History Of International Migration To America Essay Essay Help Online

America is a multi cultural and a multi racial society with immigrants coming in from any parts of the world. The history of immigration into America dates back to the coming of the Dutch.

Today the American society is made up of people from nay countries. There are a number of pull and push factors that have facilitated this movement. Mostly the economic as well as social factors motivate the migration for countries of origin into America.

A combination of political, economic and social factors pulled immigrants to settle in America. Blacks from Africa and the Caribbean immigrated to America due to better education opportunities.

During the 1600 and the 1700’s African American were forced into America as salves while, in the recent time better economic conditions and job opportunities are the main reason for immigration. A few come to America as political refuges (The American Legion 29; Kent 3). Similarly, better economic condition, job opportunities pulled a majority of Chinese to America from the 19th century.

During the 2800, Asians especially the Chinese came to America as gold miners and farmers. They were pulled into this country due to the existence of large deposits of gold in Californian as well as luxuriant wheat farming which needed cheap labor, of which the white American would not offer.

The Chinese, for instance referred the Gold deposits in California Mountain as the “Gim Saam” which mean the gold mountains (Perkins 1).

Unlike the African, Asians came to America due to religious persecution back home. As such they wee attracted to America by the existences of a free society within which there was freedom of worship. Some of these Asians include the Chinese who were escaping the Qing Dynasty due to religious differences in the 1850s.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly the emigration of these communities from their home countries into America is facilitated by a number of factors. While the existence of the freedom o worship in was attractive, religious persecution and differences pushed some of these immigrants out of their countries.

They found refuge in America. Moreover, economic factors also pushed some of the emigrants from their home countries. In the 1800’s china there was rampant poverty which was characterized by unemployment hunger. This state of affair was the hallmark of the unpopular Qing dynasty.

As such, the Chinese left China in such of better jobs elsewhere. Incidentally at the same time, wheat farming as well as gold mining in California was luxuriant. So the emigrated from their countries. Like the Asians, there are economic reasons which cause emigration of African from their countries.

The existence of slave merchants in West Africa pulled blacks out of Africa in the 1600s and the 1700s. Currently majority of the black immigrants are from Africa and the Caribbean and move out of their counties to join their relatives in America, the she of better education, better jobs and the promise of better living conditions (Kent 3 to 5).

There are many factors, such as political, religious economic and social that have lead to the movement of people from their home countries into America. While each of these pull and push factors have been significant to some extent, some of these factors have played a bigger role than others.

Economic factors in this case the search of better jobs, business opportunities as well as poverty in the country of origin has motivated many people to leave their home countries to go to America through out history. In addition social factors such as the need to join ones family in America have lead many to move out of their countries.

Likewise, the search for better educational opportunities in America has motivated many especially Africans to migrate. Thus social political factors are major motivation for peoples’ movement from their home countries into America.

We will write a custom Essay on History of International Migration to America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kent, Mary Mederios. Immigration and America’s Black Population. Population Reference Bureau. 2007. 7 September, 2011 https://assets.prb.org/pdf07/62.4immigration.pdf

Perkins, Gwen. Chinese Immigrants. Washington State History Museum. 2007. 7 September, 2011 http://www.washingtonhistory.org/files/library/chineseImmigrants.pdf

The American Legion. The American Legion Policy on Illegal Immigration. 2010. Web.


“Fight Club” by Fincher David Essay best college essay help

The film Fight Club, which is based on the novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk, presents an evaluation of modern consumerist culture and social values. To a great extent, this movie urges people to regard goods as necessities rather than those things that define an individual or indicate his/her status in the society.

One of the major characters, Tyler Durden acts as a conveyer of the authors’ views on contemporary culture. It is possible to say that this person advocates the values of a hunter-gather society which tends to be simpler and more egalitarian, at least from economic point of view.

There are several examples that illustrate this argument. First, we can refer to the conversation between Tyler and the narrator. Tyler expresses the idea that modern people view themselves primarily as “consumers” whose sole purpose is acquisition of property. He even accuses the narrator of being too focused on material values overlooking the fact that the protagonist lost virtually all his possessions.

More importantly, he emphasizes the point that the majority of these goods are not essential for the survival of a person. More likely, they are used to underline high prestige of an individual. Such worldview is unacceptable for him. His ideas bear close resemblance to a hunter-gather society.

Its members acquire goods such as food or clothing only to feed their families or sustain themselves. In such social and economic environment the main purpose of labor is survival or subsistence but not profit or prestige. People, who live in such communities, do not derive pleasure from mere possession of property or goods.

This lack of highly sophisticated needs or desires greatly appeals to Tyler and, in part, to the narrator. Additionally, acquisition of property can be the underlying cause of inequality in the society. This is another reason why Tyler cannot accept consumerism. Hunter-gatherer community becomes his ideal mostly because it is more egalitarian. However, he overlooks the drawbacks of such social system.

Another example, which shows Tyler’s rejection of consumer culture, is the destruction of other peoples property. For instance, the members of Project Mayhem burn computers, smash vehicles, and even bomb the office of some unidentified company or corporation. This sabotage originates from their rejection of consumerism. In this way they attempt to demonstrate that property is not critical for the survival of a human being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The people are guided by Tyler’s philosophy which relies on the premise that acquisition of property cannot be the only driver of human behavior. Again, we can say that this ideology stems from hunter-gather society. Finally, the members of Project Mayhem bomb the buildings of credit card companies in effort to erase debt records.

These bombings can be explained by their desire to recreate primitive or hunter-gather society in modern America. Nonetheless, the main characters of this film, especially Tyler, forget that other people may disagree with their views on contemporary culture or their willingness to transform the world through violence.

Fight Club is a rich social commentary on various social, economic, and political issues. This movie is aimed at showing the shortcomings of contemporary capitalism and consumerism.

Yet, its characters fail to find solutions to the problems of society; instead they try to return to primitive culture with its simplicity and alleged egalitarianism. Tyler does not care to explain the reasons why modern world moves toward consumer culture and this is the main limitation of his worldview.

Works Cited Fincher David (dir). Fight Club. 20th Century Fox. DVD.


Evaluating performance through motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Employees are a significant asset to the organization; therefore, it is crucial to motivate employees and resolve conflicts wisely within an organization to achieve remarkable performance. Different organizations apply motivation theories differently to stimulate the interest of employees.

It is essential to understand the theories of motivation first, before determining their application in different organizations. Abraham Maslow explains that employee motivation comes through a hierarchy of needs. The highest point of motivation for employees is the point where management meets the self-actualization needs of employees (Cofer,


Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Continuous improvement process review

Review communication to stakeholders

Future planning for Fast Forward


Works Cited

Introduction Continuous improvement process entails all effective changes undertaken in an organization to ensure that the organization maintains a sustained growth and value for customer. It involves instituting measures, techniques and performance indices that are used to assess, evaluate and take appropriate actions to sustain the life of an organisation. Fast Forward’s continuous improvement policy serves as a frame of reference in delivering courier services to its clients (Bartol et al. 17-35).

Continuous improvement process review Following a decline in Fast Forward’s performance including loss of Build With Us, a key corporate client, due to dissatisfaction with service delivery, a review of the following service segments is essential to revitalize Fast Forward’s business: Customer feedback, service monitoring system, staff mentorship and coaching programs, firm’s communication system and channels, performance review and operation’s structure.

Customer feedback: A mechanism should be put in place to collect, evaluate and respond to customer feedback. This will involve designing and distributing questionnaires to the firm’s service points to be filled by its customers about their complaints and complements.

A customer service feedback task team should be formed to ensure that customer’s feedback is handled appropriately including making follow-ups to enhance development of a strong relationship between business and clients (Bartol, et al. 17-35).

Service delivery monitoring system: The departure of Build With Us is attributed to the current manual system of monitoring and recording of mail deliveries which is slow and inefficient. Owing to this, an elaborate IT system should be instituted to enhance fast recording and information tracking to ensure customer retention and high business efficiency.

Staff mentorship and coaching: Mentoring is providing guidance and support to help a mentee, to find a direction of doing something on his own while coaching is giving directives and guidelines for someone to follow to enhance his/ her potential. Mentoring and coaching differ in the sense that mentoring is long term and often leads to a relationship as the mentee looks at a mentor as a role model to emulate while coaching is short term and does not require the coach to necessarily be a role model (Rummler’s and Brache’s 10).

The firm will assume a rigorous mentorship and coaching program in which professional mentors and coaches will be sourced from within and outside to facilitate staff motivation and growth. Such mentors and coaches will be expected to have good communication skills of message precision, time consciousness, proactivity and mindful of employees’ efforts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication systems and channels: A good and effective communication system will be instituted to ensure effective flow of information in the firm’s hierarchy through meetings, noticeboards, office telephones, firm’s intranet and e-mail system. There will be effective weekly meetings and trainings at all departmental levels and monthly meetings involving management.

Performance review: To ensure high performance, targets will be set for all employees and key performance indicators put in place to measure their productivity. Following this, there will be monthly and annual employees’ performance appraisal.

To ensure effective monitoring of the company’s operations, the operations department will be structured into task teams each assigned a specific task to ensure high service delivery and customer retention. Such teams will hold regular meetings to report on the progress of their assignments (Samson and Daft 7-21).

Review communication to stakeholders Following the above described reviews, a communication will be made to the firm’s employees, shareholders, customers and top management including directors through suitable channels as described: Internal stakeholders will be communicated to through office-mails, intranet uploads and noticeboards.

External stakeholders such as customers and shareholders will receive communication through global e-mail system where appropriate, newspaper notices and annual stakeholders’ meetings among others.

Future planning for Fast Forward The future plans of Fast Forward will entail measures to expand business territories, and to maintain a growth in asset portfolio and profit margins.

The following progressive improvements are essential in meeting the future of the firm: Firstly, I will ensure a sustained growth in human resource with respect to growth in business; secondly, I will ensure integration of ideas of all employees in business planning including customer feedback in making business decisions, thirdly, I will invest in IT systems to meet business expansion and modern communication challenges.

We will write a custom Report on Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, I will invest in staff motivation and mentorship to motivate employees to work for the common goal and philosophy of the company.

Conclusion From a general perspective, the decline in business performance of Fast Forward is due to laxity in implementation of its continuous improvement processes and policies. The above described reviews should help revitalize the company’s performance. Staff motivation is of essence in ensuring effective implementation of these reviews as this will change them from being reactive to proactive.

Works Cited Bartol, Kathryn e tal. Management:A Pacific Rim Focus. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.

Rummler’s G.A and A.P. Brache’s. Improving performance 2nd edition :How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass publishers, 1995. Print.

Samson, Danny and Richard Daft. Fundamentals of management. 2nd ed. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2005. Print.


The Australian Ecomony Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Abstract Australia is a steadily growing economy that can attribute its success to the economic policies that have been applied. This report evaluates the macroeconomic setting in economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade. The investigations will discuss the performance after adoption.

Issues surrounding the macroeconomic policies will be discussed. Two major policies have been adopted and have been successful. The monetary and fiscal policies are most effective when applied within a short period. They have been implemented in creation of more water resources, expansion of the port, communication infrastructure, transport network and education. The policies have seen reduced rates in taxation, privatized the governmental enterprises and changed the structure of the enterprises.

The main challenge is that the electorate and the legislature have sometimes used the policies for their own interests. Another challenge is that employment is sometimes unsustainable. To overcome the challenges, reports on the implementation of the policies need to be documented and availed for analysis. This will also allow for transparency. There is also need to form independent groups to be in charge of the fiscal policy and monetary policy.

Introduction The Australian government has been keen to attain economic growth, reduce the levels of inflation create sustainable employment and create opportunities for future, in terms of market. Due to the dynamics of the market, Australia has adopted policies that control the economic prospects in a changing market. This is a report on the macroeconomic policy settings for economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade currently being applied in Australia.

The current macroeconomic setting in Australia The economy of Australia receives greater revenue from mining and agriculture than from other services. In line with Travel Document Systems (2011, p. 1), government has benefited from exporting raw materials as well as manufacturing them.

Manufacturing therefore, is causing gradual economic growth and creating more trade opportunities while creating more employment. Redding


The US Constitution Essay essay help: essay help

The book by O’Connor and Sabato (2011) is valuable, and deserves special attention. Its second chapter examined the US Constitution. The US Constitution is the product of many years American political, economical, religious, and social experience. Following O’Connor and Sabato’s book (2011), one may see that this document cannot be changed in an easy way.

From colonies to the United States, the country had passed a long challengeable way. Only the best juridical practices stroke roots on the abundant US land. The ideas that resulted in the creation of this legal document addressed the problems and demands of a changing nation (O’Connor and Sabato 30). Thus, the US Constitution has gathered those laws and legal norms that reflected the country’s historical experience.

The authors’ book (2011) describes key events that led to American independence. These events are connected with the swift development of the thirteen colonies, intense foreign policy, and the Civil War. However, the book presented Boston Massacre of 1770 as one of the most notable events that led to the independence. The incident that happened in Boston (the encounter of the American citizens, disappointed with unfair tax policy with the British authorities) resulted in the removal of the British military from the town.

Six years later, on July 4, 1776, the Americans declared independence: the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress (O’Connor and Sabato 33). Since that time, the US Constitution became the supreme law that cannot be broken with impunity by each American citizen.

The adoption of the Constitution was accompanied with participation of numerous notable individuals: George Washington (in 1789, he became the first US President), John Adams, James Madison, and others. The book (2011) says that such notable figure as Benjamin Franklin signed the most essential US document of all times. He is believed to be the founding father of the US Constitution (O’Connor


Intellectual Property Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction This paper discusses the inception of intellectual property (IP) and its associated features. The concept of Intellectual property emerged after the foundation of the “World Intellectual Property Organization” (WIPO) in 1967. There is increase use of this term by diverse groups seeking to safeguard their intellectual knowledge and cultural heritage.

This paper also examines the recent “Wai 262 claim before the Waitangi tribunal” in order to identify the issues at stake (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). Furthermore, it presents the advantages and shortcomings of using Intellectual property model in protecting local people’s traditions and knowledge. Additionally, it presents the possible alternatives to the language of intellectual property. These discussions focus on New Zealand and the citizen’s relation with Maori people due to their cultural distinctiveness.

The Wai 262 claim before the Emergence of Waitangi Tribunal The Waitangi Tribunal recorded the claims on 262 occasions. This gave rise to the name Wai 262 claim. The preliminary recording took place on 9 October 1991 and the petitioners included six people. This is in addition to the iwi who were complaining against the New Zealand Crown (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

The claim was referred to as the living things claim because of the underlying issues. Furthermore, it had extensive coverage of additional issues regarding civilizing and intellectual property. The claimants recognized the existence of the New Zealand decrees and the government rules but questioned the place of Maori people’s customs, distinctiveness, and customary knowledge within the setting (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Furthermore, the claimants wanted to know the entities that would manage Maori cultural art and the unique surrounding that created Maori identity. The claim was also concerned with questioning the place of Maori cultural importance in New Zealand, especially the responsibility of the natives towards guarding their culture (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Further, claimants wanted to know the responsibility of the natives in caring for the valuable cultural materials that determined their identity, including artwork, historic sites, vegetation, and animals.

Issues at Stake in the Wai 262 Claim The petitioners argued that certain legislations enacted by the government contravened the Waitangi Treaty. This diminished chances for Maori to implement their political right basing on indigenous knowledge and environment. Further, it also limits their rights regarding traditional knowledge and intellectual property (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 66).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They argued that foreign powers affected the Maori through legal guidelines, which were contrary to the Waitangi Treaty provisions. These issues were evident in the decision-making process that influenced commercialization, management, and conservation of diverse ecological resources.

Issues entailing the integration of the Maori people in the determination of cultural rights in the application of the original environmental endowments were evident (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). Further, the Maori required opportunities to conserve, improve, and transmit the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) basing on environmental materials (WIPO 2011, pg. 8).

There was an issue concerning the right to ecological sustainability that was possible through sustainable use of customary resources. The Maori also needed to participate and achieve benefits basing on contributing opinions on the application, improvement, and trade of indigenous environmental endowments (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

There were also concerns about the associations that existed between Maori and the Crown. Furthermore, the significance of improving the relations in the presence of emerging regulations was at stake. Discrimination basing on racial relations also existed between the Crown and Maori because of the native’s cultural identity (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

This necessitated the search for ways of resolving historical conflicts that emerged because of the way that the New Zealanders handled the Maori. This resulted in relationships that awarded governance rights to the Crown over Maori cultural pieces while the natives held their power (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

The Maori also noted that enacted decrees marginalized them against exercising full management rights over their primary resources. There was also an ongoing unlawful exploitation of Maori intellectual property and related resources.

Intellectual Property The emergence of Intellectual Property (IP) coincided with the founding of WIPO in 1967. IP concept gained escalated application over the recent years in protecting people from losing their original creations. According to the “New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development”, IP means a nonspecific term for the variety of property privileges that safeguard knowledge (MED 2008).

We will write a custom Essay on Intellectual Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WIPO argues that IP entails original creations that emerge from people’s minds including “inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs”, which are used in trade (WIPO 2011). Furthermore, IP differs in two classes, including industrialized property together with copyright.

The industrial property includes “patents, trademarks, and industrial designs” (WIPO 2011). Copyright property includes literary, creative materials and drawings. The cultural expressions that fall under fictional and creative works include novels, poems, plays, films, musical works, and artistic works that entail drawings, paintings, photographs, monuments, among others.

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) include the privileges that people who invent or create new things enjoy because of the protection they receive. These rights offer control over diverse processes that may be used by other entities (MED 2008). However, such privileges last for a short period.

The privileges and rights are defended by the idea that creators and inventors of ought to profit from their activities. Further, the owners of such property receive incentives for generating ideas or property that would have not taken off (MED 2008). The benefits that emerge because of inventions compensate for the costs incurred by societies.

Intellectual property is linked to the affairs of the indigenous people. This is because of their cultural, knowledge and environmental resource endowments, which generate specific intellectual property characteristics. WIPO differentiates these aspects of IP regarding indigenous people according to traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) and TK (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

These are differentiated according to their relations with IP among native communities. It is noteworthy that indigenous people have diverse TCEs that are protected as their IP. These TCEs includes productions that contain characteristic essentials of the cultural inventions developed and preserved by indigenous communities (WIPO 2007, pg. 8).

The cultural expressions occur in diverse forms, including verbal, musical, and activities, among others. The inventive heritage of indigenous people has substantial social, belief, and cultural functions. Furthermore, they are also exploitable for commercial functions.

Native people also have diverse knowledge systems collectively named TK. These include knowledge regarding customary methodological know-how, conventional environmental resources, scientific or health understanding (WIPO 2007, pg. 6). These knowledge systems can also be linked with TCEs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Intellectual Property by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because some conventional pieces that symbolize TK can also refer to inventive expressions. This uniqueness makes different groups of indigenous people argue that TK and TCEs are indivisible (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

Furthermore, IP advocates require rule-makers to recognize the inseparability of TK and TCEs basing on their significance to different aspects of indigenous peoples livelihoods and cultural identity. The economic importance of indigenous people awareness and TCEs cause their exploitation by third parties. In some scenarios, these exploitations occur unlawfully, thereby necessitating their protection as IP.

IP in Relation to Indigenous Peoples using the Waitangi 262 Claim Maori who is indigenous people of the New Zealand advanced the Wai 262 claim. It contained concerns regarding IP of their green resources, including living things. Furthermore, it also concerned seeking responsibility for the management of Maori TK that entails arts, sculpture, history, verbal expressions, music, and traditional healing systems and surroundings management.

Collectively, these were named taonga because their continuation and improvement signified continued Maori uniqueness and well-being. According to Waitangi Tribunal (2011), Maori IP included their TK and aspects of culture that signified their identity. The continued undermining of Maori by the New Zealand Crown necessitated their claim actions that were necessary for safeguarding and maintaining their IP.

The inappropriateness of the IPRs that protected Maori conventional knowledge and cultural wealth marginalised the natives from their indigenous property. Furthermore, the idea that IP offers owners privileges to determine the use of their materials and Maori was not available in this provision (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

They had complications in gaining IPRs that would facilitate their interest in preserving or economically exploiting their conventional knowledge. This is because the existing rights had inconsistencies with the native’s property (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

The native’s interest included preserving their property against third-party exploitations while rights limited the period and provisions for public disclosure (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). The requirements that include originality and recognition of certain individuals or companies as inventors limit Maori’s protection since it culminates in marginalization.

The claimants noted that the rights are unfavorable to indigenous people’s traditional information, cultural materials, and green endowments. This means that third parties can obtain rights regarding certain inventions. This means they can apply them commercialisation processes (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Furthermore, certain rights eventually result into successful trade activities, but the claimants recognised that they might not benefit because of inadequate sharing. The claim called for the patenting of diverse fauna and petitioning unlawful registering of brands using Maori pictures or writings. Intellectual property is a form of legislation and the New Zealand’s enactments together with other global requirements affected Maori rights (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Advantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture

The recognition that indigenous people’s customary and cultural wealth is significant for their livelihoods and identity necessitates protection of these aspects (WIPO 2007, pg. 13). This is because the protection avoids their erosion and ensures that indigenous people continuously enjoy their endowments (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Furthermore, it enables owners of inventions to benefit economically and preserve native’s cultural materials and ideas. The monetary benefits occur when owners apply their inventions in generating commercial outcomes or through sharing gains (WIPO 2007, pg. 8). Cultural resources and ecological materials generate financial development through enterprises creations, skills development, and tourism expansion.

Safeguarding IP also facilitates continuity of cultural wealth and environmental endowments. This leads to escalated information access and safety. Further, IP protection ensures that future generations appreciate aspects of their preserved culture (Zogfaros, 2010, pg. 69). It enables native people to utilize their knowledge systems in encouraging sustainable exploitation of their cultural expressions and ecological endowments.

Disadvantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture

Using intellectual property for the conservation gives rise to inconsistencies regarding ownership and exploitation tactics for such endowments. Additionally, it does not offer genuine solutions to the predicaments faced by indigenous people in protecting their wealth (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Further, the related concepts also affect the preservation and improvement of cultural and environmental materials among some native groups. It rarely facilitates maintenance of indigenous people’s valuable materials under conflicting legislation and customary awareness systems.

Furthermore, inadequacy of distributing benefits poses disadvantages to inventors of original materials or indigenous groups. The idea of collectively referring to aspects of native and ecological materials as intellectual property interferes with their safety. This is evident in the holistic nature of this group. Evidently, within such collections, certain beneficial aspect is not preserved (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). The ineffectiveness of enforcing legislation is disadvantageous to minor individuals or indigenous groups.

Incorrectness of IP Joining diverse aspects of culture that are related and referring to them as intellectual property is erroneous. Instead, single cultural and ecological aspects ought to be labeled as distinct issues. Lumping “trademark, copyright, and patent” laws and referring to them as IP also displays incorrectness (Stallman 2011). This is because these laws emerged disjointedly, advanced differently, possess diverse provisions, and are concerned with separate public policy matters.

The use of intellectual property generates different meaning in separate situations (Stallman 2011). This is because specialists in these knowledge areas understand the varied dynamics.

The use of intellectual property also lies about key issues regarding inventions. Furthermore, the concept instills distorted thinking’s among people making them focus on harmony other than specific guidelines (Stallman 2011). IP also causes issues generated according to understanding of different laws to disappear. This is because people tend to disregard issues that are fundamental to different laws.

Alternatives of IP The notable alternative to Intellectual property is evident when indigenous people initiate new property models and reject the current provisions and designs (Stallman 2011). The efficiency likely to arise from this tactic is evident in diminishing bio-colonization by civilized societies.

The inconsistencies regarding intellectual property, culture and related aspects make it difficult for indigenous people to preserve their resources (Zogfaros 2010, p67). The alternative to this situation would entail endorsing parallel worldviews that facilitate continuation, improvement, and transfer of these knowledge systems to emerging generations.

Furthermore, achieving political independence can also free indigenous people from disguised protection through intellectual property (Stallman 2011). The exploitative intellectual property should embrace processes that enable them to protect native people from abuse.

Conclusion In summary, intellectual property is use in protecting inventive people from third parties interested in exploiting their creations. The concept also protects indigenous community’s cultural identity through preserving their values, customary expressions, and ecological endowments. Maori marginalization by New Zealand Crown in the control of environmental resources, customary knowledge, and cultural expressions contributed to claims.

The Wai 262 claim focused on resolving these issues basing on the IP legislation that New Zealand had enacted. Application of IP in the preservation of the traditional understanding and cultural aspects exude different advantages and shortcomings. Furthermore, intellectual property is an incorrect term because it lumps diverse society’s innovations and refers to them as IP. This presents challenges in the protecting communities’ traditional understanding and cultural identity materials.

List of References MED 2008, What is Intellectual Property. Web.

Stallman, R. 2011, Did you say ‘intellectual property”? It is a seductive mirage. Web.

Waitangi Tribunal 2011, Time to Move beyond Grievance in Treaty Relationship Tribunal Says, Web.

WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions/Folklore, Web.

WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and TK. Web.

WIPO 2011, What is Intellectual Property. Web.

Zogfaros, D. 2010, Intellectual property, and traditional cultural expression, Cheltenham:Edward Elgar Publishing.


Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Executive summary Having a strong, cohesive organizational culture is perhaps the most important strategy that an organization can implement to cope with the current aggressive competition, declining economy and ever increasing internal challenges. This report shall set out to elaborate different concepts used to define, explain and justify organizational culture.

To this end, an overview of what culture entails shall be provided and benefits that an organization can accrue from adopting a strong culture outlined. Different theories and principles shall be used to recommend the best course of action that can be taken by BSG to address its behavioral and cultural issues.

Introduction In today’s business environment, members of any given organization are expected to behave in a manner that enables them to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives. To ensure this is done, rules, regulations and guidelines are designed and implemented to act as a framework through which activities and operations can be carried out.

As a result of these frameworks, organizations develop practices, attitudes and norms that define how organizational practices are carried out. These practices, attitudes and norms form the organizational culture. Wilderom et al (2004), state that organizational cultures play a pivotal role in unifying and motivating employees to perform better, and commit to the organization. As such, it can be argued that by having a strong organizational culture, business entities can perform better and more efficiently.

Purpose of the report In all organizations, there are internal and external factors that influence the ability of the organizations to perform efficiently. They include but are not limited to: leadership, management and motivational factors among others.

Regardless of the category, organizational culture seems to play an integral role in the determination of how members of an organization carry out their duties and responsibilities. In response to these undertones, this report shall set out to define and elaborate various concepts of organizational culture. In addition, the benefits of having an organizational culture shall be discussed and justifications for these benefits provided.

Scope of the report De Long (1997) argues that organizations have different organizational cultures. Some may adopt a competitive culture, while others may choose a collaborative culture. It is therefore important to understand the culture that an organization has. This understanding can only be achieved by examining the values, practices and beliefs that are held by the members of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this report, the cultural and behavioral characteristics of BSG Pty Ltd shall be analyzed. This shall be done by deducing these characteristics from the scenario given and identifying the cultural and behavioral issues that affect the organization’s success.

Background of the report Over the past few years, the profitability of BSG Pty Ltd has been significantly declining against the expected projections mainly due to aggressive competition and economic hardships that characterize the market. In addition, results from a recently conducted cultural/employee attitude survey indicated that BSG Pty Ltd employees lack cohesion, motivation, commitment.

More importantly, employees at BSG Pty Ltd seems to have significantly low levels of job satisfaction, team work, trust (among themselves and the management), and expectations for future advancements (promotions and rewards).

On the same note, there was a 30% increase in pilfering of company resources as evidenced from the analysis of company data. The 15% increase in last year’s staff turnover is also an issue that needs to be addressed. In light of these issues, the C. E. O of BSG Pty Ltd strongly suggested that there is need for change if the company is to survive the current unforgiving market and economical trends.

This he attributed to the fact that the current culture adopted by the company was the root cause of the poor performance exhibited by the company. As such, this report has been necessitated by the need to identify, analyze and solve the cultural and behavioral issues that affect BSG Pty Ltd.

Sources and methods used in this report Evidently, BSG Pty Ltd has numerous cultural and behavioral inadequacies as has been identified in the currently gathered information. We shall use this evidence as the basis of the report.

Relevant academic sources and concepts shall be used to analyze these issues and recommend viable solutions for the same. Literature related to theories, principles and models used to address the aforementioned cultural and behavioral issues shall be applied as necessary.

We will write a custom Report on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture: A Literature Review De Long (1997) defines culture as the values, norms and practices that are followed by members of a given organization. According to the author, values refer to the beliefs held by an organization in regard to the worthiness of what it does and has. Practices in this context are associated to the routines (formal and non-formal) that organizational members follow to accomplish their tasks.

According to the author, norms are the shared belief that organizational members’ have regarding proper working behavior (De Long, 1997). From this definition, it can be argued that organizational culture is rooted in how people act, their expectations to each other and how they interpret the actions of others in an organizational setting.

On the same note, organizational culture has been defined as particular practices carried out by organizations that evolved over time (Kostova, 1999; Wilderom, 2004).

These practices reveal the competence and shared knowledge in an organization. In this context, organizational culture can be described as the shared perception that members have in regard to the correct or wrong organizational work practices. Such practices may differ from one organization to another.

From the definitions stated above, it is evident that values play a significant role in defining culture. This is further accentuated by Hibbard (1998) who defines culture as a set of beliefs and values that are strongly shared by members of a given organization. Despite the logic behind Hibbard’s (1998) definition, research conducted by other scholars presents a strong case against this criterion.

Wilderom et al (2004) argue that the greatest disparities between organizations are strongly based on practices than they are on values. The authors reaffirm this fact by stating that the cultural difference exhibited by different organization is deeply rooted in the organizational work practices that are adopted by the personnel.

These authors contend that values are constituents of practices. As such, using values as the basis of defining organizational culture creates a problem when it comes to measuring culture in an organizational context.

Cohesive culture: A Brief Overview Cohesion broadly refers to collaboration and unity. Using the definition of culture proposed earlier, a cohesive culture can best be described as the work practices that promote unity and inter-departmental collaboration. They include but are not limited to knowledge sharing, trustworthiness, team work, effective communication and commitment among others (Luca, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a cohesive culture refers to harmony experienced in an organization as a result of clearly defined practices and values that are shared by an organization’s personnel. The authors argue that an organization that adopts a cohesive culture is bound to succeed. This means that a cohesive culture leads to success and it is not always the other way around.

Benefits of a strong, cohesive organizational culture Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a strong culture is pivotal towards the promotion of team work in an organizational setting. When the members of an organization share the same values and practices, they are better placed to work together as a team. This is in contrary to a situation whereby employees compete against each other for recognition and personal gratification.

In addition, Palmer (2008) contends that team work is guaranteed by the presence of a vision. An organization envisioning harmony gives its employees a glimpse of what to expect from the organization and they judge the organization by the principles that govern it (Cartwright


Trends and Issues in Nursing Expository Essay a level english language essay help

The nursing role is shifting from good cooperation with other medical professionals to managed care. This is because the most valued education and training are those that focus more on clinical experience in nonhospital settings.

The training, other qualifications, and advancement statistics indicate that the higher levels in nursing education emphasize on furnishing the nurses in areas that are somewhat outside the actual therapy (USDL, 2011). These include areas on psychology, nutrition, and management. Indeed, other qualifications involve personal attributes that promote interaction between a nurse and the patients. On the other hand, it is easier for a nurse who has nursing experience than one with technical savvy.

It is a fact that the demand for nurses is more than the supply and this trend is expected to continue. Job outlook statistics indicate that the employment of nurses is glowing such that employers are unable to retain nurses. Technological advances are playing a big role in expanding the role of nurses.

The more the nurses learn on the emerging needs, the more the opportunities to work in other related fields. Moreover, the scarcity of qualified nurses will continue as the aging workforce leave the profession and the failure for the education facilities to be sensitive about the nursing education (USDL, 2011).

A new fact learned from the nursing statistics is that the nursing professionals earn lower wages than any other medical profession in the United States. Looking at the earning statistics, the nurse wages is almost half that of the physicians. This might affect not only individual nursing professions, but the entire health care.

Now that the nursing fraternity is becoming the center of the whole healthcare system, individual nurses will have to work more. Under the same pattern of pay, individuals like me might consider shifting from employment to working independently.

Nursing education Nursing education is facing new trends that affect both the curriculum taught, the nursing professions, and the delivery of the nursing services. These trends emerge as the healthcare climate evolves as a result of political and policy consequences, fueled by factors like the economy and new policies being set by sensitive legislature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rapid technological growth is triggering an evolution of the information systems in healthcare industry which brings about the need to expand technology training in nursing education. In the current information age, nurses must be prepared during their education to face the needs that emerge with the increasing use of technologies within healthcare facilities.

In addition, nursing education is required to prepare nurses for the complexities involved with population-based care. Allen (2011) observes how older people with specific medical problems are causing a new shift in health care delivery focus on population-based care and away from the conventional pattern of individualized care.

As the trend towards population-based care becomes more apparent, nursing education is required to provide nurses with interdisciplinary knowledge. Managed care involves more than just working cooperatively with other medical professionals.

Furthermore, a new trend emerges as the continued shortage of nurses, impact deeply on the quality of healthcare in acute and long-term settings. Hence, nursing education is tasked with the creation of awareness about this shortage, work to prepare quality individuals into the profession, and change the lingering discernments about the role of nurses.

Nevertheless, nursing research field has continually failed to provide valuable data on the provision of quality care (Judd et al., 2010). It is the role of nursing education to inspire nurses to carry out relevant research in order to improve health care outcomes. The positive change in the nursing research paradigm should be reinforced by nursing educators through continuous support of the research initiatives.

References Allen, J., E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Judd, D., M., Sitzman, K.