Introduction Water is one of the most important resources on earth since it is not only used by the human population but also other living organisms. In the last decade, the populations of most American cities have significantly increased. Additionally, these cities have recorded a remarkable increase in industrial activities. Consequently, the demand for water for both domestic and industrial use has sharply increased.
The problem of water scarcity has been exacerbated by adverse climatic conditions such as draughts which, naturally, reduce water supply. Similarly, human activities such as manufacturing and construction have led to pollution of water sources, thereby reducing the supply of clean water.
This paper focuses on the supply of water in Houston in Harris County. In this regard, the water sources in Houston and their management will be discussed. In addition, my satisfaction with the water supply to my home, and how I can contribute to water conservation will be discussed.
Water Sources Houston mainly depends on ground water for its industrial and domestic water needs. Approximately, 71% of the water used in Harris County is drawn from ground water sources. These sources include lakes, ponds, rivers, springs and streams. The county’s main sources of ground water include Lake Livingstone, Lake Houston, Lake Conroe, Trinity River and San Jacinto River. Figure 1 illustrates the area covered by San Jacinto River.
Water from Lake Conroe is not used in Houston, while Lake Houston contributes only 10% of the city’s ground water supply (Forrest, 2012). The ground water sources are supplemented by man-made water sources such as reservoirs, wells and boreholes. Some of these sources include Evangeline well and Chicot Aquifers. Figure 2 illustrates the types of wells in Harris County. The man-made sources of water account for, approximately 29% of Houston’s water supply (Forrest, 2012).
Rain water plays an insignificant role in direct water supply due to underdevelopment of rain water harvesting systems. Most residential and commercial buildings do not have the facilities that are required for collection and treatment of rain water. Thus, most of the rain water is channeled to nearby rivers and streams. Overall, Houston has access to 1.2 billion gallons of ground water per day (Harris County 2012). This supply is considered to be sufficient for the city’s water needs for the next fifty years.
Figure 1: Map of San Jacinto River and the surrounding watershed
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the increase in land subsidence in Houston, the City has been forced to develop plans to reduce its dependence on ground water. Land subsidence occurs when the land surface sinks due to the compression of the layers of clay below it. In Houston, this phenomenon is mainly attributed to withdrawal of large amounts of water from ground sources.
It is feared that many families and businesses may lose their premises as land subsidence increase. Geologist and environmentalists believe that a shift from the use of ground water to alternative sources is the best way to reduce land subsidence in Houston.
However, experience from countries and cities that have successfully shifted to alternative sources of water indicate that the conversion is very expensive. In spite of the challenges associated with the conversion, Harris County has developed a master plan to reduce the use of ground water by 70% and 80% by 2020 and 2030 respectively (Harris County, 2012).
Figure 2: Well Types in Harris County
Houston’s water sources are surrounded and maintained by diverse habitats which include wetlands and forests. These habitats are essentially water catchment areas which play a fundamental role in sustaining water supply in Houston. In particular, forests contribute to water supply by maintaining the water cycle.
The water cycle is the process through which ground water is absorbed by trees, and released to the atmosphere through transpiration. This process leads to the formation of clouds which falls back to the earth surface as rainfall. Wetlands contribute to water supply by maintaining ground water close to the earth surface.
Thus, drilling and pumping ground water becomes easier. It is worth noting that these habitats are also homes to animals and plants which compete with humans for the ground water. Nevertheless, the habitats that surround water sources must be protected since they help in replenishing the stock of ground water.
We will write a custom Essay on Houston Water Supply specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management of Water Sources The entire Lake Houston is under the ownership of Houston City. However, only seventy percent of Lake Livingston and Conroe is controlled by Houston City. Houston will also own 70% of Allens Creek Reservoir (Harris County, 2012). The city has hired independent water agencies to assist with the management, operation, as well as, maintenance of the aforementioned water sources. Some of these agencies include the Trinity River Authority which oversees the operation of Lake Livingston.
The San Jacinto River Authority manages Lake Conroe. Lake Houston is managed by the Coastal Water Authority. These agencies ensure that the water in the lakes under their control is used responsibly (Harris County, 2012). They take deliberate measures to promote water conservation in order to guarantee sustainable supply of ground water. Houston Drinking Water Operations (DWO) is responsible for delivering water to the end users.
Treatment and disinfection of the water takes place at DWO’s purification plants. Once the water quality standards set by the state and the federal government are met, the water is delivered to consumers through a distribution pipeline that covers over 7,000 miles (Harris County, 2012). Figure 3 illustrates Houston’s waterways and treatment plants. DWO is also involved in water conservation by promoting responsible water usage.
The agency runs education programs which create and disseminate knowledge or information about water conservation. Through these programs, the residents acquire knowledge in the field of water science, water purification or treatment and Houston’s water supply systems.
Figure 3: Waterways and surface water treatment
Protection of Water Sources The Source Water Protection Group (SWPG) is responsible for protecting Houston’s water sources. This organization executes its mandate through partnerships with government agencies that enforce environmental regulations. Real-time monitoring systems are used at various locations to monitor contamination (Harris County, 2012). Thus, technical officers are able to detect any contamination in the water sources.
SWPG also uses awareness campaigns to sensitize residents on their right to clean water. In this regard, businesses and members of the community are encouraged to report cases of illegal waste discharge or pollution of water sources. Individuals and business entities found guilty of polluting the environment are usually held responsible for their acts.
This involves imposing corrective taxes and fines on water polluters. In some cases, polluters are expected to pay financial compensations to the aggrieved parties in direct proportion to the level of the damage caused by pollution.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Houston Water Supply by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, SWPG has a team of devoted scientists who assess the quality of ground water sources in order to detect any pollution or contaminants. This team collects and test water samples from various sources in order to discover the presence of any microorganism or pollutants.
The results of these tests give insights on the level of contamination. Consequently, determining the most appropriate water treatment method becomes easier. Additionally, the type of pollutants found in the water gives important clues on the causes of water pollution. These efforts ensure security over water sources and improve the confidence of consumers concerning water quality.
It is worth noting that protecting raw water sources is the first major step in the process of improving water quality. Contamination of water mainly occurs at the source due to the open access nature of water resources such as lakes and rivers. Thus, any attempt to protect these sources from pollution not only improves the quality of water but also reduces the cost of water purification.
In a nutshell, raw water that is known to be less contaminated will not require heavy investments in purification plants or treatment and disinfection processes. With the reduction in water treatment costs, more funds will be available for the maintenance and expansion of water supply systems in Houston.
Water Quality Promoting pubic health through the provision of clean and safe water is one of the main objectives of the County of Harris. In order to achieve this objective, DWO is committed to meeting or even exceeding the drinking water regulations/ standards set by the state and federal government.
DWO provides high quality water by actively monitoring for more than one hundred contaminants. Additionally, it complies with more than 90 regulations pertaining to water quality and safety. DWO officers actively participate in water quality research studies which are led by the American Water Works Association (AWWA).
These research projects are meant to devise ways of optimizing and improving the provision of clean and safe water (Harris County, 2012). Consequently, DWO has been able to develop and implement advanced methods of mitigating against microbial contamination of water at its purification plants.
Through source water protection initiatives, the discharge of chemical pollutants into water sources has been reduced significantly. Taken together, these efforts facilitate provision of high quality water in Houston. It is against this backdrop that the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) considers Houston’s water system to be superior.
Control of Water Supply and Pricing The role of DWO in the provision of water in Houston includes preventing water contamination, managing water treatment plants and pumping stations. However, the responsibility of pricing the water has been delegated to the Harris County Municipal District. The municipal is responsible for billing the consumption of water through meters which are fitted at the consumer’s premises. The customers are expected to settle their water bills before the due date.
The payment can be done through various options which include cheques, bank drafts, cash, visa card and master cards. A late fee is often levied if the customer fails to pay the water bill in full by the due date. The municipal usually disconnect water supply to customers who fail to pay any amount of money towards the settlement of their water bills. However, the defaulters are normally notified of the pending disconnection at least three times. Additionally, the customers have to pay a reconnection fee upon settling the arrears.
The consumers also participate in the management of the water sources. The consumers have a right to question the quality of the water supplied by DWO. Consequently, DWO often includes water quality information in its annual consumer confidence report. The consumers are also allowed to question the accuracy of their water bills. Concisely, consumers who feel that their bills are too high are allowed to verify the accuracy of their bills with the assistance of a DWO officer.
Consumers can also request for an investigation on the causes of sharp increases in their bills such as leaking pipes. Consumers’ participation in water management involves timely payment of their water bills to facilitate uninterrupted supply. The measures taken to provide high quality water are associated with high costs.
For instance, the cost of purifying water has been increasing as the prices of water treatment chemicals increase. Similarly, the cost of pumping water to end users has been increasing due to the escalation of energy costs. This calls for timely payment of water bills so that DWO can have adequate funds to support its operations.
Consumers are also expected to use water responsibly in order to avoid wastages that might reduce future water supply. In this regard, consumers are expected to collaborate with the water supply agencies to implement various water conservation programs and measures. Residents of Houston are expected to play an active role in the fight against water pollution by reporting cases of pollution.
Human activities such as industrial or residential development around ground water sources often cause water pollution through runoff chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers, among other pollutants.
Thus, it is important to include polluters in the process of developing best management practices that facilitate effective water resource management. Such a move will help in determining the optimal pollution and abatement level that neither discourages economic development nor promote water pollution.
Satisfaction with the Water Supply I am satisfied with the water supply to my home in Houston. My satisfaction is attributed to the following reasons. Firstly, DWO has always worked very hard to ensure that the supply of water is not interrupted by foreseeable risks. Thus, I often enjoy reliable supply of water. DWO is committed to developing water supply infrastructure so that the supply can effectively respond to rising demand.
Over the years, DWO has setup a team of experts which brings together water engineers, scientists, geologists and projects managers to oversee the provision of water in Houston. This team conducts regular evaluations of current water demand in the city. The results of such evaluations inform the planning process and budgetary allocations for future water supply.
Consequently, as demand for water increases in Houston, its supply is also expected to increase proportionately. Secondly, DWO supplies water whose quality exceeds acceptable standards. In addition, DWO’s active involvement in water quality research is a clear indication that future water supply will be of better quality and more reliable. Hence, the possibility of getting infections or diseases as a result of consuming the water supplied to our homes will be minimal.
Thirdly, the water billing system is convenient and customer friendly. This is illustrated by the fact that customers can pay their bills through methods that are convenient to them. The dedicated customer support team also makes the payment process easier. However, the efficiency of the payment system can still be improved since payment methods such as cheques take up to three days to be processed.
Water Conservation Water conservation is a process in which measures or strategies which help in reducing water usage and enhancing the quality of water are formulated and implemented. The main objective of water conservation efforts is to ensure sustainable water supply. This objective can only be achieved if the rate at which water is drawn from the ground sources does not exceed the replacement rate.
This means that Houston’s water resources will be depleted if the amount of water in these resources falls below a critical minimum. Thus, it is important to conserve water so that the limited supply can meet our current and future demands for the resource. Water conservation also helps in reducing energy consumption and conservation of wildlife habitats. The energy used to pump water to our premises can be reduced significantly if water consumption is reduced.
At the family level, the following measures can be taken to conserve water. To begin with, wasteful water consumption can be reduced significantly if taps are not left running when performing activities such as washing dishes or shaving. Advanced water saving technologies can also be adopted by families to reduce wasteful water consumption. Such technologies include low-flow shower heads, low-flow toilets and automatic faucets.
Similarly, covering swimming pools when they are not in use can help in reducing the loss of water due to evaporation. Waste water used in homes can be recycled and used for activities such as flashing toilets and cleaning cars. The use of water for non-core activities such as irrigating flowers should be minimized. This can be achieved by planting draught resistant plants which require little or no irrigation in order to survive.
Evaporation in flower gardens can be reduced by simply covering the area around plants with a layer of mulch. The mulch will not only reduce the rate of evaporation, but will also discourage the growth of weeds in the garden. Apart from using mulch, flower gardens and lawns should be watered only when it is necessary.
Families should always check their toilets and faucets for leakages. Any damages to these facilities should be fixed immediately to prevent loss of water through leakages. As we exhaust ground water supply, we should focus on alternative sources such as rain water. In this context, families should invest in rain water harvesting equipment such as outdoor water tanks.
Finally, I work for a helicopter company that uses a lot of water to clean its helicopters on a daily basis. The company can conserve water by recycling the water used to wash the helicopters. Additionally, the helicopters can be washed after every 2 to 3 days rather than daily. This will help in reducing the amount of water used to clean the helicopters.
Conclusion The main sources of water in Houston include lakes, rivers, aquifers, reservoirs and wells (Harris County, 2012). Currently, the amount of water held by these sources is considered enough to meet the city’s water needs for the next fifty years. Due to the rapid increase in land subsidence, Houston has to find alternative water sources.
This conversion is expected to be very expensive and might take a very long time to achieve. Through effective water supply management practices, residents of Houston City have been able to enjoy reliable supply of high quality water. Some of the measures taken to improve water quality include protecting water sources from pollution, investing in adequate water treatment plants and regulating water supply.
Consumers participate in the management of water sources and supply by reporting cases of water pollution, paying their water bills in time and demanding for information about water quality.
Even though the current water supply in Houston City seems to be adequate, deliberate measures must be taken to ensure that the supply is sustainable. In this regard, families and companies should focus on water conservation and exploit alternative water sources. Some of the methods that can be used to conserve water include recycling waste water, using water saving technologies and planting drought resistant plants to reduce irrigation.
References Abou-Elela, S., Noor, F.,
The Major Leadership Principles of Teacher Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Leadership is one of the most important factors that contribute to organizational development. Researchers have analyzed a variety of strategies that could be used in various cases. It becomes apparent that teacher/school leadership can enrich leaders’ skills. It is possible to single out two major principles of leadership which are the basis of teacher/school leadership and can become decisive for any organization. Thus, leadership should be based on instruction and support.
First, it is necessary to provide a definition of leadership. Leadership is a set of “activities… designed by organizational members to influence the motivation, knowledge, affect, and practices of other organizational member” (as cited in Spillane, 2005, p. 384). When analyzing teacher/school leadership, it is possible to see the same trends that occur at workplace. Thus, a teacher should gain respect and become a model for the students (Mulford, 2006).
This authority becomes a basis for every leadership incentive. Likewise, inspiring leader is the one who is respected and seen as an expert by other members of the organization. The best way to gain the leadership is to reveal extensive knowledge on major issues. This respect will be essential in case of the necessity to implement changes. Members of organization will not resist to changes if they trust their leader.
Admittedly, leadership is not confined to authority. Teacher/school leadership is instructional. Teachers instruct students to help them cope with the assignments. The instructions should be adequate and complete. At this point, it is important to note that Spillane (2005) states that it is not that important to understand what leadership is but to understand how leadership should be distributed. This is quite important as sometimes leadership is ineffective due to the wrong distribution.
Instructions should be given in accordance with the abilities of the recipient. Teachers do not give too complicated tasks to those who will not cope with them; teachers also provide perfectly clear instructions for each student (using students’ language, so-to-speak). Likewise, leaders should make sure other members of the organization are capable of coping with the given tasks and they have the necessary instructions to complete the tasks.
Apart from instructions, support is of paramount importance in teacher/school as well as organizational leadership. Thus, teachers provide their backup and they support incentives of students who strive for development. Horng and Loeb (2010) claim that teachers tend to support students.
However, the researchers add that this is not enough as teachers should have support on the part of principals. Innovative techniques and support of students’ incentives should be supported by principals. When it comes to organizations, support should be manifested on every level. Leaders should be able to listen to each member of organization and support incentives that contribute to development of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On balance, it is possible to note that teacher/school leadership can help organizational leaders work out specific tools to influence other members of organization properly. Organizational leaders should remember that it is important to establish proper image to become a model for other members of the organization.
Proper instructions and support should also be used extensively. It is also important to remember that support should be manifested on every level and each member of organization should have voice. Each incentive should be supported and appreciated. These all principles and factors should be taken into account when developing leadership at workplace and especially when introducing some changes.
Reference List Horng, E.
Mitsubishi and Sony companies Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction A business report is meant to provide investors and other stakeholders with information that is important in running a particular business. Specifically, business reports give the stakeholders an idea on the status of their investment. These reports also highlight problems encountered by the business. They also contain the strategic plans that will be put in place to solve the problems in the future.
This paper is an evaluation of two companies’ annual reports. The paper takes into consideration all factors in business reporting, such as services, products, the environment, and the internal and external stakeholders. The paper will be based on the annual reports of Mitsubishi and Sony companies.
The two companies have come up with reports to create awareness among all the stakeholders. This is as far as corporate social responsibility (herein referred to as CSR) in the two companies is concerned. The reports also address the CSR strategies that the companies are planning to undertake
The Report Scope and Limitations of the Report
This paper will focus on the differences between the reports of the two companies. This is in terms of the range of issues dealt with in the reports and how these issues are addressed. Specifically, the report will cover the following issues:
Explain the differences between the reports of the two companies in terms of such factors as country and industry of focus.
Assess the quality of reporting in the two companies based on Zadek’s 1997 criteria (Zhong 2009).
Evaluate the appropriateness of using standardised reporting procedures in the two companies.
Make recommendations on how each of the two reports can be improved. The need for such improvements will also be highlighted.
These are addressed below:
Identifying the Differences between the Reports of the Two Companies in Terms of the Range of Issues Dealt with and how the Issues are Addressed
In this section, the author will try to identify the issues addressed by the two companies in their respective reports. The author will also try to analyse how each of the two companies address these issues.
Mitsubishi Materials’ CSR Report for the Year 2011 A critical analysis of the report reveals that it was intended to provide information to investors and other parties interested in Mitsubishi Materials Group. It was also formulated to create awareness on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities undertaken by the Mitsubishi Materials Group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The report was structured using clear, precise, and simple language. This is to make it easier for the stakeholders to understand (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010). It is also noted that the report covers nine different areas that were selected to highlight the best strategies to acquire materials in the 2008 fiscal year.
The report has gone a step further to elaborate on the company’s medium-term management plan, which was put in place on August 2011. Additionally, it addresses the initiatives taken by the group to deal with the damage caused by the infamous ‘Great East Japan Earthquake’ and its devastating effects.
The report is not a mere summary of the company’s CSR initiatives. On the contrary, the report is aimed at improving and diversifying these initiatives. To this end, the report is presented in a precise and accurate way to provide the reader with relevant and meaningful information that is significant for the growth of the company. The report meets the requirements of the Global Reporting Initiative (herein referred to as GRI). This is required given that the company is affiliated to CCMM (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The disclosure of information touching on the company’s operations is not limited to the report on material CSR. It is noted that information about the company can also be found in the CSR section of the company’s website. This is all aimed at effectively reporting on the company’s extensive CSR activities.
An undiscerning reader may form the opinion that the report focuses more on 2011 fiscal year than on any other period. This is not the case, given that the report has incorporated information related to activities before and after that time.
Being a member of the ICMM, Mitsubishi has assumed the responsibility of publishing the Metals Company Supplementary Data Book, which is a significant online report that extensively reviews the undertakings of various metal companies. This is all aimed at enhancing full disclosure of information in the industry (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The review also addresses the actions taken by the company’s three smelting subsidiaries. These are Hosokura Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd. (Sony Global 2012), and PT Smelting in Indonesia.
We will write a custom Report on Mitsubishi and Sony companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has adhered to version 3.0 of the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. The report contains a disclaimer to the effect that any individual wishing to invest in the company on the basis of the information provided in the report will be held liable to any damage or losses accruing thereof. This is given that such a decision should be personal.
Sony’s Annual Report for the Year 2012- Business and CSR Review The report is structured in such a way that it provides the reader with information on the company’s activities during the 2011 fiscal year. The report addresses the company’s corporate social responsibility initiatives, as well as the business and investment initiatives taken. The report also introduces the new CEO and president of the company, Kazuo Hirai.
The company provides information on the three major businesses that it is running. These are electronics, financial services, and entertainment. The financial and entertainment sectors recorded a positive growth. It is also noted that the two sectors are expected to grow further in the future (Sony Global 2012).
However, the electronics market is unpredictable. The proceeds from the electronics sector were relatively low as a result of the effects of product commoditisation. This is in addition to the effects of the deteriorating foreign exchange rates. It is for this reason that the biggest task for the incoming CEO should be to reposition and reconstruct the electronics business. It is a matter of urgency as far as the stakeholders are concerned.
Sony Corporation has a reputation for ground breaking innovations and products, as well as high quality entertainment services. The company has over the years inspired many investors. Its scope of operations and methodology has made various stakeholders very curious.
However, it is noted that the group now aims at revolutionising its most valuable resource, which is the Sony’s DNA. This is the strong will, ability, and desire to come up with high quality products and services. This has been in place since the inception of the company. The group now aims at ensuring that every employee owns and expresses the Sony DNA individually so as to enhance growth of the company (Sony Global 2012).
In the fiscal year 2011, the company’s operations, especially in the electronics field, were adversely affected by the earlier mentioned Great East Japan Earthquake. This is together with the infamous Thailand floods of 2011. The situation was made worse by the economic crisis that negatively affected many foreign currencies.
This in turn led to a decrease in the prices of the goods and services offered by the company. The company recorded an operation’s loss of approximately 67.3 billion Yen. This is in comparison to the 199.8 billion Yen in the previous fiscal year. This was as a result of the decline in the net sales.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mitsubishi and Sony companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company also reported on the measures put in place to address such situations in the future. This is especially so the measures put in place to revamp the electronics business. The directors expressed the need to act fast and decisively to restore the company’s lost glory and improve its performance.
Included in the report was the corporate strategy adopted by the company. This is in efforts to restore the entity. The company identified various core areas of operation. The main pillars that were identified included digital imaging, games, and mobile business. These were identified as the key areas in restructuring the electronics business.
The business highlights was another significant area that was addressed by the report. It was noted that consolidated sales were decreasing from one year to the other due to the unfavourable effects of the deteriorating foreign exchange rates.
This is in addition to the shrinking of the markets in developed countries, as well as the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand among other catastrophes (Sony Global 2012). There were also the operation losses incurred during that period. This led to a huge net loss on the part of the Sony Corporation’s stockholders.
As part of the company’s CSR initiatives, the management entered into an agreement with Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, stage name ‘Lady Gaga’, a singer and song writer. It is noted that this artist had performed really well in the past. She received financial assistance from the company. The report also provides the reader with information on the performance of the company’s shares in the market. The figure below is an excerpt from the report:
Figure 1: Sony Global’s Stock Information
Adapted from: Sony Global 2012
An Analysis of the Differences between the Two Reports in Terms of Country and Industry Based Factors
Mitsubishi Report The company mainly focuses on the manufacture and distribution of products that address the social aspects of the community. It aims at providing the most basic needs for individuals in the society. This is to help them survive or make their life better (Mobile Reference 2010). It is for this reason that the company has invested heavily by assisting the victims of the earthquake.
There is also the copper mining business that the company is involved in. The Copper Mountain Mine rejuvenation project was initiated in 2009. However, actual mining has been taking place since 1996. The corporation is aiming at mining as many minerals as possible. It has invested heavily in the sector (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The company has also made initiatives to recycle waste materials and come up with products that are useful to the community (Tsimhoni et al. 2005a). At the company’s Kyushu cement plant, plans are underway to start recycling incinerated ash from the waste generated by the municipal council. The project was supposed to begin on April 2012.
This will solve the environmental crisis that is likely to result from the process of melting ash into slag. The company is also involved in the metal smelting business. It is currently putting in place plans to recycle scrap metal.
The company has also put in place measures to safeguard and protect the environment. It is committed to the creation of a self sustaining community. It is as a result of this that the company initiated the Eco Contest award scheme, which aims at recognising and awarding the most efficient and outstanding ideas and contributions in the development of a low carbon or recycling-oriented society. In the first Eco Contest Award Ceremony held in April 2011, there were a total of ten award categories (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
Sony Report The Sony Company is known for its ability to manufacture and distribute high quality products. Moreover, the company is well known for the high quality entertainment services. The company has diversified its operations by coming up with innovative hardware. As a result, the company has a remarkable collection of film, games’ content, and music (Lyons 2006).
The Sony Group has vast interests in the electronics business. However, during the 2011 fiscal year, the business was facing many challenges. As such, the profits declined. This was largely instigated by the deteriorating foreign exchange rates and the competition brought about by product commoditisation. It is for this reason that the group finds it very important to act swiftly and restore the lost glory.
The group is also trying to put in place measures that will revamp the industry. The company has identified several key areas in the electronics business. These are digital imaging, gaming (Andresen 2002), and mobile operations. As a result of this, the company will focus its investments in these areas.
Sony is going a step higher by engaging in activities that are more innovative than those undertaken by the various competitors. The activities are likely to improve the performance of the company. This is through the growth of set apart technology, which is better placed to improve the quality of the products.
One of the company’s major undertakings is in the medical field. Currently, this involves the production and supply of printers, cameras, monitors, and other peripheral products specifically designed for the medical field (Hockerts 2008).
The Sony Group is also engaged in the provision of financial services. This sector is expected to record a positive growth. This is considering the performance of this sector in the recent past. In an effort to uphold high standards of operations and maintain a sound financial standing, the various companies under the group’s umbrella have continued to provide high quality financial products. This is through the adoption of an inventive business model.
The companies include Sony Financial Holdings, Sony Life Insurance Co. (Zhong 2009), Sony Bank Inc., and Sony Assurance (Tsimhoni et al. 2005b). Sony Life, for instance, has maintained its successful operations with a lot of ease. As a result, it has recorded an increase in its ‘policy sum in force’ (Ohga 2008).
The company has attained this through its enhanced interaction with the customers. It is also able to design and sell customised life insurance products that appeal to the clientele. According to Guerrier (1999), Sony Assurance enjoys a broad spectrum of customers as a result of its reasonable premiums. This is in addition to its segmented risk and high quality services that have led to increased market share.
An inclusive report focuses on all aspects of a given agenda. For instance, an inclusive report will take into consideration such factors as services, products, and the environment within which the company is operating. It will also take into consideration both internal and external stakeholders (Mitsubishi Zaidan 2009).
To this end, Mitsubishi has designed its report to create awareness among all stakeholders in an inclusive manner. This is especially so with respect to the CSR initiatives that the company is planning to take (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
In the report, the management talks about the employees and their overall approach to CSR. Moreover, the report highlights the framework used by the company to promote CSR and corporate governance.
In addition, the report talks about the company’s medium term management plan, which runs from 2012 to 2014 (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010). This adequately informs all stakeholders on what to expect (Mitsubishi Motors 1985).
The company has highlighted other issues in its report. The report addresses the important role played by the society in providing resources. In addition, the report highlights the importance of the environment. It also mentions the company’s efforts in combating global warming, as well as the company’s promotion of eco- friendly products and technology. At the end of the day, Mitsubishi report can be considered as inclusive, given that it mentions and takes into consideration almost all the aspects of an annual report (Mishima 2009).
However, Sony’s report is more inclusive than that of Mitsubishi. It starts by introducing the company’s envisaged corporate strategy. Though this can be compared to the strategic management plan adopted by Mitsubishi, Sony’s corporate strategy stands out. This is given that it features some of the company’s products. In addition to this, Sony addresses the issue of management and its overall approach to CSR.
This is under the internal stakeholders section. The report also highlights the major areas in the corporate strategy, which will transform the company’s future. Moreover, the report highlights the framework that will be adopted to promote CSR and corporate governance. This adequately informs all stakeholders. It also helps them appreciate the efforts made by the management (Choquette
Non-verbal Communication Theory Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
The shopping event
Expectancy value model
The theory of planned behaviour
The self-cognitive theory of communication
Introduction Communication is the process of conveying information, which requires the sender of the information, the receiver, and the message to be delivered to the recipient. The process plays an important role in passing of information and interaction between human beings. This can be either verbal or non-verbal and the choice between the two depends on the suitability to the users and the environment.
In nonverbal communication, the use of body language is essential where effectiveness in this type of communication depends on the user’s understanding. This essay analyzes non-verbal communication by looking at the use of body language as well as the actual communication using communication theories basing on observations made.
The shopping event The communication event took place between a friend who was a customer and a shopping mall attendant in a busy downtown shopping mall where both non-verbal and verbal communications were used for effectiveness. To begin with, the customer walked to the counter and begun addressing the mall attendant and after the attention of the attendant, he pointed to the Corner of the store where different types of shoes were displayed.
He again looked at the shoes that he was wearing and continued talking to the attendant who listened attentively. At one point, the attendant nodded his head and raised his right hand towards the corner where shoes were displayed to confirm that the type of shoe that the customer required was available.
The attendant then left the counter and directed the customer to the position where shoes had been displayed as the customer followed him. The customer then selected the type of shoes he required then went to the counter together with the attendant.
A discussion between the two people followed and it seemed as if there was disagreement between them. Later they reached an agreement and the attendant packed the shoes for the customer. At this point, they smiled at each other and finally the attendant waived his hand to the departing customer.
Expectancy value model In any communication, there are expectations from both the sender and the recipient of the message. These expectations determine the behaviour of the two parties and their attitude towards the message. In the observed event, the customer expected the attendant to respond and listen to him carefully while the attendant expected the customer to describe the type, size and the quality of the pair of shoes required.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Expectancy value model therefore apply in the conversation where Palmgreen (1984) states that, “People orient themselves to the world according to their expectations, beliefs and evaluations”. Expectations determine behaviour of a person, which then plays an important role in determining the person’s attitude towards the message or the other person.
The theory of planned behaviour Bandura (1986) stated that, from experiences, people are able to plan, which also applies in communication. Getting the attention of the listener is important to the speaker and at the same time, impressing the listener is of equal importance. The speaker avoids a situation whereby the message he or she passes becomes irrelevant or lacks attention.
The theory of planned behaviour suggests that the intention of a person determines his/her behaviour and attitude determines the intention. In the shopping mall communication event the attendant seemed to have a good experience of what the customers’ needed where the attendant gained this experience from interacting with several customers.
On the other hand, the customer seemed to know that the attendant offer useful guidance in the selection process and from his experience, the customer explained the details of the pair of shoes to the attendant accurately expecting him to listen to the details. Pajares (2002) found that, prediction plays an important role in communication and it is a direct consequence of the theory.
In communication, a person predicts the reaction of the other where these predictions are usually on other person’s response, reaction, and choice of words. In the mall conversation, the customer and the attendant sometimes predicted the next action of the other person. For example, when the attendant walked back to the counter, he expected the customer to follow him.
The self-cognitive theory of communication According to Parraga (1990), the environment plays an important role in determining a person’s behaviour and therefore affects communication. Environment determines people’s behaviour, which in turn determines their attitude. Human beings on the other hand have the ability to counter the effects of the environment through self-organization.
Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Ethics are the principles that dictate right and wrong, and act as agents of decision making guidelines of behavior. On the other hand, laws are rules developed by an administrative system to combat crime. Most ethical issues are consequences of individuals trying to make decisions within or without the law that govern a system.
When computers were first invented , scientists said that the whole of America would only need six computers for its operations. A couple of decades later, information highway has grown so fast that every household at least owns a computer. Computers have evolved from the bulky gadgets they used to be, to pocket size gadgets, making it easier for individuals to own.
Businesses are run easily through computers, for instance shopping malls and food joints have created sites through which people can select items and have them delivered to them. Marketing has been made easier as consultants don’t have to meet with their clients face to face.
Introduction of e-learning in most academic institutions has helped create more learning opportunities while saving time and space. Academic research by students has been simplified because they no longer need to carry bulky books. Besides, many job opportunities have been created for information technology specialists. Just like any inventions, Information technology has its merits and demerits.
Therefore, it is in order for governments to come up with strategies to regulate the use of information technology gadgets as a precautionary measure against information technology stress caused by security breach in the private or public network systems. Though the invention of internet networking has facilitated the transformation of the world into a global village, eminent threats on security of information systems is real. Thus, this reflective treatise analyses contemporary issues in information technology and multimedia.
A big wave of positive change was seen in various fields such as education, business, and politics among others. Unfortunately, Criminals saw this as an opportunity for fraudulent deals. For instance, hackers, crackers and stalkers took advantage of this wave of change to unlawfully access private information that could harm companies (Moore, 2006, pp.101-105). In response, the government introduced the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
As stipulated by this law, trespassers of protected computers were to be prosecuted. The CFAA merged with the National Information Infrastructure Act to create a compact regulatory law on information technology. Given that dependence levels on technology have increased, the advances in data storage have made the process cheaper, hence are used by local retail firms to identify customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the, major search firms such as Google, yahoo, and messenger generates more than 200million searches per year. Therefore, a lot of information can be found about an individual through their profiles and blogs. Information perceived as private can viewed in public social sites. This heightens ethical concerns because a lot of information is out and can be misused.
These laws made it illegal for any unauthorized person to access private computer network for financial gains. CFAA in its current jurisdiction protects users and operators against computer related crimes such as obtaining national security information through illegal entry into Federal computers with the aim of harming the state, and for the benefit of another state. This law is punishable whether information was acquired or not.
Besides, the law is clear on the illegal entry of a protected computer to access financial or credit information, including credit card fraud (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 43). Moreover, unauthorized access of any protected computer used by the Federal government or the government computer agencies is also included. It can be considered as treason if one is found hacking into the state’s security systems.
Since data has become easily accessible, government security agencies have come up with detailed and advanced security systems. They can obtain information on suspects of terrorism and security threat. In the automated scan systems, possession of illegal weapon, drugs, and other material perceive harmful to the public can be detected.
At global level, intentionally damaging, either through corrupting by viruses or physical destruction of a protected computer and worms program that can make information disappear or even disable a system intentionally is punishable in the International Law Court. Physical destruction includes trashing or removing some parts of the machine to put a halt to normal functioning ability (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 50).
Illegal trafficking of passwords or any other information which can be used to gain access to a protected computer for whatsoever purpose is illegal. This law was mainly put to stop the hackers from cracking passwords and accessing information systems for information, and using them to corrupt the information systems.
The above laws makes it illegal for one to access information without permission from the owner, the operator or the management information system, especially information on business operations or national defense. This covered all the data on atomic weapons manufacture and storage in the United States (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 55).
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The electronic communications privacy act is a law which was passed to regulate efficiency of Information technology. This law makes it illegal to tap information without authorization. Besides, it protects information transmitted through wire, radio, electromagnetic waves, and optical wave tracks that affect business transactions of the state. Cyber Security Enhancement Act was passed together with the Homeland Security Act to increase penalties set in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
CSEA reduced the thoroughness of privacy and made it easier for the ISP to hand over information to the government whenever the relevant authority suspects unlawful dealing in the local networks.
This law passed harsh punishment on persons who knowingly committed computer crimes that resulted in physical injury or even death (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 53).Those who have established their careers in business, should sensitize their employees ICT departments to safeguard the quality of the systems and hence protecting privacy of society.
The digital millennium copyright act mainly protects programs and soft wares against piracy. This law was put in place to help people who operated their businesses online from having their products duplicated. This law promotes the sale of soft wares and programs that help parents control what their children view in the interne (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.46).
Traditional laws can also be used to prosecute crimes committed on computers. For instance, Economic Espionage Act makes it illegal for one to steal information or ideas from another business through copyright or duplication for any reasons whatsoever. This law also spells out the boundaries of benefitting from other information systems in place by either competitors or perceived rival.
The Virginia internet policy act advocates for freedom of information, penalties on persons who commit computer crimes, and protection of children from explicit pornographic materials and indecent images on the internet. Before, children were used by perverts to boost business and the websites at the expense of their rights.
Another law is the software privacy and control act. This act deals with the criminals who register online under false identity, and commit online fraudulent crimes on the domain receptor. However, providing false information without getting involved in criminal activities is excused (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.46).
Despite the numerous efforts by the government, internet criminals somehow find a new route in committing cyber crimes frequently. Factually, it is not very easy to detect a cyber crime until its consequences surface. Smarter hacking minds have developed complex ideas of invading the snares and traps constantly revised by the government information technology experts (Warren and Louis, 1989, pp.89-97).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even the most secured sites such as that of the homeland security and Microsoft report numerous attempts of hacking on their websites. Funnily, some of these crimes are only meant o draw attention and disapprove the security system of the targeted sites.
In the recent part, a group in America threatened to close down face book site for what they called breach of personal privacy and stalking by the government. Hackers have decided to corrupt the system with graphic images, just for satisfaction of having control over this global site (Trout, 2007, p.43).
This however does not mean that we are completely hopeless against finding solutions to deal with these intelligent minds who find pleasure in putting a halt to global growth and development on the facets of information exchange.
The existing laws may not be perfect, by some how are effective in minimizing the intensity of information system abuse. In the recent past, many successful abuse cases have passed through the court system on sms or email abuse. Governments still deal with threats to life and properties sent via email, as punishable under traditional laws.
Governments also need to introduce e-governance, like in Bangladesh, which make control and review of laws of the internet much easier to implement. Through this, governments will easily deal with the increasing innovative techniques of web piracy hacking and cracking (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.49).
The implementation of these laws may be hindered by administrative obstacles. For instance, lack of trust and faith on a government by its citizens may make fighting cyber crime a hectic procedure. Due to this, citizens may shy away from reporting instances of cyber crimes committed or fail to cooperate with the authority in investigations.
However, the overhead cost of adopting e-governance is very heavy on most governments. With the current unfavorable economic climate, the priorities of most governments are to ensure costs of any project are within manageable limits. Besides, there is an inadequate specialized skill in information technology across the globe to monitor and constantly track the ever complex crimes undergoing metamorphosis.
Reference List Moore, R. (2006) Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime, 1st ed., Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing
Solove, D. and Schwartz, P. (2009) Privacy, Information, and Technology, 2nd Ed., New York, NY: Aspen Publishers
Tim, J, and Paul, T. (2004) Hacktivism and Cyberwars, Alabama: Routledge
Trout, B. (2007) Cyber Law: A Legal Arsenal for Online Business, New York: World Audience, Inc.
Warren, R. and Louis, B. (1989) The Right to Privacy, 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193., Massachusetts: Harvard University Publications
Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The ability to create, modify, store, send, and link digitalized information is the most notable invention of the twentieth century. This phenomenon is widespread in all spheres of life around the globe. The continuing proliferation of information technologies and services has presented many legal, social, and ethical issues. These issues are the subject of discussion among government officials, academics, and others. This essay examines the contemporary issues that are facing multimedia and information technology in the modern world.
Since the early 1960’s, Information Revolution has been the buzz word. The world has been experiencing, at an accelerating pace, an unprecedented Third Wave-fast forward movement. The Information Revolution is characterized by information becoming the central and most significant commodity.
An interesting offshoot of the Information Revolution is Information of Society, on the one hand, and the commoditization of information on the other. The significance of dawn of Information Revolution is underlined by the number of information-related terms it has risen. These include, but not limited to, ‘Information Society’, ‘Information Technology’, ‘Informatics’, and ‘Informatization’. Information has become a catalyst for economic development, and a key resource for literacy, education, and social development.
An Information Society is a society characterized by abundant information in terms of both stock and flow, quick and efficient distribution and transformation of information, and easy and inexpensive access to information for all members of society. The primary role of the workforce in Information Society is in the areas of information production, processing and distribution .
The Information Age has brought with it a myriad of issues proportionate to the number of contributions it has made to society. As such, discussing all the contemporary issues brought by multimedia and Information may take more than the limitation of this paper. Consequently, the scope of this paper will be limited to an overview of a number of legal, social, and ethical issues in the Information Age. These include privacy, intellectual property, and computer crime.
With the vast amounts of data and software available in the modern world of technology, individuals or companies are prone to theft of intellectual property. This crime consists of violation of copyrights, patents, trade secrets, or the terms of license agreements. It also entails unauthorized duplication of materials. This latter phenomenon is common in academics, whereby people might be tempted to reproduce other people’s works, views or invention as their own working for commercial or scholarly purposes.
Companies or individuals, therefore, should strive to obtain software, or information legitimately instead of coping it. There are several benefits associated with legal acquisition of software or information. Legal acquisition of software or information ensures that the company is kept abreast with the bounds of the law in their business practices and day-to-day operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that the company’s professionalism and reputation are maintained. Another fundamental reason why companies should go for legal software is because the legitimately purchased software comes with crucial benefits such as technical support, patches, upgrades and documentation. These properties cannot be found in pirated software. Companies or individuals who engage in illegal acquisition of intellectual risk fines, expensive settlements or serious legal action.
Intellectual property just like any other controversial contemporary issue in multimedia and information technology has its proponents and opponents. Those who argue for the private ownership of intellectual property base their arguments on well-known scholars such as John Locke (1632-1704). Locke held that one has a natural right to the things they have removed through their labor.
Another philosopher, Hegel (1770-1831), argues that property enables an individual to put his or her will into something . As such, property is an expression of an individual’s personality in the world. Another argument to support the private ownership of intellectual property is that it is a necessary incentive to create and to work. This idea is dated back to David Hume (1711-1786). Hume argued that people should own their creations in order to encourage useful habits and accomplishments.
The opponents of private ownership of intellectual property question the validity of the assumption that an idea can be owned solely by one individual. They hold that probably any idea that people have are not their own. Most of the ideas that people have come form other people, or place.
As such, originality can be viewed as the combination of existing ideas in new ways. Basically, when someone is original, they are expressing an idea in a new way, may be seeing new associations between ideas that were not noticed before. Anything creative that is achieved is the adding of something to pre-existing ideas, which have been obtained from others .
Like physical property, intellectual property implies that someone can access certain ideas, or information. However, the notion of private ownership of an idea or concept is highly controversial. This is because it implies that others are excluded from the use or development of those ideas.
Ownership of ideas in the modern Information Age will remain a mammoth challenge to the free society, not unless there is a balance between rewarding innovators for their creative ideas, while still allowing those ideas to be shared for the benefit of the community and for human progress .
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When thinking about the contemporary issues that are facing multimedia and information technology, privacy is, perhaps, the single issue that concerns people the most. Personal information is gathered in various ways such as profiles left to credit-checking companies, and supermarkets. The kinds of information held by credit-checking companies include names and addresses, former addresses, and current credit ratings.
The information in these databases has invariably being collected through a wide range of sources and organized so that it constitutes a history and assessment, of one’s trustworthiness as a debtor. Supermarkets are now compiling vast databases of information about their customers. This is done through their loyalty cards, in conjunction with records of credit card transactions at their stores .
Information in such databases is used to analyze the shopping patterns of customers and to target them with precise advertising based on their demographic profile and spending patterns. Still on privacy issues, another trend in the use of personal information is data matching.
This is the combination and comparison of information from different databases Personal information that is supplied, or collected for one purpose and stored in a particular database is cross-referenced to information in other databases, where data may have been gathered for an entirely different purpose.
This trend has been of significant concern to privacy advocates and civil liberties, who view it as prone to misuse. There is an unlimited number of misuses of information that is obtained form the databases. It could lead to vetting for jobs, denying someone a bank loan, based on their current health, their propensity to certain conditions, or their family medical history.
New technologies, including computers, offer new opportunities for committing a crime through the development of more expensive commodities for theft, devising novel ideas of stealing them, or harming others. This phenomenon is referred to as computer crime. It is a contemporary issue in the Information Age that has left many puzzles than the invention of computers have solved. Criminals can access a company’s financial records and wire unfathomable amounts of money in their bank accounts .
In addition, computer abuse involving spamming is proving a very expensive affair. This is in terms of resources and time dedicated to dealing with such unwanted and irrelevant e-mail messages. Although spam filters may be used to block unwanted messages, the strategy is not foolproof as it may end up blocking legitimate messages .
In conclusion, information technology has given rise to many unexacting possibilities which the existing law has not yet found solutions. The Information Age is coming up with changes that call for new ethical, legal, and social debates in societies in order for solutions to be found.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These issues revolve around ethical, social, professional, and political principles. In terms of privacy, it is clear that contemporary information systems technology is posing a tremendous challenge to the traditional paradigms of safeguarding individual privacy, as well as intellectual property .
Technologies used in storing and analyzing data are easing the ways firms are collecting data on individuals from various sources and analyzing them in order to come up with an in-depth electronic profile about an individual and his or her conduct. The widespread use of computers also increases opportunities for computer crime and abuse . Given these myriad of issues, there is a need to approach Information Technology with a degree of professionalism and try, where possible, to act in the most ethical way possible.
References Bynum, T. ,W.,
Ethics in IT Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Ethical dilemma
Regulations of IT
Regulations and business
Value of IT
For several years, most debates about ethics and information technology (IT) have focused on issues of professional ethics and issues of privacy and security. The professional aspects of ethics in IT concern preserving and developing a successful reputation through tasks completions. In this context, the worker is constantly behaving well i.e. a case of character and action. Ethics now seems to be an inclusive term covering morality, value and justice, in addition to character and action.
However, the recent developments in IT and business have created cases of new concerns in ethics. Critics now wonder whether removing a job from one country to another in order to exploit lower paid workers and probably avoid heavy tax are ethical, business or economic issues (Schultz, 2006).
Offshoring and outsourcing of jobs creates the advantage of a social context by providing lower wages. These have become new ethical problems created by flexibility of the IT concept of “availability at any location”.
These new developments have made IT rise beyond organizational borders in covering end users, supply chains, partners, countries, and continents in the broad picture. These are among the issues which have necessitated the governments across the globe to collaborate and develop comprehensive and detailed laws regarding the use of information technology.
Ethical dilemma As new and unpredictable uses of information technology arise with the regulations, so do new and unpredictable ethical problems. IT is a part of the human world of relations, actions and institutions. Therefore, we expect interactions with the world of IT neither to bring predictable ethical problems nor predictable solutions.
For instance, the creations of online downloading sites of copyrighted materials to promote sales, or as a form of charity, or to promote mediocre contents demonstrate how users can manipulate IT systems where ethical principles are not clear. People can make digital copies at will, and these copies are available to anyone on the network.
The issue is whether it is a mere act of a friendship sharing information, which is ethical, or whether it is an illegal act, which is an unethical practice violating copyright laws. These instances are likely to create ethical dilemma to the comprehensive laws regulating IT industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, if the comprehensive laws cover such unpredictable uses and results of IT industry, then the users are acting ethically and legally. Some problems of ethics associated with the development of social media, such as dating and readily available sex partners and spamming raise serious issues of ethics and the role of IT in perpetuating them (Robert, 1995).
Regulations of IT There are diverse cultural and ethical perspectives created by information technology and communication around the global and their possible resolutions. These are genuine global information ethics, which need to be regulated as the industry continues to experience exponential growths.
Therefore, the governments of the world in coming up with comprehensive laws to regulate the global IT industry is on the right step in protecting individuals, organizations, partners, territories and nations. This led to the development of a framework for global ethics provided in the form of the Earth Charter so as to realize a shared vision of a sustainable global society.
Information technology ethics use this framework to determine how information and technology can be used responsibly to develop a future that is economically and ecologically sustainable, and culturally and socially just (Hongladarom and Ess, 2007).
The regulation formalizes expression of values and embodies cultural norms, which sometimes may clash with the values in information technology. The IT and regulations are contiguous with the normative ethics of the originating culture. Therefore, both the law and technology can constrain behaviour according to the value system that they express. These are significant implications of the spread and adoption of the IT around the globe.
Technological developments presuppose the availability of informational content to be stored, communicated and processed. Adopting and using such technology is, therefore, essentially dependent upon the legal and normative rules that determine the accessibility and regulation of information to be stored, manipulated and disseminated through technology.
Regulations that specify the legal and technical factors for use of information are necessary so as to control the adoption and usage IT systems that process such information. As the IT information availability increases, the provision of informational content has equally become a matter of interest to both the nations that generate information and those that are net information consumers for different reasons, of course.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nations that develop and export information technologies enforce their particular ethical and legal standards for regulations of end users. Thus, they effectively spread their value systems and regulations requirements alongside their technologies to other nations. Issues of ethical and control of information tend to rotate around the development of contents and gathering of personal information.
Regulating controls label the requirements, and in some instances, the authors of informational contents protect them under intellectual property or data privacy. However, the US and the European Union economic and political dominance tend to influence regulations of information technology.
Each of these powers has aggressively tended to promote their own approaches to information technology control. This way, they have displaced and overwhelmed the development of other countries from developing their informational control systems.
Regulations and business Government regulations can be useful or harmful to businesses. The nature and degree of the comprehensive laws developed by governments in regulating the IT sector can have both positive and negative effects across the globe. Nations which have enormous controls, and influences on the regulations will tremendously benefit. At the same time, some degree of the regulations may results in developing of moral, social and just society.
In order for IT to grow globally, the comprehensive laws developed should be essential regarding intellectual property, sensible approaches to contract laws, willingness to enforce the contracts, and efficient systems of handling bankruptcy in case of rapidly changing technology overtakes a business. At the same, the law should provide strong protections for freedoms of persons and expressions (Gentzoglanis and Henten, 2010).
IT business represents unpredictable changes and developments. The structure of the laws should accommodate the future course of the information revolution in different nations. For instance, the law should ensure availability of funding for new IT ventures and linear concepts in the manner of funding processes. This is because such instances affect the growth and development of new IT ventures in all nations. Therefore, it is an issue global concern.
This is a critical concept of new developments in IT and businesses, which usually upsets and challenges the old models of businesses, monopolies, and introduces new ways of tasks performances. The idea is that players in the IT sector should also operate within the laws when raising capital for their new ventures. The concept of law to ensure funding is an enabling factor for the growth, adoption and proliferation IT.
Value of IT In developing regulations and ethical use of IT systems, we should always have in mind the positive feature of information technology as its potential to contribute to the increase in human consciousness by making more knowledge available in wide setup. Conversely, we must also beware of its questionable applications that can propel destructions of human or the environment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in IT by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regulators must realize that the functional characteristics that make IT so valuable do not operate in a restricted or highly regulated environment.
Valuable applications such as speed of information processing, information storage capacity, availability of information at any location, and straightforward reproduction of information, can work well provided the users operate within the global laws. Such applications work better with a scope of the organizations as a whole, and potentially well with global scope where information sharing is part of the business.
In realizing the value of IT to human and environment, governments should focus on the prevention of harmful practices in serving needs of human and environment. Therefore, preventing harm in information technology use becomes an essential element of fixing serious problem that causes the greatest harm to human and environment. Therefore, ethical use and regulation should also focus on protecting vulnerable groups within a society to prevent IT harm from coming to end users (Richard, Robert, Tora and Neu, 2003).
Users and regulator must take into account that IT is not neutral. Its use provokes various changes that can result into consequences beyond human comprehension. Technological innovations often strive to build a new and incompatible order on top of what exists. We should use it as a means and enabler for other ends.
Bibliography Gentzoglanis, A. and Henten, A., 2010. Regulation and the Evolution of the Global Telecommunications Industry. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Hongladarom, S. and Ess, C., 2007. Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives. London: Idea Group.
Richard, O., Robert, H., Tora, K. and Neu, R., 2003. The Global Course of the Information Revolution: Recurring Themes and Regional Variations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Robert, A., 1995. Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications. California: RAND.
Schultz, R. A., 2006. Contemporary issues in ethics and information technology. London: Idea Group.
Pepsi Cola International Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive summary The assessment analyses challenges experienced by Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine. Distribution channels and logistics challenges have affected the business, which is the reason this assessment identifies four challenges and gives possible solutions. While using the available literature, challenges include poor transport and infrastructure.
The ports are congested and delays are common. Burglary is a challenge for transporters. The distribution channels are not effective in distributing the product to all parts of the region it is required to. There is because of competition from other brands. Long distribution channels and economic slowdown make the prices increase.
Warehouses are scarce as well as forklifts. The management can reduce the challenges by engaging in research and use recommendation to make changes that correspond to the environment and developments. Investment and long-term decision can be encouraged.
Introduction Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine has been operating for over twenty years. The distribution of the soft drink determines the sales and the business development. Unlike other European states, Ukraine is lagging behind in development and this has affected the business. Moreover, Ukraine is a potential target for the company and the senior management of Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine should investigate and make changes that encourage business growth.
This paper will identify four challenges the senior management of Pepsi Cola are facing in relation to distribution Channels and logistics. The paper will also recommend solutions for the four problems.
Key challenges that Pepsi cola senior management is facing Menachof (2001, p. 2) reveals that distribution of Pepsi is done via arrangement with different franchise and other arrangements. The methods of distribution may require changes that correspond to the transforming economy. The company has conducted business in the Soviet Union for a period that exceeds twenty years.
Pepsi Cola international senior management in Ukraine has exerted efforts to investigate the distribution as well as pricing policies in Ukraine. Ukraine office in Vienna bottles and distributes in Eastern and Central Europe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transportation and infrastructure
One of the challenges for Pepsi Cola international is gaining access to the huge markets. The number of users of their soft drinks remains relatively small, when compared to the consumption rates of the large markets.
In 1994, Soviet law made trade arrangements that prohibited Pepsi Cola International from banishing income to United States. Ukraine partnered with shipyard. Consequently, Pepsi became the dominant soft drink. International Directory of Company Histories (2001, p. 1) notes that Ukraine sees Pepsi Cola as their choice. However, Coca cola has opened a bottling plant in Ukraine that has been operational since 1995.
The economic development of Ukraine has been slower than in other parts of Europe. Transportation of goods is slow owing to the slow railway services. There are numerous cases of delay. There is state transport composed of large companies that offer transportation.
Private companies which are small have transportation trucks. Other business men use own vehicles that are not trucks to transport. Any truck can be used for transportation and earn an income for the owner. At the port of Ukraine, imported goods take long owing to payment complications.
Importers have been affected by inflation and have lost purchasing power; hence the price is very high. Accumulation of goods at the port is common and obstructs operations. Space at the port is rare. Banditry and theft are on the rise as some of trucks are forced to offload their goods. Cargo insurance companies have failed to cooperate by withdrawing from insuring cargo for inland beyond the entry of the port.
Private property laws are not fully developed and affects how landlords relate with tenants. Warehouse space is limited. Shipping containers, basements and any available space in the buildings are considered as warehouses. Landlords may breach the contract and the property owner may not be fully protected by the law.
The distribution equipment has been used for more than twenty years. Although the port is being upgraded, the facilities do not match those in the developed part of Europe. While lagging behind at the port, the case is the same for inland facilities. Forklifts are not available and people lift the load by use of hand.
We will write a custom Assessment on Pepsi Cola International specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Channels of Distribution
The distribution channels in Ukraine perform poorly compared to other countries. In other countries, there are Pepsi trucks. The drivers of the trucks ensure that they have enough supplies for specific areas. There are also Pepsi machines that provide drinks. The trucks, drivers and machines are absent in Ukraine.
Pepsi Cola international receives concentrate which is sold and delivered to the twelve authorized bottlers. Pepsi cola international use rail or tracks to deliver to the bottlers. During winter, Pepsi cola has to make arrangements with the rail to ensure that it delivers the concentrate. Since roads are impassable, rail is the only means of transport.
Another challenge is preventing the product from freezing by ensuring that the cars are heated. When the concentrate becomes frozen, it cannot be useful anymore. Different distributers obtain Pepsi Cola from the bottlers. The distribution of Pepsi in major towns and city is regular. In small towns, shortages are common. Retailers then sell the product to consumers. Some retailers, like kiosks, do not have the product until they make trips to the city or major towns.
Finances and politics have an impact on Ukraine. Investors invest limited capital in their businesses and their plans are often shorter and middle term plans. There is fear and uncertainty about the future. The justification is that unrest may rise up again. Western investors in the Soviet Union have hardships with the law.
They are not protected by the law. Moreover, decision making in business takes a long time and favors shorter plans. Decisions in business last around three months and change of mind can occur at any time before the time is over. Three months is a short time for one to realize quick money as they often wish for.
Business practices are secretive. Business men keep two records for official use and actual transaction. New investors venturing into partnership experience frustration. They have difficulties trusting foreign investors. The locals have been frustrated before and cooperating may take a long time.
Aldin and Stahre (2003, p. 272) mention that the use of distributers eradicates the inconsistencies in the schedules for manufacturers and the pattern of consumption for consumers. Consumers tend to use certain products during a certain season and when the season is ended, the consumption is reduced.
Manufacturers may be required to use wholesalers or retailers to acquire finances. Selling directly to the customers may take a longer period of time to sell. Retailers and whole sales will pay before obtaining the product. The retailers and wholesalers may be in a better position to perform specialization functions than the manufacturer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pepsi Cola International by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Perner (2008, p. 1) adds that the manufacturers are specialists in manufacturing, while the retailers specialize in distributing. Efficiency is obtained if the manufacturers effectively distribute to a wide range of retailers. In turn, the retailers will distribute to the customers.
According to Coughlin et al (2001), for the distribution of same product, a parallel distribution structure may be adopted. The product can be obtained by using a different channel other than the traditional distribution channel. Consumers may prefer to buy from the manufacturer to save on cost and sell for a less costly price. Those using the traditional channel will see this as unfair competition.
The prices of Pepsi Cola increase as people move far away from authorized bottlers. The distribution channel is long. From Pepsi cola international, the product is bought by the bottler, then by the distributer, then the local retailer and finally the consumer. The long chain makes the price of Pepsi Cola products costly.
The prices of the drink are also interfered with by the economic slowdown. The cost of fuel has increased and transporting the product has become more costly. The glass bottles are delicate and cumbersome to transport and are expensive, as Ramez (1990, p. 1) mentions.
Larson and Halldorsson (2002, p. 37) state that selling directly to the consumers enables the consumer save. However there may be challenges and inefficiency when it comes to direct distribution from the manufacturer to the consumer. Retailers and the wholesalers make distribution efficient. The customers can get the products at a convenient location.
Carter and Narasimhan (1996, p. 13) indicate that the consumers can buy small quantities of the product as opposed to buying in bulk. Customers can obtain a variety of products from a retailer as opposed to getting a specific product from one store, then move to the other store for another product.
The stores with variety are also located close to the consumer. On the other hand, the customer buying directly from the manufacturer travels a long distance to obtain one product. Intermediaries such as wholesalers make deliveries to retailers with products from different companies. They save on the cost that would have been used in the delivery of individual goods.
Before a product is known by the consumers, the distribution is likely to be slow. Later on as the product is known, the distribution is expected to grow steadily. When the distribution of a particular good is diverted, the market is affected.
Possible solutions for Pepsi Cola International For economic development to occur, the senior management should consider engaging in research to view possible ways of dealing with the challenges. The senior management policies should be in line with the changes in society as Bruce (1995, p. 230) suggests.
According to Fugate et al (2008, p. 2), understanding the market trends and environment enables the top management to make plans that will enhance distribution of a product. With the understanding of the market trends, it is possible to make strategic plans and implement them.
Transportation and infrastructure
Increasing efficiency while saving on cost is an effective way of solving transport challenges. The company can use own trucks and employ drivers, who would manage the distribution. The drivers will keep record and make necessary arrangements to reach the remote parts and deliver Pepsi products. The driver, as part of the human resource management, can get training on customer relations and increase knowledge. During winter, the concentrate can be kept at the right temperature to prevent cases of freezing.
If the government improves infrastructure, the road network will be efficient and products can be delivered. Development can be encouraged to improve infrastructure in warehouses and storage. The channel can be integrated to reduce the long distribution channels and enhance distribution of the product. The Company can purchase forklifts to assist in loading trucks (Srivastava et al 1999, p. 168).
Rutner and Fawcett (2005, p. 56) argue that distribution of a product is one of the most important processes in a business. Distribution of a product consists of moving a product from the manufacturing company to the ultimate consumer. Consumers determine what retailers will stock. The retailers stock what the consumers ask for.
The retailers give a large shelf space to products that are known to consumers. The retailers fail to stock new or less prominent products to avoid a situation where customers do not buy the product. Retailers have confidence in products that have sold before. Marketing and advertising can be done to encourage more buyers, so that retailers stock Pepsi products.
Channels of distribution
When distributing, the business can adopt a multichannel distribution that will allow for planning using data. The use of catalogues, field sales, trade counters, pricing offers, call centers, mailing lists, websites and trade shows is significant. While distributing, the distributers can use one system to control different channels.
This will reduce the challenges posed by different catalogues for different clients. Creating own ware house will increase efficiency, reduce costs and enable distribution. Customer’s service is important and retailers, as well as distributors, should consider fulfilling the needs of the customer.
Stern (1997, p. 14) notes that the manufacturer has the challenge of ensuring that the product is available all the time. Customers move to another brand when their prefer brand is not available. A number of customers will not move to the next retail shop to obtain their preferred brand and would rather settle for a different. Some manufacturers may be selective and choose their distributer if the product is designed for a classy store.
Market research is an important practice that Pepsi Cola International can adopt. The management is involved in conducting research and making changes where necessary. Research will enable the senior management make informed decisions (Mentzer 2001, p. 19).
Gundlach et al (2006, p. 430) suggests that the product should be availed all the time close to the consumer to ensure that the customer gets the product they desire. The competitors pose a threat if their products are available, since consumers go for another product if their preferred product is not available.
Business operators can be encouraged to take risks and invest for long periods. They can also be encouraged to follow standards business protocols. They can make appropriate decision on the new location to venture in and ensure that select the best distributers. Coming up with a strategy on marketing will assist them stay ahead of their competitor. Flexibility in the business plan will enable the business make changes when necessary and avoid delayed decision making.
The channels and structures in distribution are largely dependent on the type of product, demand, location of customers and environmental factors. Manufacturers require the product to be in as many retail shops as possible. They also need the retailer to have the specific products that customers need. In Pepsi Cola, they would require the retailer to have different flavors of the soft drinks so that the customers choose their favorite flavor.
Lambert et al (2005, p. 49) adds that pricing of a product positions a product in the market, is a competitive tool and brings revenue to the company. Changes in price may bring resistance and affects sales and thus, companies need to make appropriate decisions.
The prices should remain at reasonable rates. This can be achieved by creating efficiency in the distribution of product. The reduction of the number intermediaries can be reduced so that the prices do not remain high (Perner 2011).
McNamara (2011, p. 1) says that the manufacturing companies can implement price control by recommending the retail price. The prices should be low and should not be below the cost of production. Large discounts should be given to bottling companies, only if the bulk buying enables the manufacturing company to save on cost.
The behavior of customers towards pricing is important to understand consumer behavior on price. Some customers compare prices and when prices change, they buy products at close rate as before. Where there is little difference between competitive products, the consumer has a perception that the product is better and therefore the prices can be increased (Ballo, 2011).
The distribution trends have changed recently. The prices of commodities have increased and sometimes decreased with different pricing as the quality diversifies. The global slowdown has also affected the sales of products. Changes to accommodate change should be adopted as Gerth (2004, p. 1) notes.
Conclusion Pepsi cola international has operated in Ukraine for two centuries. The challenges are transportation and infrastructure. The port is congested and needs expansion to accommodate cargo. Accumulation of cargo leads to consumption of time before the cargo is released. Concentrate is transported on poor roads and railway.
There is increased burglary on the roads. The cost of fuel is also high. Warehouse and stores are not readily available. There is need for additional forklifts. Distribution of Pepsi products is another challenge. Distribution is done via roads and trains, which are unreliable. Truck drivers are not employed by the Pepsi cola company hence; coordination of demand and supply becomes a challenge.
The channels are long since the manufacturer sells to the bottler, then the wholesaler, then retailers and then the customer. The business environment is challenging. Coca Cola Company has established itself since 1995 and poses competition. There is uncertainty in political and financial processes. Business men keep two records of accounts. Pricing is challenging since there is a long chain in the distribution.
The economic slowdown has also affected businesses. To overcome the challenges, policies that enhance economic development can be adopted. The senior management should also engage in research to discover the market trends and developments, which can be adopted to enhance operation and increase efficiency.
Owning trucks and training staff can increase the sales and distribute to the city and remote areas. Ware houses can be built to increase safe storage. The product should be available all the time. Investment can be encouraged. The price should be able to give revenues and be affordable to the consumer.
Reference List Aldin, N.,
Bostic, B., (2014). Does social media perpetuate youth violence? [web log post]. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center. Retrieved from http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/social-media-perpetu custom essay help
, (2014). Does social media perpetuate youth violence? [web log post]. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center. Retrieved from http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/social-media-perpetuate-youth-violence/ (Links to an external site.).
Read the above article, in 1-2 pages, answer the following: Does the media perpetuate youth violence? If so, how? How has it changed over time?
Human Resource: performance evaluation systems in organization Case Study best essay help
The performance evaluation system of Maple leaf shoes is so ineffective hence affecting the overall performance of the company. Performance evaluation system must be one which creates motivational opportunities to employees. What happens in Maple leaf shoes is discouraging to workers.
More than 75% of company’s employee had negative feelings about the system. This means that many workers are not satisfied with the manner in which they get assessed. Supervisors fail to meet their obligations by not conducting the assessment process as expected. It is said that some supervisors fill in appraisal forms in three minutes. In fact, there is no way an employee can be assessed in three minutes. This shows negligence among supervisors in doing their work.
The company’s management also has played a role in poor assessment. This is because actions are not taken to reflect employees’ performance. Since no promotions are effected based on the assessment reports, supervisors consider the assessment as a useless exercise. As a result, they fill in the assessment forms just to amuse their bosses but not for the best of the company.
I would recommend that supervisors receive thorough training in order to understand the essence of carrying out employee assessment. Then management should take actions depending on the reports drafted from the appraisal forms. For example, performers should be rewarded by either promotion or monetary gifts.
Those not performing well should also be involved in discussing their performance, and this can help identify their areas of weakness. Once the weak points are identified management can provide possible solutions hence increasing employees’ performance. The system of assessing employee performance should be restructured to ensure that employees accept the outcomes. When these changes are implemented, employees can enjoy healthy working relationships hence giving their best to the company.
For the case of Canadian Pacific and International Bank, a 360 degrees performance evaluation system has been faced with opposition from some section of managers. If I were in Mary Keddy’s position, I would work with the managers supporting the system to pull the rest into supporting it.
The first step is to engage middle managers in a discussion regarding the new performance system. Make them understand the benefits of successful 360 degrees performance evaluation systems. The managers should be allowed to air their fears about the new system and then all issues discussed. She should make sure that all fears raised are satisfactorily addresses and then together with the managers they should lay down strategies for implementation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next step should be training employees on how to evaluate their seniors and their fellow colleagues in the right direction. This ensures that backstabbing is not given a chance in the process of evaluation hence concentrating on areas suited for the best of the company. Since this system involves everybody in the company evaluating their colleagues, managers and their juniors, the evaluation forms should be guided by the human resource representatives.
For example, questionnaires meant for evaluating managers should contain areas which concerns performance. This helps control circumstances where workers may be bitter with their supervisors and would like to express all their feelings on the evaluation form. After everyone is convinced about the introduction of the new evaluation plan, Mary can proceed and introduce the evaluation system in the company. She should give details of when assessment will be done and make sure everybody takes part in the process.
Effects of Music in Advertising Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Literature review
Music has been recognized as a powerful stimulus affecting people’s mood and even health since times immemorial. Realizing the potential of using the music elements in advertizing for affecting the consumers’ perception and purchasing behavior, marketers use music in supermarkets and as a background feature in commercials.
The findings of the latest empirical studies have revealed a positive relationship between the use of music elements, concentration of attention and proper perception and interpretation of commercial messages by consumers. The music in the supermarkets created favorable mood in the consumers and encouraged them to make purchases.
Taking into account the findings of the previous researches, this study will conduct semi-structured interviews and test the hypothesis whether there is a positive relationship between the uses of music elements in advertisements and their brand preferences and purchasing decisions.
Literature review Modern marketers view music as an important background feature which can be effectively used for enhancing the viewers’ arousal and effects produced by advertisements.
Even though most consumers denied the impact of music upon their brand preferences, the findings of empirical studies have shown that there are significant differences in the brand attitudes, purchase decisions and emotional responses of viewers to the advertisements of music and non-music groups (1). The results of experiments conducted by Gorn have shown that pleasant music, humor and attractive colors are important background features which can influence the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes (1).
Even though Gorn’s experiments were criticized by other scholars, the conclusions regarding appeal of music upon viewers remained unchanged. Kellaris and Cox who replicated Gorn’s experiments admitted that his findings could have been influenced by demand artifacts (2).
However, Gorn’s premise regarding the positive relationship between product choice and music appeal was not disclaimed. Additionally, Kellaris and Cox measured the strength of different unconditioned stimuli by using different sets of classical and popular music but did not receive any significant differences in results (2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A more in-depth investigation of music characteristics and their impact upon the consumer’s emotional responses, brand awareness and purchasing decisions was conducted by Park and Young (3). Assuming that music can activate the brain and affect the mood of t listeners, the researchers attempted to develop a complex taxonomy of music elements, including tempo, pitch, texture and duration and their impact upon individuals’ emotional reactions.
The findings of empirical research have demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between the music tempo and its emotional appeal to listeners (3). Particularly, music with low pitch can arouse the emotions of sadness in listeners, whereas the music with high pitch can be associated with happiness.
Louder music is interpreted as a mood of happiness, and soft music is attributed to the seriousness of the message. Therefore, consumers view the content of the commercial message through the lens of the overall mood of the advertisement that depends upon the tempo and volume of the background music. The maximum effect can be achieved if pleasant music is used as a background melody (3).
Success of a commercial in creating brand awareness and influencing the consumers’ purchasing decisions depends upon a wide array of factors, including the visual elements, major message, music, humor and others. However, as it can be seen from the findings of the recent studies, the use of music can be effective for concentrating the consumers’ attention and creating a positive image of the advertized brand.
Berger and Mitchell concluded that auditory persuasion in the form of pleasant background music plays an important role in communicating the key message of the commercial to the target audience (4).
It is possible to use popular hits to draw the consumers’ attention or unknown melodies created specially for the commercial which can become recognizable and associated with a particular brand in the course of the repetition of the advertisement in the media. Consumers tend to recall more details from advertisements using background music as compared to those without music (1).
Research method A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight college students for the purpose of establishing a relationship between the use of music background and their mood and brand preferences if any. The structure of the interview was flexible, and the questions were open-ended and enabled the participants to express their personal opinions and attitudes.
We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Music in Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main objectives of this study included the investigation of the influence of music upon he consumers’ purchasing decision and brand attitudes and individuals’ acceptance of this influence. The participants were asked a series of questions regarding their attitudes towards commercials in general, their favorite advertisement and least preferred advertisement.
A convenient sampling was used for selecting the participants for this research. The interviews were conducted in the form of a friendly conversation, but the participants were informed on the purpose of study and gave their consent for participation.
Research findings Most of the interviewees denied the influence of the background features upon their brand preferences and purchasing behavior. Seven of eight participants claimed that they try to overcome the influence of marketing measures and make informed choices. When asked directly, participants admitted that the background features such as pleasant music and humor in the commercial cannot influence their attitudes to a particular brand, not to mention their purchasing behavior.
Describing their favorite commercials, six of the interviewees attempted to reproduce the songs or background melodies used in the advertisement. The remaining two participants could not say for sure if there was music in their favorite advertisement. When checked, it was cleared out that the favorite commercials of the participants, who hesitated whether there was music in the advertisement or not, contained background music.
The interviewees could recall a lot of details contained in these commercials and demonstrated a profound understanding of the key message of the advertisement.
Moreover, the attitude of the interviewees to the advertized brands was positive. However, the interviewees emphasized the importance of the quality of products upon their attitudes and denied the effect produced by the background features. Eight interviewees admitted that modern commercials using pleasant music and humor do not irritate them and can have a positive impact upon their mood.
Discussing the least preferred commercial, the interviewees pointed out at the main features irritating them. Among the traits having a negative impact upon the consumers’ perception was shameless self-promotion of certain brands and banality of the commercial message.
Therefore, most of the least preferred commercials were based on the mere statements of the advantages offered by particular brands and belonged to a non-music group. The participants could not recall specific details of the advertisements not using music as a background feature. Additionally, four participants admitted that they were irritated with songs used in one of the commercials, saying that it was getting on their nerve every tine they heard it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Music in Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion Analyzing the research findings, it can be stated that the participants deny the impact of background music upon their perception of the commercial message, not to mention their brand preferences and purchasing decisions. These answers clearly demonstrate that present day sophisticated consumers are aware of the marketers’ efforts to influence their perceptions and make attempts to resist this influence.
However, taking into account the fact that all of the most preferred commercials mentioned by the respondents contained music elements and interviewees could recall the slightest details of those commercials, it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between the use of background music in the commercial and the viewers’ emotional responses to the commercial and understanding of the main message of the advertisement.
Music became an integral element of the commercials because even not been asked to, most of the interviewees made attempts to reproduce the melodies and songs used in their favorite commercials. There is a strong association between a particular brand and music used in the advertisement.
As a background feature, music affects the listeners’ mood and concentrates their attention because all of the interviewees could recall specific details of the advertisements belonging to the music group. Regarding those participants who were not certain about the use of background music in their favorite advertisements, this peculiarity can be explained with the specifics of their individual perception of information and the preferred mode of communication.
Additionally, even though these respondents did not notice the presence of background music, they were able to reproduce the rest of details of the plot and the main message of the commercials. Therefore, the music elements can remain unnoticed but still have impact upon the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes.
Regarding the least preferred commercials, it can be stated that most of them belonged to non-music group. Though the music elements are widely used in modern marketing, the instances of non-music commercials can still be found in the media. Though the interviewees pointed out at shameless self-promotion and banality of the message as the main features they disliked about the least preferred commercials, there is a relationship between the lack of the music background and the consumers’ negative attitude towards it.
Additionally, some of the least preferred commercials contained music elements which however irritated the listeners causing their dissatisfaction. Therefore, music elements can become a powerful tool in producing an impression which can be either positive or negative. In that regard, bearing in mind the potential influence of this choice, marketers should be careful in selecting the most appropriate tunes for their commercials and deciding between well-known and unfamiliar songs (4).
Analyzing the brand preferences of the interviewees in their relation to the commercials and the use of background music in them, it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between the use of music as a background feature in advertisements and the consumers’ purchasing decisions.
Event though the vast majority of the participants of the study emphasized their objectivity in making purchasing decisions and denied the impact of particular advertisements and their elements upon their attitudes and behaviors, most of them agreed that they appreciate the quality of the products produced by the brands advertized in their preferred commercials.
Thus, the consumers’ purchasing decisions depend upon a wide range of influential factors, and music used in advertizing can have a significant impact upon their mood and perception of the main message of the commercial and contribute to their awareness and positive attitude towards the advertized brands and their products.
Conclusion Analyzing the results of the semi-structured interviews in their relation to the findings of the previous studies, it can be concluded that there is a positive relationship between the use of music as a background feature in advertisements and the consumers’ brand preferences and purchasing decisions.
Regardless of the fact that most of the participants denied the impact of music in commercials upon their attitudes and brand preferences, it can be stated that music is a powerful tool affecting the consumers’ mood, perception and impression from particular commercials and advertized brands and products. Taking into account the potential impact of music elements, marketers should be careful in selecting the tunes and songs for particular commercials.
References 1. Gorn GJ. The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: a classical conditioning approach. The Journal of Marketing. 1982 winter; 46(1):94-101.
2. Kellaris JJ, Cox AD. The effects of background music in advertising: a reassessment. Journal of Consumer Research. 1989 Jun;16(1):113-18.
3. Park CW, Young SM. Consumer response to television commercials: the impact of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation. Journal of Marketing Research. 1986 Feb; 23 (1): 11-24.
4. Berger IE, Mitchell AA. The effect of advertising on attitude accessibility, attitude confidence, and the attitude behavior relationship. Journal of Consumer Research. 1989 Dec; 16 (3): 269-279.
Interest Groups Essay essay help
Interest groups are alliance of persons with shared common interests resolute on persuading public policy in their favour. This non-profit advocacy groups enjoy federal tax exemption under the 501(c) (3) edict and discounted mailing charges. The rules however prohibit interest groups from active politics however, the 20 percent rule allows them spend a maximum 20 percent of their budget on advocacy and unlimited funds on lobbying.
The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) started in 1871 during the Civil War in New York; is one of the most powerful interest groups with 4.3 million members. Along with the Gun Owners of America (GOA) they form the Gun Lobby pressure group, advocating for gun ownership as a civil right. They have vast influence on lawmakers in Washington ensuring firearms rights are not interfered with by opposing groups.
Based on the Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights, the gun lobby interest group has successfully fended off anti-gun lobbyists arguing that every American has a right of gun ownership, self-protection and hunting rights. Despite efforts by elected officials to tame the groups, lobbyists always prevail.
Lobbyists exert their influence in the US Congress through committees and subcommittees where most of the legislation is deliberated prior to the enactment of bills. Failing to consult these groups will mean the bill stands little chance of passage within Congress.
The NRA has effectively forestalled the restriction of gun permit issuance for concealed armaments with only seven states managing to pass the laws. Similarly, gun lobbyists have gone to court in jurisdictions like Washington, D.C. with strict gun control laws and managed to overturn bans on gun ownership.
NRA successfully opposed the reintroduction of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 advocated by gun control lobby when it expired in 2004. During the Katrina disaster, the gun lobbyists opposed the confiscation of guns actively lobbying for legislation in Louisiana Act 275 and the Federal sponsored Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 that prohibited confiscation of legal weapons from citizens.
The NRA along with other gun lobbyists has effectively advanced its programs due to ability in funding federal and state candidates supporting their causes. They thus opposed the repeal of the Tiahrt Amendment seeking to trace firearms used by criminals to dealers. In 2005, NRA took the City of San Francisco, California, to court for passing legislation “Proposition H” that enacted an almost total gun ban for overstepping their mandate; and successfully reversing the ban when the court upheld this assertion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gun lobby groups defence of rights to firearms remains one of the most controversial and polarising campaign issues with the two main national political parties either supporting or opposing the group. The gun lobby normally supports the Republican Party but is fervently opposed by the Democrats who accuse the interest group of encouraging gun violence.
Thus NRA and the gun lobby endorsed Ronald Reagan for presidency in 1980 while in 1994, there ruthless onslaught on House Speaker Tom Foley and Congressman Jack Brooks led to defeats in long held seats.
The influence of interest groups and their lobbyists on politics and the government has continued to plague the US administrations for centuries. The ability of the gun lobby group to block legislation that does not favour their interests exemplifies the pervasive power of these pressure groups as selfish interests override the public good. There is therefore an urgent need to curb their ascendancy.
How children of incarcerated parents are affected Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction When parents are incarcerated, children tend to face difficulties associated with the lack of close relationship with their parents. As a result, some of these children face trauma due to the separation. Other problems include anger, depression, fear and anxiety. Incarceration also leads to a cause where the child is moved from one care giver to another, which results to behavior change among them.
The problem is more severe when the children’s mothers are incarcerated, because the relationship between them is broken. At times, these children result in failure to withdraw emotionally, and some even fail to go to school. At the time of arrest, policemen do not care to ask about the children’s fate, or what they are going to do with their lives once they lose their parents to incarceration.
The same can be said about the judges and agencies involved in correction, because normally, no one raises these questions. The fact that there are no many agencies involving themselves in collection of this information means that there is unclear knowledge of the number of children who face this problem. The importance of families and parents is undeniable as at times, it affects the social goals, and is a preventive measure of delinquency behaviors among children.
The purpose of the study The number of children who have their parents incarcerated as per report released in the recent years shows an alarming number. In year 2007, it was estimated the children who had their parents incarcerated was over 1.7 million, which represented about 2.3 percent of all the children population in America.
Between years 1991 to year 2007, it is estimated that the number of children who had parents incarcerated increased by 77 percent (Christian, 2009). During the same year, the percentage increased in mothers, which was about 131 percent. This paper tends to look at the effects those children who have incarcerated parent’s face, and provides a solution to improve the situation of these children.
Hypothesis H (0) Children of incarcerated parents are affected by incarceration of their parents.
H (1) Children of incarcerated parents are not affected by incarceration of their parents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review Race and age of the children
The data obtained from the reports released in 2007 had a relationship between the race and the age of the children. The report is also clear to show there lacks relationship between the incarcerated parents and race in reference to mothers. The incarcerated parents of white children showed that in every 1 child whose parent was incarcerated, there were 110 of the white population who were not.
Half of the children that had their parents incarcerated were 9 years or below, while thirty two percent of them were between the years 10 -14 years. The rest of the percentage was between years 15- 17 years (Council of Justice, 2006).
Incarceration of the parents affects almost all the aspects of life of the child left behind. It affects the emotional behavior and the overall behavior of the child. When researching about the effects of incarceration on children, it is usually hard to know whether the way the child turns out to be is due to consequences of incarceration of the parent. Sometimes, the effects of the children may be due to certain things that happened before the child was incarcerated.
It may range from previous mistreatment of children, in case the parents were using drugs or alcohol, or if the parents were suffering from mental illness. Since most researchers do not consider most of these risks that exist before the parents are incarcerated, it is usually very hard to know the effects of incarceration on children.
Though there is no empirical evidence to support some of these claims, it is claimed that children whose parents have been incarcerated have six times likelihood of being incarcerated in future. Some studies have also been keen to show that incarceration has only an independent effect on the behavior of the child, the academic performance as well as the health of the child.
The way the child is going to be affected by incarceration of the parent is usually affected by various factors. Among these factors include: the living arrangement before incarceration of the parent, the degree by which the parent was involved in the life of the child before incarceration, the age of the children, the gender of the child, to mention but a few. The factors discussed below express the level of effect on children due to incarceration of their parents.
Living arrangement before incarceration
According to the data acquired from the justice system, about half of the children whose parents had been incarcerated were living with their parents a month or just some time before the incarceration take place. Also, about a half of the children whose parents were incarcerated were being financially supported by the parents before they were incarcerated.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How children of incarcerated parents are affected specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another seventy percent of the mothers who were incarcerated were caregivers to their children before they were incarcerated. However, only about twenty six percent of the children were receiving daily care from their fathers. According to this data which was obtained, it was evident the parents had a great involvement in the lives of their children before they were incarcerated.
They did this through living with them, providing them with daily care, as well as providing financial support to them. The results from the data showed there was a considerable number of children who were living with one parent who was later incarcerated (Simmons, 2007).
For those children who were living with a single parent after incarceration, their living arrangement completely changed. Due to incarceration, there is also a very high likelihood of existence of financial hardship, especially if the parent was involved in taking care of the child. The resultant of this is that the standard of living of the children is likely to fall when the provider is no longer there to provide financial support he/she used to offer.
On the same point of economic strain, the household is also likely to bring about instability as there is likelihood of moves which may become often. The health development is also likely to be affected. Poor development of the child is likely to come about due to family instability, which comes about due to incarceration of the parent.
Children who are living in stable households with concerned caregivers usually end up with better behavior than the children who are living in a family facing instability. Foster care causes several risks to children who have their parents being incarcerated. There is a risk of a loss of connection to school and community due to having the children not being close to their parents.
The bureau of Justice Statistics shows that for every parent who is incarcerated, there is another parent who takes care of these children. The biggest numbers of children who are left behind are left with the grandparents, and this accounts about fifteen percent.
Incarcerated parents contact with Children
When contact is kept between the incarcerated parent and the child, it is of a benefit to both the child and the parent. Although there is little evidence to prove that visits by the children to their parents when they are incarcerated is beneficial to the children, it would be generally important to ensure that a relationship exists.
Research indicates that maintaining the relationships where the child visits the parent when he/she is incarcerated ensures that there is a successful reunion between the two when the parent is released.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How children of incarcerated parents are affected by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Further, the research shows that there is likelihood of post-release success when the parent is released and a parole violation lows when the relationship between the child and the parent is maintained after the parent is incarcerated. Research also shows that about seventy seven percent of the parents had some contact between the parent and the child (Christian,2009).
However, there were certain barriers, which were brought about that reduced the contact in existence. One of such policies is the correction policy, which is in existence. Though the officials who run the correction centers campaign for existence of these visits, security concerns usually minimize these visits.
The correction officers usually ask the people including children for birth certificate to prove that they are the biological children of these parents. Prisons also tend to charge high rates, which are not usually affordable to some of these parents, and at times discourage the visit by children to their parents.
Unfriendliness of the prison environment is the other thing that leads to a lack of existence of relationship between parents and children. Some of the incorporated things that can be considered unfriendly include: frisking of the people visiting the incarcerated, rude treatment by some of the officers, the dirt which is in some of these places, and also the fact that these activities involve children.
Other effects of incarceration of the parent
As earlier noted, incarceration of the parent causes emotional behavior change in the children. However, these are not only the effects that occur to these children. Other problems result from the child welfare law which has been put into practice. The law severely affects the relationship between the parent and the child due to the actions of these agencies. The safe family act of 1997 calls for petition in case one of the children is abandoned.
The act may result in a scenario where the rights of the parents are terminated to the child if there is a proof of the child being abandoned, or the child being in foster care for about 15 months (Christian,2009). Though this act exists, there is an exception to it in case the care giver’s role of the child is left for a relative, and when termination of these rights is not in the best interest of the child.
Methodology According to the hypotheses put across, it is clear that incarceration of the parent has effects to the children massively. To start with, there is a loss of the parent-child relationship that is necessary for better growth of a child. The fact that there are acts which ensure children who do not have their parents around them are likely to be put for adoption or taken care by foster homes does not make it any better. Incarceration alone does not constitute to denial of rights of the parent.
The loss of child rights to children due to incarceration comes about due to certain factors that are inclusive of the following: The length of the time that the parent will be incarcerated, whether there is provision of the required child care services, the relationship between the parent and the child as well as whether the incarceration of the parent is often.
The effects of children due to incarceration do not end just because the parent gets out of prison. Even though the child is united with the parent, the problems do not end there. The challenges that come about are both internal and external to rebuild the time that was already lost during incarceration (Jarvis, 2007). At this time, life may become hard as the parent has to look for a job and provision of housing and health care for the child/children.
Since at the time of incarceration the parent was not earning anything, there is usually of a likelihood of existences of debts that may need to be cleared once the parent is out of jail. Other financial needs may include child support arrears, criminal fines and penalties that may need to be paid to the courts.
Children may also face the difficult of re-entry of the prisoner; in this case, it may be stressful. Children may at that time have formed relationship with other parent figures who may be even relatives or other individuals in the society.
At times, these people may be reluctant in allowing rekindling of the relationship which existed between the child and the parent before incarceration. The resultant of this is destabilization of the family, which at this time is time, may be fragile in nature. The threat is even more if the parent in question is among the violent ones, as the child might live with that fear.
Stigma and a feeling of shame also tend to exist among the children whose parents have faced incarceration. People tend to relate the crime the child did to him/her, and tend to treat these children as crime offenders (Harris, 2010). To say the least, these children can only be victims of the crimes the parents were involved in.
Treating these children as criminals is not fair at all to them. In turn, there are even cases where these children feel ashamed of the actions of their parents. The shame may even be more if the child is the victim of the crime committed by the parent. At times, this results to lack of self-esteem of these children and takes a lot of encouragement to regain it.
Conclusion There are so many challenges that affect children whose parents have been incarcerated. The effect is more if the child was very close to the parent, or if the parent was single. At times, matters of the law come in as the parent is likely to lose the rights he/she has of the child, in case the time of incarceration is long.
Depending on the age of these children, it is important to put into consideration the best interest of the child so that whatever decision is arrived at, it may be aimed at providing the child with the best care available. When the parent is released from jail, the challenges do not end there.
Some children find it hard to deal with their parents due to the fact that they might have grown away from their parents. Since some children may not be in a position to cope with this, it is important to derive a coping mechanism that seeks to make it easy for children whose parents have been incarcerated. It would be therefore necessary to find mentoring programs which aim at ensuring that the children get all the motivation they need in improving the relationship between them and their parents.
Support and encouragement should be also be incorporated in the lives of these children to make sure they are improved from the state they are in. There is also a need to have an adult who believes in the strength of the child in quest to ensure that the child’s self-esteem is maintained. Helping the children cope may also be better if they maintained a relationship with their parents when incarcerated.
There is a need to the connection between the child and the parent for easier re-entry of the parent in the child’s life. It is therefore necessary that since most of the decisions about the children welfare are made in courts, the children are given a family oriented set up.
References Christian, S. (2009). Children of Incarcerated Parents. National conference of State legislators. Pp 1-7.
Council of Justice. (2006). Children of Incarcerated Parents. Council on Crime and Justice. Pp 8-16.
Harris, Y. R. (2010). Children of incarcerated parents: theoretical, developmental, and clinical issues. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Jarvis, A. (2007). Children of incarcerated parents: An application of the stress process model. Texas: ProQuest.
Simmons, C. (2000). Children of Incarcerated Parents. California State Library. Sacramento, CA: Carlifornia Research Bureau. Pp 9-13.
Egypt and Canada Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
The international community embraces presence of laws that protect people’s ideas, patents, copyrights trade secrets and plagiarism trademarks. Egypt and Canada are not an exception to these laws and are also bound to register the applications by their citizens protecting their intellectual properties against people who may use them to benefit themselves economically.
Unlike Egypt, the government of Canada developed rules pertaining the protection of intellectual property in 1985; this was seven years prior to formulation of laws dealing with intellectual property in Egypt. In both these countries, protection of patents is similar in reference to the period a patent lasts.
A patent lasts 20 years after application after which it is let out to the general public and anyone who wishes to use that work to benefit publicly can do so (Kaphahn, 2009). However, registration in Canada for a patent requires the patent holder to prove that the patent has three characteristics. For one, the work must be a novel. The focus here is on the detail of the invention in question and the seriousness it contains.
The patent should also not be obvious. Special skills are needed to create the object or the thing that needs to be patent, and anything that anyone can come up with cannot be patented. Finally, the thing that is to be awarded a patent needs to have utility. The basic meaning of this is that that thing needs to be able to satisfy a want (Zvulony, 2002).
Copyright registration in these two countries protects the reputation as well as the good will that is attached to the products or the services that are being offered. However, though there is full protection of the goods or services provided, a clause that allows usage of part of the work exists (Kaphahn, 2009). For example, a book a fair dealing clause is in provision. It allows people to partially use the original work and it entirely falls on education bases.
The positioning of these two countries geographically provides an almost similar ways of transport. The main means of transport in these two countries is by road, by rail by water and by air. However, there is a big difference when it comes to the quality of the services in provision in the countries.
When it comes to the road network, Egypt has a notably badly maintained network, while the same cannot be said about the road network in Canada. There was massive investment in the road network after the Second World War in Canada. Due to the fact that it is one of the most competitive means of transport in Canada, especially in short distance, it is well maintained. Development of air transport is also very different countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Egypt may have three major air ports, Canada on the other hand has a staggering 515 airports. The rail network is also available in these two countries. Notable about these two countries in reference to the rail transport is the fact that it is not a common means of transport and is mainly used in transporting of commodities and goods to different regions.
However, the rail network in Canada in more developed than the one in Egypt, which is even aging. The two countries also have water transport as part of their transport systems. The networks in these two regions are found in their big rivers as well as the lakes found in the countries.
As earlier noted, the two countries enjoy transportation of both people and products within and outside their borders. When it comes to transportation of cargo goods in and outside these two countries as a requirement there needs to be an insurance cover that is meant to compensate for any perils that occur during transportation. Each mode of transport has its own insurance coverage that covers any risk that may come about.
The premiums that are paid to these insurance companies are to the respect of the risk that is likely to be encountered when goods are in transit. However, variable and precious goods or jewelry have their portion of premium, which is notably higher than any of the other goods that are covered about by the insurance policy.
The distance that needs to be covered while transporting the cargo in question is also a big contributor to the amount of premium that needs to be paid to the insurance companies. Furthermore, the authorities in these two countries have a provision that is meant to bid those companies that are involved in transportation to ensure that they confirm their transit carriers, so as to avoid any complications in terms of payment, in case there is occurrence of risks.
Egypt and Canada share similarities when it comes to matters of Trade documentation requirements. Such similarities are evident when it comes to releasing of goods from the custom department. Certain documents need to be there for the goods to be released from the ports. Among these documents is the bill of landing.
The information that is contained in this document should be such that it should be corresponding to other documents like the invoices and the way the goods are packaged. Certificate of origin also forms the other type of document that need to be present before the imports are released from the ports (Zaki, 2005).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Egypt and Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The importance of the certificate of origin is to ensure that certain information is contained. Among the type of information that may be contained include the following: the weight of the goods in question, the full address of the country and the company that manufactures the goods. Similarity in these two countries extend even when it comes to exportation of the goods.
An export card is required in both countries, which is issued by the ministry that is concerned with imports and exports, for example the ministry of industries when it comes to Egypt. Taxation card is also a requirement when it comes to the two countries. The importance of this card is to ensure that taxation is carried out for any imports brought about in the country and the right amount charged. Other trading documents needed when carrying out trading in these countries is the insurance certificate.
Both countries highlight on the importance of having insurance, especially when it comes to importers (Porter, 2011). Pro-Forma invoice is also important and a requirement, and comes in four copies. Among the contents is the country that the goods originated from the quantity, as well as the price charged on the goods. The type of commodity that is being traded as well as value of the commodity in foreign currency is also a requirement.
However, there is a difference on the way valuables are treated in both countries. While not special attention is paid to them in Canada, Egypt has such a policy that highlight on the importance of stating valuables like jewelry and electronics. In fact, failure to do so may lead to a scenario where the valuables may be confiscated awaiting charges on why the goods were not stated.
Regulations regarding foods are also common in the two countries. The policies are put in place in protection of health matters. Such policies are put into place to ensure that there is no food that is advertised or sold to the general public, which is poisonous in nature or in case it contains harmful components.
Foods that are manufactured or packaged in facilities that are not sanitary friendly are also not fit for advertisement, and selling the same to people is prohibited. Agricultural chemicals are necessary for growth of some of the agricultural products, which further constitutes food. However, both countries highlight on the importance of ensuring that the set standards on the maximum number of chemicals food products should contained is maintained.
The standards that the chemicals used in agricultural food products should be contained are set out by the authorities and should be limited to a certain maximum level. Further, the two countries share opinions when it comes to advertising and provision of foods, which are packaged in such a way that they cause misleading impressions to the general public. Misleading information in this case is inclusive of erroneous values, quantity and the components of the products.
The laws are also similar to the ones concerning foods when it comes to drugs. Any misleading and deceptive information is discouraged and there are laws put in place to ensure that such does not happen. Deceptive information includes information that gives untrue information about the value of the drugs, the components of the drugs as well as the safety standards incorporated in manufacturing of the products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Egypt and Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Drugs that are also packaged in a sanitary unpleasant area and drugs that are unpackaged in a sanitary unpleasant area are also prohibited from being sold in both the countries. Packaging as well as advertising of drugs that do not meet the standard set out by the authorities is also prohibited in these two countries.
The laws of the two countries also against any advertising that is meant to cause a mistake of the substances that are used in the manufacture of these drugs.
Sanitary conditions are also required to be observed when packaging these drugs, and if these drugs have been packaged in conditions that do not meet these drugs, then they are not presumed fit to be advertised, leave alone being sold for consumptions. Distribution of drugs that are meant to be samples is not also allowed in any of these countries, as it is required that the right standards for the drugs should be there for them to qualify to be sold or advertised.
The government of the day is an important player when it comes to protection of the consumers of the product that are put in the market by the various firms and organizations in the country. Egypt and Canada are also actively involved in ensuring that the consumers of the products produced locally or imported are protected against from producers and manufacturers who are not genuine in offering their products.
The laws put into place also ensure that the individuals who come across such products report in case they come across such manufacturers. In addition, there is need to ensure that incidents that lead to death or serious incidents get reported to the government to ensure that information is used to promote safety. Further, testing is important in both countries to ensure that only products that fit the set standards are traded.
The two countries also have hard fines and penalties to individuals who fail to comply with the laws set by the authorities (Antario, 2011). The aim of having these fines is to ensure that manufactures abide to the laws laid down, and put the acts set aside as priorities in manufacturing of the goods. Labeling of products should be such that it conforms to the laws that are put across.
Labeling of products which do not fit the standards is forbidden and there is need to ensure that only products of good quality are put in the market for consumption (Antario, 2011). The language that is used is advertising products that are meant for use by general public should be free of errors and should also not be misleading.
Erroneous messages when it comes to advertising are considered breach of laws that ensure there is protection of consumers of the products. In both countries, English is a language that is used to advertise. However, the case is different when it comes to Egypt as Arabic is incorporated in both communicating and advertising the products in the market. The same language is used in defining the rules that concerns protection of the customers.
References Antario, S. (2011). Consumer Protection Act, 2002. Web.
Kaphahn, D. (2009). Understanding Intellectual Property Rights in Egypt. GAT Pp 1-2.
Porter, L. (2011). Transportation in Canada. Web.
Zaki, A. F. (2005). Documentation for customs requirements – egypt. Pp1-2.
Zvulony, G. (2002). Intellectual Property in Canada. Web.
Global economy during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Term Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Specification of an Economic model
What benefits did the globalization affect?
At what costs did the globalization occur?
How did that affect the global economy today?
Globalization is the integration of regional economies through trade by reduction of international trade barriers in order to increase material wealth of the people and improve the economies of the nations through good global relations, competition and specialization. The objective of globalization is to enhance the interdependence, business operations and connectivity on an international level with respect to the socioeconomic, cultural, religion, biological, environmental and scientific aspects (Fiss,
Potential Investment in Georgia Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Georgia’s economy is emerging from the 2008 internal displacements and is currently being supported by the international community to improve its economy, thus, providing potential investment opportunities to investors. This document discusses investment opportunities in the tourism and agricultural sector in Georgia.
Introduction Agriculture plays a significant role in Georgia’s economy, and according to FAO, Georgia and the Ministry of Agriculture, Georgia, the agriculture sector’s contribution to Georgia’s economy was 12.5% in average 2006-2009 (FAO Georgia 4). On average, the agricultural sector’s contribution to the country’s foreign exchange earnings between 2006 and 2010 was 21% (FAO Georgia 4). Georgia’s tourism sector has also been on the rise recording a 16% increase in 2009 (Georgian National Investment Agency 1).
Agriculture The government acknowledges the importance of agriculture in ensuring food safety and poverty reduction and therefore is investing massive resources and engages in partnerships to promote agriculture in the country. The future of Georgia’s agricultural sector is positive given the country’s lots of fertile soils, subtropical climate, diverse agricultural species (National Investment Agency 2), and support from the international community such as the European Union.
There are several investment opportunities in Georgia’s agricultural sector. Animal production presents a great opportunity for investment in the country. FAO (24) notes that the total meat, milk as well as egg production have declined as compared to the levels recorded in 2009.
In contrast, a new slaughterhouse, IberMeat Geogia, was established in the country in 2010 (FAO Georgia 9). Besides, meat processing enterprises have been established in Kakheti, Gurjaanitwon and in Telavillage funded by the Millenium Challenge Georgia Fund (FAO Georgia 9). These present an opportunity for investing in beef cattle. Again, dairy cattle have been on the decline opening an opportunity for investment in dairy production.
Georgia has also become a member of the Wine World Trade Group opening opportunities for investment in production of vine and wine manufacturing to be exported without additional barriers to the US, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Argentina (FAO 9). Besides, many agricultural manufacturing plants have been opened or revived to open up associated agricultural activities in the country. These include Sugar plant in Agara, New Nuts Works in Zugdidi and Geoplant tea production in Guria and Samagrelo (FAO 10).
Again, export opportunities for Georgian persimmons, bay oil, and lemonade have been on the rise. Lemonade is currently exported to 14 countries, while persimmons is exported to Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus and Moldova (FAO 12). Georgian Bay Oil is in high demand in Australia (FAO 12). These present investment opportunities in production of bay, lemonade and persimmons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tourism Georgian National Investment Agency (1) reports that there is an increasing interest in the number international tourists who are seeking to experience Georgia’s unspoiled nature as well as quality service. The country has numerous tourism opportunities which include high snow-capped mountains in the Caucasus range, Black Sea’ sub-tropical lushness, hot thermal waters, and nine climate zones which matches the desires of diverse tourists who travel to the countries among other opportunities.
Georgia had more than 1.5 million visitors in 2009, “an increase of 16% compared to 2008” (Georgian National Investment Agency 1), and the number continues to increase. Georgia is ranked as “the most competitive tourism destination country” by the World Economic Forum (Georgian National Investment Agency 1).
Georgian National Investment Agency (1) reports that Georgia’s hotels are becoming crowded and therefore more hotels are needed to accommodate tourists who visit the country. In May this year, a US-based research company, STR global, reported that high-end hotels in Tbilisi “reached 100% occupancy” (Georgian National Investment Agency 1). This presents a great opportunity for investment in Georgia’s tourism infrastructure especially hotels.
Conclusion The agricultural and tourism sector in Georgia provides numerous potential investment opportunities. These two sectors receive the greatest government support which makes them more suitable for investment.
Works Cited FAO, Georgia. Georgia. Agricultural Sector Bulletin Winter 2011. Web.
Georgian National Investment Agency. Hotel occupancy reaches 100% in Tbilisi. Invest Today 4 (June 2011). Web.
National Investment Agency. Panel Discussion
Library Information System Improvement Report (Assessment) essay help online free
Table of Contents Executive Overview
Analysis of the current system
Needs of the new system
Proposed configuration and specifications
Justification for new system
Installation / Implementation Plan
Executive Overview The current situation in business across the globe indicates a major relationship between performance and communication. In this regard it has been observed that to improve business performance there is a major need to improve communication and access to services. The current information system within the institution library is computerized but falls short of requirements of students and staff due to delays in upgrading the service. The current service is supported by a database stored on the library server.
This database is used to locate, book and keep records related to the books in the inventory. However, the system can only be accessed at one point, which is making it especially difficult for students and staff of campus to access books. In addition to that, the books are only in one format which limits the number of users who can access the books.
It has been suggested that if changes were made to allow additional formats of books to be stored on the system, and an increase in access to the library system major both staff and students can benefit significantly from the resources provided by the system. It is for these reasons that this proposal will provide a suitable alternative to the current library system.
Analysis of the current system As it has already been mentioned earlier in the report this proposal seeks to improve the current system in use within the library. The current system used in the library is computer based and serves both students and staff within the library. The system allows information to be stored on various database relations and uses this information to manage the borrowing of books and resources from the library. The records pertaining to students and staff are entered into the system by accessing the main registration database.
When new books arrive they are scanned and entered into the system. The system is also used to identify appropriate rows within the library to arrange the books. When a student/staff comes to the library they can either locate the books on the shelves using the information on the bulletin board or ask the library assistant to help them locate the books. Once they have the books they go to the counter where a library assistant uses their identity card to enter the details of the transaction into the system.
Upon return of the book or other resource to the library the student/staff must visit the library assistant’s counter. The library assistant will use the student/staff identity to enter the completion of the transaction into the system. The system has a mechanism to print out a list of books that are overdue. However, this list is not very useful as the existing system does not allow the library department to communicate with the borrower.
The current system also has a mechanism that is used to calculate fines and penalties for lateness after the due dates have passed. This facility allows the library assistant calculate what payments should be made by students/staff who have over stayed with books or other resources. However, it has again been noted that this facility does not serve the student/staff well as it does not allow for communication between the library and the student/staff in question.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has also been noted that the need to make a physical visit to the library to borrow a book is not very favorable for students and staff who reside off campus. The current system does not allow the users to query the database to find out if the resource they require is available.
As a result of this it has been observed that students and staff off campus are forced to make trips to the library sometimes while unsure if the books they need are available. Based on the above shortcomings it has been observed that the institution could greatly benefit from improvements to its existing library system.
Needs of the new system Information technology has been defined as the use of a combination of hardware, software and services for the management, communication and sharing of information (Shelly
Importance of an EU Regional Policy Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Arguments for EU regional Policy
Introduction The European Union was created with the aim of contributing economic growth and development of European countries through establishing a common currency and a single market. According to economics, breaking down existing barriers will cause the escalation of positive economic effects through efficiency and redirection of resources to cost-effective investments.
However, equal distribution of profits among the members in freely competing markets is not possible. Newly entering member states having different conditions received different end results from the integration. This uneven distribution within the integration may be hindered by cohesion thus a need for regional policy.
The European Union regional policy covers all European regions and consists of three objectives: employment and regional competitiveness, convergence as well as territorial cooperation (Cini, 2003). The regional policy environment has however become very complex and regional policy makers at the national and EU levels are facing the key challenge of globalization.
The increasing internalization of economy, the removal of trade barriers within the EU, technological change and the shift towards knowledge-based economy has been actively restructuring the competitive advantage of regions and countries (Boldrin
Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Learning and applying the English Language Arts content
Preparing for the New York State English Language Arts test
Introduction Fourth grade is the fourth year of school for students after kindergarten. Students in this grade have ages of between nine and ten years. Teachers must use effective educational strategies and instructional methods in teaching English Language Arts.
This discussion explores the strategies and methods of instruction that the teachers can use in order to ensure comprehension and application of the content by fourth grade students. The strategies used should also ensure that the students perform well in the New York State English Language Arts test. The teachers should also use teaching strategies that ensure that the New York English Learning Standards for fourth grade are met.
Learning and applying the English Language Arts content English Language Arts is supposed to polish the reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills of students. At each grade, there are certain expectations that students should meet in their mastery of the English language. At fourth grade, students have already learnt reading, writing, listening and speaking skills from earlier grades.
They use these skills to comprehend more complex texts. In order to sufficiently master English Language Arts in this grade, the students need to be exposed to opportunities that will enable them to have active involvement in reading, research, speaking, and thinking about relevant topics in their grade.
Fourth grade teachers should incorporate games and interesting activities in their lessons in order to capture the attention of the students and to engage them in learning activities. Various vocabulary and reading activities and games can help the students to grasp facts in a fun way (Moore and Moore 2004).
At fourth grade, students are supposed to improve their reading skills. At this stage, students are exposed to different kinds of literature, plays, poetry, speeches, drama, fables, folktales, short stories, myths, legends, and autobiographies, among others. The students can read these texts on their own without the teacher’s intervention. They use these literary texts to observe the use of words by authors to bring out a particular meaning, text structures, and the use of graphics to explain the text.
They read these texts and draw conclusions. They also learn to differentiate different authors’ points of view. Moreover, they learn about various figurative features used in writing hyperbole, personification, metaphors, among others. They also use these literary texts to understand the concepts of themes, character traits, and conflicts in the text. Teachers should enhance their students understanding of these texts by asking them to respond through dramatizing or paraphrasing them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While reading, fourth grade students enhance their understanding of difficult and ambiguous text through strategies like self-questioning methods.
The teachers should engage their fourth grade students in literature response activities that are challenging, for instance, asking them to relate with the characters or asking them what they think the outcome of the story would have been if something was done differently. This encourages the students to think critically about the texts and therefore, enhance their comprehension (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
Teachers also enhance their fourth grade students’ skills by exposing them to informational texts such as magazines, textbooks, tables, charts, recipes, maps, advertisements, and photographs, among others. The students are taught how to interpret this information and make conclusions.
They learn how to use features such as captions, print styles, chapter headings and subheadings appropriately in their writing. Fourth grade students also learn the use of structures like appendices, table of contents, index and glossary in their writing. Moreover, they learn how to construe graphic features like charts and tables. Students also learn to examine texts in order to get facts, opinions, and relationships. They can respond to these texts through writing and creative dramatization (Perullo 2003).
Students in fourth grade also learn how to build their vocabulary and analyze words in order to be able to read fluently. These students need strategies to develop vocabulary and be able to analyze and understand texts as the complexity of their texts increases. Students start to apply the complex vocabulary that they learn in their reading to their writing and speaking. They learn the meanings of complex words and words with more than one meaning.
The teachers should use strategies to enable the students to learn the use of euphemisms, affixes and roots and be able to apply them in their work. The students also learn what it means to connote and denote in text. Teachers can enhance their students’ reading skills through asking them to read texts and narratives aloud in class while checking for proper accuracy, fluency, pacing, and expression.
This will make sure that the students are actively engaged in learning and enable the teacher to identify the weak points in the students’ grammar. Correcting the students will make sure that they do not repeat the same mistakes again and therefore their grammar will be improved (Moore and Moore 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vocabulary building can be improved through creative ways like putting new words in word walls, vocabulary journals, and other devices in the classroom. Another strategy that teachers can use to build their students vocabulary is to use complex words as they teach and encourage the students to use those words in their writing and speech. In addition, teachers can encourage the students to read a wide variety of books because they are likely to encounter more new words.
Students should also practice reading various fourth grade level texts on their own in order to broaden their vocabulary. The more they read, the more they will come across many new words and when they try to find out their meanings, their vocabulary will be broadened (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
The students in fourth grade also hone their writing skills in preparation for the English Language Arts test through various strategies. They need to develop writing which is well organized, clearly focused, well elaborated and with the proper application of conventions. The students continue to polish their writing skills through writing, revising and editing texts. They learn how to develop content, use conventions and organize their writing.
Teachers should ensure that the students practice writing every day so as to sufficiently sharpen their writing skills. Enough practice will enhance their mastery of the English language and thus, they will be well prepared for the English language Arts test. The students improve their grammar by identifying and using verbs, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions in their writing.
They also practice the correct usage of commas, parenthesis, apostrophes, italics, quotation marks, capitalization, and underlining in their writing. Teachers should engage fourth grade students in activities like brainstorming and using literary models and graphic organizers to organize their ideas before they start writing. They should also practice writing proper paragraphs by stating the main idea and providing details to support it (Moore and Moore 2004)
Fourth grade students also learn how to develop focused writing using different words to ensure clarity. They incorporate various transitional features in their writing like conjunctions in order to maintain the flow of their ideas. They also learn to use revision strategies to edit and proofread their work to ensure clarity and eliminate any mistakes. They proof read to ensure the proper usage of commas, punctuations, capitalization, and spelling, among others.
Teachers should train the students to use technology to develop their documents. They should show a mastery of the English language by writing compositions that are comprehensible and free from mistakes. Teachers can help sharpen the writing skills of their students by giving them assignments to write compositions describing certain experiences, events or objects.
The teacher should then mark the compositions and include corrections to the mistakes made so that the student can learn from them and write better next time. Writing skills can also be improved through strategies such as writing conferences, shared writing and peer response and writing. In shared writing the students and the teacher contribute their ideas and thoughts during the writing process to compose a text. In peer response and editing, students evaluate each other’s written work and give response and feedback.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This enables the students to learn from each other. The teacher is also able to gauge whether his/her students can identify writing mistakes made by the others and therefore determine their level of mastery of the English language (Perullo 2003).
In this grade, the students also learn how to write for different audiences and purposes. The teachers should teach them how to develop communications like blogs, emails, and flyers, among others. They also need to develop skills for reflective and descriptive types of writing.
Fourth grade students also need to learn how to create writings like narratives, biographies, songs, plays, poems, reports, among others. Students can improve their skills in writing different types of sentences through interesting activities and games that enable them to identify and differentiate between interrogative, imperative, declarative and exclamatory sentences. Games and activities can also be used to teach transitions to the students in order to improve their essay writing skills (Flood 2003).
Speaking and listening skills are also polished in fourth grade. Students learn to verbally communicate with different people through engagement in conversations with their fellow students and teachers. Their speech should have appropriate pitch, phrasing and accent. They learn how to engage in effective group interactions by speaking one person at a time instead of every one speaking at the same time. They should also learn the appropriate manner of speaking to different audiences.
Having proper verbal skills enables the students to participate effectively in group discussions. This enables them to learn new ideas from others. The students with good speaking skills are also able to participate in class by asking well-formulated questions and responding appropriately to questions asked. They are also able to seek others’ opinions about various issues and give their own opinion with reasons to support it.
The students are also able to respond to questions asked by the teacher and give proper clarifications and illustrations when asked to do so. They should be able to explain points in class while using examples, details, and proper accent, gestures and phrasing to enhance the clarity of the message. In addition, they should have proper presentation skills in order to be able to introduce a concept, explain it and conclude appropriately.
Teachers can improve their’ students speaking skills through giving them assignments that require them to do oral presentations and recitations in class. This will enhance their speaking skills as well as build their confidence. The students can also hold dialogues or debates on controversial issues. This will ensure that the students air their opinions and support them.
During the presentations, the teacher should ensure that the students are able to articulate the ideas about a certain experience or event and be able to catch the attention of the listeners. Having proper speaking skills enables the students to express themselves and share ideas with others, which is essential for successful learning (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
Fourth grade students also learn how to access and use information for different purposes. They learn to access information from other sources like books, newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, atlases, thesauruses, encyclopedias and other materials. They paraphrase the information gathered from these sources and use it in their writing. They also learn to support the ideas in their writing through the use of charts, pictures, or diagrams.
Moreover, they learn strategies for organizing their information such as categorization and classification. The students learn information gathering skills like using the internet to search for information and interviewing skills. They are able to correctly reference their work by listing the sources of their information.
At this grade students should be taught how to write from other sources of information by paraphrasing and providing references in order to distinguish between their ideas and those from other sources. They learn how to use other sources and technology to seek information (Flood 2003).
Preparing for the New York State English Language Arts test The English Language Arts test is done every year by students in fourth grade in New York. The purpose of this test is to determine how well the students have mastered the New York State Learning Standards of English and Language Arts at fourth grade.
The test also reviews the class level of the students and establishes whether it meets the standards of the No Child Left behind Act. This test consists of short fiction and non-fiction stories from which multiple-choice questions are derived. The students’ mastery of grammar, spelling, punctuation and reading comprehension are tested (Flood 2003).
There are four New York State English learning standards. In standard one, the students write, read, listen and speak in order to acquire, understand and transmit information, while in standard two they learn in order to be able to express themselves and respond to literary texts. In standard three, students read, write, listen and speak in order to be able to analyze and evaluate information, ideas and information critically. In standard for, the students learn in order to be able to interact effectively with different people (Whiting 2003).
In order for fourth grade students to meet the New York State English Learning Standards on the English Language Arts test and perform well, the teachers need to use several educational strategies and instructional methods. To effectively prepare students for this test, the teachers need to ensure that they read frequently to enhance their skills in fluency and reading comprehension. Teachers should provide entertaining books to the students to practice with.
The teachers can also give sample practice tests to the students in preparation for the English Language Arts test. These sample tests can be acquired from the New York State Department of Education. Doing sample tests enables the student to get an idea on the type of questions that will be asked and will therefore feel comfortable and well prepared for the test.
The teacher can also guide the students to explore websites that offer a variety of educational activities, games, worksheets, homework, reading help and puzzles to enhance the students’ mastery of the English language Arts in a fun way. This helps to catch their attention and also enhance their understanding. The students can also visit learning centers and libraries for additional knowledge on English Language Arts (Perullo 2003).
In order to efficiently prepare for the English Language Arts test, the students should polish their writing skills through thorough practice on correct spelling of words, correct use of punctuation marks and proper use of grammar. Writing activities and games can help the students to improve their writing skills in preparation for the test. Students should practice writing compositions on different events and experiences in order to have excellent writing skills by the time they sit for the English Language Arts test (Whiting 2003).
Text comprehension is important for the students to perform well in the English Language Arts test. Therefore, the students need to use various strategies in order to enhance their comprehension of texts. They should practice comparing and combining information from different sources.
As they read texts, they should use strategies like questioning, summarizing, supporting or disagreeing with the author’s opinion and clarifying ambiguities for further understanding of the text that they are reading or listening to. They should also practice rereading, cross-checking, and confirming to check their progress in comprehension of the text.
The students should also read various texts as they try to understand the deeper meaning and try to distinguish between the different techniques of writing used in various information sources. Teachers should ensure that the students are grasping the English language arts by administering tests that evaluate their mastery of various concepts.
They should test their vocabularies, administer comparison tests and excerpt questions to measure their reading comprehension, grammar, among others. Through these tests, the teacher will be able to find out the areas in which the students are experiencing difficulties, and therefore spend more time teaching them (Flood 2003).
In order to enhance their literary response and analysis, teachers should ensure that the students practice reading fourth grade level literature and answer questions that are derived from it. They should respond to the literary text through dramatizing, writing and oral presentations. They should try to understand the author’s purpose for writing the text and the main message being transmitted. After reading the text, the students should have a personal point of view and use evidence to support it (Moore and Moore 2004)
Other strategies that teachers can use to ensure that their fourth grade students are well prepared for the English Language Arts test include using flash cards, question exchange and mock testing.
Flash cards can be used to broaden the vocabulary mastery. Vocabularies relevant to fourth grade level students are written on the cards together with their definitions and students will engage in a group activity of trying to tell the meanings of the words. This activity will keep the students actively engaged and will enable them to retain the vocabularies learnt in their memory (Whiting 2003).
Question exchange strategy is important in helping the students to understand the test questions. In this strategy, the students and the teacher will go through sample tests questions and learn how to interpret them correctly by paying attention to sentence structure, formatting and punctuation.
They should practice altering the questions to derive a different meaning and then try answering it. This exercise will enable the students to learn how to correctly interpret questions so that they can give the required answers. Failure to pay attention to the structure of the question might lead to misinterpretation and therefore giving the wrong answer (Whiting 2003).
The teachers should also use a mock testing strategy. This will ensure that the students get to understand the nature of the English language arts test and what is required of them to score good marks. The teacher should administer a mock test and mark it. Then he/she should review it with the students. This enables the students to gain confidence and get acquainted with the English Language Arts test setting (Whiting 2003).
In preparation for the English Language Arts test, fourth grade students should be taught lessons to help them identify suffixes and prefixes and learn the correct word meanings. Their vocabulary lessons should include antonyms, synonyms and homonyms. They should also be taught literature-based topics to broaden their vocabulary.
They also need to learn different nouns. Various games and activities can be incorporated in lesson plans to enable the students to learn in an enjoyable and engaging environment. For instance, activities in which a teacher reads out a text and asks the students to write a list of nouns that they hear. The student who writes the longest list of nouns wins. This enables the students to grasp concepts more easily and remember them during the test (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
For students to be fluent readers they need to be able to automatically recognize words, read with expression, break up the sentence into meaningful parts, change the emphasis and tone where required and incorporate pauses at the middle and end of sentences.
To ensure the students master fluency, teachers should engage them in activities that expose them to words, letters and letter combinations. These activities and games, such as tracing, writing and copying words should help them form a connection between auditory and visual representations (Whiting 2003).
Conclusion The English language Arts test is very important for fourth graders and therefore, they should be well prepared for it. This test evaluates the mastery of the English language at this level.
Teachers should therefore use appropriate strategies and methods of instruction in teaching this course in order to ensure that the fourth graders understand the content and are able to apply it in their English Language Arts test. Several teaching strategies and instructional methods such as incorporating games and fun activities in the lesson plan can go along way in catching the attention of the students as well as enhancing their comprehension of the content.
Reference List Eggen, P., and Kauchak, D. (2008). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms. 8th ed. USA: Prentice Hall
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. 2nd ed. USA: Routledge.
Moore, R. and Moore, M.A. (2004). Active Teaching and Learning Strategies: Creating a Blueprint for Success. UK: Trafford Publishing.
Perullo, D. (2003). Roadmap to 4th Grade English Language Arts, New York Edition. New York: The Princeton Review.
Whiting, D.S. (2003). Let’s Prepare for the New York State Grade 4 English Language Arts. USA: Barron’s Educational Series.
Childhood Schizophrenia: Causes and Management of this Mental Disorder Research Paper college essay help
Introduction Background Information
Judd (2009) tells the story of a seven-year-old girl named Jani Schofield. When producers of Oprah Winfrey show lived with Jani’s family for one week, they realized just how hard the parents were struggling to bring her up together with her younger brother Bodhi. The parents told the producers how their daughter slips into ‘psychotic moments’ as a result of apparently harmless triggers such as calling her by her full name ‘January’.
During such moments, the girl will instantly change from a sweet little angel to a shrieking and violent little girl. Michael and Susan Schofield narrate to the producers how they were forced to separate their two children to reduce the likelihood of the girl injuring the little boy during such moments. The children will spend the days together, but during the night, they will be boarded into different apartments each accompanied by one parent.
Jani’s life is unlike that of any other seven-year-old girl. The parents narrate to the producers how their little daughter experiences many hallucinations and how she hears strange voices in her head. At times she will stare at one spot for a long time claiming to see things that are not visible to other people around her.
Jani Schofield suffers from childhood schizophrenia. She is among the less than 1 in 30000 children under the age of eleven years who are diagnosed with the condition in the United States of America every year (Bender, 2010).
The symptoms of this condition are not unlike those among adults suffering from the same condition. According to Maatai et al. (2011), approximately 1 percent of Americans suffer from this condition. They report hallucinations accompanied by irrational thoughts and at times, violent behavior like that reported in Jani above.
Seese et al. (2010) define schizophrenia as a form of a mental disorder that is accompanied by breaking down of thought processes in the individual as well as other emotional disorders such as violence, extreme fear or withdrawal. Many patients suffering from this condition report incidences of auditory and visual hallucinations.
Their speech and thinking processes are also disintegrated as indicated above. The patient also suffers from social and occupational dysfunctions as a result of their condition (Seese et al., 2010). This means that their social and occupational life is impaired as a result of the effects of the mental condition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maatai et al. (2011) are of the view that most of the symptoms associated with schizophrenia appear during young adulthood. This is from the age of 12 and in some instances, even before. According to Bender (2010), about 0.3 to 0.7 percent of the world population suffers from schizophrenia. The condition can be diagnosed from behavioral observations made on the individual as well as from the experiences that are reported by the patient.
The exact cause of this mental disorder is not well known. However, experts in this field are of the view that a combination of several factors may be the possible cause of the condition. This includes factors such as genetics, the social and psychological environment within which the individual is brought up as well as some other factors touching on the patient’s lifestyle such as abuse of drugs among others (Hardman, Drew
Manipulation and Deception in Language Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Propaganda is frequently used by politicians and in the media to influence our attitudes and perceptions on key issues (Orwell1). Propaganda is commonly used to temporarily distract our attention from the real issues at hand (Kemerling 8). For example, Joseph Goebbels (a former Germany minister for propaganda in the Nazi regime) once stated that it would have been impossible to use propaganda against the masses if they knew how to differentiate between rational arguments from propaganda.
This in effect means that politicians usually employ propaganda against an unsuspecting audience. People are easily swayed because they are unable to make out propaganda when they see it (Cross1). This paper will discuss deceptive strategies used to sway the perception and mindsets of the masses on critical issues.
Name-calling is one of the deceptions used by propagandist to sway our mindset about a particular issue or person without considering the significance of the person or the issue at hand. For instance, a politician vying for political office may describe his/her opponents as “two-faced liars” or “foolish idealists” (Cross 2). Politicians employ name-calling in order to prevent the targeted audience to think rationally but rather accept his/her propaganda categorically and blindly.
Glittering generalities is also a deceptive tactic used in language. Examples of glittering generalities include “our constitutional rights,” the American way” or “justice” (Cross 3). Many people are unaware of the adverse effects of glittering generalities on their way of thinking and end up agreeing to everything they hear. It is worthy to mention that glittering generalities are employed by politicians seeking elective positions in the government to provoke emotions of the masses and obscure their ways of thinking (Cross 3).
Another common manipulative strategy used in language is known as Plain Folk appeal. This strategy is also commonly used by people seeking elective posts in order to gain political mileage from the masses. Politicians use this strategy when they depict themselves as ordinary plain folks.
For instance, a politician soliciting votes from industrial workers may visit a factory and move around shaking hands with employees. The plain folks appeal is obviously a deceptive strategy. Although the politician may claim to be just an ordinary folk, he/she may not be interested in addressing the various problems facing the electorate once he/she is elected (Cross 4).
Argumentum ad populum is also another manipulative strategy used in language. It is a common strategy used by politicians as well as in media adverts. Politicians usually employ Argumentum populum when they dwell on issues that appeal to the targeted population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a politician may tell university or college students that the future of the country is in their hands or tell cultivators that they constitute “the backbone of the economy” (Cross 5). The main intention here is to sway the targeted group from making critical analyses about the politician and what he/she stands for. The wellbeing of the masses is thus an irrelevant issue in this context (Cross 5).
Many companies also employ manipulative and deceptive language to advertise their products. The main reason for doing so is promote their products as the best in the market. For example, the phrase better is commonly used to demonstrate that a particular product (e.g. mango juice) is superior over other rival products that fall in the same category.
For example, a company may claim that its mango juice products are “the better breakfast drinks” (Schrank 5). There are several other deceptive and manipulative strategies used by companies in the media to market their products.
The Wiesel Claim is one such example (Harris 2). The phrase weasel is a modifier that basically contradicts the consequent claim. Examples of weasel phrases that are commonly used in adverts include “strengthened,” “enriched,” “virtually,” or “fortified” (Schrank 8).
These phrases are used to create an impression of supremacy of the product. Examples of weasel claims include “leaves dishes virtually spotless,” “only half the price of many color set.” These claims are used to convince buyers that the products are superior and cheaper than other sets in the same category (Schrank 8).
Another commonly used deception is known as The Unfinished Claim. It is a common marketing strategy that asserts the superiority of a particular product. However, it does not complete the comparison. An example of unfinished claim include “Anacin: Twice as much of the pain reliever doctors recommend most” (Schrank 9).
One can observe that this particular assertion suits in several product categories. Nonetheless the ad is incomplete because it does not make a comparison of Anacin with any other similar product in its category (Schrank 9). An unsuspecting buyer may be lured by this claim to buy the product believing that it is the best in the market.
We will write a custom Essay on Manipulation and Deception in Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In certain types of writing (especially literary criticism) it is not unusual to find a number of sentences that employ deceptive phrases. For example, the phrase “Fascism” has lost its original connotation and it is currently used to refer to anything that is undesirable. Other expressions such as democracy, justice, socialism and freedom bear different connotations which cannot be synchronized.
For example, the word “democracy” is now used to refer to good governance. This word may thus be used (in a deceptive way) by a repressive regime to sway the mindset of the masses from the crucial issues at hand (Orwell12).
Works Cited Cross, D. Woolfolk. “Tricks of the Propagandist.” Nov 10, 2000. Web.
Harris, Robert. “Fallacies associated with Language.” Jun 8, 2000. Web.
Kemerling, Garth. “Fallacies of Ambiguity.” Nov 12, 2011. Web.
Orwell, George. “Politics and the English Language.” 1946. Web.
Schrank, Jeffrey. “The Language of Advertising Claims.” N.d. Web.
David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
After bagging around hundred additional seats in the General elections in May 2010, the Conservative Party came into power together with the Liberal Democrats in Britain and David Cameron became the Prime Minister leading the Conservative/Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (David Cameron, n.d.).
The aim of this coalition government was to form a sturdy and progressive government whose sole objective would be to give preference to the common good and national interest. The values of freedom, fairness and responsibility are the key inspirational factors of this government (David Cameron, n.d.).
Modernisation of his party has always been the prime concern of David Cameron. He was first elected Leader of the Conservative Party in Dec.2005 and ever since he has been giving emphasis to issues like, NHS reforms, adopting environment friendly measures, encouragement to social actions and social justice as Leader of the Opposition. The number of women and tribal minority candidates for the Conservative Party raised significantly during this period (Prime Minister David Cameron’s Biography, 2011).
David Cameron always believed that the society comes first and the politicians are there to work for the people and not to rule them. As the Prime Minister also he has always given importance to social responsibility.
In the first 18 months of his leadership the government has acted in accordance to its mandate by presenting a picture of the Big Society by assuring more power to the common man. Moreover, Britain’s deficit, educational reform policies, health and welfare are some of the other powerful actions taken in the initial few months of David Cameron led coalition government (David Cameron, n.d. ).
Despite the fact that Cameron has a great personality and his performance in the Commons has always been that of a confident leader, his political accomplishments raise a serious question on his role towards the office. Cameron’s focus is observed mainly in keeping the coalition unabated (Many Miles to go, 2011).
He might celebrate some success on the issues like an improved credit rating, success in the half –war in Libya and leading a strong coalition between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats but he seems to act sluggishly in fulfilling the two big promises that he made before last year’s general elections i.e. to combat Britain’s deficit and to provide a makeover to the state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though, measures have been taken and bold and clear strategies have been outlined to reduce Britain’s huge deficit by George Osborne, the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The process has just initiated and has saved British sovereign from losing faith in the markets but the progress is unexpectedly slow and unemployment is higher. Mr. Osborne is too stubborn to make alteration in his blueprint as it would indicate government’s incompetence to fight the crises. It would not be wise also with the deficit equal to 9.3%of GDP in 2010-11 (Many Miles to go, 2011).
David Cameron admitted that the government has to hasten with its deficit reduction plans as it was proving “harder than anyone envisaged” while speaking to business leaders at the CBI conference in London (David Cameron: deficit harder to clear than first thought, 2011).
The second promise of redesigning the state is also experiencing problems. It is evident that at a time of hardship announcing public services is quite challenging. Reformation demands lubrication for a smooth progress. But here, the progress is hindered more by the political incompetence and weakness of the government rather than the scarcity of funds (Many Miles to go, 2011).
The coalition government led by Mr. Cameron had initiated a radical reform agenda last year. The state-funded free schools and abundance of independent academies are some of the successful programs. More private providers are assured extended funds on the basis of payment –by—results in the cases like the treatment of drug addicts. Tackling the biased inducement in the universal welfare system is also a major concern of the government (Many Miles to go, 2011).
But there has only been partial success in these arenas. The implementation of these programs is not flawless. The government has not been very strict in taking action against the profit making schools. Rich pensioners are still enjoying the benefits and refurbishment of the broader welfare is going to be complicated and expensive.
The new commissioning structure has left the health reform programs in a disastrous state. Lifting the limit on the university tuition fee left the exchequer with a huge liability. Moreover, the ineffective idea of the “Big Society” wasted much of government’s time and fund. David Cameron’s policy of the rehabilitation program for the criminals also had to face much criticism by the tabloids.
We will write a custom Essay on David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these setbacks are Tories’ own doings so they cannot deceive themselves by holding the Liberal Democrats responsible for it. In spite of all this it is commendable that the people holding top positions in both the coalition parties are likeminded in redesigning the state to make it more accountable and pluralistic (Many Miles to go, 2011).
David Cameron’s successful venture in Libya is praiseworthy and his tactics in used in the Libya victory has convinced many of the disbelievers. His caliber and competence in tackling the riots has also proved him a proficient leader. Rick Nye of pollsters Populous says, “You have seen the hacking, the riots, and Libya, but they are not really game-changers when it comes to their fundamental assessment” (Underhill, 2011).
Recently, Prime Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg announced a £400 million fund for the house building sector. The idea is to support the construction industry and fulfill the desire of many people of having their own home. Besides this, development would be done on more public land funds are reserved for renovating the old and empty houses to bring them back into use. Thus, upto 16,000 homes will have a new start in construction and 3,200 would be reasonable properties.
Officials believe that it will also endorse around 32,000s job. Before this a £500 million Growing Places Fund was also announced by the coalition government. Though Labors consider this move as” small beer” and the government should put in more efforts to uplift the sinking economy which can fight the “perfect storm” in housing ever since the Second World War.
The Prime Minister and Mr Clegg said “With this strategy, we will unlock the housing market, get Britain building again, and give many more people the satisfaction and security that comes from stepping over their own threshold. These plans are ambitious – but we are determined to deliver on them.”
This move has been welcomed by Shadow chancellor Ed Balls. He stated that it is necessary for the government to recognize that the deficit cannot be reduced without getting growth and jobs in our economy and “so I think it probably does show that at last the Government is starting to shift.”
David Orr, chief executive of the National Housing Federation, also praised the Government for trying to deal with the issues. But he added that it is important to show boldness and strength in setting up the wrecked housing market (Government to underwrite mortgages fro first time buyers, 2011).
Another weakness of the coalition government lies in the handling of the health care reforms. Considerable opposition is being experienced by the coalition government over the policies regarding health care reforms. It was necessary to keep on finding ways to benefit the people by providing authentic healthcare and proving that NHS is safe in the hands of the Tories.
Not sure if you can write a paper on David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently some changes were made to the legislation and amidst criticism from some Liberal Democrats along with the Labor the health bill cleared its Commons stages in September. It might face further criticism in the House of Lords (David Cameron’s NHS ‘support’ claim disputed by staff, 2011).
This plan makes the GPs and other clinicians more accountable regarding the use of the budget in England and promotes competition with the private sector. This has proved to be the most controversial and revolutionary plan in the history of health service (Lords debating NHS shape up bill, 2011).
It is important for Mr. Cameron to realize that his competency would be judged in handling problems tactfully at the domestic front or else the coalition government is going to be in much trouble.He will have to go further in evaluating the problems of budget deficit, flooding immigration, dealing with the issues like collapsing eurozone and the police force not functioning properly (Harris, 2011).
The party leader of the Conservatives is expected to be very responsible and competent owning the party traits like sharp sense, self–discipline, attentive attitude making him more powerful. David Cameron can prove to be a virtuous Prime Minister as he is intellectual, sophisticated and full of energy.
But it is important for Mr Cameron to understand that the Conservatives have showered trust on those leaders only who have shown respect for the party as he seems to be more comfortable with the ideas of the metropolitan liberal elite in spite of having a typically Tory background (Harris, 2011).
It is true that he is a good prime minister and dealing with the current scenario with great courage and confidence. He has worked very hard in the first year for repositioning his Party ideologically. The reduction of some sensitive issues like immigration, Europe, and single parenting he has portrayed Conservatives as an understanding and comprehensive Party.
Issues like work- life-balance, helping the socially dispossessed, promoting environmental friendly measures to deal with the growing climate changes and global warming have been major concerns of the government. Cameron has also given much importance to the betterment of public sector.
Cameron and government his coalition government may be happy with the point they have reached but many of his colleagues seem to be unconvinced and proclaim that he has a long way to go to reach the zenith of his political career (Dorey, 2007).
So, Mr. Cameron needs to put forth all his strength and competency in making this government trustworthy and to prove himself as a leader of an extraordinary and daring administration (Many miles to go, 2011).
Works Cited “David Cameron”. n.d. Conservatives. Web.
“David Cameron: deficit harder to clear than first thought”. 2011. The Telegraph. Web.
“David Cameron’s NHS support claim disputed by staff”. 2011. BBC. Web.
Dorey, P. “A New Direction or Another False Dawn? David Cameron and the Crisis of British Conservatism. 2007”. British Politics (2007) 2, 137–166. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bp.4200051
“Government to underwrite mortgages fro first-time buyers”.2011. Yorkshirepost. Web.
Harris. R. “Dave is intelligent and polished- but he doesn’t understand the Tory party”. 2011. Mailonline. Web.
“Lords debating NHS shake-up bill”. 2011. BBC. Web.
“Many miles to go”. 2011. The Economist. Web.
“Prime Minister David Cameron’s biography”. 2011. 10. Web.
Underhill, W. “David Cameron’s Holiday Boost”. 2011. The daily beast. Web.
Higher Education Funding Essay writing essay help
Developed countries owe their success to higher education, and thus third world countries must emulate this concept to advance themselves. Third world countries have poor education systems that further complicate higher education. Most universities do not have their own income generating projects which leaves them at the mercy of international donors and federal governments (Akkari 34).
The governments put more emphasis on primary and secondary education while ignoring higher education. The governments direct majority of their money towards funding free primary and secondary education. They construct many secondary schools without considering the number of universities that are supposed to absorb those students.
There are few institutions of higher learning that are unevenly distributed in administrative regions. Some provinces do not have their own universities and thus students from such regions have to relocate when they are admitted into the learning institutions.
There have been many instances when the funds meant for higher education projects have been squandered, and since the governments in developing countries are not committed towards ending corruption the donors are discouraged from giving monetary hand outs (Baker and Wiseman 179).
Both teaching and non-teaching staffs are poorly paid and thus learning is regularly halted due to the strikes that are staged by these personnel in their bid to demand for better pay. The lecturers use outdated teaching models but then they are not blame because the governments are supposed to budget for their continuous training programs.
In addition, the learning institutions do not have enough money to construct more structures for the purpose of accommodating many students. In fact, most universities in third world countries have inadequate boarding facilities and the ones that are there are in a sorry state.
This is because they are hardly renovated. Inadequate resources cause the universities to limit the courses that can be studied in their facilities. For instance, only a few universities can offer training in the faculty of medicine and thus such students have to be congested in one or two institutions. This causes the learning institutions to adopt poor university admissions which eventually lead to overcrowded institutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The poor remuneration packages that are offered to the lecturers do not motivate them but instead causes them to be engaged in other private institutions that offer better pay (Chapman and Austin 174). This causes a negative impact on the quality of education because the learners cannot contact the educators. The other problem revolves around tuition fees, which tend to be constant. Most universities have tried to hike tuition fees, but contrary to their expectations, the learners have never collaborated.
Furthermore, the learning institutions do not manage their own revenue because they are placed under the ministry of education. The officials from the ministries are given the mandate of allocating budgets to the universities. Many intellectuals have criticized this approach because government ministers do not understand the priorities of universities. This constitutes to poor governance in public universities.
The problem involving funding of higher education can be remedied by allowing the university staff to draft their own budget because they know the areas that need more emphasis. Transparency with regard to handling of money should be enhanced through the installation of monitoring systems as well as watchdog committees, which would ensure that money is used for the intended purpose.
The universities should focus on being self reliant instead of depending on handouts from government agencies. This can be achieved by commissioning income-generating projects within and beyond the learning institutions’ compounds. This will ensure a steady supply of income.
Works Cited Akkari, Abdeljalil. “Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges.” International Educational Journal 5.2(2004): 34-36. Print.
Baker, David and Alexander Wiseman. The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education. Bingley, WA: Emerald Group Publishing, 2008. Print.
Chapman, David and Ann Austin. Higher Education in the Developing World: Changing Contexts and Institutional Responses. Massachusets: Greenwood Publishing, 2002. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Higher Education Funding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Apple Store Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The market structure of Apple store is oligopoly. In the market, the Apple store’s iPod represents a vertical monopoly. This is a situation where a particular company has the control of all the aspects of distribution, production and product sales. Although Apple store is not a company on its own, the iPod hold a dominant position in the market1. This paper therefore seeks to discuss the market structure where Apple store operates and why it is in that market.
What the economic theory says about the role of advertising in this particular market and the observation made on the data. The economic profits for the firm both in the short run and long run will also be discussed and whether the data supports the economic theory and how the profit stream can change over time (Zielenziger, 2011).
As stated in the above paragraph, Apple store operates in an oligopoly market structure. The company is also associated with a vertical monopoly market structure. The Apple store company sells its products in various markets across the globe. It does this through its retail outlets like its online store where the company has sold numerous products to consumers and other business enterprises2.
The Apple store has invested in programs that promote reseller sales including ASCP which focuses on certain reseller locations and APRP which provides expertise in products and customer service (Deffree, 2011). The Apple store company also sells some computer products to the agencies of the government and the creative markets falling within its geographical location. These markets are considered fundamental to the third party computer applications and hardware developers.
The better-quality extension and computing recital of the Apple store products turn up to be the major attraction of the consumers within the market location. In addition, the Apple store company provides computer products to the customers within the scientific market just as it does to the information technology markets (Apple Inc., 2011).
The economic theory says a lot in the role of advertising of the Apple store company. According to the economics theory of pricing and revenue, it is very logical that if the price of a product increases, the revenue should increase as a result. Due to the improvement of technology, the Apple store company has been able to produce high quality product which have quite a show of demand.
Even though, the prices of the new products such as the Iphone4 and the new Mac handbook are high, consumers seem to be quite interested in the product3. The hiked prices of the new products should therefore, bring an impact in revenue during a particular period. According to the company’s reports, the revenue has risen from $99.9 billion to $108 billion as at the year 2011 because of the adverts. It is now evident from the economic theory that the role of advertising is very significant in the revenue accruals (Deffree, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the economic theory, the role of advertising is sensitive to issues such as in the appreciation of how the customers predispose towards the effects resulting from adverts. Advertising makes an impact to the customers about the products, it creates awareness, evokes an immediate response from the customer, it communicates messages to the target market, it creates favorable reputation and impression about the product and reminds the customer of the features of the product that is offered4.
To economic theory, advertising is important in fulfilling the needs of the customers as far as information about the product is concerned, it consolidates position, encourages product trial, and changes perceptions about the mental repositioning and overcome prejudice. It also reinforces attitudes as well as enthuse the trade and the staff (Apple Inc., 2011).
Economic theory links advertising to the elasticity and inelasticity of demand of a product, the Apple store’s Iphone is easy to analyze. Elasticity in demand of product relies in the accessibility or availability of products that can substitute the basic commodity, income of the consumer which enables him to consume the good and time that a consumer may use to stop using a particular commodity5.
This is observed in the company’s data. It is evident that whenever the product availability to the customer increases, more sales are made and the company realizes more profits and hence positive escalations in the profit data (Zielenziger, 2011).
The economic profits of this company according to the company’s reports rose from $99.9 billion to $108 billion as at the year 2011. This is a positive margin which may have resulted from the opportunities and issues that face the Apple store company. The Apple store continues to expand globally although the universal shortage of expertise and skilled labor continues to affect its competitive edge.
However, the Apple store has the opportunity to exploit emerging markets such as Brazil and India besides utilizing cheap labor available in these economies6. The Apple store has grown to be a market leader in computer and electronic industry based on its humble background. Due to the fact that the Apple store has immense market globally, it has outdone stiff competition in the industry (Apple Inc., 2011).
Conclusion To sum up, the market structure of the Apple store is oligopoly. The paper has described the market structure of the company and stated the role of advertising from the view point of the economic theory as well as the economic profits of the firm as it appears in the short term and long term. It is also evident from the paper that the Apple store represents a vertical monopoly in the market; this is because of the sole control of all the aspects of distribution, production and product sales.
We will write a custom Essay on Apple Store specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the illustrations in the paper, it is clear that the company’s profit may change overtime if it considers government regulations and issues that might affect its future. This is clearly supported by the data on its annual report concerning its annual profits. In order to remain competitive and keep a positive profit margin, the Apple store should consider exploiting all the marketing opportunities resulting from the emerging economies (Zielenziger, 2011).
References Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air. Retrieved from: https://www.apple.com/
Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
Zielenziger, D. (2011). Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion. 18th october 2011. Washington : International business times. 11th november 2011.
Footnotes 1 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
2 Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
3 Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
4 Zielenziger, D. (2011). Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion. 18th october 2011. Washington : International business times. 11th november 2011.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Store by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 5 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
6 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
Krause Corporation’s Supply Management Case Study cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
To make or Buy
Introduction Management positions entail making of decisions most of which have great effects on the image of an organization. A mistake in decision making committed by one person turn out to be quite expensive to an organization as it may lead to organizational image tarnishing and customers losing trust in the organization. One of the areas that requires careful observation of details in regard to decision-making is outsourcing services to an external party in an attempt to reduce costs. In this paper, a case study on Krause Corporation is discussed.
To make or Buy In the case study, Steve was been instructed to find ways of cutting down the cost of the pipes which were required (Meyer, n.d.). One of the ways to cut down the costs was to opt for purchasing of the pipes required in contrast to making them.
He, however, knew too well that the quest for cost reduction was never to overrun the need to uphold quality. Quality was of top priority; cost reduction, actually, took the second priority. The need to ensure that the quality of pipes was guaranteed was therefore, the very first factor that was to be observed (Meyer, n.d.).
After carrying out a survey, Steve discovered a supplier who seemingly was in a position to meet the needs of Steve of supplying high-quality pipes at a price which was seemingly below the market price (Meyer, n.d.).
If Steve was to go for this option then it could be assumed that he would have achieved his objective of getting quality pipes at a reduced cost. However, with 14 years of experience on supply management, Steve knew that this deal was too good and therefore, there was a need to countercheck the details before he could make a commitment.
The purchase option offered more promise than the make option. It should be noted that with the purchase option the pipes of the specific quality needed would be supplied; another factor to note also is that the standard of pipes that the supplier promised to deliver was seemingly above that which the company could make consistently. The price which was below the market price was another significant factor, which made the purchase option the best to pick.
Considering that the two utmost significant factors were observed in the purchase option, there was a need for Steve to dig for more information about the details of the supplying process in order to ensure that the supplier would be reliable. It is always advisable to ensure that when outsourcing services to a third party, attempts are be made to interact with the third party to clarify the stakes involved (Burt, Petcavage
Decision Making Models Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Application of Rational Decision Making Model to Advertisement
List of References
Introduction In management, it is very critical to make rational decisions that help to minimize challenges associated with investments. Human judgment is an important aspect in the decision making process because it helps to determine the relevance of the decision made, as well to interpret the findings.
However, human judgment leads to misdirected strategic planning in cases where it is faulty. Therefore, to avoid faulty human judgment in the decision-making process, it is imperative for a firm to reflect on adopting a viable decision making model that would facilitate an increase in their sales volume. This paper will focus on a discussion of rational decision-making model, and then delve into its application in the advertisement area of the hotel industry.
Discussion Rational decisional making model takes an approach of highlighting the best decision among a number of alternatives. A case in point for this model is the six-step decision-making process, which involves following six steps before coming up a viable decision. The first step involves defining what the decision maker wants to achieve (Williams 2008: 182).
This necessitates recognising the need for change or decision-making. In this respect, the decision makers should endeavor to answer the following questions: what do we want to accomplish with the decision that we are about to make? Will this decision directly affect the workers or the clients?
How will the workers or clients react to this decision? What will be the pros and cons of making this decision? Will this decision lead us a step higher to achieving our dreams? How will we know that the decision made is successful? After all these questions are addressed, the decision makers can use their personal preferences, values, and interests to determine what is relevant.
A decision criterion that would facilitate achievement of goals should be identified shortly after the decision makers define the problem (Eisenführ et al. 2009: 210). This entails carrying out a research using various alternatives in a bid to analyse how to achieve the proposed decision.
The decision makers have a role of reviewing and weighing the previously identified alternatives in order to award them with the correct priority. This is normally followed by developing a number of viable alternatives for problem solving strategies. However, the alternatives are only listed, but not appraised.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next stage involves rating the alternatives against the criterion. The already set criterion facilitates a thorough evaluation of the strengths as well as the weaknesses of every selected alternative. Finally, the decision-makers compute the optimal decision based on its strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of this model stems from the following factors:
Situations facing a company can only be successfully analysed if the decision makers come up with ways of defining them explicitly;
Coming up with a number of alternatives facilitates an increase in the level of information, thus creating many options to choose from; and
Effectiveness in the decision making process is enhanced by combining the managers’ knowledge with the specialist expertise of internal and external consulting teams, thus eliminating emotions in the process (Phillips
Industrial Relations: Conflict and Cooperation Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help
There is no doubt that both conflict and cooperation are part and parcel of employment relationships. There are different forms of industrial conflicts. These include: Overt (boycotts, pickets, sabotages, strikes, bans, etc); covert (absenteeism, work to rule, theft, go-slow, indifference, etc); individual or collective conflicts; and proactive conflicts.
There are several reasons suggested to explain why industrial conflicts occur. In many cases, industrial conflicts are caused by lack of employment security, moribund managerial control and poor remunerations. In addition, an industrial conflict may emerge when the interests of the employer and his/her employees collide. For example, this may happen when the employer wields control and demand enhanced productivity from his/her workers.
On the other hand, employees may expect an increased remuneration to compensate for their efforts. As a result, an industrial conflict may occur when employees’ earnings are not increased to reflect their efforts. It is thus imperative that employers provide their workers with excellent working environment, increased participation, job security, good management strategies and better earnings in order to avert an industrial conflict.
The state plays an integral role in industrial relations. The characteristics of workplace industrial relations are directly affected by adjustments in the character of state interventions in the labor market. The state intervenes in the labour market by imposing restrictions on managerial prerogatives as well as protecting the reproduction of labourforce.
In the last three decades, the Australian government adopted a corporatist regime as an intervention strategy in the labour market to foster social partnerships between the labour unions, state and employers. During this period, economic concessions (such as wage reductions) were done by the state.
On the other hand, business organizations gained from subdued industrial conflicts as well as low inflation. However, the corporatism accord came to an end when the Howard administration took helm in 1996. The new government modified state policies in order to diminish the role of the state in the economy.
Some of the policy changes included privatization of some sections of the public sector (e.g. abolition of Public Service Board), marketisation of state services and reduction in state expenditure. Although the federal government adopted managerialism and marketisation strategies from mid 1980, it still plays a vital role in the labour market to date.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The basic role of management is to merge, distribute and utilize resources to realize the objectives of the organization. Business organizations employ different management control strategies. Some of these management control strategies are:
Direct control: examples include tight supervision and industrial discretion.
Responsible autonomy: employees are granted autonomy and status at work.
Other forms of controls include: technical control; personalized control; commitment-based control; and bureaucratic control.
There are a number of factors that influence the choice of management control strategy. Some of these factors include: state regulations; market forces; and employee acceptance/resistance. An organization may choose to adopt a management control strategy for a particular group of workers based on several factors. These include:
The need to sustain good working relations with workers: For example, eliminating union workplace may hurt existing relations with workers.
Cultural factors: The choice of the management control strategy is determined by the cultural factors both at the organizational and national level.
Labour market and product market conditions: This entails competition based on quality, price and innovation and surplus or shortages of labour.
State regulations: the state play an important role in the determination of the management control strategy to be adopted by an organization.
The Chronicle of North Korea’s Nuclear Power and Diplomacy Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction The war against nuclear weapons developed by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, DPRK remains a delicate and sensitive issue in diplomatic relations between DPRK and other countries around the world. With several nations opposed to the nuclear development program, DPRK has gone through a series of steps and encountered countless challenges in its quest to produce and develop nuclear weapons.
This has led to international conferences and treaties aimed at limiting the progress and chances of North Korea becoming a nuclear power threat to the rest of the world in future (Wampler, 2003). With all these efforts, research indicates that the country’s leadership has had a deaf ear on the calls and maintained their development programs to-date.
In this regard, this research focuses on the historical progress of nuclear strategy in North Korea and how North Korea’s foreign diplomacy and Nuclear affected each other. Of special significance is the nuclear development in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, encompassing both its on-table and under-table activities.
The research furthers synthesizes how DPRK’s pursuit of Nuclear weapons has affected its relationship with countries like the United States, Japan, China, South Korea and other European and Asian states throughout history. Lastly, the paper analyzes the Six-Party talk in terms of its successes and failures with special focus on the current status of the nuclear development program in North Korea.
Nuclear weapons These are highly lethal armaments with the highest known potential of destruction in the world. This ability emanates from fusion and fission reactions which take place in nuclear reactors. Although it later gained its use in the mid 20th century, nuclear weapons breakthrough were made in early 1930s and later applied by several countries during the Cold War.
It is believed that the first fission weapons were developed by the union between the United States, Canada and Britain as a way of counteracting the threat that was being posed by Nazi German bomb scheme during Cold War (World Nuclear Association, 2011). After some of the bombs were dropped on Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union began its development of the Hydrogen bomb.
The U.S and Soviet Union acquired nuclear weapons, which were used during the Cold War. Since then several countries, totaling to nine have acquired these weapons and their proliferation remains a global security threat. Moreover, of substance, controversy and great attention is the nuclear development in DPRK.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North Korea and Nuclear weapons North Korea is an isolated and relatively small country in Asia but it has remained in the limelight for decades with regard to nuclear power exploration and development of weapons. Its thirst for nuclear weapons has sparked chilly relationships with countries like the United States and South Korea, having been criticized and highly condemned for the manner in which it handles human rights issues. DPRK government is considered to be quite secretive and its borders are highly guarded and sheltered.
North Korea was created after the Second World War, when the DPRK declared its independence in the year 1948 (Kimball, 2011). Early 1950s witnessed the Korean War when DPRK invaded the South after their declaration of sovereignty. The war claimed more than two million Koreans and came to a halt after a peace agreement that was reached in 1953.
Nuclear development in DPRK It is believed that North Korea, also known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korean has nurtured its interest in nuclear power and weapons since 1950s. Although there are no known operating nuclear reactors in the country, there are massive development programs which have remained part of the epicenter of global nuclear power threats (Wampler, 2003).
While others argue that North Korea developed its nuclear plants and weapons decades ago, the following segments summarize some of the steps which DPRK has undergone to achieve its current global ranking in nuclear matters.
Chronology of events DPRK’s nuclear program began in mid 20th century, precisely 1950s during the reign of Kim il-Sung, a time when most scientists from North Korea received practical training in the Soviet Union (Moltz
The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The essay is based on the book The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even against the Wind. To accomplish the desired task, the two questions are being answered purely using this book. The book generally tells a story of a woman known as Wabi who resorted and sought to become religious.
In her quest to doing so, she faces various huddles as well as difficulties. Ideally the story is told of her experiences as she worked towards being a maechi (Sid 23). The first question is with regards to why did Maechi Wabi ‘go forth’. According to the author, Wabi decided to go forth after realizing that she was fully discontented and dissatisfied with the idea of reaching adulthood and becoming a mother like her own mother. She hated the idea of constantly taking care of the others and working (Sid 74).
It was predetermined during her time that when she grows up, she is to assist her mother to take care of her siblings and work hard to earn money to buy food. In Buddhism, going forth simply means the act or situation where one, especially a monk or a nun, leaves his/her homes and decides to lead a homeless life, so that they can be deliberated from lust. Based on Buddhism, those who go forth are usually individuals who seek to get rid of the sorrows of birth and diseases, old age and death.
According to Buddhism, Buddha decided to go forth so that he could teach people what he had learned and discovered. The four major things that he taught were the following ones.
First, life usually ends in death; second, the cause of human suffering in life is because of our bad deed; third, end of desire results in end of suffering, and the last issue is that the man has to follow the right way and seek for divine truth which is within us. The story is indeed basis for Buddhism as it tells us about the day to day activities of those who practice the faith (Sid 34).
Maechi Wabi developed a very negative attitude towards men because the society honored religious men and scorned at religious women, thus disrespecting the females. The behaviors of her father contributed greatly to her resentment of men, this is because her father was greatly opposed to her will of being a nun because he wanted her to grow into a woman who would be able to take care of her own family and raise her own children, thus contributing to the societies development.
Wabi’s father was not pleased with the way the society and the women in particular were transforming. This is evident from the change in the roles and behaviors of the Thailand women. He stated the society to become promiscuous and females to begin developing anti-social behaviors that were not expected of them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the issues that Wabi expressed in the book later on. Wabi’s father played a very significant role in developing his daughter’s religious life and also making her more determined to meet her goals; this is a result of his constant resent to her idea of being a nun. Wabi’s father realized that his resentment to his daughter’s decisions would not change her view, but would only contribute to her desire to fulfill her dream and support her in her quest of becoming a nun (Sid 98).
As suggested by Sid (100), Wabi’s father encouraged his daughter to be what she wanted to be without backing down on her ambitions. These words of encouragement definitely played a significant role in ensuring that she would become a nun and thus achieve her goal; her father is also involved in altering the mindset of the men in the society, thus they should have started appreciating the religious females in the society. This definitely changed the society’s perception on religious women.
I think that Wabi’s father was a role model to her in some way. This is because he was a very hard working man who would not take anything to chance and would also stand straight to his words without changing his mind. This attitude gave her the courage to pursue her ambitions without second thoughts.
Work Cited Brown, Sid. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind. New York: State University of New York Press, 2001. Print
Request for Specific Levels of Funding and Resources Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The product we are going to implement is absolutely new for consumers, so internal investment may be available for business. Requesting for internal investment, we are going to point to new marketing strategies and expansion where funded resources are going to be spent.
The chocolate business which is going to be led has financial resources to undertake internal investment (Sprague, 2008). The business should try to spread as much as possible information about the specifics of the business to the potential internal investors to make those interested in the revenue they are going to receive in the future.
A corporate business sponsor is a good opportunity for the company. Having conducted a research it was concluded that there is a sponsor who is ready to finance this kind of business. ING Australia Holdings Limited and ING Australia Pty Limited are the Australian departments of the ING Corporate Investments B.V.
This organization is ready to invest its corporate finances in business which is a strong niche player. Having developed a new niche on the market, the organization should show the priorities and benefits of this business. Having only a business plan, this organization should show its best sides to ING, pointing to the minimal risks.
The development potential should be shown as well. Robust cash flow substantiated forecast is obligatory if “Indulge” wants to get corporate investment from ING Corporate Investments B.V.
This organization also declares other requirements for the company which is interested in being invested, namely engagement of other shareholders, experiences and skilled management, the possibilities for the creation of the value and main requirement is that h business should be understood for the company (ING 2011).
Other Required Resources Except for funding and financial resources, business requires other types of resources, like people, assets, and a business plan. Having searching for investment, it is obvious that we are going to use other people’s resources. Thus, the rent of the space and equipment with the opportunity of further buy-out is a good start for the shop.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a simple business, the use of outside advisors may be a good alternative as, still, some decisions should be made in marketing, management, advertising, shop running, etc. Dwelling upon other resources in business, it should be mentioned that it is possible to reduce the costs by means of employing graduate students.
Their services are not very expensive as they lack experience, but the fresh ideas they have are really great. There should be a person responsible for business liability, harassment, and risks. The services of attorney may be used if they are necessary, thus this resource should be outsourced only in emergency cases.
An accountant is a human resource which is inevitable in our case. Internet resources also become important for business development and modeling dynamic online services. It is necessary to create a web site of the company with the novelties offered in the shop and an opportunity to place orders for delivering in the near located offices (like an additional service).
Thus, using only the necessary activities in the organization, it is possible to minimize and marshal resources, which is a guarantee of a successful business. There is no necessity to keep much staff is a shop, different human resources may be outsources when they are necessary. But, it is important to draw the line and employ the required number of resources (Stevenson 2007).
Reference List ING 2011, ‘ING Corporate Investments B.V.’, Commercial Loans, https://www.ing.com.au/home-loans/commercial-loan.html
Sprague, C 2008, ‘Cash Flow’, Cash Flow — Research Starters Business p. 1.
Stevenson, HH 2007, ‘Resource requirements’, in JA Timmons
Smoking Ban in the State of Florida Essay argumentative essay help
Florida enacted a policy to regulate indoor tobacco smoking in July 2003. The aim of this policy was to outlaw smoking in some specific enclosures except in private residences and other selected areas.
The state spends about $ 60 million yearly in controlling tobacco and its related diseases. There is room to reduce this amount substantially if the state puts in place an effective smoking ban policy. This paper looks at policy options and suggests the best.
Of the 17.5% of the Florida’s population who are tobacco smokers, 18.5% are male while 16.4% are female. The state has an annual mortality of about 28,600 people because of tobacco related ailments. It also incurs an expense of up to 25% of its revenue from excise taxes to control tobacco. The majority of smokers in Florida agree that smoking bans are justified.
The current policy came into effect after some amendments of a policy on smoking ban. The quest to come up with such a policy started in 1985.
This current policy only affects workplaces and restaurants. Its major aim is to protect people from the effects of secondhand smoke. The policy, however, leaves out other players in the game, the supplier and the retailer.
Three policy options exist from which the administration can choose. These are the Total Ban Policy, the Partial Ban policy and the Liberated Smoking policy.
The total ban policy entails abolishing smoking in all public places and increasing sales tax on cigarettes. As much as this policy is authoritarian, it aims at protecting the interests of the public whose majority are non-smokers. The policy is in work on about 48% of the American population (Taub, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rationale of this policy is that since tobacco smoking causes killer lung diseases, it is important to protect the people from such smoke and allow only those who intentionally expose themselves to the effects of the smoke.
The policy is authoritarian and ignores the interests of the smokers. It also suggests increase in taxes, which is likely to lower the profits of tobacco companies and hence make them to oppose the policy.
The partial Ban policy suggests an exemption in smoking ban by licensing some areas or establishments. It also proposes an increase in sales tax and the exemption of some public smoking zones by the municipal authorities.
The proponents of this policy suggest that proper ventilation can mitigate the effects of second hand smoke. The rationale of this policy is that people choose to smoke for various reasons, some of which are justifiable medically.
The Liberated Ban policy suggests a partial ban to all public areas and establishments, an increase of the sales tax to $ 1 per pack, registration of all establishments allowing smoking and these should provide well-ventilated smoking zones.
The rationale of this policy is that people smoke voluntarily and therefore the state should not interfere with their freedom. The only thing the state can do is to restrict the extent to which an individual’s freedom affects others. This policy is likely to face criticism from anti smoking campaigners because it does not hold the interests of the public.
The first policy is inappropriate for Florida because the state’s smokers are aware of the effects of smoking and are willing to stop. The second policy is viable because it provides options that are within reach.
We will write a custom Essay on Smoking Ban in the State of Florida specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it will make the smokers secluded just like the first policy. The third policy changes the approach to the fight against smoking making people to take it as their own problem. It is also economically feasible. This makes it the best policy option for Florida.
In conclusion, the best policy option is that which can bring all the involved parties into harmony and help people to participate in governance by civil obedience and positive involvement in policy enforcement.
Reference List Taub, D. (2006).California Town Makes It Tougher to Smoke in Public. Web.
Business strategies in action Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The recent years have been characterized by dramatic business shifts, from equity-based to non-equity based structure of partnership. The great shifts are attributed to research and development activities that have recently dominated the world with an intention of improving scientific and technological knowledge.
The environment of business has also experienced drastic changes, requiring business ventures to take a direction that enhances its competitiveness in a dynamic world.
More over, change is always inevitable since it paves a way for new strategies implementation within business environments. The transition is also responsible for more business productivity and performance (Cantwell and Molero, 2003).
This assessment is aimed at providing a critical assessment of the major causes of business shift from equity-based to non-equity based partnerships. It will also consider the broad changes in the business and technological environment, as well as the features of both equity and non-equity based inter-firm partnerships.
Features of both equity and non-equity based inter-firm partnerships. Two basic models of partnership have been in existence in the business environment. The equity and non-equity based partnerships, though operate in similar business environment, have quite distinct features.
Equity-based partnerships are defined by a linkage of two or more companies forming an organizational unit that is controlled by two or more parent companies. They resemble semi-independent ventures, which are organized hierarchically.
At the same time, they can act independently to perform specific typical functions, including manufacture of products, selling, marketing functions etc. They are mainly characterized by a legalized firm formation that operates indefinitely, where the parent companies share resources, knowledge and collaborate in all activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More over, operations management is shared equally among the firms in the control of the independent firm. The long relationship firms established are geared towards enhancing competitive advantage, access to markets and business sustainability (Contractor, 2002).
On the other hand, non-equity partnerships are characterized by relationships that are informal since are formed on contract foundations. They are usually short-term agreements between ventures of choice by a particular company.
For instance, Magna International Inc, a known distributor of technologically developed automotive systems has joined hands with other companies, specifically those that manufacture automotives, i.e General Motors, Ford Motor, Honda companies etc.
These ventures require minimized kind of commitment unlike the equity-based ones, since are based on the principle of outsourcing. This entails engagement of companies in activities that can create value and primary support, in areas that are hard for operation by a single venture.
Less experience is needed since the organizations in contract do not have to share equally their knowledge, resources and control in addition to market and equity shares. Thus, their formation is simple and their formation is aimed at accomplishing a specific project within a given period of time (Contractor, 2002).
Changes in the business and technological environment Modern developments have paved way for rampant transitions in both the business and technological environment. Competition has dominated the business environment in the recent years due to the increased number of ventures producing similar products.
At the same time, acquiring competitive advantage in the business field has become quite demanding to an extent of overwhelming single businesses in their operations. The fast-paced world today has embraced outsourcing as the best business strategy to gain competitive advantage, a reason for formation of non-equity based joint ventures.
We will write a custom Assessment on Business strategies in action specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More over, there is an arising need for enhancement of corporate social responsibility in the current environment, which calls for more outgoing strategies that the former (Uddin
Economics of New York Essay essay help online
Introduction New York is one of the globally recognized cities due to its high economic development. The city’s economic growth has undergone several developments from the previous decades to date. This essay highlights most of this progress. The first section explains the city’s overall economic performance.
The second section focuses on the city’s current state with respect to sectoral distribution. The third part highlights the evolution of the city’s economy in the immediate past. The fourth part describes the drivers of the economic changes.
The fifth section focuses on the part played by public authorities in the city’s structural changes. The sixth part is about the city’s main problems and suggested economic strategies that can be applied in addressing the problems. The final part is the conclusion.
The overall performance of New York City’s economy The improvements of New York City’s economic development have benefited both households and firms. This is from 1975 during which New York encountered a serious financial crisis. From that time New York ceased depending so much on debt finance, lowered property based taxation besides improving its financial reports.
Although the overall tax burden has been high, there has been a sharp reduction in the amount of tax used in offsetting short – term loan. Firms and households have also greatly benefited from development in the city’s public transport network which occurred especially towards the end of the nineteenth century.
A location’s attractiveness especially to investment is enhanced by public safety. During 1980s when New York City experienced an economic boom, crime rate was quite high but reduced drastically in 1991 during a recession. This trend went on for the next decade.
Study shows that a sharp decline in the city’s crime rate was experienced in its poorest areas (Okuyama