddhists schools (Religion Tolerance 1).
Notably, Mahayana is commonly known by many as the schismatic movement. After its emergence, there were several sub-schools which were formed in India and China that later became quite important. These included Ch’an, Madhyamaka, Pure Land Schools and Yogacara. In addition, Mahayana was highly supported by the leadership of the time including influential kings. Among them were Tang and Han in China, Palas in India and the Kushanas (Patheos 1).
This recognition and abundance support enabled Mahayana to spread to several parts of India via missionary activities, led supporters of the kings and monks. This expansion spread to regions outside India like China and Asia by the onset of the second century C.E (Patheos 1).
By understanding the analysis of Mahayana, it is possible to see that is has undergone a series of transformations that have led to its revolution in the 21 century, with continuous evolution into the modern world. Besides, Mahayana has been integrated into several religions of today’s world (Molloy 151). Mahayana has also thrived as a result of integrating its practices into political and social welfare of other regions like Asia, North America and Europe.
With regard to sacred times, Mahayana does not observe consistent sacred time. This is mainly attributed to the fact that bodhisattvas are always present and working around the world regardless of the season or time of the year. It therefore attempts to have a holistic sense of sacred time where every moment is considered sacred unlike in several religions where certain seasons and times of the year are perceived to be more sacred than others, depending on a religion’s activity season (Patheos 1).
However, it has to be mentioned that Mahayana highly values and recognizes the temple as its most holy and sacred space. Diagrams which are used in the temple during mediation are always elaborated in Mandalas. Nevertheless, practitioners can always occupy space of representation through mediation practices.
Like in other religions, Mahayana recognizes rituals and ceremonies as part of its traditional norm to be observed. These include mantra recitation, ritual devotion, mediation practices and pilgrimages among others. According to Mahayana believers, the rituals and ceremonies are important in affirming their faith and in teaching vital traditions and rules that have to be followed by those who accept to be members of the religion (Patheos 1). They also give worship guidance as it considered as one of their fundamentals.
We will write a custom Essay on How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How is worship conducted? Mahayana Buddhists worship an array of objects in the name of gods, serving different functions as defined by their traditions and beliefs. Common purposes of these gods include protection, guidance and devotion to people. They therefore believe that they thrive in everything they do by the power of gods. Examples of Mahayana gods are Tara, the Buddha, Avalokiteshvara, Amitabha and the bodhisattvas among others (Patheos 1).
There are also symbols which are commonly used in Mahayana during rituals, worship and devotion services. It is important for people to learn these symbols in order to understand when used by those conducting services and ceremonies. The lotus and the eight-spoke wheel are highly regarded and ever-present in Mahayana practices and rituals (Patheos 1).
The role of lotus is to represent purity, a core component among its believers while the eight-spoke wheel usually denotes the main teachings of Buddha, also known as dharma. Seating, standing, the book and the sword are among other commonly used symbols during important functions.
Early Buddhism The two main schools of Buddhism are Mahayana and Hinayana which originated from India. However, the former has dominated in other countries like Nepal, China and Japan. This religion and the philosophy were founded by Siddhartha Gautama known as Buddha in c.525 B.C (Molloy 126). In terms of statistics, there are at least three million Buddhists in the world with Asia leading in numbers.
Apart from the two mentioned schools above, the Vajrayana has its roots in Japan and Tibet even though is not as common as the other main classes in China and India. Due to continuous globalization and other factors, Buddhism disappeared from India, its country of origin although the presence of refugees from Tibet and people who get converted from Hinduism has maintained the religion (McGovern 1). Like other religions, early Buddhism has beliefs and practices which makes it unique or similar with other world regions.
The spread of Buddhism to other countries resulted into the splitting of the main religion to form smaller sects in various geographical regions. As a result, each sect adopted certain beliefs, customs, rituals and practices which were to be the pillar of their practical faith as Buddhists (Molloy 132).
Nevertheless, all the sects had a backbone of these doctrines and beliefs with shared similarities regardless of their location. A common belief among Buddhists is that every person is in a position to have happiness regardless of their background, race and age (Patheos 1). By such, Buddhists believe that all forms of delusions and negativism among people can only be overcome by mediation. With this understanding, it follows that men and women can easily restore their happiness through a simple mediation process.
Additionally, reincarnation is a core belief as Buddhists believe in rebirths and continuity of the human race. Their doctrines strongly believe in the existence of certain life cycles which ensure that life remains a continuation process. These cycles revolve around birth, life, death and the ultimate rebirth. Besides these cycles, the doctrine further emphasizes that Nirvana can only be achieved by shedding off personal desires and ego (Pillai 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are four truths which are strongly contained in Buddhism doctrine and beliefs. These truths are Dukkha, Samudaya, Marga and Nirodha. The fisrt truth is Dukkha which refers to suffering. According to this belief, suffering is inevitable in the life of any individual (Molloy 134).
Therefore, every Buddhist has to expect some from of suffering in life and need not to be received negatively as it is viewed as part of a normal life. Suffering which is categorized in this doctrine include anger, loneliness, fear, embarrassment and frustrations. This belief also explains workable ways of achieving happiness in life (Patheos 1).
According to Samudaya, suffering among Buddhists is mainly caused by their constant aversions and craving which they go through in their daily lives. Furthermore, craving together with greed have the potential of depriving individuals off their happiness and their contentment. Importantly, an individual can only achieve Nirvana if he or she curbs existing luxurious cravings in life (Pillai 1).
Similarly, Norodha gives an explanation on how suffering can be overcome in order to realize happiness in life. Based on this belief, incidents which occurred in the past should not be allowed to cause fear or worry. Accordingly, uncertainties of the future should not take away happiness, as it emphasizes the need to live each day at a time. According to the fourth truth, Marga, total happiness can only be achieved by adhering to “eight-fold path”.
This model encourages the need to have a stable mind and being conscious of thoughts and ones actions. Additionally, morality and a good livelihood it is highly encouraged under this doctrine. Those who adhere to the four truths are believed to have wisdom and compassion. Buddhist teachings are always taught to everybody as people are encouraged to solve their problems since it is believed that problems are caused by individuals (Pillai 1).
Early Buddhism also observes sacred narratives whose main component is the story of Buddha which is considered holy. Other stories are narrated by teachers with reference to the sutras. On the other hand, the notion of salvation in Buddhism does not have a consensus, with variations being seen from country to country or era to era.
Unlike Mahayana, Buddhism does not have sacred time but rather emphasizes the need for Nirvana as with reference to a Nirvana dichotomy (FPMT 1). However, their sacred space includes stupas, which contains Buddha relics and other monks. Additionally, some mountains are highly regarded as the most high place. Accordingly, there are variations in the calendar of events.
On the other hand, Buddha’s birthday and the New Year day celebrations are quite significant. Other rituals include pilgrimages and death-related ceremonies. Notably, Buddhist monks demonstrate different life with lay people as this relationship is defined by merit. Early Buddhism symbols include the stupa, the dharma wheel and what was considered as Buddha’s footprint. Others are monks’ robes, Mandalas and mudras. It is important to note that some symbols vary from country to country (Patheos 1).
Conclusion From the above analysis of Mahayana and early Buddhism, it is clear that the two religions have several elements which make them different. Although they share a number of similarities, Mahayana and Buddhism have different beliefs and practices. Their sacred time, spaces, and the understanding of suffering are also different. However, their similarities can be attributed to the fact that Mahayana is one of the schools of Buddhism.
Works Cited FPMT. Buddhism FAQ, 2011. Web.
McGovern, William. Introduction to Mahayana Buddhism. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2003. Print.
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the world’s religious. New York City: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.
Patheos. Mahayana Buddhism, 2011. Web.
Pillai, Maya. Basic Beliefs of Buddhism. Buzzle, 2011. Web.
Religion Tolerance. Mahayana Buddhism, 2011. Web.
Strategic Management: Art or Science? Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The subject of whether strategic management is an art or science has been very critical amongst strategic management scholars. This paper discusses whether strategic management is an art or science. It explains when strategic management is an art and when it is science. It further explains the aspects that make strategic management an art and science.
Introduction Strategic management is a management tool used by corporate organizations. Corporate organizations have used it to determine goals and objectives, values, mission, vision, roles and obligations within the management system. Strategic management requires a mix of strategies used to ensure most achievable accurate decisions and choices in the management process. Strategic management is a progressive process.
It appraises and ensures controls during business operations. Besides, strategic management lays down strategies to be used in dealing with both existing competitors and the potential ones. Whether strategic management is a science or an art has been a question of major concern to various scholars. Some have argued that strategic management is more of an art than science while others have argued otherwise (Choo 533).
Literature review A number of scholars have described strategic management as both science and art. This is because the whole concept of strategic management borrows from both sides of science and art (McCabe 3).
For instance, some scholars have defined strategic management as the science and art of formulating, executing and assessing of critical decisions which are cross functional in nature to assist organizations realize their long-term goals and objectives. This implies that strategic management utilizes both artistic and scientific concepts in the management process. However, it is argued that strategic management is more an art than the science it is believed to be (Mason 5)
The concept of art entails the realistic application of personal knowledge and skills so as to realize concrete outcome. This is what defines strategic management as an art (Swayne et al. 435); the whole management process requires personal skills and knowledge in applying management strategies deemed to have the potential of realizing the goals and objectives of an organization (Karami 12).
Moreover, in designing management strategies, creativity is paramount. Otherwise, strategic management requires a systematic involvement of certain principles that have been formulated and tested through research. These principles are universal and scholars concur that they can be used universally. These principles give strategic management a scientific dimension (Levner et al. 72).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though strategic management has been considered to borrow from art, it largely utilizes science through relying on particular theories and principles developed and tested through scientific research. Irrespective of any organization, strategic management is a philosophical task.
Hence, strategic managers still face crucial judgments when in the process of formulating strategies for their organizations (Gilbert et al. 137). The resolution to adopt a certain set of strategies has always been grounded on philosophy based on experience, skills, research and rational reason. This makes strategic management to be oriented more towards science than art. Therefore, strategic management is science in practice.
Recommendation Strategic management is defined as science and an art of formulating, executing, and assessing of critical decisions which are cross functional in nature to assist organizations realize their long-term goals and objectives. This has created some form of ambiguity in terms of its definition (Kang 30-56).
However, scholars agree that strategic management has universally been grounded on philosophy established through systematic research and rational choice. This is a model only consistent with science and for this reason, strategic management should be considered purely as a science. The fact is that science and art disciplines are intertwined into one another; but, each discipline should be defined as science or art depending on its model of practical application.
Conclusion The definition of strategic management has been subject to ambiguity given that strategic management scholars have not postulated whether it is an art or science (Kang 30-56). However, they consider it as both science and an art; this is because it borrows from both disciplines.
Nonetheless, since its practical application utilizes a specific model of philosophy grounded on research, strategic management should be defined as a science and not an art (Gilbert et al. 137). It is important to note that both science and art disciplines borrow from one another and there definition should be based their practical applications.
Works Cited Choo, Chun. The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management: Art or Science? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gilbert, Marius, et al. Strategic Management in the Knowledge Economy: New Approaches and Business Applications. New York: John Wiley
The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The transition of banking to a new system
The role of debt clearance
Role of privatization
Role of bank regulation and supervision
Introduction Hungary was a centralized economy during and before early the 1980’s. The economy was highly controlled by the government including sectors within the economy. The Hungarian banking sector was under the control of the government with no private banks in operation during this time.
The country was operating under a mono-bank. The bank was later divided based on specialization with introduction a two-tier banking system. This led to the establishment of three banks that were owned by the state. In 1987, Hungary initiated the transition process of converting its economy from being centralized to become market-oriented economy.
This transition led to the changing of Hungarian banking sector from centralized banking system to a market-oriented system through privatization. Creating an open competitive market for foreign banks to invest was one of the government roles in developing banks in Hungary.
During this time of transition, the economy of Hungary was performing poorly and was nearly collapsing. The state-owned banks during the beginning of transition were faced with the problem of non- performing debts, bad debtors, as well as bad investments. The financial sector, which highly incorporates banking, had thus a great role to play in this transition process. In the late 1980s, Hungary was faced within the problem of bad debts, massive under-capitalization as well as high concentration.
The main reason of developing banks in Hungary through use of market-oriented system was to establish a stable banking system. The government had to solve the existing problems in the banking system before introducing new reforms. This paper discusses the process of consolidating state-owned banks and then privatizing them. The paper also looks into the role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition.
The transition of banking to a new system In the late 1940s, the Hungarian banking system was established with formation of the national bank known as National Bank of Hungary (NBH). NBH was established as a monopoly. It was the only bank dealing with money circulation and credit activities within Hungarian economy.
The government further established a centralized banking system with the introduction of specialized banks. For example, the NBH only dealt with allocating credit to enterprises, the National Savings Bank (NSB) only dealt with colleting deposits from savers, and Hungarian Foreign Trade Bank was only involved with foreign trade transactions. All these banks were owned by the state that made them monopolies in their respective areas of specialization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the late 1980s, the Hungarian economy was performing poorly. The government initiated the process of transition from use of centralized economy to introduction market oriented economy.
The market-oriented economy meant that foreign investors would invest in Hungary. This made the government permit some foreign banks to invest in Hungary. During this time, these foreign banks faced competition from the state owned banks in foreign exchange and trade transactions. The banking system became more decentralized with introduction of the two-tier banking system.
This system led to NBH becoming the central bank while its commercial functions were delegated to three new commercial banks, which were introduced in the country. The government went further to allowing introduction of new specialized banks, which had very narrow functions. These reforms greatly influenced the post-socialist government to create way for more reforms in the banking sector.
In early 1990s, the new democratic government formed new reforms for the banks. The banks were expected to meet a certain percentage of capital adequacy ratios. Banks were also expected to provide reserves against their bad loans. This issue on bad loans made the banks to suffer huge losses. This is because several major banks had huge negative equity percentage of loans that were considered doubtful loans. These banks suffered huge losses, as the existing accounting laws at this time did not require provision for doubtful loans.
These structural reform initiatives led to a significant drop of the country’s GDP. This drop in GDP led to heavy losses among state-owned enterprises, which made them unable to service their debts to banks. With these losses, the government had to resolve the issue on bad debts. This led to the instruction of loan consolidation program in 1993.
This program enabled banks to exchange their bad debts for government bonds called consolidation bonds. These bonds had a coupon equal to 90-day treasury bills. Although this program removed bad debts from banks, it did not create new capital in the banking sector. The government then went further to recapitalizing its state-owned banks to attain the minimum requirement of 8 percent.
In the mid 1990s, there was a significant progress in establishing a market-oriented banking system. The government still discouraged foreign banks with its preference of keeping a golden share of the venture. To achieve transition in the banking sector the government started negotiations with foreign banks in offering them flexible terms and conditions of bank privatization.
We will write a custom Essay on The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Privatization of large state-owned banks involved two important stages. The first stage of privatization took place in parts with blocks of shares being offered to different foreign investors at different times. This was a significant step for foreign investors whose initial cost and risk of investments was reduced strategically.
Although the government offered block of shares to the foreign investors it still held 20-to-25 percent ownership of these banks. The government instead allowed the foreign partners to take full control on management of these banks.
In the second stage of privatization, the government negotiated with foreign investors. The government came into contract with foreign investors on terms of privatization. These contracts allowed subsequent price adjustments in the purchase price, according to profits to be made by the bank in future.
The contract also provided for acquisitions of share from the government or any other non-private partners. This method of liberal privatization faced criticism politically even if others supported the idea as it meant a strong efficient banking sector foundation.
The role of debt clearance In developing banks in Hungary, the government wanted to deal with the problem of bad debts, which had even led to collapse of many firms. This had contributed greatly to the poor economy and high rates of unemployment. In trying to overcome this problem on debts, the government had to allow for entry of foreign banks into Hungary.
The government had to restructure the banking system by developing banks to deal with issue on debts as some state-owned banks had even lost their capital. The government had to deal with the issue of debts and debtors in the banking system through bank consolidation. The government wanted to develop banks with no bad loans to pave way for privatization and avoid the problem of bad debts again.
In the initial stages of bank consolidation, the government had to do portfolio cleaning. Here the government gave bonds in exchange for bad debts to those banks with a capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of less than 7percent. The government then sold a part of the non-performing loans bought as bonds at a discount to the Hungarian Development Bank (HDB). Although the government left the other part of bad loans with the banks it gave them a fee of 2 percent to encourage them work out bad loans.
This measure of government exchanging bad debts with bonds solved the problem on debts partially. This is because the government did not include neither doubtful nor substandard loans. The government also failed to solve the problem of banks’ bad investments and contingent liabilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1993, the bad debts were still increasing and the government had to carry out recapitalization but this time including bad investments and contingent liabilities of the banks. The government here purchased newly issued shares by the recapitalized banks through use of bonds. This increased the government ownership in the banking sector.
The government then recapitalized banks by extending subordinated loans to banks. This form of recapitalization prevented increasing government ownership. The government then left the banks to solve issue on other debtors as it had more information regarding them.
The objective here was to try to separate banks with more debtors from those with few. This paved way for privatization process. The government also introduced consolidation program aimed at putting banks on track. This program required banks to improve their management, internal control and come up with modernized operations. These measures enabled the government to develop banks and solve the issue of debts in the beginning of transition.
Role of privatization The government had controlled the banking system before transition process began in Hungary. The government had to develop banks to enable their privatization as it had being unable to run them. This is because at the time of transition Hungarian banks were facing large bad debts, and were poorly managed. The government had thus to introduce a market-oriented banking system to enhance economic growth. Therefore, another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to encourage their privatization.
The government also encouraged privatization of banks through introduction of liberal licensing policy. This policy encouraged many foreign banks to set up subsidiaries in Hungary. This led to a decrease of government ownership in the banking sector with about 20 percent.
This enhanced competition which encouraged better management skills, and provision of services in the banking sector. This left the government with the ownership of just one large commercial bank. The banks from European Union invested in Hungary contributing to the 70 percent of foreign ownership in the country.
Privatization of banks in Hungary has played a great role in its economic growth. This is shown by the stabilization of Hungarian banking system that is evident as shown by the current high level of CAR. The percentage of bad debts has also decreased significantly to a very low percentage of about 3 percent. The increased investment of foreign banks in Hungary has also encouraged direct investment in other sectors with banks from home countries operating in Hungary.
Role of bank regulation and supervision The centralized banking system applied by Hungarian government before beginning of transition prevented better regulatory measures to apply. The government was unable to impose measures, which would regulate banking system efficiently as it was the one still controlling them. Therefore, another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to establish a regulatory structure.
The government had experienced high rate of non-performing debts before transition began. These debts had led to high instability in the banking system leading to a deteriorating economy. The government had thus to develop banks to as to introduce measures to regulate and supervise the banking system.
These regulations in the banking sector help to control the stability of an economy. Hungary with the aid of EU has improved its regulation and supervision in the banking sector. The government established a group-based supervision as opposed to the institution-based mode of supervision applied earlier. The group-based supervision was to be introduced through formation of a single agency to supervise all banks.
Management role The government of Hungary had experience and significant increase of the non-performing debts during the late 1980s. This was due to the poor performance of the state-owned banks during this period. These banks allocated loans on basis of political influence rather than based on profitability that had contributed to the large amount of bad debts.
This was partially the contribution of poor management and unskilled staff in the banks. Another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to improve their management and human capital.
Privatization process of state-owned banks was also aimed at improving their management. In the first face of privatization though the government only allowed a given percentage of ownership to foreign investors, it left management role to them.
This is because these banks were characterized with poor operations management structure that incorporates many undisguised employees. The government also introduced measures through ministry of finance to supervise these banks on basis of management. These measures led to the decrease on non-performing loans, which were now allocated on basis of profitability.
Conclusion Hungary transition from a centralized economy to a market-oriented economy started in late 1980s. The government had to change the banking system from a centralized banking system to a market-oriented system. The government had to allow foreign banks to invest in Hungary. Before foreign banks were allowed to invest in Hungary, the government had to solve the problems, which existed within the state-owned banks.
The role of developing banks was thus to pave way for more reforms in the banking sector which would lead to a stable banking system. One role of developing banks in the beginning of transition was first to consolidate them. The government had to deal with the issue existing bad debts and bad debtors that had even led to the closure of some banks due to lack of capital.
The government had to introduce use of bonds to buy these bad debts and those debts debtors were owing to banks. The government went further to recapitalizing the banks including their bad investments and liabilities. This was followed by privatization of these banks to be owned by other foreign banks. The government did this by first selling partial ownership before realizing full ownership in mid 1990s.
The government then introduced a single group-based supervision agency to supervise all banks on standards of management, performance and services offered. This has led to improved banks management, and reduced non-performing loans within the banking sector. Through these developments of banks, the government of Hungary has been able to establish a stable banking system.
References Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L. (2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund.
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Footnotes Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L.(2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer.
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L.(2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L. (2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer
Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature Essay online essay help: online essay help
Thesis Statement: The Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
The Puritans and early colonial literature shows suffering as part of their redemption process.
The research focuses on the redemption theory of the Puritan religion’s members.
The research includes a study on the Puritan religion’s members’ suffering concept.
Colonial literature and the Puritans wholeheartedly accepted suffering as part and parcel of their redemption process.
The Puritan religion’ members believed in predestination.
The same members accepted Jesus Christ as the only way to reach heaven’s redemption area.
The Puritan religion’s members considered suffering as a consequence of original sin.
Indeed, the Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Puritans and early colonial literature show suffering as part of their redemption process. The research focuses on the redemption theory of the Puritan religion’s members. The research includes a study on the Puritan religion’s members’ suffering concept. The Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Puritanism and colonial literature during the 16th century was a sweeping revival the enveloped the Church of England. The Puritan member took to heart John Calvin’s religious teachings. Calvin’s teachings focused on the nature of a person. Similarly, Puritan beliefs included man’s free will as well as predestination.
After King Charles II rose to England’s throne in 1660, Puritanism split into three major religious groups. The three groups are Presbyterian Church, Congregational Church, and Baptist Church groups. The Puritans believed that God as the Father God of the Old Testament. The Puritans firmly believed in God’s righteousness, majesty, and control of the universe for God’s own glorious magnificence.
In terms of redemption, Tom Webster (315) emphasized the puritans believe that God is the author of redemption. Puritan theory employed the medieval distinction of Go’s absolute and ordaining power. God can do all things possible, including the redemption of all members of the Puritan church.
The puritans strongly believed in predestination and the assurance of salvation of all its members. Predestination states that each person has been predestined to enter heaven or hell after one’s temporary stay on earth. God predestined some persons, some are called saints, to never fall from grace. The reformation movement places great emphasis on the doctrine of assurance.
The Puritan’s teaching runs counter to the Catholic Church’s teaching. The Catholic teaching dictates the members of the church are not sure whether they will go to heaven or hell during the dooms day. The Catholic faith does not incorporate predestination. Puritan stance of predestination is grounded on faith alone. A puritan’s faith in Jesus Christ, salvation by faith alone, is enough qualify one to enter the gates of heaven. Puritan faith is self –validating. The puritan member’s faith is enough to ensure one’s redemption process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The puritans and colonial literature interpreted the Bible as showering its members with redemptive piety. The puritans strongly believed that the only way to enter heaven, redemption, was to be converted to convert to Puritan religion. The redemption dictates that good works is not required for one to enter the kingdom of heaven. A primary source indicates John Winthrop, a Puritan, stating in 1630 “There is a time when a Christian must sell all and give to the poor, as they did in the Apostles times”.
The grace of Jesus Christ is the only requirement needed to be redeemed. Thus, the redemption principle dictates that once a person is saved, such person is always saved. This is the very essence of the Puritan religion’s redemption concept. However, the Puritans believed that they are required to do good works while they are on the short journey on earth.
The Puritans emphasized strict compliance with the bible’s instructions. Hard work was a considered the Puritan members’ duty to God and one’s community. The puritans encouraged people in the community to be converted to the Puritan religion. Failure to convert was a signal to the Puritan members to expel the unbeliever from their ranks.
To spread their redemption theory, the Puritans placed importance on education. The Puritans prioritized the education of their children.
In terms of suffering, the Puritan religion’s members as well as colonial literature shows belief in enduring suffering for the sake of their religion. The Puritan religion’s members considered themselves the descendants of the English martyrs. Many of the Puritan religion’s pastors were literary ejected from their church pulpits when the crackdown their religion cropped up.
The Puritan religion’s members had been taught to accept suffering willingly. The members trusted God to reduce the degree of their sufferings. The Puritan religion’s members believed that God will lessen the length of during endured by each suffering Puritan religion’s member.
Thomas Watson reiterated Jesus Christ is their model of suffering. The Puritan religion’s members should happily endure each suffering minute as an offering their God in heaven. Favorite Puritan religion’s members’ quotes include “A sanctified person, like a silver bell, the harder he is smitten, the better he sounds” (George Swinnock). Another favorite quote goes “He that rides to be crowned will not think much of a rainy day’ (John Trapp).
We will write a custom Essay on Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Anna Duane (40) proposed during the colonial times literature, the Puritan religion’s members’ parents were classified as protectors and not abusers of the faith. In contrast, the Indian parents were classified as too soft on their children. The Indian parents were overly gentle parents. The Puritan religion’s members’ parents were disciplinarians. The Puritan religion’s members’ parents often use the rod to breed the children in upright ways.
The father was described as the religious practice of ensuring the children’s unyielding obedience to the father’s strict family policies. The strictness was considered necessary in order to keep the children away from harm’s way. Robert DeBellis (5) mentioned that Puritan religion’s members considered are suffering because of their original sin. The Puritan religion’s members’ suffering includes illness, spiritual weakness and death.
Catherine Martin (283) stated that a Puritan religion’s member, Ludlow, suffered for his Puritan religion’s sake. Sam-son-like exile, public humiliation, imprisonment, feelings of Godly desertion united a broad spectrum of Puritan religion’s members from Ludlow to Algermon Sidney and Sir Henry Vane, and many others during the colonial times.
During his two year incarceration, the Puritan religion’s member Vane was finally executed by the King’s soldiers. In addition, Ludlow waited for God to restore the saints to power or lead them to martyrdom.
The Puritan religion’s members and colonial literature believed in the world of heaven and hell. The heaven is reserved for those who God has predestined. God knows who would enter heaven long before the person was born.
In the same light, God knows who would predestined to hell long before the person was baptized. The Puritan religion’s members believe that one must comply with their religious concept in order to be counted as one of God’s chosen few to enter the kingdom of heaven. The puritans believe that only the Puritan religion’s members will be allowed to enter the gates of heaven.
The Puritan religion’s members’ redemption and colonial literature focus is on Jesus Christ. The Puritan religion’s members do not consider praying to Mother Mary, mother of Christ, as a way to redemption. The Puritan religion’s members do not consider praying to Saint Peter as a way to redemption.
The Puritan religion’s members do not believe asking for the priest’s prayer would trigger the Catholic Church members’ redemption. The Puritan religion’s members emphasized that Jesus Christ is the only way, the only truth, and the only life. Jesus Christ is the only roads towards redemption. The Puritan religion’s members believe that giving alms to the poor, visiting the sick in the hospitals, feeding the hungry, and clothing the naked, are necessary for one to be redeemed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the Puritan religion’s members’ faith does not include avoiding helping others during times of need. For example, a Puritan religion’s members should help the old person cross the street. The Puritan religion’s member must aid a limping physically disabled person trying to board a train. In addition, the Puritan religion’s members should not stop giving alms to the poor.
Colonial literature shows the Puritan religion’s members’ long thorny journey towards salvation, they were normally theologians. They love to read the bible. The spend most of their time acting as theologians. Many acted as pastors. Other members of the Puritan religion’s members acted as soul healers. Other Puritan religion’s members did perfectly well as counselors to the community. Many believe that the Puritan religion’s members understood how the people think and do.
To further secure their redemption, colonial literature indicates the Puritan religion’s members normal go out of their way to do pleasing things in the eyes of God. The members tried their best to avoid doing acts that would be classified as sinful in nature. The Puritan religion’s members feared sinning in the eyes of God.
Based on the above discussion, colonial literature and the Puritans wholeheartedly accepted suffering as part and parcel of their redemption process. The Puritan religion’ members believed in predestination. The same members accepted Jesus Christ as the only way to reach heaven’s redemption area.
The Puritan religion’s members considered suffering as a consequence of original sin. Indeed, the Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Works Cited DeBellis, Robert. Suffering: Psycholocial and Social Aspects . New York: Routledge Press, 1986.
Duane, Anna. Suffering Childhood in Early American Violence. New York: University of Georgia Press, 2010.
Martin, Catherine. Milton Among the Puritans. New York: Ashgate Press, 2010.
Webster, Tom. Puritans and Purtitanism in Europe and America. New York: ABC Press, 2006.
Winthrop, John. A Model of Christian Charity.1630. Web.
Footnotes Winthrop, John. A Model of Christian Charity. Web.
Is Social Justice the Same Thing as Political Egalitarianism? An Analysis from a Theory of Justice Perspective Essay college admission essay help
Introduction The issue of social justice has occupied the minds of many scholars in the society for a long time. Scholars and philosophers such as St. Augustine, Plato and John Locke among others have all tried to define what social justice is and how a society can benefit from it.
According to Zafirovski (2005), social justice can be conceptualized in terms of equality and human rights. To this end, this scholar defines this concept as a situation where a society or an institution operates on the basis of equality solidarity (Zafirovski, 2005). For a society or an institution to be regarded as an entity operating on social justice, it must uphold human rights and the dignity of each and every individual in such a society or institution.
But where did the concept of social justice originate from in contemporary philosophical and political discourse? According to Benhabib (2004), the concept of social justice can be traced back to the writings of Luigi Taparelli in the mid 19th century. Taparelli was analyzing the teachings of Thomas Aquinas when he came up with this concept.
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati later on built on the works of Taparelli to further define social justice in contemporary society (Zafirovski, 2005). Other scholars associated with social justice in contemporary social and political discourse include John Ryan, Coughlin and Kant among others.
According to Benhabib (2004), social justice cannot be separated from human rights and equality in the society. This is given the fact that if the rights of the individual are abused, such an individual will not be in a position to partake in social justice.
On the other hand, a society full of economic, social and political inequalities cannot be regarded as having embraced social justice principles. Social justice is also related to economic egalitarianism (Garrett, 2005). A society which is characterized by economic inequalities as indicated above cannot be regarded as operating on the principles of social justice.
But is social justice the same as political egalitarianism? This is the question that is likely to arise when one is analyzing social justice in the context of political developments in the society. This paper is going to look at whether social justice is similar to political egalitarianism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author will first provide a brief background on both social justice and political egalitarianism. The author will then try to analyze how the two are related and whether they are one and the same thing. The paper will be based on social justice theory as envisaged by scholars such as John Rawls, Kant and John Locke.
Social Justice An Overview
Wardell (2011) justice as a concept has been addressed in various legal, political, philosophical and religious discourses. According to him, this concept involves the treatment of the poor and marginalized individuals in the society on an equal basis with those who are privileged. Wardell’s definition of social justice might appear simplistic on the eyes of social justice theorists, but it provides a significant perspective to the social justice concept. This is the aspect of treating the marginalized and the disadvantaged members of the society equally with the privileged. A society that draws a line between the so called ‘common man’ and the ‘elite’ is not just at all. This is the reason why scholars such as Locke and Kant were concerned with the social stratification in early societies that treated members of the royal family as superior citizens while the rest of the society was left to grapple with poverty and starvation.
Like any other concept in contemporary society, many schools of thought on social justice have been formed over the years. The different schools of thought advocate different strategies in addressing the issue of social justice in the society. Most of the arguments advocated by the different schools of thought are based on the principles of social justice that are to be found in John Rawl’s theory of justice.
Social Justice Theory Rawls’ Theory of Justice
Several scholars have made contributions to the justice theories depending on their academic orientation and their beliefs in this concept. These scholars include John Rawls, John Locke and Kant among others.
In the year 1971, John Rawls wrote a book titled Theory of Justice in which he provided his views on several aspects of justice such as social justice and political egalitarianism. In this book, the scholar gives his views of a liberal egalitarian society built on the principles of human rights and equality (Wardell, 2011).
Rawls borrowed heavily from Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher who is also regarded as a father figure in social justice discourses (Wardell, 2011). Kant was of the view that “people are individuals first (and not) the means to another individual’s ends” (as cited in Wardell, 2011: p. 2). Building on this concept, Rawls (1985) asserts that individuals in the society must work in tandem to establish equality for all regardless of their social or class status.
In his theory, Rawls is of the view that a society operating on social justice principles is characterized by freedom of speech (Benhabib, 2004), equality in the eyes of the law and freedom of assembly (Solway, 2006). The members of such a society must also enjoy equal access to education, employment and other social facilities such as health cover. Contemporary scholars subscribing to Rawls’ school of thought cites the central theme in his theory in their writings.
We will write a custom Essay on Is Social Justice the Same Thing as Political Egalitarianism? An Analysis from a Theory of Justice Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the fact that the disadvantaged and marginalized members of the society should be assisted to enable them succeed in the society and live at par with the privileged individuals (Zafirovski, 2005). According to Rawls, all nation states in the world should put social justice at the forefront given the fact that all other policies formulated by the state rest on it. This is for example social and legal policies that are formulated by the state to improve the wellbeing of the citizens (Fernandez
Creative process in William Shakespeare works Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Staging a discussion of William Shakespeare perhaps invites people to reminiscent the glamour of his literary works, which were masterfully created within a quarter of a century. Introspection of Shakespeare works, “individually, several of them are among world’s finest written works; taken collectively, they establish Shakespeare as foremost literally talent of his own Elizabeth age and more impressively as a genius whose creative achievement has never been surpassed in any age” (Dutton and Howard 7).
Shakespeare consequently emerges as one of the widely popular English language authors who not only made an immense impact in the seventieth century, but the impacts of his works have remained intact even in the twentieth century.
To the millions of people who admire him, perhaps he is also the most gorgeous. As Dutton and Howard posit, “since his death in 1616, no other writer has surpassed his ability to capture the human soul in words, and no other writer has been more read, more written about, and more debated” (10).
Creativity in his works, Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, is portrayed by the manner he makes choice of characters, the way themes are tied up with stylistic language to reflect hidden meanings reflective of the society he lived in during his life. These two works of Shakespeare are introspected to reveal the aspects of literal creativity.
Various scholarly proponents of Shakespeare’s essays, poems, critics and dramas works have acclaimed his works as rich in both technical skills and creativity. Wilson laments, “One might succeed in discussing individual facets of Shakespeare’s unique genius, but it is utterly impossible to summarize his achievement.
There is something miraculous about Shakespeare’s peculiar gifts; and every sensitive reader will eventually discover the miracle for himself” (30). The rhyming of words to fit given context evidences, one aspect of creativity, in both Merchant of Venice and Hamlet.
Surprisingly William Shakespeare wrote his literally work in times when dictionaries were nonexistent. However, his vocabulary was essentially appalling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, according to scholarly research findings, an average person utilizes slightly higher than 1000 word in general communication, slightly lower than 1000 words while expressing himself or herself in writing and can only be able only about 5000 different words. However, Shakespeare utilized “over 25,000 different words in his writings – that is more than any other English writer has ever used!” (Hale para.2).
With the absence of dictionaries, it meant that he had no way to refer on whether he had used a certain word correctly and or in the right context. However, scrutinizing Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, and examining the meaning of the hefty vocabularies in these two works reveals no fault in the use of vocabularies. What made him achieve such success? His impeccable level of creativity must have done the trick.
Creativity in writing infers the capacity to express ones feelings, thoughts, and perceptions of how the society needs to look like. However, such criticisms need be presented through deployment of stylistic devices such as symbolism, mockery and humor among others to make the works interesting.
More often than not, creative works are meant to correct certain wrongs within the society. In Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, Shakespeare, amid many criticisms presents ways of correcting vices in the society by employing the villain-hero approach. In Hamlet, Hamlet delays in killing Claudius.
This act raises many criticisms as to why Shakespeare presents ideal characters by the fact that the prince took too much time to revenge. However, these critics do not appreciate the fact that Hamlet was principally a noble and exemplary character while Claudius was an immense villain comprising the creative literal facets for William Shakespeare. Knight reckons “…the tragedy of Hamlet lay in the fact that a “good” character was destroyed because of an “evil” usurper” (Para. 5).
Creatively created work, presents the readers with a myriad of interpretations, varying with contexts from which they interpret the work. These contexts may be from the author’s contexts, the texts context or even the reader’s contexts. In this regard, perhaps attempting to interpret, Hamlet from the texts context, Claudius may be seen as a treacherous villain.
On the hand, knight’s interpretation from the reader’s contexts refers “the image of Claudius at prayer, repenting of his crimes, while Hamlet refuses to kill him, not wanting his soul to go to heaven” (Knight Para.8). Rather than looking at Hamlet as a noble and sweet character, Knight sees him as ruthless and rude towards his mother, Rosencrantz, Ophelia and Guildenstern. Shakespeare, arguably is creative in the manner he ridicules the vices in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Creative process in William Shakespeare works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hamlet can be argued as a good, pure and innocent character. However, his goodness is concealed by the evil characters surrounding him. In this context, Shakespeare deploys Hamlet as a creative symbol depictive of how evil in the society can emerge to afflict even the dutiful people.
Congruent to this argument, many critics argue that, “Hamlet’s tragedy is not a result of the supposed weaknesses/flaws in his character or even mistakes in his judgment/action, but from the evil and intolerable situation into which he is cruelly thrust” (Knight Para. 8). Hamlet emerges as a victim of circumstances. His mother is remarried; his father dead and hence has no one to turn to for any form of help.
More about Hamlet Why Does Hamlet Act Crazy? 5 108 In Hamlet, act 1, scene 2, which dramatic convention does Shakespeare employ most? 5 164 What are Examples of Dramatic Irony in Hamlet? 5 89 What is Hamlet’s concluding thought after he has mused over the skulls and the idea of death? 5 131 Which excerpt from Hamlet, act 1, scene 1 is a stage direction? 5 178 What was the “moment of final suspense” in Hamlet? 5 502 Claudius ends up being a powerful man and hence Hamlet’s intentions to take action against him hit a dead end. The circumstances facing Hamlet depicts the Shakespeare’s creativity in presenting the way power hinders existence of cute and right society.
Shrouding the themes of Hamlet this way was perhaps vital since, at his time, literal works had to pass through government sensors to scrutinize political contents before proceeding to theater. Given that Hamlet can be interpreted in from historical, psychological, and romantic approaches and yet make sense, it presents incredible creativity in its composition.
Merchant of Venice is yet another Shakespeare’s literal work that portrays immense creativity. Shakespeare creatively ridicules capitalistic systems. He achieves this through narrations of the lives of his characters.
Christian characters value the society wellbeing while characters like shylock, have a dare need for money. While Antonio lends money without intents of individualistic gains in term of earning interests, Shylock is in deep agony when he loses his money: he strolls down the street crying “O, my ducats! O, my daughter!” (Shakespeare: Merchant of Venice, II.viii.15).
In this context, shylock is depicted as to value money more than he even values his daughter. This is arguably presentation of capitalistic systems, which only values personal gains in terms of profits. Shakespeare is creative enough not to express the theme of greed in Merchant of Venice: a menace that afflicts the society largely.
As priory mentioned, any creative piece of literature genre addresses the author’s opinions, feelings and thoughts in a vivid and witty way. In Merchant of Venice, the motif of law is redundant. Through the characters and various stylistic devices, the author creatively challenges the capacity of the laws of his land to be manipulated to favor those in power.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creative process in William Shakespeare works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While used accordingly, laws proactively produce good will of the people, but when manipulated, they serve to perpetrate wantons and cruelty. As Dutton and Howard reckon, “Portia’s virtual imprisonment by the game of caskets seems, at first, like a questionable rule at best, but her likening of the game to a lottery system is belied by the fact that, in the end, it works perfectly” (57). The complementariness of Bassanio and Portia is portrayed in a vivid way. What is this? Creativity?
A creative writer is well equipped with vocabulary, deploys stylistic devices such as symbols, humor, and shrouds the themes of his or her work in an attempt to give valid meanings depending on the context of interpretation of the work by the reader.
In Merchant of Venice, symbols such as the three caskets, Leah’s ring and a pound of the flesh are used to serve the purpose of presentation of abstract ideas. Hamlet and Merchant of Venice are rich in vocabulary, and the ability of these vocabularies to rhyme with the contexts in which they are used despite the fact that he had no dictionary to refer from during his time of writing.
Consequently, Shakespeare works are not only congruent with what we have discussed so far about the creative process but also sounds substantial to make an assumption that they have attained magnificent level of creativity that perhaps remarkably few writers of the twentieth century have reached.
Works Cited Dutton, Richard, and Jean Howard. A Companion to Shakespeare’s Works: The Histories, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
Hale, Ali. Creative Writing, 2011. Web. .
Knight, William. Literally Criticism for Hamlet by William Shakespeare: Various Interpretations of Hamlet, 2008. Web..
Shakespeare, William. Merchant of Venice. New York: Simons
Drivers Use of Cell Phones While Vehicles Are In Motion Should Not Be Prohibited Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Social Networking Benefits
Introduction The rate of cell phone use has been increasing since mid 1980, and this industry has been ranked as being the most growing in the world. Cell phone use has got lots of application be in business, between families and between those in transit.
Though all these situations use cell phones, but the equipment is very useful particularly to those in transit, including those driving vehicles most of phone operators have reported to be using the technology. In real sense, a large percentage of phone calls have been found to be initiated by motor vehicle drivers. However, many scholars and government agencies have argued that, the use of cell phones while driving “increases the risk of traffic collisions, property damage, injuries, and fatalities” (Lissy,
Segregation during 1960s Essay argumentative essay help
THESIS: The civil rights movements opened a new chapter in the nation’s history. African-Americans were embroiled in a vicious war that aimed to end discriminatory and segregation laws. They fought “the war of a lifetime” in which they demanded suffrage, educational and housing rights. In addition, they wanted equal access to employment opportunities as well as the abolishment of state and federal laws, which discriminated against them in public places.
The civil rights movement
Demand for full civil liberties
Discrimination in Churches and other public places
Use of visual symbols and metaphors
Use of Irony
Use of caricatures and stereotypes
Use of visual arguments
Segregation during 1960s In 1960s, the civil rights movements opened a new chapter in the nation’s history. Blacks were embroiled in a vicious war that aimed to end segregation laws.
They fought “the war of a lifetime” in which they demanded suffrage, educational and housing rights. In addition, they wanted equal access to employment opportunities as well as the abolishment of state and federal laws that segregated them in public places. In this editorial cartoon, posted in the Washington Post in 1960, the Herblock explicitly demonstrates that segregation laws were prevalent in public places across the United States (n.d).
Essentially the Church is considered the house of God. Consequently, it ought to embrace every person regardless of his color, race, ethnic background, class, or religion. However, in this cartoon the Church symbolizes the extent to which segregation laws had affected blacks in Churches and other public places.
In the earlier 1960s and before the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965, African-Americans worshipped in separate Churches and attended separate schools from the whites. In this cartoon, the cartoonist has ironically implied that this was “The First Segregationist Church,” which represented “The Brotherhood of Man” (Herblock n.d).
At this point, it is also important to note that the cartoonist himself visually exaggerates the message when he selectively employs white and black backgrounds to label the signpost of the church. This categorically presents substantial grounds to support the fact that segregation laws had profound effect on the American society although they were unconstitutional.
He strategically places an old, fat white man, who obviously looks worried at the sight of African-Americans who have come to the Church. This view clearly symbolizes that segregation laws were intact in the minds of conservative Americans. The title of the cartoon, “Pray, Keep Moving Brother” also provides another form of ironical expression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The white man standing at the entrance of the Church is telling the father of the little boy to keep on praying and it is indisputable that the little boy is listening to the conversation. In essence, the whites are not comfortable to share the same Church and other public places with blacks however; because of the government’s decision to outlaw discrimination in public places, whites reluctantly begun recognizing blacks.
This is shown when the white man in the cartoon uncomfortably calls blacks his “brothers” and mockingly tells them to pray and keeps moving in order to get official constitutional recognition. The name of the Church itself “first segregationist Church” is a slogan that is used to assert that indeed this was the first Church that allowed both blacks and whites to share the common platform.
It is also crucial to note that conservative whites were not ready to share similar platforms with blacks despite the fact that the government outlawed segregation laws. Consequently, the editorial cartoon oversimplifies the view that whites boycotted Churches and other public places because the Civil Right Act gave blacks the legal recognition to share public places with whites, this is shown when the white old man leaves the first segregationist church to pave way for blacks.
The cartoonist also emphasizes the fact that blacks were determined to share the American dream because they defied all odds to show whites that attaining civil rights was their constitutional right as revealed by the middle-aged father who brings his son to the first segregationist Church.
The cartoon is arguing against racial discrimination and the enforcement of segregation laws as evidently portrayed when the cartoonist dresses the white old man in black suit and dresses the blacks in white suit. In addition, the cartoon is asserting that blacks not only wanted an end to segregation laws they also fought alongside their children as depicted by the father who has brought his son to the Church.
In conclusion, this editorial cartoon symbolizes the extent to which segregation laws affected blacks in Churches and other public places during the 60s besides it also emphasizes how blacks confronted whites in public places to achieve basic civil liberties.
Works Cited Herblock. “Segregation 1960.” The Washington Post14 Aug. 1960. Web. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblock/
We will write a custom Essay on Segregation during 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction For a city to be established, there are specific things that need to be considered, for instance, economic growth, cultural affiliations, geography and topography, history that defines the origin of the city, resources available, politics, governance, population and facilities available. San Francisco is one among the many cities in California.
This paper will discuss San Francisco and determine how it established itself. San Francisco city occupies the seven-mile-wide northern tip of the San Francisco peninsula, and hosts a population of 750,000 people with very slim possibilities of going beyond that capacity (Sinclair 1).
As a city, it has gone through tough and good times socially and economically, some but a few include earth quakes, floods, and economic instabilities in the earlier days and the world wars both one and two. Due to it being a hub of activities, each time the city is faced with such challenges; it takes a short time to get back to its feet (Bing and Channell 33). It is considered as one of the major centers for transportation, cultural and financial activities. It has its history based on arts as its major establishment activity.
The San Franciscans are known to be imaginative, which has given the city its name, “city of the imagination” (Sinclair 1). Throughout history, San Francisco has been known to be a city where anything and everything is possible. From politics, economic backgrounds and stands to their liberal perception on issues, it creates an atmosphere where everybody and anybody can coexist. This has attracted foreign investors from around the globe which has changed the face of the city to a more attractive one.
Thesis Statement Due to San Francisco’s establishment as a city based on imagination and one that is always in progress and growth, it has taken the position of being considered a more livable city than most of the other cities in California. This far, it has been able to preserve the grounds on which it was established; imagination and attracting the outside world through its position in the region, state, national and global economy (Brook, Carlson and Peters vii).
Due to the city’s stand, it has continued to contribute positively to the growth of California, which has contributed to the attraction of foreign investors and heads of major corporations. This has contributed positively to the image of San Francisco from the old ugly town to the productive town that has grown with time.
San Francisco The economy of San Francisco has been on rapid growth since the time of Gold rush. This attracted so many people from all over the world who came in order to search for the gold. This increased the population of the city to an unimaginable number which in turn contributed positively to make the city a commercial centre and the present financial district (Sinclair 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the city got to be established financially, California became a major beneficially of the same growth since it opened its frontier to investors. San Francisco being a Financial District, which is expansive to the shores of the ocean, and opens the beaches to the tourists, has been a major source of income to the California people.
The growth of the economy in San Francisco has established itself as a centre for employment, which has attracted professional work force from neighbor states, cities and countries, a thing that had not happened in the past.
Though the magnetic pull of employment has called people from all professions, this has greatly led to the economic liberation of the young people since the housing rents remained low enough to allow artists, refugees and those outside the mainstream to survive and to prosper in the main city (Brook, Carlson and Peters 9).
Its ability to host the Chamber of Commerce, Mission District, banks like Bank of America among other banks and many other significant components of the economy has made San Francisco accessible to all kinds of development that comes with civilization.
Many people have been leaving their countries to get white color jobs in San Francisco even though the standard and the quality of living are very high there. Its opening to the neighborhood has been a drive in establishing restaurants and entertainment centers to cater for the needs of the people.
As a city, San Francisco has been well established in arts and entertainment. The city is known to host the most enduring artists whose works sell so much all over the world. The city has been consistent in the production of high-quality soaps that are watched all over the world through their refined artists who have been in the field for a long time. San Franciscans’ use of stage from acting to music is such a catching thing that all over the world people will tune to the San Franciscan TV channels to watch their productions.
The arts in this city range from photography where they have one of the best world collections that can be seen in their museums and galleries (Bing and Channell 40), social commentaries, painting and sculpture, high concepts, high craft, storytelling and by use of the new technology, they are still developing more arts.
We will write a custom Research Paper on San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The San Franciscans are also in music where they are producing music in different categories ranging from opera to local entertainment. All the mentioned arts contribute to the economy of the city and in turn to that of California at large (Bing and Channel 42).
Freedom of expression is one of the key features in the law that makes San Francisco to be one of the most liberal cities in California. Freedom of expression is meant to be respected by all citizens as long as an individual is not threatening the peace of the society around him/her, the person should be let to express themselves as they deem fit.
The gay and the prostitute community are free to express themselves since they are accepted politically and culturally. Any people who express themselves and face the threats from the police or members of the public are at liberty to report that as harassment and the demonstration of such persons is justified.
Education offered in San Francisco is that of highly specialized skills so that as professionals and individual are able to offer the society the best skills needed in changing the market. Every so often, San Francisco and California at large review the education system in order to improve the system to match up with the emerging needs of the world (Divine 1). This not only sets the city at a good position globally to provide up to date services, but it improves the city’s governance as they respond to local and international need to do that.
As mentioned earlier, the city of San Francisco is one of the major tourist attraction places in the world, and tourism is the largest industry which generates the highest annual income for the country. Every tourist who has visited the city will do it repeatedly because the entertainment venues in San Francisco cannot be exhausted.
This is because there are enough recreational sites to visit ranging from the museums, entertainment theaters, public and private beaches, animal reserves, local entertainment, explorations to up to date accommodation facilities.
Out of statistics in San Francisco, it has been shown that, “the massive injection of visitors directly supports local hotels, restaurant, shops, attraction and cultural centers. It also indirectly bolsters practically every segment of the city’s economy and has a broad positive influence on the government finances” (San Francisco 1).
Politics and governance are two important key features of any given place and greatly affect the economic condition of the place in question. San Francisco being the only consolidated city- County in California passes its own laws and budgets through the mayor, who is the head of the city. The mayor who has the power to appoint a committee to govern the city, and this makes it easier for him to manage the city governance (Brook, Carlson and Peters 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been like so since 1856 out of the observation that the city out of its numerous economic activities was doing well. Due to its independence, it has been mandated to be the state of Supreme Court of the state of California. San Francisco is considered as one of the best places for conventions and conferences.
Due to good governance and the security established by the local government, San Francisco has been considered as one of the best places to invest. Its rapid growth and central governance of resources make it an attractive city for business people who put in efforts to meet the needs of the growing population; one is always sure of selling their goods and services and make profits.
Because of the city’s ability to attract wealth from many corners of the land, San Francisco has a legacy of wealth; this has made California one of the greatest engines of the world’s economic growth (Brook, Carlson and Peters 8). This also has a disadvantage because it attracts people with all manners of expertise from positive to negative. San Francisco is one of the cities where one needs to be careful when dealing with strangers lest one finds themselves in the hands of gamblers or thieves.
Conclusion San Francisco as one of the cities in California, has greatly established itself. Its establishment is based on the development of a strong economic foundation through many activities that are carried out in the city. The strong education system and the ability to attract many investors give San Francisco a chance to contribute to the world economy.
Tourism as a major attraction point has been one of the greatest strengths in raising the largest share of country and global revenue, a position that gives San Francisco a plus over other cities in California. Due to the city’s ability to attract investors and different economic activities from around the world, San Francisco is considered a city where everything is available regardless of its small size as compared to other states around California.
People have always been moving to San Francisco for a better life which is made possible through improved infrastructure which the city government had to put in place to take care of the growing population. This has made the city so famous, and it makes the city attractive to people from all over the world that have either heard about the city or have been to the city.
Works Cited Bing, Alison and Channell Dominique. San Francisco. San Francisco, CA: Lonely Planet, 2008. Print.
Brook James, Carlson Chris and Peters Nancy. Reclaiming San Francisco: History, Politics, and Culture. San Francisco, CA: City Lights books, 1998. Print.
Divine, Caroline. “Education Policy in America; Education Policy in San Francisco.” Divine Caroline Articles, 2011. Web.
San Francisco. “San Francisco Visitor Industry Statistics.” San Francisco Travel, 2011. Web. .
Sinclair, Mick. San Francisco. A culture and literary history. San Francisco, CA: Signal Books, 2004. Print.
Comparing Robert Frost’s Poems: The Road not Taken and A Question Essay cheap essay help
The two popular poems by Robert Frost – The Road not Taken and A Question – focus on experiences and hardships that a person should undergo before a decision is made. Although they rely on the problem of difficult choices, they are a number of differences in their viewpoints on philosophical conception of life. In particular, The Road not Taken focuses on the events that influenced the narrator’s choice and provided the rationale for his actions.
In contrast, A Question deliberates on what has already been done. Specific attention requires the question about the value of death and life, as well as about the reflection on previous experience. Hence, the leading aspects and themes discussed in both poems are associated with the difficulties in decision-making, influence of life experience on the choices, and consequences of our actions. All these themes are represented from the viewpoint of the narrator who is concerned with the problems of being.
The structure and size of the poems differ significantly. In particular, The Road not Taken is a four-stanza poem with five lines each. The rhythmic pattern is iambic tetrameter which coincides the ABAAB scheme. Rhymes are masculine and straight, except for the last line where the stress is put on the last syllable.
A Question has only one stanza with four lines, but it also has iambic structure. Although the poems are from different collections, they indicate similar features in terms of themes, characters, and philosophical outlooks on life. Biographical features in both verses are explicitly illustrated. Although the author focuses on natural phenomena, most of subjects relate to the human feelings, experiences, and emotions.
Description of life experience is, probably, at the core of all literary works introduced by Frost. According to Bloom, “Frost’s verse is often so apparently paraphrasable as to seem the précis for some short story: a domination of plot that takes up the slack seemingly left by an overly straightforward, honey, and blunt language” (87-88). Presence of metaphysical elements, as well as reflection on the sense of existence, is also associated with autobiographical features of Frost’ poetic work.
Decision-making is, apparently, the prevailing theme in Frosts’ poem because both literary pieces focus on this issue. The problem is highlighted almost in similar figurative manner because Frost refers to the ideas of decision-making through representations of metaphorical comparisons. Thus, in the first poem, the author compares choices with paths in the forest: “Two roads diverged in a yellow wood/And sorry I could not travel both” (The Road not Taken 9).
While interpreting this, the author assumes that an individual cannot made two opposite decisions, just as it is impossible to take roads simultaneously. Similar to this poem, A Question also relies on metaphorical comparisons while deliberating on the matter of choice: “…tell me truly…if all the soul-and-body scars were too much to pay for the birth” (A Question 45). In the passage, the author compares “soul-and-body scares” with the consequences of the decisions that people made during their lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Influence of life experience on people’s choice is also brightly demonstrated in both verses, but at different angles. In particular, both poems refer to such feelings as regret and frustration while questioning the outcomes of the choices made. At the end of The Road not Taken, Frost makes use of the word “sign” to render his disappointment with the decision he made in life: “I shall be telling this with a sigh/…I Two roads diverged in a wood and I – I took the one less traveled by” (9).
At the same time, negative experience is interpreted in the second poem, in which the poet compares human knowledge with “soul-and-body scars” that should be paid off. With regard to these metaphorical interpretations, it should be assumed that both verses unveil the author’s viewpoint on the concept of life, in which experience defines the goals of human existence. It also creates understanding of what role free will and fate play on our lives.
Consequences of our actions shape our future. Frost refers to human lives with irony because all our decisions are largely limited by the existence of choices in front of our paths. In the majority of cases, people are under the influence of circumstances that make them choose the path they go.
Nevertheless, Frost constantly questions the inevitability of the choices made and justifies the chosen solutions in life. At the same time, he thinks that people are not the only ones to blame in their searching. In particular, there are other supernatural powers that do not depend on circumstances created by humans. In both poems, external powers are represented, but in different capacities.
In conclusion, Frost’ verses analyze the role of decision making in human lives, as well as how it is affected by personal wisdom and external circumstances. Although both novels relate to different epistemological dimensions, they discover such problems as the matter of choice, importance of life experience, and consequences of human actions. While investigating these topics, the emphasis has been placed on literary devices that the author employs, including metaphors and irony.
Works Cited Frost, Robert. “A Question”. A Witness Tree. Robert Frost. US: J. Cape. 1943. 45. Print.
Frost, Robert. “The Road not Taken” Mountain Interval. Robert Frost. US: Henry Holt, 1916. 9. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing Robert Frost’s Poems: The Road not Taken and A Question specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bloom, Harold. Robert Frost. US: Infobase Publishing, 2003. Print.
Entomophagy as Portrayed by Western Media and Literature Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Entomophagy is consumption of insects by humans. Consumption of insects has been practiced by humans for ages. However, different cultures consumed insects for different reasons. In western and European cultures insect consumption is restricted to extreme conditions. In these cultures insects were considered to be repulsive organisms and their consumption was not condoned. In fact insects were viewed as causes of various health problems that inflicted pain on man. Currently, literary works portray insects as desirable creatures.
Insect eating has existed for long in some cultures. Entomophagy is widely practiced in Eastern cultures and Africa. Members of these communities eat insects for their taste, for survival, and as a cultural expression. In western culture insect eating is largely regarded as a disgusting undertaking.
The aspect of insect eating for survival is emphasized in western media perhaps in an attempt to make entomophagy more acceptable. However, media and literary productions in the west are preoccupied with portraying entomophagy as exotic. Exoticism appears to be the driving force behind the emergence of television shows featuring insect eating and insect containing cuisines.
Exoticism appears to provoke the interest of the viewers and television audiences. Viewed from this perspective, entomophagy seems acceptable to the western viewer. Mass media and literary productions are increasingly portraying insects as acceptable creatures. This is evidenced by arguments supporting environmental protection. The love for nature should compel one to consider insects as part and parcel of a beautiful environment.
It has been argued that to love nature is to love everything in it. Previously insects were not considered as food in western culture. Therefore, accidental ingestion of insects would evoke a lot of misery and suffering. However, mass media and literary productions have helped shape the notion that insects are other food. Some people have accepted insects as alternative food. The aim is to give an impression that insects should not be reserved for extreme times only.
Insect eating is currently portrayed as a source of entertainment and awe. There are many television shows whose main content is insect eating. These shows tend be sensationalistic in nature. Entomophagy in the shows is packed in such a way that it provokes fear and disgust at the same time.
Insect eating is used to create spectacle. The television shows feature characters playfully eating insects. Before the emergence of these shows insects were largely viewed as disgusting creatures. They were perceived as dirty disease causing organisms. Few would dare touch them and even less would dare eat them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mass media and literary works are aiding change in attitude towards insects. Insect consumers can now critically examine their position as consumers. Similarly, they assist the consumers to examine their opinion of insects. Critical examination of consumers and products was suppressed in the past. In the process consumers get to understand that they must support conservation efforts.
In conclusion, entomophagy has always existed in various societies but the advent of popular culture has significantly affected our perception of insects. In the past western culture did not consider insects as ‘normal’ food. However, media has contributed to the perception of insects as ‘other’ food in the west. Insect cuisines are viewed as exotic delicacies worth trying. Media has used insect eating as a source of entertainment and amazement. This has contributed to the acceptance of insects as beautiful creatures.
Media Relations Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Public relations (PR) refers to the process of presenting information to the public by an individual or an organization through appropriately managed channels (Henslowe 34). It involves dispensation of information in different forms such as blogging, educational websites, and social media by.
Companies use PR to market themselves to the public through persuasion. They convince investors, employees, stakeholders, partners, and the public to hold a certain viewpoint about their services or products, leadership or management system (Henslowe 36). Activities that are commonly associated with PR include awards, invitation to address conferences, and collaborations with the press on projects that affect the welfare of the public.
How has Wikipedia (celebrating 10 years) affected PR practices?
Many PR firms use Wikipedia to provide information to the public. However, there have been criticisms of bias in the information given by both individuals and organizations. Wikipedia’s celebrations have reiterated their effort to provide the public with accurate and unbiased information (Henslowe 33). Wikipedia has revolutionalized PR practices because of its unique model of presenting information. It allows people to edit offensive, inadequate, or biased information (Duhe 26).
However, there is conflict of interest in cases where clients contract PR firms to edit certain information on their behalf. In addition, Wikipedia has streamlined the process of information delivery on the internet because it allows individuals to add or delete unwanted information (Duhe 27). This has increased the possibility of obtaining accurate and reliable information on the internet.
Moreover, verification of information by editors improves the accuracy of information. Wikipedia has established policies that control content on their website (Duhe 28). This ensures that individuals do not manipulate information that they publish at their own will. In addition, their guidelines on conflict of interest ensure that clients do not misuse the website by adding biased information that is directed towards their competitors (Duhe 31). Wikipedia has affected PR practices significantly.
How has social media changed the PR field?
Social media has changed the field of public relations immensely. It has changed how people gather and share information, and how they communicate. It has increased the speed of gathering and sharing information (Nelson par5).
For example, PR professionals have access to loads of information that help them to solve a variety of problems. Companies can collect information from customers about a certain product or service through social media. For instance, Twitter and Facebook are important resources used by companies to collect vital information that help them to develop plans and strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has also changed the dynamics of journalism. Journalists and PR professionals can easily obtain information online without necessarily going out in the field (Breakenridge 62). Moreover, with the advent of social media, information became readily available online. People can share information easily because it is fast and reliable. Information is gathered firsthand from targeted people instead of secondary sources.
What is media bias? Find examples Media bias refers to the action of forcing a certain viewpoint on people by giving distorted or misleading information in order to promote a certain ideal (Ruschmann 41). As such, media bias is exhibited by either print or digital media companies. An individual journalist rarely exhibits it. Media bias is a common phenomenon in journalism because of differences in views, opinions, and interpretation of information. An example of media bias is the exclusion of viewpoints of a certain story covered in the media.
The media may incline towards one side of the story and as a result give information that supports their viewpoint. The media has been accused of bias in almost every instance it gives information to the public. However, presenting all the views on a particular topic of discussion is difficult because people approach issues and synthesize information differently (Ruschmann 41). Therefore, it is difficult to present all viewpoints without excluding some.
For example, minor political parties in the United States express their concern that the media focuses its attention on the two major parties: Democrats and Republicans. This constitutes media bias because they have a right to be heard and represented by the media. In addition, the media ignores their viewpoints on matters that are important to the public and instead concentrate on the viewpoints of the two major political parties (Sloan and MacKay 56).
Conclusion Public relations refer to the process of presenting information to the public by an individual or an organization through appropriately managed channels. It is used by companies to create organizational images that portray them positively to the public. The media has played a significant role in changing the PR field.
It has increased speed of information gathering and sharing. In addition, it has changed the way people communicate. Media bias is one of the challenges of PR. It involves presenting information that leans towards one side of certain situations while neglecting other sides. For example, the media focuses attention on major political parties and neglects minor parties. Media bias is common in political and religious circles.
Works Cited Breakenridge, Deirde. Social Media and Public Relations: Eight New Practices for the PR Professional. New York: FT Press, 2012. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Duhe, Sandra. New Media and Public Relations. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. Print.
Henslowe, Philip. Public Relations: a Practical Guide to the Basics. New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2003. Print.
Nelson, Kristin. Social Media: Shaping Public Relations since 1970. 10 Oct. 2012. Web. .
Ruschmann, Paul. Media Bias. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.
Sloan, William, and MacKay Jenn. Media Bias: Finding it and Fixing it. New York: McFarland, 2007. Print.
American Political Culture Essay (Article) essay help
The American political culture has gone through a series of interesting and fundamental changes between 2004 and 2012, a major one being a shift in voter turnout and use of social media. The victory of Barack Obama, an African American president reflects the mind of the voter who wanted a change from war, growing oil prices, unemployment and an economy which showed no signs of revival.
In Barack Obama, the new American political voters saw simplicity and optimism for a better America and a hopeful future for the new generation. Needless to say, the Hispanic population, the African Americans played a pivotal role in creating history by electing an African American president, Barack Obama.
Obama was able to connect with the young voters and attract Hispanic votes “like no president before him” (Lister par. 6). His simple slogans promising hope and a constant call for a change appealed to the Americans who were tired of the Bush administration.
The Americans seemed fed up of George W. Bush’s presidency which centered on the Middle Eastern wars and a period of high recession in an economy which was struggling and showed no hope for improvement. With a high federal deficit the Americans were looking for a change from the problems they had been facing through the Bush regime.
New social media played a crucial role in the political polarization and dynamics of the 2008 election results (Zakaria par. 9). The Facebook fundraising campaign by Chris Hughes attracted more than three million donors, proving to be a Masterful operation, leaving Obama with a spending capacity of four to one against McCain (Lister par. 6). The funds made it easy for Obama to target TV airtime as well as online ads.
Young Americans voted in huge numbers to make their choice showing the change technology and social media had brought about in communication. With easier means of communication, Obama, with his simple yet assertive speeches appealed to the American voters instantly.
His call for “hope” and “change” appealed to the people who were looking for a change (Presidential Campaign Slogans, par. 50) in severe contrast to the Bush administration which sidelined the social welfare of its people and centralized foreign policy matters. Overlooking important economic matters such as the tanking stock market, the weakening banking sector and the lack luster of the real estate proved to be the deciding factors of the 2008 elections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Obama’s victory and re-election is largely based on a high black turnout and large Hispanic vote. With Latinos amounting to “the fastest growing minority, making up 16% of the nation’s population” (Rodriguez par. 2), Obama won with a huge majority. In the 2008 elections too, Latinos accounted for 9% of the electorate and with 19.5 million eligible voters, Obama secured “67% of the Latino vote” (Rodriguez par. 4).
With the growing majority of Latinos and “nearly 24 million Hispanics eligible to vote” the Latinos “made their mark on election night as they voted over Barack Obama over Republican Mitt Romney” (Rodriguez par. 4).
Works Cited Lister, Richard. Why Barack Obama won. 2008. Web.
Presidential Campaign Slogans n.d. Web.
Rodriguez, Cindy. Latino vote key to Obama’s re-election. 2012. Web.
Zakaria, Fareed. Why political polarization has gone wild in America (and what to do about it). 2011. Web.
A Change to Scared-Straight Programs Proposal essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sacred-straight Programs are not Effective
Opposing Views to Scare-Straight Program
Introduction The rate at which criminal activities happen around the world is alarming. While majority associate these activities with adult men and women, it is surprising to realize the share of the crimes that are committed by children. In most instances, people assume that children are not involved criminal activities.
It is therefore worth noting the depth of Schmalleger’s report on children and crime. In fact, Schemalleger’s report of 2008 revealed that about 10% of the 99,794 juvenile arrests were of children of 12 years and below (2011, p. 542). An approximately 17% of all the arrests made in the United States every year comprised juveniles.
In addition, juveniles are responsible for about 16% aggressive felony acts and about 26% property crimes in the United States. Since children form less than a third of the population, their percentage involvement in crime is disproportional (542). This argument indicates that the prevalence of criminal activities resulting from juveniles has been assumed in the world.
The percentages revealed by such studies like that of Schmalleger are enough to prove that children’s involvement in criminal acts is alarming. In fact, this trend has been increasing over the years especially in the United States. Therefore, the rising trends of criminal acts by children have made it necessary for advocates and law makers to develop ways of reducing incidences of crimes committed by juveniles.
They introduced the scared-straight programs as mechanisms of fighting felony acts by children. Whether they are effective or not has been a subject of discussion. As the paper reveals, removing some aspects such as confrontation and maintaining contact and support to the offenders and their families over an extended period can make the programs effective. However, the share that this strategy can have is insignificant in relation to the weight of the cons of the program, which make it ineffective.
Sacred-straight Programs are not Effective Scared-straight programs cannot be effective by themselves alone because juvenile crimes continue to rise even after great efforts by the government of the United States to enact legislations to promote it over the years. For instance, in the United States, several acts promoted the establishment of juvenile courts in a bid to separate children in crimes from mature adults. A good example of such a move that has never born any fruits is the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899. This Act initiated a system of juvenile courts in the state of Illinois.
Through the same Act, all juveniles in crimes were to be regarded as delinquents. Because of this Act, judges of the juvenile courts were advised to keep focus on the interest of the children in crimes than on their criminal act (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 546). In fact, no juvenile offender would be regarded as a criminal in such courts. Judges were to regard them as delinquents. This strategy is one of the grounds that made scare-straight programs unsuccessful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second effort by the program was to eliminate the guilt of crime from the delinquents in a bid to promote reformation. The move made many juvenile criminals feel pampered to continue with their criminal activities even after being taken through the court process. They would never be remorseful about their acts. In 1938, the federal government of the United States passed another law: the Juvenile Court Act.
This Act had many attributes and incorporations of the previous Illinois Act (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547), which was followed by concerted efforts by the federal government to ensure that, within the next eight years, the states in America had established legislations on juvenile offenders and their treatment in courts of law (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547). However, these efforts were not fruitful.
There were certain principals that the juvenile courts were to follow as the guidelines. Such principles included the assumption that the state was the ultimate parent to every child. The state should use non punitive measures to save children since it was worthwhile to do so.
Every state was to nurture children and protect them from formal judicial procedure’s effects by individualizing the process of justice to recognize that every child is different by aspirations, living conditions, and needs. In addition, states were to be guided by the principle of non criminal procedures when adjudicating juvenile cases (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547). Each state had to consider these factors in handling juvenile cases.
All these efforts flopped. In fact, by 1980s, the rate of juvenile crimes rose to a higher scale (Dammer
Simulation of VTI Mobotics’ Strategy Essay online essay help
Introduction Amalgamated Mobotics was one of the first producers of lawn mowing robots, which are now known as mobots. The company was one of the leaders in this market. However, lots of competitors entered the market and the company faced a “classic problem”, i.e. the “revenues were dropping” and their “costs were rising” (Ireland, 2013, p. 5). VTI Mobotics acquired the company. Now the company is developing a new strategy to address the major issues.
New Strategy The team makes the right decision to start with developing a new strategy. Admittedly, it is essential to have a specific plan to reach certain goals (Griffin, 2012). There are a number of possible ways to address the problem. The most important is to work on the new product development. This should be the company’s priority as the competitors have gained a great share of market and it is essential to come up with new ideas to win the market back.
While developing the new strategy, it is also crucial to pay attention to time spent on personal projects. The companies (Amalgamated Mobotics and VTI Mobotics) have quite different approaches and the staff should understand the importance of the work on personal projects. The staff should be able to provide the feedback which is crucial for the effective implementation of any project.
Communication Admittedly, it is essential to have effective communicative channels to make the staff aware of the new strategy. One of the possible ways to communicate the new strategy is sending an e-mail. It is the fastest way and the top management can be sure that all employees will get the information.
Employees will also be able to respond and ask any questions. However, this way has certain downsides. In the first place, some e-mails are ignored and there are odds that some employees may fail to pay the necessary attention to this e-mail. Furthermore, answering all questions is very time-consuming.
Therefore, the best way is to send a company-wide e-mail and reveal the major points of the new strategy. Those who have questions and suggestions should respond with their questions.
The e-mail should contain the day of the company-wide meeting where the detailed presentation of the new strategy will be delivered and most important questions will be addressed. The employees will be able to ask questions during the meeting. This is the most efficient way to introduce the new strategy as all employees will actively participate in the process and will be unable to ignore the message.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Production The company has one serious issue to address. Its supplier, MotorWorks, postpones deliveries. The quality of the microchip-controlled motors provided by MotorWorks is excellent, but the late deliveries lead to certain losses. Some employees think that it is necessary to start developing the motors internally and stop buying from MotorWorks.
However, MotorWorks is one of the biggest customers of the company and rejection of their products can lead to the loss of this important customer. At that, production of the motors internally requires additional funding. One of the suggested ways is to start buying motors from different suppliers. However, the company may lose one of its customers.
Therefore, it is necessary to think of another way out. This can be a formal agreement with MotorWorks about purchasing the necessary parts “exclusively” from them “in return for guarantee delivery” (Ireland, 2013, p. 10). It is also necessary to start in-house production of some parts which will make the company less dependent on suppliers.
Quality of Services Another problem the company is facing is related to the quality of services. The customers are satisfied with the quality of the products and are not against the necessary services. The customers are ready to have the products serviced as long as the services are provided properly and within the necessary time limits. However, the company’s professionals are unable to provide high-quality services which leads to the customers’ dissatisfaction. Since the company’s employees are unable to do their job well, it is necessary to hire qualified staff.
Individual Projects After the acquisition, the company is focused on the specific goals. Admittedly, the new strategy requires a lot of effort and every employee is loaded with certain work. Clearly, this is no time to give employees a lot of time to work on their own projects as the company should address quite urgent issues.
However, it is inappropriate to make the employees forget about their own projects completely. It is crucial to limit the time spent on the individual projects to 10% of the overall time. The employees will have opportunity to generate ideas (which is really important for the company and the employees’ motivation). However, the employees will need to report on their progress (on both their own projects and the work on the strategic projects).
Sales and Marketing Department Since the Sales and Marketing department is working effectively, it does not need many changes. However, it could be beneficial to increase competitiveness in this department. It is possible to suggest larger compensations to the employees. It is also possible to introduce extra perks.
We will write a custom Essay on Simulation of VTI Mobotics’ Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The New Year Strategies Possible initiatives for the next year may include recruiting top talents, improving internal systems, analyzing customer data. The best option is to work on the improvement of the internal systems as it will enable the company to decrease expenditures. Clearly, hiring new staff can lead to extra costs and rather unpredictable results as no professional can ensure effective development of the company.
Prices Cuts The company is facing one more problem. Two large customers (which make up to 30% of the total sales) require 10% discount, but the company does not have the policy of offering any discounts.
However, the prices are not too high; therefore the discount should not be that big. It is possible to consider smaller discounts 3-5%, but it is necessary to set certain minimum, i.e. minimal amount of supplies to get the discount. This will prove the company’s flexibility and interest in the customer’s needs. However, it may also prevent companies from asking for discounts.
Product Development Finally, some of the company’s employees suggest that the company collaborate with another company, which has developed a new product (mobots working in high humidity). However, this suggestion should be carefully thought over. It may be necessary to hire experts to work on the new technology rather than collaborate with another company.
There are several companies working on this kind of improvement and collaborating with any of these companies will not ensure that the company will develop an exclusive product. Thus, in-house experts will be the best option for the company as this option is the most cost-effective (there is no need to pay to other companies to get innovative ideas as the ideas will be developed by the company’s professionals).
Reference List Griffin, R.W. (2012). Management. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Ireland, S. (2013). VTI Mobotics: Paper-Based Simulation. University Canada West.
Amalgamated Mobotics Essay custom essay help
The main facts about the organization The company Amalgamated Mobotics which was founded in 1993, produces lawn mowing robots (Ireland, 2013, p. 1). Although at the very beginning of its operations, this organization achieved relative success, it later lost its positions to other competitors that could manufacture better products at a lower cost (Ireland, 2013, p. 1).
Amalgamated Mobotics was acquired by a large corporation Virtual Technologies. At this point, the management of a newly-created division called VTI Mobotics has to find ways of improving the performance of this organization.
The postulated strategy The series of discussions and meetings have resulted in the identification of the following goals: 1) improved retention of customers; 2) the development of innovative products; 3) reduced operational costs. These objectives are critical for the sustainability of this organization. As it has said before, Amalgamated Mobotics lost their competitive edge because their rivals outperformed Mobotics in terms of price and quality.
The chosen communication strategy The choice of communication strategy is vital the performance of VT Mobotics. It is possible to prefer such a method as a company-wide meeting. The main advantage of this approach is that senior executives can clearly communicate their objectives to every employee of the company (Wright, 2006, p. 16).
Furthermore, the message will not be distorted in any way (Wright, 2006, p. 16). This method is not the only one that business administrators can use. The directors of each department should later specify the details of the strategy to the workers. In this case, the main advantage is that employees will be more willing to ask clarifying questions when they interact with managers who are more familiar. These are the main aspects that should be considered by business administrators.
The partnership with Motorworks For a long time, Amalgamated Mobotics has cooperated with such a supplier as MotorWorks. This organization has indeed provided Mobotics with high-quality components, but they often failed to deliver their goods on time (Ireland, 2013, p. 8). At this point, the management has to decide whether the organization should further rely on the services of MotorWorks or establish partnerships with other suppliers.
Under the circumstances, the most rationale policy would be to conduct the evaluation of clients’ satisfaction with motors. On the basis of this research, the management can better evaluate the efficiency of Motorworks as a supplier. The main recommendation is that Mobotics should not rely too much on a single supplier since such a policy can make them too vulnerable. Moreover, they should not be responsible for improving the organizational performance of MotorWorks. This is one of the main points that should be made.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Complaints of customers One of the most important tasks is to increase the satisfaction of clients. In their opinion, the quality of the company’s after-sale service does not always meet their expectations (Ireland, 2013, p. 8). This is one the reasons why they choose to purchase the products manufactured by the competitors of Mobotics.
To some extent, it is the duty of the R
Evolution in the English Language Essay (Article) college application essay help: college application essay help
English is now indisputably an international language. It even has a new acronym: ELF, or English as a Lingua Franca. However, unlike French or Latin, the original LFs only of the European world, English is literally everywhere, and is the default language for many industries and fields of study and employment.
Whether you are travelling, living abroad in an Anglophone country, or studying English in school, you will find that there is not just one variant of English. If you are not careful, you can run afoul of regional differences in word usage that can embarrass or inconvenience you, and may detract from the clarity of your writing.
Because of the mix of ethnicities that makes up the USA, American English has evolved along different lines. Thus, a British speaker and an American speaker can find themselves talking at cross purposes unless they understand the idiomatic differences between the two regional forms of the language. The following are some examples from personal experience:
Consider the classic error made by a British hotel guest when suggesting to an attractive young person that they sightsee together the following day. “Shall I come round and knock you up in the morning?” asks the Brit, and the American wonders why this ill-mannered lout wishes to get her with child.
The phrase “to knock up” is US slang for getting someone pregnant. He could have said, “Shall I knock on your door in the morning?” and this international incident would have been averted entirely. And by the way, the phrase “young person” is another Briticism, albeit one that may be a bit vintage. Americans would speak of a “young lady” if they have any manners.
Another classic mistake can occur in a “pub” (known to Yanks as a “bar”), when someone offers “cider”. In the USA, almost without exception, “cider” is unfiltered apple juice. It is served as an eco-friendly and often locally sourced alternative to less healthy “soft” (non-alcoholic) beverages such as Coke, Pepsi, Dr. Pepper or other overpriced mixtures of sugar water, caramel coloring, and marketing.
In Britain, on the other hand, the term “cider” refers to a fairly potent (and tasty) fermented version of apple juice that can set the unwary imbiber reeling. Cider was once fermented enthusiastically everywhere in the colonies, as was Perry, or pear cider, but Prohibition nearly wiped that industry out. It making a comeback as an alcoholic drink, along with locally made sausage, and boutique beers, but it will be reliably referred to as “hard cider”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As long as we are on the topic of embarrassing mistakes, consider the word “rubber”. In the USA, this refers to the substance derived from latex, but also to male contraceptives, or condoms, which protect the male reproductive organ, or “pecker” (USA). In the UK, the word “rubber” refers to an eraser, and the “pecker” is the chin, meaning that “keeping one’s pecker up” is a phrase to use with care. Another pitfall phrase is “on the job”. In the USA, this means literally while working – as in “managerial training on the job”.
In British English, on the other hand, this can refer to that most intimate of consensual interpersonal activities, so avoid this phrase unless you are sure of your audience! “Fannies” in the USA are what a lady sits upon, but in Britain, the word refers to her most female of parts. This is another word to avoid!
Now that we are all thoroughly embarrassed, consider the word that, in Britain, is used to refer to cigarettes, or at least used to be; “f*g”. In the USA, this pejorative and offensive term for a homosexual should really be avoided entirely. Another explosive word, ni**er, seems to be used in the UK to apply to all people with dark skin. In the USA, this is called the n-word, and refers usually to those whose African ancestors were enslaved. These words have such hurtful connotations that the best strategy is to just find different ways to describe others.
Moving on to happier topics, and remembering the popular modern adage, “Life is short; eat dessert first”, take note that the traveler who asks for “pudding” in the UK will be served a sweet ending to a meal of almost any type.
In the USA, however, “pudding” means a very specific sweet; a soft composition of milk and eggs (or the modern food chemist’s equivalent thereof), cooked to a consistency that sticks to the spoon. A baked mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar, with bread cubes, cooked rice, pasta, or tapioca, generates a nearly endless ethnic and regional variety of “puddings” (bread pudding, noodle kugel, etc.). They can all be yummy in the hands of a deft cook.
Likewise, “biscuits” in the UK are a “cookie” in the USA. American “biscuits” are actually a quick bread, not made with yeast, but with baking powder and a great deal of shortening (butter, lard, or vegetable fat).
They are not sweet, but serve as a magnificent transport mechanism for gravy, drippings, butter, honey, maple syrup, sorghum syrup, or fruit preserves. A specialized American use of biscuits is strawberry shortcake, which originally meant a biscuit (salty) topped with fresh berries (sweet and tart) and whipped cream (richly unctuous and perhaps sweet).
We will write a custom Article on Evolution in the English Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is all fun, but there are additionally serious differences that anyone trying to live, work, or study internationally needs to remember. These divergences in practice are extensive and keeping a reference list at hand or bookmarked on the computer is a good idea. Here is a sampling:
In American English, teams and corporations usually take singular forms of verbs (e.g., Apple Corporation has brought out a new model), whereas in the UK, they often take plural forms (e.g., Manchester United are the winners. This is an instant signal indicating where one’s English was learned.
British English uses shall more often than will.
In British English, the preposition from is used to indicate start times (e.g., Classes start from Monday), whereas in American English, the word “starting” or the preposition “on” is used instead (e.g., Classes start on Monday”, or “It will run six weeks, starting Monday”).
Americans enroll in courses, go to addresses on streets, and enroll in courses, while Brits use the other preposition.
As English is used more and more widely and by peoples all over the world, there will be inevitable evolution in the language. What will “correct English” mean in 10, or 50 years? This subject is much too large for this article, but is the subject of serious academic consideration. In the meantime, try to use local variants but don’t let worry keep you from trying out your English in every possible situation.
The Relationship Between Loss of Bone Mass and Deficiency in Vitamin D After Hematopoietic SCT Essay (Article) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Fundamentals of leukemia
Preparation for the study
Bone mineral density
Vitamin D homeostasis
Introduction This paper reflects a summary of an article on the relationship between loss of bone mass and deficiency in vitamin D after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). G. Massenkeil, C. Fiene, R. Michael, W. Reisinger and R. Arnold compiled the article in collaboration with Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine and Institute of Radiology.
The major sub-topics to be summarized are fundamentals of Leukemia, Preparation for the study, Bone mineral density, and Vitamin D homeostasis.
Fundamentals of leukemia According to the article, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is capable of curing hematologic diseases like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
Observations of a study conducted on patients show a close relationship between osteoblasts, osteoclasts and hematopoietic stem cells. After the stem cell transplantation, the outcome is a reduction in the number of hematopoietic generating cells in a patient’s bone marrow for a stretched period.
Preparation for the study The article shows that sixty-seven patients with ALL, AML, MDS and CML were prospectively studied after allogeneic SCT. Cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (MTX) were given to the patients as prophylaxis. Patients with donors who are not linked were injected with prednisone 0.5 mg/kg from day seven and 1.0 mg/kg from day 14 after allogeneic SCT.
First-line therapy of acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) was performed with a high-dose methylpredonisolone. It was prescribed that Persistent GVHD be suppressed with CsA, prednisone, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil. In order to prevent hyper-catabolism, all patients received total parenteral nutrition starting on the day of SCT (energy 30-32 kcal/kg, fluid 2.5-3.0 I, carbohydrates 4-5 g/kg, amino acids 1-1.5g/kg, lipids 0.5 g/kg). This included 220 IU vitamin D and 660 mg calcium per day.
Bone mineral density The article shows that lumber bone mineral density was measured by quantitative computed tomography scan. Bone mineral density was reduced before SCT in 49% of the patients. Pathologic bone mineral density values before SCT were mainly seen in patients with acute leukemia (ALL, AML and MDS), 55% of the patients with acute leukemia had osteopenia or osteoporosis before SCT. There was a significant loss of bone mass after SCT. Thirteen percent trabecular bone was lost after 6 months and 16.9% after 12 months.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Twenty-five patients underwent further bone mass density analysis after SCT, and only two patients had a further decrease in bone mass density. The two developed osteoporosis but only one presented chronic GVHD. Sixteen of 25 patients showed no variation in the values. Seven patients out of the 25 presented with increased bone mass density because after SCT, they were constantly supplied with alternatives options for oral calcium and vitamin D.
The article indicates that donor status, age, sex and amenorrhea had no significant impact on bone mineral density. Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) increases the chances of patients developing osteoporosis in short-term. In a short period like 6 months, bone mineral density in patients with acute GVHD decreased. However, after a long period, the situation came back to normalcy.
Vitamin D homeostasis The article shows that before SCT, 39% of the patients had pathologic vitamin D plasma concentrations. It was noticed that all patients presented with hypovitaminosis immediately after SCT. Constantly reducing vitamin D concentrations were observed after the SCT. Disease, sex and donor status had no significant impact on vitamin D concentration.
General conclusion According to the article, the study shows that after SCT, bone metabolism changes. It is also indicated that there is an increase in osteopenia after SCT. The study in the article shows that children with hematologic and oncologic malignancies have reduced bone mineral density after conventional chemotherapy.
Before SCT, bone mineral density and urinary excretion showed a great dependence in their causative diseases in with acute leukemia. The article indicates that rigorous chemotherapy seemingly, causes a major dangerous effect on bone metabolism.
Therapy that involves steroids also has a potential influence on bone mass. After allogeneic SCT, the loss of bone mass affected all patients except those who continually received treatment like supplement of vitamin D. It can only be speculated that the older age of patients with CML compared to those with acute leukemia made them more susceptible to change in bone mineral density due to the harmful effect of condition therapy.
Bone mineral density was lost early after allogeneic SCT. Loss of bone mineral density immediately after SCT is because of conditioning therapy characterized with high quantities of dosage. Lack of movement of hospitalized patients is notorious for causing rapid changes in calcium metabolism and decreased levels of vitamin D. Due to isolation, multiple infusion, general weakness and infections, physical activity is reduced during high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow asplasia in patients.
We will write a custom Article on The Relationship Between Loss of Bone Mass and Deficiency in Vitamin D After Hematopoietic SCT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Osteopenia and osteoporosis are prevalent in adults who have experienced hematologic diseases caused by conventional therapy. Those who are mainly affected are Patients with rigorous pre-treatment exercise. A rapid bone loss is observed early after allogeneic SCT. Patients with higher bone mineral density before SCT comparatively lose more bone mineral density after SCT.
Religion in the African-American Community Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Over the years, the church has been a very important viability in the African-American community as it has been a social institution that accepts everyone. The African-American church is considered an agency for social control in society. Historically, schools, families and churches have been the core institutions that the African-American community draws their strength from. It is at these institutions that they get to express their basic values that are embodied by their cultural heritage.
On the other hand, spirituality has played a vital role in the viability of the African-American people as it helps in bringing them together as a community; and as a result, easing the challenges they face as they go about their day to day activities. It has always been the vision of spiritual leaders to influence their congregation into gaining economic independence by eliminating crimes that hinder development.
Apart from instilling moral values, black churches have always been involved in the fight against crime and drug abuse. With the influence they have in the black community, the church is able to reach out to the lost souls, especially youths involved in criminal activities. Additionally, they also have programs that help the unemployed secure job opportunities in order to discourage poverty.
Over the decades, these churches have been supporting those that are in need through outreach programs. By encouraging high aspirations, and family commitment, the church has enhanced the survival of the community. Also, by supporting educational institutions, more and more African-Americans get to secure top positions in the political scenes, the government, and in foundations that supports humanity.
This way, the blacks are no longer voiceless as they have activists who fight for their rights. Martin Luther King is an example of the religious leaders who played a critical role in advocating for freedom of the African-American community (West et al. 319).
Since the 1970s, mega churches have tremendously gained popularity and have taken half the population of churchgoers. Most of them have a weekly attendance of around 2000 people, and others even more, depending on their vicinity and the space used to conduct the service. Basically, mega churches are the modern places of worship as they are evangelical centres that attract massive congregations on a weekly basis.
With mega churches, people feel less judged as the congregation is so big that recognizing someone becomes difficult. People have grown to prefer mega churches to small congregated churches because there are less commitments, and the environment is suitable for everyone. By preaching messages of acceptance, morality, spirituality, admiration and guidance, the congregation tend to relate to the word; hence, bringing them closer to salvation. It is for this reason that mega churches have social significance in influencing people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By attracting huge masses, mega churches have the power to influence their followers. For this, they are no longer ignored in politics; on the contrary, their opinions are highly valued. Even though they have tried to seclude themselves from politics, and controversial topics that affect people, politicians have been seen seeking support from them by requesting for endorsements.
People have come to respect and trust decisions made by religious leaders as they represent the voice of God (West
Buddhism in China Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
China possesses rich cultural, social and political profiles because; most of the historical events were documented. The intelligence of the Greeks seems to have permeated its territories over different Chinese dynasties, which existed before the present China, in East Asia.
One of the most fascinating cultural histories is the existence and the expansion of Buddhism in China. However, it is worth noting that Buddhism was founded in India, long before it spread allover East Asia. It took a series of centuries for Buddhism to enter China because; the ancient Chinese did not borrow religious doctrines from other communities in East Asia. Moreover, most of the rulers in the ancient Chinese dynasties did not allow traders to enter their territories. For instance, rulers who ruled before the Han Dynasty denied non-Chinese merchants from introducing their cultures, instead; they preserved the ordinary Chinese culture.
In retrospect, the four centuries, upon which the Han dynasty existed, experienced remarkable cultural and socio-political changes. One of the most significant changes that took place during the Han dynasty was the expansion of trade across East Asia, through which non-Chinese merchants interacted with Chinese and exchanged cultural practices (Buddha Dharma Education Association par. 1).
Buddhism bore variant traits to the indigenous religions of Daoism and Confucianism because it was dualistic in nature. Ordinarily, Chinese practised non-dualistic religious doctrines, in which, a self-generating and impersonal continuum within which matter and spirit were encompassed within a cosmos (Whyte par. 5). That is probably the reason as to why, Buddhism in China, in most literature, is referred to as the ‘imported’ religion.
However, it is worth noting that Buddhism doctrines remained consistent since its formation by Siddhartha Gautama, in the 6th Century B.C.E (Vail 1). Siddhartha Gautama, who was commonly referred to as the ‘Buddha’ or the ‘Enlightened One’, was born in a small kingdom of the Shakya family, in India, about 2500 years ago (Theobald par. 1). Buddha developed the core doctrines of the religion, which characterized Buddhism as a concise set of spiritual practices and teachings.
Buddhism doctrines contained, among other religious teachings, the description on how to attain perfect enlightenment about the truth of the universe. The core doctrines of Buddhism emphasized immensely on the essence of Buddha’s teachings, based on the literal meaning of Buddha; ‘one who has awakened to the truth’ (Koyasan Shingon Buddhism par. 1).
It is believed that the existence of Buddhism in China today encompasses invaluable clues on the way the Chinese tradition was defined (Teiser par. 2). Historically, Buddhism in China was introduced in the 2nd Century A.D, during the Tang dynasty, and it became one of the most established religions in the Chinese traditional profile. Thereafter, its dominance diminished significantly towards the end of the Tang dynasty because; its powers were perceived to as a potential threat to the social order of the Chinese society (Whyte par. 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The officials of the late Tang dynasty viewed Buddhism from such a perspective probably because; it was a foreign tradition to the ordinary Chinese. Shortly, after the end of the Tang dynasty the influence of Buddhism subsided, especially during the Song dynasty and paved way for Daoism and Confucianism religions, which were non-dualistic (Theobald par. 1).
Buddhism was dualistic in nature; thus, it appealed to some Chinese. Therefore, some of its fundamental verities were embedded on the two dominant religions; thus, it remained to be a significant element in the Chinese tradition.
Buddhism appears to have gained its popularity in China, shortly after the end of the Han dynasty, which had preserved Confucianism as the acceptable State religion.
However, it is worth noting that one of the most significant factors, which favored the flourishing of Buddhism, was the disunion of China, owing to the succession stalemate among the successors of Han. As a result, China’s unified status vanished with the emergence the three kingdoms: the Wei, Wu and Shu, around 205 A.D, after the fall of the Han dynasty in 184 C.E (Ebrey 61).
China was reunited again, in 280 A.D, by Jin who established the Jin dynasty, but a civil war broke out within the Jin dynasty, in 300 A.D, leading to the disintegration of the dynasty into Northern and Southern dynasties. Non-Chinese gained power and ruled the Northern dynasties over the next two and a half centuries, whereas, the Southern dynasties were ruled by Chinese rulers (Ebrey 60).
During the four centuries of division, Buddhism spread within China in different magnitudes. For instance, there was remarkable popularity of Buddhism in the Northern dynasties, which were dominantly ruled by non-Chinese rulers. On the other hand, Southern dynasties were ruled by four successive, short-lived Chinese rulers who did not cultivate the culture of foreigners; thus, the spread of Buddhism was retarded; instead, Confucianism dominated the Southern dynasties.
In general, history of Buddhism appears to intersect with monumental episodes in the Chinese political chronology (Teiser par.5). Its spread in China was influenced by the political landscape. Consequently, its doctrines were philosophized to encompass some principal practices of the Chinese political administration.
We will write a custom Essay on Buddhism in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, philosophized doctrines of Buddhism emerged around the 1st Century, after the formation of Mahayana Buddhism (Koyasan Shingon Buddhism par.2). However, it is worth noting that all sects within Buddhism shared the original doctrines of that religion but, they only differed on philosophy on how to become enlightened about the universe.
Another factor, which enhanced the spread of Buddhism, in China was the existence of the Greek civilization, through which learning was introduced. Religious texts were composed on papers; thus, facilitating learning of the Buddhism teachings by scholars.
Consequently, Chinese schools based on Buddhism emerged across China. Some of the old Chinese schools, which were based on Buddhism faith, included the Pure Land School and the Chan. Other schools, which were established during the Tang dynasty, were Huayen and Tiantai schools (Foy par.5).
These schools stressed on the significance of believing in the salvation of Amitabha Buddha and these teachings formed the foundation of Chinese Buddhism (Whyte par.5). It is believed that the long process of adaptation of the Chinese Buddhism led to the establishment of temples and monasteries, which served as the training centers for monks and nuns.
Today, Buddhism is said to be the only foreign religion, which has flourished in China amongst the indigenous religions. Its consistent existence in China can be attributed to its diverse nature, which enabled it to be incorporated in the Chinese traditional cultures. Another feature of Buddhism which enabled it to gain popularity, in China, was its approach to salvation through grace.
This approach appealed immensely to the ordinary Chinese because; it was in contrast with virtually all the other religions, which tied salvation to ascetic practices (Whyte par.5). It is blatantly true that, Buddha’s approach to life appears to be overly acceptable. Vail remarks, “Buddha advocated a moderate or “balanced” wandering life-style and the cultivation of mental and emotional equanimity through meditation and morality” (1).
Works Cited Buddha Dharma Education Association 2008, Buddhism in East Asia. Web.
Ebrey, Patricia. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Buddhism in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Foy, Geoff 2013, Buddhism in China. Web.
Koyasan Shingon Buddhism. The Origin of Buddhism. Web.
Teiser, Stephen 2007, Buddhism: The “Imported” Tradition. Web.
Theobald, Ulrich 2000, The Historical Buddha. Web.
Vail, Lise 2013, The Origin of Buddhism. Web.
Whyte, Bob 2012, Religion in China. Web.
Career Path Paper in Public Relations Report best college essay help
A public relations officer’s main role is to ensure that the public has a positive image of an organization. This is achieved through coordination of various activities that ensures that a company’s reputation is kept at the highest possible standards.
Several skills are required for an individual to perform well as a public relations officer. The most important skill is the ability to communicate effectively. Since communication is a two-way traffic, good listening and writing skills are also vital. Furthermore, problem solving and reasoning skills are a necessity for effective performance of duties required of a public relations officer.
Good management skills, in terms of efficient time management, people, and oneself are also relevant. In addition, a person should possess teamwork skills and also have the ability of utilizing the available resources to achieve the desired goals within a given time.
The major organizations that hire public relations officers are universities, colleges, professional associations, businesses, and non-profit organizations. These organizations hire public relation officers on a permanent or contract basis that may be long or short term.
For an individual to successfully acquire a job opportunity in the field of public relation, the specifications depend on the level of the job. In the case of a public relations manager, the individual must possess a bachelor’s degree in public relations or related courses, a high school diploma, and a minimum of five years working experience.
Other employment opportunities in public relations require a minimum of high school diploma with additional educational requirements that are relevant to the duties of a public relations officer. Some of the high school courses that are relevant in this field include journalism, public speaking, communication, creative writing, technical writing, principles of advertising, and computer applications. The degree, which is a requirement for a management position in the public relations field, can only be obtained at the university level.
The courses that are required for an individual to work in the public relations field are offered in almost all the public and private local universities. For instance, in Alabama, institutions that offer relevant courses required in this field include Auburn University, Community College of the Air Force, Spring Hill College, University of Alabama, and University of Phoenix.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The remunerations in this field depend on the job classification level, the organization, and the state’s salary regulations. However, the national’s average entry salary for a public relations manager is $68,060 annually. The medium and top annual salaries are $93,310 and $130,780 respectively.
This field expects to obtain more employment opportunities from consumer products and services companies due to the increasing competition among the companies. The growth rate of job opportunities in this field is 14.1% in Arizona. Nationally, public relations job opportunities are growing at about 16.5% per annum.
This value is higher than the growth rate of all occupations that lie at about 14.3%. There are more job opportunities in the field of public relations in other states compared to Arizona. In comparison to the rest of the United States, the number of job openings in Arizona is moderate on average. There are 60 annual job openings in Arizona compared to 27,900 jobs in the whole of the United States.
Epictetus and Epicurus Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Epicurus was a hedonist, who believed that one’s goal in life is to maximize pleasure. Conversely, Epictetus was a stoic, who taught people that their key priority should be to live life in accordance with nature. While these teachers prescribed to different philosophies, they both agreed on the need for ataraxia as a prerequisite to living a fulfilled life; however, they differed on how to attain this goal since Epicurus saw things in an instrumental way while Epictetus focused on their inherent goodness.
How the philosophers compare in terms of ataraxia Ataraxia is a state of mind in which one is free from anxiety or worry. In other words, the person exists in a state of tranquility. Epictetus and Epicurus both acknowledged the immobilizing role that anxiety played in attainment of ataraxia. They affirmed that one would never enjoy life if one were in a state of worry about other things.
However, they prescribed different ways of how a person can free oneself from worry. Epicurus had a four – part prescription, in which he urged his followers not to fear the gods as one of the recommendations. The philosopher believed that the gods were happy beings who did not care about man’s actions (White 8).
If they watched every move that humans made, then they would compromise their own happiness. Epicurus claimed that the gods were not out to punish men for their misdeeds, so people should free themselves from anxiety about divinities. Conversely Epicurus held that man was indeed accountable to a divine being. He asserted that people should think of themselves as actors in a play (Inwood and Gerson. 16).
Someone else did the casting, so one’s duty was to play his or her part well. To Epictetus, God is the only giver and receiver of life. Therefore, when a loved one dies, one should think of it as a settlement to the creditor. Epictetus thus argued that knowing the supremacy and divinity of God allowed one to accept unpleasant situations since these experiences were not in one’s control.
Eventually, this leads to a state of ataraxia. On the other hand, Epicurus advocated for an elimination of gods from the picture in order to acquire ataraxia. To this philosopher, a fear of the gods was an obstacle to tranquility while to Epictetus an acceptance of the gods was the path to ataraxia. It should be noted that Epicurus’ views on God were radically different from his contemporaries because they were quite religious. His materialist background led to such conclusions.
Epicurus taught that an accident created all elements in the universe and they only seemed orderly because they were the most stable structures among a series of chaotic elements. Conversely, Epictetus believed in divine intelligence because the stability of the universe could not have arisen by chance; a divine being it must have created it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two philosophers also believed in the relevance of virtue or moral actions in the attainment of harmony. However, they differed on the primacy of virtue or motivations for abiding by moral acts. Epicurus affirmed that one ought to strive to maintain happiness always. If one engages in immoral acts, then this compromises one’s happiness as one would have to worry about the repercussions of their actions (White 25).
In this regard, the philosopher advocated for moral actions only because of the consequences they had on other people. One may assume that since Epicurus’ prescription only depends on one’s circumstance, then it becomes inconsequential to engage in immoral acts if no one will be around to watch. However, Epicurus negates this assertion by stating that one can never be certain that other people will not find out, so moral actions are indispensable.
The philosopher acknowledged that society developed moral laws over a relatively long time in order to protect man from harm. To Epicurus, moral acts were simply a means to minimize harm and maximize one’s happiness. On the flipside, Epictetus argued that virtues in and of themselves were inherently good. People should strive to live virtuous lives because they are good while vices are evil.
One would attain a life of ataraxia if one strove to live by virtue. In fact, the pursuit of pleasure was frowned upon by the Stoics because it always led to unwanted circumstances. Virtues were the only things in the world that were inherently good such that other things were neutral. It was one’s judgment of those things that would compromise one’s ataraxia. For instance wealth or health were neither virtuous nor negative, they only became so when the judgments made about them were detrimental (Inwood and Gerson. 13).
Therefore, one’s moral character has a critical role to play in determining how effectively one attained happiness and thus ataraxia. The stoics advocated for maintenance of the right moral standing as it was the only thing that was within one’s control. They believed that one’s ability to know evil and good allowed one to achieve self mastery. Virtues have more primacy in the stoic school of thought than they do in the hedonic school. To the latter, they were mere instruments but to the former, they were at the heart of the philosophy.
Perhaps one of the areas that the two Philosophers converged was the need to live a basic lifestyle. Both philosophers argued that it was essential to be content with what life had in store rather than to seek for wealth, status and power perpetually. Epicurus surprisingly advocated for a simple lifestyle in which one met one’s basic needs for survival. It is possible for one to live in a state of tranquility or ataraxia when one limited oneself to the necessary and natural things of life.
Epicurus identified food, shelter and clothing as some of the necessary needs that must be met in order for one to eradicate worry and anxiety (White 30). He believed that bodies require relatively little to survive and the mind would stop worrying if it had assurance that these needs will be met. However, when an individual starts yearning for other unnecessary desires like power or wealth, then the person will neutralize his state of tranquility.
We will write a custom Essay on Epictetus and Epicurus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Things like power and status are needs created by society based on artificial beliefs. Additionally when one desires external things like jewelry, then one may become dependent on the material item. Essentially, one will become anxious that one will not have the item in the future, and this undermines their ataraxia. Similarly, Epictetus argued that people should not focus on externals. The key to tranquility is prioritizing things that one can control.
The philosopher prescribes working on oneself rather than other externals because they could be changed. In essence, material desires are vain because they are limiting. They can enslave a person because one can become dependent on them, yet they cannot be altered. For instance, seeking public office would lead to unhappiness because it is not something that contestants can control (Inwood and Gerson 16).
One ought to select things whose victory is within one’s power. Living a basic life in the stoic school of thought also spanned across interactions of people with one another. A person who wants to attain ataraxia should avoid displaying how the person has attained self mastery (Inwood and Gerson. 27). Furthermore, he or should not lecture others about his principles of philosophy as that would be approval seeking.
The most one can do it to focus on oneself and let others learn about the philosophy through one’s actions. Both philosophers acknowledge that human beings require relatively minimal amounts of externals to attain inner harmony. However, Epictetus takes it a step further and argues that simplicity should also be seen in the way one interacts with others. Epicurus did not ask his followers to refrain from enjoying luxuries on occasion, but dependence on them was his key contention.
Conclusion Hedonists and stoics disagree on the relevance of divinities in attainment of ataraxia. Hedonists affirm that there is no divine being that will punish human beings, while the stoics state that acceptance of the supremacy of the divine being leads to inner harmony.
Additionally, Epicurus and Epictetus also diverged on the primacy of virtue in freeing oneself from anxiety. To Epicurus, it was a tool for causing no harm to others while to Epictetus is was the only good thing that one could seek. Finally, both schools of thought converged on the need for simplicity in attainment of ataraxia as longing for unnecessary externals lead to dependency and anxiety over getting them in the future.
Works Cited Inwood, Brad and Lloyd Gerson. The Epicurus reader: Selected writings and testimonia. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1994. Print.
White, Nicholas. The Epictetus handbook. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1983. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Epictetus and Epicurus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
History of the African-Americans Religion During the Time of Slavery Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The importance of church as an institution on African-Americans
The social significance of the Mega church
Introduction Religion refers to cultural customs or beliefs of a community in regard to what they worship. However, types of religion differ from one community to another. Just like any continent, America values religion and it gives its citizens freedom to choice of religion. Ronald Johnston gave a real insight on how religion is viewed and practiced in America. His famous book “religion in society”, analyzes religion as a process which acts as a social body, mutually dependent and offers instant interaction with other social aspects.
This paper will discuss the religion of Black Americans (African-Americans) during the time of slavery. It will also discuss the importance of church as an institution on African-Americans as well as the social significance of the Megachurch. Lastly, it will assist readers to comprehend the important role played by religion in a society. Nevertheless, whether balanced and unbiased, it shows the sociology of religion as a subject that is rich and bountiful (Johnstone 291).
The importance of church as an institution on African-Americans In the ancient times, African-American churches were categorized by a congregation that was poor but totally committed to the pastor. These issues led to lack of participation in community outreach program and lack of higher learning. One of the most desired elements was the fact that despite their poverty level the members from these churches maintained loyalty to one another. However, with time, this changed since more churches were instilled with new improvements by the black clergy.
Black clergy stood prepared not only to accomplish the spiritual purpose but to offer basic needs like clothing, food, and medical care to the African- Americans. The great important issues brought by church institution to Africa-America society was the concern about meeting their domestic needs (Johnstone 303).
The clergy realized the truth that social circumstances bring out the difference in good health or health problem among their followers. For example African-American ministers and pastors were the first to take action during the Hurricane Katrina’s disaster. Their churches worked hard to bring the separated and displaced families together by providing shelter for them. Additionally, nurses and doctors where also employed to give necessary first aid and treatment needed.
The second important role achieved through institution of these churches was the aspect of the church being a social club as well as a counseling institution. Different age groups have a forum to discuss issues affecting them and in most cases they try to come up with solutions to these problems. For instance women have their meeting at a given time and this applies to youth, men and even children. These meetings usually bring people together and teach them how to cooperate with each other in times of need (Johnstone 308)
The institution of these churches served as a talent corner where members were given chances to explore their talents. These included music composition, acting, and works of arts. In effect, members work together to realize their talents in order to make the community a better place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These churches also acted as areas of political arena since aspiring political leaders would use the opportunity to address the congregation. They would do so to articulate their manifestos and to seek votes from the church members. Apart from politicians seeking votes the churches were used as major avenues to mass demonstrations and the congregation helped activists in forming movements because they believe it was religiously inspired.
Churches also provided education to their members in colleges. This in effect led to an increase in education levels, better modes of communication and sense of belonging was finally realized by the black church members at large.
Prominent thinkers such as Dubois W.E. B came out and inspired Black Americas to relate with each other for economic, social and political benefits, rather than demanding to fit in the white American society which always differentiated them. He claimed that organized actions from church groups in relation to economic issues would allow the African–Americans to have better living conditions and boost their social life (Johnstone 306).
The social significance of the Mega church Mega church is a church that is protestant and has 2000 average members who attend on weekly basis. These churches usually have large number of attendants and researchers believe that they are not so much into cultural practices but more familiar with modernization.
Mega churches are one of the key and prominent churches that promote social and economic development. Recreational themes are usually anonymous in mega churches by giving the congregation an opportunity to practice their best talent. They also contribute to unity among believers which in return promotes peace in the country.
This is achieved through fellowships and important small group meetings. The fact that most mega churches have a charismatic leader or pastor sets a good pace for young people since most view their leader as their role model. Furthermore, mega churches are great assets of technological advancement and contribute immensely to the growth and development of a country (Travis
“The Road not Taken” by Richard Frost Essay a level english language essay help
The road not taken is a poem that most people have misinterpreted for a long time. Some say the poem the poet is talking about a road less travelled. However, a keen look at the poem reveals the opposite as the speaker talks about a road not taken at all as opposed to a road less travelled. The last stanza of the poem is ironic and talks about choosing a road and living with the decision.
The speaker is not concerned with the road less traveled, but choosing one road at the fork. A decision to take one road has to be made because “And sorry I could not travel both” (Frost 2). No road is less travelled as the speaker puts it “the passing there / Had worn them really about the same” (Frost 9-10).
Therefore, the speaker has to take one of the roads and live with the consequences of taking that road. The two roads pose a dilemma for the speaker, but a choice has to be made. The roads symbolize the decisions that people have to make in their day to day lives. Sometimes one cannot tell how the decision one makes will turn out, but it is fate that it has to be made and the rest left to chance.
The last stanza is ironic because the speaker introduces a sign of remorse through his words “I shall be telling with a sigh” (Frost 16). He seems to be justifying the reason he took the less travelled road “because it was grassy and wanted wear” (Frost 8). He is trying to say even though taking that road has its consequences it was really a matter of fate as both roads looked equally worn.
He seems to be saying that he could not have known what was ahead on the path he took, but maybe things would have different if he had taken the other road that he did not. It is ironic that he would feel remorse yet a decision had to be made to take one path between the two unknown roads.
It is ironical that the speaker would have to explain his decision in his later days yet he made a decision that had to be made and the nature takes its course. Furthermore, the speaker has no control of what may happen to his life in the path that he chose, but there is the chance of regretting taking it because the other one not taken may have had a different result. However, he will never know because there is no chance of going back to take the road not taken.
Besides, the speaker has shown independence of mind at the point of making his decisions because he says: “I choose the one less travelled by/And that has made all the difference” (Frost 19-20). Thus, he chose to go a different way than most people. For instance, many would take the more travelled road, but would it have made any difference?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The speaker is remorseful and he shall be telling “somewhere ages and ages hence” (Frost 17). The less travelled road does not mean it is necessarily a better choice because he says something different in the last stanza hence the irony (Pritchard 1).
On the other hand, the irony in the last stanza shows that we can only know the outcome of making a decision after we have made it and not a minute before as the speaker demonstrates. He observed both paths “And looked down one as far as I could/ To where it bent in the undergrowth” (4-5). The other road he saw it was grassy and he “And having perhaps the better claim” (Frost 7). At that point he could not tell the outcome of taking that road that he did even though he chose the one that was grassy and less travelled.
The irony is that one has to make a choice and only know if it was good or bad after setting out as opposed to knowing the implications beforehand so as to make informed choices. It means that human beings have to make decisions and learn on the go. The destination of human being will only be realized upon arrival (Richardson 1). Therefore, one must learn to live with the decisions made in life.
In conclusion, the two roads that the speaker has to choose between and take one look the same. He has to use his impulse to make the decision. However, at the end of the poem the tone becomes ironic and the speaker seems to regret taking the road that he took. Therefore, he can only guess how his life would have been if he had taken the other road, but he will never know the difference it would have made.
More importantly, should the speaker live with regret of the outcome of the choice he made or become content because there was nothing much he could do apart from choosing. It seems some decisions we make in life are really necessary, but we have no power over how they turn out and we can choose to live in regrets or be glad we took the road that we did for all the things we encounter in our lives.
Works Cited Frost, Richard. The road not taken. n.d. Web. .
Pritchard, William. On the road not taken. n.d. Web. .
We will write a custom Essay on “The Road not Taken” by Richard Frost specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Richardson, Mark. On the road not taken. n.d. Web.
About the victims in three novels Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Victims in “The big sleep”
Victims in “The pledge”
Victims in “A coffin for Dimitrios”
Introduction Most books concentrate on heroes and villains as opposed to other characters. In fact, minor characters are usually ignored in most novels. This has also been paramount in movies as well as documentaries. It is important to note that victims are sometimes ignored in novels if they are minor characters.
However, it should be noted that victims are important in development of stories. Moreover, they play vital roles in stories. It is therefore necessary that they be actively scrutinized in books. This paper will explore the role and representation of victim (s) in three books namely “The big sleep,” “The pledge,” and “A coffin for Dimitrios”
Victims in “The big sleep” The novel contains numerous instances of victimization. In fact, it begins with victimization of General Sternwood by Arthur, who threatens to blackmail him with scandalous pictures involving his daughter. In this regard, the general is a victim of circumstance. The second victim seen in this novel is Carmen Sternwood.
She is found drugged and naked in Geiger’s house. The novel is full of victims because characters are killed for unclear reasons. For instance, Brody is victimized for Geiger’s death. Lundgren kills him for a crime he has not committed. Another victim mentioned in this book is Regan who is killed by Carmen. Similarly, Canino, a professional killer, kills Harry Jones. In essence, the novel is full of victims of circumstances utilized to construct the author’s story. Use of victims exemplifies the theme of revenge throughout the novel.
Moreover, it is utilized to solve different puzzles for the protagonist, Marlowe. Therefore, victims play an important role in constructing this story. In addition, they qualify different themes utilized in the novel. For instance, even though Carmen is considered psychic, she kills Regan. This is ironic as well as surprising. Moreover, she attempts to kill Marlowe. In essence, victims play an important role throughout the novel.
Victims in “The pledge” The pledge is a story about the murder of a girl. The young girl’s mother is terrified about the incident. In this regard, it can be seen that the girl is the victim in this case. A criminal who has no sympathy for children kills her. In addition, someone else is mistakenly held for the crime.
Besides, the girl’s mother is forced to bear the pain of child loss. In essence, to this extent, three characters are victimized here. However, this happens at different stages. The mother is a victim of circumstance. This is similar to the person held for a crime he has not committed. In both cases, they are caught unawares. In fact, they pass through gruesome situations for unknown reasons. On the other hand, the detective also fall victim to his pledge. He faces numerous obstacles to his mission.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, no one suffers the full consequences of victimization as the young girl who loses her life. She is killed out of criminal acts. It can be noted that victims are used to construct the story in this case. In effect, the girl’s death is used to bring about all the other events in the novel. Victims; therefore, play an important role in the novel.
Victims in “A coffin for Dimitrios” The novel is about a notorious criminal known as Domitros. The novel contains numerous instances of corruption, assassinations, and espionage, among others. Some of the victims in the novel include Bulic, who is robbed of his money through gambling. Dimitrios also tortures him for information about the maps. In this case, the victim is used to exemplify Dimitrios’ activities. This also includes his friend Grodek with whom Domitrios swindle Bulic. Bulic is extorted, seduced, and destroyed by Dimitrios.
Bulic is describes as a lowly clerk who Grodek wins through flattery words. Moreover, another victim who is paramount in the novel is Bulgaria’s president Stambulisky. Right wing terrorists overthrow him. The victim is used to highlight Balkan’s politics during that era. Other victims of Dimitrios include Peters and Mohammad, among others.
The former is jailed after being betrayed by Dimitrios. Throughout the novel, victims are used to qualify Dimitrios’ vile acts. These include assassinations, corruptions, betrayals, and drug trafficking, among others. Therefore, it can, be observed that victims have been utilized to construct the storylines of the novel. Moreover, they have been used to support themes as well as other elements of the novel. In essence, victims have been used in a structured manner to achieve the objectives of the author.
Conclusion In all the three novels, victims have been utilized to construct the stories by their various authors. In addition, victims have been used to depict characters in the novels. For instance, in “The big sleep,” death of Regan has been used to depict Carmen as a murderer although others like her father sees her as psychic or childish.
Moreover, in “The pledge,” the girl’s death depicts the killer as a villain in the novel. Furthermore, destruction of Bulic in “A coffin for Dimitrios” depicts both Grodek and Dimitrios as criminals. In essence, victims have been utilized throughout the novel to achieve authors’ goals. In addition, they have been used to vilify villains.
Max Weber’ and Clifford Geertz’ Views on Religion Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Max Weber and Geertz offered varying ideas regarding cultural theory. They both viewed culture as people’s ways of doing things in society. Culture is usually developed over years whereby it is adopted and passed from one generation to the other through language. Regarding religion, which is one of the aspects of culture, Geertz and Weber offered a number of views. Some viewpoints are similar while others are different.
However, the two scholars believe that religion happens within a group implying that it is a group affair. In this regard, various groups have different religious principles and beliefs. Morality is the main principle that all religious groups and teachings espouse. Even though the two scholars agreed that religion happens at an individual level, they offered varying approaches to the understanding of group behavior. Weber noted that each religion is rational and consistent as far as its rules are concerned.
Unlike his predecessors such as Durkheim, Weber claimed in his works, ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ that religion could easily bring about change in society. His analysis was based on the spread of capitalism in Europe. He claimed that the Protestant abstemious self-confidence was attributed to the quick spread of capitalist ideals.
However, unlike Geertz, Weber did not intend to develop a cultural theory that would explain the dynamics of religion. His main aim was to discuss the interactions and interrelations between society and religion. On the other hand, Geertz perceived religion as a cultural system that is full of symbols, which have both public and social meaning.
People always construct their own beliefs meaning that each person has his or her own views concerning religion. Some groups have shared views regarding religion. Weber’s views were different from the ideas of Geertz because to him, religion had a different role to play in society. This article looks at some of the similarities and differences between the views of Weber and Geertz as regards to religion. The paper uses one aspect of culture to discuss their views.
Similarities Geertz undertook various studies in one of the villages in Javanese, which was one of the most complex religious societies. He sought to understand the reason that inspired people to worship the supernatural being in their daily lives. Other scholars had suggested a number of views regarding the topic, but he diverged from such views by noting that the issue of religion is not a group affair, but instead it is a social affair.
This implies that it happens within a particular society. Evans-Pritchard was one of the scholars who suggested that religion is simply a group attitude because it is developed to check the behavior of group members. Geertz rejected this subjective and vague view by adopting the ideas of Weber regarding the role of religion among the Protestants in Europe. Weber was of the view that religion is a phenomenon that starts at an individual level meaning that each person has his own belief.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These beliefs develop with time into complex ideas that are in turn adopted by a group of individuals in society. Once the belief is within the public domain, it turns out to be a social system that influences people’s behavior and interactions in the wider society. Since the behavior is learned and would be internalized for years, it becomes a cultural belief or a cultural system, given the fact that it can be transmitted from one individual to the other.
Weber had earlier noted that people are always in search of truth since a man is an animal that is suspended in webs of significance. In this regard, a man does not have to look for solutions on the Earth that would resolve the many issues facing him but, instead, he has to interpret society using some mystical principles. Offering simple explanations to religious beliefs is not enough implying that people should look for the real meaning of religious events.
To explain some of these religious events, clear interpretations should be given. Geertz was of the similar view because he noted that thick descriptions should be applied in interpreting religious events if adequate answers were to be provided. According to Geertz, the use of symbols in interpreting religious events is the only solution to the many problems affecting people as far as religious issues are concerned.
He noted that some symbols are always in use in religion. Therefore, the understanding of the use of these symbols is very important. Weber noted that the Protestants were able to engage in trade and other economic matters because their religion taught them that an individual’s destiny is always predetermined. Weber reached this decision after observing the behavior of Protestants for years.
He also used some of the symbols, which was the basis of Geertz’s analysis. Geertz suggested that an anthropologist should use empirical methods to interpret the behavior of a group or an individual as regards to religion. Weber had also suggested a similar view by noting that a sociologist should use technical methods such as guessing, assessing, and drawing conclusions as far as the understanding of religion is concerned.
Geertz and Weber believed in the semiotic interpretation of culture meaning that their major aim was to understand some of the factors that drive people to join certain cultures. In this regard, they both believed that the understanding of culture starts with the interpretation of certain elements and categorization of certain interactions. The whole system should be categorized into sub-subsystems if any substantial meaning is to be offered.
The system is characterized based on the major beliefs and principles meaning that there are various subsystems of culture in society. Each category of the subsystem has some of the principles that members respect so much. Geertz termed this aspect as a form of collective property. Geertz’s and Weber’s argument is that religion influences the actions of various group members because it is larger as compared to the actions of any individual in a group.
We will write a custom Essay on Max Weber’ and Clifford Geertz’ Views on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences Even though the two scholars discussed extensively the issues surrounding religion, their aims were extremely different. While Geertz aimed at developing a cultural theory, Weber was simply trying to link religion to the behavior of individuals in society. For instance, Geertz noted that cultural theory is not its own master meaning that it relies on certain concepts just the way other theories do.
Therefore, the suggestion on thick description is meant to give anthropologists one of the ways in which cultural issues could be construed in society. For Weber, he was simply describing the influence that culture has on the economic behavior of certain groups in society. He utilized the Protestants to show that people are encouraged to do some things because of the influence of their culture. In one of the articles titled Deep Play, Geertz showed how thick description could be employed to comprehend the actions of certain groups.
While Weber viewed religion as an aspect of culture that has a great impact on the life of an individual in society, Geertz was of a different view because he believed that religion is a cultural system. This implies that no society can survive without religion. In his view, all symbols in any society signify the presence of religion. This system is constructed over time, which results in a powerful and pervasive motivation for individuals.
With time, people in any given society come to appreciate their culture and tend to believe that other cultures are inferior to theirs. The culture ensures that social order prevails in society because it regulates behavior. Weber was of the different view because he did not give a cultural function of religion but, instead, he only related it to the behavior of individuals in society. His major aim was to give the relationship between religion and society.
According to Geertz, religion is inseparable from culture because they are both systems of communication in any given society. However, Weber believed that the two concepts exist independently meaning that they are autonomous, but they influence each other. Geertz concluded his analysis by noting that a strong relationship between an individual’s worldview and morality exists.
Intel Strategic Management Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Summary of the case study By 2005,Intel had been in the process of identifying a location to site its Assembly and Test plant. The plant was to be the biggest for the company, helping it to enhance its efficiency. Consequently, the company had to evaluate different countries putting into consideration both the global relations, dynamics and strategic operations in order to come up with the most appropriate location for the plant.
Operation costs in the majority of the South East Asian and Asian countries were the lowest globally, making these countries the most appropriate to build the plant. All the sites were evaluated based on necessities like reliability, safety, environmental health, availability of utility, rates, and human resources, among others (Alcacer and Herman 2-10).
In the end, Intel decided to locate its Assembly and Test plant in Saigon Hi-Tech Park, in Vietnam. Political instability in India made the company refrain from establishing its plant in the country. Vietnam was selected because it had low propensity to natural disasters. In addition, the cost of water and power was low, in addition to the fact that the country was civilized.
Vision, mission and value of Intel Based on the effort that Intel exerts to ensure that it reaches all its target clients and that it offers quality products, it is evident that the company has the sole mission of offering quality products to all its clients. According to Intel Global Citizenship Report, Intel’s mission is to, “do a fantastic job for our customers, employees, and stakeholders by being the preeminent building block supplier to the world wide internet economy” (10).
The company’s vision is, “to create a continuum of personal computing experiences based on Intel architecture” (Intel Global Citizenship Report 10). The company observes a number of values, which add to its success. The values include customer orientation, risk-taking, discipline, quality, results oriented, and quality working environment.
About Intel Noyce and Moore founded the company in 1968. Initially, the company was called NM Electronics. Later, they changed the company’s name to the current name (Integrated Electronics) or in short, Intel. The company began by manufacturing semiconductors, and later, it made a breakthrough in the manufacture of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip.
Soon after, the company came up with the first microprocessor. In 1972, Intel embarked on expanding it operations by establishing branches in foreign countries. Its first foreign operation was in Malaysia. In 1991, the company came up with the infamous “Intel Inside” marketing slogan (Alcacer and Herman 4-6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slogan facilitated to entrench the company’s brand in the mind of most computer users. Andy Grove, the longest serving employer, was made the chief executive officer of the company. Under his stewardship, the company’s income grew by over sevenfold, and the value of its shares grew by 1600 percent.
In 2005, Intel was the global manufacturer of semiconductors, delivering over 80 percent of the central processing units installed in workstations, personal computers, and servers. According to Alcacer and Herman, “… the central processing units (CPUs) accounted for 90 percent of the company’s total profit” (6).
Apart from the CPUs, the company also manufactured flash memory and chipsets for personal computers. Its principal customers were Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Dell. In 2004, the company sold 19 percent and 16 percent of its products to Dell and HP respectively.
Alcacer and Herman posit, “In 2005, the semiconductor industry generated approximately $226 billion in revenue worldwide” (2). Today, Intel has research laboratories in strategic countries across the globe. The laboratories help the company in coming up with superior specifications for its microprocessors and semiconductors.
This triggered the company’s desire to establish numerous branches across the globe to facilitate in the exploitation of the semiconductor industry. The company continues to open branches in countries, it perceives to be strategic, having a wide consumer base.
SWOT analysis Strengths
Intel has a superior brand, and it enjoys the biggest market share globally.
Intel Company has a stronger market position relative to its rivals.
Intel offers the state-of-art products that meet the changing technological needs.
Majority of the computers use Intel’s microprocessors
Intel enjoys over 80 percent of the market share, making it almost a monopoly in the industry.
Intel has numerous branches across the global, which allow it to reach a wide customer base.
Intel has neglected the mobile market, which is anticipated to have a significant influence in the internet in future
Because Intel sells its products at low prices, it does not benefit from economies of scale
Intel has a wide market; nonetheless, it pays limited attention to its customers
At times, Intel is unable to face technical challenges brought about by its competitors
Intel can benefit from partnership, alliances, and relations it establishes with other companies
Intel is targeting the emerging markets
Intel can cut down on production cost by embracing forward and backward inclusion
Intel can merge with other brands to consolidate its market share
Changes in consumer taste might lead to Intel losing customers to rival companies
International Business Machine (IBM) and Dell continue waging stiff competition
New companies are making it hard for Intel to maintain its market share
SWOT matrix Helpful to realizing the objective
Harmful to realizing the objective
Internal origin (Qualities of the system)
Strengths Superior brand and biggest market share globally;
Stronger market position relative to its rivals;
State-of-art products that meet the changing technological needs;
Majority of the computers uses Intel’s microprocessors;
Over 80 percent market share;
Numerous branches across the global making it possible to reach a wide customer base.
Weaknesses Intel has neglected the mobile market;
Intel does not benefit from economies of scale;
Intel has a wide market; nonetheless, it pays limited attention to its customers
At times, Intel is unable to face technical challenges brought about by its competitors
External origin (Qualities of the environment) Opportunities Establishing partnership, alliances, and relations with other companies;
Exploiting the emerging markets;
Cutting down on production cost by embracing forward and backward inclusion;
Merging with other brands to consolidate its market share
Threats Changes in consumer taste and preferences;
Competition from IBM and Dell;
New companies are making it hard for Intel to maintain its market share.
Current and future strategy
Initially, Intel focused on selling its brand across the globe. This underlines the reason why the company opened numerous branches across the world. Currently, the company focuses on a strategy that aims at increasing and sustaining its consumer base. Intel has moved from business marketing to consumer marketing.
We will write a custom Report on Intel Strategic Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has realized that the majority of the young adults do not take long to purchase a new computer once their computers break. Hence, the company now focuses on generation Y, which comprises the biggest portion of Intel’s target market (Norris 14-19). Moreover, the company hires staff with diverse skills. The staff works together to come up with products that meet all the consumer needs.
Establishing new markets and coming up with new products are some of the Intel’s future strategies. Recently, the company has announced that it would collaborate with Google to introduce new capabilities in the market. The company seeks to enhance user experience, and at the same time, to introduce novel products in the market. For instance, in collaboration with Google, Intel Corporation intends to develop Chrome operating system and Ultrabook system, which will enhance computing (Norris 20-24).
Conclusion and recommendation Since its initiation, Intel Corporation has managed to come up with startling innovations in the computing world, leading to its current success. For instance, its success in semiconductor and microprocessor fields is unparalleled until today.
Despite the immense success, other companies are emerging, posing a threat to Intel’s market share. Companies like IBM and Dell are enjoying positive reception in the market. In the process, Intel is losing some of its customers to these companies. This underlines why Intel Corporation has embarked on a strategy to consolidate its market share.
Rather than selling the brand, the company now targets its consumers. Intel intends to convince the consumers about the quality of its products, therefore, wining their trust. To continue enjoying the current success, Intel ought to identify new markets and establish its operations there. Besides, the company ought to focus on the mobile market, as the market will have a significant influence in the future.
Works Cited Alcacer, Juan and Herman Kerry. Intel: strategic decisions in locating a new assembly and test plant. 2012. Web.
Chapman, Alan. SWOT analysis method and examples, with free SWOT template 2012. Web.
Intel Global Citizenship Report. Vision
The Sociology of Religion: Childhood Indoctrination Essay essay help: essay help
Childhood indoctrination is one of the ways how one become religious where people are brought up and grow old while still in a given religion and always believe it. This becomes difficult to overcome because people are born and told that a certain religion is the true one making it difficult for them to question it, fail to accept it or believe it is a lie.
The parents cannot be blamed because their main intention is to show the truth and they grew up the same way. This becomes like a circle that has no end, which is passed down from one generation to the other until someone reveals that it is not the truth.
Fear makes people become religious and fail to question the religion. When people think about death they are afraid because they do not know what will happen to them after they die. The religious people tell them to believe in a certain religion so that they do not go to hell forever.
When they believe that these people are telling the truth they fear the punishment that would follow if they do not believe. Many people cry and pray for forgiveness when they are very sick due to the fear of death. If there were no fear, people would question what they are told as the truth before they believe it. (Davie 62)
People become religious when they are desperate and in need. They believe in what they are told due to lack of anything else, lack of hope and nothing to hold on. In a situation where one is satisfied completely then religion would not be significant since people would be contented with what they have as well as the way they are. In addition, people accept religion as a tradition that would be accepted for many years.
The great grandparents followed the religion and therefore people follow it too. For example, the people who are born in the United States of America are likely to be Christians while Muslims are from the Middle East.
The people have many questions without answers and therefore become religious to search for answers. There are questions without answers and no one attempts to answer them while religious people leave them unanswered. When people make bad decisions, they feel guilty and fail to forgive themselves and therefore turn to God who forgives them so that they feel better. Their sins haunt them and believe that they may be punished for their deeds (Davie 49)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people believe that it is only in the church that they can get a chance to socialize with others. Their main aim is not to attend the church service but interact with others and have a sense of belonging. They get the comfort they desire as well as assurance, which make them feel safe when they know that everything is all right.
They remain in the religion when they think that they would have chaotic life if they stay without a religion. Many religious people are not responsible and need God so that they can be taking all their problems to him. For example, those who smoke or drink believe that they cannot stop smoking alone and put their faith in God to do everything and help them live a righteous life.
People become religious for spiritual fulfillment in order for their life to have meaning. This makes them turn to religion for the spiritual void to be satisfied and live a comfortable life. People go to church and when they find others being exited, they believe that is what they require and that nothing can worry them (Davie 53)
There are dogmas and beliefs in religion that are accepted and the followers are expected not to question about them. When other beliefs are available there can arise intolerance as well as inflexibility because no one is allowed to compromise the word of God. When the scriptures are allowed to be interpreted and the interpretation is correct, it becomes difficult to solve any conflict that arises when people doubt it.
The only person who is the winner is the one that will have most followers who are motivated through action. The extremists of religion who apply radical measures to fulfill the wishes of God bring about the conflict of escalation. When there is a conflict between what is evil and good, it becomes difficult to compromise by accepting the devil (Davie 27)
Religious conflict can arise when evangelism has different strains. Some people may come together and not allow other religions the right to practice their own faith. They do this in order to minimize their beliefs because they feel that the religion may be dominant. For example, Christianity was suppressed in China where the government thought that it was dangerous and rival of loyalties of the citizens.
The media emphasize on the negative effects of religion, which leads to hostility, as well as fear to the believers. The media do so by confusing people instead of informing them through misunderstanding the goals of different religious groups.
We will write a custom Essay on The Sociology of Religion: Childhood Indoctrination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The difference in religions is a potential source of conflict because people ignore other faiths. The religious group that is less popular is under tension compared to the most popular and privileged.
When it happens that the group that is most popular is the minority it becomes easier to have a conflict with them and understanding becomes difficult. When crisis arise, members involved rely on extremists to provide solution. The identities of the group members can be shaped when compared to others, which makes the faith of one religion threatened by the other.
Religious conflicts arise because the mind of people is unique and has different experiences. These different individuals are located at different places where they associate with others with different experiences concerning their religion. When these characteristics are combined conflicts often arise in the course of their relationships.
Hinduism has been reformed many times since it started due to conflicts when the caste system that was hereditary was rejected. Nanak emphasized that Muslims and Hindu should tolerate one another when he declared that similar God was worshipped. He could not be tolerated by the two religions, which made a new religion to be started.
There serious conflict between the apostles of John and Jesus was about baptism. Those who followed Jesus were supposed to pay a price through baptism to be accepted by those who followed John. Peacemakers have been solving religious conflicts whenever they arise because they are complex. The people should be informed about the wishes of God in different religions so that they can avoid evil and do well (Davie 34)
Works Cited Davie, G. The Sociology of Religion. California: Sage Publications, 2007. Print.
Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings Research Paper best essay help
Introduction According to Gadotti (1994), one of the most famous philosophers of the 20th century was Paulo Freire. Born and raised in Brazil, Freire was subjected to living in poverty, which later influenced his works. Freire is well known for advancing the theory of pedagogy by authoring the piece of work known as the “Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. This piece of work is termed as the main foundation on which the critical pedagogy movement was based. Freire made a great contribution to the theory, as well as by his actual deeds during his lifetime.
Thus, his works can be compared to the works of other theorists and educators like John Locke, Plato, John Dewey, Booker T. Washington, and Jean-Jaques Rousseau among other renowned philosophers. This paper explores life, philosophy and teachings of Paulo Freire. In the discussion, the paper takes an analytical comparison of the teachings and philosophies of Freire with those of other renowned philosophers, like Rousseau, Dubois, Locke, and Plato.
An overview of the works of Paolo Freire Freire contributed a lot to philosophy as observed in the introduction. It is critical to look at a number of philosophical works of Freire in order to comprehend the scope of his study. Freire is considered as one of the most remarkable thinkers in education of the 20th century, who did a lot for development of the educational theory and philosophy.
The works of Freire can be traced back to the mid 1940s when he was working at the Department of Education and Culture in Pernambuco, one of the states in Brazil. His tenure with the department exposed him to an environment where he was working with the poor and illiterate population.
The nature of his work made him start thinking about developing a liberation theology to help salvage the masses from poverty and illiteracy. For one to participate in presidential elections in Brazil, one had to be literate. Owing to the fact that most people were illiterate, only the few literate had the chance to take part in the presidential elections, locking out a vast number of the people from taking part in this critical exercise.
Apart from the liberation theology, which resulted in a political uprising in the country forcing him to left the country, the other works of Freire include ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ and ‘Education as the Practice of Freedom’. The ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ gave Freire his identity as a true educator because it explained most of the issues that were impeding the advancement of education.
This work was quite enticing as it had a lot of information on the interplay of factors in education, which impeded the development of the society. It was one of the most influential tools for liberalization the society from the antecedents of poverty, illiteracy and political suppression. He became a sought after education advisor (Gadotti, 1994).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The contribution of Freire to the philosophy of education is outstanding. It can be compared with both, an intense classical philosophical approaches by Plato and neo-classical approaches like the ones utilized by Karl Marx and other thinkers. A great number of his works can be easily interconnected with the neo-classical pieces of work in philosophy. It is vital to bring out the main argument in Freire’s work, ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, in order to understand the point and dimension of the argument about social change in the society.
A study of the philosophical work of Freire, particularly his contribution to educational theory and philosophy, reveals that education can be used as a tool for demolishing the structures of domination in the society, besides promoting social transformation. When compared with other works by other classical philosophers, it comes out that illiteracy is a form of oppression that cannot be washed away. People get oppressed because of their failure to understand the society in which they live (Schugurensky, 2011).
Understanding the theoretical underpinning in ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ It should be noted that ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, was published in the year 1970, but it was accepted in Brazil only four years after because political regime in the country did not like the content of this work, which strongly addressed the issue of justice from the educational point of view.
The inspiration to develop this piece of work came from the situation of illiteracy in Brazil, which was utilized to support control over the people and authorize justice in the country. According to Freire, education ought to be used for liberating the oppressed by giving them a sense of humanity, which is critical to help people fight the oppressive conditions.
However, Freire reiterated that it could not be attained without the participation of the people who were oppressed. This implies that liberation is a process that begins with self. Therefore, the oppressed have to play a greater role in their redemption by showing the willingness to change their ways of life. This can be attained through careful thought and a re-examination of the role that can be played by the oppressed in the liberation movement (Freire, 2004).
According to Freire, it is quite difficult to separate education from pedagogy. This argument is based on the view that education is considered to be a political act. Freire was of the opinion that politics must be ”a diet for students and their teachers”. The manner of teaching and the education content itself act to fulfill political goals.
He argued that teachers in their own sense often have political notions, which they explore in the classrooms. According to Freire, education provides people with a lot of benefits, since through education men and women attain the sense of responsibility, which comes from the commitment of knowing the unknown (Freire, 2004).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freire attacked what he referred to as ‘banking’ on education. This concept implies that the student is an empty entity that has to be filled by the teacher. Therefore, under this concept, the teachers are seen as the main sources of content in education.
This is undesirable according to Freire, as it makes teachers have absolute dominance over the students, who are only seen as the receivers of the content from the teachers. This inclination of the learning environment is undesirable as it depicts the control of thought, which is critical to the adaptation of people in the world.
The transformation of students into receiving entities suppresses the creative power of the students. There is a close relationship between the synthesis of education by Freire and the conception of education by Jean-Jaques Rousseau. In his conceptualization of education, Rousseau saw children as a critical part of the learning process. He termed them as active learners, meaning that they were not just meant to be receivers, but also contributors to the learning process (Golby et al., 1975).
The conceptualization of educational theory and philosophy by Freire In the theoretical explanation of his philosophy, Freire made emphasis on the role of both teachers and students in what can be termed as a liberated education environment. Teachers are critical elements of every teaching environment, same as students. A simple reasoning is that the learning environment cannot be complete without the presence of either teaches or learners.
For learning to result in the social transformation and the liberalization of the society, both teachers and learners must play their roles. No one can conceive a teaching environment without the presence of teachers and students. According to the conceptualization of learning by Plato, Freire, and Buber, learning helps in the development of individuals who later play a major role in development of the society. Through imparting of knowledge to the individuals in the society, teachers also gain the sense of self realization.
Teachers are supposed to bringing about a socially conscious society. To attain this, the teachers should be in a position to understand the society. Therefore, the direct contact and participation of teachers in the developments taking place within society is a vital feature of attaining the goal of developing social consciousness (Shim, 2008).
It can be said that the active participation of Freire and Plato in the society acted as a means of understanding the society and a means of addressing the issues affecting the society through education. In his book, ‘The Republic’, Plato presents a two fold depiction of the society, a human being with education and a human being without education. Plato sought to derive an explanation of the role that is played by education in the life of man (Rosen, 2005).
On the other hand, Freire discovered the values of education by assessing the measure of education in the society. In an era where education was supposed to be the key to liberalizing the society, Freire discovered that it was being used as a tool for dividing and suppressing people in the society. Therefore, the philosophical concept of education was developed as a means of streamlining the role of education, as opposed to the manner in which it was being conducted in Brazil (Shim, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Education, according to Plato, is taken as a gradual process which aim is to lead to understanding. Therefore, Plato argued that human beings often exist in darkness, which implies the state of ignorance. The realization of the existence in the status of ignorance acts as the ignition to the search for light, which in this case means the search for education.
Plato heavily relied on abstractions when explaining the essence of education in the society, which was then marred by illiteracy, which compounded the rate of suffrage of people (Beck 1985). Freire conceived the status of illiteracy in the society by experiencing it. His argument about the liberalization of the society comes from the fact that the elites in the society were taking advantage of the state of illiteracy for pursuing the political and social goals.
Freire’s work also shows that education was the most valid way of propelling people from the bondage of darkness. Teaching is a facilitative process that requires consciousness on the part of the society, as well as the teachers. The freedom of human beings is highly dependent on the knowledge that freedom exists. Education enables men live, communicate, and think, which in turn helps in improving the life of men (Shim, 2008).
The role of teachers is expanded by the virtue that they have to aid students in synthesizing knowledge. Teachers are required to go beyond the teachings as coded in the learning materials used in imparting knowledge in students. By the virtue of borrowing from the happenings in the society, teachers have to help students stand against social change (Roberts, 2003).
This is a precursor to the attainment of a just society. A just society implies a society that embraces democracy and the observance of the rights of human beings. However, just as was opined by Socrates, the attainment of a just society is a complex exercise that requires a combination of numerous factors. Both teachers and students need to constantly and consistently play out their roles, something that is quite daunting to attain (Noddings, 2003).
Unlike the theoretical explanation of education, such as utilization of education as a means of attaining status in the society, as explained by John Locke, Freire’s approach to education is more radical as it entails the search for social order through participatory education. There are calls for revolution in the works by Freire, which are meant to free the oppressed people in the society through education. The issue of oppression is revealed in the philosophical works of Freire.
Therefore, the essence of education is making the oppressed realize the origins of their oppression. If education is to bring about social order and liberalize the society, then it has to be cultivated in such a way that the students are made to realize the need for education. On the same question of oppression, John Locke had emphasized the need for the development of human potential in all aspects as a way of promoting reason.
In the theory of social contract, Locke dwelled on the address of the issue of individual liberties by the government as one of the ways of attaining social order. Locke dwelt on the role of the state as a facilitating tool for the achievement of individual liberties. The same issue of individual liberties was expressed by Freire through educational activism, where the fate of individual liberty was seen as lying so much within the same individual (Wall, 2001).
The promotion of an educational environment that allowed people learn in a participative environment allows people to realize the sources of the oppressing factors. Freire further advanced that freedom of an individual is not only dependent on the sources of power in the society, but also on the ability of the individual to decentralize the opportunities, to learn things that are critical to the development of a balanced social state in the society.
Locke influenced Freire by bringing about the issue of individual liberties and the need to attain them in order to gain social justice and balance in the society. As a believer in practice rather than sheer praxis, Freire saw the need for actualizing the liberalization of individuals, which he did through active sensitization on how to attain liberalism through education (Eagan, 2010).
Freire reiterated that the setup of the education environment was critical to the attainment of liberation, and went further to explain how education ought to be structured to meet its objective. Contrary to the theoretical underpinning of Locke, Freire sidelined the role of the state and emphasized on the role of the teachers and the students (Ornstein
The Theme of Revenge in Shakespeare’s Hamlet Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Theme of Revenge
Introduction There is hardly a single play in the world that is as well-known and popular as Hamlet. One might enjoy it or hate it, but either way, one will definitely find something strangely attractive about it. Perhaps, the given effect owes much to the palette of emotions that Shakespeare uses in his play; it has something for everyone, starting with the pain of losing a father to the dilemma between betraying a friend and being killed, which Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have to deal with.
The most powerful emotion that makes the play work, however, is the desire of taking revenge. Viewed from several perspectives in Hamlet, it was and still is one of the most complicated feelings to deal with. Exploring the many ways of how revenge shapes the lead characters’ lives, Shakespeare offers a unique journey into the troubled mind of the protagonist, showing how tragic and at the same enthralling vengeance can be.
Overview The idea of revenge has always been controversial, allowing both to feel sorry for the leading character and at the same way to see him/her as an outsider crossing the line between good and evil. As a wise man, Shakespeare knows it and uses the given idea not only as a plot device, but also as a perfect foil for the character development.
Therefore, Shakespeare allows for viewing revenge as both the drastic measure that signifies Hamlet’s gradual descent into madness and as dispensed justice. Therefore, the double-sidedness of the argument adds controversy to the leading character, bringing the torture that Hamlet goes through into the light.
The plot of the play is known worldwide; a power-hungry brother of the monarch of Denmark kills the latter, marries the widow and plots to kill the monarch’s only son, Hamlet. The latter, after seeing his father’s ghost and learning the truth, feels that he is taken over by revenge and sets up a performance that copies Claudius’s, the murderer’s, plan and results in a tragic denouement and the untimely death of Hamlet and the rest of the characters.
Therefore, the story is basic enough; however, one more element at times seems to be on par with the leading characters of the play. To be more exact, the emotion of revenge that seizes Hamlet nearly becomes an independent being. Setting the theme for the entire story, it turns Hamlet into a three-dimensional character and creates a moral dilemma mentioned above, i.e., the explanation – though not a moral justification – for Hamlet’s actions.
The revenge theme gets the plot of the story off the ground, helping the readers view Hamlet as both a victim and a villain, bringing the XXII-century audience to the prehistoric eye-for-an-eye idea of justice: “Hamlet, in fact, is not represented at this point as a virtuous character” (Gottschalk 156). In fact, Kastan points out that Hamlet “is never quite as ‘apt’ as a revenger” (Kastan 112).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theme of Revenge Shakespeare seemed to have conducted research on personality and how it influences human behavior at various levels. This play has focused mainly on the theme of death that has been propagated by the desire to seek revenge by different characters.
It is necessary to state that while reading this book an audience may be persuaded to think that the main theme is death but this is not the case. This play has focused on death through its major cause and not in its entirety. Therefore, this book presents death as an effect and not a cause as some readers may believe.
The story begins with the scene of a Ghost that speaks to Hamlet and informs him that the present king killed it. Apparently, this Ghost is the spirit of Hamlet’s father who was the previous king of this land before he was killed. It reveals to Hamlet that Claudius was responsible for its death and thus he should seek revenge to fulfill his father’s wish. Old Hamlet is very angry because his brother killed him to become the King of Elsinore.
Therefore, it can be concluded that Hamlet’s revenge mission is motivated by the need to seek justice and expose the evil deeds of his mother, as well as bring back the honor to his father’s name (Skulsky 78). Naturally, it is expected that when a husband or wife dies the other partner should at least wait for sometime before getting married. However, in this case the opposite happens when Gertrude rushes to marry Claudius even before the burial ceremony is over.
More about topic name How did King Hamlet Die? 5 108 What are Hamlet’s last words? 5 123 How do the actors’ physical appearances affect their adaptations of Hamlet? 5 73 Which Word does Hamlet Use to Describe Those Who Choose to Live? 5 44 Why does Polonius think Hamlet is mad? 5 92 What is the significance of the Willow Song in Othello? 5 1036 On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the idea of revenge that seizes Hamlet’s mind is self-destructive. Even though the audience would probably be happy to see the main antagonists of the play, i.e., Claudius and Gertrude, being punished and finally getting what they deserved, the ending does feel devastating, which must signify the fact that vengeance is a pointless end in itself; once it has been achieved, there is nothing left to live for.
It is necessary to state that Hamlet is seeking revenge just to prove that he is not a coward. His emotions betray him and he does not see why he should kill Claudius apart from the fact that he killed and took his late father’s wife (Shakespeare). However, after the First Player expresses his concern about Queen Hecuba’s misfortune Hamlet is convinced that this character is more concerned about his father’s death than he ought to be (Riley, McAllister and Symons). This challenges him to evaluate whether or not he should kill Claudius.
On the other hand, King Claudius uses underhand ways to seek revenge against his enemies. He convinces Laertes that Hamlet is to blame for his sister’s madness and that he should seek immediate revenge (Shakespeare). However, Laertes is not convinced that Hamlet deserves to die even though he is later persuaded to kill him. His anger is not sufficient to warrant his vengeance against Hamlet and he finally tells him about his plans. However, Hamlet manages to persuade him to stop his plans and together they plan to kill the king.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Theme of Revenge in Shakespeare’s Hamlet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Revenge has other effects on the characters apart from causing death and suffering to victims. First, it changes their perception towards life and other people (Gottschalk). Gertrude learns that all men are ruthless due to what she witnesses in her surrounding and vows never to get married again. Secondly, Hamlet is not persuaded to kill King Claudius but since this will be a show of brevity and loyalty he decides to do it just to make his father happy and prove that he is not a coward.
Works Cited Gottschalk, Paul. “Hamlet and the Scanning of Revenge.” Shakespeare Quarterly 24.2 (1973): 155–170. Print.
Kastan, David Scott. “’His Semblable in His Mirror’: Hamlet and the Imitation of Revenge.” Shakespeare Studies 19.14 (1987): 111–124. Print.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. n. d. Web. .
Skulsky, Harold. “Revenge, Honor and Conscience in ‘Hamlet’.” PMLA 85.1 (1970): 78–87.
Riley, Dick, Pam McAllister and Julian Symons. “Hamlet. Young Prince Takes Revenge on Murderous Uncle.” The Bedside, Bathtub and Armchair Companion to Shakespeare. London, UK: Continuum, 2001. 255–259. Print.
Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development Term Paper essay help online
Piaget’s theory of intellectual development is widely used in the education field especially when it comes to the formation of basic guidance strategies. According to Piaget’s theory, intellectual development is based on assimilation and accommodation processes that are associated with evolutionary adaptation of species (Oakley, 2004). Piaget’s theory emphasizes the fact that intellectual development is progressive and takes place in stages.
Age is the main determining factor of the various stages of intellectual development (Oakley, 2004). The mental abilities of children develop as they continue to grow up. According to Piaget’s theory, intellectual development of children is measured by their ability to reconstruct concepts and ideas leant in the previous stage. Each age period has a certain reality that a child gets used to (Oakley, 2004). The practice of education has been influenced in a great way by Piaget’s theory of intellectual development.
Piaget’s theory helps teachers to focus on the thinking process of children rather than the correctness of their answers (Oakley, 2004). Cognitive functioning of children helps teachers in the formation of basic guidance strategies. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development advocates for interactive learning where children are actively involved in the learning process.
Teachers are therefore required to come up with a variety of activities that can enable children to interact with their physical environment. Piaget’s theory does not support premature teaching where intellectual development of children is accelerated beyond their age (Oakley, 2004). Teachers are therefore encouraged to formulate learning strategies that promote true cognitive understanding rather superficial acceptance of concepts that are above the children’s level of intellectual development.
An example of this case is where primary school pupils are taught secondary school concepts that are beyond their understanding. Piaget’s theory recognizes the fact that children have different rates of intellectual development and therefore teachers should come up with classroom activities that accommodate differences in development progress (Oakley, 2004).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and motivation theory can be applied in education and general learning processes (Mangal, 2007). According to Maslow’s theory, learning can not take place without motivation. The ability of students to retain whatever they are taught in class depends on how well they are motivated.
Teachers should therefore come up with strategies that motivate students to meet their learning goals. Maslow’s theory has a significant impact on the general structure of education (Mangal, 2007). School teachers and administrators must be guided by their students’ needs in the design of teaching programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The hierarchical order of needs should always be observed by teachers for effective design of classroom programs (Mangal, 2007). An example of this case is the relationship between food and learning. It is difficult for starving students to be motivated and this consequently affects their concentration in class. Motivating a well fed student is easy and this can be reflected in their concentration and performance.
The above example clearly shows that a student with some unmet needs can not concentrate in class. In order to solve this problem, the school administration should come up with feeding programs to help those students who come to school while hungry (Mangal, 2007). This strategy is meant to make students learn effectively without thinking about food. Maslow’s theory of knowledge encourages teachers to come with programs that can help students to deal with the realities of life.
There are some basic life skills that students need to be taught in order to cope with the basic realities of life (Mangal, 2007). According to this theory, students should not be trained to only absorb facts but much emphasis should be put in the entire learning process. Individual needs of students and their intellectual development should be accounted for by knowledge because of its dynamic nature (Mangal, 2007).
Dewey’s theory on education calls for the integration of practical everyday occupations with intellectual activities (Dewey, 2007). According to Dewey’s theory, children are supposed to participate in activities out of schools for them to develop a culture of self-reliance as they grow up.
This theory suggests that children should not in any way be denied an opportunity to participate in the available occupations for them to develop a sense of action and judgment (Dewey, 2007). The social needs of a community are very instrumental in governing the conduct and behavior of pupils. This theory helps teachers to come up with guidance strategies that cater for the social needs of students.
According to this theory, teachers should not act like task-masters but should play an instrumental role in ensuring that their students have a desire for knowledge through inspiration (Dewey, 2007). Intellectual development of pupils can only take place through spiritual, mental, physical and social development. According to Dewey’s theory, intellectual development of children depends on their interest and how they balance their school life and life out of school (Dewey, 2007).
Extra-curricular activities such as music can be developed if a child is nurtured at school and out of school (Dewey, 2007). This is a perfect example of how experience can be blended with intellectual activities to produce a complete graduate. Children must have the support and affection of parents and teachers in order to have an interest in developing their talents.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three education theories that have been discussed in this paper are very useful when it comes to education reforms. The theories influence curriculum design and instruction techniques in learning institutions. The discussion has provided a new insight in understanding the meaning and importance of the three education theories.
References Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Mangal, S. (2007). Essentials of educational psychology. New York, NY: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Oakley, L. (2004). Cognitive development. New York, NY: Routledge.
Women Rights Violation Expository Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Women Rights Abuse
Introduction Modern societies have undergone complete metamorphosis and adopted new ways of doing things. Modernization has become a common occurrence in almost all aspects of our daily lives and this has improved our living standards.
However, an improvement in technology does not reflect human developments if what happens to some members in the society is anything to consider. For a long time, women have suffered various challenges and become victims of circumstances without anyone raising an alarm about this. This essay explores the violation of women rights and possible causes in our modern societies.
Definition Human rights refer to the privileges that a person enjoys as a human being. These rights include the permission to access quality healthcare, security, food, shelter, education and public amenities (Wollstonecraft 7). In addition, it also includes the freedom to move and express opinions regarding various happenings.
Causes of Women Rights Abuse Most women have been abused in modern societies due to illiteracy and lack of exposure to their rights. Women constitute the greatest percentage of the illiterate population due to societal perceptions. This exposes them to various forms of discriminations that lead to their oppression (Rich 7).
In addition, the lack of proper guidance from governments is also to blame for women oppression. Most developing nations are struggling to adopt democratic policies and forget that women deserve the right to be heard and considered as members of the society.
Moreover, poverty has continued to propagate women suffering due to the lack of sufficient funds to cater for domestic needs. Most women are forced to look for food for their families and this makes them vulnerable to oppression. It is imperative to state that the modern woman has become so occupied with the desire to earn a living without relying on men.
However, she is not able to find job so easily unless she bows down to some form of pressure from a man’s side (Rich 12). Consequently, women seek favors by submitting their bodies to men in exchange for these aspects. As a result, they end up being victims of rape and other forms of sexual abuse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, drug abuse has become a common problem in many homes and this makes women the most susceptible victims to the effects associated with this vice. In most occasions, men have violated women either verbally or physically when they are under the influence of drugs. The number of cases of rape and other forms of sexual abuse among women have increased due to drug abuse especially in the informal settlement areas.
In addition, some traditions are extremely retrogressive and still consider women as domestic servants. The fact that there are free primary and secondary school education and many scholarships to study further education has not helped women to attend schools. Their communities still treat them as servants and have not given them opportunities to utilize their talents (Wollstonecraft 13). In addition, most women are comfortable with their positions and therefore they are not ready to challenge their men in higher positions.
Lastly, affirmative actions have not gone well with most men since they view this as defiance. On the other hand, women have embraced these actions without consideration how to approach men in dealing with the anticipated challenges. As a result, men have felt like they are being challenged and have countered this with violence and other forms of abuse.
Conclusion Most women will continue to be abused if necessary steps are not taken to address these issues. It is imperative to ensure that both men and women are involved in women empowerment and emancipation to ensure that society embraces change and respect for human rights.
Works Cited Rich, Jennifer. Modern Feminist Theory: An Introduction. New York: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
South Korea political economy Essay essay help free: essay help free
South Korea Internationalization, globalization, and changes to the International Political Economy (IPE) impact on nations’ political and economical environments (Dani 43). It has become easier for corporations and companies to move or invest wherever they want due to the mobile nature of money and of manufacturing of goods.
This implies that national governments are less capable of regulating and controlling the activities of multinational corporations (Banerjee and Duflo 23). Additionally, it also could imply that multinationals are at an advantaged position over national governments to dictate how they would operate within a country. The political implications of globalization and the changes to the IPE therefore focus on creating a power balance between national governments and multinational corporations (Al-Obaidan and Scully 240).
Scholars argue that this scenario forces the national governments to retreat because of the inability to gain full control over the operations of these international businesses (Haberl and Marina 13). Others have argued that the sovereignty of state is slowly shifting away towards the multinational corporations. From a different perspective, one can see that globalization and the changes to IPE created tension between the need for economic prosperity and the need to maintain community values (Harris 144).
The state plays a very important role of protecting communities from the effect of competition by multinationals. Through measures such as tariffs, local industries are protected from such effects. The sovereign power of national governments however can be extended in the face of globalization through signing of international treaties and cooperating with international organizations (Dani 34).
In South Korea, the impact of globalization and changes to the IPE has opened up the country’s market in addition to economic empowerment. There is immense technological advancement in the country which has increased its connection with the rest of the world. Scholars have identified that the country got its taste of globalization for the first time during the 1980s (Thistlethwaite 80).
It was during this time that the economy of the country was opened up to free trade. Even though this has not only been met by positive consequences, the impact it has had on the country’s economy has made it one of the richest nations in the world. Local technology and automotive companies have expanded and operated on a global scale (Keohane 40).
The political and economical sphere of the international economy is slowly being replaced by MNC based economy. The MNCs in South Korea are playing a decisive role in the national government. The same effect is seen in other countries where these multinationals operate. According to statistics, States no longer comprise the largest economic entities in the world today. Instead, companies operating on a global scale are now the largest economic entities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case of South Korea is a perfect example of this scenario (Haberl and Marina). The central government in the country only dictates a quarter of GDP spending while the remaining three quarters is dictated by companies and the private sector. Samsung electronics alone contributes to more than 20 percent of South Korea’s GDP. If the three largest South Korean based MNCs (Samsung, Hyundai, and LG) are combined, they contribute an overwhelming 50 percent of the country’s GDP (Raphael and Stokes 917).
These statistics reveal that the financial concerns of multinational corporations are now taking over the diplomatic and political concerns that were once a huge part of international political economy. The dictating power of multinational corporations is fast spreading and evidence of this power can be seen in several other countries in both the developed and the developing world. The multinational corporations now have international responsibilities.
Samsung Electronics Samsung electronics is one of South Korea’s thriving multinationals. In terms of revenue, it is currently the largest company in the world dealing with information technology. By 2011, it passed Nokia to be the largest mobile phone manufacturer globally. Samsung electronics is also a leading company in the manufacture of television sets, home appliances, and semi conductor chips.
The company has recently established a prominent position in the smart phone market and tablet computer market. Samsung has sales networks in over 61 countries worldwide (Grand mont and McFadden 114).
Samsung electronics alone contributes to almost a quarter of the country’s economy. The government only spends around 20 percent of its GDP. Samsung, as described, has a sprawling network of 80 subsidiary companies which in total produce estimated annual sales of $250 billion.
If the company’s asset is combined with other local based multinationals such as Hyundai and LG, they have a larger share of the country’s total asset than the central government alone. Based on sectors, South Korea’s GDP comprises of agriculture, industry, and service sectors (Keohane 67). Each of these contributes 3.2%, 39.6%, and 57.2% respectively to the country’s GDP. In the industrial sector, electronics and automobile make up more than two thirds of its revenue.
The presence of multinational corporations, such as Samsung electronics, and the existing changes in the IPE has also impacted the trade structure in the country. The country has signed free trade agreements with other like minded states such as the US, European Union, China, Japan, UAE among others.
We will write a custom Essay on South Korea political economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These states and international organizations are South Korea’s major trading partners. The government has also established an investment and trade promotion agency which has the mandate to enhance competition and national prosperity in the country. The agency works closely with Korean Trade Centers in other countries. As a result, the government has managed to establish business centers in more than 70 countries to enhance trade and promote investments. It is also in these countries that Samsung has a huge market.
Samsung electronics has made South Korea to be a leader within the global IT, semi conductor, and digital display industries surpassing economies such as Japan and the US. The technological developments have made the government to have huge interest in the robotic industry. There are a lot of investments going on in this industry with a goal of becoming a robotic nation by the year 2025.
Samsung electronics is also known to have a policy of attracting the low end market especially in low cost countries in Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia. Its operation within these host countries has created investment opportunities, job opportunities for both high skilled and low skilled labor, and technological transfer. It produces goods in host countries and provides a ready market in South Korea where the goods are exported.
Because of the free trade agreements it has signed with international organizations and other developed countries, the goods produced in host nations are also sold within the free markets. It has long term commitment to the host nations. The huge amount profit it makes by operating in a host country is not usually transferred for investment in South Korea. Instead, the profit is invested locally within the host nations. This further helps to improve the economy of host nations.
From this point of view, it is apparent that Samsung electronics has almost a similar ability to assist host nations as the central government of South Korea. The position it has in shaping the economy of a country is quite significant compared to that of the central government.
Despite the significant role the company as well as other Korean multinationals play in shaping investments in the country, the central government also has power in creating strategies which shape its future. The focus of the central government has always been on strengthening the economy further to compete with other strong economies such as the US, China, and Japan.
In consequence, there have been a lot of talks with neighbors especially their northern counterpart in the Korean Peninsula to reunite and form a stronger economy. Currently, South Korea’s economy is ranked 13th in the world but if it manages to reunite with North Korea, it would be among the top four largest economies in the world (Haberl and Marina).
There is a lot of corporation between the central government and these multinationals when it comes to future investments strategies. Currently Samsung electronics is known to have the best policies on environmental sustainability. The company as well as the central government makes huge investments on energy saving technologies and on green energy. Due to the magnitude of its manufacturing and industrial sectors, the central government introduced a program to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses (Begg and Ward 29).
Not sure if you can write a paper on South Korea political economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The program is considered to be largest of its kind in the world bearing in mind that other developed nations are still yet to make significant steps towards green energy. Additionally, the central government is collaborating with the multinationals to diversify the economy by increasing investments in other sectors and in some low populated regions of the country.
Works Cited Al-Obaidan, Antoinette and Scully, Goerge . “Efficiency Differences between Private and State-Owned Enterprises in the International Petroleum Industry.” Applied economics Taylor and Francis Journals 24.2 (1992): 237-246. Print.
Banerjee, Abhijit and Esther Duflo. Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011. Print.
Begg, David and Damian Ward. Economics for business. 3rd. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print.
Dani, Rodrik. One economics. Many recipes. Globalization, institutions, and economic growth. Princeton: Princeton university press, 2007. Print.
Grand mont, James and McFadden David. “Technical note on classical gains from trade.” Journal of international economics 2.1 (1972): 109-125. Print
Haberl, Helmut and Marina, Fitscher. “A socio-metabolic transition toward sustainability? Challenges for another great transformation.” Sustainable Development 19: 1, (2011): 11–14. Print.
Harris, Paul. “Peace, security and global climate change: the vital role of China.” Global Change, Peace and Security 23. 2 (2011) :141–5. Print.
Keohane, Robert. “The old IPE and the new.” Review of international political economy 16.2 (2009) :34-46. Print.
Raphael, Sam and Doug Stokes. “Globalizing West African oil: US “energy security” and the global economy.” International Affairs 87.4 (2011): 903–21. Print.
Thistlethwaite, Jason. “Counting the environment: the environmental implications of international accounting standards.” Global Environmental Politics 11.2 (2011): pp. 75–97. Print.
Hume’s Two Forms of Inquiry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Hume
Matter of fact
Relations of ideas
Difference between matter of fact and relations of ideas
Hume According to Hume, there are two forms of inquiry; they are matter of fact and relations of ideas. All enquiry objects can naturally be categorized into matters of fact and relations of ideas. The propositions are usually discovered solely through the application of thought.
This is never dependent on things that can be found in the universe. Irrespective of the fact that, in nature, triangles and circles were not in existence, Euclid came up with truths that maintain the evidence and certainty of their existence. This paper aims at analyzing the matter of fact and relations of ideas.
Matter of fact Matters of fact are the 2nd enquiry objects. Irrespective of how much evidence of their existence there is, their assertion is totally different. There is always the possibility of the opposite of each matter of fact because it does not indicate a contradiction. Moreover, it is contained in mind with a similar uniqueness and facility.
This is accomplished in a manner that agrees totally to reality (Hume, 1902). For instance, saying that the sun will not rise from the east tomorrow, is not an intelligent proposition. It introduces more contradiction than the already present evidence, that is, that the sun will rise. Hence, trying to show the falsehood of this statement would be in vain. In case it is shown to be false, this would bring about a contradiction, and the mind would not conceive this distinctly.
Relations of ideas In philosophy, the term relation refers to a form of the fact that is either agreeable or disagreeable of the two items. For instance, the aspect of ‘taller than’ is agreeable in relation to Ross Perot. On the other hand, it is false as far as Mt. Everest is concerned. In this relation, it is worth noting that items and substances possess properties.
For instance, this patch is blue; it is worth noting that relations involve two substances or properties. For instance, this patch is smaller compared to another one. Relations of ideas refer to the form of knowledge that is considered as having arisen from pure reasonable procedures and theoretical opinions (Hume, 1902). This is a complete contrast of matter of fact. For example, in logic it can be argued that water surrounds all islands. In mathematics, 40 * 2 is 80.
Difference between matter of fact and relations of ideas Relations of ideas refer to a logical or mathematical proposition. Irrespective of the fact that it has rational certainty, it informs nothing in regards to reality. On the other hand, matters of fact refer to an empirically verifiable proposition. Although it informs about the real world, there is no rational certainty.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, according to the relation of ideas, a triangle refers to a geometrical figure with three sides. The total sum of all the angles is one hundred and eighty degrees. There is one hundred percent certainty that this is what the triangle is. However, there is no confirmation whether triangles exist in reality or not (Hume, 1902).
In the matter of fact, it can be argued that the Sun always rises in the east. Therefore, all people globally accept this to be the case according to the overall experience. According to Hume, this is referred to as custom. However, it is not clear whether the Sun will rise from another direction the following day.
Reference Hume, D. (1902). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. London: Oxford University Press.
The Fish – a Poem by Elizabeth Bishop Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The Fish is a poem authored by Elizabeth Bishop. The author uses language to attract the attention of the readers. She also manages to express her feelings through imagery in her literary piece of work by employing similes, descriptive language, and adjectives. These literary devices culminate into a precise mental image of the occurrences in the setting.
This poem figuratively describes several events that culminate into the main message that the author communicates to the reader. The speaker describes an encounter on a fishing expedition using a rented boat. Several events culminate into the events that are finally revealed in the poem.
The speaker in the poem managed to trap a large fish. The fish is rather old since algae and barnacles are growing on its outer surface. The fish is strong and powerful enough to fight for its life. The speaker analyzes the fish and wonders how much energy the fish had used to resist being caught. The size and the age of the fish make the narrator to respect the creature.
The narrator compares herself with the fish due to the struggle that each one of them has to make in the deep waters. She acknowledges that she has been fishing for many years and the boat is symbolic of the fish. She becomes emotional and eventually lets the fish to go. If she had not taken her time to study the fish, she could have never imagined how much struggle the fish has undergone in order to avoid being trapped by fishermen for several years.
She ended up appreciating the struggle for survival undertaken by the old fish. She equates herself to the fish because both of them have been striving to survive against all odds. Her boat was old and spilling oil although it was still running. This is the moment that changed her thoughts. When she stared into the eyes of the fish, it immediately created an emotional trigger that culminated into the moment of revelation.
The narrator experienced three revelations as a result of her detailed analysis of the fish, the boat and herself. The first revelation was based on how she described the outlook of the fish. The latter was old as apparent from the outside look. However, it appeared to be rather strong. The body was covered by layers of algae and had lines of bruises presumable sustained after escaping from fishermen traps.
This created an image of the fish as a vital part of her life since it symbolized struggle to live. The fish was made to appear as an important image in the fishmonger’s life. As a result, the fishmonger ended up creating a mental picture that related the fish and real circumstances of life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author has largely managed to personify the fish. She uses possessive nouns such as ‘his’ that attempt to a humanly picture of the fish and how daily struggle to be alive is dominant feature. She handles the fish, looks straight into its eyes, and admires the appearance of its face and the jaws. This makes the narrator in the poem to be attracted to the fish emotionally. The emotional attachment between the fish and the narrator intensifies as she compares the struggles the fish has endured to hers.
The struggle that has been endured by the fish makes the narrator to perceive it as a hero. In addition, the fishmonger examines the jaw and observes that is has long hair. The author relates this eternal feature of the fish with wisdom. This makes the narrator to appreciate the fish as a wise creature especially if it managed to survive in the waters for many years. All these observations tend to strengthen the attributes of the fish as far as the fishmonger is concerned.
Another outstanding instance that guaranteed the freedom of the fish after being caught is the condition of boat. The boat is definitely old. The author compares the age of the boat and the fish and finds that they are both dilapidated. Nonetheless, both the boat and the fish are vital in the entire survival cycle in spite of their ages.
As much as the boat is old and full of imperfections, its functions are overwhelming according to the narrator. The leaking oil that formed a rainbow on the surface of water compelled the narrator to let the fish free since there was no time to deal with it while the boat was leaking.
This narration describes several processes that culminated into acquittal of the fish even after being trapped. The fish is displayed as a vulnerable captive that has created a sorrowful situation. The personal relationship between the fish and the fishmonger also enhances the feelings crop up and culminate into the freedom of the fish.
The narrator admires the fish. As a result, it strengthens the relationship between the two parties. The hooked jaw also reveals that the fish has escaped being caught several times. This compels the narrator to equate the fish to a hero. She ends up respecting the aquatic creature.
References Bishop E. The fish. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [date unknown; cited 2020 Feb 11].
We will write a custom Essay on The Fish – a Poem by Elizabeth Bishop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Cezanne’s Sense of Color Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A renowned French artist, Paul Cezanne is considered as ‘The father of the modern art’ for his contribution to the evolution of painting. His inspiration was revealed in Paris during his frequent visits to the Louvre Museum (Turner 459). His paintings are considered a foundation and inspiration to the modern art. In fact, it has been argued that his intensive use of colors and compositions represents his originality in painting (Loran 26).
Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seems to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from the use of dark colors to an application of light colors (Sidlauskas 90). The purpose of this paper is to analyze some of Cezanne’s paintings with an aim of describing his sense of color in painting (Turner 459).
Arguably, one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world (Sidlauskas 84). Cezanne paves way for upcoming artists when he decided to give quality to his paintings as compared to the traditional ones (Bois and Krauss 32).
Cezanne’s 1896’s painting “Lake of Annecy” was an exhibition of use of color to depict nature at its best. He used a range of cool colors such as blue and green with deep tone and a combination of warm color to produce contrast, thus making some features look closer. In 1906, Cezanne exhibited an oil painting, which he called “the Bathers” (Turner 26). He distinguished his artwork from other small paintings by calling it “Large Bathers.” The painting took him seven years though it was never finished due to his death in 1906 (Shiff 54).
His understanding and use of color was also an inspiration from his wife, who had a great passion to do artwork of her master. Cezanne wanted to articulate a painting meaning with color. An example is the painting of his wife Fiquet Cezanne he used color to give different conception to her features (Sidlauskas 90).
In his artwork, Cezanne used color to signify depth and surface at once, mobility and skin revelatory suited a young man nicknamed “Iecorche”. Although Cezanne’s “Mont St. Victoire” painting portrays a traditional landscape, the use of color technique makes it complete revolutionary. His impressionism is extreme as he uses color patches to convey mountains cape atmosphere.
This is an amazing work as the bluish tint color portrays a thick atmosphere. The use of color to portray fruits and glassware objects in “Compotier, Pitcher and Fruit” gives shadows and textures and creates a realistic perception as the fruits looks as they are falling off the table. In his Harlequin painting, Cezanne uses blue color to symbolize mood on how Picasso lean on his elbow (Bois and Krauss 35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Loran (41), Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seem to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from these use of dark colors to an application of light colors.
According to Bleicher (122), this shift in paradigm provides some evidence of the influence that impressionism had on the works of several artists in the 19th century. In the initial stages of his career, Cezanne used flat brushstrokes. However, he progressively changed to the use of light strokes in which he added light and dark tones to produce a three-dimensional effect (Bois and Krauss 32).
His ability to use both dark and light colors to come up with three dimension effect is one of the fact that makes Cezanne’s work appears quite unique from those of other impressionist painters of the time (Badt 151). It is also worth noting that Cezanne’s initial strokes were usually based on simple primary colors. Rather than using a palette, Cezanne used canvas. This additional aspect makes Cezanne much different from the rest of his impressionist colleagues.
The shift in paradigm from focus on dark colors to lighter colors in his later part of career is explained by his shift of focus from mixing and blending of colors. Accordingly, his works increasingly became unique in that they appeared as patches of distinct colors.
For example, an analysis of his famous painting “Mont St. Victoire” reveals that although it is based on traditional landscape, it is equally applies revolutionary technique developed by patches of color that convey a true atmosphere of mountain (Merleau 62). Some scholars have argued that with this style of color use, Cezanne must have taken impressionism to the extreme.
Secondly, it is worth noting that in this piece of work, Cezanne has shows his amazing ability and skills by using blue-ish tint in his painting to portray a thick atmosphere. In fact, in this painting, Cezanne has moved towards a more architectural design rather than an imaginary painting. Riviere and Schnerb recall that Cezanne was very particular when working on planar surfaces like walls, where he made the look spherical by modulation of color (Bois and Krauss 35).
In fact, this is a common style among the cubist artists (Ione 59). According to Becks-Malorny (36), this method of color application in painting was popular among the cubist painters, which makes some scholars argue on whether Cezanne was an impressionist, a post-impressionist or a Cubist painter. However, he makes use of his skills and knowledge to ensure that both depth and perspective are present in his paintings. This is actually a researchable aspect within the context of his theory of color application (Sidlauskas 88).
We will write a custom Essay on Cezanne’s Sense of Color specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cezanne uses color in its three dimensions to favor different contrasts of hue to re-assert different structural painting qualities (Stewart 451). He had the opinion that surfaces that are near the viewer should have pure color. This hints how he uses color to build form. Cezanne used three dimensional model that is value to illustrated by light-dark color, hue using varying wavelength of green, red, yellow and other colors and saturation where he applied purity of colors.
These dimensions of colors he used in combination with four forms of contrast separately or mixed thus building form and space at the same time intensifying lighting effects. Cezanne at the same time used a warm-cool contrast, which is a function of hue.
According to Loran (83), Cezanne’s painting can easily be analysis used in terms of black and white illustrations of value. In his analysis “Cezanne’s compositions”, Loran argues that the paintings by Cezanne are quite brilliant due to his style of color application (Loran 94). Nevertheless, it is arguable that Loran overlooked the fact that Cezanne’s work was developed from a composition of sophisticated application of value, saturation as well as hue.
Cezanne’s painting, “naked female”, presents the evidence of density and tension (Loran 73). He grouped the naked women and shaped them like trees. A triangular shaped view gives focus to the lake and the bathers seem to be calmed under the trees. The painting “Large Bathers” gives the reminiscence of other artist’s work such as Paul Ruben and Titian with landscapes, trees and the river (Dorival 19).
The calmness of the water and the dawdling movement of the figures gives a mythically and an imaginary element to Cezanne’s work. Though Cezanne followed no stylish paintings, which did not match with the methods of the nineteenth century, he was in an attempt to come up with a timeless painting (Stewart 453).
According to Dorival (55), the paintings “large Bathers” are quite outstanding paintings due to their wide spaces, color use and figures especially on the right side seem to be well- figured. In addition, Cezanne’s use of space is revealed by the whirling blue, bright, and clear sky. Cézanne used lines to give a well-outlined shape of the women. In addition, lines created and emphasized movement, which makes one to hold the movement of the eyes. Cezanne seems to have a better understanding of the viewer movements.
Cezanne’s work is based on nature and his own imagination especially on the figure paintings. He was also fascinated by the human figure, which in his painting portrays un-sensual and statuesque showing his personal classicism interpretation. The painting shows how female figures can add an aesthetic value and harmony to the landscape (Becks-Malorny 88).
Cezanne’s work on the Large Bathers shows a well-developed architectural combination of rhythm, format and color. By pairing the spots symmetries of object is created resulting in a secret life to a static object. In addition, use of natural and human forms brings out weight and dignity in his work (Stewart 453).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cezanne’s Sense of Color by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Dorival (55), Cézannes works “Large Bathers” are surrounded by trees on their sides and each nude female is lend interiorly thus making a triangular shape which frames the lake. This gave the naked women a pre-arranged space. This composition gives Bathers various poses through bending to fit Cezanne’s art composition. He tried to create space between objects, which are closer from the far ones (Dorival 64).
This spacing could be seen through perspective though it depended on the viewer’s eye when standing on one place .He accounted his natural vision through art representation since nature cannot be reproduced through art. Cezanne expressed his emotion and feeling in his drawing, in his paining of his wife, he used pale coral pigment to draw her wife face giving it a distinct consistent feature (Sidlauskas 93).
Cezanne used dark and light blue colors in his Bathers. The paintings show how Cezanne toned his palette down. He also eliminated some colors and reduced the hue intensity to tones of green, blue and ochre. His tree trunks were painted with oak brown in addition to golden tones. Skin color of the bathers showed a complimentary color with brown hair. Back and the hips of the women are painted dark brown giving them a female shape (Loran 83).
Cezanne’s Bathers seem to be well illuminated especially on the right side hence little light reaching the bathers on their right hand side. He used natural light in creating shadow patterns, which in turn creates a spectacular outcome. In this painting, the light is seen hitting directly on the crouching down bather on the left elbow of the woman and on the lower sides of her thigh.
hough the waters seem to be calm, they look troubled by the waves. Cezanne’s use of a brush stroke gives the texture to his work. The painting appears unfinished leaving trails of the painting patterns. Thick coats of paint give the Large Bathers a fog of green and blue colors (Loran 91). In addition, the time that Cezanne spent in working out the painting produces shifts in point of view.
Although Cezanne did not finish his work, he left a spectacular artwork, which inspires many upcoming artists. Cezanne created a sense of distance by using parallel brush marks that added depth. In his work “Montagne Saint Victoire”, Cezanne painted a mountain shape in the middle and a stylised tree to the left incorporating shades. He added pink and blue colours with stretches of pale brown (Loran 118).
In his painting, “The Blue Vase”, Cezanne created a still life picture by using colours that are both luminous and high-keyed in the object as well as in the background (Loran 122). Despite the use of greater brightness, the sensitiveness creation of the small difference coupled with the richness of hues brought about a refined and gradated tones.
He uses blue colour to create mood giving a differing quality in the background and contrast with warmer tones used in flowers and smaller units. Cezanne’s work, which is rich in colour, employs variety of colour relationship to contrast, coolness, mood and harmony.
In a letter to Emile Bernard of April 1904, Cezanne gave his personal view on the use of color in his paintings. In this letter, he says that one cannot separate drawing and color, as long as the painter is drawing. According to him, the more the amount of color applied in a painting, the more exact is the painting.
Color brings richness to a painting, which in turn makes the form to attain its fullness (Bois and Krauss 34). He further argues that the secret of modeling and drawing is the contrast achieved through color tines. From this analysis, it is worth arguing that one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world.
Works Cited Badt, Kurt. The Art of Cézanne. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2010. Print.
Becks-Malorny, Ulrike. Cezanne. Ediz. Inglese. London, UK: Taschen, 2009. Print.
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color: Theory
Debates on Whether Dog is the Best Pet or not Essay best essay help
Debates on whether dog is the best pet or not are very common when it comes to choosing a pet. There are many pets that a person can keep, but dogs stand out from the rest. Dogs have been branded as the best friends of man for a very long time and this yet to change.
The relationships between dogs and man have been improving over the years and this has made dogs to be the most preferable pets in the world. Dogs are known to reciprocate love by remaining loyal and the best companions. The people who are still reluctant to choose dogs as their pets simply lack adequate information on why dogs are the best pets to keep. This paper will explain why a dog is the best pet to keep compared to other pets.
The first reason why one should choose a dog for a pet is its ability to do things for its owner. Dogs can do several tricks that other pets such as cats and birds can not do. Dogs are quick learners and can therefore be taught simple domestic tasks for fun. In terms of companionship, dogs are the best option because they have the energy to jog and run alongside their owners.
Dogs are known to offer unconditional love to their owners and are always concerned about their safety. A good pet should give its owner some attention and no other pet does this better then a dog. Dogs learn their names in the shortest time possible and can always respond quickly when they are called by their names. Dog can be learned to play different games and are always available to play with its owner any time it is called upon.
Recent studies have shown that dogs bring health benefits to their owners apart from offering companionship. A dog owner becomes fit by having regular walking sessions with his or her pet. Regular dog-walking sessions help dog owners reduce their cholesterol levels.
Having a dog as a friend helps its owner forget about his or her worries by playing with it. A person who lives alone needs a dog for security and companionship. Psychologists believe that dogs can help bereaved people overcome their traumas in the shortest time possible compared to other pets.
In addition, dogs often serve as guides for blind people. It is believed that dogs feel seismicity and can help their owners avoid being harmed by destruction in case of earthquake. The strong bond between a human being and a dog makes the owner feel calm when their pet is by the side. A dog can make its owner laugh after a very stressful day. A dog is always available to welcome its owner at home regardless of the mood of the day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, people with a problem of choosing a pet for themselves should consider having a dog as a pet because of the many benefits it brings to the owner compared to other pets. Dogs have special qualities that make them stand out from other pets when it comes to companionship and security.
Other pets have limited abilities and can not match the versatility of a dog. Research has proven that dogs bring quite a number of health and social benefits to their owners compared to other pets. The reasons explained in this paper are enough proof that a dog is the best pet that one should consider keeping.
Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Political and religious leader
Introduction Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini is a famous Iranian Muslim cleric credited with marshaling the revolution against the Iranian leader of the time known as the Shah. After the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was named the supreme religious leader of Iran, which later was transformed and renamed the Islamic republic of Iran in 1979.
When he was appointed, Ayatollah Khomeini ensured that the Shah did not serve as the Iranian ruler. The Shah was toppled due to his ties with the west. After the success of the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was subsequently named as the religious and political leader of the Islamic republic of Iran for life (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 1; Reich, p. 310).
Early life Khomeini is believed to have been born on the 24th day of September, 1902. This is also believed, which is also the anniversary of the birth of Prophet Mohammed’s daughter Hazrat Fatima. He was named Rouhollah Mousavi, which when translated, means “inspired by God”.
He was born in a small known as Khomeini, which is about 160 km southwest of Qom. His family was well known for their quest in religious scholarship. His surname was derived from the town in which he was born. Thus, he was known as Rouhollah Khomeini (Iran Chamber Society, para. 1). During the early 20th century, his father was murdered. Khomeini’s mother and aunt took care of him from a tender age.
However, they later on succumbed to cholera leaving him orphaned. Khomeini’s elder brother was left with the obligation of taking care of the family. There are assertions that Khomeini’s family was related to Prophet Mohammed. The family boasts of a legacy of avid religious scholars all the way from their ancestors. Khomeini and his sibling Mourteza were great Islamic intellectuals (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 2; Moin, pp. 2-4).
In his youthful years, Khomeini enjoyed sporting activities and was a jovial person. He was also very strong and a great scholar. He was also successful in his studies at the local maktab. Maktabs are local schools that are primarily dedicated to teaching the Qur’an. His older sibling who was responsible for taking care of the family asked him to go to the Arak City in the second decade of the 20th century. This was due to his scholarly prowess.
In Arak, Khomeini was in the same class as other Islamic scholars such as Yazdi Ha’iri. After three years of staying in Arak, Khomeini and Ha’iri went to Qom. Under the apprenticeship of Ha’iri, Khomeini dedicated and committed most of his efforts to the development and furthering of his own personal religious studies. He also taught other younger students at the Ha’iri’s school (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political and religious leader The two great Islamic scholars worked together in Qom. However, in the 1930s, Ha’iri passed on and his religious position was taken over by Ayatollah Boroujerdi. As a result, he gained favor and had a strong following of all Muslims, Khomeini being one amongst them. It can also be noted that both Boroujerdi and Ha’iri shared a common belief that religion should be separated from the state. In this case, religion or the state should not involve themselves in matters of the other (Iran Chamber Society, para. 7).
Consequently, the Iranian leader, Reza Shah looked for ways in which he could tame the influence of the religious leaders. Most of the powerful religious leaders and clerics remained mute on the issue and encouraged their followers to follow suite. Furthermore, the same difference was advocated for when Reza Shah’s successor. His son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi sought support of the western governments, particularly the United States.
This was meant to control and contain protests for democratic reforms in Tehran during the year 1950. Khomeini among those clerics muted. Khomeini was not able to challenge what he saw. He thought that his country was moving away from the teachings of the Islamic traditions. He was angered by this and decided to focus on teaching the Islamic science known as Fiqh (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
After the demise of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, Khomeini emerged as one of the possible successors. This was brought about by his publications on the writings of Fiqh. The basic handbook of Islamic practice titled Tozih al-Masael was the most notable. Later on, Khomeini became a Marja-e Taqlid. In essence, he gained general acceptance among the Iranian Shi’as. In the early 1960s, the Iranian administration introduced new legislations on elections.
These laws did away with the previous prerequisite requiring the elected officials to take their oaths using the Quran. Imam Khomeini telegraphed both the prime minister and Mohammed Reza warning that they should stop violating the Iranian constitution of 1907 and Islamic law. If they failed to comply, the Ulama or religious scholars would lead the public in sustained protests to campaign against this provision (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 8-9; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6; Harmon, pp. 16-20).
On the 3rd of June, 1963, Imam Khomeini made a speech at Feyziyeh madreseh. He warned the Shah that, if he did not change his ways, one day the Iranian public will welcome his departure from the country.
He was arrested two days later by military commandos. When news of his arrest broke at dawn, there were widespread demonstrations that took almost six days before calm was restored. Demonstrators were ruthlessly confronted by heavy military tanks. This marked the turning point of Iran. Imam Khomeini was later released on the 7th of April, 1964 (Iran Chamber Society, para. 11; Khater, p. 229).
We will write a custom Essay on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Shah’s government continued to strengthen its ties with the west. He signed an agreement with America that offered immunity from prosecution to all United States people and their dependents in Iran. This triggered Khomeini to issue a statement against the leadership. He denounced the agreement and termed it as a relinquishment of the sovereignty and independence of Iran. Armed commandos from the military stormed the Ayatollah Khomeini’s residence in Qom and arrested him a few hours to dawn during the 4th of November 1964.
This time, he was not sent to jail but was taken to the Mehrabad airport where he was flown to Turkey for exile. While in Turkey, the Shah hoped that Ayatollah Khomeini would fade from the memory of the populace. Turkey had a law that prohibited the wearing of the turban and cloak. These aspects are critical to the Muslim scholars. However, on the 5th of November, Khomeini left Turkey for Najaf in Iraq where he spent the next 13 years (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 12-13).
During his stay in Najaf, Khomeini continued teaching Fiqh at Sheikh Mourteza Ansari madreseh. From his lectures on Velayat-e faqeeh, he published a text that bordered on issues of administration and religion. This was later smuggled into Iran by sympathizers who came to visit him in Iraq. He also started making video tapes of his lectures and sermons while in exile.
Through these strategies, Khomeini was accepted as the supreme leader of the Iranian opposition against the rule of the Shah’s government. The opposition’s struggle was starting to gain momentum. In 1975, a crowd of demonstrators camped for three days at a famous religious school in Qom where Ayatollah Khomeini used to teach while he was in Iran.
The crowd was adamant and was only dispersed by brutal military force under the orders of the Shah. As a response to this, Ayatollah Khomeini then released a public statement from exile in support of the demonstrators, which declared that the liberation and freedom from the shackles of imperialism for the Iranian people was indeed imminent (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 9).
More protests and demonstrations continued to be witnessed all around Iran during 1978 defending the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. On each occasion, the rioters and demonstrators were heavily and violently confronted by the military and other government institutions.
The Shah was concerned about the frequency and the magnitude of the demonstrations. He felt that the proximity of Khomeini’s exile to Iraq was relatively too close for any comfort. Within a short period, Khomeini’s residence in Iraq was again surrounded by military personnel who gave him two alternatives: he was asked to either leave the country or stay in Iraq but stop making any political statements.
Ayatollah Khomeini chose to leave the country (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 10). The Iranian authorities then colluded with the Iraqi government to force Khomeini out of Iraq. He moved to Kuwait where he was denied entry at the border, but finally made his way to France. It is from France that the teachings of Khomeini dominated world news and media (Iran Chamber Society, para. 15-16; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Khomeini went to Paris, which inevitably was to become his last residence outside Iran before he made his jubilant return to his motherland, Iran. During his stay in France, he vehemently defended himself against skeptics and criticisms regarding the accusations of being power hungry by making various public statements.
He argued that it was the sole responsibility and the desertion of the people of Iran to elect, select, or choose individuals that they thought were trustworthy and capable to lead them. He categorically stated that he was not personally interested in any special role or responsibility. He asserted that he was comfortable with his status as the Ayatollah (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 11).
Khomeini returned to Iran in 1979. This was just a few months after he had moved to Paris. The middle class, students, self employed businessmen, and the Iranian military took to the streets protesting against the Shah’s administration. At this point, the Shah was forced to turn to his close allies from the west such as the United States for assistance to control the demonstrations. However, the Shah had to leave the country when the revolution found its way to his doorstep.
Regardless of the statements that he issued in Paris, Ayatollah Khomeini was widely regarded and accepted as the new ruler of Iran. When Khomeini finally returned home, he returned to cheering crowds and immediately embarked on laying the foundations of setting up an Islamic republic that he had envisioned for his country. During this period, he entrusted his fellow clerics with the task of formulating and writing the new constitution for the new republic. He also began making authoritarian statements and remarks than before.
This includes when he called for the people of Iran not to listen to those who advocate for democracy. He insisted that the proponents of democracy were against Islam, and their intentions were to derail the nation from its ultimate mission. Khomeini swore not to entertain those advocating for aspects related to the west. Specifically, he singled out those advocating for democracy and nationalism (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 12).
After the Shah left Iran, he needed a country where he could spend his exile. It was later discovered that the Shah suffered from cancer. With this in mind, the United States under the administration of President Carter reluctantly allowed the Shah to serve out his exile in America.
Back in Iran, a group of Iranian was outraged by the American decision to accommodate the Shah. They stormed the American embassy in Tehran and took about 60 American hostages on the 4th day of November 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini saw this as an opportunity to demonstrate the new Islamic republic of Iran in defiance of the western powers.
As a result, the new Iranian government and the American government were engaged in a standoff that ended after the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan in January 1981. This was due to the pressure of economic sanctions and oil embargos that the American administration imposed on Tehran. This is what came to be known as the Iranian Hostage Crisis (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 13).
Shapour Bakhtiar was appointed Prime Minister by Shah before he left Iran. Imam Khomeini came back to Iran on 5th of February, 1979. He was appointed a Prime Minister disregarding the one appointed by Shah on his departure from Iran. He then ordered the citizens to defy the curfew imposed, and on February 15th, the regime collapsed. A referendum was conducted in which the Islamic Republic of Iran was created, and Ayatollah Khomeini became the supreme leader (Iran Chamber Society, para. 18).
During his 10 year rule, Khomeini established a theocratic administration over Iran. He failed to fulfill his pre-revolutionary promises made to the people. Instead, he went on to marginalize and suppress the opposition groups. He amalgamated authority and protected the cleric governance. Most of the books were edited to reflect Islamic values or destroyed. Many who were against these changes were either sentence to life imprisonment or death (Iran Chamber Society, para. 21).
Once in authority, Ayatollah Khomeini was far less sympathetic to the plight of the secular left than the Shah was to Khomeini’s call for reforms. Anybody who protested against his administration was killed.
Khomeini made sure that his doctrines and beliefs were inculcated into the education curriculum in all schools and education centers. He also made sure that all the top positions in his administration were occupied by clerics who were sympathetic and loyal to his doctrines and beliefs. They ranged from the small town officials to the top officials in the government.
Furthermore, Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the new values and doctrines established in the new Islamic Republic of Iran were meant to be exported all over the Muslim Middle East. As a result of achieving this end, Ayatollah Khomeini declared war on Iraq and the two nations went to war for about eight years before a truce was called. The number of those who died in the war cannot be accounted for, but is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands.
The war only came to an end after the American military forces intervened on behalf of Iraq, a key ally at the time. The American forces forced Iran and Khomeini into a ceasefire agreement. In his response, Ayatollah Khomeini termed the compromise made in reaching a ceasefire to be more deadly and venomous than swallowing poison (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
Ayatollah Khomeini was also well known for the publication of various Fatwa. This is a legal publication published by a Muslim cleric. Khomeini released a Fatwa that called for the death of a controversial Indian-British author by the name Salman Rushdie for his remarks made in the book “The Satanic Verses” published in 1989.
This is a fictional book that was interpreted as depicting the Holy Prophet Mohammed as being a false prophet. The book also went on to cast significant doubts about numerous Islamic doctrines and beliefs. After the Rushdie Fatwa was published and declared, the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini succumbed to his illness and died on the 3rd day of June, 1989 (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
His foreign policy was centered on reverting the notion where the Shah had established a strong relation with the west. Khomeini also advocated for the adoption of stance of unwavering hostility towards the super powers of the west. Under the rule of Khomeini, the Iranian economy foundered a lot. His quest for victory against Iraq in the Iranian-Iraqi war subsequently proved futile. However, Ayatollah Khomeini continued to endear himself among the people of Iran’s Shi’a community.
Thus, he ruled over Iran till his demise. Khomeini’s grave is situated in Tehran’s Behesht-e Zahra cemetery. This has become a shrine for his loyalist supporters and sympathizers who pay a visit to the tomb. In terms of ideology, he can best be remembered for establishing the ideology of velayat-e faqih (meaning ‘guardianship of the jurist’). This was published in a variety of lectures and sermons that he delivered and taught during the period when he was exiled.
These lectures and sermons were later published and smuggled into Iran by Khomeini’s loyalists who visited him in exile. They were later reprinted and circulated among his followers in Iran. In these publications, Khomeini emphasized on the establishment of a theocratic administration led by Islamic jurists instead of the corrupt secularist led regimes. Iran came up with a constitution in the year 1969. This constitution has articles that supports the authority of the jury (“Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6-7).
Conclusion Khomeini’s conservative ideology strongly opposed any pro-western affiliations. His rule was marked in history by the Iraq-Iran war and the Iran hostage crisis. Iran is still a religious-based society. The work and rule of Khomeini will unquestionably continue to influence the political and religious views in Iran presently and into the future.
Works Cited “Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.” The Biography Channel website. 2013. Web.
Harmon, Daniel E. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. New York: Infobase Pub, 2004. Internet resource. Print.
Iran Chamber Society. History of Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini. Web.
Khater, Akram F. Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Moin, Baqer. Khomeini: Sign of God. London: Tauris, 1989. Print.
Reich, Bernard. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. Print.
“Ruhollah Khomeini“. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2013. Web.
The battle at Gettysburg Essay essay help online
The battle at Gettysburg is considered to be one of the most significant and bloodiest battles of The Civil War. There were great losses on both sides and so, it has become a memorable moment in the history of the United States. It is also significant because president Abraham Lincoln gave a speech that became instilled in time and is thought to be one of the most powerful and influential speeches of the States. It serves as a reminder and basis for all those who fight for freedom and equality.
The Battle of Gettysburg took place on 1st to 3rd of July, 1863 and is regarded as a turning point in The Civil War. The army of General Lee was defeated and the further continuation of Gettysburg Company was halted. During the three days of battle North Virginian army lost more than 20000 men.
The fighting force of General Lee was exhausted and the danger of the federal army giving a counter strike was at hand. Lee had to withdraw his troops into a defense position and wait for the attack of Meade but the attack did not follow. After General Lee realized there will be no attack, he decided to withdraw.
The outcome was important because in case the South would have won the battle, they had a good chance to direct an attack on Washington, which was an easy target at the time. But the loss of the South had resulted in a major fall back. It lost many men and resources and so, was unable to continue with the same determination. The Union had a much better chance to replenish its resources and troops, creating all the conditions to continue the war (Ashby 37).
Abraham Lincoln’s address was a memorable one because it was short but at the same time powerful and heartfelt. The president mentions in his speech that it will not be remembered throughout time and that anything said is really incomparable to the losses and devastation that American people have suffered.
Lincoln mentioned the equality of people and referred to the war as the fight for freedom and the unity of the country in the search for better life (Olson 19). His speech pays tribute to the soldiers that lost their lives in battle and this shows that the president’s primary care was not in who was on which side but in people and his sorrow for the men who have lost their lives to the great cause. Even in the beginning of war, it was clear that he used every chance to avoid it and has only proceeded because there was no other choice.
It is memorable when he says that men who are present will never forget this moment and it is up to the future of these men and generations to follow to remember this moment and base the conditions of better life on the lessons that history teaches (McRaney 4). From the speech it is evident that Abraham Lincoln was a great leader but at the same time he was understanding of people, human emotions and forces that sometimes governed the worst events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil War left a great mark on the United States and American people. It has become a part of history that people can learn from and strive to avoid such horrific events from happening again.
Works Cited Ashby, Ruth. Gettysburg, North Mankato, United States: Black Rabbit Books, 2002. Print.
McRaney, Amanda. The Gettysburg Address, New York, United States: Benchmark Education Company, 2007. Print.
Olson, Steven. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: A Primary Source Investigation, New York, United States: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004. Print.
Reasons why Americans work too much. Research Paper essay help online free
The modern American society is very demanding of people in their workplace. Very often, time spent at work is greater than that at home or at leisure activities. There are several reasons that offer explanations to such a trend. The way of the “American life”, people’s personal goals and work demands, all lead to extra work.
The society and the general population of a country are the moving force in the workplace. The article “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up” offers explanations that are related to the demands of the society and gives ways to avoid being caught up in the workplace.
Even though the wages stay the same, so there is no clear incentive to stay at work longer, individuals still contribute extra hours to their jobs. This can be attributed to the society and the American way of life. The country is a very fast paced environment where industrialization has created many opportunities and avenues for people to work. There is a large number of professions that exist and so, people are able to choose any type of activity they like.
This, in turn, leads to the replacement of leisure time by working hours. This happens not because people are forced to work but because there is true enjoyment in work. A person can take pleasure and pride in their profession and this is very much representative of the society. The education provided is very differential, which gives people a very diverse selection of jobs they can dedicate themselves to.
Not only has work become more interesting but it is now a place of social life and self-representation. People are appreciative of their jobs and thankful to have one. Of course, financial reasons and the natural pull of society to have more resources is another factor. As social life creates conditions that require more money to be spent on life, people feel forced to spend more time at work (Jason par. 2).
The personal goals of a person play another significant role. Psychologically, a person can be greatly focused on their job. It is a place where they can practice and display their skills, gaining respect for themselves and from others. A determination to have a better way of life, to have higher quality of products acquired and services enjoyed will without a doubt lead to more hours spent at work. “The American way of life” is often associated with a dream where people are able to afford pretty much anything.
The society allows for a great number of pleasures and people are very attracted to the different activities they can participate in. This makes an individual become a victim of their own wants and as a result they spend more time making money for vacation and their favorite products, instead of actually taking a vacation or buying that car they have always dreamed of (Love par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The technology has also made it easier to work from a remote location. While on vacation, many people are still very much connected to their workplace through computers or phones. It might seem that working while on vacation is not very demanding but sometimes it interferes with family matters, which causes unnecessary stress for several people.
One of the negative reasons why people must stay overtime and sacrifice their family and leisure time is the fear of losing they job. The present economy and market are very unstable and people have to greatly rely on their jobs. Even if it is low paying or has an increased amount of hours, it is much better than being unemployed or constantly seeking a place to work.
This creates great stress on a person and often there are health side effects (“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard” par. 5). The American nation is one of the most developed and highly industrialized countries but still, sometimes there are moments when jobs become scarce and so, people realize how important it is to have a well paying job.
While the society demands people to hold on tight to their jobs, a loss of work by someone close plays a major role in people being forced to work longer. Not to mention that many people are single parents and all they have to support themselves and their children with is their job. It is evident that people become victims of their circumstances of life and not their success or personal enjoyment of the workplace.
Overall, the majority of people are of the type where the environment gives them no choice but to work hard in order to get by and provide for their family. This is a sad reality of the modern world that has many negative effects not only on person’s physical health but on their psychological well-being also.
As evident, there are several reasons why people work more and while some of them might be beneficial, the majority are negative. The world is a fast paced environment that demands obedience and those unable to contribute, are left without employment.
Works Cited Jason, M. “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up.” alternet.org. AlterNet, July 29, 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Reasons why Americans work too much. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Love, D.A. “Americans work too much.” startribune.com. StarTribune, June 10, 2011. Web.
“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard.” CBNNews.com. CBNNews,October 09, 2010. Web.
Discrimination against Immigrants Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The United States has always been branded as a land of opportunities and this has consequently attracted many immigrants to the country. Immigrants arrive in the U.S without expecting any kind of discrimination but they often end up in disappointment. Immigrants face different types of discrimination in the course of their stay in the U.S that make their assimilation into the American society very difficult.
Discrimination against immigrants has been in existence from the colonial era and is still prevalent in the U.S (Lentin, 2011). The most common types of discrimination that the immigrants in the U.S encounter are language-based discrimination and racial discrimination.
The major immigrant groups that are in most cases exposed to acts of discrimination include Italian Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and the Hispanics (Lentin, 2011). Despite the efforts that have been put in place by the American government towards stopping discrimination, the most recent immigrants still complain of various forms of discrimination. This paper will highlight the different forms of discrimination that confront immigrants in the U.S.
The immigrants in the United States have a problem in finding employment because of their race and language (Lentin, 2011). The majority of companies in the U.S prefer hiring Native Americans compared to immigrants even in a situation where an immigrant is more qualified for a particular job than a native applicant. Statistics indicate that immigrants are the worst paid employees and yet they do the hardest jobs in America (Lentin, 2011).
This trend has been there since 1800s and there are no signs of improvement. Most government policies favor Native Americans and this has been a great challenge for the ethnic minorities living in the U.S. The fear of losing their jobs to immigrants makes the Native Americans angry and full of resentment towards immigrants. The refusal by some immigrants to learn the local language makes the native people think that immigrants do not respect the established norms.
The negative stereotypes associated with certain ethnic groups increase the chances of discrimination in the American society (Lentin, 2011). It is very easy to fuel antagonism if much focus is put on the negative stereotypes that are associated with a particular minority group. Cases of bias-motivated crime are on the increase with immigrants being the main targets of this type of crimes.
The Latinos who live in California have over time been attacked as a result of the anti-immigrant sentiments in the U.S. Native Americans are inclined to the view that most of their economic and social problems have been generated by the influx of immigrants into their country. The recent increase in terror attacks has not made things better for Americans of the Arabic descent (Lentin, 2011). The Arabs in the U.S have become victims of hate crimes just because they have the same national background with the perceived terrorists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Language-based discrimination has become very prevalent in the U.S and the immigrants who refuse the idea of learning the native language face unfair treatment (Lentin, 2011). Immigrant groups encounter discrimination at their places of work where employers come up with polices that favor native English speakers.
Employers have always defended their actions by claiming that the policies are only meant to enhance efficiency and safety but this is not the case. Immigrant groups with high immigration rates are the most targeted because the natives fear that they might overturn their dominance (Lentin, 2011). The need to retain the hegemonic position of Native Americans is what motivates employers as they formulate policies that discriminate against immigrants.
An example of this type of discrimination happened in one healthcare organization where two Hispanic employees were dismissed for speaking Spanish at their place of work. According to the supervisor, the two employees went against the company policy (Lentin, 2011). The employees in this organization are not allowed to speak any other language at their place of work apart from English.
Language prejudices are a sign of hatred and mistrust and many immigrants suffer because of these injustices (Lentin, 2011). Communication problems should be the basis for language discrimination but this is not the case in the U.S. There are some schools in the U.S that do not allow the admission of immigrant students (Lentin, 2011).
There are many cases of open discrimination against immigrants but the authorities in America are not concerned about the suffering that immigrants go through. There have been some efforts towards accommodating the linguistic needs of immigrants but many of them still face language-based discrimination.
In conclusion, discrimination against immigrants is not a new thing in the U.S and is often motivated by the need for Native Americans to maintain their hegemony. Immigrant groups still encounter discrimination because of their linguistic and racial affiliation. Immigrants can not attend certain institutions or work in certain companies because of their identity (Lentin, 2011).
The American government and companies formulate policies that favor native citizens and pay little attention to the concerns of immigrants. The American policies and ideologies should accommodate and tolerate the needs of immigrants as a way of protecting immigrants against discrimination (Lentin, 2011). Legal immigrants should be treated fairly without any kind of discrimination because they play the same role as the native citizens when it comes to nation building.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination against Immigrants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Lentin, A. (2011). Racism and ethnic discrimination. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help
Table of Contents Problem Statement and Purpose
Problem Statement and Purpose From 1892 to 1969, Canada forced many Aboriginal children to join public funded schools under the administration of churches like the Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church. During this period, these children experienced both physical and sexual abuse besides the forced separation from the family and society.
This abuse left scars that have seen transmission across generations. To fill this gap, many writers have come up with indigenous literature that focuses on decolonizing the minds of the Aboriginals. Indigenous literature seeks to construct positive identities for people, families and societies as well as repossess economic, political, cultural and social independence. It is for this reason that most literature by non-native indigenous writers focuses on forgetting the past and obliterating narratives of colonization (Justice 335).
On the other hand, most indigenous writings by natives consist of narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Thus, while both native and non-native indigenous writers aim at reducing the impacts of colonialism, they use different approaches. Indigenous literature by natives tries to build a common truth that can lead to healing though revisiting negative colonial aspects, while non-native indigenous writers seem to hide negative aspects of colonialism from their work.
Background Information Writing in English is a political and therapeutic act that offers the basis for the process of decolonization. Elucidation of indigenous literature in English focuses on the theme of communism.
According to Episkenew, literature is communist as far as it has a positive commitment to the native society (12). To encourage communalist values means to take part in the healing of the pain and sense of isolation felt by native societies, especially in communities that have often been broken and made dysfunctional by the results of over 500 years of colonialism.
That is to say, indigenous literature is communal since it attempts to heal psychological wounds caused among the natives in the process of colonization, and the main goal of communalism is to heal native communities by reconnecting native people to the larger society (Mosionier and Suzack 5).
The practice of writing in English is revolutionary in nature, as it seeks to recover indigenous societies through restructuring the language of the enemy (Episkenew 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Restructuring language in the colonizer’s dialect and revolving those images around to show pictures of the colonized to the colonizers, through a process of decolonization, denotes that something that will politicize and transform literary expression is happening and at the same time evolving. Reformulation occurs as a way of undoing some of the challenges that came with colonization.
The irony in the whole process is although the language and literary customs, which the colonial systems of education forced on indigenous people, caused vast damage to both communities and people, contemporary indigenous literature in English uses the very language and literary customs in its development (Weaver and Robert 22).
Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with the intention of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. While the English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities, it does offer indigenous writers with several benefits on the distribution of their literary works.
Another irony is that we have come to get more commonalities than there were, since the colonizers started to group the many, different people indigenous to Canada using generic expressions “Aboriginal”, “Native” and “Indigenous” (Episkenew 13). Thus, we share a history of related experiences from colonial policies, and our societies experienced similar wounds.
A majority of these communities, including those who know their indigenous language prefer to speak in English apart from some natives living in Quebec, speak. Therefore, through writing in English, modern indigenous writers can reach a big and diverse audience that not just includes ethnic relations (Womack 17). For instance, they can reach Indian readers from similar or different ethnic cultures who are not conversant with the customary elements central to the work but who may recognize the strong power of language.
Modern indigenous writers can also reach non-Indian readers who look at the novel with a very different set of values and assumptions. Since indigenous writers are aware of their varied audience, they use different characters and themes to suit different implied readers in the text of their literature, so that every group of implied reader will comprehend the narrative quite differently, depending on their communal perspectives.
Gold, in his work of “Reading Fiction as a way of Enhancing Emotional and Mental Health,” explains that it is possible to differentiate people from other conscious animals in how they build and understand their lives through making narratives (Episkenew 14). Gold examines how we structure and restructure our autobiographies daily in our dreams and concludes that human beings are stories in themselves. He sees this as true for all communities, irrespective of race or culture, both individually and collectively.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, he concludes that people in every society build and express their shared realities through narratives. Tafoya, a native psychologist shows that from an indigenous viewpoint, narratives are a type of therapy and like drugs can cure or kill depending on the prescribed amount or type (Episkenew 14). He explains that the natives have heard poisonous accounts in the colonial disclosure.
Thus, he supports that people must write or make a new narrative or script of their lives to heal. Anishaubae novelist Johnstone also supports that words are a remedy that can cure or hurt and have an aspect of the Manitou that allows them to build ideas and images from nothing (Episkenew 14).
Several native writers reverberates Tafoya’s and Johnstone’s opinions referring to their conventional indigenous knowledge about the healing characteristics of language and narrative. Harjo, a poet, explains that free expression without considering the cost leads to empowerment and not victimization through destruction (Episkenew 14).
Ethnic customs in a society realize the power of language to cure, to restore and to generate. Armand Ruffo, an Anishiaubae intellectual reiterates the words of Art Solomon, that “the need for expression and the need for healing and are inseparable. Ruffo further says that Art Solomon encouraged native writers to write for the promotion of their community, particularly the children and youths” (Episkenew 14).
Loyie, a Cree playwright of Oskiniko, explains that indigenous writing encompasses more than just the traditional narratives. From Loyie’s standpoint, writing is healing, or else a good way for people to manage the fury that exists among them. Masak, an Inuvialuit writer, portrays the way writing enabled her to manage the repressed sentiments allied with her residential school encounters (Episkenew 14).
Campbell writes a letter to Culleton expressing her feelings about his work on In Search of April Raintree (Episkenew 14). This piece of work involves its readers in April’s fights with internalized racism and colonialism as she alternately escapes and faces the social situations that portray her identity as Métis.
Cheryl, her sister develops the passage, providing significant characters of an anti-racist and anti-colonial viewpoint to the story (Mosionier and Suzack 5). As Cheryl falls apart, terminating her life and losing her earlier might and agency, April gets a new admiration of the views that Cheryl symbolizes. In a memo to Culleton, Campbell explains that the story is a powerful account because with calmness, it handles the illness in people and communities.
She describes the writing as one that will start the healing of the community, and let a dominant society appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. Thus, indigenous writing is not just like any other writing. Campbell recognizes literature potential to both heal native groups from post-colonial traumatic experiences and to cure the colonists from the mirage learned from their traditions. From this perspective, indigenous literature has power to build a common truth on our common past.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As Mosionier and Suzack state, “a non-native friend is one who acknowledges the confines of her or his comprehension, but does not hide himself under those limits” (65). A true non-native ally knows that he has to get knowledge on the cultures and societies whose artistic conceptions he evaluates before entering the decisive fray and giving public interpretations.
A true non-native ally assesses the work of indigenous scholars, authors and community members as a genuine effort to produce the most valuable criticism, but not as a political action. Nevertheless, he does not acknowledge their work without critic, as he knows that critical debate and good skepticism are symbols of commitment and respect.
Further, a non-native ally understands that profound and eventually valid perceptions of societies, cultures, and histories cannot emerge from book studies exclusively. Besides, he must understand that the continuing vigor of native communities should serve to increase and correct the alienated forms of library material. Lastly, the non-Native ally should act with a sense of responsibility to native societies in general and most specifically to those whose artistic work is under study.
Mosionier and Suzack show that indigenous literature develops from indigenous communities and as a result influences native societies (72). In exploring, conceptualizing and explaining indigenous stories, literary criticism tries to intervene in this common process. Criticism of indigenous literature usually tries to take part in the shared lives of stories. Stories affect the world outside.
Although not directly, or obviously, stories and significant discourses about stories do affect how people live. In the area of Native studies, some stories quite forthrightly, influence some lives far more intensely than others do. Given that intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, the feeling of that person’s work cannot have a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native (Warrior 75).
This critical consciousness, while necessary for morally suitable critical and political relations with indigenous literatures, has created great anxiety among non-indigenous scholars working in the area for the past several years, resulting in a line of critical reactions (Mosionier and Suzack 64). At the same time, main strategies assumed by non-indigenous critics to evade doing harm to native texts have had unintentional inverse (and adverse) impacts of concealing native voices and damaging the critical field.
The perspective of indigenous literature by natives and non-natives on decolonization faces lots of criticism. Some critics support the standpoint of indigenous literature on decolonization, while others oppose it. Apparently, most indigenous literature focuses on negative aspects of colonialism such as racism, oppression as well as loss of land and identity.
Proponents of how indigenous literature approaches decolonization explain that overemphasis on racism and identity is crucial as it facilitates cultural awareness and the impacts of colonization among both native and non-native people ( Mosionier and Suzack 7).
As McKegney explains, “…given colonial intervention, not all Native people have inherited full understandings of their tribal cultures and histories, let alone those of other Native nations” (57). Thus, indigenous literature facilitates healing through acceptance that follows knowledge dissemination.
On the other hand, opponents of indigenous literature on decolonization explain that most writers rely on secondary resources, or incorrect primary resources. As Mosionier and Suzack expresses, neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences due to inadequate cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population (5).
However, the fact is that unlike non-native literature that ignores the concepts of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, indigenous literature highly emphasizes on these issues. As Culleton states, “without a critical approach, the potential exists to perpetuate or exacerbate systems of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, particularly in that Aboriginal literatures often look at such oppression” (16).
From this perspective, contemporary indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization. These writers use English as a language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism in with the aim of healing themselves and their audiences from the colonial sufferings.
Unlike their non-native counter parts who refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists, indigenous writers do not shy away from expressing themselves in English, which is a language of the colonists. This demonstrates their objectivity and honesty in their work, unlike non-native writers.
Thus, indigenous writers seek to write literature that will start the healing of the community, and let the colonialists appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. They also seek to build a common truth on their common past. These goals lack among non-native writers.
Possible Solutions Native writers should write indigenous literature in the native language. Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism. However, we know that English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities.
To find the real reasons why native writers of indigenous literature emphasize on themes like racism and violence, studies about how colonialists treated natives are essential Issues such as land alienation, physical as well as psychological abuse should get a closer look.
To solve the problem of stereotyping in indigenous literature, we should avoid using native-oriented works and focus on cultural study of the aboriginal population. This approach should emphasize on the role of history, culture and social processes in explaining how colonization occurred in a broader context of indigenous history. This can occur through constant interaction between native and non-native populations.
Lastly, Canadian authorities should try to prove genuineness of their information sources before implementing policies on the native people. Canadian authorities rely predominantly on myths and stereotypes while forming their policies related to the Aboriginal culture (Episkenew 70).
In conclusion, indigenous literature from natives and non-natives approach the issue of decolonization from different perspectives. Most writings of native writers include narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Native indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization.
These writers recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with aim of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. On the other hand, their non-native counterparts refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists. Non-native writers do not show racism, violence, and inequality as the main underpinnings for depicting the relationships between native and non-native population during colonial times.
This inadequacy of non-natives is due to lack of cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population. Neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences. Indigenous literature seeks to heal and let a dominant society appreciate and experience the lives of a group it almost ruined.
Criticisms of indigenous literature usually try to take part in the shared lives of stories. As far as intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, it is impossible to feel the effects of that person’s work individually with a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native. Thus, indigenous literature from native writers is more precise than from non-native writers.
Works Cited Culleton, Beatrice. “Through White Man’s Eyes.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 24.1 (2012): 15-30. Web.
Episkenew, Jo-Ann. Taking Back Our Spirits: Indigenous Literature, Public Policy, and Healing, Ontario, Canada: University of Manitoba Press. Print.
Justice, Daniel Heath. “Current of Trans/national Criticism in Indigenous Literary Studies.” American Indian Quarterly 35.3 (2011): 334-352. Web.
McKegney, Sam. “Strategies for Ethical Engagement: An Open Letter Concerning Non-Native Scholars of Native Literatures.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 20.4 (2008): 56-67. Web.
Mosionier, Beatrice and Cheryl Suzack. In Search of Appil Raintree, New York: Portage
Mixed Race Marriage Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Treating people with dignity regardless of their skin color is a pre-requisite that of national integration. The United State of America has been struggling with racism for many years now. There have been attempts to fight it by encouraging interracial marriages as a way of improving national integration. The report from Pew Research Centre indicates that people are increasingly embracing mixed race marriages.
More than 22% acceptance of mixed race marriages means that there is a slight improvement in how people view their counterparts from other races. This may be as a result of work of scholars who, from time to time, tried to state the importance of accepting one another regardless of skin color.
The statistics also proves that the 1976 ruling changed the views of different people on interracial marriages. During the four year period of 1967-1970, people began to understand the importance of interracial marriage but due to fear, others still held on to their beliefs. Less than one 1% agreed with the fact that human beings were programmed to follow what others were doing (this is always a life preserving habit).
The number of interracial marriages moved from an insignificant percentage to 5% by the year 2000 even with that nature of human beings. The attitude to blacks also improved at that time due to establishment of international community. However, out of the 77% who said Yes to the relationships between blacks and whites, few were not ready to enter into such relationships because of fear. They needed to resign to the status quo.
The Y generation born after 1976 has a different perspective because they are aware of people like Luther King who spoke as they bubbled with rage at the palpable injustices and inequalities that the Black Americans experienced. As a result, 91% accepted interracial dating. They interacted, fell in love and would easily accept interracial marriage except for a few who still lived in fear and were not ready to compromise their relationships.
From the recent research done in 2005, more people were expected to have a positive attitude because they were approaching global integration where racism was perceived as outdated. From the report, it was clear that 97% of Africans supported interracial marriages. The youth were also interacting with other races in institutions and were getting to know the facts behind racial intermarriages. It was this behavioral change that led to the 34% of positive responses among the youth.
The regional pattern among the westerners had a slight influence on intermarriages. It was obvious that human beings took time to embrace change given the challenges within their communities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Acceptance could be one of the reasons why only 33% identified with friends and relatives in interracial marriages. The same happened in the Northeast and Midwest with a record of 19%. Further evidence of the life-preserving habit of human beings was shown in the census data done in 2000. Everyone did a common thing as in the case of white husbands marrying Asian wives.
Conclusion While other strategies have failed to improve integration, interracial marriages can be the fourth wheel towards this effort. Creating a peaceful coexistence is important for the country. Therefore, mixed race marriage is important and should be embraced by everybody. It is only a matter of time (with enough education and awareness) that this global village can generate more relationships from all corners. We started from somewhere. If the trends from these research reports continue then the future generations will win this battle.
Government Concentration of State Power Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources
Key concepts Conservatism
Introduction Leaders in the political, social and economic domains in many states of the world usually control different forms of power by virtue of the nature of their jurisdictions. Power can be separated or concentrated depending on the system of administration in question. In the United States of America, separation of power is evidenced by the existence of political parties.
The Republicans and Democrats have a long history of contention involving several issues of governance in the United States. The party with the majority of votes is usually the winner of a particular dispute in parliament or in an election. Power can be defined as the strong will and authority to command, lead or administer a particular norm.
The President of the USA has the power to reinforce changes in the Air Force, the FBI or even the CIA. Power has been widely used in the field of academics to refer to the government, the elite class, the Supreme Court and the state among others. In all the mentioned areas, power is the central theme that defines the different institutions.
The government is considered to have the highest rank in power. Concentration of power on one state separates and isolates it from others. The Supreme Court is considered as a powerful institution in the judicial system. Separation of power is a wide subject which is operational in some sectors within the US and non-operational in a few cases.
The concept becomes operational when it applies to the partition of a nation in a democratic or socialist basis. The idea can also be considered non-operational when it comes to conservatism and liberalism. In non-operative cases, one can argue that power is concentrated rather than partitioned. Three theories have been advanced to explain separation of power and these comprise the theories of marjoritarism, the elitism and pluralism.
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources The United States is a sovereign nation comprising of many states. During the Civil War (1861-1865) that defined the federal government and eleven southern states, power was inequitably divided. The states from the South involved were South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Albania, Louisiana, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and Texas. Each of the mentioned states demanded power and secession from the federal government.
The move by the states meant liberation for them and utmost freedom from the central government. However, though 10,000 Jewish soldiers were involved in the secessionist exercise by the states; Great Britain was non-partisan and therefore remained neutral. The existence of the Republicans, Democrats and political parties exemplified the whole phenomenon of separation of power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theory of marjoritarism played a crucial role in the division of power. In 2010, the Democrats were able to dominate the Republicans by getting 255 to 180 majorities during the election. However, after the election, power shifted to the Republicans who enjoyed a 243 to 192 majority. It was surprising that even though the Republicans had the majority votes, the Democrats still captured the presidency and the senate as well.
Some observers even questioned the power of the Congress in determining key decisions. The fear of a ‘big government’ brought about insecurity within the political movement especially when the Republicans lost their popularity after speculation that they were reducing budgetary allocations on social programs. The 2012 elections described the electorate of the US as a close, bitter and divided one. The government was mandated to consolidate power to preserve itself.
Democracy Democracy can be divided into that of the few and of groups. Democracy offers any nation the freedom of choice. The elitist theory is a key proponent of democracy of the few. The theory of pluralism justifies democracy of groups whereby systematic clusters of people fight for power.
In this scenario, the impoverished are left out and only the privileged are represented. Even though many Americans consider themselves conservative Democrats, evidence shows that none of them has been actively involved in humanitarian and democratic issues in the capital of Washington D.C by 2008.
The issue of political affiliations only leads to cases of indiscipline between the Democrats and Republicans. Democracy means peace, solidarity and genuine contention of power. The dominance of the Republicans in the Northern State of Marine, Connecticut, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island purely describes how the partitioning of power is a contentious subject.
Socialism Socialism unlike democracy plays a minor role in the politics of America. It has an ideological influence on social and economic equity. Division based on social status is not enormous in the US like in the 3rd world countries but the elite theory still applies to ideas of socialism.
Key concepts Conservatism Conservatism was driven by liberalism for religion, patriotism or support for traditional ideology. Conservatisms in the US were able to speak out against certain kinds of marriages between individuals of one gender. Though the government advocated for the practice, the church heavily opposed it. Separation of power became evident when there are opposing views or stand points between the state and the church (Rangel, 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Government Concentration of State Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liberalism Alongside conservatism, liberalism advocated for a position in governance and the welfare of individuals in the society was given priority. Prejudice based on religion of cultural standings was contested. Modern liberalism developed a strong foundation in the society and civilians embraced it (Art and Jervis, 13).
The separation of Britain from the US especially during the Civil War aroused interest and opinions with many experts predicting economic and social rivalry between the two most powerful nations of the world. The rivalry between the two sates led to a sudden change in their economic and foreign policies in the face of global recession and competition from the eastern bloc especially China Edwards, 38).
During the 2007-2008 global recessions, many experts made analyses that the war in Iraq depressed the US economy though it was believed that the US was demonstrating its military strength against terrorism enhanced by the need to make oil exploits in the oil rich country of Iraq. The division between the Republicans and the Democrats created differences between the two ideological factions. On one side, the world was fighting the financial recession but, on the other, Bush was fighting the Democrats.
It was not until the Democrats became fully opposed to the excessive spending by the Republicans under the regime of Bush that Barack Obama, a democrat, was elected to as the president to spearhead a neutral approach to issues afflicting the US especially on foreign policy (Bardes, 17). Political experts proposed that power was an important tool for democracy, conservatism, liberalism and socialism. However, the beneficial element of power can be destructive if not used or shared properly.
Works Cited Art, Robert, and R. Jervis. International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues tenth edition. Boston, USA: Longman. 2011. Print.
Bardes, Shelley. American Government and Politics today; Separation of Power, 17th Edition. Connecticut, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2013. Print.
Edwards, Sebastian. Left Behind: Latin America and the False Promise of Populism. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. 2010. Print.
Rangel, Carlos. The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning. 1977. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Government Concentration of State Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans Research Paper best college essay help
For the concerns of this paper, there is a need to understand what is meant by human behavior and behavioral problems. The term human behavior is widely explained across various disciplines of study.
Some of the academic disciplines that have been associated with the concern of human behavior include, but are not limited to, sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, social work, and psychology. Generally, the term human behavior refers to the wide range of habits or behaviors that are exhibited by humans. In other words, this refers to potential and expressed capacity for social, mental, and physical nature of being, as realized in the course of various phases of life.
Obviously, this domain is characterized by the way humans would act in accordance with the effect of different aspects that tend to influence various trends of life. As it would be observed, human behaviors are impacted by some particular traits as possessed by each individual, and are observed throughout the entire lifetime. Some of these aspects or trends include things such as attitude, faith, social norms or values, and genetics.
A behavioral problem, on the other hand, refers to unexpected outcome on an individual’s behavior, especially one that is negative, which may result from bad influence of the involved factors. Environmental and social factors are thought to be great contributors of various behavioral problems in humans. For the purpose of this topic, this paper applies the science of human behavior in providing a deeper understanding on the link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
As it would be observed, many studies have been conducted across the world to determine whether there is any link between video games and behavioral issues. However, there have been conflicting outcomes as well as perceptions from the work of various researchers who have played a role in this particular study.
While some of these studies have pointed out a significant connection between the two elements, others have been skeptical about it, and have remained stubborn in their contrasting perception that there is no link between video games and human behavior. However, there is strong empirical and theoretical evidence from previous studies justifying the fact that there is a very strong link between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
For the purpose of this paper, aggression and violence, both of which fit well within the identified context of social engagement will be applied among other behavioral issues. Video games, like any other form of interactive entertainment, are important for personal development among other benefits of leisure and entertainment. There are many avenues and platforms through which people could access and play video games, thanks to modern advancements in technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This form of recreational activity has become popular nowadays, especially with the teenagers and young adults, who are said to spend way too much of their free time in gaming activities on computers, mobile devices, and a variety of other hand-held technological devices (Anderson 119). Irrespective of the recreational benefits normally associated with such sedentary activities, their consequences on human behavior cannot be overestimated.
As it would be observed, video and computer games may stimulate human minds to some extent, thus helping them to relax from the stress of work and study. This is arguably one of the several benefits associated with video games as far as recreation is concerned.
There have been a lot of concerns, however, that these games would tend to have a significant impact on peoples’ behavior, thus contributing to increased behavioral problems among the participants. According to Strasburger, Jordan, and Donnerstein, there is a very strong link between televised violence and potential human behavior, since there must come a time when the experience would be sufficient to justify action in the near future (761).
Similarly, people who have had regular exposure to video games, especially violent ones, are likely to exhibit the behavioral elements portrayed in the games. One understandable aspect of video gaming is that it is active, unlike things such as watching television or movies, which are passive. Even though this is a special feature which is likely to attract many participants into these types of games, it is also a very dangerous avenue that can attract behavioral problems since it revolves around first-hand experience of violence.
Just to add weight onto this perception, humans have the inherent tendency of learning better when they are directly engaged into lessons in an active manner, rather than when they are passively involved. Based on this argument, there is a high likelihood that video games would tend to have a direct impact on our feelings, thoughts, and behavior. In this regard, violent video games play a key role in increasing the chances of adopting and harboring aggressive or violent behaviors on individuals.
Various studies on this subject have shown heavy players of violent computer and video games to possess aggressive attitude towards their siblings, peers, and teachers. More importantly, teenage pupils who have regularly taken part in violent video games have reportedly been involved in constant troubles with other people around them (Birch and Davison 893). Past studies have indicated a number of highly publicized actions from allover the world, where incidents of violence have been linked to peoples’ involvement in video game activities.
There is also suggestive evidence that those people who are known to possess traits of aggression or anger have responded differently after being exposed to violent video games. Apart from exhibiting increased aggression or anger, such players have proved to be less angry after getting exposed to violent video games. Even though there is limited evidence to support this claim, there is a possibility of a close association of speculated behavior and the applied form of sedentary leisure activity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As some proponents of video and computer games would argue, people don’t always bring into reality whatever kind of behavior they observe from various gaming activities. For example, those people who are used to playing video shooting games on computers would not allow this to transcend their normal behaviors or attitudes, and end up becoming murderers in real life.
This, according to Anderson and Bushman, is a fallacious reasoning which is meant to mislead people on the countless studies that have shown the existence of a direct connection between video games and human behavioral problems (459).
Violent video game activities may be cathartic to anger, as some people tend to believe. This, however, is not a perfect reason to convince humans, especially the younger generations who have been caught in the midst of this crisis, against the many dangers that are associated with video games. In just another perspective, the effect of video games on peoples’ behavior depends on the levels of exposure to the games.
This has the meaning that, those people who are directly involved in the activities will have higher chances of adopting the behavioral elements portrayed in them, compared with those who have been indirectly involved. This notion was proved by Funk and Buchman, in a study that was aimed to test the effectiveness of violent video games on human behavior based on levels of exposure.
In this particular study, teenage participants were randomly chosen and made to take part in a violent video game. In the meantime, a different lot was exposed to nonviolent video games, for comparison purposes. The lot which had participated fully in the violent activities would later on appear to be more aggressive, compared to those who had merely watched the activity or the ones who were exposed to non-violent video games (Funk and Buchman 94).
As it is observed from this research report, there is arguably a strong link between video games and the many behavioral problems observed in humans. Within the realm of modern psychological study and understanding, exposure to video game activities is likely to generate both positive and negative impacts on behavior depending on the context of the games. In this regard, people should try to disregard the less supported claim that exposure to video games does not affect our behavior and attitude towards other people around us.
As a matter of fact, there is no doubt in the conclusions reached upon in this report that video games, especially ones that have violent themes, do correlate with prolonged increase in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in prosocial behavior. This is a clear indicator of the strong connection or link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
Works Cited Anderson, Craig. “An update on the effects of playing violent video games.” Journal of Adolescence 27. 1 (2004): 113-122. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Anderson, Craig and Bushman Brad. “Media violence and the American Public revisited.” American Psychologist 57. 5 (2002): 448-450. Print.
Birch, Leann Lipps and Davison Kirsten. “Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.” Pediatric Clinics of North America 48. 4 (2001): 893. Print.
Funk, Jeanne and Buchman Debra. “Video Game Controversies.” Pediatric Annals 24. 2 (1995): 91-94. Print.
Strasburger, Victor, Jordan Amy and Donnerstein Ed. “Health effects of media on children and adolescents.” Pediatrics 125. 4 (2010): 756-767. Print.
Core Stability Training Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Article Summary The article, “Core Stability Training”, describes the role of particular training approaches in the enhancement of health and strength of athletes. Willardson discusses the applicability of diverse methods of training in the improvement of the strength and resistance of different body muscles. The impact of core stability training varies depending on the group of muscles that an athlete trains. Willardson compares the level of core stability attained among athletes exercising on different surfaces.
Analyses of core muscle activity shows that athletes exercising on a Swiss ball attain greater core stability in comparison to athletes who train on a stable surface. The Swiss ball initiates greater activation of muscles located in the lower abdominal region. Analyses of muscular activation during curl-ups highlights a significant discrepancy in the levels of abdominal activity for curl-ups performed on a stable bench and those performed on a Swiss ball (Willardson 981).
The article emphasizes on the need to maintain balance between the lower and upper regions of the body during core training to mitigate instances of diverse resistance performance among athletes. Willardson describes the role of core stability training in the improvement of athletes’ performance as skill-specific and thus the Swiss ball test for the general core stability could provide varying results during the evaluation of athletes’ performance based on their skills.
The Analysis of Swiss ball exercises for sports that do not involve a base of support provided different results in comparison to exercises on dry land. Apart from enhancing athletes’ performance, core stability training is crucial in the prevention and rehabilitations of injuries among athletes. Willardson concludes the article by providing recommendations on the modification of core training among athletes with different skills. In addition, he emphasizes the need for further research on the impacts of core stability on healthy athletes.
Article Analysis Willardson has extensively analyzed various muscles and joints affected by core stability training. He has clearly described the interconnection between different muscles and joints, and the impacts of training on different surfaces on athlete’s performance. By providing evidence concerning the level of core stability attained through different methods of training, Willardson has successfully highlighted the importance of the combination of core training and resistance training for athletes.
Analysis of data from different experiments on muscular activity during core training provides evidence regarding activation and strengthening of muscles and joints through appropriate training approaches (Willardson 982). However, the fact that most of the data used in analyzing the impacts of core stability training emanates from studies on injured athletes raises doubts on the applicability of the results in the case of healthy athletes.
Evidence shows that muscular activity varies between injured and healthy athletes sine healthy athletes may overlook core training and thus fail to attain optimal muscle activation during training. In this regard, the Swiss ball test results used in evaluating athletes’ performance may provide an inappropriate description of the level of core stability attained by healthy athletes. Jeffry bases his assertions on experiments with unspecified sample size.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the sample size used to test the level of core stability in different conditions was small, the results on Swiss ball training and flat surface training are likely to constitute numerous errors and thus discredit the assertions on the effectiveness of core stability training. Jeffry has effectively demonstrated the role of core training in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries by describing various experiments on athletes involved in extensive movement and resistance training.
Core stability training strengthens muscles around the abdomen, pelvis, spine and shoulders and helps in the maintenance of a good posture (Elphinston 11). In this regard, core stability plays a significant role among athletes concerning the enhancement of performance and prevention of injury. Appropriate core stability facilitates maximum utilization of the power originating from an athlete’s trunk and promotes effective coordination of movement in the limbs.
The lack of appropriate levels of core stability hinders sustenance of good posture during athletes’ performance and increases risks of injury due to poor protection of the spine and skeletal structure. Furthermore, core stability ensures proper distribution of forces acting on the body. Physiotherapists acknowledge the role of core stability exercises in enhancing the performance of athletes, building up weak areas and minimizing injuries.
The lack of focus on the benefits of core stability for healthy athletes is largely due the nature of core training that may seem boring to individuals without any muscle and joint injuries. However, evidence show that the benefits of core training supersede the benefits athletes derive from other sporting movements in their day-to-day activities. Different approaches to core training ensure that athletes do not get bored by core routines and overlook their benefits.
Conclusion By rotating the muscle groups that an athlete exercises, trainers can ensure core training becomes challenging even to healthy athletes and thus ensure they enjoy the long-term benefits of core stability training. Core muscles within the torso have significant impacts on the stability of the spine, pelvis and shoulders, which form the base of support for human beings. Powerful movements and stability have close correlation concerning functional fitness.
Works Cited Elphinston, Joanne. Stability, sport, and performance movement: great technique without injury. Chichester, England: Lotus Pub. 2008. Print.
Willardson, Jeffrey M. “Core stability training: applications to sports conditioning programs.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21.3 (2007): 979– 985. Print.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Core Stability Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Sociology Reflection Paper Essay online essay help
The sociology of religion is the study of how different sets of people in religious groups interact and how their behavior is influenced by these interactions. People’s religious practices, norms and behavior are influenced by interactions they have with each other in their religious groups.
Religion is a collective set of beliefs and practices with a spiritual foundation meant to influence people’s perceptions and behaviors. People who share similar religious ideals have collective behavior which identifies them as followers of that specific religious group. They have strong ties to fellow devotees in their religious groups.
These beliefs strengthen people’s adherence to religious doctrines which define the essence of a religion. Followers of a religious group have common ways of interaction which bind them together. They are required to perform specific roles which determine their status and power in their religious groups. They have faith in religious teachings which are strongly emphasized as sacred.
Religions has a set of beliefs and practices which all members need to adhere to. Followers of different religions have to be familiar with sacred texts which spell out beliefs and their relevance. They need to satisfy various expectations by performing religious rituals and other activities which have a lot of spiritual symbolism. Members of a particular religious group are socialized to treasure various moral codes of conduct in their lives.
By fulfilling moral objectives, members satisfy important tenets of their religion. The sacred aspects of religion make people interpret extra ordinary experiences differently. Any extra ordinary event is associated with a revered form of supernatural power or deity.They believe that a supernatural power guides their lives and as such, they need to reciprocate by devoting by their lives to the religious order they believe in.
Religious sociology is important because it helps people understand the value of religion in their lives. This makes one understand the essence of religion and how it shapes human character, identity and personality. People devote their thoughts and emotions to their religion for various reasons. Therefore, this helps one understand how religion binds members of a particular society to enable them have collective practices and beliefs.
People are able to understand the relationship they have with their religion and how this contributes to their existence. They are able to look at various rituals, practices and teachings rationally. This helps them understand how these religious tenets build their faith. The sociology of religion makes one to look critically at religious rituals which bind him or her with other devotees. The devotee is able to understand how these interactions shape their personality and behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This subject helps a person understand the moral implications he needs to satisfy as stipulated by his or her religion. Therefore, this models an individual’s behavior to conform to acceptable societal norms and standards of behavior. Religious affiliation makes people more aware of their identity and the roles they are supposed to play within a given society.
Interactions people have with each other in a particular religious group gives them a sense of belonging and identity. General beliefs which bind people within various religious groups help them focus on life and what they seek to achieve out of it. Sacred texts enable believers interpret the teachings contained therein and apply them in their own lives. Sacred texts reassure people to be more righteous in what they do to reduce their pre-occupation with material objects.
The Rational Choice Theory argues that people are motivated by their own self interests before they choose to perform certain actions. Therefore, natural human behavior inclines people to engage in activities which have material or psychological benefits. The theory argues that people who choose to observe religious doctrines are motivated by their own individual needs. They expect to benefit from their devotion to religion by improvements in their personal welfare.
This theory argues that people are rational beings who only engage in an action after assessing benefits they stand to gain. Individual human actions determine how people in a group interact with each other. Different life experiences shape human behavior and they impact on choices people make. Therefore, people make personal religious decisions based on their past experiences after assessing how these choices will work for them.
This theory asserts that people opt for religious choices which give them personal satisfaction. They evaluate results they intend to achieve and come up with ways to attain them. The theory argues that human behavior is planned and this makes every individual calculate rewards and losses likely to be experienced before engaging in a particular action. People prefer to engage in actions that are naturally rewarding over those that punish them.
Therefore, they are willing to devote themselves to religion to gain protection, consolation and future promises of personal prosperity. Human consciousness drives them into religion to gain recognition, status, social connections and money. This is made possible by interactions they have with other devotees who have similar aspirations. Therefore, by being active in religion, devotees achieve their own personal interests.