History Of The Arabian Gulf Essay Custom Essay Help

Introduction The Arabian Gulf remains of great concern to countries currently in the UAE including Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Dubai among other significant countries (Rose, 2010). Naming of the region was a controversial issue in the 4th century and some people refer to it using different names. By 550 BC, the Achaemenid came up with the principal Persian Empire in Iran.

Bordering the Empire was a huge source of water for the Achaemenid dynasty. The area that hosted the source of water became the renowned Persian Gulf that Arabs equally consider the Arabian Gulf. The naming and establishment of the Arabian Gulf interests various geologists, archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists across the world.

Science has a difficult time determining when the Iranian Plateau and the Arabian Peninsula formed the Arabian Gulf. The Arabian Gulf had different names before the people from the Iranian Peninsula settled for the name.

According to Herodotus, an ancient Greek philosopher, the Arabian Gulf was the Red Sea even though other leaders had different opinions including the Persian Gulf and the Sea above Akkad (Beaumont, 2006). Situated alongside the Iranian plateau, the Arabian Gulf provided both an excellent tourism view even though the people from the Achaemenid used it as a source of water for domestic and industrial purposes.

The water body never existed in either Persia or the Arabian Peninsula even though residents of both lands wanted to identify with the source of water. Currently known as Iran, Persia has an undisputable history with the Red Sea wanting it to be the Persian Gulf.

Arabic and Iranian citizens fought for the land that hosted for the water body since the early 19th century precisely the 1960’s. This paper intends to explain the position of the Arabian Gulf including its geographic and political histories (Krane, 2006).

Geography and History of the Gulf

Around 300 BC and 550 BC, Romans and Persians dominated the Persian Gulf. This happened before Arabs took over the water body from the Iranians (Persians) making it to acquire a new title. However, the name Persian Gulf still holds relevance in the 21st century thousands of years after its acquisition by the Islamic community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Geographically, the Arabian Gulf existed between the Persian plateau and the Arabian Peninsula (Motter, 1952). None of the communities in the Arabic or Iranian sections had the ability to prove that the Arabic Gulf geographically existed on their side of the divide.

For the past over 2000 years, most people referred to the Red sea as the Persian Gulf because it physically separated the Iranian land from the Arabic land even though inclined more towards the Iranian plateau. Many geographers described the Arabian Gulf as the Red Sea without the knowledge of the residents under dispute.

According to Western geographers and archaeologists who carried out research in the region, the Arabian Gulf was the Sinus Persicus. The Achaemenid Empire has a good recollection of where the Arabian Gulf existed. According to King Darius of the Achaemenid kingdom, his extensive travels enabled him to assess different parts of the Persian plateau and the Arabian Peninsula.

Around the 4th to 5th centuries, he identified the Red Sea as the Persian Gulf while identifying the Mediterranean Sea as the Rome River. In essence, Darius and Herodotus had a similar account of the Red Sea by linking it to the Persian community (Roberts, 1980).

Greece is a common point of reference when discussing classical writers, philosophers, geographers, travellers, and artists. Strabo and Ptolemy are great geographers from Greece who travelled across the Persian plateau and the Arabian Peninsula during the 4th century.

Before 1960, most western maps identified the Arabian Gulf as the Persian Gulf because political factors made it possible for the Persian Empire to command a huge section of the Red Sea. Persia was very powerful and in it had the geopolitical capability to own the water body and this made the Red Sea the Persian Gulf.

Geographically, the Arabian Gulf is 251, 000 square kilometres wide and a large portion of the inland sea lies in Saudi Arabia (Roberts, 1980). This explains why many geographers in Greece felt that the Gulf needed to acquire the Arabic name instead of the Persian name.

We will write a custom Essay on History of the Arabian Gulf specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some people feel that Iran fits the ownership of the inland sea and it should bear the name the Persian Gulf because Iran covers most parts of the sea to the north while Saudi Arabia covers it to the south. Many countries border the Arabian Gulf/Persian Gulf to the north including Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Iraq among other UAE countries.

Political Issues

Politics play a significant role in property ownership and command of territorial lands under dispute. Around the 4th century up until the 1960’s the Persian or Arabian Gulf remained an element of controversy between the Persians and Arabic counterparts.

Even though a big section of the inland sea lied towards the Arabian Peninsula, Persia took control of the land because of the powerful Achaemenid Empire that settled in the region around 550 BC. Around this period, the Persian Empire enjoyed autonomy, hence enabling it to exercise authority over lands that existed around it.

During the antiquity until the early 19th century, most countries dominated territories through acquisitions especially when they had well-trained armies. According to Rose (2010), Arab nationalism began to rise and this threatened the very existence of the Persian Empire in an area it initially controlled.

Arabs wanted a fair share of the inland sea because in terms of length and depth, a greater portion of the Red Sea was on the Arabian Peninsula as opposed to the northern side in which the Persian kingdom existed.

Political rivalry between the Persians and Iranians made it possible for the two power forces to determine the strongest team. The Arabs emerged victorious in the battle, thus enabling them to name the Red Sea as the Arabian Gulf.

The Muslims recognised the water body as the Baḥr Fārsi to mean the Persian Sea. Muslims took advantage of the turmoil to claim the disputed inland sea. The only way to achieve this was to ensure religious conversion of Arabs and Persians to Islam. The Gulf mostly consisted of Jews and Arabs following their backgrounds from the Roman Empire, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Persian plateau.

Religion is a strong supporter of various political ideologies and this helped the Muslim community take control of the Persian Gulf during the 10th century. The arrival of Muslims in the inland sea made the Arabs and Persians know that the disputed inland sea was of great significance to other communities (Rose, 2010). Muslim invasion created further turmoil in the area making the wars to prolong up until the 19th century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Arabian Gulf by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Currently, a section of the population refers to the inland sea as the Persian Gulf while others call it the Arabian Gulf. In almost all probability, the water body serves both the Arabian and Iranian sides of the divide equally. Many prominent cities in the world within Kuwait, Dubai, Qatar, and the entire UAE establish beautiful buildings along the coastline.

Portuguese and Dutch in the Gulf Portuguese at Bahrain

During the Atlantic world commonly known for its colonial activities, the Portuguese and the Dutch travelled extensively across the Indian Ocean. Vasco da Gama gained prominence during the trips in which Portugal and Netherlands’ residents sought to acquire resources from African States and selling them at a high price in Canada and Northern America around the 16th century.

The Portuguese used violent strategies to acquire resources from the Gulf by engaging in war with the Ottomans. The power hungry Portuguese engaged in battle that saw them attack the army led by Antonio Correia around the late 14th century. Their greatest intention was to enter Bahrain and acquire the natural resources including gas and oil.

During the Atlantic world, only the powerful European nations emerged successful in their endeavours (Motter, 1952). The British were a little bit lenient and their operations included long-term efforts to establish ground in their target grounds. This also incorporated the Dutch strategy ensuring that the community from Netherlands built schools and social amenities while teaching the communities the Dutch language.

The main intention was to declare a long-term mission in the attacked lands while ensuring that the Arabs remained faithful to the foreign rule. Bahrain was equally rich in Pearl and the Portuguese and the Dutch sought to acquire the resources forcefully.

Not all leaders could condone the self-fish character of the Portuguese and Shah Abbas, a King from the Persian Empire, ensured that the Portuguese left Bahrain in 1602, hence enabling the Persians to gain independence. At this point, Persians became the most prominent Empire of the period.

Each year on the 29th day of April, Iranians celebrates the National Persian Gulf day to remember the way the emperor sent the Portuguese away from Bahrain (Motter, 1952). Evicting the Portuguese was a challenge that no other emperor attempted and this made Abbas a very powerful leader in Persia. As such, many foreign States began seeking business associations with Persia under the rule of emperor Abbas.

The Dutch and the Maritime Business Ventures

The Dutch took interest in Persia because they wanted to do business with emperor Abbas. By the mid-16th century, the emperor controlled Hormuz Island and Bandar cities and this enabled the emperor to name the city after him. Though considered a bureaucratic approach, this increased the emperor’s influence within the Persian plateau.

Naming Bandar after Abbas was an attempt to prove his dominance in Persia after evicting the Portuguese those other colonial powers regarded as strong (Burgh, 1953). The Persian Gulf also became a business hub for the British, the Dutch, and the Spanish among others. Ordinarily, maritime transport provides an excellent avenue for carrying bulky goods.

Weaponry from Persia reached Russia and other countries through the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Russia is rich in natural resources including Uranium and the country suffers poor international relations because of its links with Iran and the nuclear power project in the country. The relationship between Iran and Russia began when geographers still recognised Iran as Persia.

Netherlands also used the maritime means to transports products to and from Persia. During the business ventures, the Dutch occupied parts of the UAE, Oman, and Kuwait among other nations to the north of the Persian Gulf. By settling in the prominent cities, the Dutch had the opportunity to exercise political authority in Persia.

Colonisation by the Dutch and the Portuguese

It was probably very difficult to colonise a community dominated by the Jews, Arabs, and Muslims. The three religious movements depend on solidarity in order to keep the common enemy at bay. After arriving in Persia in the 16th century, the Portuguese believed that it would be easy to invade the Persian plateau or the Arabian Peninsula. According to the colonial powers, the two states were in dispute over the inland sea.

This was the most opportune time to access the oil rich peninsula. According to geopolitical analysts, colonisers often preferred using diverse techniques in order to create a breakeven point in which people from the same country would turn against each other.

Instead of achieving the divide and rule technique that the Britons initially used to succeed, the Dutch and the Portuguese failed to convert the Muslims and Arabic Persians and Arabs. Colonisers during the Atlantic world mostly used religion as an excuse to access other countries (Kostman, 1995). They mentioned that they intended to spread Christianity to the African and Arab dominated continents.

Colonisation was not an easy exercise for the team of Europeans because Persians had the objective of safeguarding their territories from external invasion. In addition, Persia had the industrial and weaponry capabilities to protect the land explaining the overwhelming interest European states had in the country.

Until today, Iran remains very significant for exporting war artilleries to other countries with a major client being Russia. The USSR was very powerful until the decline of the Soviet Union in 1991.

As a result, Russia could not dare confront Iran because of the presence of Abbas and possession of weapons of mass destruction. On the other Hand, the Dutch and the Portuguese had a fair share of a bad experience in attacking one of the greatest empires in the history of the world.

Netherlands and the Minerals within the UAE

The Arabian Gulf contained minerals such as myrrh, gems, pearls, and ceramics. The business intentions of the Dutch were explicit in the jewellery industry of the countries bordering the Red Sea. According to archaeologists, clear pearls existed in the countries since inception and it was only until the 5th century that the Persian Empire identified the precious stones.

A rush for the Persian pearl saw the colonisers forget their initial plan to invade the plateau and the peninsula. When the Dutch sought the precious stones, it was evident that only the Arab lands contained the pearls and the myrrh. In essence, the Persian Gulf needed to recognise that Arabian States dominated in terms of resources.

The Arabian side also had a big portion of the inland sea making it the best avenue for maritime activities and a business metropolis for the Dutch, British, Portuguese, and other Westerners. During the entire period, no country managed to manoeuvre by introducing their language or religion to the Arabian Gulf (Burgh, 1953).

It was easy to do business with foreigners who embraced the Arabic culture because assimilating the residents was impossible.

Other commodities in which westerners took interest included cinnamon and frankincense among other spices. As such, the west had to embrace the Arabic culture because colonising the Persian State was difficult. Besides a strong army, the countries had resources that would enable the communities fund any war.

Arrival and Consequences of British Presence in the Gulf When the British arrived in the Persian Gulf around the 16th century, they sought to do business, to access oil, and to take advantage of the existence of pearls. People knew the British for the voyages across the Indian Ocean during the Atlantic World. They wanted to settle in any land that had natural resources because their intention was to access a market for tea, and cotton.

The cotton came from India and it was not until the early 19th century that Mahatma Gandhi led a rebellion against the British rule in the country. The British also had a presence in most parts of Africa helping to introduce tea, cotton, coffee, and other cash crops. In Persia and the Arabic world, the British targeted consumers who would purchase the finished products in a costly manner.

Britain intended to promote its business in order to benefit its economy while depriving other people of their rights to own resources. There is evidence the British colonisers assessed the environment around the Gulf after the Portuguese and the Dutch invaded the region.

Promotion of Business

Britain acquired cotton from India and it needed a market to purchase its finished products. In return, it eyed the oil and gas in the region while constantly engaging in the pearl business. Evidently, the British had the resources and political will to command any target region across the world in order to conduct business. Britain also wanted a market or Opium from China and tea from India.

All the resources, it acquired through forceful invasion to other countries that it considered vulnerable during the Atlantic world. However, the Persian Empire established a strong front to fight the British colonisers. Emperor Abbas could not allow the Portuguese or British to take advantage of the Gulf. In unison, both the Arabs and Persians participated in the eviction of the British forces out of the land.

Long-term Projects

The British wanted to establish long-term projects within the Gulf. They sought to build schools, and promote long-term projects that would ensure a relationship between them and the Gulf occupants existed. Many people knew the British system of governance that involved setting up a community against the other. The British knew that taking control of a territory involved making the residents of a place to embrace the foreign culture.

Britain only penetrated a small section of the Persian plateau and the Arabian Peninsula (Kostman, 1995). The union shared between the two regions enabled the communities to uphold their cultures even though few people helped in supporting the British. This enabled them to acquire oil and gas even though it had to battle for the same resource with the French and the Portuguese.

The tussle also involved the Spanish community and the Dutch. During this period, Europe had a strong movement considering the British invasion into the Americas and their ability to displace the Native Americans.

As such, all countries that felt the presence of the British knew that they had lost their resources to one of the most powerful colonisers in the world. Britain had to invade the space over the long-term, but it was difficult to achieve the objective in the presence of rivals that used force because their projects were short-term in the Gulf.

Spreading Christianity

When the Atlantic world first emerged, the intentions of the European States included spreading Christianity. About the same time, Spain was battling to end the Islamic Spain rule and to embark on Christian dominance. Spain had a difficult time spreading Christianity because it had problems back in the country. The Britons had a difficult time penetrating the overly conservative society.

Spreading Christianity was overly difficult because Arabs and the Persians developed a united front to protect their culture and religion. Christianity helped Britain access different countries during the Atlantic World.

Through Christianity, the British introduced formal education to other parts of the world. Around the Gulf, the Arabic and Persian cultures became a source of artistic expression and the conservative culture became almost impossible for the British to penetrate (Krane, 2006).

British Empire’s expansion all over the world

The British had the resources to invade the countries it targeted during the Atlantic World. They used different subtle ways to win the good will of the people. Unlike the Belgians and the Portuguese who used force, the British preferred introducing their culture to the people, it colonised. In order to conquer a strong community the British used the divide and rule technique that involved setting up a rival community over the other.

Good command of English also assisted Britain in establishing learning institutions along the Gulf. The British used all the available intellectual and physical resources to attract the attention of the people living around the Gulf region to no avail. Significant area under the British command included the Trucial States that people lately call the UAE (Krane, 2006).

The British also realised that the Gulf residents could retaliate and they had to use aggression to control the UAE. According to geographers, the British targeted the Trucial States because of their proximity to the Gulf and because they had pearls and other resources.

Today, the British still consider the UAE as a potential tourism ground for its population. This explains why most Britons carry out businesses with UAE countries especially Qatar and Dubai.

The British in India

The British have a history in India since the 17th Century until the late 19th century. The fact that Britain established schools India created room for formal education. Statistically, the formal education would later help the British to acquire resources from the people with who they communicated. The target resource was the cotton and the market since India had a huge population.

After exporting the cotton, Britons transformed them into clothes and sold the finished products to the Indian people. Other target populations included the Canadians and North Americans who were equally under the British rule. To stop this, the Indian founding father, Mahatma Gandhi, sought to empower the people of India by teaching them to sew Khadi clothes for use.

This reduced dependence on the British and the Britons had to reduce control on the people of India because cotton was no longer available for the foreigners. However, Britons exercised controls in parts of East Africa and the target communities were Kenya and Uganda.

Through this, Britons managed to introduce Indians to the parts of Africa, thus enabling them to establish railroads (Krane, 2006). This helped Asians in establishing networks of trade and railway construction in East Africa. However, Ugandan leader, Amin evicted the Asians from the land because he never wanted any traces of British rule in the country.

The British in Canada

In America, the British were in parts of the north and in Canada. The common Boston tea party was a result of the rejection of British tea in America. According to Americans, the foreign forces only introduced high taxes while barring Canadians from enjoying their local resources. In addition, exports from America could not reach the market place because of the high rates of taxation and barriers created.

The British introduced a local government in Canada and this helped them in marking their territory. This happened after the great British immigration into the US to displace the natives. The command that Britons have over different people gave them the fame they required during the 16th century along the Gulf (Kostman, 1995).

Choosing the Gulf Area

When the British took control of India, they acquired tea and cotton. Most of the tea went to Canada until the occurrence of the Boston tea party too stop the East Indian firm from importing tea into the US. The Gulf situation was different because the British had to construct a railroad to connect its suppliers and customers.

Tea and cotton from India could reach the Trucial States while cinnamon, pearls, oil, and gas could traverse the Gulf through the same road or other maritime avenues. In Persia, king Darius I was a very powerful leader of the Achaemenid around 600 BC (Roberts, 1980). The Arabians and the Persians coexisted peacefully even though there were looming speculations about a war over the ownership of the Gulf region.

It was evident that the Persians exercised control over the region because of their powerful leaders. The British wanted to take control of the Trucial States even though they had to defeat the Achaemenid Empire. The British East India Company arrived in the Trucial States around the 19th century to take over the land. The company consisted of labour force from India under the control of the Britons.

It sought to construct a railroad in order to enable easy trading activities. Britons had the resources and intellectual property enough to control the rest of the world. The Gulf area was a potential trading zone and an area where cross docking could easily occur. In essence, the British East India company could use the road of maritime transport in order to import and export products across the Gulf.

The Achaemenid Empire had to give way to the British East India Company and the Royal Navy. This enabled the Britons to construct the Silk Road among other renowned avenues that could connect the Middle East and Asia (Roberts, 1980).

At around this period, the Sassanid Empire rose to power, the British were still able to continue with their construction prospects until the rise of emperor Abbas. The British made the Gulf a business hub within and outside the Middle East, thus enabling it to trade with many countries including China.

Tribal Leadership

The British used the divide and rule method in most cities of the Trucial States. They included the present day Qatar, Dubai, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait among others. This method helped the British in acquiring conquest against the target countries. The tribal alliances helped the British in understanding the weakness of enemies, as it enabled other communities to dominate over others within the same region.

Some of the common states that became bait included the current day Iraq, which was Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia tuned against Persia (Iraq) and animosity still exists between the two countries while Russia takes advantage of the existing power struggle (Beaumont, 2006).

Cities including Oman and Bahrain distanced themselves from other Trucial States because the British gave some leaders chieftaincy titles to govern the others. Power strife within the Arabian Gulf ensued as some strived to belong to the north towards the Persian side, but others had to remain to the southern side.

The Interwar Period and Impact of Discovery of Oil The warring period began in the mid-19th century involving the colonisers and the US. During this period, only countries that managed to attract the attention of the Trucial States could access the oil and gas. Discovery of oil only increased tension between the Persian plateau and the Arabian Peninsula.

Emperor Abbas could not withstand the Portuguese quest for oil and pearls and he had to devise a strategy of sending the colonisers back to Europe. The British preferred using the Hormuz region to transfer oil to Britain through the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese used a similar channel and power strife emerged between the colonisers themselves.

Each coloniser wanted to prove powerful, but the only way to survive in the Gulf was to adapt to the culture of the population. Discovery of oil occurred over 8000 years ago and the Gulf provided an avenue for maritime transport explaining why each country wanted to own the region (Burgh, 1953). During this period, the colonisers fought for supremacy and the Persians and Arabs wanted to own the Gulf region.

It was until the 1960’s that people began referring to the region as the Arabian Gulf because most oil deposits existed to the southern side of the inland sea. As such, the Arabs had claim of the largest portion of the disputed region, hence enabling it acquire the title of the Arabian Gulf.

Power Balance Shift

The Trucial States, Mesopotamia, and the Persians began to take control of the oil rich Gulf after the colonial era. Power balance naturally shifted from the Persian Empire to the Arabian side. This was a natural process because the Arabian Gulf had the greatest portion of oil deposits. This happened because the Red Sea stretched over 600 miles towards the southern side, which was the Arab side.

This explains that presence of a big coastline at the UAE bordering Kuwait, Dubai, Bahrain, Qatar, and Saudi among other States. Towards the Persian side, Iran had to struggle for the ownership of the oil deposits with Iraq. The Trucial States became the greatest suppliers of over 60% of the world oil and natural gas (Rose, 2010).

It was evident that the Persian side had the political capability to control the Gulf, but the Arabs had the geographic evidence and resources to claim the Gulf. The Persians and Arabs engaged in conflicts since the 17th century until the 19th century when the Persian side failed to convince the rest of the world that it owned the Gulf.

Other countries in the Middle East also developed interest in the Gulf including the Jews, which led to the Arab and Israeli war that continues. Currently, the UAE remains the greatest supplier of natural gas and oil to other parts of the world. Political instability characterised by oil and gas wars still see and the UAE battle for the prevailing political space in the world.


Companies in Europe and America constantly battle to have the greatest share of the Arabian oil. The US, French and UK companies seem to influence the rivalry that existed between the Middle East and other nations that require similar supplies. The US faces opposition from Libya and Saudi Arabia following the condemnation of poor leadership structures in the countries.

This also follows the US’s invasion of Iraq after the 9/11 attacks. According to the East, the US did not have the authority to invade Iraq while looking for the Taliban. It only had the power to stay in Afghanistan. Many European States especially NATO members used this to destabilise the relationship between the US and the UAE (Krane, 2006).

Russia also faced a cold treatment after promoting the generation of nuclear power in Iran. In essence, the discovery of oil became the greatest aspect of separating the western powers even though this empowered America making it the world superpower while stripping off Russia the ability to control the Soviet Union. Power balance always shifted towards the community that engaged its resources less in war.

Benefit of the Oil to the Gulf

The discovery of oil within the Gulf was exceptionally vital to the modern history of the Arabs and Iranians. Oil became a source of income for the Trucial States. This made it possible for the countries to invest in technology, real estate, and the gas industry. The oil also provided the Gulf with publicity making the Trucial States some of the best tourist attraction areas (Kostman, 1995).

UAE countries have beautiful coastlines that make it possible for them to accommodate tourists from other parts of the world. Besides income generation and publicity, the Arabian Gulf enjoys political strength even though some parts of the UAE struggle for power because of the powerful resource under their control.

20th Century History of the Gulf Region Contrary to other warring regions of the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf region hosts countries that strive to compete economically. Some of the most developed States in the world are from the Gulf region. Dubai currently hosts the world’s largest skyscraper Burj Kahlifa because of its ability to trade in oil and gas.

However, the gas mostly lies in the Iranian plateau, thus enabling the country to generate nuclear power even though the exercise is under dispute from major countries across the globe. The Gulf region has the Gulf cooperation council that monitors the export of oil within the UAE countries. This empowers the countries that receive free advice on how to manage the natural and cash resources.

Gulf countries are the greatest employers of human resources from different countries especially in the formal sector. Many countries refer to the Gulf as the Arabian Gulf even though Iran refers to it as the Persian Gulf. When referring to the Gulf region, most people identify with the seven countries of the UAE even though the Gulf consists of oil producing countries that separate Iran from the Arab north.

The Gulf takes credit for oil, gas, mangrove trees that make it an excellent tourist attraction, and the coastal outline. The Presidents of the Gulf region constantly meet to discuss progress and to analyse the growing global interests in the region including foreign direct investment (Kostman, 1995).

Modern History

There is limited socio-economic activity between Iran and the Arabian Gulf after 1960. This occurred when the Arabian Gulf got independence from the aggressive Persian Gulf region that exercised political control round the region since the 4th century. Currently, different countries refer to the region as the Gulf to refer to oil producing countries in the Middle East.

The Gulf seems to take interest in the West, America, and Asia. There is a significant difference between activities in Iraq, Iran, and Israel because they are not part of the Gulf. The Gulf mostly employs human resources from third world countries with countries like Qatar preferring casual labourers for the oil industry and domestic duties (Cole, 1987).

In addition, after the Chinese real estate bubble, most people expected the same to apply to the UAE, but it only affected Dubai and Bahrain while other countries including Oman seem to perform well in the industry. Naturally, the past affects the present, which in turn influences the future.

This explains the solidarity shared by the countries within the Gulf region. The Trucial States used a similar strategy to defeat the colonial powers in the mid-19th century. This union seems to grow strong with leaders intervening whenever one country within the Gulf has a political problem.


The Gulf gained independence after 1960 even though people came to know it after 3000 years of existence. The Arabian side of the divide became the bearer of the greatest amount of oil deposits while the northern side that hosted Iran had large gas deposits. After the reign of the Achaemenid, the Sassanid, and the era of emperor Abbas, it was time for the Arabian side to take control of its territory.

The Trucial States that today represent the UAE became economically powerful because of their connections with the British. The strong link enabled them to use the Silk Road among other developed routes to export and import resources within and outside Asia (Krane, 2006). The connection to the Hormuz Strait also enabled the Trucial States to use the Indian Ocean for trade purposes (Rose, 2010).

Currently the UAE rests on the Gulf that is 615 miles in length and 210 miles wide. Trade, tourism, and British presence helped the Trucial States to get independence from the Persian emperor, which had control over the region for the longest time possible.

Currently, the Iranians still refer to the Gulf as the Persian Gulf in order to spite the UAE even though the UAE is very categorical about the issue. It markets the region as the Arabian Gulf or simply the Gulf to make the rest of the world understand that it runs the region.

References Beaumont, P. (2006). Blair was dangerously off target in his condemnation of Iran. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/dec/24/foreignpolicy.iran

Burgh, W. G. (1953). The legacy of the ancient world. Melbourne: Penguin Books Publishers.

Cole, J. R. (1987). Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300 – 1800. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 19(2), 177-204.

Kostman, C. (1995). In Search of Ancient Seafarers in the Arabian Gulf. Retrieved from http://etana.org/node/2557

Krane, J. (2006). Development in Persian Gulf Threatens Wildlife. Retrieved from http://archive.fo/j3M9J

Motter, T. H. (1952). The Persian Corridor and aid to Russia. Washington: Center of Military History Publishers.

Roberts, J. M. (1980). The Pelican history of the world. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Publishers.

Rose, J. I. (2010). New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis. Current Anthropology, 51(6), 849-883.


Social Media Strategy – eTourism Report essay help free

The notions and principles of eTourism and e-commerce become closely connected while referring to the use of social media platforms for different marketing projects. The effectively developed social media strategy provides the framework for completing the project’s goals with the help of social media platforms.

The social media strategy report on virtual tourism includes the project’s goal, such strategy’s components as the positioning, slogan, the discussion of the target audience, social media platforms, strategy of media, content, tone of voice, the discussion of used digital marketing theory and models, and metrics for success.

Project Goal The main goal of the project is to promote virtual food tourism with the focus on the Chinese culinary traditions for people from all over the world while supporting Chinese restaurants brands.

Strategy Positioning

Food lovers from all over the world receive the opportunity to enjoy virtual food tourism in relation to the Chinese culinary traditions.


“Fall in love with a city because of a city”.

Target Audience

The target audience of the project is males and females aged 18-35, interested in the aspects of the food tourism, the Chinese culinary traditions, the Chinese culture, visiting Chinese restaurants in China, in Britain, and all over the globe.

Social Media Platforms

Effective tools to communicate personally with the potential consumer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Facebook

To develop a group related to the project and connecting the lovers of the Chinese food and travelling.

To allow posting photographs and information about the local Chinese restaurants, food destinations in China and globally.

To support a forum to discuss the best Chinese food destinations in the world.


To promote the city video guide related to the Chinese culinary traditions and food destinations in different cities of China.

To support the video guide about the history of Chinese culinary traditions.


To promote posting photographs and personal feedbacks on Chinese restaurants in Chinese cities and round the globe.


To promote posting information about new Chinese restaurants in China and round the globe.

Content Types

Posts, photographs, questions, interviews, news items, multimedia, walking tours.

Tone of voice

Light-hearted and humorous.

Digital Marketing Theory and Models The main project uses the traditional digital marketing theory the main principles of which state the necessity of presenting the products and services virtually, involving the principles of the e-commerce, sharing the information, community building, and the direct contacts with consumers (Buhalis, Tjoa,


ABC and XYZ Companies Management Information System Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Technology has transformed the world into a global village, and firms are under pressure to find ways of gaining a competitive advantage over their market rivals in order to achieve success. One of the best ways of gaining this competitive advantage is to develop mechanisms of generating business intelligence that would provide the needed knowledge about the market.

Management information system has widely been seen as the solution to firms for generating this knowledge. Using technology to collect, process, and store data about people, organisations, and processes has been found to be the best way of generating intelligence that can help an organisation gain a competitive edge over its market rivals.

In this study, the researcher will analyze two companies in order to determine how they benefit from the management information system, and to propose changes that can be made to achieve efficiency in their production.

ABC Company ABC is a leading wholesale and retail company with global market coverage. It offers a variety of products to its customers. The company is focused on providing diverse household products of very high quality at friendly prices.

In order to charge this unbeatable price for its products in the market, this firm has been offering discounts on various products. In order to understand the business focus of this company, it may be necessary to use Porter’s Three Generic Strategies.

Firms are always under pressure to distinguish their products from that of their competitors in the market in order to achieve a competitive advantage (Gupta 56). ABC Company has been using Porters Generic Strategy options in order to achieve competitiveness in the market. The diagram below shows the strategic options that have been available for this firm.

Source: (Henry 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As mentioned above, ABC Company has been using cost leadership strategy in the market by offering discounted products to its customers. This has helped it in setting fair prices for its products in the market.

This giant wholesale and retail outlet has also been using the differentiation strategy in order to achieve a competitive edge over its market rivals. Most of the products sold at this firm are very similar to those that are sold in similar shops because they are manufactured by the same companies.

In order to distinguish their products from those in other stores, this outlet has embraced unique packaging that gives them the superior image. This helps in creating the impression that products from the firm are of superior quality as compared to those of its competitors.

In order to achieve maximum benefit in the market, ABC Company has also been giving massive focus on the market segments that are least exploited by other market competitors. The firm has been keen to develop unique products that can help it acquire a market niche that is not exploited by other market competitors.

Main Divisions in ABC Company In order to operate successfully in the retail industry, ABC Company has divisions which are responsible for various tasks. The main divisions in this firm include the marketing division, the finance division, information and communication technology division, logistics and warehousing division. It is important to note that there are a number of subdivisions in each division.

For instance, the marketing division has other subdivisions such as the public relations unit, customer care department, and the corporate social responsibility unit.

Although each of the above divisions operates in an independent manner, they are closely related to one another through an integrated communication system. Using the differentiation strategy in the finance industry has also been the main strategy for this financial institution in attracting more customers to its stores.

We will write a custom Case Study on ABC and XYZ Companies Management Information System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The marketing department has developed a customer management strategy that is specifically meant to improve the customer experience while in the facility. In this strategy, the bank has a number of staffs who are specifically meant to address any issues of the customers without necessarily going to the customer care unit.

This is expected to reduce the waiting time before a customer can be served. For those making deposits, the bank has the automated systems that enable customers to make the deposits at a faster rate, as opposed to when they are attended to by cashiers. This also reduces the waiting time for the customers.

XYZ Company XYZ is one of the leading local banks in Dubai that has been experiencing massive growth over the past years because of its superior marketing strategy. The firm offers various financial services to its clients.

The financial industry in the United Arab Emirates has become competitive as local firms find themselves under pressure from the international financial institutions making entry into the region. This firm specifically offers services to its customers in the United Arab Emirates and other neighbouring countries.

Porter’s Three Generic Strategies can be helpful in understanding how this firm manages the stiff competition in this market. Cost leadership is a very dangerous strategy in any industry, and the marketing unit of this firm has been very careful when incorporating it as one of the main ways of gaining a competitive edge.

However, the low interest rates charged by this bank on its customers are clear indications that it has been using this strategy in the market. Most of the accounts do not attract any transaction fees. Although the bank had a major focus on Islamic Banking, it is currently spreading its focus to the conventional banking system because of the strategic position of Dubai as a global business centre.

Main Divisions in XYZ Company Just like any other business institution, the XYZ Company has a number of divisions that help it operate successfully in the market. The financial institution has five main divisions operating semi-autonomously under direct supervision of their respective departmental heads.

The divisions include economics department, MIS division, financial department, currency and corporate services, and the financial market department. The departmental heads at these divisions report to the general manager of the institution, who is answerable to the board of directors of the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on ABC and XYZ Companies Management Information System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How MIS is helping similar organisations to generate business intelligence and achieve competitive advantage It is clear from the analysis of the two companies above that the management information system is a key component in any organisation in the current market. As the competition gets stiffer, firms have come to realize that the only way of remaining relevant in the market is to have access to the current market information and to act upon it within the required time. ABC and XYZ operate in two different industries.

ABC has been operating in a business environment where information is vital in achieving success in the market. In some of the leading market competitors of XYZ, it is clear that management information system has helped them to a great extent, in achieving success in this industry.

For example, Carrefour has been using its MIS division to collect and analyse data on the changing trends of consumer’s tastes and preferences. This has helped this firm to achieve competitive advantage in the market because it is always aware of the needs of its customers. This has made it become one of the leading retail stores in this region.

XYZ Company also faces stiff competition in the financial sector because of the market rivals that are currently using their MIS division to generate business intelligence that can help them achieve competitive advantage in the market. According to an interview conducted with a mid-manager at the National Bank of Abu Dhabi, it was clear that this financial institution has been seriously using this division to generate intelligence in the market.

This institution has been able to use this department to identify the fact that there are many non-Muslims coming to the region to invest in the oil industry. These new niches of customers prefer conventional banking system other than the Islamic system.

When it gathered this information, its product offering was diversified, making it possible to attract both the Islamic and non-Islamic customers in the region. This has made the National Bank of Abu Dhabi one of the most successful financial institutions in this country.

Comparison of the Two Organisations ABC and XYZ companies are operating in two different industries. While ABC is in the retail industry, XYZ is operating in the banking sector. However, it is possible to compare the operations of the two firms in order to understand how they use management information system to achieve success in their respective industry. The above discussion has pointed out to the importance of managing information in both sectors.

According to Henry (34), information is a powerful component of a marketing program, especially when developing strategies that are meant to achieve maximum customer satisfaction in the market. Porter’s Value Chain analysis can help in comparing the two firms.

Creation of value for the customers is something that is highly appreciated in both firms. There are five primary activities or stages in value chain creation based on this analysis. The first stage involves inbound logistics. To both firms, these are activities that would ensure that the products needed for sale or in the service delivery to the customers are acquired and delivered safely to the premises of the firm.

This process is more involving in ABC than it is in XYZ because of the bulk of ABC products. At ABC, this entails breaking the bulk into small units and then repackaging them. At XYZ, it involves setting appropriate products (accounts and interest rates) that would be offered to the customers based on the industry dynamics. The outbound logistics stage involves making the products available to the customers.

ABC will need to transport the products to various outlets in the country, ready to be sold to the customers while XYZ will need to make cash available to its customers at various bank branches in the country. The marketing and sales stages entail persuading potential customers to make purchases of the firm’s products. Both firms have been using both the mass and social media to popularise their products in the market.

The fifth stage involves the services done by the firm to maintain the value of the product. Both firms have been using management information system to gather and analyse the current data about the customers in order to adjust their products to suite the changing needs.

Porter’s Five Forces analysis can also be useful when comparing these two firms. The figure below shows Porter’s Five Forces Model.

Porters Five Forces Model

Source (Gupta 89)

ABC and XYZ have had to deal with the problem of powerful suppliers. The central bank and other large financial institutions that may offer financial help to XYZ such as IMF and the World Bank are very powerful. Similarly, some of the main suppliers of ABC Company such as Samsung, Apple, and Sony are also powerful. To deal with this problem of powerful suppliers, both firms have been trying to diversify their supply sources.

The buyer power has been another major problem to both firms, and ABC has been more successful than XYZ in dealing with this problem. It has developed unique market niches that make it the only supplier in the market. This has helped it eliminate the power of the buyers. The competitive rivalry has been a thorny issue in the quest for the two firms to achieve success.

To manage this threat, ABC has discounted and differentiated its products in the market. On the other hand, XYZ has given more attention to differentiation of its service delivery to the clients. To address the threat of substitutes, both ABC and XYZ have diversified their product offerings in the market.

However, it is unfortunate to note that XYZ, unlike ABC, has been unable to manage the threat of new entrants. While ABC has been penetrating the global market to reduce the impact of new entrants into the local market, XYZ has not been able to take this initiative because it is still operating locally.

Improving Business Effectiveness and Efficiency in the Two Organisations It is clear from the above analysis that the two firms have been focused on achieving success in their respective industries. However, they must understand that the process of developing a competitive advantage in the market requires an integrated approach to managing the market forces. The following are some of the proposals that the two business entities can use to improve their business effectiveness and efficiency.

ABC and XYZ Companies should consider expanding their expenditure on the modern information communication technologies. Although the two firms have functional MIS divisions, it is necessary to incorporate the emerging technologies that would help improve effectiveness and efficiency of the division.

ABC and XYZ should redefine their employment strategy because of the dynamics in the market. The firms should ensure that they hire dynamic employees who are able to change with the changes taking place in the market. They should also be technology enthusiasts in order to ensure that they can manage tasks that are technology oriented.

The two firms should embrace creativity and innovation when addressing various issues. The information gathered and analysed by the MIS division should form the basis of coming up with new methods of addressing the problems of the companies.

XYZ should find a way of expanding its market coverage beyond the local region, just like ABC. An expanded market will increase the income of the firm, making it affordable for it to implement some of the strategies considered expensive because of the infrastructural investment.

Works Cited Gupta, Hitesh. Management Information System: (an Insight). New Delhi: International Book House, 2011. Print.

Henry, Anthony. Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.


Polygamy in Islam Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Laws of Islamic Polygamy

Disadvantages of Polygamy

Advantages of Polygamy


Works Cited

Introduction Marriage is one of the important aspects of the Islamic culture. The Islamic law allows Muslim men to practice polygamy, but it does not encourage it. The Islamic rules state that a Muslim man can marry a maximum of four women. Conversely, Muslim women do not have the right to marry several men. Muslim men in polygamous marriages should be kind to their women.

According to the Quran, a man should not marry many women if he cannot take care of them. Globally, majority of Muslim men are monogamous. The practice of Islamic polygamy is not homogeneous in all countries. For instance, many men in Saudi Arabia practice polygamy. However, Islamic polygamy is uncommon in Egypt. In Iran, polygamy is quite popular in the countryside.

Shia Muslims practice polygamy more than the Sunni Muslims. Polygamy has been a contentious issue among Muslim men and women because they have different views about it. This essay argues that polygamy should not be encouraged because of the following reasons.

Laws of Islamic Polygamy A Muslim man can become polygamous under the following circumstances. First, “if a man has a high sex libido, he can marry more women to avoid committing sexual offenses”.

Second, he should have resources such as land and money. Third, he should be truthful and responsible. Fourth, he should be acquainted with Islamic laws. Last, he should possess good leadership skills because it is quite difficult to solve social disputes in polygamous marriages.

Disadvantages of Polygamy The aforementioned requirements are important because they ensure that men provide enough social and economic support to their families. Nonetheless, many Muslim men in polygamous marriages cannot fulfill all these requirements. Failure to fulfill the aforementioned requirements often leads to many challenges.

In the contemporary world, polygamy is increasingly becoming unpopular due to economic constraints. For example, food insecurity is endemic in most parts of the world. Hence, it is difficult for many men in polygamous marriages to provide enough food to their large families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inadequate food and shortage of basic needs often leads to many quarrels in polygamous marriages. Moreover, many rich men in polygamous marriages become poor because it is expensive to maintain a big family.

There are many social challenges in polygamous marriages. Thus, many Muslim women detest polygamy. First, a woman often develops a low self-esteem when her husband marries another woman. For example, a woman whose husband marries another woman without her consent and proper reasons is likely to be depressed.

Second, women always lack social support in polygamous marriages. For instance, majority of men often give their new wives much attention and abandon the old ones. This often leads to emotional problems and rivalry in polygamous marriages. Indeed, women in polygamous marriages often develop psychological problems such as depression because their husbands do not spend enough time with them.

Furthermore, children in polygamous families often become indiscipline due to lack of proper parental guidance. Cases of physical and emotional abuses are frequent in polygamous marriages than in monogamous ones. Men in polygamous marriages like abusing their wives because they have many women.

Many Muslim women criticize polygamy because it encourages patriarchy in the family. Usually, men become authoritative in polygamous marriages. They do not allow their women to participate in important decision-making processes in the family. For example, some men marry many women without consulting their wives.

Moreover, many women in polygamous marriages do not have power to control family resources such as land. Consequently, lack of proper decision-making often leads to bickering, violence, and jealousy in polygamous marriages. In addition, polygamy can lead to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS.

Advantages of Polygamy Despite the numerous shortcomings of polygamy, it has the following advantages. Polygamy can enable a man to have children if his first wife cannot give birth. In such a situation, a woman can allow her husband to marry another woman to enable them have children.

We will write a custom Essay on Polygamy in Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Polygamy can prevent men from engaging in sexual offenses. Polygamy can be encouraged if a woman cannot fulfill her family roles due to disability and ill health. For example, a married woman who is suffering from a chronic disease can encourage her husband to marry another woman to support her family.

Conclusion This essay has discussed the practice of Islamic polygamy. It has revealed that a Muslim man can marry a maximum of four women, but he should be kind to all of them. Moreover, a Muslim man should be financially stable because a polygamous family requires many resources.

Nonetheless, many Muslim men are unable to comply with the rules of Islamic polygamy. This often leads to immense suffering of women and children in polygamous families. Therefore, the shortcomings of polygamy outweigh its advantages. Consequently, polygamy should only be encouraged if there are genuine reasons to practice it.

Works Cited Ameenah, Abu and Bilal Philips. Polygamy in Islam. Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House, 2005. Print.

Nurmila, Nina. Women, Islam and Everyday Life: Renegotiating Polygamy in Indonesia. London: Taylor


Open Source Intelligence of Iran’s Nuclear Program Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Non-state Actors and Terrorism

Iran Nuclear Weapons and Star Wars

Farewell to Weapons of Mass Destruction

Worldwide Threat Assessment

The New Somali Prime Minister



Introduction The Iran’s nuclear program has attracted heated debates in the United States, and other parts of the world as analysts try to determine its real impact on world peace program. Since the end of the Second World War, there have been efforts to promote disarmament programs in major powers in the world.

The United States and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republic made efforts to scale down the volume of their weapons as a way of promoting peace in the world. However, individual states have continued with their armament programs, albeit in secrecy.

Recently, a state owned Russian media station claimed that Russia had the capacity to reduce the entire United States into a radioactive ash. This statement was a strong indication that Russia has been amassing weapons of mass destruction for the past several years. Iran is another nation that has been keen on developing nuclear weapons.1 North Korea and Pakistan have also engaged in activities which strongly indicate that they are building weapons of mass destruction, based on the reports of major media stations in the world.

It is important to analyze the allegations made by these sources to determine the truth. In this report, the focus will be to collect data from open sources about different targets of these weapons of mass destruction developed by different nations.

Non-state Actors and Terrorism The open resource intelligence by Blum2 focuses on the weapon of mass destruction in the hands of non-state actors. The world is rapidly changing, and the enemy is assuming an amorphous form, making it difficult for the targets to fight it properly. The non-state actors have assumed the form of terrorists that are determined to bring the United States of America down from its glory as the major world power.

According to these scholars, this new face is something that the United States’ government had not prepared for when planning its defense against the known enemies. During the two world wars, the enemies were known, and the battle fronts were clearly defined. During the Great American Revolution, the warring factions were clearly defined, and the battlefields were known to all the players.

During the Cold War, Russia was seen as an enemy of the United States. However, this new approach that has taken the form of terrorism is strange and difficult to fight.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The exact location of these terrorists is not known, making it difficult to wage proper war against them. The report by these scholars emphasize on the fact that these terrorist groups thrive well in politically unstable countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Somalia. The scholars note that the target for these groups is the United States of America.

In order to validate their arguments, they analyze activities of these groups over the years, especially after the Second World War. In Saudi Arabia, amorphous religious groups demanded the departure of all Americans and their companies from the country in the late 1970s and early 1980s.In Pakistan and Afghanistan, American embassies have been under constant attacks from the al Qaeda loyalists since late1980s.

On September 11, 2001, the Pentagon and the World Trade Center came under attack from the al Qaeda, a plan developed and executed under the leadership of Osama bin Laden.

Critical analysis of this document reveals that the scholars involved were not biased in their report. Their arguments were purely based on the attacks that have taken place, statements from the leaders of these terrorist groups, and various government reports on these activities. This makes it a highly valid and reliable document when analyzing the activities of the terrorists.

Iran Nuclear Weapons and Star Wars The report by Morton 3 focuses on the Iran Nuclear weapons, and the possibility of this bringing back the Star Wars. According to this open source intelligence, Iran is developing nuclear weapons at a rate that had not been anticipated by the world powers. Attempts by the United States to stop this country from developing nuclear bomb have turned it to be the target of these weapons.

Unlike the amorphous groups such as the al Qaeda with no clearly defined geographic location, this is a sovereign state with structures and a clear ambition to become one of the world’s powers. This report shows that although Iran may have some enemies within the region, the ultimate enemy of this country has always been the United States.

The economic sanctions placed over it by the United States only deepened the conflict between the two countries. Efforts by specific countries to target the United States did not start with Iran’s development of nuclear war.

We will write a custom Report on Open Source Intelligence of Iran’s Nuclear Program specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The past regimes in the United States have been struggling to find ways through which the country can be protected from external aggressors who may play using weapons of mass destruction against the country. In response to this, the Reagan’s government developed and SDI program (Strategic Defense Initiative) that was supposed to develop a defense mechanism for the country against weapons of mass destruction.

This resulted into the development of ABM (Anti-ballistic missile) defense program. However, the United States still remains vulnerable to these external aggressors, and it is the responsibility of the homeland security to find the best ways through which the country and its citizens can be protected from nuclear aggressions.

The open source document by Morton holds some facts that should be addressed by the homeland security. However, a few contradictions have been witnessed in this report that makes its validity questionable.

For instance, the author argues that Iran’s attempt to develop nuclear weapons went against the peace pact between NATO and War Saw Pact. However, he also appreciates that the United States has successfully developed nuclear weapons.

The question that many would be asking is why the America’s move to develop such weapons has not been viewed to be going against the pact. Being an American, this bias from the author is easily understandable.

Farewell to Weapons of Mass Destruction According to a report by Enemark4, the world should be working on ways of eliminating weapons of mass destruction as a way of promoting peace. The term ‘weapons of mass destruction’ was first used in 1945 when the then United States President, Harry Truman, met with other world leaders to find ways of bringing peace in the world.

When it was used at this time, the focus was to identify weapons that posed a threat to the masses when used such as the atomic, nuclear, or biological weapons with the view of limiting or eliminating their use in order to promote peace in the world. However, what transpired during the cold war was completely the opposite of what these statesmen aimed at achieving.

Countries have been amassing weapons of mass destruction. At first, the competition was between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and the United States. However, countries such as China, Iran, North Korean, Syria, and many others have joined in this competition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Open Source Intelligence of Iran’s Nuclear Program by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it is necessary to note that security can only be achieved if we fight against these weapons. The target for most of these countries remains the United States because it is viewed as the only superpower that should be dislodged from this position.

Christian Enemark is an American security analyst who has worked for the US Army War College. Although this fact may make his report questionable, it is clear that he made efforts to avoid any form of biases. His report also focused on downsizing the weapons of mass destruction by all countries.

Worldwide Threat Assessment The report by Clapper5 focuses on the worldwide threat posed by organized terrorist groups and governments around the world that operates in close coordination with these terrorist groups. In the Middle East, groups such as Islamist Jihad, Hamas, Hezbollah, and al Qaeda have been engaging in terrorist activities around the world. In Africa, the al Shabab is causing havoc in the Indian Ocean and various African nations.

Other organized groups are also operating in various parts of the world. Some of these groups have taken the political nature and are currently in the government of various countries in the Middle East. Some of these regional affiliates are expanding their targets. For instance, the al Qaeda affiliates in Africa, the al Shabab, is currently targeting countries seen to be close to the United States such as Kenya and Ethiopia.

They attacked U.S. embassy in the country and other institutions considered sympathizers of the West. These attacks spread to various Arab nations in the Middle East and parts of Africa.

In 1998, American embassies in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania were bombed by al Qaeda, a plan that was executed by its military wing headed by the late Osama bin Laden. This is a clear indication that terrorism is no longer an issue of the United States. The entire world is currently under attack.

The validity of this report is above board because it has been based on the events that have been taking place in various parts of the world. The information it has compiled is readily available in other sources.

The New Somali Prime Minister According to the report by Ali6, Somalia has been a lawless country for close to two decades. The country has been in the hands of the militias that have been operating in major urban centers. It is home to the al Shabab, a dreaded terrorist group that has been responsible for sea piracy in the Indian Ocean. The country has been a strategic location for the terrorist groups because of lack of a clear government.

The election of the new prime minister who is pro-West has been a major milestone in promoting peace in the region and in eliminating anti-American terrorists that have been operating in the country. It is also seen as a move that would promote security in the entire eastern part of Africa.

The document has avoided controversial reports made by other scholars in order to improve on its reliability and acceptability among scholars and other relevant users.

Bibliography Ali, Mohamed. “Cautious Welcome For New Prime Minister.” Open Source Center 6, no. 30 (2011): 1-5.

Blum, Andrew, Asal Victor, and Wlkenfeld Jonathan. “Nonstate Actors, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction.” International Studies Review 7, no. 1 (2005): 133-170.

Clapper, James. Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. New York: US National Intelligence, 2011.

Enemark, Christian. “Farewell to WMD: The Language and Science of Mass Destruction.” Contemporary Security Policy 32, no. 2 (2011): 382–400.

GAO. “Homeland Defense: Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command’s Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain.” United States Government Accountability Office 8, no. 252 (2008). 1-57.

Robert Morton. Will Iran Nuclear Bomb Renew Star Wars? Open Source Intelligence News. Web.

Footnotes 1 GAO. “Homeland Defense: Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command’s Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain.” United States Government Accountability Office 8, no. 252 (2008): 44.

2 Andrew Blum, Victor Asal, and Jonathan Wlkenfeld, “Nonstate Actors, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction,” International Studies Review 7, no. 1 (2005): 155.

3 Robert Morton, Will Iran Nuclear Bomb Renew Star Wars? Open Source Intelligence News.

4 Christian Enemark, “Farewell to WMD: The Language and Science of Mass Destruction,” Contemporary Security Policy 32, no. 2 (2011): 391.

5 James Clapper, Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (New York: US National Intelligence, 2011), 5.

6 Mohamed Ali, “Cautious Welcome for New Prime Minister,” Open Source Center 6, no. 30 (2011): 2.


Quantitative Risk Assessment – Performance Plastics Inc Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Executive Summary This is a risk management plan for the expansion of a company known as Performance Plastics Inc., and the acquisition of its parent company known as Shimtech Industries. Performance Plastics Inc., is a company, which specialises in the production of high precision aerospace components.

The expansion plan exposed the company to several risks, which include financial, technological, environmental, acquisition, business environments, industry, and retention and employee layoffs.

Other issues include legal, intellectual property rights, leadership, human resource, and corporate strategy risks. The risks are entered into a risk register and a risk response plan of risk avoidance; acceptance, mitigation and transfer are considered.

Project Summary The project scope includes a risk management plan for the expansion and acquisition of the Shimtech Industries by the Plastics Inc, company, which will be achieved by merging the departments of the companies and the ability to manage the risks associated with the human resource, finance, market/industry, and management issues (Carter


Colonialism Analytical Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Origins of Colonialism


European Colonialism


Impacts of European Colonialism


Works Cited

Introduction The rise and spread of colonialism is one of the significant themes in world civilization. Colonialism is an old phenomenon that emerged during the ancient period in Europe. It can be divided into two phases. The first phase is called old imperialism. It occurred between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries. During this timeframe, European powers such as Britain and France conquered small states in Europe.

New imperialism began after 1870 due to the rise of capitalism in Europe. Indeed, the Europeans argued that they colonized America, Asia, and Africa to solve social, economic, and political challenges. Nonetheless, they wanted to achieve their economic ambitions.

Colonialism led to serious challenges in the world. Thus, various scholars such Walter Rodney, Karl Marx, Aimé Césaire, and Adams Smith have tried to analyze colonialism. “Aimé Césaire’s Discourse on Colonialism is a moving examination of the cruelty, impassiveness, and dehumanizing consequence of colonization on both colonizer and colonized” . This essay discusses the historical context of Césaire’s essay.

Origins of Colonialism Colonialism has been analyzed from various perspectives. According to Césaire, the European civilization caused myriad challenges, which it could not solve. Thus, the Europeans had to seek external solutions to their domestic problems. Césaire argues that the European civilization was debauched because it could not solve the challenges it created. The following factors led to the emergence of colonialism.

Imperialism Imperialism refers to the extension of social, economic, and political supremacy of a superior nation to an inferior one. Imperialism was an idea of superiority that was perpetrated by the Europeans.

Thus, the Europeans conquered the entire world based on the concept of superiority. The Europeans believed that they were the most civilized in the world. Thus, they had the moral obligation to extend their civilization to other parts of the world.

Economic imperialism was caused by the rise and development of capitalism in Europe . Capitalism is an economic model that emerged after mercantilism. It began in Europe during the Industrial Revolution. Capitalism is an economic system in which citizens own the primary modes of production. In this economic system, people invest their resources to make more profits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Industrial Revolution began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century. Britain pioneered industrialization because of social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, other European countries such as France and Germany faced social, economic, and political upheavals in the eighteenth century.

Thus, between 1750 and 1850, Britain was the leading producer of manufactured goods in Europe. The strong economic position of Britain enabled it to dominate other European countries.

After 1850, other European countries such as Germany and France began to industrialize. Thus, the spread of the Industrial Revolution in Europe led to over production of manufactured products.

This led to lack of markets for manufactured goods since major European powers were producing their own products. Lack of markets led to trade barriers in Europe. Moreover, the spread of the Industrial Revolution led to competition for raw materials and investment opportunities.

Capitalism caused serious social and economic challenges in Europe. First, it led to over production of goods and investment of capital. Second, there was concentration of income in a few hands. Thus, majority of the Europeans did not have the purchasing power. The bourgeoisie also reduced the amount of wages they paid the proletarians . All these factors led to a serious economic recession.

Due to the economic decline, the capitalists advised their governments to introduce economic reforms to foster economic growth. They also pressurized their political leaders to acquire colonies to enable them access cheap raw materials, markets, cheap labor, and investment opportunities.

Thus, imperialism emerged as result of capitalism. Consequently, “imperialism has been defined as the highest stage of capitalism”. Imperialism led to the rise of colonialism in various parts of the world.

We will write a custom Essay on Colonialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More European Colonialism European colonialism became intensive towards the last quarter of the 19th century because of the following factors. European countries were interested in fulfilling their capitalist ambitions. Therefore, they colonized various parts of the world because they wanted cheap raw materials. They wanted to access more markets because of stiff competition in their domestic markets.

The capitalists were looking for better investment opportunities because they had extra capital to invest. They were looking for cheap labor to facilitate production of raw materials . In addition, they wanted to occupy strategic territories such as India, Egypt, and the African seaboard to secure important trade routes. All these factors led to colonialism.

Liberalism After the French Revolution, the spread of the ideas of equality and liberty led to nationalism in Europe. Thus, there was a serious struggle for nationalism in Europe in the 1870s. For example, the unification of Germany in 1870 and Italy in 1871 led to political upheavals in Europe. Before the rise of Germany, England and France were the most dominant political powers in the European continent.

Thus, the rise of Germany interfered with the balance of power in Europe. For instance, the rivalry between France and Germany led to the Franco Prussian War. After this war, France began to acquire overseas colonies because it lost two provinces to Germany. This event marked the onset of the serious scramble for colonies among European powers.

The desire to spread the European civilization was another factor that led to colonialism. The Europeans wanted to propagate their culture based on the idea of cultural imperialism. Indeed, the Europeans felt that they had the best civilization in the world. Thus, they deemed other races barbaric. Socially, “the Europeans wanted to spread Christianity”.

Impacts of European Colonialism A part from the causes of colonialism, Césaire also highlights the consequences of colonialism on the subjugated. He wrote the Colonial Discourse in the last days of colonialism. Thus, Césaire’s manuscript demonstrates the practice of colonialism and its outcomes. Colonialism had the following consequences on the colonized.

Economic exploitation was the main reason for the European colonialism. The Europeans exploited precious raw materials such as gold, diamonds, and iron in the conquered territories. These raw materials were exploited to fulfill the economic ambitions of the Europeans.

During the colonial period, the colonized became proletariats who offered cheap labor to the Europeans. Indeed, forced labor was rife during the colonial period. It led to economic under development of the colonized. Land alienation became endemic in the European colonies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Colonialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the colonized experienced serious economic challenges . The colonialists imposed heavy taxes on the colonized, but they did not provide public services to them. Moreover, the Europeans disrupted the indigenous modes of production such as trade, agriculture, and industries. Therefore, European colonialism led to under development in the colonies.

European colonialism led to social challenges in various societies. For example, they conquered various territories through military attacks, which led to massive loss of lives and destruction of property. Therefore, various scholars have criticized the brutality of the Europeans during the colonial period.

For instance, Césaire contends that the Europeans were uncultured because they were inhuman during the colonial period. Moreover, the Europeans introduced racial segregation in various territories. For example, the practice of apartheid in South Africa led to immense suffering of the natives.

Colonialism led to cultural alienation of the vanquished. For instance, the Europeans undermined various civilizations in the world because they believed that they were the most cultured. Thus, they compelled the colonized to espouse and practice their culture. In this case, colonialism led to cultural erosion in various societies. For example, the British colonization of India led to the destruction of the Indian civilization.

Cultural erosion was witnessed in Africa and Asia. The Europeans claimed that they wanted to solve social challenges such as witchcraft, incest, and illiteracy. Nonetheless, they were interested in spreading their own cultural practices and religion. For example, “they wanted to spread Christianity”. Thus, they undermined other religious practices and rituals.

Colonialism led to serious political challenges in various parts of the world. The colonialists disrupted indigenous political structures in the colonized territories. They introduced authoritarian systems of administration in the conquered territories. During the colonial period, the colonized did not participate in political administration.

Furthermore, they did not have rights. Hence, the Europeans undermined the dignity of the colonized. The Europeans applied the policy of divide and rule, which led to the rise of ethnicity in various societies. Today, ethnicity is a major political challenge in many developing countries. In the postcolonial era, many political challenges such as authoritarianism have been witnessed in the former European colonies.

Conclusion Colonialism was a manifestation of the challenges that occurred in the European civilization. Césaire asserts that the European civilization failed to surmount the challenges it created. Thus, it was a debauched civilization. According to Césaire, European imperialism led to the rise and spread of colonialism in the world. The Europeans felt that they were the most cultured; hence, they conquered other races to civilize them.

The Europeans masqueraded as philanthropists who were interested in improving the social and economic conditions of the colonized. However, they used treachery to colonize and exploit other races.

Therefore, Césaire is one of the critiques of the European colonialism because it failed to improve the social, economic, and political conditions of the conquered. Undeniably, colonialism led to the spread of racism, violence, and poverty in the world. It also destroyed many civilizations.

At present, “the Europeans have not been able to find lasting solutions to the problems of the proletariats and the bourgeoisies”. Moreover, they have not been able to deal with the effects of colonialism. Thus, colonialism was the historical context of Césaire’s essay.

Works Cited Césaire, Aimé and Joan Pinkham. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001. Print.

Fanon, Frantz and Richard Philcox. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press, 2008. Print.

Lenin, Vladimir. Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Memmi, Albert and Susan G Miller. The Colonizer and the Colonized. London: Beacon Press, 2000. Print.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London: Black Classic Press, 2011. Print.


Ousource ADPC Precument to Tejari Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Problem

The proposed solution

Assessing Tejari’s Efficiency


Introduction Procurement outsourcing involves the outsourcing of a company’s major procurement operations to another organisation. This research study focuses on investigating how effective it would be to outsource ADCP’s procurement activities to Teraji. In order to accomplish this, the study must first investigate the need to outsource, and subsequently analyse the efficiency of outsourcing to Teraji.

It is important to consider outsourcing the procurement activities of ADPC due to the important role procurement plays in supporting the core competencies of the company. While procurement does not stand as one of the organisation’s core competency, it remains an important function in the company as it is one of the only activities that takes place in all three-core competencies.

The Problem With the increasing complexity in Abu Dhabi’s fleet management, it is important for companies in the maritime industry to focus on accomplishing their core competency activities. Procurement (an element of company logistics) is the major non-core activity, which results in time and resource consumption.

Considering that ADPC’s major functions include the maintenance, refurbishing, and development of the seaports, it is possible to outsource procurement. Should ADPC effectively implement these outsourcing activities, it will be able to maximise the potential of available time and resources.

Due to the increase in fleet flow in Abu Dhabi, it is important for the management of ADPC to consider the possible applicable measures for improving its performance.

The major way to do this is to ensure that the company limits its key performance indicators to the available resources. Thus, it is necessary for ADPC to outsource other time and resource consuming organisational activities, which may include procurement.

The proposed solution In order to solve the problem of complex procurement, and to allow the ADPC focus on its primary goals, this project seeks to investigate the feasibility of outsourcing ADPC’s procurement operations to Tejari service. In procurement outsourcing, a company transfers all, or a major part, of its logistics functions to third party companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Procurement outsourcing may be done to cut down costs or to create room for the company to concentrate on other significantly important organisational operations.

Considering that the core company of ADPC’s operations is measurable based on its ability to ensure effective fleet management in all commercial seaports, it may be necessary to outsource some of the activities that are less related to the organisation’s key performance indicator.

The major functions of the ADPC are to ensure swift response to maintenance, refurbishment, and improvement of each port it oversees. These activities are not only tedious, but also require high levels of procurement and inventory management.

In order to ensure that it can effectively focus on its core operations, ADPC needs to outsource its procurement activities to a company that is formidable and permits procurement via up-to-date methods. Tejari is an electronic marketplace that facilitates real time trading between different companies over the internet.

Tejari has an experience of more than ten years in internet procurement and offers excellent services to many companies located in the Arab Gulf. Tejari offers extensive internet based procurement and logistic services. With over 100000 clients using Tejari’s internet based purchase systems, the company is now known for its honest, cost-efficient and excellent procurement procedures.

It is anticipated that if ADPC outsources its procurement activities to Tejari, it would have more time and resources to focus on performing its core operational activities.

While procurement is a major element required for ADPC to accomplish its core operations, it is important to note that procurement is more of a secondary operational function driving the company’s success. Therefore, there are no considerable risks associated with outsourcing the procurement operations of the company to Tejari.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ousource ADPC Precument to Tejari specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assessing Tejari’s Efficiency It will be necessary to investigate how effective Tejari will handle ADPC’s procurement activities. Tejari’s efficiency will be measured by performing a satisfaction survey targeting some of its current and past clients. The survey will measure different satisfaction variables ranging from the user friendliness of Teraji’s online procurement interphase, to the physical promptness of the company’s service delivery.

The outcomes of the survey will be analysed to identify the customer satisfaction levels of the participants as the types of services the customers appreciate. This way, it will be possible for the researcher to recommend the best approach ADPC should follow in outsourcing its products to Teraji.

Conclusion This outline presented an overview of the activities that would be contained in the report. While a solution has already been proposed for ADPC to follow in order to increase its focus on its core operations, it is important to investigate the efficacy of applying the proposed approach.

This outline summarized the proposed solution. It also explains the process the report will apply in examining the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A survey analysis will be used to investigate the satisfaction levels of previous Teraji clients; their responses will be used to draw conclusions, hence a final recommendation.


Diversity Rates in Mercer County, West Virginia Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help

Diversity rates are an essential indicator of the relationships between the members of the society, as well as the existence of ethnicity or race related stereotypes. It is crucial that the voice of every single member of the society should be heard, which is hardly possible once certain community is underrepresented in the society, be it a specific ethnicity, nationality, or gender.

While introducing more diversity into a specific society, where a certain minority experiences considerable difficulties in becoming the members of a community is hardly possible, facilitating the environment, in which this minority can feel appreciated is quite practicable.

Though the research of the data regarding the Mercer County diversity concerns mostly its education establishments, particularly, local schools, the information obtained in the course of the research gives a lot of food for thoughts.

As the data acquired from ZIPskinny shows, Black and Asian people are underrepresented in the community considerably, Athens (one of Mercer’s biggest communities) having only 3.5% and 1.4% of the aforementioned ethnicities in the community correspondingly (The skinny on: 24712 (Athens WV), 2000).

The rates of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, as well as the Native American one, are close to 0% in most of the county’s communities (Communities in West Virginia, 2000). These rather surprising results indicate that the members of the county might have tangible communication problems in case of conversing with the representatives of other cultures.

The ethnicity and culture related issues are not the only problems that the Mercer community should pay special attention to. According to the U.S. Census Bureau map, the area of Mercer incorporates two minor civil divisions, Princeton in the center of the county and Bluefield in the northwest (Mercer County, WV – economic places, 2007).

The size of the areas shows clearly that the people inhabiting it are the county minority and, therefore, need to be represented properly, as well as have an opportunity to engage into the county’s social life and have their say in the decisions on major changes in the infrastructure of the county, the education related changes, political issues, etc.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other sources point at the fact that Mercer County is not as much preoccupied with its diversity issues, as it is concerned with the education opportunities for students in general.

According to the recent report, the MCCC (Mercer County Community College) teaching staff members have recently “emphasized the need to increase postsecondary access and accelerate college completion to build stronger bridges from high schools, adult education, community colleges, four-year universities, and the workforce” (NCAA graduation rates, 2011).

Such an approach may be the sign of diversity concerns being rather low in the county; however, the lack of engagement with the diversity rates may also show that the county does not pay as much attention to the issue as it deserves.

Therefore, despite the fact that over the past few years, diversity rates have been increased slightly in Mercer County due to immigration (Diversity in the classroom, 2012), the situation still leaves much to be desired. It is important to realize that a range of outcomes for the Mercer County society hinges on whether all its members have been represented properly.

Since the diversity rates are increasing very slowly, a booster for the process must be created; in other words, various media for spreading awareness concerning the significance of diversity and the values of other cultures is crucial for the functioning of the Mercer County society.

As long as all members of the population are represented equally, considerable improvements in the relationships between the residents of the county can be expected, and several major economic and cultural issues are likely to be resolved.

Speaking of the significance of the aforementioned data or a teacher, one must admit that the information provided above may serve as a perfect foil for an educator to base the approach towards the students on.

We will write a custom Essay on Diversity Rates in Mercer County, West Virginia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The significance of students’ background, both ethnic and social, is not to be underestimated, for it defines the background knowledge that the students may have and, therefore, the pace at which their academic progress is going to take place. More to the point, the students’ national, ethic and social background defines the approach that a teacher should undertake in order to motivate the students.

Indeed, the values and morals, which students are guided by are predetermined by their cultural background for the most part. Therefore, the facts acquired from the statistical data about the diversity rates among students inform the strategies that a teacher adopts in order to motivate their students for the learning process.

There is no secret that students are rarely capable of motivating themselves for academic achievements; as a result, in most cases, it is a teachers’ job to make students interested in the subject. However, reaching students is not an easy task if they represent a completely different culture and are motivated by different ideas.

Analyzing the culture of the students helps the teacher not only enhance the students’ performance, but also increase awareness concerning diversity and the problems related to prejudice among the rest of the class.

Reference List Communities in West Virginia (2000). Web.

Diversity in the classroom (2012). Web.

Mercer County, WV – economic places (2007). Web.

NCAA graduation rates (2011). Web.

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The Rise and Fall of the Islamic Spain Report best college essay help

Introduction Re-enacted in a 2007 movie, Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain, the documentary explains how the Islamic Spain has a rich history while focusing on its impact on the world civilisation (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Since the antiquity, religion was an element of information transmission and conviction of masses.

The religion that commanded the greatest population became the greatest source of influence (Wasserstein 47). Referred to as the Dark Ages, Spain underwent a visible transformation after Muslims, Christians, and Jews clashed. This paper intends to explain the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain with a particular emphasis on the importance of Spain to the world civilisation.

Other religions were equally very important to Spain, but Islam was a source of artistic integration, economic stability, and political prowess in the country. These religions had a direct impact on the rise and fall of the Islamic religion in Spain, and it would be impossible to create a comparison without proper representation of Christianity and Judaism.

Islamic civilisation Rise of the Islamic religion in Spain

By 600 BCE, Islam was already a powerful religion in Europe and particularly Spain. Spain was the home of European Renaissance even before Muslims dominated the country. During this period, Spain had control of Iberia and Caucasus, which are presently in Russia. Catholicism enabled artists and philosophers to explore science, art, medicine, and technology among several other factors.

Philosophers such as Aristotle have a background in Spain during the Islamic era (Lapidus 92). In 734 BCE, most parts of Europe began recognising the significance of the Islam religion to the people of Spain. This included the invention of the lemon tree and the water wheel among others. In Spain, there was an opportunity for religion to grow and to help people embrace new lifestyles.

Muslims co-existed peacefully with other religions especially Christians and Jews. This contradicted other areas of Europe in which power strife controlled the religions that people appreciated. This applied to the Iberian Peninsula that had a problem with the Jews.

In addition, there was a problem in Russia because the Muslims in the region could not entertain the growing number of Christians who did not have to pay taxes to sustain their religions (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Power struggles amongst different religions across Europe led to the downfall of some of the most powerful groups. This explains the fall of the Umayyad kingdom after 700 AD in Europe.

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Sustainability is the most difficult tool of management to maintain. In Spain, Muslims marinated excellent relations with other religions in order to avoid conflicts. During this period, power coupled with ignorance only saw many countries fight to be the best. Most parts of Europe rarely concentrated on the significance of peace as an element of development in the society.

Instead, they believed that power and influence only came when people fought for the various spaces they ardently wanted. According to the Muslims, the only strategy to success in an environment of diversity is to work together and share ideas. This led to the conviction of many Spaniards converting mostly of them into Muslims. Different religions shared resources and ideas enabling the country to thrive and succeed in Europe.

Spain became an example to many people before the religious wars began. Though the groups existed as religious extremists, they had a common idea of developing the country and transforming Spain into an enviable country in Europe.

However, when religious differences ensued, it was important for only one religion to prove powerful in Spain. Around 1000 AD, there was a significant difference in opinions between the Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the previously peaceful Spain. By 1207 AD, violence ensued in the country causing a major collapse of the Islamic Spain.

Politics and the Islamic Spain

Religion, politics, and economics formed the pillars for Islamic Spain. When the ruling power polity supports a particular religion, there is a high possibility that the religion would have the greatest influence on the people. In addition, the powerful religion becomes the greatest challenger of the government when it fails to achieve its obligation to the society.

This explains the position held by the Muslim religion in Spain. Through influence, the religion exercised authority over the land ensuring that the government achieved its obligations to the people of Spain. Islam helped in reinforcing ethical responsibility in the people it represented. Between 660 AD and 950 AD, Islam became a source of solace for many Spaniards.

During the same period, any information from Muhammad the prophet controlled the governance structures. By the 10th century, all governance structures had the presence of Muslim leadership. For instance, Abdul-Rahman, the leader of Al-Andalus had to ensure that Muslims and other religions co-existed peacefully for the overall development of the country.

We will write a custom Report on The Rise and Fall of the Islamic Spain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, politics formed an important basis for building a strong Islamic front in Spain. Respect to ethics also helped in increasing the goodwill of the population towards the Islamic Spain. Muslim movements also collected taxes to fulfil their strategic plans. This did not happen among the Christians ensuring that a section of the population converted to Christianity.

This was the greatest source of animosity between Muslims and Christians. However, poor Muslims did not pay taxes even though they had food, a place to sleep, and clothes to adorn. This was very significant in making the Muslim religion attractive to many Spaniards.


Acquisition was an important element of expanding the Islamic Spain. It gave the union power to dominate over Spain and other parts of Europe and this created animosity between the movement and Europeans. Europeans wanted the slightest opportunity to protect their Holy lands and to invade the Muslim dominated grounds especially Al-Andalus.

Islamic Spain acquired the Martials from North Africa making it easy to introduce the religion in the acquired regions. Around the 11th century, Islamic Spain acquired most parts of the West. The country achieved this through unity and continued persistence (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS).

The Iberian Peninsula displayed high reception levels to the Spanish civilisation making it the most effective place for the Islamic Spain to acquire that part of Europe. As this happened, the relationship between the Christian and Muslim religious sects became soar. Al-Andalus was no longer a place for refuge because Islamic Spain had limited power to protect its followers (Wasserstein 38).

Besides attacks internally, the Islamic Spain faced opposition from other parts of Europe. European countries joined forces to fight the Islamic Spain, and the invaded armies from North America participated in the war (Ahlstrom 20). Acquisition remains a strategy of attaining dominance for most organisations today.

As such, the Islamic Spain was the initiator of civilisation because the things that people learned during the period still apply in capitalistic economies. Acquisition enabled the Islamic Spain to gain the confidence of the people and to remain stable over centuries.

There is evidence that knowledge and unity were the forces that helped the union to earn public goodwill because without the same, it would be overly impossible to acquire another land and expand territories.

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There are very many reasons why countries opt to adapt a uniform religion that all people should follow. For over 800 years, the Spanish accepted Muslims because of the ability of the religion to promote development within the country and promotion of peaceful co-existence. The factors discussed below contributed towards Muslim’s influence in Spain.


Muslims promoted creativity in Spain and this was very important for the civilisation. Before religious tension ensued in the Iberian Peninsula, Spain was the centre of attraction for the people of Europe because the country developed various innovative products. The water wheel among other innovations was significant throughout civilisation and other European countries began aping the trend.

Even with the slight religious clashes, the Muslims still supported innovation. For some unknown reason, there was competition between the Muslims, Jews, and Christians and this promoted the development of industrial products during the period.

The 10th century Spain required a religion that would protect the land jealously from external forces that would seek to divide the caliphate (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS).

Around the same period, the fast growing Umayyad kingdom in Syria sought to extend to Spain, Poland, and Russia among other parts of Europe. It was impossible for the dynasty to invade Spain, and control it because the Islamic Spain was equally prominent and there was no need for the Umayyad kingdom to invade a territory that was dominantly Islam.

Religion promoted art, business, technology, science, and philosophy among other elements of creativity. It was difficult to notice that Muslims provided the calm innovative environment in order to be completely in control of the country. For about 8 centuries people lived under the rule of Muslim leaders. As such, all systems had to follow the law set by Muslim rulers.

Spain being the European hub for innovation could not afford to have any wars because this would reduce the influence it commanded in Europe. During this very period, the Pope equally submitted to the Muslim leadership even though he led the Catholic Church separately. Evidently, the Pope tried to intervene when the Umayyad caliphate and the Muslims in Spain began scrambling for space and recognition in the country.

This affected innovation because there was limited time for thinking and production because the country concentrated on the war at hand. In the end, the fall of the Islamic Spain acted as assign of the Civil War that occurred in Spain between 1936 and 1939.

Unity Peaceful coexistence and unity are principal factors of developing a dynasty that would have a long-term effect on people. This applied to the situation in Spain during the Islamic rule. Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived together and supported each other especially on matters of national importance. Spain had a popular culture making it difficult to realise that the country consisted of people from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds.

Peace and unity promoted economic growth in the country and this helped in making Spain famous. There was completely nothing wrong with the Muslim rule until the different religious sects began fighting for fame and prowess.

There was no need to oppose a government that helped Spain identify with the international community through art, poetry, science, engineering, and several aspects of the great civilisation. Disunity would definitely not allow the country to achieve its objectives, and this explains why the Spaniards supported the Islamic rule for 800 years (Collomb 100).

Spaniards did not begin the religious wars. Instead, the wars began between Muslims from Syria and Spanish Muslims. The Spaniards sought to protect their territory from external invasion and this affected the stability in the country. In almost all probability, without the religious wars, Islamic Spain would still exist in Europe.

The people of Spain did not have any issue with the leadership of the Islamic rulers and this explains the over 700 years of their religion’s leadership in a country initially dominated by Catholics. Muslims promoted brotherhood and unity, which were the building pillars of success in Spain. Unity lacked in other parts of Europe and this threatened the very existence of the Jews in Russia and Christians in Syria.

Issues of religious extremism never existed because the Jews and the Christians provided an excellent environment for Muslim leadership. Through unity, the country was able to experience peace, economic growth, and stability, which were very important to Spaniards.

Independence Religious extremists mostly in Islam exist because the involved parties overly exaggerate the functions of Jihad. During the middle Ages, religious freedom prevailed and this enabled different religious to operate at the same level. While the same happened, the ruling religion had to command respect from the rest of the population.

There was no need to fight for power, unlike the extremist groups from different religions in the current societies that overly fight for recognition. The Islamic government created religious autonomy for Spaniards and the fact that each person was free to worship in a religion in which he or she was comfortable reduced the possibility of the occurrence of religious wars.

Muslim leaders of the 10th to 18th century in Spain used intellect to rule the land. Religion is a strong force of rebellion, but empowering each religion reduces the possibility of such occurrence.

In essence, the Muslims never exercised control over other people and Christians could worship in churches while Jews could use temples freely. By empowering different religions, the Spaniards felt safe under the rule of Muslims and they had no reason to overturn a stable government.

Muslims never used totalitarianism to rule Spain, but the rulers focused on dialogue as an important aspect of attaining public goodwill. Islamic rulers understood that they were dealing with enlightened people in Spain and exercising authority on them would trigger a revolt. This happened when the Pope tried to eradicate Muslims from Spain even though he was initially comfortable with the rule.

It was evident that the Umayyad dynasty would take control of the land if the Islamic Spain failed to defend the land from externalities. Most critics considered the Pope as a selfish church leader who took the opportunity to rule the country after the Muslim-to-Muslim war ensued in the country.

When unity and religious autonomy failed in the country, it was impossible for the country to remain relevant in Europe even in the face of inventing the hydraulic technology.

Failure of the Islamic period Power strife

Initially, the Muslims co-existed peacefully with other religions and it was impossible to predict the occurrence of violence in the country. Power struggles became evident around the 11th century in which the Al-Andalus dynasty because the community realised that the Pope strived to bring down the Muslim rule by dissuading people from following the Islamic movement.

In 1207, the Pope organised a crusade to the dynasty for people to rebel against the kingdom. It was not easy for the Muslims to relent and they had to organise armies to defend Spain against Christian invasion. On the other hand, Christians wanted to command Spain as they did during the Greco-Roman revolution.

Leaving the Muslims to command the land would definitely make it difficult for people to remember that Christians equally were a strong force in Spain. In 1236, Muslims retaliated in Cordoba considering the fact that Christians pitched tent in the area initially dominated by Muslims (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS).

During this period, Christians used subtle strategies to lure Muslims. Muslims had to pay taxes in order to provide meals and accommodation for the poor in the society. In addition, Christians also transformed mosques into churches and this did not offer an alternative to worshipers because they atomically had to convert to Christianity.

By the 14th century, only Granada Muslim Empire remained untouched by the growing Christian movement. Only the most prominent religion could survive the violence and this gave rise to Catholicism’s fame while Muslims had to deal with the loss. This was one of the major causes of the fall of the Islamic Spain.

Destroying Granada

The Granada kingdom was the only hope for Muslims in the 14th century until a century later when Christians equally reached to the mountains to access the dynasty. One of the things that weakened the Muslim kingdom was an initial power struggle between the Umayyad caliphate in Syria and the Islamic Spain.

This caused the Christians to understand the weaknesses of the kingdom and around the 15th century, Christians moved towards the Granada Mountains to attack the kingdom. During their first visit to the kingdom, they never launched an attack, but instead created friendly relations with the Muslims.

It was almost impossible to understand the motives of the Christians because initially they caused destruction in kingdoms represented by Muslims in Spain. The Pope ordered an invasion of the land beginning with Christians and Jews and this raised confusions among the Muslim population. This deterred them from launching retaliatory attacks considering the attacks only affected the Christian and Jewish populations.

The Pope received mixed reactions from the population even though Christianity began gaining prominence in the land over a short period. To some people, religion became a force that controlled the lives of people preventing them from exercising autonomy even in terms of the most basic things such as fashion (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS).

As such, a section of the population participated in eradication of the Muslim religion because they had business interests. Things got worse around 1500 when the Christians used force to convert Muslims.

The main intention was to get the greatest support from the population in overtaking the land and ruling Spain as they did before the Islamic Spain came into power. Transforming Granada was the ultimate objective of Christians because it would garner the greatest support for the Christians.

Responsibility versus authority

When the society entrusted power with the Islamic movement around the 8 century, they had to delegate authority in order to avoid power strife. Though Muslims provided autonomy for other religions, they controlled the entire country making it difficult for non-Muslims to succeed in the era of civilisation. Ability to exercise responsibility does not amount to authority.

Muslim leadership exercised authority since it became the only avenue that innovators could display their engineering, philosophical, and artistic ideas. For some reason, Islamic Spain controlled the population by ensuring that the leaders used subtle communication strategies to attract the greatest number of people.

When the rest of the population understood that power was very significant for them, Islamic Spain was in the verge of collapse (Abadi 111). The Muslims did not get requisite support from the population they initially controlled because they used authority to govern the land. In the face of such calamities, the support of the target population is usually very important because they help in protecting the land against enemies.

When the Umayyad kingdom displayed interest in Spain, Christians did not intervene because they equally wanted a taste of power and Muslims fighting against Muslims was an excellent remedy during the period.

After the fall of the dynasty, Christians had to understand the difference between authority and responsibility or else they would also lose their position to the Jews or other religions (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). However, the Christians commanded a huge army making it difficult for Muslims to defeat the Jews and the Non-Muslims in the 15th century.


In a movie re-enacting the events that culminated in the 800 years of Islamic Spain, there is evidence that the Muslim leaders used bureaucracy to control the land. Bureaucratic principles might last through generations but at some point, the population gets tired of the same and they support democracy. Leading a country for over 7 centuries is not easy and it takes an overly aggressive government to achieve the same.

Evidently, the Jews and the Christians came first to the Iberian Peninsula even though Muslims later came to control the land. It takes bureaucracy too be able to convince a section people to convert to a certain religion. In bureaucracy, the greatest principle is the ability to persuade people that the ideologies of the bureaucratic individual are the best in comparison to others within the socio-political environment.

Bureaucracy leads to failure because after periods of governance, the rulers are likely to lose their political influence because the population equally becomes enlightened. According to the movie, the Muslims were the elites of the pre-civilised Spain.

However, they promoted civilisation through different quotas enabling many countries in Europe to take interest in the country (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Through faith, they converted the Jews and the Christians to Christianity, but this did not last to eternity.

Similarly, the Muslim rule could not survive the 8th century because of the overly enlightened Spanish population. The fall of Islamic Spain began when the enlightened society realised that they would remain productive even in the absence of the Muslims.

Foreign relations and civilisation

Islamic Spain contributed towards the world civilisation in many ways. Besides invention, the Spaniards were excellent innovators who improved initially developed products in Europe. Through science, politics, and engineering, the Spaniards became a source of inspiration to the rest of the world.

Foreign relations

Since antiquity, the years of the Greco-Roman revolution, the years of Christopher Columbus, and the Age of Renaissance, Spain is very significant in history. European countries wanted to learn from the Spaniards and they had to maintain quality relations with the country. Through cultural integration, Islamic Spain managed to influence many Europeans into adapting Muslim strategies of doing things.

Islam in Spain created room for religious diversity enabling other religions to participate in the civilisation process and to improve the situation in the country. Philosophy promoted by Aristotle attracted the attention of European countries and the rest of the world.

Evidently, the philosophers still have an impact on current populations and people take interest in countries such as Spain as promoters of civilisation during and after the antiquity (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS).

Foreign relations between Spain, Poland, and Russia among other countries in Europe were excellent. The only animosity that existed was between Syria and Spain because of the powerful Muslim dynasties during the period.

Through foreign relations, Spain acquired raw materials including natural resources from Russia. In return, Russia acquired its finished products to help in industrialisation of the country. The fact that the Jews co-existed peacefully with the Muslims and Christians made the country admirable to foreigners within Europe.

As such, many people immigrated to Spain and converted to Islam because they wanted to be part of a religion that promoted growth and civilisation.

By the 10th century, Europeans related to the Mosques, the Hebrew pinnacle, and Churches in Spain. Besides religion, Spain maintained excellent relations with neighbouring countries by promoting its literature. Today, many people still refer to Spanish literature, creative poetry, and books.

In reference to the movie, Muslims created room for pluralism for other factions of the Spanish community. Throughout the Islamic Spain era, there was a significant growth in the economy following the recognition of prominent personalities in art, science, philosophy, engineering and other areas of the economy.

After the introduction of the hydraulic technology, other European countries especially Bosnia, Poland, and Russia began using the technology for mining purposes. Russia used hydraulic technology in the Uranium sector and other multipurpose activities.

Though the movie fails to highlight significant relations between Spain and other countries in Europe, each innovation in the land increased made it possible for Spain to relate well with its neighbouring states (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). The independence enjoyed during the Islamic Spain made the residents of Europe to learn many things.

Most of them began fighting for independence many years after the Islamic Spain stopped ruling the country. In the early 19th century, Bosnia had a civil revolution that made it separate into Serbia, Yugoslavia, and Herzegovina. Russia also lost control of the Soviet Union making countries such as Syria to defect from the movement in the late 19th century.

All these happened because people wanted to be in control of their lives and not under the rule of a central oppressive government. In 1991, the USSR failed to command the Soviet Union officially leading to its collapse. This also made it possible for other generations to relate to the fall of the Islamic Spain following over 700 years of controlling Spain.

When the Moors Ruled in Spain Cities of light provided an over view of the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain. On the other hand, when the moors ruled in Spain is equally a re-enactment of the rule of the Moors in Europe for over 700 years. The Moors led Spain and Poland respectively and by the 15th century, the lost control of the two countries in Europe (Al-Andalus History of Islam in Spain).

The Moors were present in different regions in Spain including Granada, Cordoba, Andalucía, and Fes. The society consists of various social forces that contribute towards the development of a uniform culture. Countries get recognition based on the socio-economic, political, and technological forces they have in the world. Religion is an element of the social realm that defines the belief systems of a section of the population.

Islam a renowned religion and Spain a prominent country dominate the discussion. The rise and fall of the Islamic religion in Spain is of great significance to the history of Europe. Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union between 1989 and 1991, Europe was a force to reckon with considering it took control of the Americas about the same period.

Besides, the history of Spain is important because of its close relationship with the world civilisation. Islam was the dominant religion around 1207, but Christianity and Judaism equally commanded crowds of believers. This threatened the survival of Islam in Spain that initially embraced Catholicism.

The inception

Tariq ibn Ziyad led the Moors into Spain in 711 AD. Their occupation in Spain was significant to the western civilisation because the Arabs provided an excellent ground for competition with the Islamic Spaniards. Moors came from North Africa and entered Andalus through the Gibraltar Strait. Moors threatened the existence of the Gothic leaders considered one of the most powerful armies in Europe under the leadership of Germany.

The 7th century marked a major economic and socio-political transition for European. Al-Anadlus became the Moors’ territory and they carried out the operations of acquiring other kingdoms from Al-Andalus.

When Moors reached Granada, a section of the Arabs became Muslims instead of converting the populations they found in the territories (Al-Andalus History of Islam in Spain). This empowered the Islamic Spain and there was a conflict of interest between the Arabic Moors and the Muslim Moors in Spain.

The Moors came from Morocco in North Africa and they equally interacted with members of the Abbasid family who caused the Abbasid Revolution in 750 CE to North Africa. The Abbasid family and members of the Marwanid left Syria for North Africa originally ruled Syria under the Umayyad caliphate that was Muslim. As such, some members of the Moors army understood Muslim teachings because of the interaction process.

The forgotten history

According to the producer of the movie; Bettany Hughes, there is part of the Spanish history that many historians forgot. This incorporates the era in which the Moors ruled the land. Though many people discuss the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain, they forget that the Arabs were equally a force to reckon with between 711 AD and the 15th century.

There is evidence that the Arabs introduced arithmetic calculations in Spain including Algebra. At Alhambra Palace in the Granada dynasty, first mathematical calculations occurred when the Arabs invaded the place. Mathematics became important for business and formal education, which was also a project of the Moors in Spain.

In Granada, the Moors converted many Muslims and this was very important for the influence and support they needed in 712 AD (Bollacasa and Althea 40). It was difficult to notice the difference between the Arab Moors and the Muslim Moors because of similar cultures. Other areas of exploration included astrology, which enabled the Moors to predict the weather and seasons of the year.

Moors also promoted art, science, and agriculture even though the Muslims took all the credit for the work. According to historians, the Moors contributed more on the civilisation as opposed to the Muslims who got all the praises for having a sustainable and long-term government.

Science and civilisation

In Spain, the Muslims introduced the lemon tree and the waterwheel, but the Moors introduced Avocados. Without much recognition, the Moors remained subtle in their scientific endeavours often working at conquering countries that were originally under the rule of the Muslims. Before the Moors’ invasion, the Spanish residents referred to the period as the Dark Ages.

About the same time, the Muslims helped in technologically advancing Spain and the society began to see the Renaissance even though the Moors participated actively throughout the period. Instead of fair representation of the Muslim and Arabic Moors, only the Islamic Spain emerged as a strong promoter of the civilisation process (Ahlstrom 21).

Besides mathematics and art, the Moors introduced science in Europe enabling people to become innovative especially in the field of astronomy. It became easy for Spaniards to predict the climatic conditions through astrology including prediction of the future. Ever since, the Spaniards used chemistry, physics, and geography including philosophy to interact with other people in Europe.

A renowned historian, Davidson Basil was quick to note that Moorish philosophy represented the North African civilisation, and it was difficult for the Islamic Spain to accept that change would occur from the black continent.

The Moors designed and established the Cordoba Mosque, which is still important to the people of Spain. The artistic work from the Moors rarely found representation until the beginning of the 18th century when many historians began discussions concerning the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain.

Innovations that generated interest in Spain included the lemon tree and the waterwheel. The lemon tree became very important for medicinal purposes, and additional for meals. Lemon tree gave fame to Spain because the rest of Europe wanted to access the lemon tree. Initially considered a wild plant, it had limited functions in the society because other parts of Europe never identified its medicinal functions.

The waterwheel helped in reducing workload because the Spanish created the machinery for the same purpose. The Umayyad dynasty equally commanded a hug army of Muslims in Syria, but the country’s development could not compare to Spain. Spain used international relations to promote the western civilisation.

According to the rest of Europe, it was important to develop relations with countries such as Spain because the long-term relationship determined equal stability in other countries.

By establishing long-term relations between Spain and other countries and Europe, the countries had the assurance of enjoying the innovative products from the Spanish empire. Islamic Spain also led through peaceful means that attracted other European states enabling them to develop mutually beneficial relationships with Spain.

People identify the Moors with their art and ability to use the precious stones for beautifying edifices and ornaments. They included jasper and porphyry among other precious stones, which they also sold to the neighbouring Poland and Bosnia. Art only formed a section of the western civilisation that the Moors promoted.

Agriculture was another source of recognition for the Moors because they also introduced the lemon tree, oranges, avocados, dates, cotton, and rice among many cash crops and fruits.

The Moors did virtually everything to ensure that western civilisation survived even without the recognition of the group of people. Though situated in Al-Andalus and Cordoba the Moors introduced many things in Spain. The Muslims had influence because they commanded many territories in the country providing them with requisite support from the population in Spain.

Formal education

When the Moors first came to Spain, they had the responsibility of introducing formal education considering the population considered many illiterate, but creative individuals. Without the reading and writing capabilities, it was difficult to spread innovation to other parts of Europe. People referred to the era of the Moors as the period of the Renaissance after the Dark Ages.

Formal education found acceptance in Spain at a very slow rate and the Moors already had 17 higher education institutions in various territories they acquired in Spain. This contributed to the spread of the reading and writing cultures in Spain. Some of the territories that benefited from the Universities included Cordoba and Granada.

Through formal education, it was easy for the Spanish population to document their innovative stories. In educating the population, Arabic words found way into the Spanish language. After introducing the Al-Andalus, many people began relating to the Arabic language because some words had to begin with the prefix (Alexy 90). Formal education helped the society in sharing ideas and the civilisation spread throughout Europe.

Philosophers such as Aristotle found a way of communicating their ideas in a common language that people across Europe could understand because they went through informal schools, but were capable of interpreting facts through people who studied in formal schools.

The end

The Moors’ end came in the 15th century around the same time as the Islamic Spain. The Arabic language started to gain prominence because the Moors spread their texts throughout the land. Before the end of their term in Spain, Christians, particularly the Catholics destroyed the materials making it impossible for the Arabs to control Spain.

The Christian invasion caused the downfall of both the Moors and the Islamic Spain (Bollacasa and Althea 41). Catholics targeted the territories that experienced the influence of the Moors including Granada and burnt about 100, 000 religious texts. This completely interfered with the spread of the Moorish culture in the region.

It took many years of sacrifice for various intellects to write the texts and destruction of the same discouraged them from continued production of Arabic literature.

Christians wanted to dominate Spain as they did before and during the Dark Ages. Enlightenment was good for the people, but the Moors had not room to convert almost 79% of the population. This would result in the disappearance of the traditional Spanish culture, which Christians could not allow.

Works cited Abadi, Saeed Akbar. An analytical and critical study of Islamic history: the rise and fall of Muslims from the pious caliphs to Abbasid Spain and Moghal dynasties. New Delhi: Adam Publishers, 2002. Print.

Ahlstrom, Sydney E.. A religious history of the American people. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972. Print.

Alexy, Trudi. The mezuzah in the Madonna’s foot: oral histories exploring five hundred years in the paradoxical relationship of Spain and the Jews. New York: Simon


The Global Sports Retail Industry Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The global sports retail industry has achieved a rapid growth over the last ten years. It is also expected to continue growing over the next five years, with an estimated growth rate of about 6% per annum to reach about $130 billion by 2020 (United Nations 2014). The rapid rate of growth in this industry is due to a number of factors.

However, the major factor contributing to the industrial growth and development at a faster rate is the dynamism in the demand for sports goods. For instance, studies have shown that there is an increase in the demand for sports goods or sport-style products in various parts of the world, especially Asia.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive report based on the industrial analysis of the global sports retail business. It will examine the industry based on the conventional techniques of industry analysis, including forced field analysis, porters 5 forces, PEST and SWOT analysis.

This paper argues that the sports industry stands a better chance to develop rapidly over the next five years, giving corporate and other players a good chance to improve their economic development and financial health.

Force field analysis Force field analysis is an important tool in the process and technique of decision-making (Lewin 2000). It aims at analyzing the forces for and against industrial or corporate change in order to provide corporate leaders with information needed to make effective decisions.

In addition, the technique helps corporate leaders communicate the reasons behind their need for change in the corporate management area, which makes it easy to convince stakeholders that a change or project is needed. In particular, the force field analysis model yields information that has two effects (Cartwright 2009).

It can provide information that supports the idea of change, thus calling the corporations involved to go ahead with a project, a change of a program.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The forces favoring the growth of the sports retail industry Population growth: The increased rate of world population is an important factor supporting the rate of growth for sport retail industry. In particular, the growing demand for sports and sport-style products is high in areas with a high rate of population growth, especially in a number of Asian countries (Cai


Marketing Plan for the Samsung Galaxy Tablet Essay college application essay help

Introduction Marketing refers to “the set of institutions, activities, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging goods and services that have value for customers, partners, and the society”. Thus, marketing aims at identifying and satisfying customers’ needs effectively.

Marketing is crucial to an organization’s success. It enables an organization to “integrate and align its resources and functions to an overall goal of customer satisfaction”. Effective marketing requires a marketing plan.

A marketing plan refers to “a written document that describes how an organization intends to reach its target market”. It entails a situation analysis, an organization’s goals, marketing strategies, and marketing mix decisions. This paper discusses the marketing plan for the successful development, commercialization, and introduction of the Samsung galaxy tablet into the market.

Situation Analysis Strengths

In the past decades, Samsung has emerged as one of the most competitive companies. Samsung boasts of several strengths. First, it focuses on producing electronic devices with a hardware system, which is compatible with most software and operating systems.

This has enabled Samsung to have an edge over its competitors such as Apple. As a result, “Samsung’s Android mobile phones and tablets have gained a huge market share as opposed to Apple’s iOS and OS X”.

Second, Samsung is one of the most innovative mobile phone companies. For example, “in 2011 Samsung was among the top patent assignees in the United States of America”.

The acquisition of several patents has enabled it to surpass most of its competitors. Additionally, the company has won several awards for its products’ designs, which are user friendly and unique. Samsung also has a major focus on designing environmentally friendly products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third, the company has a strong financial base because it has a significant market share in a number of its products’ categories. Moreover, Samsung’s manufacturing firms are located in countries where the cost of production is relatively low. As a result, it incurs low costs of production; hence, it can offer its products at a lower price.

Fourth, Samsung has managed to market its brand effectively. It is among the top rising brands. “From 2011 to 2012, the company’s popularity rose by 40 percent”. This rise was mainly attributed to strategic marketing techniques. For example, the company uses varied avenues such as sporting events to market its products.


Despite its strengths, Samsung faces a number of challenges. First, the company lacks its own software. Software production can enable a company to attain a high profit margin. It also helps to popularize a company’s product and promote its brand loyalty. Therefore, Samsung is disadvantaged compared to its main competitors such as Apple.

Second, the company has businesses in a number of industries. Thus, “it might lose focus by competing in several industries”. In the past years, Samsung has been found guilty of patent infringement. Consequently, this has had a negative effect on its reputation.

Third, Samsung is one of the largest electronic companies in the world. Nonetheless, the company experiences a relatively low gross profit margin due to the company’s aggressive price cuts on its products.


Samsung has numerous opportunities that it can seize in order to enable it expand further. For instance, “the smartphone market in India is one of the least penetrated among the Asian countries”. Therefore, its strong presence in India can enable it to maximize gains in India’s smartphone market.

The introduction of smartphones and tablets has led to a major increase in the demand for application processors. Fortunately, “Samsung is one of the main manufacturers of application processors for tablets and smartphones”. Therefore, Samsung stands a better chance of meeting this demand because it has a superior experience in the production of processors.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Plan for the Samsung Galaxy Tablet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Samsung is also one of the dominant players in the tablet market. Therefore, the company has high chances of expanding its niche in the tablet market by producing unique and high quality tablet models.

Samsung has a large patents portfolio. As a result, it has a competitive advantage over it rivals. Therefore, it can be able to acquire more patents through acquisition of other firms.


Samsung faces a number of threats to its business operations. First, the smartphone market in the developed countries is highly saturated; hence, it might not reap major gains in the developed countries.

Second, rapid technological change is also a major threat to the company. Currently, Samsung is under pressure to keep on producing new products at a faster rate. However, this is often difficult whenever a company aims at being innovative and successful because innovations take considerable time.

Third, Samsung is prone to experience major price wars. For instance, the company has been offering its products at a relatively lower price compared to its competitors. Therefore, its competitors may also follow the trend. Unfortunately, this will significantly erode Samsung’s profit margins, which are already low.

Industry Trends and Competition Samsung is one of the major companies in the tablet industry. Others include Apple, Asus, Acer, and Nokia. All the players in the tablet industry have continued to produce new tablet models. For example, at the beginning of 2014, Asus introduced the Transformer Book TD300. “The new tablet model by Asus switches instantly from Windows 8.1 to Android and back”.

In a similar manner, Apple has also developed new tablet models such as the iPad Air, which “has a thinner aluminum body chassis, identical to the iPad mini”. Furthermore, the tablet market is likely to expand due to an anticipated decline in the use of laptops. A number of people have adopted tablets because of their convenience.

Tablets are portable and effective compared to laptops and desktops. Consequently, there has been a rise in the demand and supply of tablets in the market. This has led to a stiff competition among various companies. Therefore, the price and quality of a tablet plays a critical role in determining customers’ purchasing patterns.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for the Samsung Galaxy Tablet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Organization’s Mission Statement A mission statement is a statement of purpose. It explains the reason for the existence of an organization. It guides the decisions and actions of an organization. A mission statement for a commercial company should comprise three major elements.

These include “the key market, the contribution of the organization, and the distinction of its product or service”. Therefore, Samsung will adopt the following mission statement: “to be the most successful electronic company in the world by developing user friendly tablets that brings a lively experience to all internet users.”

Performance goals The company will pursue the following goals. First, the company aims at realizing a monthly turnover of $500,000. Second, the company aims at supplying the Samsung galaxy tablet to the major online stores by the end of the first month after its launch. Third, the company plans to distribute the Samsung galaxy tablet in all Asian countries within the first six months.

Marketing strategy A marketing strategy should “enable an organization to concentrate its resources on the optimal opportunities with the major aim of increasing sales and achieving sustainable competitive advantage”. A marketing strategy is one of the most essential elements of a marketing plan.

A number of marketing strategies are often developed as long-term plans. In such a case, an organization is often required to develop a tactical plan. A tactical plan spells out what an organization aims at achieving within a period of one year.

There are different types of marketing strategies that a company can adopt. The choice of a particular marketing strategy is largely determined by the situation analysis.

For instance, the strengths and opportunities identified in the situation analysis determine the strategy that a company adopts. In most instances, a company’s success is determined by its strengths and opportunities. Similarly, the choice of a marketing strategy depends on an organization’s mission statement, as well as, the company’s goals and objectives.

Some of the marketing strategies include the product differentiation strategy, cost leadership strategy, and the market focus strategy. The product differentiation strategy involves the creation of a product or service that is distinct from one’s competitors. Therefore, a company that adopts this strategy will have to ensure that its product has specific attributes that are unique from other products in the market.

On the other hand, the cost leadership strategy is intended to enable a company to attract cost-sensitive customers. Thus, a company will sell its product at a relatively lower price compared to its competitors. This strategy is most suitable for a company, which incurs lower production and marketing costs.

The market focus strategy requires a company to describe its market scope. Thus, a company can choose to have a narrow market scope or a broader market scope. Additionally, “a company may opt to specialize in the production of a particular product in order to meet the unique needs of customers in a given market segment”.

Samsung will adopt the product differentiation strategy. This strategy will be most suitable for commercialization and introduction of the Samsung galaxy tablet into the market. The Samsung galaxy tablet has a distinct model from other tablets in the market.

Its model is user friendly and can enable internet users to enjoy lively internet browsing. For instance, the Samsung galaxy tablet has a wider screen, which can enable a user to perform multiple tasks. Additionally, the Samsung galaxy tablet is lighter; hence, portable.

Market Segmentation Samsung targets people who are eighteen years and above. The company targets adults because the galaxy tablet will facilitate their activities. For example, the tablet has several applications with varied functions. The Samsung galaxy tablet will also be suitable for both male and female users.

For instance, the galaxy tablet has different colors such as black, yellow, and silver. Thus, users have a chance to make a choice between the colors available. Additionally, the Samsung galaxy tablet is lighter. As a result, it can easily fit into a jacket’s pocket or in a handbag.

Samsung also targets all professionals in various fields. For instance, the galaxy tablet will be suitable for businesspersons who use the internet several times in a day to communicate with clients.

It is also suitable for professionals who may wish to prepare and make presentations. The galaxy tablet will also be suitable for professionals who travel regularly. Therefore, the Samsung galaxy tablet can enable them to work while travelling.

Integrated Marketing Mix Product

Samsung galaxy tablet is seven inches long. It has two cameras and is compatible with a flash disk. “The Samsung galaxy tablet uses Android 2.2 with market support”. It also has a number of pre-installed applications. Finally, “the Samsung galaxy tablet has five default home screens”.


The Samsung galaxy tablet will cost approximately $600 to $500. However, the price will differ from one country to another. One of the major price determinants for the Samsung galaxy tablet will be the market situation in a given country. For instance, factors such as market competition and cost of operations incurred by distributors will influence the local prices in various countries.

Location and Distribution

Samsung dealers will distribute the Samsung galaxy tablet to all regions within their respective countries. The tablet will be available in the major retail stores in various countries. In addition, customers will also have the privilege to purchase the tablet from online stores.


Samsung will use various advertisement channels to market its galaxy tablet. For instance, Samsung will use both print and electronic media for advertisement. The company also intends to organize major sales promotions in the first three months.

Summary and recommendations for the execution of the plan This marketing plan aims at maximizing Samsung’s profits. It provides a detailed description of the company’s strengths such as a large market share, superior experience in the production of electronic devices, and sustained innovation. The company intends to use the product differentiation strategy as its marketing strategy.

The company should take note of the following factors in order to execute the marketing plan effectively. First, the company should conduct regular evaluation in order to determine progress. It should use the evaluation results to make improvements where necessary.

Second, the company should ensure a timely distribution of the tablets immediately after the launch of the galaxy tablet. Third, the company should minimize costs in the execution of the marketing plan in order to increase its gross profit margin

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that a marketing plan is a crucial tool that enables a company to have an edge over its competitors. It provides a situation analysis that spells out a company’s strengths and opportunities. Therefore, a marketing plan helps to focus a company’s operations, goals, and decisions.

References Jurevicius, O. (2013, May 13). SWOT Anayses. Retrieved from Strategic Management Insight: https://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/

Proctor, T.,


Feminist Pro-Porn During Sex Wars Thesis college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Feminist Sex Wars of 1970s and 1980s were acrimonious debates about a number of issues relating to sex, and the role of women in this context. In the debate that was uniquely feminist in nature, the focus was on various issues about sex and how different members of the society viewed it. One of the main issues was pornography and how it impacted on the fight for equality in the society.

The anti-porn feminists argued strongly against porn. To this group, pornography portrayed women as objects for sexual gratification for men. It takes away the dignity from women, leaving them empty. On the other hand, the pro-porn feminists held that, pornography did not have any negative connotation about women. They argue that the actors are consenting adult men and women who believe that what they are doing is morally right.

According to Martindalei, the pro-porn feminists were opposed to the idea of the anti-porn feminists that women should avoid exposing their privacy before the camera. This was seen by the pro-porn feminist as an oppressive approach of dealing with the issue.

In the current society, women, just like men, should be allowed to express their sexual orientation without any prejudice. This is one of the ways of empowering women. For this reason, pornography should not be viewed from a partial angle of just looking at the female actress. It should be taken from a holistic form where the analysis should focus on both male and female actors.

Both are involved in the industry, and it would only be fair to analyse the industry by addressing this fact. Giving a biased focus on men gives the impression that women are still the weaker sex than men in the society. This is what the pro-porn feminists were opposed to in this war.

They argued that both parties are equal and that if the anti-porn feminists thought that women in the pornographic films are used as objects, then they should show maturity in the fight for equity by defending the men in those films as well. In this research, the focus will be on feminists who were pro-porn during the sex wars in the 1970s and 1980s.

Feminist Sex Wars According to Jeffreysii, the feminist sex war was one of the unique revolutionary debates that had the main players as women. Men played a partial role in these debates, preferring to let women fight their own battle. This scholar says that there was a growing discomfort among many women about the issue of sexuality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film titled ‘Snuff’ which was produced in 1976 sparked the public debate on the role of women in the society, and the effects of pornographic films. Andrea Dworkin was one of the pioneers of this debate. She was concerned about the perception that the society, especially men, had towards women.

To her, women were seen as objects meant to offer sexual gratification to men. She argued that this was not only demonstrated in prostitution that was common in New York and various parts of the world, but also in pornographic films. It was a concern to her that the government was ignoring the issue of pornography as it was gaining popularity in the society.

When this debate started, many thought that it would be a revolutionary debate that would pitch women on one side, and men on the other side. Andrea Dworkin was able to convince women that pornography was wrong. She traversed the country and organised public rallies to denounce it. She argued that, pornography was the main factor that led to increased cases of rape in the country.

She was able to get the backing from other staunch human rights activists such as Ellen Willis, Susan Griffin, and Kathleen Barry. It is strange that Kathy Acker and Susie Bright were some of the followers of the anti-porn feminism during its early days. Andrea was seen as a hero who opened a topic that no one had dared talk about, and most women were in support of her efforts.

In the early 1980s, there seemed to be a shift of ideology from among some of the followers of Andrea. Led by Susie Bright, a section of women started approaching this debate from a different point of view. While the anti-porn crusaders used public forums such as rallies to champion for the crimination of pornography in the country, a new outfit that was pro-porn took a scholarly approach.

They wrote books and articles in the newspapers criticising the ideology of the anti-porn crusaders. Susie was particularly concerned of the approach that anti-porn crusaders had taken about issues of pornography and commercial sex workers. According to her, the sex workers went to the streets out of their own free will to earn a livingiii.

Their concern is to offer service to willing people and get paid out of this, just like a painter or a gardener. The claim that this was a patriarchal-motivated act was, therefore, not convincing to her. Similarly, she believed that, pornography was offering women the opportunity to get liberation when talking about the issue of sexuality.

We will write a custom Thesis on Feminist Pro-Porn During Sex Wars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women, just like men, should be allowed to enjoy sex and express their views freely without feeling intimidated. Criticising women who act in pornographic films and ignoring the fact that men are also part of the action is unfair to women. It is a clear demonstration that this group feels that women are lesser beings when compared to men.

Similarly, appearing to defend women who act in these films and ignoring that men are also part of the action is unfair to women. This is so because it emphasises the belief in the society that women are weak and need a constant protection.

To Susie, this was wrong, and demeaning to women that the pro-porn activists claimed to protect. It would be important to focus on the events that took place in this war in order to understand how the pro-porn feminists fought to make their voice be heard and their contributions be appreciated in this debate.

Samois Samois was the earliest pro-porn feminist group to be started in the United States in 1977. It gave rise to what would be called feminist war because till then, the war against pornography and prostitution seemed to be a fight between men and women. However, this group of lesbians came out to strongly oppose the arguments put forth by the anti-porn activists.

One factor that brought members of this group together was that they were lesbians. They analysed principles laid by the anti-porn activists and realised that their practice was part of what was criticised by this group. This made them feel outsiders to the movement. According to Nestleiv, the name Samois was taken from a story titled ‘Story of O’ where one of the main characters was a lesbian.

The founders of Saimos were convinced that women deserve to be given the right to define their sexual orientation. They argued that men were living in a free world where no one questioned their choices. However, this was different when the issue concerns women. The society still had the belief that women should be closely controlled, and this denied them the liberty to make any choices.

In particular, this group was determined to fight for the rights of the lesbians as they realised that the arguments of the anti-porn feminists were against their freedom.

It is important to note that this group was not very successful because it was the first organisation that was coming out publicly in support of pornography and prostitution in the society. Most of their contributions were made in the print media, avoiding public rallies for fear of a possible attack by the extremists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Feminist Pro-Porn During Sex Wars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The group was criticised by the anti-porn feminists, especially the Women against Violence in Pornography and Media. They were seen as a thorn in the flesh, fighting against the principles that were viewed as acceptable by women. Gayle Rubin and Pat Califia were some of the founders of this group. This organisation only lasted for six years, and in 1983, it split up to various smaller groups.

The split was caused by infighting among members who disagreed on some of the fundamental principles. For instance, while all members of agreed on the need to fight for the rights of lesbians in the society, a section were opposed to violence in pornography, a view that was shared by the anti-porn feminists. The disagreements led to the split of the organisation in 1983, with members forming realignments based on their personal principles.

One of the biggest groups formed after the split was The Outcasts which lasted until 1997, later changing its name to The Exiles. This new group was pro-porn, arguing that the parties involved in pornography are consenting adults. Some of the members of this group published articles and books in support of their view towards this philosophical war.

Lesbian Sex Mafia In 1981, a sex-positive feminist Dorothy Allison founded a group she named Lesbian Sex Mafiav. She was concerned of the criticism that the lesbians, bisexuals, transsexual, and sexual women were facing in New York. They were forced to live in fear of possible attacks from the anti-porn feminists.

Most of them were forced to hide their sexual orientation because of the momentum that the anti-sex feminists had gained in this state. According to Allison, the anti-porn feminists were rigid minded, with principles that belittled women they claimed to protect. In one of her publications, Allison claimed that men had thrived in the field of sexuality as they were free to express themselves and decide on the sexual orientation.

On the other hand, women have lived in a society where they are expected to be dormant when it comes to issues of sexuality. They are supposed to be recipients and not initiators. To Allison, this era was long gone, and it was the right time to allow women to make the decision about their own sexuality, a freedom that was enjoyed by men.

She believed that controlling women sexuality in any way was the equivalent of taking power away from women and handing it over to men. This is contrary to the belief of the pro-porn feminists who believed that their principles centred on empowering women.

Some of the principles that this organisation strongly supported included fantasy role playing, fetishes, sadomasochism, unrestrained sexual expressions, and alternate gender identities. It is important to note that some of these principles were strongly opposed by the anti-porn feminists formed the basis of this organisation.

For instance, this organisation strongly supported sadomasochism as they considered it a practiced that allowed women to express themselves in various forms as long as they were not forced into the act. However, the anti-porn feminists considered this one of the worst acts that belittled women and made them be seen as objects of pleasure for men. This was a major point of disagreement among these two warring parties.

According to Meikavi, while one party saw this as a demonstration that women were in bondage and used the way men desired, the other section felt that this was another form of expression for women. Another fundamental disagreement between Lesbian Sex Mafia and the anti-porn feminists was on alternate gender identities.

The anti-porn feminists were conservatives who believed that women shall remain women and they should be proud of this fact when expressing their sexuality. On the other hand, the Lesbian Sex Mafia believed that women could alternate gender identity when expressing their sexuality as this formed the basis of lesbianism.

According to this group, for one to be a lesbian, she must have a feeling that she is a man in her sexual orientation, and this will make men unattractive to her. She will view men to be of her same gender. For this reason, she will be attracted to other women. This essentially means that there is an alternation of gender identity. Lastly, these two groups largely differed on their view of unrestricted sexual expression.

The two groups claimed that they supported unrestricted sexual expression of women. To the anti-porn feminists, women should be respected, and be allowed to make their own choices on the people they would want to be intimate with in their lives. Their romantic lives should not be subject to filming because the pleasure generated from the intimacy should be enjoyed by the two parties, and not a third party.

They should not be used as the objects of sexuality by men who may be interested in funny exploration of the body of women. This is contrary to the view held by the Lesbian Sex Mafia. To this group, women should be granted total freedom to express their sexuality. Those who wish to act in pornography should not be restricted simply because they are women.

Women who are interested in watching pornographic should be given the liberty to do so because men have never been restricted from such films. The group also argued that women should not be restricted in their dressing code, something that anti-porn feminist was very critical about.

The Mafia sought to give total liberation to women, handing them the power to choose their personality in as far as sexuality was concerned. This organisation remained very strong during the feminist sex war, especially due to its liberal approach to various issues of sexuality.

Membership was open to women aged 18 years and above. The group would organise play parties where members would watch erotic movies or practical plays by some of the members. They would also sell sex toys to its members or other parties that visited their dungeons.

This was seen as an open defiance to the moralist approach taken by the anti-porn feminists, a fact that that intensified the war. Their act received massive criticism, especially in some of the rallies in New York organised by Andrea Dworkin. They were seen to be the force that was acting against the right course that would liberate women from the bondage.

The group was bringing a new approach to the war against pornography and male dominance in the area of sexuality. Women were now doing what Dworkin and her movement had associated men with, and the group had a substantial following. This was seen as a betrayal to the women in the society according to Dworkin.

While they were busy fighting for some of these vices from being committed by men to women, a section of women were not committing the same acts to fellow women, and publicly justifying their course. Dworkin and her movement realised that the real enemy in their fight for liberation was not men, but fellow women.

On the other hand, the pro-porn feminists viewed the anti-porn feminists as the real enemies of the fight for their total liberation. Herbert says that, the development of these two strong factions in this debate made men completely withdraw from the war to let the women find the course they thought was the best for all.

In fact, the only parties that joined in the battle were the pornographic film producers and religious leaders because of their vested interests. The research by Nestle shows that this group still exists in New York and various parts of the United States, and it has held to its initial principles so dearly.

Feminists against Censorship The feminist war was not just fought in the United States. It was also experienced in Europe, especially in the United Kingdom. According to Meika, unlike the United States that was seen to be more liberal, the United Kingdom had strict laws concerning possession and use of pornographic materials in the society.

This is very different from what was the case in the United States. In the U.S., the law was defining production and usage of pornographic materials only focused on individuals who were below the age of 18 years. To adults, there was no censorship to the materials, and this was what anti-porn feminists were fighting against. They wanted clearly defined laws that would help regulate the industry.

As the feminist revolution swept across the Europe, British women realised that they were unfairly treated by the law that largely favoured men. It was illegal to be in possession of pornographic materials, but this law seemed only applicable on women. The majority of consumers of pornographic materials were men, but the most of those who were prosecuted for this crime were women.

The law gave powers to the Queen of England to confiscate any pornographic materials found within the kingdom, but this law was unfairly applied. It was a common knowledge in the 1980s that the number of gays in the country was higher than that of lesbians. They also went public over their sexual orientation quite often than the lesbians who still feared stigmatisation from members of the society.

This meant that only a small fraction of the smaller population of lesbians was easy to identify in this society during this time. However, it was strange that the police rarely raided homes of the gays to look for the pornographic materials. This meant that women were targeted in such raids simply because they were women.

To fight what they considered social injustice against female sexual orientation and freedom, a group of scholars, lesbians, and their sympathisers started Feminist against Censorship in 1989. This was a network of women that were focused on what they viewed as social injustice directed towards women in the society.

The network was spearheaded by Roz Kaveney and Linda Semple who started organising feminists’ forums in the City of Londonvii. It is important to note that this network was different from the other pro-porn feminist organisations in the United States.

Unlike the American organisations that were registered and with their own membership, this remained a forum for discussion for those who supported the course. It had no membership other than the two pioneers who were involved in organising the rallies for the members whenever this was necessary.

It is also important to note that the context under which this group operated was very different from what other pro-porn groups in the United States operated. In the United States, there were no clear laws that censored pornographic materials among adults. In the United Kingdom, this law existed, and was seen to be subjective in nature by the feminists.

Although the wave of anti-porn feminists’ activities was felt in the United Kingdom, its impact was largely felt in the United States where the groups organised public rallies to champion for their course. For this reason, the pro-porn feminist movement received backing from many women in the United Kingdom than was the case in the United States where there was a divided opinion.

Feminist against Censorship was particularly against government’s censor against pornographic materials. They argued that these materials should be confiscated from children. However, adults should be given the liberty to choose whether or not to consume these materials. The group was particularly concerned of the impartial implementation of the law of confiscation of these materials.

They complained that police officers were harassing women in the society by constantly organising unwarranted search for these materials on homes of the lesbians.

At times, such police raids would come late in the night, infringing into the rights of privacy, especially when the raids took place when the couples were intimate. The movement considered this a deliberate effort by the law enforcers to intimidate them based on their sexual orientation.

According to Jeffreys, the co-founders of this movement were very intelligent ladies that were able to bring women in this society into a near similar approach of reasoning in this fight. For instance, in 1990, the two organised a rally in London to protest against women in this society.

In their protest, they were keen not to publicly champion for the rights of lesbians because they knew some of their supporters abhorred lesbianism. For this reason, they tied the rights of lesbians to that of every other woman in the country. They gave the image that they were fighting for the rights of all women in the United Kingdom.

When talking about night raids, they were keen to mention that the police unfairly targeted women, and not lesbians. When talking about pornography, this movement was very keen because it was aware that many women had a low opinion about it. For this reason, they mentioned that men in the society were at liberty to use the pornographic materials without police harassment, a right that was not common among women.

In this context, they supported the pornography without directly saying so, and this made many women rejected to pornography change their opinion towards it. Their arguments were more inclined to empowering women and allowing them to enjoy their rights, other than liberalising pornographic materials.viii

This was the group managed to instil the spirit of rebellion on many women, and pornography was largely viewed merely as an object in this rebellion. For this reason, many women viewed it as a lesser social evil as compared to the discrimination they faced in the public.

Many contended that if pornography could be used to liberalise the society and free women from the bondage, then it was an acceptable social evil. This saw many women make contributions in newspaper articles and public rallies criticising the censorship of pornographic materials in the country. This group is believed to be still active in the country.

Feminists for Free Expression In the late 1989, there was a group of women who were thinking of forming a group that would be more vibrant in supporting the rights of women to express their sexuality without feeling intimidated. This group was that the Lesbian Sex Mafia was not fighting for the rights of a section of women, especially the prostitutes within various cities in the United States.

As its name suggests, the Lesbian Sex Mafia was also viewed as a society for lesbians. Most of their activities also showed more inclination towards lesbianism other than overall protection of rights and freedom of women sexuality. As a result, some of these women felt that their views were not fully represented in the ongoing feminists’ wars. This formed the basis of the formation of this new organisation in the late 1989.

The founders of these groups included Candida Royalle and Veronica Vera who were human rights champions. In the past, they had come out strongly to champion the rights of prostitute and a time when mentioning a world about prostitution by women was considered taboo in this society.

They argued that this new organisation would be focused on fighting for the interests of all women in the society, irrespective of their profession, religion, sexual orientation, or social status.

According to Nestle, this organisation attracted a high number of prostitutes within the City of New York. In fact, many thought that it was specifically meant for prostitutes, a fact that made some women shun it during its inception. However, the founders were able to convince pro-porn feminist that this organisation was focused on fighting for the rights of all women.

It only happened that prostitutes formed part of the women in the society and, therefore, they were rightfully presented in the movement. During its early days, the society had a slogan which stated, “Let us stop hypocrisy by legalising abortion.” Veronica Vera criticised Andrea Dworkin and her group saying that in prostitution was not unique to the United States.

She was against criminalisation of prostitution in the society that made prostitutes look like criminals. According to her, men were hypocritical by stating that prostitution should be legalised while the truth is that they form 100% of the market for prostitutes. For a crime of prostitution to be committed, there must be the presence of a prostitute and the client.

If prostitution is a crime, then both parties are liable and should be answerable to their actions. However, this is not the case. Some states have criminalised the prostitution, making the lives of prostitutes in those states unbearable.

According to Vera, criminalising prostitution does not bring the act to an end, but only makes the process more complex for women. For instance, the report by Barton ix observes that prostitutes who practice in the states where prostitutions are illegal suffer a lot in the hands of the law enforcers.

Some come to their joints, not to arrest them because of their crime, but to harass them and demand sexual favours. In this regard, the law does not help to protect the women from molestation from men. On the contrary, it takes away power from women, leaving them vulnerable to sexual abuse from men.

The law enforcers know that these prostitutes have no ability to report them for the molestation because their business is criminalised. This makes them commit such atrocities without a second thought. For this reason, this group believed that the prostitution should be decriminalised in order to hand over power to women.

Prostitutes should be treated just like labourers or physiotherapy and probably allowed operating with a license that would see them pay tax. According to Nestle, there is always an irony when it comes to criminalising acts such as prostitution or use of hard drug. It makes it more attractive to the youth who are rebellious in nature. It also eliminates the ability of the government to levy a tax in that sector.

It becomes a black market. Burns says that black markets are always thriving, because they do not have to operate under the strict laws of the state. This society argued that this is what is making prostitution even more popular and dangerous in the society. It is done without regulation, and some of the main players involved are the very law enforcers who are expected to arrest the prostitutes.

Feminist for Free Expression did not restrict its programs to fighting for the rights of prostitutes. It was also vocal in fighting for the rights of women who decided to act in the pornographic films. Their message was very clear on pornography. To them, pornographic materials may pollute the minds of those who are aged below 18 years.

For this reason, children under the age of 18 years should neither participate in the production of the pornographic materials or be allowed to watch the materials. However, adult women, just like men, should be allowed the freedom to choose on whether they want to participate on the production of the films or not.

During the first forum they held in 1989 when they were still largely seen to be part of Lesbian Sex Mafia, Candida stated that they were strongly opposed to criminal gangs that kidnapped women and young girls and subjected them to prostitution against their wish.x

To them, this constituted a crime that should be prosecuted in a court of law. She also stated that using any form of force, whether financial or psychological, to force women to act in a pornographic film was illegal and they rejected it as a vice that degrades women.

However, she was very categorical that most women in this industry were acting out of their own free will. In fact, some of them even had websites where they sold their pornographic films which they were the main actors. It is wrong to claim that such individuals are forced into the act.

Developing legislation that prohibits pornography would render these women jobless. It is their wish to be in this industry, and they believe that they are making decent earning out of it. It would only be fair to have laws that would protect them as they do what they consider appropriate. The group was also critical of the laws that prohibited consumption of pornographic materials by adults.

Although it did not have direct links with the British Feminists against Censorship society, it shared their views about consumption of such materials. The group became very active in 1990s when it became apparent that it had broken away from Lesbian Sex Mafia.

The Impact of Feminist Sex Wars The feminist sex wars finally came to an end, and just like any other conventional wars, there were losers and winners. It is important to analyse the impacts of this war in order to determine the winners and losers of the war.

Expansion of the pornographic industry Following the feminist sex wars, the pornographic industry has experienced massive expansion over the years. When Andrea Dworkin and Susie Bright were fighting over the position that women should take about pornography, the industry was very small, and the society was very cautious of any pornographic materials. However, this changed in the 20th and 21st centuries.

The more the war between the two factions raged on, the more the society talked about pornography and the more it became acceptable. At first, people viewed the topic as taboo. However, this war provided a forum where people could talk about this issue freely and address some of the myths and misconceptions about pornography.

According to Meika, the United States along produces about 13,000 pornographic films in a year. The society has come to embrace these materials. This researcher also notes that almost 90% of these films have some form of aggression by men towards women.xi

This is part of what the anti-porn feminists were against during the war. Even the pro-porn feminists stated that although they were not opposed to pornography, they disapproved of the violent acts that men in these firms expressed towards women. They championed for a pornography that was free from any form of violence, especially those that are directed towards women.

Increased rates of prostitutions There has been a drastic rise in the cases of prostitution, not only in the United States, but also in other countries around the world. According to Jeffreys, the industry of prostitution has boomed even beyond the pro-porn feminists who were fighting for the rights of prostitutes.

In some countries, the industry is legalised and earns such countries good revenue of form of taxation. The war game prostitutes a voice and they can now come out freely and defend their profession, something that was very rare before the war. They feel that the society has finally accepted their profession.

High number of children below 18 years accessing pornographic materials According to Hewittxii, the number of children aged 14-17 who access pornographic materials has skyrocketed. In fact, this report states that 99% of boys, and 86% of girls within this age bracket have accessed pornographic materials in one way or the other. This is one of the fundamental issues that the anti-porn feminists were determined to eliminate during this war.

Most of minors get these materials from online sources such as YouTube and other pornographic websites. Some of the girls get the materials from adult men, especially those with ill intentions towards them. The pornographic materials have serious negative impact on these minors, especially young boys.

Increased cases of child prostitution One of the concerns for both the pro-porn and anti-porn feminist is that the war has led to increased child prostitution in the society. During this war, both sides stated clearly that they were against child prostitution. Susie Bright once stated that her organisation was strongly opposed to child prostitution and that the best way of addressing the issue is to talk about it.

This was one of the rare principles that both sides of the divide shared. They both believed that a child should be protected from prostitution as one of their fundamental rights. However, the report by Meika indicates that the war did not spare children.

They were constantly subjected to a society that was full of discussion of sex-related issues. Some became involved in sexual activities out of curiosity. They wanted to know more about what was constantly discussed in social forums, along the streets, and in the mass media. This was a war that was lost by both parties.

Introduction of sex tourism Sex tourism was something that was unheard of when the feminist sex wars begun in the 1970s. However, Nestle argues that sex tourism can be directly attributed to the feminist sex wars of the 1980s and 1990s. During the war, the society was made to form a different opinion about sex, pornography, and prostitution. These were three words that were rarely spoken in the society then.

However, the war made society rethink about the topic and each faction came to its own conclusions. For the section that embraced pornography and prostitution, they viewed it as normal for the society to talk about sex. During this time, prostitution gained entry into the field of tourism. Male tourists started gaining more preference towards regions where prostitution was common than those areas that restricted it.

There was a shift from the love of animals to the love of women and men who offered sexual satisfaction to the male and female tourists. This became common in the third world countries that were under the burden of poverty. Tourists from Europe and the United States would flock into these countries not only to enjoy the beauty of nature, but also to get the pleasure offered by the prostitutes, some as young as 12 yearsxiii.

Reasons Why Pro-Porn Feminists Won the War According to Jeffreys, although there are cases when one would consider both factions to have lost in the battle, the truth is that the anti-porn feminist lost this war in totality. It is evident from the above impacts that the pro-porn won the battle only that sometimes their success went beyond or even against their expectations.

One of the main reasons why the pro-porn feminist won the war is that they targeted the younger generation and convinced them that their ideology was meant to protect women and men in equal measure. On the other hand, the anti-porn feminists received massive support from the aging population who were conservative.

As time went by, the older population became irrelevant in this debate, making the ideologies of the anti-porn feminists irrelevant. Another factor is that the pro-porn feminists were secretly backed by men who make the highest percentage of the consumers of pornography. Although this war was largely a feminist battle, men played some role in ensuring that the anti-porn feminists were defeated in this war.

Nestle attributes this success to the fact that the pro-porn were genuine in this war, while a section of the anti-porn feminists were only there to protect their reputation. Some of the anti-porn feminists were consumers of the pornographic materials, but to hide their true identity, they joined the anti-porn feminists. This contributed to their course being defeated.

Conclusion The feminist sex wars of 1970s and 1980s sharply divided women into two factions. The first faction was the anti-porn feminists who were opposed to pornography and prostitution in the society. This group argued that, pornography where women were treated like slaves or sex objects was detrimental to the fight for equity that was gaining pace during this period.

These feminists stated that the way these women were treated in such movies was the same way some men treated in real life scenario. After watching such materials, men would try to implement them on their wives and girlfriends. They also argued that prostitution was a clear demonstration that women were objects meant to offer men sexual gratification.

For these reasons, law should be established to criminalise pornography and prostitution. On the other hand, the pro-porn feminists championed for decriminalisation of pornography and prostitution, arguing that women who were in this field had made their own choices as adults. They argued that the law should only focus on protecting children and women who were forced into the industry against their own free will.

To them, these laws would only limit freedom of women. The women who had considered pornographic industry or prostitution as the best means of earning their income should not be criminalised in any way.

The impact of these wars is that there has been increased pornography and prostitution in the society. It is evident that the pro-porn feminists women the war as many countries around the world became more liberal on the issue of pornography and prostitution.

Bibliography Barton, Bernadette. Stripped: Inside the Lives of Exotic Dancers. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Burns, Lynda. Feminist alliances. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006.

Cossman, Brenda. “Pornography, Feminism, and the Butler Decision.” Bad Attitudes 3, no.2 (1994): 54-135.

Herbert, Walter. Sexual violence and American manhood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Hewitt, Nancy A. No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Jeffreys, Sheila. The lesbian heresy: a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution. Melbourne: Spinifex, 1993.

Juffer, Jane. At Home with Pornography: Women, Sex and Everyday Life. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1998.

Lishinsky, Rose. “On Our Backs Porn.” Off Our Backs 15, no. 3 (1985): 29-121.

Lyndon, Neil. No More Sex War: The Failures of Feminism. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1992.

Martindale, Kathleen. Un/popular Culture: Lesbian Writing After the Sex Wars. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1997.

Meika Loe. “Feminism for Sale: Case Study of a Pro-Sex Feminist Business.” Gender and Society 13, no. 6 (1999): 705-732.

Nestle, Joan. The persistent desire: a femme-butch reader. Boston: Alyson Publications, 1992.

Susie, Bright. “Welcome to OnOurBacks: The Best of Lesbian Sex.” On Our Backs 1, no. 4 (1985): 1-75.

Footnotes Kathleen, Martindale, Un/popular Culture: Lesbian Writing After the Sex Wars (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1997), 87.

Sheila, Jeffreys, The lesbian heresy: a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution (Melbourne: Spinifex, 1993), 35.

Lynda, Burns, Feminist alliances (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 110.

Joan, Nestle, The persistent desire: a femme-butch reader (Boston: Alyson Publications, 1992), 39.

Walter, Herbert, Sexual violence and American manhood (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 48.

Loe, Meika “Feminism for Sale: Case Study of a Pro-Sex Feminist Business” Gender and Society 13, no. 6 (1999): 732.

Jane, Juffer, At Home with Pornography: Women, Sex and Everyday Life (New York: New York Univ. Press 1998), 49.

Rose, Lishinsky “On Our Backs Porn” Off Our Backs 15, no. 3 (1985): 29

Bernadette, Barton, Stripped: Inside the Lives of Exotic Dancers (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 54.

Bright, Susie, “Welcome to OnOurBacks: The Best of Lesbian Sex” On Our Backs 1, no. 4 (1985): 45.

Brenda, Cossman, “Pornography, Feminism, and the Butler Decision” Bad Attitudes 3, no.2 (1994): 78.

Nancy, Hewitt, No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism, (New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2010), 121.

Neil, Lyndon, No More Sex War: The Failures of Feminism (London: Sinclair-Stevenson1992), 63.


Project Management – A Reflective Report for STEPS Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Executive Summary This report provides a comprehensive personal reflection for the plan set for the STEPS project at the UoB. Started in December 2013 and completed on May 1 2014, STEPS is a project that seeks to enhance students’ access to funding for improving their experience in a career.

It focuses on introducing, changing and enhancing various aspects of the student experience that the student community at the University of Bedfordshire (UoB) identifies as ripe for change in the modern times.

The idea is to foster original, inventive and pioneering approaches as well as mainstream ideas for a student funding project. It seeks to address all aspects of student to experience as they move through the university system, beginning with outreach through school transition to the alumnus status.

Students are the partners in the project while the application for the funds is open to individual students, individual alumni, and groups of students and student-staff collaborations. In addition, where possible, the project must be initiated and co-created and co-led by students.

Product scope and product management The benefits of including Project Product Description

Project product description is the initial step in defining the requirement for the beneficiaries of the project funding (the clients). This description is based on the specific needs of the students, alumni and student-staff groups, who are the client of the project. Thus, we need a detailed description of the needs of every individual and groups targeted by StEP.

The decision to initiate and establish the project was based on the realization that students undergo various kinds of stress and problems throughout the course and even after leaving the university, especially prior to obtaining their desired employment.

Therefore, the project product description provides an in-depth analysis and explanation of the funding services (product) that the project will offer to help students make a significant impact on their experience as they move through the university system and after leaving the institution (Clark 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The section communicates the link between the problems faced by students and the possible methods for solving these problems and enhances the experience (Packendorff 2005).

Secondly, a project product description is an important input to the process of iteratively developing the business case.

With a good and informed understanding of the capacity required by the funding project, the project managers and leaders are in a better position to develop a comprehensive definition and understanding of the most suitable output that is expected from the project in the form of services meant to support the student experience (Packendorff 2005).

Thirdly, the project product description for StEPs project is a high level overview of what the project has been set to provide to the students.

Our objective in developing a comprehensive product description for StEPs is based to provide adequate and concise information so that the managing team develops a clear scope and limits. The scope limits define the framework in which the managing team describes a detailed component product description as well as facets during the processes of planning and implementation.

Therefore, we have used a well-defined project product description in the StEPs project to define the scope of the project. It also allows for change during the development and implementation of the project and a new baseline to be set based on the changes. In addition, the StEPs product description defines the quality expectations of the students.

Within this context, it has been noted that students expect to develop knowledge, skills and experience they need to fit into their desired career and fields. It is expected that students obtain these skills through interaction with the education system, which comprises of both the academic knowledge and contact with colleagues, staff and corporate fraternity that works closely with the university (Archibald 2007).

We will write a custom Report on Project Management – A Reflective Report for STEPS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fourthly, the project product description for StEPs has been sued to define the acceptance criteria, responsibilities as well as a method for the funding services offered to students and student groups. Within the scope of the project, there are limitations for funding, beyond which the project is not in a position to provide its services.

For instance, funding for mega-projects that aim at developing huge business relationships involving the staff or other parties in partnership with the student cannot be met, despite having a good idea of making an impact on student experience in and out the university.

Finally, the product description for StEPs project has been used to state what is important in the least amount of space and time needed so that we can clarify the requirements for a good understanding of the services the project is offering.

The benefits of including a Product Breakdown Structure in StEPs

Our StEPs project has a comprehensive product breakdown structure (PBS) based on the model described by PRINCE2 (Kerzner 2003). It is a hierarchical structure that seeks to break down the final product in its basic and specific constituent sub-products.

It helps the managing and planning team to think the products needed to build the final project product. It also helps the planning team to clarify all the required work in the creation of the final set of services and products (Lewis 2000).

Within the StEPs project, PBS has been used as an iterative component that works in conjunction with the process of developing the product description, user scenarios, product flow chart and acceptance tests.

PBS helps us to visualize the StEPs product and its components, which helps us to improve the communication as well as reduce misunderstandings when developing and managing the project. In addition, it helps us break down the product into its sub-components in order to allow us to identify components that have value as early as possible during the development process (Packendorff 2005).

In turn, this gives us the capacity to determine and define the components that can be developed in the later stages of the project development cycle. In addition, the PBS works in conjunction with the product flow diagram in identifying the order component products that should be built (Archibald 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management – A Reflective Report for STEPS by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The benefits of including Product Descriptions in StEPs

We have used a product description as part of the product-based planning for the StEPs project in order to establish the criteria for client acceptance, which will help us in identifying the student groups or individuals that meet the required conditions for funding. In addition, product descriptions act as checklists for the deliverables of our project at StEPs.

Reflection on the Business case

The business process for our project StEPs is primarily Web-based. We have developed a comprehensive, effective and user-friendly website for StEPs project through which the project management and planning team will communicate and relate with the student clients. The web-based business has a number of benefits for the entire project since it was initiated in December 2013.

First, a web-based business allows the StEPs project to run throughout the day, week, month and year because it provides us with a global access, where the clients have the freedom to visit the website and interact with the project using their user-end (Snyder


Job Description Report (Assessment) college admission essay help

Introduction Formulation of a job description requires a proper job analysis. This entails identification of the tasks to be performed by employees (Clark 2013, pp. 5-7). It also involves classification of the skills required to perform a given task (Clark 2013, pp. 5-7). This paper examines two job descriptions and the skills required in each of them.

Purchasing Agent Job Description Job Duties

The purchasing agent will be required to perform the following functions. First, he or she will be required to procure equipment and office furniture. The agent will ensure that the company’s procurement rules are followed systematically during the procurement process (Edwards 2013, pp. 23-25). Second, the agent will be required to negotiate for better prices during the purchase of various goods and services.

Third, the agent will advise the management on the challenges that can affect procurement activities (Edwards 2013, p. 25). Thus, he or she will be required to prepare daily procurement reports.

Fourth, the agent will be expected to sort and file documents. Finally, the purchasing agent will investigate and solve problems associated with the procurement process. This will entail collecting and analyzing information about market trends (Edwards 2013, p. 30).

Experience and Skills Required

An applicant for this position must have at least five years experience in procurement or supply chain management. Therefore, the agent must have a comprehensive understanding of procurement policies and procedures (Edwards 2013, p. 26). He or she must have basic computer and accounting skills.

The applicant should be able to prioritize tasks, work in a busy environment, and meet set deadlines. The agent must also have excellent documentation, communication, and negotiation skills. Finally, the agent will be required to adhere to the highest level of professionalism (Edwards 2013, p. 26).

Education Background

The position requires a person with a university degree in supply chain management or procurement. However, individuals with a diploma qualification will be considered if they have at least seven years experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More General Manager Job Description Job Duties

The general manager will be required to perform the following duties. First, the manager will provide leadership and forecast the company’s performance goals (Sloma 2012, p. 14). Therefore, he or she will be required to develop a new strategic plan to facilitate growth and maximize profits. Second, the general manager will be required to evaluate the performance of the company periodically (Sloma 2012, p. 14).

Third, the general manager will recommend measures to improve the performance of the company (Sloma 2012, p. 15). In this case, he or she will be expected to inform the board of directors about the performance of the company. Fourth, he or she will be responsible for building the image of the company (Sloma 2012, p. 17). Finally, the general manager will be required to attend management-training workshops regularly.

Experience and Skills Required

An applicant for this position must have the following skills and experience. He or she must have served in a senior management position for at least four years. The candidate must have superior skills in strategic planning and management (Sloma 2012, p. 15).

He or she must have good communication and coordination skills. The candidate must also possess proficient computer skills (Sloma 2012, p. 16). In addition, the applicant should be able to improve the company’s performance.

Education Background

An applicant for this position must have a postgraduate degree in business administration or any social science. The company will also consider applicants who are currently pursuing postgraduate studies and have four years experience in management.

Personal Skills Match for the General Manager Position

My skills and academic credentials are relevant to the aforementioned job description. For instance, between 2009 and 2013, I served as a general manager in an oil company in my hometown. Therefore, I have four years experience in management. I prepared and reviewed the company’s short-term and medium-term plans. Thus, I possess good planning skills that will enable me to develop a strategic plan.

Additionally, I was in charge of organizing in-service training programs for employees. The training programs were meant to equip employees with new skills and to sensitize them on the emerging issues in the oil industry.

We will write a custom Assessment on Job Description specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through regular training programs, I managed to improve the performance of many employees. This led to an overall improvement in the performance of the company. Currently, I am pursuing a postgraduate degree in strategic management.

Justification for Selecting the General Manager Position I have selected this position because of the following reasons. First, I have relevant academic qualification. For example, the position requires a person who is currently enrolled in a postgraduate degree program. Second, I have good mentoring skills in business administration. Moreover, I have enough experience in management.

Conclusion The discussion in the foregoing paragraphs has revealed that a job description is very important. It enables a company to recruit qualified employees by developing clear job requirements. Thus, companies should always develop job descriptions for their employees to improve their performance.

References Clark, M 2013, The Job Description Handbook, Bang Printing, New York.

Edwards, M 2013, Recruiting and Hiring Advice, Eagle Publishers, London.

Sloma, R 2012, No-Nonsense Management, A General Manager’s Primer, Beard Publishers, London.


Organic Agriculture – Business Model Canvas Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Key Partners The key partners of the company include retailers (supermarkets), suppliers of farm inputs, and consultants. The reasons for collaborating with retailers include the following. First, it will enable the company to achieve economies of scale in distribution. Established retailers such as supermarkets have branches in all parts of the country, which will enable the company to reach a large number of customers at a low cost.

Second, the partnership will enable the company to acquire the customers of its partners.1 For instance, customers who purchase consumer goods in supermarkets are also likely to buy organic foodstuffs during their routine shopping activities. This will facilitate quick market penetration.

Finally, the partnership will reduce the risk of overtrading.2 Since the company has limited funds, it will lack adequate working capital if it invests in establishing its own retail outlets in the first two years. This risk will be prevented by collaborating with independent distributors (retailers).

Collaborating with consultants who have expertise and experience in organic agriculture will help in eliminating uncertainties when making production decisions. The consultants will assist the farm manager to select the best farming methods in order to achieve the desired production level and product quality.

Developing long-term partnerships with suppliers will enable the company to benefit from reliable access to farm inputs. This will help in preventing interruption of the production calendar, which may occur due to limited availability of key inputs such as seeds.

Key Suppliers The main suppliers of the business will include landowners, manufacturers of farm inputs, and the Municipality of Abu Dhabi. The business will have to establish long-term relationships with landowners in order to access adequate land for its farming activities.

The Municipality of Abu Dhabi will be the main supplier of water for irrigation. The municipality is a key supplier because access to water will determine the farm’s output level. The municipality has a high bargaining power since there are no substitute sources of water for farming in Abu Dhabi.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the company will focus on water conservation in order to avoid shortages. It will also endeavor to pay its water bills in time in order to avoid disconnections.

The products of suppliers of farm inputs will determine the quality of the organic foodstuffs that will be produced by the company. Therefore, farm inputs will be purchased from suppliers who differentiate their products by using organic raw materials to manufacture key supplies such as pesticides and fertilizers. This strategy will enable the company to use the right farm inputs in order to obtain the best results.3

Key Resources from Partners The most important resources that will be obtained from partners include production/ farming technology, land, farm inputs, and distribution services.

Effective farming technology is a major determinant of success in organic farming, especially, in Abu Dhabi where natural resources such as land and water are scarce. Thus, the company will collaborate with consultants and independent research institutions to acquire the best organic farming technologies.

The company will only be able to achieve its production objectives if it can access fertile land in Abu Dhabi. However, access to land is likely to be a challenge in future due to the expected increase in urbanization and industrialization.

As the demand for land increase, the cost of leasing or purchasing it will rise significantly. Thus, the company will focus on purchasing land in the medium term to avoid the expected increase in lease fee in the long-term.

Key Activities Performed by Partners Consultants will provide technical advice to the company concerning the farming methods that it should adopt to achieve its business objectives. This will include provision of services such as testing soil and water quality.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organic Agriculture – Business Model Canvas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consultants will also lead the company’s research and development projects. They will conduct periodic research activities on behalf of the company to facilitate innovation. The outcome of the research activities will be used to improve the company’s farming activities.

The key responsibility of retailers will be to distribute the company’s organic foodstuffs. This will involve selling the products directly to customers.

They will also collaborate with the company’s sales team to conduct marketing activities such as merchandising. The retailers will collect valuable feedback from customers through their sales and marketing systems. The feedback will enable the company to understand customers’ tastes and preferences.

Suppliers will provide the materials and equipment that will be needed to produce organic foodstuffs. These include seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, greenhouses, and irrigation equipment. The suppliers will be responsible for installing and maintaining key resources such as greenhouses and irrigation equipment to avoid failure.

Figure 1 and 2 show the type of greenhouse and drip irrigation equipment that will be used for farming. The company will also collaborate with certain suppliers to produce differentiated farm inputs. For instance, it will collaborate with producers of seeds to develop seedlings that suit its quality standards and farming needs.

Figure 1: Greenhouse

Figure 2: Irrigation equipment

Key Activities Value Proposition

The company’s value proposition is to produce and sell high quality organic foodstuffs in Abu Dhabi and other parts of the UAE. Delivering this value proposition requires the following activities. To begin with, the company will be directly involved in organic farming.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organic Agriculture – Business Model Canvas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This will involve producing a variety of organic fruits and vegetables. In the long-term (the next ten years), the company will diversify its brand portfolio by processing and distributing fresh fruit juice.

Sourcing and procurement of various supplies will be required to create the value proposition. The company will source the best seeds in order to produce organic foodstuffs with high nutritional value. Once the company begins to process fresh fruit juices, it will collaborate with other producers of organic foodstuffs to obtain adequate supply of fruits. This will help in scaling up production to cater for increased demand for fruit juices.

The company will also establish training and capacity building programs to improve its employees’ ability to focus on best practices in organic farming. The training programs will target the farm workers.

Specifically, on-the-job training and off-the-job training programs will be provided to workers to improve their skills and knowledge in organic farming.4 In the long-term, the company will extend the training programs to its employees who will be involved in manufacturing fresh juices. In this case, the objective of the training programs will be to promote product and process innovation.


Supermarkets will be the main distribution channel through which the company’s products will be sold in the short-term. In the medium term, the company will establish its own retail outlets to supplement the sales from supermarkets. Distributing the products through these channels will require the following activities.

The first activity will be to build a network of retailers to distribute the products. The company will use selective distribution to reach its target customers. Selective distribution involves using several but not all outlets that are available in a given geographical area to reach customers.5

In this regard, the company will collaborate with retailers who are known for quality, affordability, and reliability to maintain a consistent brand image.

The main advantage of using selective distribution is that it will enable the company to select the best performing retailers, thereby avoiding the risk of wasting scarce resources in developing non-performing distributors. Selective distribution is also appropriate because consumers of organic foodstuffs often shop around to find the best products from reliable retailers.

Supply chain management is the second activity that will be required to distribute the products. The supply chain activities that will be performed are summarized in figure 3.

Figure 3: Supply chain activities

The first supply chain activity will be to procure the best farm inputs from reputable suppliers. The next step will involve using the farm inputs to produce various organic fruits and vegetables. After harvesting, the fruits and vegetables will be transported to the company’s warehouse where they will be cleaned and packaged according to retailers’ requirements.

From the warehouse, the company will transport the products directly to retail outlets where they will be sold to customers. The company will focus on reducing the time required to transport the fruits and vegetables from the farm to the retailers to preserve their freshness and natural tastes.

The company will maintain long-term relationships with members of the supply chain to ensure effective production and distribution of its products.6 Coordination of the supply chain activities will be done by the company using business-to-business e-commerce platforms. This will help in reducing the cost of managing the supply chain.

Customer Relationships

The company will use the social media to build relationships with customers (consumers of organic food). Specifically, it will use Facebook, Google , and Twitter to engage the customers in conversations about its products.

The aim of the conversations will be to provide vital information to customers such as the stores where the products will be sold and the health benefits of consuming them. The company will also participate in events such as agricultural trade fairs and seminars to build strong relationships with consumers of organic foodstuffs.

Revenue Streams

The company’s main source of revenue will be production and distribution of organic fruits and vegetables. The main activity that will be required in this revenue stream will be obtaining as many sales orders as possible from retailers. In order to secure large orders, the company will negotiate for adequate floor space in the retail outlets to boost sales.

The company will also use its marketing communication mix to promote sales through the retail channel. Specifically, it will use advertising, merchandising, and loyalty programs to motivate potential customers to purchase its products.

As sales increase in the retail outlets, the company will receive large orders. This will improve the chances of achieving the revenue and profitability targets that have been set for the short and medium term.

Key Resources Value Proposition

The key resources that are required to deliver the company’s value proposition include the following. First, adequate human resources will be required. Specifically, the company will require cheap and reliable supply of labor to produce organic foodstuffs. The farm workers will require adequate skills and knowledge on various farming activities such as planting and controlling pests in order to create value to the company.

Generally, access to cheap labor will reduce the cost of production. The resulting cost savings will be used to support innovation initiatives to improve product quality. In addition, the savings will enable the company to sell its products at a competitive price in order to overcome competition.

Second, financial resources will be required to deliver the desired value proposition. Organic agriculture is capital intensive because it is based on advanced farming technologies.7 For instance, the company will require adequate funds to install and run an effective irrigation system.

It will also have to purchase and use greenhouses to protect the crops from adverse weather conditions such as very high temperatures and strong wind. Moreover, the company will have to finance research activities in order to produce crops whose qualities meet the expectations of consumers. In this regard, the company will raise capital from different sources to meet its cash requirements.

In the short and medium-term, the company will depend on the capital contributed by its owners and retained earnings to finance its activities. It will also obtain credit from local commercial banks to supplement its internal sources of funds. In the long-term, the company will raise venture capital to finance expansion activities such as extending its product line and joining new markets.

Third, the company will require intellectual capital to deliver its value proposition. Intellectual capital refers to the information and knowledge resources that can be employed to improve profits, acquire new clients, develop new products, and reduce operating costs. The knowledge and information that will be required to produce and market the company’s products will be obtained from internal and external sources.

The company’s employees will be the main internal source of information and knowledge. The employees’ expertise in organic farming will be leveraged through staff development and training programs.

Consultants and independent research partners will be the main external sources of information and knowledge. They will use their expertise and experience to advise the company on the best farming practices that it has to adopt to deliver its value proposition.

Distribution Channels

The main resources that will be required to distribute the products include employees with the right skill set in sales and marketing, as well as, physical assets such as delivery trucks and sales premises. Talented employees will be required to assist customers at the retail outlets to boost sales.

In addition, the marketing team will require adequate knowledge of the market in order to develop the right marketing strategies. Although the company will hire employees with expertise in sales and marketing, it will also focus on developing talent internally to improve the effectiveness of its distribution system.

Customer Relationships

Market intelligence is the main resource that will be required to develop relationships with consumers of organic foodstuffs. The company will also need an effective customer relationship management (CRM) system to develop strong relationships with the retailers. Market intelligence refers to external data or information that shed light on market dynamics such as changes in customers’ tastes and preferences.8

Market intelligence will be obtained through marketing research, which will be conducted biannually. The results of the marketing research will help in building relationships with consumers by providing information that will facilitate product development. The company will use an online CRM system to improve its relationship with retailers.

The system will capture vital information such as the types of products that the retailers prefer to stock, payment history, and the size of orders made by various retailers. This information will help in understanding the needs of the retailers. As a result, the company will be able to address the retailers’ needs in time in order to improve its relationship with them.

Value Proposition

The company’s value proposition will focus on three areas namely, risk reduction, affordability, and cost reduction. The company will help consumers to reduce the negative health effects of eating processed foods, inorganic vegetables, and genetically modified foodstuffs. Empirical studies indicate that these foodstuffs cause diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes.

In the UAE, the prevalence of lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes is very high. The diseases account for nearly 20% of the deaths in the country every year.9 Scientists have proved that organic foodstuffs help in preventing diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes.

It is against this backdrop that the company will focus on producing organic foodstuffs with high nutritional value to enable the residents of the UAE to maintain healthy lifestyles. Figure 4 shows the organic vegetables (tomatoes) that will be produced.

Figure 4: Organic tomatoes

The company will also help consumers to eliminate the risk of eating substandard or contaminated foods. In order to achieve this objective, the company will endeavor to meet all the quality standards that have been set by Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority. It will also strive to meet international quality standards that are used in the global food industry.

These include Global G.A.P certification, organic product certification, and ISO certification.10 Achieving these certifications means that the company will have to comply with high food quality standards. As a result, it will supply safe foodstuffs that consumers can trust.

Affordability is one of the major factors that determine access to organic foodstuffs in the UAE. Organic foodstuffs are often expensive in the country due to high importation and production costs.

The company will create value to customers by adopting low cost production technologies to reduce the prices of organic food in the UAE. In addition, the company will eliminate importation costs by producing organic food within the country. The resulting reduction in retail prices will enable many customers to afford organic foods.

The company will also create value to retailers by reducing the costs that they would incur to source high quality organic foodstuffs. The cost of producing and delivering the products at the retailers’ premises will be borne by the company.

Moreover, the retailers will not incur additional monthly costs since they will be using their existing employees and floor space to sell the products. The cost savings coupled with increased revenue will improve the retailers’ profits.

Customers’ Problems

The company’s main objective will be to address consumers’ health needs. Apart from addressing this need through production of organic foods, the company will integrate the ‘healthy living’ campaign in its marketing programs. One of the factors that explain the low consumption rate of organic foodstuffs is lack of adequate information concerning their health benefits.11

The company will bridge the knowledge gap by using public relation initiatives such as press release to educate the residents of the UAE on the importance of eating organic foods.

The company will also collaborate with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that promote healthy living to provide public education on the health benefits of organic foods. As the public becomes more informed, the consumption of organic food will increase. This will reduce the prevalence of lifestyle diseases while improving the company’s revenues.


The company targets three market segments. These include the working class, the affluent, and individuals who are already suffering from chronic lifestyle illnesses. The working class and individuals who are suffering from lifestyle diseases have similar needs. In particular, people who are working are interested in preventing the diseases that they are likely to acquire due to their sedentary lifestyles.

Similarly, those who have already acquired lifestyle diseases are interested in healthy living to prolong their lifespan.12 In this regard, the company will serve the two market segments by supplying organic fruits and vegetables with high nutritional value. The same products will be supplied in the affluent market segment where consumption of high quality organic foods is the norm.

However, the affluent will benefit from additional services such as ability to make large purchases directly from the farm. In this case, the products will be delivered directly to the consumer’s premise. These personalized services will enable the company to charge premium prices in the affluent market segment to improve its profits.

Customer Needs

The company will satisfy the following needs in the market. In the consumer market, the company will address the customers’ need for newness and accessibility. The residents of the UAE need to break away from the tradition of eating imported inorganic foods that are often contaminated and have low nutritional value.

The company will enable consumers to access fresh in-season fruits and vegetables to meet their dietary needs. In the affluent market segment, supplying high quality fruits and vegetables will enable customers to express their social status. Specifically, the high product quality will create an aura of luxury, which the affluent need to maintain their social status.13

Customers who are working have little time to spend on shopping for their groceries. Thus, they need to purchase their groceries in convenient places to save time. The company will address this need by collaborating with retailers whose outlets are located in strategic places within the central business districts of urban areas. This will help customers to access the products easily.

The company will also use retailers’ online sales platforms to sell its products. Online shopping solutions will enable busy customers to purchase the organic fruits and vegetables without visiting physical stores.

The retailers’ main need is to access reliable supply of high quality organic foods. In order to address this need, the company will employ big data analytics to study consumers’ purchasing behavior. This strategy will enable the company to predict the types and quality of products that customers are likely to purchase in specific geographical areas.

A clear understanding of purchasing patterns will help in ensuring effective capacity planning. As a result, the company will be able to supply adequate products to satisfy retailers’ sales needs. Generally, a reliable supply will enable retailers to retain their customers and to improve their revenues.

Customer Relationships Expected Relationships

Consumers of organic foods expect personal assistance within the retail stores. Customers often need adequate product information before making a purchase decision. For instance, new customers would want to access information on issues such as the products’ origin, their quality, and their prices. Customers normally expect to find this information from sales personnel within the supermarkets.

In addition, customers need assistance with purchasing activities such as weighing the fruits and vegetables or selecting the right products. Old customers and expats who are not able to understand Arabic are likely to seek assistance from sales personnel who can speak in English.

By contrast, young and well-informed customers expect self-service in supermarkets. They expect the retailer to display a wide variety of products on the shelves so that they can make appropriate choices.

Retailers, on the other hand, expect automated services. They expect to maintain their relationship with the company using e-commerce business-to-business platforms. This will enable them to access automatic services such as placing orders, making inquiries about product availability, and making their payments.

Retailers prefer e-commerce systems because they reduce operating cost and improve communication among trading partners. Retailers also expect to maintain a close relationship with a dedicated personal assistance. They expect the company to assign one contact person who will be responsible for handling their inquiries and managing their accounts.

Established Relationships

The company has made provisions for both self-service and personal assistance to improve its relationship with the consumers. The sales area will have at least two sales associates to assist the customers with the purchase process. The associates will provide all the information that customers need to make purchase decisions. They will also assist with activities such as product selection.

The company will also collaborate with the retailers to design the sales floor in a manner that promotes self-service. This will include creating enough space between shelves to facilitate movement.

The company’s merchandisers will ensure that the products are displayed in an attractive manner and vital information such as prices and product descriptions are clearly indicated as shown in figure 5. These initiatives will enable customers to shop without seeking assistance.

Figure 5: Sales floor

Since the company will be using online supply chain management (SCM) and CRM systems, the retailers will be able to access automatic services. The online SCM system will handle activities such as placing orders, sharing transaction information, and making payments.

The online CRM system, on the other hand, will be used to handle retailers’ inquiries by providing the information that they need to sell the products. A dedicated accounts manager will be hired to maintain strong relationships with the retailers. The accounts manager will address the needs of the retailers such as ensuring timely processing of orders and delivery of products.

Cost of the Relationships

Automatic and self-service will require high initial capital to build the infrastructure. For instance, the company will have to hire an IT company to create and install an effective e-commerce system.

Similarly, redesigning the sales floor to facilitate self-service might require a substantial amount of money. However, providing automatic and self-service will be cheap in the long-run since the company will not incur additional costs to deliver them.14

Maintaining relationships with customers through dedicated personnel is likely to be expensive in the short-run when sales are expected to be low. For instance, the company will have to pay the accounts manager on a monthly basis. However, the expected increase in sales in the medium term and long-term will justify the cost of providing personalized services to consumers and retailers.


Customers expect to be reached through a variety of media platforms that are easy to access. In addition, they expect the company to distribute its products through distribution channels that are easy to access. Thus, the company will reach the customers in the following ways. To begin with, it will create awareness about its products through advertising. The adverts will be aired on popular TV and radio channels.

Moreover, the adverts will be posted on popular magazines and newspapers to reach as many customers as possible. Given the high penetration rate of smartphones and computers in the UAE, the company will also use the social media to create awareness about its products.

The company will assist customers to evaluate its value proposition by requesting them to fill out feedback forms that will be available at the retail outlets.

Customer complaints forms and suggestion boxes will also be available at the retail outlets to enable customers to convey their concerns to the company. Customers will also have the opportunity to raise their concerns about the products through online communication channels such as email.

Consumers will have the opportunity to purchase the products through three channels. These include select supermarkets, the company’s retail outlets, and retailers’ online stores. The main objective of using the three channels is to increase brand visibility.

Specifically, it will enable as many customers as possible to access the products. For instance, large supermarkets can reach customers in nearly all parts of the country. Direct deliveries will be made to customers who will make online purchases.

The distribution channels will be integrated both vertically and horizontally. Vertical integration will be achieved after the company establishes its own retail outlets to sell its products directly to the customers. Horizontal integration will be achieved through cooperation with independent retailers to sell to customers.

The main advantage of vertical integration is that it will enable the company to have more control over its products. It will enable the company’s sales executives to use their vast product knowledge to provide excellent customer service.

Vertical integration will also enable the company to eliminate the costs associated with using third party distribution channels. For example, the company will not have to share its revenue with the retailers if it has its own distribution system. As a result, the company will make high profits.

Horizontal integration, on the other hand, will enable the company to save the cost of establishing a nationwide distribution system. This will prevent liquid constraints that the company might face in the short-run.

Customer Segments Selected Segments

The company will focus on creating value for the mass market, which has a huge sales potential due to its large size. Undoubtedly, every person in the UAE is interested in high quality foodstuffs. This means that revenues can be maximized by targeting all customers who are able to afford organic fruits and vegetables.

The mass market consists of the individuals who will be purchasing the company’s products for personal consumption. The working class and people who are interested in healthy living will be considered as part of the mass market.

The company will also serve the niche market to improve its profitability. The niche market consists of the affluent, as well as, fine restaurants and hotels. In the last decade, hotels and restaurants in the UAE have embarked on serving organic foods to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability by promoting organic agriculture.

The hotel and restaurant market segment is expected to grow in future as economic performance of the country improves. The company intends to take advantage of this growth by producing organic fruits and vegetables for the hotel and restaurant industry.

Most Important Segment

The mass market will be the most important segment, which the company expects to be its main source of revenue. This perspective is based on the fact that household expenditure on groceries tend to be stable throughout the year.

Households are not likely to reduce their expenditure on food unless the economy suffers a shock that has negative effects on consumption in the private sector.15 In this regard, the company expects a steady growth in sales in the mass market.

The niche market, on the other hand, is characterized by fluctuations in demand. Sales are high during the summer and holiday seasons when individuals and families prefer to eat in restaurants and hotels rather than their homes. Sales are also high during events such as the Dubai Shopping Festival and trade fairs that attract visitors from other countries.

However, sales decline significantly during the winter when families prefer to remain indoors. Nonetheless, hotels and restaurants are important customers because of their ability to make large purchases. They are also willing to pay premium prices to access high quality organic fruits and vegetables.

Revenue Streams

Customers in the food industry are willing to pay for freshness, high nutritional value, and high hygiene standards. Currently, customers are only paying for convenience due to the limited supply of organic foods that meet their expectations. Specifically, customers are forced to purchase the foodstuffs that are available in the market irrespective of their quality standards due to lack of substitutes.

Since customers are willing to pay for high quality, the company will focus on selling organic fruits and vegetables as its main revenue stream. Nearly, 90% of the company’s revenue will be attributed to product sales due to limited investment in alternative businesses.

The company has strategically chosen to focus on product sales since producing organic fruits and vegetables is its core competence. The company will focus on serving markets in different geographical areas in order to avoid the losses that it would make by serving only one market.

Product sales will be based on dynamic pricing. This pricing strategy involves setting prices according to market conditions. For instance, during high demand seasons the company will increase its prices to ration the limited supply of its products.

However, it will reduce the prices during the low demand seasons to attract and retain customers. Dynamic pricing will enable the company to achieve its marketing objectives. For instance, price reductions will facilitate expansion of the market share.

Apart from product sales, the company will generate revenues through asset sale and leasing. Idle assets will be sold so that the company can use the proceeds to finance key business processes such as product development and marketing. The assets will be sold through negotiations to enable the company to obtain the best deal.

The company will also lease farm equipment and land when they are not in use. The lease fee will improve the company’s returns on assets. Fixed pricing will be used to lease the assets. In particular, the lessee will pay a predetermined price that will not be changed during the lease period.

Cost Structure

The business model will be cost driven because organic farming is associated with significant fixed and variable costs. The fixed costs will include the salaries of farm workers, consultancy fee, warehousing, and lease fee.

The company has to achieve economies of scale in production in order to reduce the negative impact of the fixed costs on its profits. The variable costs include expenditure on farm inputs, water for irrigation, electricity, marketing, and transportation.

The most important fixed costs include lease fee, constancy fee, and salaries. The company has to pay lease fee in order to access adequate land for farming and premises to sell its products. Similarly, it has to pay the workers to perform various farming activities such as planting and nurturing the crops.

Consultancy fee is also important since the company will require external expertise to improve its productivity. Nearly all variable costs are important. The company has to purchase farm inputs and spend on marketing and transportation in order to deliver its value proposition.

Land is the most expensive key resource. The company will spend at least AED 250,000 annually to lease five acres of land in Abu Dhabi. The high lease fee is attributed to the ever-increasing demand for land in the country. Greenhouses are also very expensive. At least AED 78,516 will be required to purchase three greenhouses in the first year.

However, expenditure on greenhouses is expected to reduce in the medium-term. This expectation is based on the fact that new greenhouses can be used effectively for up to four years.16 Increased competition among suppliers is likely to reduce the cost of greenhouses in future. Farm inputs are also key resources that are very expensive.

The annual expenditure on farm inputs is expected to average AED 45,000. Inadequate food supply in the global market will increase the prices of farm inputs as farmers focus on increasing their productivity.

Irrigating the farmland will be the most expensive activity. At least AED 65,000 will be spent annually on irrigation. The high cost is attributed to the water shortage in Abu Dhabi. The Municipality of Abu Dhabi charges high prices to discourage wastage of water.

Marketing is another expensive activity that the company will have to invest in to reach its customers. Marketing cost is expected to average AED 32,000 in the first three years. The expected improvement in economic growth will boost business activities, thereby increasing demand for advertising services. This will increase the cost of advertising in the medium-term.

In sum, the high fixed and operating costs call for implementation of effective cost reduction measures. Some of the measures that the company will implement to reduce costs include recycling wastewater and using cheap digital marketing platforms such as the social media.

Bulk purchases will enable the company to reduce the cost of acquiring farm inputs. In addition, optimizing the production capacity will help in achieving economies of scale, which in turn will reduce the overall cost of production.

Bibliography Al-Awadhi K


Study of Asthma Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Ecological Causes of Asthma

Control of Environmental Asthma in the US

Recommendations to Reduce Asthma Globally



Introduction Asthma is one of the endemic diseases in the US and developing countries. Although asthma affects individuals of all ages, infants and teenagers are more susceptible to it than adults. Asthma is a respiratory disorder that causes inflammation of the respiratory system.

Some of its common symptoms include breathing difficulties, chronic coughs, and chest pains. Asthma is one of the major factors that hinder children from attending school regularly. It also causes sleeping difficulties in children. This essay discusses the measures that can be taken to mitigate environmental causes of asthma.

Ecological Causes of Asthma There are many factors that cause asthmatic conditions. However, environmental degradation is the primary cause of asthma in children. Generally, children inhale more air, consume more food, and imbibe more fluid than adults.

They also have a weak respiratory system and immunity compared to adults. Children can be exposed to several ecological hazards at home and school. Thus, they are more vulnerable to environmental causes of asthma than adults are.

Children exposed to the following environmental hazards can develop asthmatic conditions. There is a considerable proof that environmental hazards such as viruses and allergens can cause asthma.

“Indoor airborne allergens are often produced by house dust mines, cockroaches, and animal fur”. Smoking of cigarettes in poorly ventilated houses can cause asthma. Furthermore, outdoor air toxins such as ozone, allergens, and smouldering firewood can cause asthmatic conditions.

Control of Environmental Asthma in the US In the US, the government has developed a comprehensive strategy to mitigate environmental causes of asthmatic conditions in children. This strategy encompasses various interventions aimed at ensuring that children are safe from environmental hazards that cause asthma.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government has been funding research activities aimed at finding out the major causes of asthma. Through research activities, the government has developed comprehensive measures to mitigate environmental hazards. For instance, public institutions, social amenities, and residential properties must be properly constructed and maintained to reduce environmental hazards such as air pollution and allergens.

Smoking in public is prohibited by the government to prevent unnecessary air pollution. Moreover, public health officials in the US have introduced community health based programmes aimed at creating awareness on the ecological causes of asthma.

This project involves educating local communities on the importance of sanitation in residential areas. For instance, parents have been advised to ensure that their children play in environmentally safe places. In addition, parents have been advised not to smoke indoors.

Recommendations to Reduce Asthma Globally Current research findings in the US indicate that prevalence of asthma has reduced significantly due to proper implementation of community based asthma eradication programs. Consequently, other countries should develop clear-cut strategies to mitigate prevalence of asthma.

Environmental degradation can be mitigated through enactment and implementation of stringent laws. For instance, smoking should not be allowed in public because it leads to air pollution. Moreover, community based programs should be introduced to create awareness on causes of asthma.

Such campaigns can mitigate the prevalence of asthma in the world. Nonetheless, asthma eradication projects may require many resources. This challenge can be overcome through fund raising initiatives.

Conclusion This essay has revealed that asthma is a serious health challenge in many countries due to environmental degradation. Nonetheless, prevalence of asthma can be mitigated through reduction of environmental pollution.

We will write a custom Essay on Study of Asthma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References American Lung Association. (2003). Trends in asthma morbidity and mortality. New York: Sage.

Institute of Medicine. (2000). Clearing the air: Asthma and indoor air exposures. New York: National Academy Press.

Oatman, L. (2007). Reducing environmental triggers of asthma in homes of minnesota children. Minnesota: Minnesota Department of Health.


The Software Engineering Debate Compare and Contrast Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Summary of First Paper

Summary of Second Paper

Comparing and Contrasting the Two Papers

Personal Opinion

Works Cited

Software Engineering is a relatively new discipline in comparison to the traditional engineering disciplines. It is therefore not surprising that there is a debate regarding whether this new discipline is indeed an engineering discipline. This paper examines the views of two authors who hold opposing views on the status of software engineering.

Summary of First Paper In the paper titled “Software Engineering: What is the problem”, Loka asserts that software engineering is neither an engineering discipline, nor a scientific undertaking (110).

He is of the view that software development is an art similar to teaching or writing. In this sense, software development involves issuing instructions to computers just like a teachers issues instructions to students. This makes it similar to teaching and not engineering.

The second reason the author adduces to his view that software development is not an engineering activity is the lack of standardized approaches to software development. In the traditional engineering disciplines, engineers use standard processes to develop engineering solutions.

In this regard, any engineer can take over a project carried out by another engineer and deliver the same results. In software development, developers use individualized approaches and deliver results through different methods.

The article proceeds to examine several incidental issues affecting the deployment of software in organizations. The author writes that many organizations end up with software solutions that do not solve their problems because of poor problem identification by software developers.

In traditional engineering disciplines, problem identification is an integral part of the engineering design process. Engineers rarely make products that do not address specific needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, different software developers tend to use different approaches to solve software problems because each developer has individual strengths and weaknesses. This leads to incremental solutions that give rise to a product that no single person understands. Organizations must retain many software developers to maintain the software. Organizations that find themselves in this situation end up spending more money maintenance.

Summary of Second Paper The second paper addresses the place of software engineering in relation to the traditional engineering disciplines. The paper is a self-assessment of the software engineering field. The paper relays the identity crisis that software engineers face when it comes to raising the distinction between software engineering and programming.

The paper also discusses the debate in the mid eighties regarding the identity of software engineers at the time. Software engineers often asked whether they were scientists, mathematicians, or engineers. The consensus developed at the time was that they fitted in the three categories. Software engineers use mathematical models to solve problems.

The writers felt strongly that software engineering is an engineering discipline. In their view, software engineers use disciplined approaches to solve software problems. These models are very close to the models used by traditional engineering disciplines. However, the approaches somewhat differ because of the unique aspects of software projects in comparison to conventional engineering projects.

In the second part of the article, the authors were critical of several practices among software engineers. First, the authors stated that the failure rate of software projects is very high. They stated that a third of all software development projects fail and a third do not address the main problems.

The rest of the projects are successful though they are usually above budget and out of time. The second criticism is that software engineers do not adapt fast enough to change. This leads to the release of obsolete software.

The authors recommended several changes in various aspects of software engineering. They recommended that software engineers need more training on how to work in engineering teams that handle software design separately from software development. In conclusion, the authors urged software engineers to learn more from the traditional engineering disciplines in order to deliver better results.

We will write a custom Essay on The Software Engineering Debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparing and Contrasting the Two Papers The two papers have two main similarities. First, the two papers agree that software engineers do not use disciplined approaches in their work, as compared to other engineers. This affects the quality of their work and leads to higher product failure rates. Secondly, the two papers agree that the discipline of software development is still in its formative stages.

In this sense, the two papers agree that software developers need to work hard to develop their trade in order to respond to current global challenges effectively. Thirdly, the two papers were similar in their aims. The two papers were seeking to provide solutions that can help to improve software development practices.

The main difference between the two papers is their conceptual framework. The first paper starts with a fixed position that software development is not an engineering discipline. The second paper recognizes the identity crisis related to software engineering, but looks at it as a new engineering discipline.

The second difference is that the first paper treats software development as a one-stage process, and assumes that a software developer should solve all the problems associated with software development.

The second paper looks at software development as a multistage process that requires the expertise of different professionals. In this sense, the second paper presented a more detailed inspection of the shortcomings of current software engineering practices.

Personal Opinion The discussions presented in the papers reviewed were very stimulating. The second paper was more persuasive in regards to the status of software engineering. The job of a software engineer is an engineering job. The only difference between the work done by software engineers and the work done by traditional engineers is the areas of focus and tools. The four main reasons for this are as follows

First, all software development projects arise from clear needs in the market, or from perceived needs arising from research. This is very important because all engineering projects arise from a stated need in a given market. Secondly, software developers use structured methods to solve software problems.

In this sense, software developers are similar to engineers. The degree of usage of these structured methods is what varies. Software developers tend to use various methods to address the problems at hand. In this sense, software developers may seem like artists. This situation arises because software developers can use different methods to arrive at a given solution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Software Engineering Debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, software developers deploy systems that interact with other systems in a similar manner to the work of other engineers. Software has interfaces that allow humans to control it. This is very similar to all other engineering products. Just as a car has a start button, software requires a trigger to launch it.

When a driver presses the accelerator, the car moves forwards because the car has systems that convert the depression of the accelerator into forward motion. In the same way, a user can click on a button on the software interface to get certain results. This shows that software packages are functional systems that interact with the environment. This makes software engineering products.

Works Cited Denning, Peter J and Richard D Riehle. “The Profession of IT: Is Software Engineering Engineering?” Communications of the ACM (2009): 24-26. Print.

Loka, Raghavendra Rao. “Software Development: What is the Problem?” The Profession (2007): 110-112. Print.


Blogging about Fashion Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Social Influence and Blogging about Fashion


Frequency and timely updates


Effects of Blogs on the Consumer Buying Behaviours



Introduction The emergence and extensive rise of digital technologies has widely enabled organisations and their consumers to interact and connect with one another through the internet platform. According to Deuze (2006, p. 68), utilisation of such has encouraged consumers to share their opinions, feelings and judgements of the products and services offered to their esteemed associations through the online platform with no much efforts.

This has led to emergence of several online cultures as mediums for communication. In the use of online cultures, Yang (2003, p. 50) indicates that blogging is among the oldest and most traditional form, which started to emerge in the late twentieth century. Many authors have varied definitions of blogs due to its complexity.

Technically, as Deuze (2006, p. 69) notes, blogs refer to websites that comprise of discrete entries, posts, or websites with contents written by a blogger. The contents are arranged in a reverse sequential order organised into categories. In the same way as noted, the advancement in technology has impelled a drastic shift in blog usage and concept development (Wright 2005, p. 7).

In general, online culture can be categorised into several contents that include an individual’s personal views and news, advertising, and customer services, internal information sharing, insight in professional issues, knowledge management application, and civil engagement function.

As cited in Rocamoran (2011, p. 409), just like other blogging, fashion blogging has exponentially grown across the globe (Denegri-Knott and Molesworth 2013, p. 57). Moreover, numerous researches assert that the fashion industry has many well-known and famous bloggers as compared to other industries such as politics, food, tourism and travel industries.

Fashion bloggers, as empirical research indicates, can influence the industry either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, as Kuhn (2007, p. 20) indicates, bloggers, apart from using their likes and dislikes to influence the way certain brands or products are presented, they can launch new trends in their respective industries and publicly discuss issues that companies are afraid to discuss in public.

Social Influence and Blogging about Fashion Among the most popular use of online culture is the capability to socialise and form social links with other online users. This is possible regardless of the geographical locations and temporal margins (Rothaermel


Organizational DNA Analysis Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evidence of Band Element Present from the Focus Case

Organizational Challenges and Opportunities in this Band Area

Leverage of Opportunities to Meet Organizational Aims

Works Cited

Introduction Threadless is a company that deals with the manufacture of T-shirts worn by all individuals in the society. Since its inception in the year 2000, the company has witnessed tremendous growth that has led to its expansion from a small apartment of about 900 square feet to an area that covers extensive parts of North America. The growth attracted firms and persuaded them to request for collaborations and partnerships.

To elucidate the growth of Threadless, it is imperative to analyze it using organizational DNA. Organizational DNA has four bases that include information, decision rights, structure, and motivators, which are useful in the growth of a company.

Therefore, the essay analyzes Threadless from the perspective of motivators, a component of the organizational DNA band, using the evidence, challenges, opportunities, as well as leverage of the opportunities.

Evidence of Band Element Present from the Focus Case The unique strategy that Threadless presents to its target consumers is a brilliant strategy that facilitates consumer involvement in the design and manufacture of its products. Since the organization uses a social networking platform that is easily accessible to all members of the society from all demographics, it is able to be at par with what consumers expect in the market.

According to Parsons and Maclaran, an understanding of clients’ expectations is very crucial for the growth and progress of an organization (22). As opposed to other organizations that employ extensive market surveys, researches, and promotions to identify consumer expectations in the market, the organization employs a strategy that incorporates marketing and presentation of customer needs through a social platform.

Thus, it is evident from the case of Threadless that it does not only emphasize on achievement of customer expectations, but it also strives to keep abreast with consumer trends and dynamics in the clothing industry.

Through the social networking platform, which the organization uses, several clients are able to present their proposed designs and have them converted into finished products. The act of involving consumers in decision-making process and using their proposals to manufacture finished T-shirts makes the organization build trust among its target consumers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social networking creates an avenue of sharing ideas and art works; hence, provides an environment where consumers and employees listen to one another while exchanging their ideas concerning improvement of product quality. When employees and clients interact and exchange their ideas, the organization acquires the ability to deliver products of good quality, and hence, derive satisfaction from the achievement.

Moreover, satisfaction expressed by consumers after receiving products of their perceived quality compounds the level of satisfaction that employees of Threadless hold.

Motivation occasions from the achievement of organizational goals and acquisition of a corresponding appreciation from the subject organization (Podmoroff 16). It is imperative to understand that employee and consumer satisfaction is a key ingredient that catalyzes employee motivation and commitment, and thus sustain delivery of products required by potential clients.

Organizational Challenges and Opportunities in this Band Area Some of the challenges associated with the Threadless relates to the limited capacity of its staff to make decisions that can propel it to a higher level. Moreover, due to the spontaneous growth of the organization that took a snowball design, it experienced a challenge in supplying its products to the target consumers.

From the case, it is clear that the organization has inadequate financial ability to meet the spiraling demand for its products, which was about 30 million in the year 2008 (Daft 427). When it commenced its activities in the year 2000, the Threadless expected to witness a gradual growth and steady revenue base.

Conversely, soon after its introduction, the strategy occasioned a spontaneous growth that spiraled out of its control. Merger with other organizations that are bigger than the organization can be a practical strategy in the quest to amplify the market share and supply of products that the organization manufactures and supplies in the market.

The main opportunity that the organization enjoys is its ability to engage its employees and potential customers through a social networking platform. From the platform, employees identify consumer needs, preferences, and expectations, whereas clients get the chance to relay their suggestions. As a result, the organization reduces the costs associated with promotion and marketing.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational DNA Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interaction between employees and potential consumers is a rare opportunity and a very practical platform that does not only lead to manufacture of products that match client expectations, but also initiate employee motivation. Remarkably, the platform facilities an environment where the organization easily accesses feedback from customers and use it in bridging any present knowledge gaps related to product quality.

According to McMeekin, some factors dictate consumers to purchase products in line with their preferences (12). Therefore, development of a platform where consumers interact with employees enables the organization to understand and cope with the ever-changing consumer needs.

Leverage of Opportunities to Meet Organizational Aims The act of social networking that employees and potential consumers in the organization practice is among the measures that the organization can utilize in the resolution of its challenges. Since social networking results in quick and efficient conveyance of feedback concerning product quality, organizations can identify the needs of clients and quickly bridge the gaps that affect product quality (Zarrella 3).

Furthermore, the culture of hard work, transparency, good relationship, and communication that the organization nurtures among its employees facilitates resolution of its challenges in terms of production, supply, and delivery of its products.

The culture also promotes productivity and enhances employee motivation and commitment. The ability to interact and exchange ideas with its potential consumers is a very vital opportunity that helps the organization to control and manage its challenges.

Works Cited Daft, Richard. Organization Theory and Design. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

McMeekin, Andrew. Innovation by Demand: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Demand and Its Role in Innovation. Manchester : Manchester University Press, 2002. Print.

Parsons, Elizabeth, and Pauline Maclaran. Contemporary Issues in Marketing and Consumer Behaviour. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational DNA Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Podmoroff, Dianna. 365 Ways to Motivate and Reward Your Employees Every Day- with Little Or No Money. Atlantic: Atlantic Publishing Company, 2005. Print.

Zarrella, Dan. The Social Media Marketing Book. London: O’Reilly Media, Inc, 2009. Print.


Polar Sports Company Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Polar Sports is one of the successful companies in the United States. In 1992, Richard Weir formed this company because he was motivated to make superior skiwear products. Since 1992, Polar Sports has been growing steadily. Today, it is one of the leading manufacturers of high-end sportswear in the US. This company experienced rapid growth in the late 1990s because it had good marketing and advertisement strategies.

For example, it sponsored a number of play-offs. Moreover, it endorsed some gifted athletes who excelled in international competitions. Thus, its products gained high reputation in the market. Hence, it sold many goods in the past few decades. Nonetheless, the prosperity of this company dropped slightly between 2008 and 2009 due to economic decline in the US.

In 2001, Thomas Johnson was appointed vice president of this company. Unlike other companies, Polar Sports has been producing most of its products seasonally. Currently, it is experiencing production and marketing challenges. Therefore, this essay examines the production and marketing trends of Polar Sports. It also recommends measures that can be used to overcome these challenges.

Situational Assessment of Polar Sport Market Position Polar Sport mainly targets high-end consumers. Thus, it produces unique products that attract high-end consumers. Polar Sport has been able to compete favorably in the market because it is producing high quality products. Nonetheless, some of its products are quite expensive due to high cost of production. Therefore, high prices affect marketability of its products.

Moreover, demand for its products has not been constant per annum. Hence, it has been producing most of its products when they are highly demanded. Thus, it can make huge losses if sports events reduce. Moreover, it faces serious competition from its rivals. Thus, it has to monitor market trends regularly to enable it increase its sales volume.

Market, Operational, and Financial Analysis Quantity of Sales under Seasonal Production

Through seasonal production of goods, the amount of sales grew tremendously from $4.65 million in 2001 to about $ 16.36 million in late 2011. Due to production of high quality products, the sales volume of this company was expected to reach $18 million by 2012. Nonetheless, the success of the new items was dependent on the market forces. Thus, seasonal manufacturing of goods led to significant increase in sales.

Operation Costs under Seasonal Production

Production activities were labor intensive under seasonal manufacturing of goods because designers had to develop new products regularly to make the company competitive in the market. Polar Sport strived to deliver orders on time. Hence, it had to increase its workforce. In this case, new workers were trained and existing ones were requested to work overtime.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Seasonal production led to over working of machines. This often led to frequent breakdown of machines, which led to high maintenance costs. In 2012, the cost of operation was expected to be approximately 24 percent of sales. Therefore, seasonal production activities had many challenges, which led to high operation expenses.

Volume of Sales under Level Production Model

Polar Sports decided to adopt level production because seasonal manufacturing of goods led to a high cost of production. In 2012, the vice president of Polar Sports anticipated a high demand for new products. He also thought that the company would save approximately $480,000 by reducing overtime payments and repair costs.

Moreover, the company would save about $600,000 through minimizing the cost of hiring and training new employees. The price of commodities sold was presumed to be 60 percent and would remain constant if the company adopted level production. Level production was expected to increase sales because goods would be produced regularly.

Operation Costs under Seasonal Production

Level production had some challenges. Intensive production of goods led to high maintenance costs. High rate of manufacturing distinct designs of sportswear led to regular modification of machines. This led to regular repair of machines. Furthermore, level production required hiring and training of new employees.

It is important to note that the challenges of level production occurred due to poor implementation strategies. For example, the company did not purchase appropriate machines for large-scale production of goods. Instead, it used small machines that could only produce limited amounts of products. Thus, over utilization of small machines led to inefficiency in production of goods.

Therefore, this company should develop proper strategies to facilitate implementation of level production. Indeed, level production has a great potential to reduce operation costs if it is properly implemented. For instance, level production can facilitate quick production of highly demanded goods.

Analysis of the Current Financial Situation of the Company

Through seasonal production of goods, Polar Sport had a net income of $897,000 in 2011. Financial analysts expected the net income to reach approximately $1,147,000 in 2012. At the end of the 2011 financial year, Polar Sport had not repaid loans worth $826,000. The local bank that financed it was willing to give it a maximum credit of $ 4 million in 2012. Polar Sport repaid its loans at an interest rate of 11 percent.

We will write a custom Case Study on Polar Sports Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The current financial situation of Polar Sport is not good because it has to repay a huge loan within the stipulated time. Moreover, it is repaying the loan at a high interest rate. High interest rates affect profit margins; hence, leading to losses.

Moreover, the financial situation of this company may not improve in the near future because it is planning to restructure its production activities. Restructuring of production will lead to high expenses. Thus, it must look for more funds to implement a new model of production.

Market Influences to be considered in Restructuring Production

The managers of this company should consider the following factors when restructuring production. First, they should be able to predict future demand for various goods to avoid producing irrelevant items. Second, they should assess the potential impacts of the new model of production on the capital needs of the company.

Third, they should predict how a given model of production would affect financial income and expenditure. For example, they should adopt a cost effective model of production that will mitigate operation expenses. Last, managers of this company should monitor new products introduced by its rivals to avoid duplicating goods.

Solutions to Current Production Challenges

At present, Polar Sport Company needs to increase its sales volume in order to make more profits. In this case, it should produce goods that are demanded throughout the year regularly. Conversely, it should produce products that have a low demand seasonally.

Polar Sport should adopt level manufacturing of products because of the following reasons. First, level manufacturing will increase production and sales. Therefore, it will be able to make profits throughout the year.

Second, level production will reduce the cost of production in future since goods will be produced a head of demand. Thus, it will be able to mitigate unnecessary production costs such as overtime allowances. Level production will facilitate production of superior products since designers will not hurry to complete urgent orders.

The following production issues should be taken into consideration when adopting level manufacturing of goods. First, this company should invest in better technology that will lead to efficiency in production. For instance, it should acquire sophisticated production equipment that will reduce wastage of materials.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Polar Sports Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This will lead to a significant reduction of operating costs. Indeed, large-scale production is cheaper than small-scale production of goods. Second, it should produce most of its products in countries such as China and India because they have cheap labor.

Proper implementation of level production model will require additional financial resources. Thus, it will have to seek more capital to buy better machines. It will also need more resources to hire and train additional workers. Furthermore, level production will require quality control measures.

Currently, Polar Sport does not have adequate income to facilitate implementation of level production. Thus, it should seek funds from financial institutions to acquire modern production equipment and to hire more workers. Alternatively, it can buy new machines on credit and pay manufacturers within a given period. It can also acquire machines through lease agreements.

Conclusion Polar Sport Company can make more profits if it adopts proper production and marketing strategies. Therefore, it should adopt level production because it will lead to increase in sales.


The Future and Strategies of Apple’s Brand Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents The Future of Apple’s Brand

Strategies that Apple can Use to Prevent Going Down

Apple Incorporation’s Future

Reference List

The Future of Apple’s Brand Apple Incorporation is a leading producer and marketer of innovative products. The company’s brand is acceptable in every part of the world. Apple succeeded because of Steve Jobs’ leadership skills. Many economists have examined why the company’s brand might be in jeopardy. The success of Apple’s brand depends on the strategies employed by its leaders and managers.

Phil Schiller is a professional leader at the company. Schiller safeguards the company’s brand reputation (Burrows


OBE Workplace Diversity Report custom essay help

A summary of the paper shows that the debate focuses on the impact of implementing a diversity training program to fight workplace discrimination.

Organisations implement diversity training programs as an afterthought when they have lost cases of employee discrimination. The paper discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and the practical implications of the diversity training program using different and practical examples.

The advantages of workplace diversity programs include the ability to transform individuals to enrich their knowledge, respond to social needs, improve intra-group and interpersonal relationships, address personal prejudice, avoid impulse management, practice personal accountability, improve problem solving abilities, become a better workforce, plan well, and attain greater levels of complexity for the organisation to achieve competitive advantage in its operations (Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter


World War II Innovations Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction The period following the end of World War II was characterized with a great deal of technological development, probably as a consequence of the victories achieved by the Allied forces. The aftermath of World War II set in motion a wave of innovations that proved to be greatly beneficial in improving the living standards of the global population.

Such advancements in technology were a direct consequence of the experiences gained during the several years of the War. An urgent need was felt to innovate in order to have more technologically advanced weaponry that would allow having the much required edge in winning the war. The potential for technological development had been thus created during the Second World War itself.

After it ended in 1945, the available resources and technology could be gainfully used in the development of consumer goods that led to improved standards of living on a global basis. The technological innovations in this regard were made in several fields such as Linguistics, Medicine, Weaponry, Intelligence and Communication in addition to the technological progress made in manufacturing and service industries (Castells 45).

The rapid advancement in technology during World War II was primarily inspired by the propensity to research and devise military strategies that would allow penetration and sabotage of enemy forces and supply lines respectively.

In addition, innovation in technology was also inspired by the enhanced ability of the military to use technology in gathering intelligence, which was gainfully used in obtaining the much needed information about military capabilities and movement of enemy forces.

After the World War II ended, the technology developed till that time could be further innovated in creating a virtual technological revolution that transformed the lives of humanity in the coming decades (Gray 36). World War II heralded noteworthy technological innovations in the areas of nuclear technology and information technology that revolutionized ways of living in the 21st century.

Nuclear Technology Invention of Nuclear Reactor

The invention of the atomic bomb by the United States and its allies eclipses any other innovation made during World War II. Named as the Manhattan Project during World War II, the nuclear program of the Allies led to catastrophic consequences for the Axis forces, particularly in the context of the bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which led to the death of millions of people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the initial objective of the Manhattan Project was to use nuclear technology in establishing reactors for the generation of electricity under the auspicious leadership of Italian physicist Enrico Ferni, the need to annihilate German, Italian and Japanese forces during World War II made the Allied leadership to focus on developing the first atomic bomb.

It was under the leadership of Enrico Fermi, who is recognized as the father of the atomic bomb because of his exhaustive research and positive outcomes in developing nuclear power, that the US made use his technology in establishing several nuclear power plants across the entire country (Russell 93).

Further innovations in nuclear technology were made by Enrico Fermi after the end of World War II, leading to major breakthroughs in reducing dependence on electricity generated through coal fuel and hydro power. This was made possible because of the innovation that led to the availability of cheaper, environmentally friendly and reliable nuclear generated electric power.

Innovation of Radiology Medicine

Besides its significant role in leading the green revolution through generation of environmentally clean energy, innovation in nuclear technology during World War II allowed wider application in medicine, especially in radiology therapy and imaging.

The use of nuclear technology in medicine can be traced back to the campaign initiated by the Polish Physics and Chemistry Nobel Prize laureate Marie Curie just before the beginning of World War II. Marie Curie embarked on a campaign to collect radium for use in radiology medicine.

She is credited with the establishment of globally recognized research institutes of radiology medicine, including the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw. Nuclear medicine finds wide application in radiology treatment of different cancerous malignancies with the use of techniques such as neoplasm and radiology imaging.

Radar Technology The innovations in radar technology during World War II helped in making improvements in the aviation industry and its associate role of uplifting the living standards of the global population. Such innovations also helped in enhancing national security from the perspective of external and internal aggression. Radar technology involves the use of radio waves in the detection of far-off objects.

We will write a custom Essay on World War II Innovations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such objects may include ships, aircrafts, submarines and a wide-range of missiles and rocket weaponry. Innovation of radar technology during World War II led to improvement in bombsights and radar capabilities, which were inspired by their increased use in World War II. Radar technology is even regarded as the defining innovation that tilted the balance in favor of the allied forces during World War II.

Later, it also heralded the revolution in both military and civil aviation in the contemporary world. Radar technology was invented immediately after World War II began, but significant improvements in the technology were made during the war through research and development, mainly for military purposes.

This new technology allowed the use of applications with which approaching enemy aircraft and ships could be detected.

Vaccines Collaborative arrangements were made between the military and academia in efforts to prevent war-exacerbated diseases, particularly pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza and such initiatives led to the innovation of disease prevention vaccines.

Wartime research programs on preventable disease are recognized for having led to the improvement and innovation of 10 new vaccines for treatment of a series of virulent preventable diseases (Godin 121). Besides, wartime research in health and medicine science and technology led to innovations relative to substitute blood samples such as plasma, antibiotics such as penicillin and insecticides such as DDT.

Nevertheless, the innovation of vaccines stands out as the most important achievement in the area of medical and health technology during World War II. Such vaccines involved development of highly effective, safe and licensed antibiotics and microbial preventative therapy for immunization against several diseases, which did not exist before the War began.

Electrolysis Chemistry, Digital Technology


Climate Change Problem Response Essay a level english language essay help

It is surprising to note the current trend the world is taking towards responding to the global climate change. Large corporations are increasingly realizing that global warming is real and affects every person, society, institution and nation. The author of the statement makes it clear that the recent reports in some of the world’s popular newspapers are really surprising.

According to the author, a number of large corporations in the modern world are realizing that they cannot make profits without proper and effective measures to deal with the problem. Moreover, the author notes that the current efforts by some of the large companies in the world to help in reducing the impact of global warming have a negative impact on shareholders.

The resources needed to reduce global climatic change are no doubt huge and not the task of a single corporation, but a combined effort by all societies, institutions and corporations alike (Gelbspan 34).

Nevertheless, it is surprising to note that some large corporations are using global warming (climate change) as an opportunity to make profits, attempting to utilize the idea of providing products and services that seek to manage the symptoms of the problem but benefiting from the deeply rooted causes of the situation.

Thus, it is clear that the author has based the argument on three important observations – corporate realization that climatic change is real, the economic impact of using corporate resources to manage global warming and the corporate utilization of opportunities posed by global warming to make profits.

This response takes into account the three observations to develop a comprehensive analysis of the problems. In addition, it takes into account evidence from modern reports on corporate behavior, which have appeared in newspapers, such as New York Times, to reflect on the situation.

First, it is worth noting that the author is concerned with corporate response to the climatic change, than to the phenomenon itself. Citing several newspaper and corporate reports in the recent past, the author notes that the current response to the problem has changed significantly (Ives A17).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Citing the example of Coca Cola corporation, the author argues that a number of corporations have come to the realization that global warming is not a theoretical notion, but a real phenomenon that affects their profitability (Davenport A23). For instance, Coca Cola lost a profitable operating license in India because of a serious shortage of water.

It is clear that the company was taking little, if any, efforts to conserve water resources in the region. The author seems to argue that the company was not aware or ignored the fact that it was set to lose if little or no efforts are made to conserve water resources as a part of protecting the environment.

In a broader sense, the company is an example of many corporations that tend to ignore the issue of global warming, assuming that it is a theoretical notion or a problem that cannot have a significant impact on their business.

Thus, the author uses the Coca Cola experience as an example to portray the fact that corporations will be the biggest losers if global warming and other aspects of climatic change are ignored. In addition, the author argues that global corporations are the major causes of the problem, yet they do not know that they are also the biggest losers if they do not make efforts to cope with the problem.

Citing the examples given in the New York Times, the author further moves to a relatively new argument, claming that the current and future efforts by corporations to take an active role in fighting global warming are not only difficult, they also affect the corporate practice. For instance, the author argues that the cost of dealing with the problem is high, making corporations reduce the value of their shareholder’ equity.

From an in-depth view, it is worth noting that the author wanted to show that the corporate worth of causing global warming is not significant, but the impact on corporate business is unbearable. In other words, the author wanted to say that companies have always ignored the idea of taking an active role in reducing the problem of global warming.

In fact, it has been shown that multinational companies are the biggest perpetrators of global warming, yet they are not aware that they are the largest users of the natural resources.

We will write a custom Essay on Climate Change Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this view, the author points out that that the biggest users of the natural resources are the largest cause of the global warming problem and eventually the biggest losers. It is clear that the author’s point of view on the matter is that the corporate world should take the leading role in dealing with the problem of global.

The third major issue discussed in the commentary concerns the corporate use of the opportunities that global warming has presented to make profits. The author seems to be concerned with a number of organizations that are increasingly pretending to manage the impacts of climate change, yet they are out to make money.

For instance, the author gives the examples of Bayer and Nephila Capital, which have started making plans to use the impacts of global warming to make profits. For example, Bayer has announced that it was developing various products to help the world population deal with the impacts of global warming.

It has set up plans to develop such products as eye and nose ointments, that will help people alleviate allergies that are likely to result from the changing in tree and plant cycles, and quality mosquito nets to help population deal with malaria when mosquitoes start moving to areas that are increasingly becoming warmer, thanks to global warming.

On its part, Nephila Capital is trying to trade water resources, pretending to be protecting sources, yet it is out to make huge profits. These cases provide clear examples that some corporations are aware that climate change is real, yet they want to help in treating the symptoms of the problem but retain the cause, which will most likely lead to profitability.

A deep analysis of the statement reveals that the corporate world has already realized that global warming is not a scientific hypothesis but a real phenomenon. While some have decided to take a leading role in dealing with the problem, others are busy setting up plans to take the advantage of the problem to make more profits (Revkin A7).

In addition, some organizations realized that they cannot take a leading role in managing the problem, because their profitability and net value is likely to reduce. Thus, the statement provides the readers with the dilemma associated with the corporate realization that global warming is real and effective. The author seems to raise the question “with the realization that global warming is real, what should the corporate world do?”

Works Cited Davenport, Carol. “Industry awakens to the threat of climate change.” The New York Times, 23 Jan 2014, A23. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Climate Change Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gelbspan, Ross. Boiling Point: How Politicians, Big Oil and Coal, Journalists and Activists Are Fueling the Climate Crisis—And What We Can Do to Avert Disaster. New York, Basic Books, 2013. Print.

Ives, Mike. “Slowly, Asia’s Factories Begin to Turn Green.” The New York Times, 7 Jan 2014, A17. Print.

Revkin, Andrew. “Industry Ignored Its Scientists on Climate.” New York Times, 23 April 2009, B7. Print.