Historical And Theological Context Of Byzantine Iconoclasm Expository Essay Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

The First Iconoclastic Period (730-787 AD)

The Second Iconoclastic period (814-842)

The Theological Debate

The View of Iconophiles

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction The place, function, and importance of religious images in the Byzantine Empire were a subject of concern for both the secular Emperor rulers and the religious leaders. Byzantine Iconoclasm concerns the banning of the veneration of religious icons within the Empire.

The point of contention amongst the proponents of iconoclasm (iconoclasts) and those in support of the veneration of these images (iconophiles) lay in the analysis of whether the reverence of these images alienated the divine Christ or not.

The need to ensure that the actions and beliefs of the people of the Byzantine Empire were acceptable to Christ, and drew favor from the heavens, was born out of the prevalent belief of the time that the fortunes of the kingdom were designed by the Christian savior Jesus Christ. Christianity was the dominant religion of the Byzantine Empire, and the Emperors were particularly keen to act in accordance with the designs and providence of the Christian God.

The growth, power, and influence of the Byzantine Empire coincided with the belief in the power of religious images, especially those portraying Christ, in exercising divine influence on the fortunes of the Empire and its political and religious leaders.

Therefore, Byzantine Iconoclasm was born of a desire by the Emperors of various eras in the Byzantine history to align the fortunes of the Empire, according to what they believed was the will of God. Byzantine Iconoclasm occurred in two different historical times, the first being in the Eighth Century AD ( in the period 730-787 AD), and the second in the Ninth Century (In the period 814-842)1.

In both periods of Iconoclasm, emperors that were fearful of the wrath of God for the collective sin of idolatry within the Byzantine Empire banned the presence of these images in churches or their use as substitutes for the divine Christ. Naturally, such decrees, besides causing inevitable rifts with the religious leaders, also led to a dearth of artistic images in the places of worship within the Empire during the Iconoclastic periods.

The First Iconoclastic Period (730-787 AD) During the reign of Emperor Leo III in the Eighth Century, the Byzantine Empire suffered several military defeats at the hands of Muslims. The losses in battle would not have been significant in the eyes of the Emperor had they been experienced at the hands of enemies who subscribed to the Christian faith.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Emperor Leo III’s estimation, the loss to Muslims had military/political as well as religious significance. The emperor believed that the Empire was experiencing the wrath of God for the sin of idolatry undertaken via the worship of images of Christ in many churches and places of worship within the Empire2.

Other events that occurred during this period heightened his belief that the wrath of God was upon the Empire, for instance a volcanic eruption in the island of Thera. Leo III subsequently issued an edict that forbade the worship of religious images in an attempt to reverse the fortunes of the Empire both in a militaristic and religious sense.

Emperor Leo III’s son Constantine V, upon ascending to the throne of Emperor after his father’s death pursued the same iconoclastic ideals of his father, but with much more zeal. Constantine V targeted Monks – who were fervent opponents of iconoclasm – and attacked their monasteries with a view to disorganizing them in order to ensure their iconophile views did not spread much around the Empire.

Constantine V also purged civil servants who were opponents of iconoclasm from the civil service and the military.

The Second Iconoclastic period (814-842) Iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire ended briefly during the reign of Irene (as regent), from 978 AD. However, during the reign of Leo V, Iconoclasm was reinstated throughout the Empire. Emperor Leo V, like Emperor Leo III before him, experienced military defeats that forced him into retrospection.

The Emperor concluded that the military defeats of the Byzantine Empire at the hands of Khan Krum the ruler of Bulgaria were a punishment from God for the continued worship of images. Emperor Leo V thus similarly issued an edict banning the worship of images depicting Christ in places of worship, allowing only crosses as symbols in places of worship.

The personal conviction of Emperor Leo V that God’s wrath was upon the Empire can be seen in his analysis on the fortunes of his predecessors. Emperor Leo postulated that, all the Emperors, before him, that had allowed the worship of images, were deposed. Conversely, those who had forbidden the practice had reigned in relative peace and died natural deaths.

We will write a custom Essay on Historical and Theological Context of Byzantine Iconoclasm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Theological Debate During both Iconoclastic periods, the edicts by Emperors Leo III and Leo V banning the worship of images depicting Christ were met with resistance from both religious leaders and the masses.

The point of contention lay in the assertion that the veneration of images and likenesses of Christ obviates the need for the divine Christ and thus substitutes the divine for the tangible. According to Mathews, religious artistic images when beheld by worshippers transform the worshippers into oneness with the image,3 and thus act as substitutes for the divine Christ.

Barber’s argument counters Matthews’ assertion, stating that images and icons are signifiers of the absence of the divine, and are thus elementary ‘sites of desire’ and not transformation4. Icons as objects to be worshipped traverse various ceremonial and liturgical practices of Christianity, both presently and during Byzantine times.

The most significant liturgical practice is the Eucharist, where the bread and wine symbolize the body and blood of Christ respectively. For the Iconoclasts in the Byzantine Empire, the gifts (bread and wine) of the Eucharist were the only permissible entities that could be used as symbols of Christ.

The legitimacy of the gifts of the Eucharist as permissible symbols by Iconoclasts draws from their recommendation by the Gospels and the Eucharistic invocation of the Holy Spirit.

The transformative nature of icons – and thus their susceptibility to be used as substitutes for the divine Christ – can be seen through the artistic analysis of Byzantine worshippers insofar as images are concerned. When Patriarch Photos beholds the recently decorated and painted Church of the Virgin Pharos in the Great Palace at Constantinople, he describes his oneness with the icons painted on the church walls.

To him, the experience of beholding the icons and paintings was akin to experiencing heaven itself5. Similarly, the actions of many worshippers in the Byzantine Empire in relation to statues and images of Christ allude to a substitution of the divine Christ for a physical one represented in the icons and statues. The images and statues in many places of worship, in the Byzantine Empire, became earthly substitutes of the divine and heavenly Christ.

The increased veneration of Icons of Christ led to increased contact with these images. Worshippers would place miniature images of Christ on the hands of various icons in order to establish some form of spiritual connection with Christ, which is manifested and symbolized by such physical contact. Many citizens even resorted to identifying specified icons as the godfathers of their children during baptism6.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical and Theological Context of Byzantine Iconoclasm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, increased veneration of images led to worshippers offering prayers and songs directed at the icons, which in a sense mirrors idolatry7. The act of burning incense for the images, and lighting of lamps within various statues to signify the guiding ability of the statues over the worshippers, also served to assert the iconoclasts’ belief that the images had substituted the divine

Christ in the eyes of the worshippers. Priests would also scrap the paint from various icons and use the obtained material to make holy drinks for worshippers.

Therefore, the theological, and artistic, point of contention lay in whether such acts constituted idolatry, as asserted by Emperor Leo III and Leo V who issued edicts banning such practices, believing them to be idolatry. According to Iconoclasts, the divinity of Christ pre-empts any attempts at creating his representation through statues and icons. By virtue of his divine nature, Christ as the son of God, and through the Trinity, as God, cannot be represented.

Any image attempting to portray Christ must thus portray him in both the physical and the divine state – an artistic impossibility. If Christ was to be represented in any image, he must thus inhabit the image, and if he does so, he forfeits his divine (heavenly) status.

Additionally, the transformative nature of artistic and religious images for Byzantines lends support to the notion that the images create a transformation for the viewer to the extent that the viewer experiences oneness with the represented image of Christ, to a degree that the beholder becomes like Christ himself. In the Byzantine Empire, images, particularly religious images, were valued for their ability to create both spiritual and physical transformation in the viewer.

Iconoclast led by both Emperors Leo III and Leo V believed that only the cross was permissible as a symbol of Christ, and during both Iconoclastic periods, it was the only symbol depicted in places of worship. Particularly, the act of coming into contact with the statues and images of Christ created a concern for the emperors, who were willing to allow statues as long as they were hoisted high beyond physical effortless human reach.

The View of Iconophiles The brief Iconoclastic periods in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries where the statues and icons of Christ were not to be used as objects of worship and veneration are, however, contrasted by longer periods in Byzantine history when such images acted as symbols of Christ.

Byzantine art forms are not transformative nature, but purely artistic in nature; they are objects of desire. According to Barber, Byzantine Empire images and icons are sites of desire –they signify the absence of the divine Christ, not the presence, thus creating a spiritual longing for him8.

Additionally, those who did not support iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire – Iconophiles – similarly viewed the images and symbols of Christ as manifestations of his physical presence as a human. Having appeared in the flesh on earth, iconophiles viewed the icons and statues as symbols of his earthly sojourn and subsequent resurrection, and thus manifestations of his divinity through affirming his resurrection9.

The claims of idolatry through the directing of worship and prayer towards the icons are countered by iconophiles using Bible passages. Quoting passages in the book of Exodus, iconophiles believed that their actions were validated through the actions of the Israelites, who viewed the Ark of the Covenant, as the representation of God.

Furthermore, Iconophiles argued that veneration of icons that depicted images of persons within the Christian faith should not be viewed as idolatry since they represented real and honorable pioneers of the faith. Therefore, images of Christ, The Virgin Mary or any of the Saints were, in the estimation of Iconophiles, worthy of veneration.

Iconophiles believed that their veneration of such icons would only qualify as idolatry in the instance that the images or statues portrayed persons extraneous to the Christian faith.

Ultimately, Iconophiles also believed that an edict banning the veneration of icons was of significance import, both in the social and religious spheres of the Byzantine Empire, and as such should be made in consultation with religious leaders. Indeed, the Iconoclastic periods were the result of the personal opinions of the Emperors Leo III and Leo V.

Conclusion The two Iconoclastic periods represent a pivotal study in the political, religious, and artistic history of the Byzantine Empire. The veneration of icons by citizens of the Byzantine Empire is of both artistic and religious significance. When the icons are considered from a transformative artistic view as advocated by Mathews, they afford a deeper artistic analysis of the icons that enables religious veneration.

When viewed from the point of advocacy of Barber – as signifiers – they gain religious significance due to their tendency to create a desire for the divine entity portrayed therein. Historically, Byzantine Iconoclasm marks the periods during the existence of the Byzantine Empire when its Emperors tried to reverse the loss of territories and influence of the Empire sustained in battle losses to its enemies.

Both Emperors Leo III and Leo V believed that the veneration of images was idolatry, and the defeat of the Empire’s army in battle was God’s punishment for the prevalence of idolatry in the Empire.

Byzantine Iconoclasm was thus a period of historical, artistic and religious significance, and the effects of the decisions made by the political and religious leaders during the Iconoclastic periods have influenced the art, political practices, and religious rituals of many other emergent nations long after the demise of the Byzantine Empire, well into contemporary times.

Bibliography Barber, Charles. From Transformation to Desire: Art and Worship after Byzantine Iconoclasm. Art Bulletin 75, no. 1 (March 1993): 7-16

Bremmer, Jan. “Iconoclast, Iconoclastic, and Iconoclasm: Notes towards a Genealogy.” Church History

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Liberation of Women: “A Doll’s House” Analysis Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help

Henrik Ibsen’s play ‘A Doll’s House’ explores the issue of change in the 19th century Norwegian society. Ibsen’s Women characters are discriminated and trivialized to the extent that they feel empty and helpless. This triggers a gradual struggle that leads to their liberation.

Within the play, various characters undergo transformation. Ibsen uses symbols effectively to show how transformation is gradual rather than a radical process. Therefore, through Nora, Ibsen portrays how education leads to enlightenment and the eventual transformation of women.

The role of Women is restricted as compared to role played by men. Women are restricted to domestic chores where they are largely subordinated to men. Women are also forced by circumstances to sacrifice their own freedom and comfort for the sake of their families, and as such suffer in silence.

Miss Linde regrets that “… a wife cannot borrow without her husband’s consent” (Ibsen, 1889). As such, Nora cannot reveal to Torvold that she is currently struggling to repay a loan she had acquired by forging her father’s signature, since women are not allowed to engage in such transactions without their husband’s knowledge and consent.

Thus, she suffers in silence. This leads her to contemplate suicide because of the guilt she feels when blackmailed by Krogstad for forging her father’s signature on the bonds she committed to acquire a loan, “It was I that wrote papa’s name” (Ibsen, 1889).

This exposes the challenge in their marriage. Whereas Nora is presented as a loving and caring wife, Torvald, on the other hand, views her as a helpless person. As such he refers to her as “my little caged song bird” (Ibsen, 1889). Reference to small and physically weak creatures amplifies male dominance and superiority.

It is such an attitude towards Nora that leads her to revolt and leave her husband. Furthermore, Mrs. Linde sacrificed her love for Krogstad, to marry a richer man so as to support her mother and siblings. However, after the death of her husband she feels free to reunite with Krogstad who forgives her and delights on the boost this development will have on his social standing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gender roles are also reflected through education. Education is meant to be a means of empowerment for individuals. Despite the fact that Ibsen’s female characters are educated, they are not empowered to utilize their knowledge and skills.

The society does not allow women to work, especially the married. Mrs. Linde doesn’t get a chance to meaningfully utilize her education until after the death of her husband. Nora, on the other hand has to work secretly against her husband’s will (Marker, 1989).

Ibsen uses a number of symbols to highlight how the themes are portrayed through characterization. One of the symbols used is the door. Nora closes the door whenever she wants to talk.

This signifies that she is s secretive person. Ironically, the last door she closes ushers her to freedom. This signifies the change in gender roles (Durbach, 1991). Furthermore, the direction of light in the play also signifies changes, especially in gender roles.

While in some scenes the lights are turned off, towards the end of the play the intensity of light increases especially when Nora is talking to her husband. This illuminates the gradual enlightenment of women as a result of the education they have already attained, in school and through real life experiences.

Contrary to popular opinion, Nora’s development is gradual and not radical. At the beginning of the play, Nora is portrayed as a harmless child-like wife. However, her change in character is gradual and is reflected through her manner of expression.

Gradually, Nora expresses her anxiety and the desire to be free (Templeton, 1997). This is escalated towards the end of the story and culminates in her slamming the door on her husband. Slamming the door signifies the beginning of her freedom (Abcarian and Klotz, 2002).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Liberation of Women: “A Doll’s House” Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Initially women are portrayed as dolls. However, with time they are transformed to become more vocal members of the society. This is symbolized through Nora who rebels from her husband’s enslavement. She largely lacks a grasp of her immediate environment outside the house.

Nora has been misguided and overruled by her dominating husband who limits her to mere doll. However when she experiences a reawakening, she questions the social ideals (Markotic, 1998). By the end of the play she emerges a stronger woman psychologically. Thus,’ A Doll’s House’ is a conscious reawakening play.

List of References Abcarian, R. and Klotz, M. (2002). Ibsen, Henrik A Doll’s House. Literature: The Human Experience. Boston: Bedford.

Durbach, E. (1991). A doll’s house: Ibsen’s myth of transformation. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Ibsen, H. (1889). A doll’s house. London: T Fisher Unwin.

Marker, F., and Marker L. (1989). Ibsen’s lively art: a performance study of the major plays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Markotic, L. (1998). Epiphanic transformations: Lou Andreas- Salome’s reading of Nora, Rebecca and Ellida. Web.

Templeton, J. (1997). Ibsen’s women. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Systems Analysis and Design Essay online essay help: online essay help

During the project management process, various considerations have an important effect on the overall success of the project. As such while the project advances through the various stages all the stakeholders must be included on board at one time or the other. This calls for an all encompassing project strategy that should be able to achieve the desired results.

One of the critical areas during any project development process which typically includes the system analysis and design stage involves procurement and vendor selection (Whitten

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Current and Emerging Technology in the Internet Technology Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Mobile computing technology

Business benefit

Limitation of mobile computing

Conclusion

Reference List

Abstract Mobile computing provides significant benefits for organizations that choose to integrate the technology into their fixed organizational information system. This is necessitated through the combination of communication systems, software, and portable computer hardware which are interconnected with non mobile organizational systems distanced from the fixed workplace (Yuliang, 1998).

Being a resourceful technology can be applied as part of strategic measures taken to improve information accessibility and quality. It also increases operational effectiveness enhancing effectiveness in management.

The primary essence of this research paper is to exemplify the versatility and the potential of mobile computing as strategic technology capable of improving the quality and the accessibility to increase operational efficiency which translates to efficient management (Mariga, 1997).

Introduction Technology is advancing each and every day with new and emerging technologies hitting the market. With this advancement of technology, there are many areas of information and data transmission that have grown greatly.

Technology has been advancing tremendously in the wireless networking, security, virtualization and cloud computing, internet technology, data storage, data warehousing, multimedia display technology, voice over internet protocol, open source operating systems, web services and advancement of microprocessors (Gentry, 2011).

In general, the way things used to operate before, have really been changed due to emergency of new technology. Mobile computing has not been left behind in this journey of technology advancement. In my research, I choose to put more emphasis on the current and emerging technology in mobile computing.

Mobile computing technology Mobile computing is an area of technology which allows transmission of data and/or information through a computer device, without the necessity of a fixed physical link, but the use of a computing device even when being mobile and, therefore, changing location. Portability is one of the aspects of mobile computing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mobile computing has three aspects that allow it to transfer data and information from one location to another effectively. These three aspects are mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. The facet of mobile communication addresses ad-hoc communication issues, as well as the communication infrastructure networks.

It also addresses communication properties, data formats, concrete technologies and protocols. Mobile hardware is a physical device that is used to enhance communication which includes mobile devices like cellular phones and mobile accessories.

Mobile software entails the application that will be used or employed to carry out the communication. This is the group of programs that must run in the mobile device to enhance communication and data transfer.

In the past ages, mobile phones were used only for voice communication. During that era, if one had a mobile device like a mobile phone, he/she would use it for voice communication (Applegate, McFarlan

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Critical Analysis of “Walking Since Daybreak: a story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and essay help: essay help

Introduction The book Walking Since Daybreak: A story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the Heart of our Century by Modris Eksteins is a story of war and family at a time when the nation of German was going through tough times. It is centred on two of the world’s greatest events. These are the first and the second world wars.

The author presents a story of a people mixed with fear, anxiety and hope as the main characters of the book are caught in the traumatic experience of the war. This essay seeks to explore the main aspects of the story as far as the author’s writing style, source of inspiration and conveyance of information are concerned.

The writer of this essay is of the stance that Modris Eksteins sufficiently and efficiently manages to achieve the sole purpose of writing the book.

The information in this book is told in such a way that the reader gets the full perspective of what was happening at that time. The fact that the author tells the story from a first person point of view lends credence to the story.

Because Modris tells of his personal experiences and those of other people he was close to, the reader is left with no doubt that all that is written in the book is certain and actual. The information in the book also tallies with other historical works that were written on the same topic of the two world wars. The correlation of these two further lends credence to the accuracy of the information presented in the book.

The language used by Modris Eksteins is the most appropriate type of language to describe such a situation as this war. This is because the author vividly describes all the events and sceneries in such a manner that leads to exact conceptualisation of the whole situation.

The author’s use of poetic language that keeps the reader turning the pages is a major aspect that has contribute to the worldwide acknowledgement of the literary work as one of the greatest historical works that have ever been written on the first and second world wars. This rating was done by prominent historians who obviously rated the content of this book as appropriately detailed and presented.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the story of his family, and most specifically his grandmother, Modris Eksteins not only tells his personal version of the two world wars but also the story of hundreds of thousands of other families that went through the same ordeal. The book tells of a time when the Baltic countries were thrown into a terrific pandemonium that was as a result of two great wars that paralysed any human activity in the region.

The hard times and the struggle that the author and his family went through during this period were replicated among millions others who were forced to move back and forth around the lowlands that are next to the Baltic Sea.

As a matter of fact, countless families were left homeless and were forced to spend many nights in the biting cold1. This was also the period that the countries involved in the first and the second world wars lost thousands of people, mostly women and children, to diseases such as malaria and pneumonia.

Modris Eksteins’ great grandmother is perhaps the character whose experiences impact on the lives of each and every of the other characters in the book. The great grandmother, who is simply described as the “girl with flaxen hair” is right at the onset of the story when she serves as a chambermaid for a prominent German baron.

It is through an unexpected twist of events that the author’s great grandmother ends up bearing a child to the very German baron who had been her master.

It is openly astounding how the author can interweave the events of the nineteenth century with those of the twentieth century and still manage to bring out the correlation and relevance that each of them has to the other.

This strength of the author portrays him as a great historian who is in a position to create an amazing connection between historical events that happened at different times and in different places. The events happened at different times because there is a gap of more than a hundred years between them.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critical Analysis of “Walking Since Daybreak: a story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the heart of our century” by Modris Eksteins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They happen in different places because while the story of the Modris Eksteins’ great grandmother takes place in German, the second part about the story of the author’s family takes place in the lowlands that border the Baltic Sea.

The Second World War The book is not only about the history of the Baltic nations during, before and after the Second World War but is also partly a personal autography of Modris Eksteins. The story is majorly about the state of the author’s family before, during and after the Second World War.

Through the author’s first person narration, the reader gets an insight into the devastating effect that the Second World War had on the families that were victims to the war. Before the war, the family that is described in the earlier chapters of the book is one that is happy, big and has almost anything that they could ever wish to have.

However, in the course of the war, the author sadly recalls as he loses everything that he once held dear. It all begins with the massive loss of property. The property was either looted by soldiers or other people or was set ablaze by arsonists from their opponents.

As Modris Eksteins watched as their property went up in flames, little did he know that this would translate into the loss of human lives and not just other people but his own family members. The history professor from the University of Toronto vividly recalls as one after another of his family members were lost to the Second World War.

It all began with his younger and more energetic brothers and cousins who were forcibly recruited into the on-going war. Because of lack of military experience, they were easily taken down at the first shootout. Other people were lost through imprisonment, brutal murder and displacement.

The most painful part of it is when the author’s home was raided by armed soldiers who then killed almost everyone including those that were too weak to fight back in retaliation. The seriousness of the situation is brought out when the author narrates how he narrowly survived the whole tragic period.

Any reader would agree with the writer that it is through a series of luck that the author of the book was able to live till the end of the Second World War. The book therefore serves as the most appropriate outlet of Modris Eksteins’ tormenting experiences and thoughts. In writing this book, the author hoped to get rid of the nightmares and wild dreams that had never ceased tormenting him ever since that tormenting fateful war.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Analysis of “Walking Since Daybreak: a story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the heart of our century” by Modris Eksteins by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hour Zero It was almost unbelievable that after what seemed like an everlasting storm, there suddenly came a period of total silence, hour zero2. With Hitler’s death, it was the conviction of every mind to recollect on the ugly experiences of that war.

Although almost everything had been turned into heaps of smouldering rubble, the very thought of peace at last was overwhelming, especially due to the high level of insecurity and turmoil that had rocked the Baltic nations. It was a time to rebuild what had so far been lost. It was also a time for getting rid of the experiences and building a new life that won’t be ruined by the effects of war ever again.

Key Themes In this book, Modris Eksteins tactfully includes key themes that are the heart of this century’s political world. These themes include totalitarianism, self-determination, fanaticism and war. The author keenly looks into each of these themes and their effect on the war and its outcome.

The reader does not miss to get the role that such factors played in the cause, propulsion and even the stoppage of the war. The author’s story is one that appraises the great values in society that lead to liberation and disregards some of the traits that are likely to lead to a repeat of the Second World War.

It is indeed true that the author of this book portrays life in the Baltic nations and the troubles their citizens had to go through during the Second World War. All this is evident in a statement the author makes at the beginning of the story when he describes the whole situation as “images of civilization in ruins.”

The heartrending experiences that the Baltic republics went through because of their positioning between Russia and German are emphasized throughout the story. The nationals of these republics suffered continuous abuse from these two nations which were superior to them3.

Shortcomings Of The Book Modris Eksteins’ maternal great grandmother, Grieta Pluta, is the main focus in the whole book because she is mentioned on virtually every page of the book. The main subject of discussion about Grieta Pluta is her involvement with the aristocratic German baron.

However, one shortcoming of the book is the thoughts and speculations that Modris Eksteins has concerning his great grandmother. Although they never met, it is quite strange and unexpected that the author goes ahead to draw conclusions about her basing on the German baron’s obsession with her.

This could be misleading because the author never had the chance to know his great grandmother on a personal basis. The second shortcoming of the book is its lack of organisation. It is not clear whether it discusses the author’s autobiography, the Second World War or the history of the Baltic republics. It simply intermingles these three into the text at the same time.

Latvia One of the things that the book successfully puts across is the way of life of the citizens of Latvia. This is where the author was born. The book focuses on a brief history of the same. It tells of the struggle of the author, his family and other countless people in a bid to survive those trying moments during the Second World War.

Latvia is first brought into context with the mention of Grieta Pluta, the author’s great grandmother. She was also a native of Latvia before she moved to work for the German baron who then became her husband. The author inherited the aristocratic blood of the German baron when one of the couple’s daughters got married to one of the Eksteins.

Summary After a critical analysis of the book Walking Since Daybreak: A story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the Heart of our Century by Modris Eksteins, the position of the writer of this essay has not changed. Although the book may contain a number of flaws, it is still the best resource for the history of the Baltic republics and the Second World War.

It can also be helpful to those who want to get a glimpse of the author’s biography. It also exposes the tragic circumstances that the author, his family and other people went through during the Second World War.

Conclusion From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that Modris Eksteins’ book is an expansive historical account of the lives of the citizens of the Baltic republics as well as their tragedies during the Second World War. Most specific, though, is the author’s biographical account which is dominated by thoughts of his great grandmother, Grieta Pluta.

The book also presents an insight into the culture and history of the author’s birthplace and hometown, Latvia. In addition to that, it is also clear from the above critical analysis of the book that there are many untold stories of the victims of the Second World War, especially the Jews.

Reference List Gilbert, Martin. The Second World War. London: Phoenix, 2009.

Jardine, Bayne. World War Two. Harlow: Longman, 1968.

Keegan, Jerry. The Second World War. London: Penguin, 1989.

Footnotes 1 Martin Gilbert, The Second World War (London: Phoenix, 2009), 31.

2 Bayne Jardine, World War Two (Harlow: Longman, 1968), 201.

3Jerry Keegan, The Second World War (London: Penguin, 1989), 13.

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Inventory Management in Supply and Logistic Management Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Inventory management is one of the most critical components of supply chain and logistics management because it implements policies and procedures that promote efficient supply chain operations. Inventory management entails prudent planning that ensures adequate amount of stock of the right quality is available whenever needed.

Inventory includes raw materials and components used in production, work in progress or partly finished merchandise, finished goods and other materials used in the business. Inventory management helps to enhance operational efficiency, customer service, and minimizes inventory and distribution cost (Emmett, 2005, p. 3).

The main aim of this study is to explore the significance of inventory management in supply chain and logistic management. The study will also examine a number of methods used in inventory valuation.

Inventory carries with it a number of costs and these include its money value, the space it consumes, labors used in receiving and dispatching stocks, damage/ deterioration/ obsolescence and theft (Emmett, 2005, p. 4).

These costs can be classified as handling cost and holding costs, ordering or acquisition costs, cost of expediting the purchased stocks, and so on. Holding costs includes costs tied up in inventory, storage costs, and handling costs (Muller, 2002, p. 3).

Inventory management helps to control the amount of stocks needed at a given time and therefore is very significant in capacity planning and production scheduling. Proper inventory management also cushions an organization against externalities such as fluctuation in demand, unreliability of supply, fluctuation in prices, order costs, and discounts.

When setting up inventory control and management system, a company must consider the ideal inventory level. Inventory should be maintained at an ideal level and availed in a timely manner or else it will have adverse effects on efficiency of production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the ideal inventory level is influenced by a number of factors such as the amount of capital or finance available, customer demand and projected sales, patterns of historical sales, industry average, supply level, storage space, and the quantity discount (Emmett, 2005, p. 4; Waters, 2003, p. 5).

In determining the ideal level of inventory, amount of capital available should be considered as well as the financial charges on the cash flow. Obviously, the amount of capital a business has determines the amount of inventory to be purchased.

However, access to capital will be insignificant if the cash flow needs are unpredictable. Such kind of scenario requires special capital reserve to meet unexpected demand. Consumer demand must be predicted so that adequate amount of inventory can be acquired to meet this demand.

Historical sales pattern helps in determining the frequently used stocks or stocks required at a particular period of the year. Ideal stock levels also depend on the available space for more stocks, quantity discount offered by the suppliers, inventory carrying costs (such as cost of storage, handling and transportation) and the quantity of goods available in the market (Muller, 2002, p. 3; Viale, 1996, p.3).

Accurate inventories within any organization enable the firm to increase its economic advantages by leveraging economy of scale through a number of suppliers. This helps to minimize the risk of stocking excess inventory of products that are non-durable or depreciates very first.

Adequate supply of inventory to meet consumer demand is very crucial in terms of increasing sales and consumer services. Total lack of enough inventories usually results to loss of customers to the competitors. An excellent inventory system (whether manual or automated) must identify sales trends and ensure that there is enough supply to meet consumer demand.

Accurate inventories (based on the historical pattern of sales) help the company to specialize in the production of products that are in high demand at a particular period or in anticipated time. This protects the business from unreliable consumer demand. The historical pattern of demand and supply provides a clear picture of order cycle thus minimizes errors in handling inventory (Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky

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“The Godfather” Essay (Movie Review) essay help

The “The Godfather” movie is a showcase of film excellence. The research focuses on the mise-en-scéne (movie overview) of how a real life mafia family forces its illegal powers on the community. The research centers of the movie show the family as the driving force of many groups, especially the Corleone mafia family.

The “The Godfather” movie excellently complies with all award-winning influential characteristics of film production. Christian Messenger (2002) emphasizes the movie to be a mafia film genre. The film is based on a true story of a mafia family. The movie setting is within the United States.

Most of the actors are gangsters members eager to implement their evil deeds on society during the 1940s. The lighting is perfect; the scenes are excellently lighted to ensure all important details are seen by the movie viewers. The decors easily catapult the Godfather Movie goers back into the Early American period.

The movie props and scenes bring the reality of the 1940s New York era where internets and computers have not been invented yet (Phillips 2002). The costumes of the actors vividly show how people, specifically the 1940s mafia families of New York society lived. The movie scenes directly show the forceful power of the mafia families.

The Corleone mafia family focused on corrupting government officials, politicians and judges. The corruption was done to prevent the local government’s harassment of the mafia family’s illegal casino and bar businesses. The props and scenes also show the reality of the rivalry among the different mafia families fighting for or against the new drug trade.

The film focuses on Vito Corleone (played by Marlon Brando) as the Godfather. The Godfather’s son, Michael Corleone, is played by Al Pacino. Further, Mark Winegardner (2005) theorized the film’s editing was very appropriate. There is no scene that showed irregularities.

The story moved from one scene to another in exquisite fashion. There were no jumps or obvious mistakes as one scene moved on to the next scene. The movie viewers can easily get the flow of the story from the beginning to the end. There are no confusion mistakes precipitating into the film.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As proof, Marlon Brando won the best actor award for his efficient and effective role as the movie’s Godfather. In terms of editing, the movie editors effectively and efficiently corrected any editing errors caused by the lighting and other factors in the film production.

In the same manner, the movie editors effectively and efficiently refined the film quality output by choosing the appropriate props for each film scene. The editor was very proficient in ensuring that the costumes of the movie actors were very realistic when they avoided creating scenes that depicted the unprofessional imitations of the 1940s New York mafia crime era.

Furthermore, Mark Winegardner (2005) reiterated the sound used was very effective and efficient. The movie audiences can easily distinguish the words uttered by the actors. In fact, the movie audiences can effortlessly hear the word whispered by the different actors.

The movie goers will definitely admire the voice of Marlon Brando as he utters each word with sincerity, authority and professionalism. The Godfather’s voice is wonderfully characterized as distinctively authoritative. Initially, Michael Corleone speaks in a voice that shuns the evil deeds of his own family.

However, the murderous attacks by the rival mafia families on Michael’s father and the successful murder of his brother, Sonny (played by James Caan), promp Michael Corleone to seek revenge. Michael changes his manifesting voice from being a law –abiding citizen to sound and act as a person doing his share to kill the killers and other threats to the Coreleone family.

Furthermore, Vincent LoBrutto (2002) proposed the score elicited seriousness in the captivating Godfather movie’s audiences. The music played during the wedding of the Godfather’s daughter incorporates happiness to a murder- genre film. The Corleone family and their invited guests are seen dancing and drinking wine as the wedding unravels.

The music gets horrifyingly serious as the mafia murders are taking place. The music props the movie scenes to a higher level of professionalism. In terms of score, story, costumes, props, and other aspects of entertaining as well as informing the movie audiences on the realities of the Corleone mafia family’s criminal acts in New York during the 1940s.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Godfather” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The score catapults the film scenes to bring reality to the Godfather movie audiences. In the end, the movie audiences feel they received more than their movie ticket payments because of the excellently done score, story, costumes, props, and other aspects of entertaining as well as informing the Godfather movie.

Likewise, Vincent LoBrutto (2002) stated the film’s cinematography should receive a perfect scorecard rating. The movie cameras perfectly focused on the important parts of the Godfather movie. The movie cameras created film scenes that are very realistic.

The Godfather movie audiences will not feel they are watching the movie; the movie audiences are persuasively personally captivated by each cinematographically perfect movie scene. The lighting simulates a real life scenario. The movie film is not rushed or carelessly shot. The lenses of the film cameras were perfectly engineered to bring out a more realistic movie scene.

As proof, the Godfather movie won both the best picture award and the best actor movie award. The success of the movie triggered a popular demand for a sequel. In response, the Godfather II sequel and the Godfather III sequel were filmed to satisfy the movie goers’ popular demand. Also, Christian Messenger (2002) mentioned the film “The Godfather” was placed in context. The film focuses on the New York crime life.

The film depicted life during the 1940s. The film shows the human aspirations, hopes, and dreams of the 1940s era. The film focuses on the importance of each family member contributing one’s own share to ensure the family’s survival. The presenter of this essay has personal influences or biases that affected the presenter’s opinion.

The presenter abhors seeing and encouraging illegal acts. The father will do whatever it takes to protect one’s family. Similarly, the children will do their share to protect one’s family. Evidently, the film is poignantly enjoyable. The long wedding scene brings happiness, bright future, and hope to the mafia movie genre.

The revenge of Michael Corleone on the person who ordered the killing of his father, Marlon Brando, brings justice to the story. Michael avenged his father by killing the corrupt police officer and the enemy who ordered the killing of his father. In addition, the class lessons have changed my opinion on the film. The lessons show the painstakingly importance of perfection in the production of the movie.

The lessons placed importance on the synchronization among the actors to bring out the essence of the mafia genre story. The lessons place equal importance on all the work done behind the camera. It is highly recommended that the Godfather movie receive a perfect score of four for the movie.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Godfather” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The movie’s generating the best actor award shows how well the movie was made. The movie’s capacity to captivate the best picture award indicates the movie deserves the perfect rating. In addition, the film’s excellent depiction of a real 1940s mafia family in New York is one of the reasons precipitated to the movie’s success.

Based on the above discussion, the “The Godfather” movie is a symbol of film excellence. The movie overview vividly shows how a mafia family forces its illegal powers on the community. The movie characterizes the family as the driving force of the Corleone mafia syndicate. Indeed, the “The Godfather” movie excellently complies with all the award-winning influential facets of film production.

References LoBrutto, V. (2002). The Filmaker’s Guide to Production Design. London: Skyhorse Press.

Messenger, C. (2002). The Godfather and American Culture. London: Suny Press.

Phillips, W. (2009). Film: An introduction (4th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford St. Martin’s.

Winegardner, M. (2005). The Godfather Returns. London: Random House Press.

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Medically Assisted Suicide Problem Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Reasons why I agree with Susan Wolf

Reasons for disagreeing with Wolf

Conclusion

References

Abstract This study examines the concept of assisted suicide. Precisely, it will look at whether medically assisted suicide is permissible and when an individual can be denied an opportunity to seek medically assisted suicide.

The arguments in this study are drawn from the writings of Susan Wolf on the death of her father. The study, also discussed the extent to which agree and disagree with the ideas of Wolf.

Introduction Assisted suicide refers to actions undertaken by one individual to assist another voluntarily end his or her own life. Assistance is offered by providing the person with the means to end life. These means may include drugs, equipment, or other actions that aid in ending life. Assisted suicide differs from euthanasia that is an act of people ending their own lives without assistance from others (Mosser, 2010).

According to Susan Wolf (2008), her father’s death made her rethink her writings against the legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Wolf did a writing entitled’ end-of-life care’ that her father challenged and his views on medically assisted suicide are worthy support.

In my opinion, every person has a right to make choices on what should be done with their own lives provided they do not cause any harm to other members of the society. Therefore, seeking assistance to end one’s life is a right of free choice and individuals should not be opposed if they wish to terminate their lives.

Most sick persons wish to die dignified deaths but their illnesses may have incapacitated them to such an extent that they lack the strength to kill themselves. When such persons ask for assistance to end their lives, their wishes should be respected since dying is a choice they have made under no one’s influence or coercion (Weir, 1997).

Human beings have a responsibility to relieve the suffering of those who are in pain. There are too many people in hospitals facing painful conditions and terminal illnesses that make them permanently unable to function like other human beings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These people undergo suffering, their lives are degraded and most of them are economically unproductive and a burden to their families and the entire society. Since these sick people were once productive, illnesses make them experience feelings of low esteem and they may opt for death.

In situations when these people beg for help that would end their indignity and the pain they are going through, it is recommendable that physicians assist them (Weir, 1997).

Human beings have the right to self-determination and they should be allowed to exercise what they view as best for them; people should be permitted to make decisions that affect their own lives. As a result, when people want to commit suicide or to be assisted to die, they should not be interfered with; instead should be facilitated to do so.

There are a variety of choices that one can make in life death being one of them, and as such one’s will to die should not be opposed (Mosser, 2010).

The capacities of individuals facing medical conditions such as mental illness cannot be easily restored. Such kinds of patients are normally stigmatized by the society, have miserable lives due to neglect by their family members. When such patients approach medical practitioners seeking assistance to end their lives, they should be facilitated to die.

Reasons why I agree with Susan Wolf To an extent, I agree with Wolf’s ideas opposing the act of assisted suicide because of the following reasons: The society has an obligation and duty to preserve life and therefore individuals should not be allowed to commit suicide as they wish because it is morally wrong to encourage suicide.

If laws are passed permitting assisted suicide, relatives of sick individuals may even urge them to seek suicide to end the suffering and pain (Weir, 1997).

We will write a custom Essay on Medically Assisted Suicide Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sanctioning suicide is a violation of other people’s rights. If suicide is permitted, doctors and other medical practitioners may even cooperate in the murder of a patient who is not willing to die. It is not just for individuals to go against some convictions as a way of satisfying desires of patients who are willing to die (Wolf, 2008).

Reasons for disagreeing with Wolf Medically assisted suicide should be encouraged because it results from the free will of suffering individuals without them being compelled to commit suicide. There is an agreement between the patients and the medical practitioners who facilitate this suicide, therefore assisted suicide should not be viewed as an immoral act for the reason that the sick individuals are not coerced to do so but they confront physicians to assist them.

Conclusion The above study has summarized medically assisted suicide pointing out the arguments for and against the practice. Assisted suicide could be beneficial as it relieves the pain of the suffering individual. On the other hand, it is morally incorrect to assist other people end their lives.

References Mosser, K. (2010). A Concise Introduction to Philosophy. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education

Wolf, S. M. (2008).Confronting Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: My Father’s Death. Minnesota: The Hastings Center Report.

Weir, R.F. (1997). Physician assisted suicide. Washington: Indiana University press.

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Pornography and Ethics Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition of pornography

Ethical aspect of pornography

Unethical aspect of Pornography

Independent perspectives

Conclusion

References

Introduction The modern society is saturated with many sexual images such shirtless male athletes and barely clothed females in advertisement and movies. In addition, nudity or soft-core pornography and explicit sex scenes or hardcore pornography shown in public televisions and over the internet are becoming more and more acceptable into the society.

This raises two questions; the effect of living in a society saturated with sexual images and existence of morals in modern society.

Historically, sexual images served the purpose of worshipping gods, adorning pottery and criticizing the political elites. Thus, sexual images were imbedded in the religious, legal and moral context i.e. sexuality was never thought of as a separate sphere of life.

However, in modern this perspective has ceased to exist. Sex is considered a form of advanced calisthenics i.e. an act whereby two people come together without consideration of its physical context.

The set of all modern sexual images constitute pornography because they serve no intended purpose other than gratification. However, this is notion is pornography is partially accurate as it give a vague correlation between sexual images and pornography.

This paper is going to assess the extent to what extent is the definition of pornography qualified to be used, and if pornography is ethical in modern society.

Definition of pornography Ethics examines the basic concepts of values. This is because, values shape what individuals define as wrong or right, moral or immoral, fair or unfair, good or bad etc. In more general terms, ethics is focused on inventing or studying systems that individuals may refer to when addressing ‘what is good’ (Beauchamp, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethics also seeks to provide answers on how a person ought to be living or carrying out his duties. As consequence, it is an important and complex component that should be integrated in law, religion and the society in general as a base for definition of morals or standards. Thus, everybody in one way or another should understand and practice ethic to morally upright (Beauchamp, 2002).

Pornography can be defined as materials that portray erotic content, or the set of all obscene materials, which are intended to cause sexual arousal. These materials can be in the form of literature, pictures and videos. However, this definition is ambiguous.

This is because the concept sexual arousal and the definition of obscenity or erotic materials are relative terms i.e. they depend on an individual or the social context under which they appear or exist. Moreover, this definition fails to answer a simple question; how much content must be there for a material to be classified as obscene or erotic? Can it be a single image, a whole video clip or suggestive dialogue?

Under the umbrella of ethics, Pornography is can be redefined as a struggle or fight that describes an argument, not a thing, about erotic representation. For example, if a group of persons decided that an erotic representation is beautiful, then it is likely to be considered a creative artwork.

Thus, pornography in such a contest and a struggle between those who attempt to create erotic material and those who attempt to suppress it, or a contest between allowing or denying an individual the right to display explicitly sexuality (Strossen, 2000).

However, this struggle is not uniform globally and is dependent on the social values of a given locality. For instance, walking in bikini is normal in some places and others it is considered obscene.

Ethical aspect of pornography The pornography, a subsector of the entertainment industry, is the most profitable sector to venture in. So far, it is the richest industry with an unexplainable exponential growth rate. As at 2007, this industry was recorded to have generated a total revenue of $57 billion worldwide, with the top four most selling erotic material being in the form of adult videos, escort videos, magazines and sex clubs respectively.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Pornography and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This revenue was much greater than the total combination of revenues received from professional football, baseball, and basketball franchise (Family safe media, 2011).

Egoism and Welfarism perspectives of ethics justify the ethical nature of pornography. In this view, the humongous revenue arising from pornography suggests that the industry is a major form of lucrative employment to the actors, website mangers, movie directors and other direct or indirect participants.

Moreover, it is the shortest route to becoming famous and it assists the government in earning revenue. Therefore, this industry is a means of obtaining income is legally, and is more acceptable than begging or stealing.

Moreover, it does not require sophisticated training or advanced degrees to venture in or to be successful (Strossen, 2000). Thus, the industry serves the interests of the participants and is therefore ethical.

Pornography is the new adopted tool for advertising. This is because of the psychological association that potential consumers have attached to sexuality. Men are visual creatures while women like attention.

Thus, images of beautiful, naked or barely dressed women attached in advertisement attract men and give the product an association beauty. On the other hand, women would watch the adverts in order to ascertain what makes images gain that much attention. Overall, the objective of the product advertisement is achieved (Attwooll

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Ethical Issue/Dilemma Research Paper writing essay help

Abstract This paper seeks to explore the concept of ethical dilemma as faced by a medical practitioner, in this case, a doctor who is taking care of a patient who has just had a stroke and is physically incapacitated at the patient’s home. There are several factors that cause the ethical dilemma. These factors make this case viable as a good example in the explanation of ethical dilemma as a topic.

One of the factors is the obvious expectations of the patient, who, in this case, may also be interpreted as a consumer or a client of products provided by someone. The other factors that contribute to the dilemma are the expectations of the medical practitioner’s employer or a supervisory body as far as this case is concerned.

Finally, there is the doctor’s personal values, sense of professionalism, moral philosophies and perceived social values. This paper seeks to explore the ethical principles that are involved in this case and also suggests the methods available in the solving of ethical dilemmas.

The specific dilemma, in this case, is whether to treat the patient or not, since her medical diagnosis suggests that she urgently needs occupational therapy services, though she is only covered by Medicare, which is a government health insurance provision which has a questionable history of payments for home-care services.

Ethical principles The patient, in this case, was physically incapacitated and was obviously restricted to her home; hence, she missed her daily appointments at the hospital. This, however, does not fit into the stipulations of the Medicare requirements that dictate that beneficiaries should have infrequent visits on the health facility, as well as the period under which home services provided should be short (Delay, 2005).

This is, however, a vague statement that leaves room for different interpretations as different stakeholders in the healthcare sector may wish.

The fact that the client’s expectations, based on her consumer rights that she is entitled to, medical services at home due to her condition, as well as the doctors personal obligation to provide medical services to the patient who needs it are in conflict with the fact that the interpretation of the regulations of Medicare may lead to lack of payment for services rendered. The particular ethical principles that are inherent in this case include the following:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Justice: the doctor, in this case, feels a strong sense of duty to serve the patient, though the patient can’t clearly satisfy the regulations stipulated for the qualification for payment of services rendered by Medicare. The just thing to do in this case is to provide justice to the patient and give her the medical services that she requires (Garber, 2008).

Beneficence: the patient, in this case, believes that she truly needs the home care services from the doctor and the services, if provided, will be highly beneficial for her. This belief is also held by the doctor though the benefit enjoyed by the patient will end up in conflicting with both the ethical and the legal tenets of healthcare service delivery for patients covered only under Medicare (Hartmann, 2003).

Veracity: though the doctor has great respect for patient autonomy, the professional obligation to inform others while acting truthfully about the situation in which the patient is in relation to the homebound services and the inability to make payments for services rendered, contradicts the autonomy principle.

Fidelity: there is obviously a dilemma, as the doctor harbors fidelity as a principle in which he has to uphold out most commitment to the patient, his own personal moral principles, his hospital and the government medical insurance scheme (Cohen, 2007).

Autonomy: there is the obvious question of whether to uphold the patient’s right to receive homebound occupational therapy, or the doctor’s personal autonomy in deciding whether he should give the service. In medical schools, doctors are taught the rules and regulations of their practices, as well as how to make legal judgment in regard to the treatment of patients.

There is, however, no training whatsoever on the non-medical issues that may be faced by doctors, such as the patients’ financial problems, and this is where the preference of the patients’ role is considered.

Ethical theories applicable to the dilemma This case is also the case in most dilemmas in the health care sector. It involves ethical principles that are based on all the major ethical theories.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical Issue/Dilemma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theories are: consequential, where the doctor seeks to benefit the patient by saving her life from medical suffering; virtue-based ethics, where the doctor seeks to give the patient the same services that he thinks he would need if he were in the same position as the patient; value-based ethics, where the doctor seeks to uphold truthfulness, as well as professionalism by serving his patient effectively as his job requires; deontology, where the action, moral principles involved, and the consequences of the action are in question; finally, ethics of care, which is based on the fact that the doctor, through the process of treating the patient, has developed a concern for the patient’s care, and is, therefore, obliged to treat her.

As deontology suggests, the doctor should act in accordance with ethical rules and principles such as beneficence, autonomy, fidelity, justice, non-malfeasance and veracity, which then leads to the decision being made based on the doctor’s duty, rather than the results of his actions.

The resolution The doctor, in this case, resolves to consult with the patient’s family, after which he decides to finally stop providing home-based care and direct the patient to outpatient rehabilitation. This decision was based on the CELIBATE method, which is an acronym for Clinical Ethics and Legal Issues Bait All Therapists Equally.

The decision, in this case, is based on the clinical situation, the inherent ethical issues, the inherent legal issues, the information available, brainstorming on action steps, analysis of action steps, the actual action and the evaluation of the results thereafter. The whole process can be, however, divided into three phases. These phases are the ethical encounter, the loading and the unloading.

The ethical encounter This phase is characterized by the interaction of the human aspects and the organization aspects that are related to the ethical dilemma in question.

The parties involved in this phase are: the patient; the patient’s family; the doctor; the doctor’s home agency that employs him; the State Occupational Therapy Board that holds judicial powers as far as occupational therapy is concerned; and the Occupational Therapy Association which regulates and sets codes of ethics for occupational therapists, as well as the scope and standards of practice.

Ethical loading

In this phase, the doctor makes an analysis of the various issues involved in the ethical dilemma. This is, in relation to any laws that may be broken by the decision of the doctor, risk or the probability of being an ethical issue that has no legal implications whatsoever.

This dilemma involves the decision of the doctor to continue providing the patient with occupational therapy at home or to stop the service, while there is the obvious necessity to treat the patient though the client is unable to meet the stipulated criteria for qualification to cover under Medicare.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Issue/Dilemma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The legal issues that guide the doctor’s decision are based on the rules and regulations of Medicare, as well as the regulations are put in place by various organs that oversee the operations of doctors in such a case.

The decision is based on the available regulations, codes of ethics and standards of practice, and this phase is mainly concerned with the discovery and the weighing of legal and ethical risks that may arise if any possible course of action is taken, as well as analyze methods of decision making and future courses of action.

Ethical unloading

The doctor, in this case, weighed the ethical and legal aspects and realized that there were no legal violations in the possible courses of action that were available. He, therefore, concentrated his decision-making process on the ethical implications, as there were no separate legal actions involved other than those dictated by the ethical implications.

The actions of the doctor were directly related to the upholding of the identified deontological principles. The doctor does this by following his professional obligations as dictated by the Medicare and state practice regulations, and still ensuring the personal interpretation of the regulations do not interfere with it.

It is advised that when faced with a similar dilemma, medical practitioners should refer to the regulation in its most restrictive state so as not to cause further dilemmas by confusing the elements of the regulation (Lo, 2009). This phase is called “ethical unloading”, since it is where the doctor “unloads” the ethical burden involved in the dilemma through his choice of actions based on his conscience, training, and experience.

In this case, the patient’s autonomy was still upheld and she was also advised on how best to receive affordable medical care while still under the services of Medicare, in out-patient rehabilitation with the option of any other health care facilities that may be deemed viable.

The doctor’s decision also ensured beneficence and non-malfeasance since it ensure that, by the patient undertaking out-patient services, there was continuity of the treatment that the patient needed, as well as the fact that these services were enjoyed by the patient in an environment that was acceptable to her.

In any ethical dilemma, the ethical encounter is a phase where there is an analysis of all the demographics that are inherent in the case. The ethical loading phase, on the other hand, is involved with diagnostic process and the analysis of the ethical and legal issues inherent in the dilemma, as well as formulating a plan for intervention by investigating and selecting the best cause of action.

The final phase, that is the ethical loading phase, is involved with the application of the chosen cause of action with the sole aim of resolving the ethical dilemma in question, as well as reflecting on the effectiveness of the chosen action in comfortably satisfying the needs of all the parties involved in the dilemma.

Conclusion The scope of this case is not to identify the weaknesses of the provision given by the government for the access of affordable healthcare to everyone, but to recognize one of the dilemmas that medical practitioners face in their everyday provision of medical care to patients.

This case presents an ethical dilemma that is common in the medical and health provision sector and specifically by most home-care health practitioners, in their quest to satisfactorily serve the patient’s needs while, at the same time, have to struggle with complex financial questions.

According to Jonsen, Seigler, and Winslade, (2005), there is a proposal to merge the much-valued freedom of choice with the available universal health coverage mechanisms that are in place, such as Medicare.

It is common knowledge that healthcare providers face similar dilemmas in almost all countries in the world, as there has been substantial advancement in patient awareness and education, which has led to increased applicability and sensitivity of patient’s autonomy and basic rights, as well as awareness and legal developments in the field of biomedical ethics in the world.

It is now important to health practitioners to be prepared to not only concentrate on decisions involving the medical needs of the patient, but also on the socio-cultural and ethical factors that are inherent in any such case. This can be boosted by the health care providers seeking sound knowledge on the ethical theories and principles that are related to work, so that they are better placed to make wise decisions in case of ethical dilemmas.

References Cohen, M. (2007).101 ethical dilemmas. New York: Taylor

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IKEA Company Analysis Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Positive Actions

Negative Actions

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction IKEA is a privately owned company that started in South Sweden and it manufactures furniture for home and office use. The founder, Ingvar Kamprad is a Swedish. The firm operates in 38 countries with Netherlands as its headquarters. The firm employs about 130,000 people across the world.

The shareholdings of this multinational corporation are not clear, though INGKA Holdings B.V. controls most of its operations with Michael Ohlsson being the chair and the chief executive officer of this holding.

IKEA has earned reputation for its cost control abilities that have seen it lower its products’ prices compared to those of competitors. Its continuous product development techniques have seen it offer quality products in the market and enticing more customers to the company’s stores.

This has seen the firm expand its stores to markets that the company had not ventured into before. Through IKEA creative management, this firm has ventured into the hospitality industry. Currently IKEA runs several restaurants across many cities in Europe.1

It also has playing grounds where parents can drop their children and pick them later. This allows children to get maximum entertainment while parents are given the opportunity to run their errands without worrying about disturbance from their children2.

There has been a constant upward surge on the rate of unemployment in the U.S. The Federal government has made several efforts to reverse this but with limited success. The entry of IKEA into Danville Virginia was therefore most welcome.

The firm has employed a considerable number of people in Virginia, improving their living standards. The state also benefits from its tax collection.3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Positive Actions IKEA Company is one of those firms that employees would want to be. Its health care policies, a serene working environment, the remuneration rates among other factors are attractive to many people. Los Angeles Times reports that employees of this firm in Sweden are happy with the way it operates.4 They are allowed to form unions and they take overtime at will.

Through these unions, employees can easily address their grievances to the management. Employees feel that they are able to advance their careers since training and education is offered. Through unions, the firm is now able to compensate employees that suffer any form of accident in line of duty as all employees are insured.

Moreover, the employees are paid for days they are not on duty for reasons such as being sick, on holiday or being on leave. The management is also very friendly and has established a mutual relationship with employees and their unions. New York Times reports that, IKEA employees in most European countries are satisfied with the policies at firm’s work place as the pay is considerably better than what most firms offer in the job market.5 IKEA has on-job training aimed at improving the quality of the workforce. This is done three times a year to ensure that the workforce remains updated on the market requirements.

It has medical insurance cover for its for its employees that guarantees them quality treatment in case they get injuries when at work. This has improved their morale, leasing to increased output. The company policies also have sick leave in which case the employee gets full salary. They are also allowed holidays thrice every year.

The company helps employees cut transportation costs by offering transport to and from the work. Safety measures at work, the on-job trainings, the insurance cover, the sick pay and sick leave and the holiday allowance among many other incentives have endeared workers to the firm6.

They feel appreciated and this has reduced work related stress while increasing their output and the output of the firm.

Negative Actions IKEA’s corporate image has been proven different from its real internal structure. The glamour with which it presents itself to the outside world is very different from the way it operates.

We will write a custom Essay on IKEA Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cunningham argued that human resource is the most important asset that a company may own because of its ability to control other factors of production. This asset is uncared for by this huge multinational corporation.7

Los Angeles Times reports on the real issues that take place within the firm with regard to human resource management.8 It brings to focus the dehumanizing conditions that workforce has to put up with at the workplace.

The employees of IKEA have seriously complained about high handedness and the way the company is run. In Europe, and specifically in Sweden where it started, workers can take overtime at will and without any form of coercing from the management. At the plant in Danville, Virginia, workers do not determine when they take overtime hours after normal working hours9.

Failure to take an overtime stipulated by the management would lead to automatic punishment. The situation has been so bad that workers developed a feeling that they were imprisoned by these regulations.10

Kylette Duncan narrates to Los Angeles Times that at one point, she had to cancel her medical appointment for her husband because she had to work for an overtime that came up abruptly. So devastated she was that she quit the job all together after working only six months at IKEA. She settled for a lesser paying job in another firm.

This report further reveals that IKEA’s employees in Europe have a starting wage rate of $19 per hour. However, this amount at Danville, Virginia is $8. The cost of living in Virginia is as expensive as or even more expensive than in some of these countries.

The revenue the firm generates from the American market is more lucrative than many of these European countries. Why then should they discriminate against American employees? Giving them a remuneration that is less than half that their colleagues earn elsewhere is discriminatory.11

IKEA’s code of conduct stipulates that formation of unions is acceptable among employees. In Sweden, employees have successfully formed unions through which their grievances can be addressed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on IKEA Company Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This whole issue is very different from what is taking place at its plant in Danville. This firm has made a deliberate step to ensure that members do not form a union whatsoever12. They have even hired Jackson Lewis, a large law firm to help it thwart attempts by the members to form a union.

One is left wondering what is so unique with the American population that employees should not be allowed to form unions. The unfortunate working condition in this firm has seen employees get more frustrated as days go by.

Despite the comparatively fair salary, state-of-the-art facilities and its healthcare programs, many of its employees have considered resignation as the best option.13

Conclusion IKEA is a multi-national corporation that operates in several countries across the globe. Its efficiency in operations and cost management has seen it expand in many regions. The company’s health care policies and remunerations have seen it earn admiration among many workers.

In Sweden, this company has given workers a chance to form unions through which their concerns can be addressed. They are also allowed to take overtime at their own pleasure. This has created an environment where they feel valued and this has translated into more productivity for the firm.

However, all this sugarcoating of this firm was in an attempt to hide its ugly face from the unsuspecting public. Its plant at Danville, Virginia has unmasked the firm’s true face. The firm is not a bed of roses as many had been mislead to believe. At IKEA, there exists a rare form of racial discrimination.

The firm treats its employees differently, its yardstick being the country of origin. In America, this company treats its workforce with contempt. Its effort to post friendly messages about career offerings in various nations is just an attempt to clean up its mess.

This firm operates with outdated standards, standards that existed before the world’s second liberation, those standards that would see one die at workplace and it is considered normal, the standards that are unacceptable in the contemporary world.

Bibliography Adams, Susan and Joseph Weiss. “Gendered paths to technology leadership”. New Technology, Work and Employment 26, no. 3, (2011): 222-237.

Bradley, Howard. Staff Development. London: The Falmer Press, 1991.Print.

Cunningham, Barton. The Stress Management Sourcebook. Los Angeles: Lowell House, 2000.

Daft, Richard. Organizational Theory and Design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2010.

Fried, Richard. Stress Management for Success in the Workplace. Washington: Lulu.com, 2008.

Giddens, Antony. The Consequences of Modernity. Malden: Malden Blackwell Publishers, 2009.Print.

Griffin, Ricky and Gregory Moorehead. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage Learning, 2011.

“IKEA’s U.S. Factory Churns out Unhappy Workers”. Los Angeles Times. April 10, 2011.

“At IKEA’s Only U.S. Factory, Workers Vote to Join Unions”. The New York Times. July 27, 2011.

Thomas, Angela. Coaching for Staff Development, Personal and Professional Development. Leicester: St. Andrews House, 1995.Print.

Footnotes 1 I”KEA’s U.S. Factory Churns out Unhappy Workers”. Los Angeles Times. April 10, 2011, 12.

2 Susan Adams and Joseph Weiss. “Gendered Paths to Technology Leadership”. New Technology, Work and Employment 26, no. 3, (2011): 222-237.

3 “At IKEA’s Only U.S. Factory, Workers Vote to Join Union”. New York Times. July 27, 2011.

4 “IKEA’s U.S. factories churns out unhappy workers”. Los Angeles Times. April 10, 2011, 12.

5 Ibid. p. 8

6 Antony Giddens. The Consequences of Modernity. (Malden: Malden Blackwell Publishers, 2009).Print.

7 Barton Cunningham. The Stress Management Sourcebook. (Los Angeles: Lowell House. 2000), 31.

8 “Ikea’s U.S. Factories Churns out Unhappy Workers’’. Los Angeles Times. April 10, 2011.

9 Howard Bradley. Staff Development. (London: The Falmer Press, 1991), Print.

10 Richard Daft. Organizational theory and design. (Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning,2010).

11 Ricky Griffin and Gregory Moorehead. Organizational behavior: managing people and organizations. (Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011).

12 Angela Thomas. Coaching for staff development, personal and professional development. (Leicester, St. Andrews House, 1995). Print.

13 Richard Fried. Stress management for success in the workplace. (Washington: Lulu.com, 2008).

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Glen William Greenhouses Ltd case Study cheap essay help

Introduction The case study is about considering growing hydroponic lettuce in Maritime Provinces for business consumption. Mr. Wood had commissioned some market research to be done concerning the same crop on its marketability and costs on constructing greenhouse for the same crop.

The method to be used in growing the crop requires no use of soil but inert medium hence referred to as hydroponics. The case describes on the tools and materials required for the completion of hydroponic construction process.

Further, there is description of the specific kind of vegetables which could suit the use of hydroponic as well as the countries where the method is used most. The nature and quantity of yields discussed.

Case discussion Hydroponic lettuce has been marketed for a long time as one of the crops of high quality level of nutrition, non-allergic and fully digestible. Nevertheless, a blunder was discovered in assessing its effectiveness, if not handled properly the crop deteriorates. The crop is considered to have short shelf-life and if not correctly handled could be unfit for sale two days after picking.

Hydroponic lettuce can only sustain not more than three weeks shelf-life. This makes up a good results for the chefs since its advantages are worth the extra cost. Some of them being requires less labor time, ensures no waste and looks fresher than other vegetables.

Concerning the above, farmers and chefs gain the benefits of prescribing the vegetable to consumers and hotels. This is since Hydroponic lettuce serves a large percentage on the purposes of nutritious food.

Consumers are eligible to visit any vegetable vendor and agricultural specialist for further direction on the use of Hydroponic lettuce. This means that payments are made to individual specialists for the purposes of consultation

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also the concept of risk-benefit balance which cannot change regarding Hydroponic lettuce; this is attributed to insufficient information given about the vegetable crop. Hydroponic vegetables are usually sold for health purposes for preventive reasons.

This makes it clear that the levels of uncertainty from the crop are expected to be minimal, hence presenting low level of risks to individuals. This is one of the ways through which agriculture specialists benefit since they understand that though the crop might not be of greater benefit, its side effects on individuals can be controlled and maintained accordingly.

Glen William Greenhouses under the management of one of the shareholder, Jim Wood are geared towards growing hydroponic tomatoes within the Maritime Provinces. The company has set aside large chunk of land for this purpose. The need arise as a result of identifying the market’s need for fresh vegetables and tomatoes.

This is since the market was being supplied most of the time with imported tomatoes from the United States which most of the time were never in good condition by the time of sale in the groceries. The conclusion was that the company could invest in growing good quality tomatoes and lettuce.

This made the company to consider construction of expansive structure which would accommodate one hectare for tomatoes and the other for lettuce. The move received financial drawback since the available capital could only construct one hectare. Despite the manager having experience in growing hydroponic tomatoes they had uncertainty concerning the market of the same crop.

The emphasis was to be placed on marketability and large scale advertisement of the produce especially in Maritimes. Instead of financial consideration first priority was given to market research on the crops. The research was to involve statistics consumption rates, pricing and the market position of other growers of hydroponic lettuce.

The research revealed the sizes of the two greenhouses used by these companies which measured 11000 sq. ft and 22000 sq. ft respectively. The respective production stood between 70,000 and 200000 heads annually.

We will write a custom Report on Glen William Greenhouses Ltd case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They targeted specific chain stores for their produce such as IGA and Sobey. They used the same method of packaging which involved wrapping the roots in watertight pouch with printed brand name for the purposes of identity in marketing. Also printed on the package were the qualities of the lettuce and the benefits to human health.

Education was as well used in the process of informing consumers and retailers on the benefits of lettuce irrespective of the type of lettuce in the market. The most common lettuce within the market were head lettuce, iceberg and romaine varieties, the focus was to familiarize the consumers with the latest variety hydroponic lettuce.

The successful results during the process of the lettuce production were founded according to the heads expected greenhouse. This was to be identified by considering the differences in production between winter and summer, of which the winter lettuce was considered smaller than summer lettuce.

This means that bigger heads would be produced and supplied in less duration of time as compared to small heads owing to season changes. The prices of lettuce were high in winter and the produce was recorded indicate price fluctuations based on the level of supply. However, the prices fell in summer despite the cost of production being less compared to cost in winter seasons.

Maritime growers benefitted much on selling the field grown lettuce directly to large retail stores. The retailers were always willing to pay higher prices for the produce same as the imported lettuce. Wholesalers were always given second chance in case the produce could not sell directly to retailers.

However, during the summer season the retail stores preferred selling locally grown lettuce, leading to drastic decline in the imported lettuce. This makes lettuce profitable only during winter season despite the size and price as well as quantity differences.

The produce was identified to be easily distributed and handled through large retailers and restaurants within urban centers. This promoted good relations between growers and the market since retailers were good handlers of the lettuce and also was price conscious.

There was as well no premium price charged for the product by the retailers as opposed to wholesalers. Promotional activities appropriate for lettuce vegetables were considered to be price-off and in-store promotions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Glen William Greenhouses Ltd case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All the activities surrounding Hydroponic lettuce are proven and scientifically valid. Starting the project in Maritime is proven through the research undertaken.

This vegetable is recommended for all from children to adults. Hydroponic lettuce is meant to increase in the supply of vegetable produce within the market, however the current statistics reveal that Hydroponic lettuce is already common in the Maritime Provinces with high consumption rates. However, Hydroponic lettuce presents the market with alternative means which is cheaper easily available.

Recommendations Glen William Greenhouses ltd should undertake their services cautiously with the environment in mind. They should be able to take full responsibility of their actions and consider costs imposed on the environment concerning running of such projects. Such should be given great concern throughout their decision making processes.

The company should apply the use of eco-friendly technologies which could enable them operate efficiently at reasonable costs irrespective of the season. At the same time, much emphasis on quality and level of consumer satisfaction should be given priority.

The company should consider offering good training to growers, sales representatives and their personnel ensuring full satisfaction of all employees.

Strategies which could help Glen William Greenhouses ltd to ensure a high level of control over mechanisms is the way they would establish valid performance standards and provide adequate information to their customers through advertisement.

Focusing on accurate operational standards and priorities, would enable effective operation and performance of tasks by the concerned parties within the company. Glen William Greenhouses ltd should as well utilize the principle of dominance which often makes such company dominate the market with its produce and at times disables the various channels of distribution and control systems used in evaluating operational activities.

The company should also consider paying much attention to good communication links amongst employee. This forms vital part in determining the effectiveness of control system and the Company’s success in growing hydroponic lettuce. Exchanging relevant information and feedback concerning marketability between Glen William Greenhouses ltd’s manager and salespeople gives the opportunity of understanding and performing their tasks better.

Appropriate information forms better part of encouraging development of hydroponic lettuce hence enabling maximization of the available resource. Good public relations should be maintained between the growers and the retailers this would contribute tremendous success of Glen William Greenhouses ltd as a company.

The company should have salespeople working with their own team members at every market site. The various teams should as well work hand in hand with the company in establishing for themselves performance benchmarks which are ultimately used by the customers to rate the level of the Company’s product satisfaction.

All supervisors are advised to be accountable for their performances where quality of the company’s products and services rendered to customers are rated on a monthly basis. Such measures provide superb form of control based on performance since it gives room for easy implementation of corrective actions which ensures improvement in performance.

Regulations of all the activities on performance accounts are made easy promoting efficiency and effectiveness. Application of modern technology in the construction of the greenhouse also matters, since it ensures production in line with current generational taste.

Utilization of modern resources is further made easier by the use of internet and intranet for the purposes of monitoring databases. It makes it easier the process of monitoring utilization of the available resources and choosing of appropriate objectives for future benefit.

Glen William Greenhouses ltd should at the same time empower its employees through granting them more freedom on performing scheduled tasks. This helps in making the company win market confidence with most retail stores and wholesalers.

One of the ways which could be easily utilized is focusing on the employees training needs, this empowers employees by enhancing their level of understanding the kind of project they are involved in hence increasing their scope of responsibilities at work.

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Legality and Ethicality in Corporate Governance Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The legality of the activities according to federal, state, and local laws should follow the principle of good governance through honesty and good faith. Some of the management practices at the United Thermostatic Controls failed to comply with companies’ law.

It is clear that current legislation states that disclosure of financial information should be done in good faith, honesty and with total professionalism. However, the case study at thermostatic controls is different. The company flaunted the fundamental principle of governance that demands utmost good faith.

The top management at the company exerted too much pressure at the financial department as a way of assisting another department to achieve its goals much faster. The federal, state and local laws do not condone such practices at all.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which is a United States federal law enacted on July 30, 2002 should apply certain criteria to this case. The purpose of this law is to set rules and guidelines of operation for public companies boards, public accounting firms and company management.

This Act takes care of issues such as auditor independence, corporate governance, finance disclosure and others. The case at Thermostatic Controls touches on disclosure of financial information and corporate governance.

A top management official is capable of influencing accounting process to fit personal agenda and as a result, disregard the side effects of such actions to the affected individuals.

Sarbanes Oxley can invoke section 302 and 404 of the Act. For instance, Section 302 sets out some of the internal procedures that should be followed when disclosing financial information. In this case, the section can assist in finding out who is responsible in the event of inaccurate disclosure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Section 404 of the same Act is clear on internal control mechanisms of companies. In this section, management is supposed to produce credible and certified reports on internal controls as part of Exchange Act report. However, the case of thermostatic control is somehow different.

There are certain doubts on the adequacy of the internal controls. Therefore, using bylaws from this section, it is possible to assess whether there is compliance by companies as required by law. Section 807 of Sarbanes Oxley is also integral in adequately establishing the innocence or guilt of the accused persons.

There was lack of professionalism in ethicality of management activities at the company. Professions such as accounting, auditing and law among others demand professional ethics. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) stipulates principles of professional conduct among accountants.

The latter should follow the principles of professional conduct that guide them in course of their accounting career. According to the underlying principles, accountants ought to be responsible, act on behalf of public interest, integrity, exercise objectivity and independence in course of their duties (Fernando, 2009).

These principles define the codes of ethics that govern accounting profession. The company in question has many issues concerning the ethicality of various officers.

It is highly unethical for the top management to pressurize junior employees in accounting division to maneuver the books are unethical. The actions put the integrity of the top management into doubts and question. The responsibility of good governance was also withdrawn since the top official went against the requirement of good corporate governance.

The vice president of sales and marketing on the other hand also acted in unethical way by complying with the director’s actions. The accounting department can be blamed because it did not act independently or objectively. Indeed, they flaunted the standards they had always strived to protect.

We will write a custom Essay on Legality and Ethicality in Corporate Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was also noted that some of the activities of different individuals are questionable because work ethics demand integrity and have tarnished the image of the company. They should therefore be dealt with accordingly.

The different activities in this case have not been equitable to any of the stake holders. For example, the internal stakeholders who include the management and other staff members have a great burden to reconstruct the image of the company.

These actions which are not ethical in nature put into question the actions of other regions who may have acted lawfully and ethically. The management then has the task of convincing their partners and customers on how not worry. The unlawful and unethical activities also put questions on the leadership ability about proper management.

The external stakeholders were also provided with wrong information. This was not justified because the true performance of the company would not be known by those interested to buy the company’s shares. An ethical approach helps in avoiding such injustices and not to damage other peoples’ interests (Mandal, 2010).

Their investments could lead to loss if prices of these shares collapsed. For other players like the lenders and creditors, such wrong information could result into mistaken decision that would possibly end up in financial loss.

The best decision that can be put into action as a result of this mess to hire professional external auditors who cannot compromise their integrity and professional principle. This is one of the best ways that is logical to curb such unethical activities.

The professional external auditors should test the adequacy of internal controls. Additionally, participatory approach is necessary when setting goals in order to develop realistic and achievable goals. It is also important to practice business ethics at all times (Crane

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Humor in the Workplace Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Humor and fun in their workplace and their manifestations

The influence of humor and fun

Discussion

References

Footnotes

Introduction Modern scholars as well as business administrators attempt to identify those factors which impact people’s attitude toward their jobs, their willingness to remain with the company, and contribute to its performance.

Special attention is paid to humor and fun at the workplace since they are associated with such positive outcomes as decreased absenteeism and burnout, and improved relations among employees (Plester, 2009, p 584).

Additionally, it is believed that humor and fun can enhance group cohesiveness and team work (Baptise, 2009, p 601). Overall, their effects are considered to be beneficial.

This paper aims to discuss the ways in which fun and humor can impact managing people at work. Yet, it is necessary for us to explain how humor and fun are constructed in contemporary organizations.

In other words, one has to understand in what kind of companies people are more likely to have fun or resort to humor.

The findings of this paper can be important from theoretical and practical perspectives: on the one hand, they can better explain those forces which govern the relations among colleagues; while on the other hand, they can be used by managers, who need to improve the climate in the workplace and ultimately raise productivity of employees.

Humor and fun in their workplace and their manifestations Humor and fun are those notions which avoid definitions or interpretations; in part, because there are hundreds if not thousands definitions of humor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers and researchers do not overlook the issue because it is vital to mark the boundaries of legitimate or permissible fun in the workplace.

Modern scholars define these notions in terms of what they are not. In other words, they try to single out those aspects of fun, which are not permissible, for instance, Jerald Greenberg focuses on those jokes which are based on racial or sexual stereotypes (2010 p 176).

In short, humor must not be offensive or it will eventually result into hostility.

In their turn, Susanna Stromberg and Jan Karlsson (2009) argue that the management must not tolerate those activities which can potentially distract employees from their direct duties or harm the reputation of an organization.

In addition to that, psychologists and sociologists associate humor and fun with subcultures in the workplace. The thing is that employees can adopt overtly compliant behavior and at the same time mock the managers behind their backs (Stromberg

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Standards of Engineering Ethics and Professionalism in the World Essay custom essay help

The development of engineering ethics can be traced to the turn of the 20th century when the mother engineering associations formulated ethical codes. The engineering ethics refer to the guidelines and principles applied by engineers in their professional practice. Adoption of the first code of ethics was by The Institute of Civil Engineers of England in 1910.From then on it has been established and practiced in most states.

The engineers are required by the law to join professional organizations and obtain professional licenses before they can practice in line with the requirements of other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting. This paper will compare the difference that exists in several codes of ethics around the world as well as how they can be professionally applied from different perspectives. In addition to this the paper will seek to determine how the impact of religion of some of the engineering codes.

Ever since the professionalization of engineering, there have been conflicts between professional engineers and technical engineers with each group fighting for recognition of supremacy. Professional organizations have strived to incorporate codes of ethics in their rules while technical societies of engineers do not adopt uniform codes of ethics. They prefer to educate their members on the importance of ethics.

Engineering ethics often emerge from major disasters and catastrophes in landmark structures. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge in 1907 saw the emergence of the Order of the engineer in America and the iron ring in Canada. Members take an oath to observe the code of ethics and put on a ring to remind them constantly of the commitment to upholding ethics.

In the recent past, review of the code of ethics and introduction of engineering ethics as a course in engineering classrooms has been precipitated by misfortunes such as the collapse of The Hyatt Hotel in Kansa and The Challenger disaster. Most professors are not comfortable teaching the course, which involves literature because they are more familiar with teaching quantative and qualitative concepts.

Engineering organizations and professional bodies in most countries of the world share similar principles regarding ethics, with the core principles being that public interest should always be put before individual interest. The major issues facing the enforcement of engineering ethics are corruption and high rates of bribery.

New issues such as environmental conservation are also emerging. Whistle-blowing (reporting your employer or client in case of activities that may risk public welfare) has remained a gray area in engineering ethics. Engineers are usually in a dilemma whether to uphold the code of ethics and report or to remain loyal to their companies and keep their jobs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In America for instance, the code of the Civil Engineers’ society places emphasis on the wellbeing of the public in terms of safety and health. It also requires proficiency and competence in the fieldwork, truth, and faithfulness in dealing with clients, fair competition, upholding the name of the profession, anti-corruption attitude, continuous career development, and provision of opportunities to apprentices or those under their tutelage.

Stringent enforcement of professional ethics takes place in The United States of America. This is largely due to the fact that it suits and actions in court by way of public interest litigation. In 1969, the government launched an inquiry into the activities of B.F Goodrich Engineering Company following reports by an employee that it had falsified a brake report after conducting flight tests. Three engineers were indicted in 1989 for storing, handling, and disposing hazardous wastes. They were involved in development of chemical weapons for the army.

Until recently, France did not have a code of ethics for engineers or an engineering ethics course for students. This is mainly due to failure of organization due to divisions within the profession and failure of programs to conduct academic research into the discipline.

The first code of engineering ethics was adopted by The National Council of Engineers and Scientists of France(CNISF) in 1997.Like other engineers, when it comes to whistleblowing they are torn between public responsibility and fidelity to their employers.

The fact that the word engineer has two different meanings (a distinguished professional and a graduate engineer) has made development of engineering ethics problematic. The adopted code proved to be weak because it lacked enforcement procedures and engineers can only join CNISF institutionally through professional associations. Most engineers have chosen not to adopt the code and have chosen other ways to observe engineering ethics.

On the other hand, in Germany, the engineers association, VDI sought recognition of the profession by demanding to have the title Doktor bestowed upon them. This boosted their prestige and led to respect within the society and faster entrenchment of engineering ethics to uphold the reputation of the profession.

In Australia professionalism in engineering is highly regarded and ethics are strictly observed, The institution of engineers views the code as a contract between the engineer and the public that the engineer will prioritize public interest and welfare in exchange for which the public is not to interfere with the regulation of the engineering profession. Development of professionalism has occurred through instituting proceedings against engineers in their individual capacity. This process is similar to the one in Canada.

We will write a custom Essay on Standards of Engineering Ethics and Professionalism in the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Russia, formally known as The USSR, the communist revolution stripped engineers off their professional autonomy stagnating development of engineering codes of ethics. The same case applies in China where due to a tyrannical political regime, technical organizations and professional societies do not have a uniform code of ethics. The Chinese Mechanical Engineers Society is guided by regulations that are akin to a professional code.

The approach in Hong Kong is different from the rest of China since I was a former crown colony of The British and so the code is based on The U.K model. The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers achieved a milestone in 1980 by organizing a conference on ethics. The Hong Kong code is unique in that it makes an exception whereby an engineer is working outside Hongkong.It stipulates that such an engineer should abide by the engineering standards of that other country.

In India, members of the professional body have to sign a statement declaring that they shall uphold the code of ethics, conduct honorable research, and promote preservation of human dignity. There is no formal written code of conduct sine the individual pledge is considered the ultimate symbol of commitment to ethics as it is stronger than any written code.

In Japan, there is no distinct seperation between engineering and science. This is because they are considered a similar enterprise. Engineering ethics are considered to be of the same capacity with those of other scientists, and thus have not developed a lot.

Taiwan is another distinct example. Its professional code of ethics departs from the Western outlook and merges social-cultural aspects of The Taiwan people it acknowledges the diverse roles of an engineer at a personal and professional level. Teamwork and collective responsibility is emphasized.

Due to respect of hierarchy of age in their culture, younger engineers are to respect established engineers and request for their advice. The elderly engineers should couch and guide the younger engineers on the core values of ethics. Engineers should engage in community service and charity work for the public.

In Africa, there are professional engineering bodies in countries such as South Africa and Kenya. For instance in Kenya, the formulation of a code of ethics is underway since a bill has been enacted to pave way for the code. The South African Society of civil engineers already has a code in place. Corruption remains the biggest problem in entrenching engineering ethics in Africa because even the bidding and tendering processes are tainted.

Religion controls various aspects of our lives including our choice of fashion.education and even profession. It affects engineers in different ways. It will affect the choice of projects he chooses to work on, the type of research he or she conducts, interaction with other engineers and his views on the effects of the project he chooses to work on.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Standards of Engineering Ethics and Professionalism in the World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other aspect involves the response of society towards the work of an engineer and the purpose for such work. Depending on the religious view of the society, a project maybe approved for sponsorship or rejected.

For instance, Christians may be unwilling to support an engineer intending to develop an atomic bomb. Religion will therefor influence engineering ethics because if the society considers something unethical from a religious point of view, there is no way in which an engineer can go ahead to do as it will end up besmirching the name of the profession.

In states, which have state religions, such religions end up controlling the professionalism of the engineering practice since the engineer must subscribe to the ethics established by such a religion. Whereas there is no state religion in Israel, the heavy Jewish presence means that a professional whether in law, medicine, or engineering cannot engage in any activities deemed unethical by that religion. In Saudi Arabia where Islam is a state religion, contravening principles of Muslim law would be unethical.

Environmental issues and the concept of sustainable development are emerging areas in the field of engineering ethics. There is a drive to preserve and conserve the environment for both the present and future generations. Engineering ethics have to become stricter, perhaps the best way to do this would be by formulation of a uniform code of ethics for all engineers across the globe just as we have uniform technical codes.

International engineering transactions are on the rise with contractors being hired to embark on various construction projects. An international regulatory framework and common standard has to be established so that engineers are not confused on the ethical standards required of them when they embark on jobs abroad. This can be formulated with the help of international engineering organizations such as The World Federation of Engineering Organizations.

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Social Construction of Gender Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social Construction of Gender

Relationship between the Two Genders

Sex, Gender and Gender Conformity

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Gender as a topic has become very popular over the recent past. The global society has witnessed many changes in social construction of gender. According to World Health Organization, gender is a socially constructed trait, conduct, position, and action that a given society considers suitable for men and women. Lockheed (45) defines gender as a given range of characteristics that distinguishes a male from a female.

Gender refers to those attributes that would make an individual be identified as either male or female. As can be seen from the above definitions, gender is more of a social than a physical attribute. We look at gender from a societal point of view. Lepowsky (90) defines social construction as an institutionalized characteristic that is largely acceptable in a given society because of the social system.

Social construction, in a narrower term, refers to the general behavioral patterns of a certain society shaped by beliefs and values. A socially constructed characteristic therefore varies from one organization to another. Different societies have different beliefs and cultural practices that help define them. Therefore, a social construction of one society would be different from another society.

To social constructionists, social construct is a notion or an idea that is considered obvious and natural to a certain group of individuals in a given society, which may be true or not. This means that it holds just to the specific society. In this regard therefore, gender and associated beliefs would vary from one community to another depending on perceptions.

On the other hand, essentialists hold there is a set of characteristics that are universal in a certain entity. This means that a given entity can receive a single definition, regardless of the societal set up. In this regard, gender is a universal entity, irrespective of the society and the cultural beliefs associated with it. This perspective dilutes the notion that gender is a social construction.

This is because it gives it a universal definition, where there is a remarkable difference in the social construct of different societies in the world. This is due to differences in religion, cultural beliefs and civilization. To validate this discussion, the essay is based on social constructionist thinking as opposed to essentialism.

Social Construction of Gender Gender is socially constructed. As Lepowsky (31) notes, there is a remarkable difference in the way different societies view the two genders that is, male and female. This scholar says that issues related to gender purely take the approach of social constructionists. He says that societies in the world have varied characteristics, depending on cultures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He notes that the way one society would view the relationship between the two genders would vary from another, which also depend on a number of factors. Lerro (74) is opposed to this notion. He says that gender is best viewed from essentialists’ perspective. He holds that universally, women have always been regarded as the weaker sex, irrespective of the society. In many regions in the world, women have been treated with low esteem.

This is because of the fact that they are physically weak as compared to men. To various societies across the world, women are expected to be below men socially. Although the current wave of change has seen women take active roles in income generating activities, many societies still consider them as home keepers who should always be willing to receive and obey instructions from men.

This scholar’s argument is valid. However, his explanation, though leaning towards essentialism, still points out that gender is a social construct. Although many societies have almost a similar perception regarding gender, the fact is that they have construed the meaning of gender. The perception is a mere creation of the society members.

According to Lepowsky (53), gender cannot take an essentialist approach. The current world has varied perceptions towards women. The society in Saudi Arabia defines gender in a very different way as compared to the United Kingdom society. Saudi Arabia is an Islamic society that follows strict teachings of the holy Quran.

In this society, there is a big social gap between men and women. The society defines a woman as a subordinate who should always serve men. When it comes to addressing issues of importance, a woman must consult a man because by virtue of being a woman, the society assumes that one cannot make a decision personally.

This is a very sharp contrast to how this gender is viewed in a liberal country such as the United Kingdom. This society has completely narrowed the gap between the two genders that what remain are the physiological differences between the two genders. The country has embraced equality between the two sexes, a fact that saw it elect a female Premier Margret Thatcher.

The social environment in Saudi Arabia is very different from that in the United Kingdom. Because of this, the two societies have different views on what the two genders are and how they should relate. While one society is of the view that gender is just but the biological differences that makes one male or female, the other society sees more. It sees difference in roles, freedom, and positions in the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Construction of Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relationship between the Two Genders The society is waking to a new down where women and men are considered equal. The only differences existing are biological. Man has been the dominant sex over years. Terms such as mankind, chairman and fireman were used to refer to both men and women. However, these are currently considered sexist titles, which should be avoided at all costs. Although the global society is still largely patriarchal, there is an observable effort to create equality between the two sexes.

However, men are not willing to relinquish their prestigious positions in the society. In social centers such as schools and colleges, men would try to prove that they are in control. Plante (6) notes that jokes are always essential in our society. Although they are always taken from the face value as a form of entertainment, it has a purpose beyond entertainment.

This scholar gives an analysis of sexist jokes used by men towards female students in learning institutions. What comes clear is that men still rely much on their physical superiority, as their way of showing dominance. They use force in order to make female students listen to their jokes, which is highly sexist.

When it comes to sex, men completely change. Chappell (19) gives a confession of a certain girl and her sexual encounter. Through this, it can be observed that when a man has the desire for sex, he is willing to bend very low to a woman. However, things change immediately after the process. He becomes rude and he would easily pick mistakes from the same woman.

Sex, Gender and Gender Conformity Gender identity is the biological characteristic that would define an individual’s gender. In this regard, it would be appropriate to just categorize humanity based on sex. This would mean that the two categories would be men and women. However, because of these biological differences between the two sexes, there is another way of classifying the two sexes that is, gender. Gender is more of a social than a biological difference between the two sexes.

As Plante (110) notes, in this approach, the two genders are analyzed based on the abilities and inabilities. Because men are considered stronger physically, they are given a higher rank in the society because it is assumed that their capabilities are superior to those of women. Sex in itself is a gendered word. In many societies, sex is used to emphasize the difference between the two genders.

Because societal pressure, the ‘weaker’ sex (woman) is forced to conform to the position they are given. They conform, not because they like the assigned position, but because they are not allowed to oppose the decision. They may not necessarily accept the position given to them by the society. However, because the society is intolerant and very rigid, they are left with very limited option other than conforming to the norm.

In some instances, women are exposed to physical abuse from their male counterparts who are keen on asserting their authority in the societal set up. Plante (136) says that this high handedness has seen many women suffer in silence, simply because they are women. Gender identity disorder is a syndrome that is always traumatizing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Construction of Gender by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An individual who cannot clearly be categorized as a man or a woman may find either himself or herself at the center of social stigmatization. Such an individual lacks a gender to identify with in a society that is so keen on identifying individuals based on gender.

Conclusion It can be seen from the above discussion that gender can be defined differently, depending on the community in question. Depending on the societal structure of a given community, gender will assume a meaning depending on how men and women relate. Unlike sex that is defined based on biological differences, gender is defined based on the behavioral patterns of the two genders and the society’s perception of the concerned individual.

Every society has its own way of viewing men and women and the relationship between the two. In some societies, women are treated with very low esteem. In such societies, gender is held with high esteem, as a way of showing the boundary that exists between men and women. In other societies, civilization has made a woman be accepted as equal to a man hence the term gender has lost its previous meaning.

Issues of gender have raised many questions in the current society. In the current world, women have acquired a new status. They no longer depend on men for everything. As a number of authors note, gender has to be given a new definition other than what it was before. Based on how gender is defined, the current society needs a to re-define it.

Works Cited Chappell, Marissa. The war on welfare: family, poverty, and politics in modern America. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Print.

Lepowsky, Maria. Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Print.

Lerro, Bruce. Power in Eden: The Emergence of Gender Hierarchies in the Ancient World. Manchester:Trafford Publishing, 2005. Print.

Lockheed, Marlaine. Gender and social exclusion. Paris: Education Policy series publishers, 2010. Print

Plante, Rebecca. Doing gender diversity: readings in theory and real-world experience. New York: West view Press, 2010. Print.

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Concept of Gender Intersectionality in Society Essay best essay help

Introduction Gender inter-sectionality refers to the inter-play within social categories and power. It mainly focuses on differences such as class, sexuality, race and age. Inter-sectionality has brought out factors such as in-equality, racism, sexism and many others. These include categories such as gender, race, class and ability (Nestle, Riki and Howell 89).

Gender diversity refers to the various sociological concepts of structure, culture and self-identity of people in the society. It entails understanding gender and sexuality and how they are dealt with in life (Jackson s). Some of the issues and concepts of the aspect of gender diversity include social change, social identities, modern trends social divisions and social conflicts that have resulted from the differences.

Gender inter-sectionality in sexuality In April 2005, there was a demonstration in support of the passage of the gay rights bill through state legislature of Maine, USA. In the balcony present were approximately 50 gay rights activists. In comparison to these gay supporters who gathered for the meeting, there were four of five times more people who demonstrated them and rejected their proposed bill.

Those who were opposed to this bill were mainly the religious and Christian gay groups. This greatly showed the conflict in the society. What the bill was concerned about was not the same sex marriage rights but equal treatment for lesbians and gays. The main debate was on legislation to recognize same sex civil unions. There have also been movements for women’s rights and sexual minorities such as gays and lesbians which has portrayed social change since the mid twentieth century.

Women were mainly concerned with issues relating to the access to educational and financial resources, changes in cultural values, religious beliefs and decline in traditions. Since these female movements challenged traditions, it resulted in social conflict. (Nestle, Riki and Howell 76).

Social change has progressed too quickly. In the case of marriages, there has been high decline in marriage and stability it brought. Traditionalists have denied extension of the right to marry to a minority population. This has resulted in lack of social cohesion and social order.

This can only be explained by understanding the social significance of the minority groups and what significance they have to the majority, and in this case it deals with the issue of same sex marriage. Traditionally women have always been seen as naturally suited to child rearing and domesticity, which historically justifies their limited access to education and employment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This trend resulted into women increasing their movements to demand equal rights as their male counterparts which clearly demonstrated gender changes and the changes in the diversification in gender roles where there was a hierarchy of genders. Men were regarded as naturally superior to women. However, this trend has changed with time (Nestle, Riki and Howell 99).

The further illustrated that these changes had influenced all aspects of social life, i.e. politics and power, cultural beliefs and values, social actions, and identity and social structures. For instance, the right of the sexual minority to marry is seen not as a personal issue or one of individual political rights, but rather as one for the scrutiny of the state. In the 1988 Olympics, Mario Patino, a female athlete was denied an opportunity to participate in the Olympics since her sexuality was under question.

Lab results revealed that she had neither ovaries nor a uterus. This made them think that she was a male with female attributes. As a result, she was stripped of all her of her medals and success. In response, she filed a suit to protest her revocation from the Olympic team. She was later reinstated to the team (Nestle, Riki and Howell 89).

In the year 1968, female athletes were required to parade naked to reveal their sexuality, the requirements being breasts and a vagina. This proved the presence of intersectionality in gender. Many women felt that this was quite degrading. Later in the year 1972, sexologists argued that the term ‘sex’ refers to the physical attributes, and is anatomically and physiologically determined.

Feminists definition of sex was the organs one had. On the other hand, they felt that gender was a psychological transformation of an individual. As a result of this, they have increasingly received massive resistance from biologists and social scientists. (Nestle, Riki and Howell 78).

An anthropologist Henrietta A Moore argued that our bodies are too complex to provide answers to sexual differences. He argued that sex is not pure physical category. Muscle strength should not be used as a measure of masculinity. Strengths of men and women overlapped due to their levels of training. Mario Patina may have had Y chromosomes but this shouldn’t be used to decide her sexuality and shouldn’t be the deciding factor. (Kimmel and Messner.)

Sexual identity has been a fundamental reality. In this case homosexuality and heterosexuality. This has greatly encouraged the study of human homosexuality and sexual behavior in men and women. The studies have provided the modern scientists with a set of categories used for measuring and analyzing sexual behavior.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Gender Intersectionality in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Here they used a rating of 0-6 being heterosexual and 6 being 100% homosexual. Kingsley, a biologist, further argued that sexuality is an individual characteristic and not merely something produced with relationship in a particular social setting. Like the Victorians, for example, described aggressiveness as a way to show masculine attributes.

In America, men and women seeking same sex interactions became more open as they were often seen sitting in bars and outdoor spots. It is believed that homosexuality was born in the 1880s. Historians have continuously looked for answers on whether human sexuality is inborn or socially constructed.

The same question was pursued by anthropologists while they were studying sexual behavior , roles and expressions found in different cultures in the world. With the studies carried out, scientists have discovered that and agreed that the chemical structure of the sex hormones –testosterone have shown different roles and abilities in men and women. Different social behaviors are generally social activities which are expressed in interaction with separate objects and beings.

Gender intersectionality in race and individual collective identities. In the past, there was an expectation to conform to white standards which were quite popular. It was nothing new in a society that privileged whiteness and over time has become magnified in black women. In the late 90s the descriptions of Venus Williams and basketball sensation Allen Iverson often included allusions to their hair styles braided and in rows respectively.

This was seen as a code language in the U.S. society, and was seen as an indication of the discomfort and fascination that white people felt for the African –Americans in general, and in particular, for black hairstyles and what they signified. It was later seen that Williams hairstyle signified femininity and beauty in the culture. In fact, it sent a bold statement that what constituted femininity must be expanded. (Kimmel and Messner 98).

This has greatly unmasked the gender politics of feminists and sexuality that are embedded in the female body from abortions to female circumcision, as well as how the Muslims cover their body locally and globally. This has greatly been contributed to the feminists. During the 70s, when afros came out, there was a movement that was in support of black women and black power.

Many people desired to have an afro especially like that of Angela Davis. You would be pulled over by the police a lot because of wearing this style. This was because black women and men wore the same style and was greatly mistaken as gender identity.(Kimmel 56).

Later in the 80s black females went to challenge a policy in court that was put by Hyatt hotels and American hotels against wearing braids. These companies claimed that they demanded appropriate grooming styles. They argued that braids were a violation of grooming practices (Wosk 87). Other hairstyles like cornrows ,dreadlocks and ponytails were allowed. In one case a woman was eliminated because the management thought her hairstyle was extreme.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Gender Intersectionality in Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is still viewed that hair is of great importance to black women and girls. It is believed that hair is a representation of women’s culture, beauty and power that shapes their ideas about their race ,gender, class and sexuality. Men have always been regarded as naturally superior to women.However this trend has changed with time ( Stevia and Rahman 67).

Intersectionality in gender and equity. In the year 2005 the Harvard president made remarks on whether inherent genetic and biological traits were the reason women did not perform well in mathematics and scientific careers.This was received with great criticism and made news across the world.There were even reports that there were questionable aspects on his style of management that caused unrest among his staff members.

This brought a great debate on gender issues. But with time policies have been formulated to protect individuals from discriminatory issues.The policies granted access to resources such as citizenship rights and democratic rights in everyday life. Women can now attain the same education and employment positions as men (Kimmel and Messner 156).

Democracy is quite evident in political matters, where we see a woman was nominated to run for the presidency in the democratic party of united states and for most of the primary season Hillary Clinton was the front runner.There are several women in positions of power and politics around the world. This has made impacts on the social activities in terms of politics and cultural behavior.

There have been emergence of feminists movements to demand equal rights with males. Equal rights feminists developed mostly in the 19th century mostly in relation to issues to voting. Feminists movements are mostly seen popular in parts of the world such as the USA, Britain and other parts of the world. In the western Europe it mainly targeted issues of labor union.These were all to demand equal treatment in their everyday social life.

Conclusion Despite the various movements to promote same sex marriages there have been objections to this as it is considered as unnatural. With the studies carried out scientists have discovered that and agreed that the chemical structure of the sex hormones –testosterones have shown different roles and abilities in men and women. Different social behaviors are generally social activities which are expressed in interaction with separate objects and beings.

In the early years hair was mainly associated to expressing femininity but with changes and time this has changed.Hair is seen as an expression of beauty and not femininity. With time his perception has changed since it is viewed that one can still be beautiful without long hair.

Over the years there have been rising movements among feminists on issues related to gender.These have been successful since most of the equity rights have been granted to the feminists. However there is still a long way to go to achieve this since some parts of the world have not developed the mentality of gender equity such as in the Middle East and some parts of Africa.

Works Cited Kimmel, Michael S and Michael A. Messner. Men’s Lives. New York: ALLYN

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Communication Theories Definition Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Social Exchange Theory

Social penetration theory

Cultural approach to organizations

Works Cited

Social Exchange Theory Social Exchange Theory explains social stability as a negotiated exchange process between two parties. The theory majorly addresses how people perceive cost and reward of interaction with the others. Costs are negative values that a person sees in a relationship for example the negative sides of a partner and the amount of effort and time spend in a relationship. On the other hand, rewards are the positive values of the relations, such as support, companionship and acceptance (Griffin 114).

In real life, I have seen couples breaking up because one thinks that he puts too much effort and cost into maintaining that relationship as compared to the partner. Many people make decisions based on the level of personal satisfaction they get from it or the time they spend in the relationship and whether they are compatible or not. Those people who receive more in relations as compared to what they give are usually happier.

However, other people may feel that a relationship is not fulfilling if they give more and receive less. Such kinds of people usually look for low-cost relationships; that is what they can afford and receive in return as they give. There is always a phrase stating that it is better to give, than receive. But according to social exchange theory, this is not the case since most people make decisions based on self-serving (Griffin 124).

Actually, there is no self sacrifice in most relationships, people always expect some benefits. I scratch your back, and you scratch mine is a phrase that can be used to express this condition in social relationships (Griffin 127). I have also cases where a person decides to stay in a relationship even if it is costly simply because they do not have any other option. This person partly conforms to social exchange theory where people usually consider if a relationship is worth maintaining taking into account the benefits attained from the rewards. In this case, he does not consider whether the relationship benefits him; even if the cost is much more than rewards, he/she will maintain that relationship.

Social penetration theory Social penetration theory mainly describes the vibrant closeness in a relationship. This theory states that closeness is a gradual process that eventually leads to self-disclosure.

When two people meet to get to know each other, initially, they will not be very open to each other. However, as time goes by and they get to know each other more, they develop closeness and mutual trust which eventually lead to self-disclosure. They begin to voluntarily share their feelings, history, secrets, values and attitudes. They actually begin to become transparent with each other about who they are and what life experience they have.

There are depth and breadth layers which shed away as two people get to know each other more; there are different topics that the two have shared concerning their lives while the amount of information shared on topics they discuss incorporates depth. People usually have private details concerning what they think and feel, and as their relationship grows, they begin to reveal their own attitude towards life in a broader and deeper way. This facilitates exchange of feelings and information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Self-disclosure occurs out of mutual trust and closeness in a relationship. The two begin to become vulnerable to each other and this when you find a person gives a dresser drawer to his partner. However, it is important to be extra cautious before exposing your true feelings because it is hard to know the true feelings and thoughts of another person. The outcome will depend greatly on the reward and cost of the relationship. Early reward/cost usually has strong and positive impact on the reactions of a person when the partner decides to open up.

Cultural approach to organizations Every organization in the world always has their own culture which is the means by which things that are happening within the organizations are shared. Each company is surrounded by an environment known as a corporate culture which is composed of the character, climate and image of the organization. Organizational culture can be learned through metaphors, stories and rituals since they convey corporate messages shared by employees.

Corporate stories are information that management share with their employees while personal stories are employees’ personal accounts that they share with other personnel in the organization to define their role in the company (Griffin 130).

This means that there are symbolic forms that most organizations use to communicate with people taking, for example, state football team which is composed of administration, players, coaches and training staff. It is the team’s culture to have all these groups of people. The administration work is to tell corporate stories for the team while the coaches who are the managers of the team discuss how they view the players and the strategies.

The players, on the other hand, will tell personal stories where they can share their views about the coach or even other players. Players are not allowed to tell the same stories as the coach and this is part of the organizational culture which should be adhered to. Collegial stories are also told in the state football team whereby expected new players are discussed.

The organizational culture always everyone to air out their views concerning the new player. The ritual of the team is singing a particular song when the team wins. The organization also has a ritual of having cookout every year. This gives the team members the chance to freshen up as they wait for next season.

Works Cited Griffin, Em. A First Look at Communication Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2009. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Communication Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Post Modern World Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Postmodernism is the word used by sociologists and other scholars to refer to a the intelligence that has developed in the western world. It is a perception that incorporates a varied range of ideas, practices and critical methods that can be regarded as “postmodern”. Postmodernism is the historical period which is seen to follow modernism.

Modernity is the development accompanied by a counter practice which is idealistic rather than materialist, and treats the world, including nature, realistically rather than in the materialistic way. Modernization is understanding of the technological dominant of the world. This reflects the current globalization and the technological revolution taking place.

Postmodernism is the tradition apparent in displeasure to modernism’s usual custom of beliefs, developing a different method for people trying to find themselves in the world (Barrow

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Private Security Contractors in Iraq best essay help

Introduction In recent years, a prominent feature in most global conflicts has been the increasing role played by non-state actors alongside the conventional armed forces.

While available literature reveals that private actors have maintained high presence on battlefields throughout history, modern private military and security entities embody the corporate evolution of the profession of mercenaries, to the point where these multinational corporations are now offering services that are intricately linked to warfare (Perry, 2012, p. 41).

In 2010, for example, the US Department of Defence (DoD) had more private workforce operating in both Iraq and Afghanistan than the military personnel deployed (Taylor, 2011, p. 445). Overall, it can be argued that these private companies are today, more than ever, playing an increasingly significant role in executing all facets of American national security strategy in countries perceived to harbor threats to global peace and stability.

The debate on the merits and demerits of having private security contractors take over many of the roles and functions. These roles were traditionally reserved for the armed forces have been going on for a long time.

Particularly in regards to the armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan, this paper argues that it is desirable to use these contractors because first; It is through them that the efforts to achieve world peace and stability have become more realistic and valuable.

Secondly, counterterrorism is appropriate because these terrorist attacks may bring the countries down if such activities are not anticipated and any signs of attack well monitored; this is only possible when personnel in this role are increased.

Third, when the numbers of those in the defense are increased; defense becomes more effective and the cost is lower in comparison to the addition of more personnel from the Department of Defense only. Therefore, the use of private security contractors has been desirable because it has improved the welfare of people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brief Overview of the Origins of Private Security Contractors “ It is reported in the literature that a global market for private security contractors blossomed in the 1990s (Avant

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Importance of Studying Economics Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Economic Concepts

Conclusion

References

Introduction Economics is defined as a social science that deals with how people utilize the limited resources, to satisfy the unlimited needs and wants (Baumol and Blinder, 2008). Economics is applicable in our day to day lives, thus it is important to have some rudimentary understanding of economics. Many of the concepts learnt in economics are helpful to any person living in this ever changing world, as will be discussed below.

Importance of Economic Concepts Scarcity is the most fundamental term in economics. It implies that there are hardly enough resources in this world such as money and time, to fulfill our unlimited wants and needs. It is therefore important that individuals learn how to distribute these scarcities to fulfill their needs (Baumol and Blinder, 2007).

Everyday we must make choices and decisions that will assist us in allocating these scarce resources. For example, when you go out shopping in a supermarket, you might notice a trendy top or an expensive perfume that you have always fancied. However, due to scarcity of money you will not buy these items, but shop for necessities such as bread, groceries, milk, soap and cereals.

Another economic term that is important and pertinent to our lives is specialization. Specialization refers to the situation where resources are mainly allocated to a particular task. Specializing resources, ensures these limited resources are more effectively utilized in producing services and goods that satisfy the human unlimited needs and wants (Baumol and Blinder, 2007).

For example, if a student decides to open an ice cream parlor that operates after school or during weekends, they can decide to do all the tasks such as collecting the cash, cleaning the tables, serving and preparing the ice cream.

However, productivity will increase if the student invites some of the friends and one takes up cleaning the tables, the other one scooping and serving the ice cream and the other one collects cash. They will be able to sell more ice cream and serve customers better, if each one of them performs the required task.

Opportunity cost is another essential economic term. This principle refers to the sacrifices that you make so that you can get something at its cost (Baumol and Blinder, 2008). A personal experience is that I had the choice of spending 8 hours in school or on leisure activities (watching movies, partying, camping, chatting on social networks etc) or working in a restaurant that pays $3 per hour.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All these choices had an opportunity cost. If I worked in the restaurant for $24 per day, the opportunity cost is that I won’t have enough time for leisure and studies. This can lead to lower grades in school, which could lower any prospective future earnings.

If I decided to concentrate on studies, I would give up pleasure and $30 dollars per day, which is the opportunity cost. However, in the long run, concentrating more in studies increases my chances of earning a better salary in the future.

If I decided to engage in meeting my friends or partying, I would have a good time for a short time, but sacrifice schooling and working. Using this principle of opportunity cost, I decided to pursue education, since it has the most beneficial outcomes in the long term.

Understanding macro economy is important, since leading economic indicators should always guide our decisions. Understanding perceptions on the economic outlook is vital when making investment decisions. For example, during times of economic recess, banks lower interest rates in an effort to encourage more borrowing and stimulate economic growth.

If at this time you are to get a mortgage, installment would be cheaper. On the other hand, savings would yield poor returns. During such harsh economics times, rates of unemployment and layoffs are high, so students can continue with their studies, as the chances of getting a job are slim.

Conclusion From the arguments above, understanding basic economic terms such as opportunity cost, economic incentives, specialization and macroeconomics is important in our daily lives and when making investment decisions.

References Baumol, W.

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Research of Canadian Multiculturalism Act on Race and Ethnicity Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What is Multiculturalism?

History of Multiculturalism in Canada

Multiculturalism policy in the Canadian Society

Achievements and Challenges of the Canadian Multiculturalism

Critical intersection analysis of the policy

Conclusion

References

Introduction The Canadian Multiculturalism Act, whose idea was first conceived in the year 1971 under the then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, was passed in the year 1988 and it aimed at enhancing and preserving multiculturalism in Canada.

The Act affirms the policy of the federal government to ensure for equal treatment of every Canadian citizen in the country, no matter their race or ethnicity dimensions. Under the regulations of this Act, the Canadian government would have to recognize and also respect its entire society, which is characterized by diversity in customs, languages, and religions, among other social and cultural differences (Edwards, 2010).

One of the most important policies of the Act was to ensure that all citizens were accorded equal protection and treatment by the government, under the provisions of the law, while their diversity was valued and respected.

Other key aspects which have been outlined in the main components of the Act include Aboriginal rights, equality rights regardless of one’s religion or skin color, full protection of the Canadian multicultural heritage, English and French as the only official languages even though other languages may be used, and the right of the minorities to enjoy and celebrate their culture.

This paper provides an in-depth review and analysis of the multiculturalism policy in Canada whereby social and political locations such as gender, race, sexuality, class, and citizenship are fully examined. Canada is increasingly becoming a culturally and ethnically diverse country and for that reason, multiculturalism policy is observed to be one of the major responses of the Federal government towards this diversity.

What is Multiculturalism? As it would be observed, there is no specific definition for this term and various countries across the world would tend to approach the issue in a variety of ways and perspectives, but in related phenomena. Over the years, different and inconsistent strategies have come up through different communities, whereby the term has been applied in a variety of ways in the society, both normative and descriptive.

For instance, as a normative, the term would imply a positive appreciation of communal diversity, which is based on the right of people to recognize and respect the larger society of cultural diversity. However, as a descriptive term, multiculturalism has been used to refer to the concept of cultural diversity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The term is generally used to define and describe the demographic structure of a specific region or community. This is basically an ideology which promotes the formal institutionalization of communities that are characterized by multiple cultures.

However, in a political context, the term is applied for varied perceptions that would range from a guided policy that recognizes the value of cultural diversity, to the responsibility of advocating for equality among different cultures within a particular setting of the society. The idea of multiculturalism has been practiced in a number of Western countries from ancient times, for reasons that would vary from region to region.

History of Multiculturalism in Canada Canada is arguably a nation of immigrants whose ethnic structure is observed to have changed significantly over time owing to changing patterns of immigration. Unlike in the country’s colonial times, when Canada was constituted by only three main ethnic groups, which included Aboriginal people, the French, and the British, the Canadian population presently constitutes of people and groups that represent a plurality of racial origins and ethnocultural traditions.

The three founding nations or simply the ethnic groups described above were significant, considering their influence on the country’s social and political institutions. More importantly, these groups had also played a key role in shaping the strong multicultural nature of the country.

Following these ethnic groups, immigrants from other countries allover the world started flowing into Canada. Canada was continuously receiving large numbers of immigrants by the time of the 1867 Confederation and these numbers would surge to the peak between 1850 and 1950, especially with the construction of the transnational railway and the opening of the Canadian west (Buzzelli, 2001).

These two events attracted thousands of immigrants as people from the Eastern Europe, Europe, and the U.S. crossed the borders into Canada. Moreover, quite a big number of Chinese experts and laborers were brought into the country to assist with the railroad construction.

During the twentieth century, Canadian immigration patterns would experience a radical increase, with British being the primary source of majority of the immigrants entering the country those times. It leaves no doubt that, Canada is one of the major multicultural regions in the world, owing to the pluralist nature of its population.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Research of Canadian Multiculturalism Act on Race and Ethnicity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the beginning of time, Canada’s largest city, Toronto has been a living testament to the country’s outstanding multicultural nature (Beckfield

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Rocket Enterprise Company Office Automation System Proposal college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Overview

Proposed configuration

Installation plan

Works Cited

Appendix

Overview Rocket Enterprise is an information technologies and services consultancy offering IT solutions to small and medium size companies. The company’s current business prospects are bringing in large profit margins, and the management is considering implementing an office automation system to cover their head office.

This is expected to be accomplished within a tight budget of $5,000. Andrews proposes a setup that “includes one server, four workstations, one high quality printer preferably of laser type, multiple email addresses, basic low security, and internet access and all the necessary auxiliary components (18).

Proposed configuration Rocket Enterprise has outsourced this project to Datanet Consultants to implement the office automation system.

Datanet Consultants propose the following requirements to implement the office automation system.

Component Specification Use Number required Price ($) Light weight server HP Proliant Microserver, RAID 0,1, 8GB RAM, maximum 4 LFF pluggable SATA HDD Provide network services to network clients. Local area network manager functions. 1 349 Desktop computer HP 500B Microtower PC 250 GB HDD, SATA, 1GB, 1333 MHz DDR3, SDRAM, Intel graphics media accelerator. Windows 7, professional 32

SATA DVD-ROM

Provide the network clients with the automation platform. Connect the client to the server to share resources and services 4 369 Network printer Office laser printer HP Laser jet P3015 series. Provide the network clients with centralized printing requirements. 1 599 Router Cisco small business wireless N-Gigabit security router model WRVS4400N support high speed wireless interconnectivity even supporting the IEEE 802. 11g data link protocol. Interconnecting the various components to enable them to communicate and share resources based at the server. This router will interconnect the office through a firewall network to the internet. 1 190 Firewall Cisco systems RV 220W Wireless – N Network security, 4 port switch Guards the Rocket Enterprise LAN from the internet threats. 1 193 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS Network operating system Microsoft Windows server 2008 Installed on the server as the network operating system able to support up to 5 clients. 1 999 Office automation suite Microsoft Office 2010 pro Installed on the client machines to provide office automation services. 4 189 Network security Mcfee Content Security Suite Installed on the server to provide centralized virus, spyware, malware addware, protection for the network 1 80 TOTAL 14 4076 The total above indicates an amount that is just $924 from the budgeted amount of $5000.

This is expected to cater for the human resource costs of the project where the project manager rate is $100 per day. The network support specialist will get $ 70 each per day while the employees of Rocket Enterprise will each get $34 per day. The project will take three days to complete.

Installation plan Rocket Enterprise is a commercially busy company. The official working days for this company are Monday to Friday, 8am to 5pm. The weekends are closed and public holidays are exemptions also. The office automation and networking process is therefore going to run from Friday 6pm through to Sunday 6pm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Datanet Consultants will deploy 2 of their network support specialists to carry out the implementation of the project. Rocket Enterprise has two employees who will be deployed to the project team on a part time basis. The requirements specification will be drawn and submitted to Rocket Enterprise management for evaluation and approval.

The presentation will be carried out by the project manager from Datanet Consultants. Once it has been approved, the project manager will draw out the project plan and assign the main tasks to be carried out. Rocket Enterprise will go ahead and purchase the project requirements by Thursday 2pm.

The project manager will contact the employee in charge of procurement to ensure that all that is needed is available. The project manager together with the two network support specialist will do an evaluation of the company on Friday morning to lay out the plan for implementation.

The project requirements will be delivered to the project manager by 2pm on Friday. After Rocket closes on Friday 5pm, the Datanet Consultants team set up the server and the workstations and networking equipment. This process is expected to complete by 8pm on Friday giving way for data conversion and testing. The Datanet team will resume the process on Saturday at 8am. It is expected that the conversion and testing process will run to 3pm Saturday.

The project manager will then allow a link to be established to the internet through the router and firewall. Further testing will be carried out to make sure that everything is going as planned. The Rocket Enterprise employees are finally engaged in the acceptance testing and their reaction to the new system is recorded.

The report is compiled, signed by the employees as the users. This report will be forwarded to the Rocket Enterprise management as an indicator of the project close out. At exactly 8am Monday the management announces to the staff the new system thereby commissioning its use. The project is officially terminated at 9am Monday as the system begins to work.

Works Cited Andrews, Jean. A Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC. 7th ed. London: Cengage, 2006. Print.

We will write a custom Proposal on Rocket Enterprise Company Office Automation System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Appendix Official site for HP (Hewlett Packard) products and services from where the server and desktops were bought.

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Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Earthquakes are not a new phenomenon in the U.S.: numerous parts of the country experience them. They are cause stress accumulation in the underground rocks. The accumulation of this stress is a clear indication of the slow but constant movement of the earth’s outermost rocky layers.

These are large sections of which move about earth as tectonic plates. The collision or grinding of adjacent plates leads to stressing of rocks. This stress is then released to the earth’s surface in the form of sudden shifts. Consequently, plate boundaries are the primary breeding ground for earthquakes.

Earthquakes have many effects. They can cause deaths, injuries, and damages to buildings and other structures. They may lead to a wide range of long term economic or social impacts. As such, they should be addressed with a proportionate measure of seriousness and concern.

Governments should use the past as a lesson on addressing any future occurrences of these disasters. This report examines the scope of the earthquake phenomenon in New Madrid and Fulton city, Missouri.

Earthquakes in New Madrid: When did it all begin? The winter of 1811-12 was not an average humdrum winter to the residents of New Madrid. If anyone had been keen to record the events of that season, the manuscript would probably have been rejected as being just too fanciful for compelling fiction.

In deed, seismologists call it the greatest release of seismic energy is so short a time ever witnessed and recorded by human beings. A few individual earthquakes have been bigger. In a few instances perhaps they have been more numerous within a short span. However, never so many were so big in so short a time (Braile et al., 1982).

The drastic events that took place on December 16, 1816 indicate that catastrophic earthquakes do not occur in the western [parts of the United States alone. In the last two and half decades, seismologists have come to learn that strong earth quakes that occur in the central Mississippi Valley are not mere events but have occurred repeatedly throughout the geologic past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This area has come to be known as the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) (Pratt, 2009). The zone occupies the southeastern part of Missouri and the southern part of Illinois. The NMSZ consists of a number of thrust faults stretching from Marked Tree in Arkansas, to Cairo in Illinois.

Earthquakes that occur in the eastern or central parts of the United States are worse than those of similar magnitude in the western parts. For instance, an earth quake that occurred in San Francisco, California in 1906 had some magnitude of 7.8 measured on the Richter scale. It was experienced some 350 miles away in the center of Nevada.

However, an earthquake of almost a similar magnitude that occurred in New Madrid on December of 1811 went to the extent of ringing bells in Boston, a city that is 1000 miles away from the epicenter. Such geographical disparities in the east and west are caused by the Rocky Mountains.

The large earthquakes, which occur in the region notably, affect the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The closest areas that are also affected by the zone earthquakes are Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois (Weznger 213).

The southwestern parts of Indiana and the northwestern Mississippi have also declared to receive extraordinary shaking from the region’s strong earthquakes. The latest New Madrid fault system covers an area of 120 miles, cutting across the Mississippi River, as well as Ohio River (Braile et al., 1982).

Geology of New Madrid Seismic Zone

The New Madrid Seismic Zone is found in the northern region of Mississippi embayment. The latter is a broad trough full of marine sedimentary rocks that are dated 50-100 million years ago. The top 30 meters of sediment that is in the embayment comprise of sand, silt, and clay.

They were deposited by Rivers Mississippi, White, Ohio, and St. Francis. The NMSZ is composed of faults that were experienced when the area currently referred to as North America broke up. This occurrence occurred approximately 750 million years ago (Penick, 2001).

We will write a custom Report on Scoping report for the earthquakes in New Madrid, and Fulton City, Missouri specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main cracks formed resulted to the present faults that are found in the zone. The magma that was pushed from inside the rocks came at the surface and formed themselves into igneous rocks.

The rift that was formed when the earth was splitting off remained as a region of weakness underneath the earth surface. Later, yet another unsuccessful rifting trial left the area weaker than before, hence, creating more faults.

The second occurrence of unsuccessful rifting occurred approximately 200 million years ago (Pratt, 2009). The reel foot rift was realized because of geological structures that emerged after every rifting attempt. The large rocks that are found underneath the earths surface in New Madrid are feared to be mechanically weaker than most of other parts of North America, due to the past fault that were created.

Chart 1. The geology of New Madrid Seismic Zone

Source: Tuttle, M.,

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Applications of High-Tech Recycle Bin for Hospitality Industry Proposal custom essay help

Background The economic recession has presented some challenges to the hotel industry. The stakeholders in the industry have been forced to minimize the costs of operations in all departments in order to withstand the harsh climate.

Strategists in the industry have introduced some projects such as Go Green in order to survive in the market and conform to environmental laws. This paper chose to use a 3 in 1 dustbin that is frequently utilized in recycling system for study (Porter 1980, p. 93).

The dust bin performs a number of activities because it inspects, evaluates and separates recyclable and non-recyclable garbage. It puts each category of garbage into a different container. The gadget further compresses the contents into something simple (Michael

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The Usage of Wikis for Business Organizations Report essay help

Table of Contents Wikis: An Overview

Wiki History

Wikis in a Business Environment and Ethical Issues

Stories Related To Wikis

Conclusion

References

Wikis: An Overview A wiki refers to “Web site that enables users to add new content or amend existing content” (Microsoft Corporation, 2006, p.2). The moment one posts on a wiki, all the users are then in a position to make their contributions by either adding or correcting the original document (Parker

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IT Innovation and Its Impact on Business Report best essay help: best essay help

Introduction With the coming of technology, people have discovered that IT applications can be customized to meet their needs. This has led to a high level of innovation that was not there before. With such innovations and making everything accessible through a click of a button, Google Apps is one such application that has made it easier to access any information on handheld computer notebooks.

This report will elaborate on how IT has been essential for business management and the impact it has brought to the society. The approach will be majorly an evaluation of the history of Google Apps and how since innovation it has proved to be essential in the business environment.

IT innovation is one of the key features that have seen business become more workable around the globe. With developing different IT products, it does not only portraying product innovation but also business innovation. Google Apps is one such innovation where business people are able to get business emails, calendars and documents without necessarily sitting in an office.

With Google Apps Innovation, communication among team members has been enhanced hence making business environment more interactive than it was before. A higher level of efficiency has been enhanced since the response to queries in the business environment is quick. With Google Apps data management, expensive and time consuming data storage devices have been avoided since all information is online and accessed as wished by the user (Grove Group, 2011).

Historical review of the topic Before IT innovation, business communication and collaboration was very manual. In search for a better environment, business owners and employees demanded for a better and faster way to communicate with customers and business partners (Laudon

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Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Maya paper making

Dresden codex

Materials used and the processes involved in papermaking

Methods used in papermaking

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Papermaking is a very useful activity that occurs in almost all the countries in the world today. Considering that the technology in the whole world is rising, with many nations introducing and improving their many facilities of learning and the requirements of office work, it has always occurred and it seems to be very useful for every nation to have a source where they can easily obtain papers.

This is because without papers, there would be nothing by the name, documentation of issues. It would be impossible to produce books, journals, articles as well as other publications that generally contain useful information, without having any sources of wood. Thus, for the industry of paper making to continue, preservation and conservation of forests should always be encouraged (Biermann 13).

Many books have been written, and continue to be written, using materials, which are obtained from wood. Some of these books happen to be ancient books, which contain a lot of information that is beneficial to many. At times, the information contained in ancient books may not be needed by many.

The book can thus end up getting lost or being destroyed without the intention of doing so. Later when some information is needed and the information is believed to be contained in the book, a search for the book is usually done. This case used to happen during the early times.

A writer who had some information to convey to the people would put their ideas down in a book and keep it for all interested in finding what the writer wanted to convey. The information would at times not be useful just after being written but later. Most of the times, human beings tend to value the things that seem to be important and valuable at the present time, not bearing in mind that something may not be useful at one time but another.

This is why some useful information in books gets lost through improper handling of the book, not considering the possibility of the book being important during some other time. This was a common condition in the ancient period when, information was only stored through the written word. To avoid such cases, libraries were set up for the storage of important documentations as well as those that were thought to be useful in the future (Graham 118).

Maya paper making As we know, paper is obtained from wood. In trying to explain what paper is, we would say that paper is a substance made of thin sheets made from fiber that has been macerated until each individual filament is a separate unit. The fibers are then allowed to mix with water and by the use of a sieve-like screen; the fibers are then lifted from the water in the form of thin layers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The water in the thin layer is then allowed to drain through the small pores of the sieve. The outcome of all this, is a thin sheet of matted fiber that is the product referred to as paper (Hunter 5). Considering Maya, we find that, Maya extended throughout the Southern Mexican states in the Central America. Maya had an important activity of papermaking.

The paper that was produced by Maya was used to make a wide range of writing materials (Von). This included books, journals as well as other writing materials. In the process of making paper, many different materials were and continue to be used. In order to produce good quality paper, the combination, and the proportions used of each material matters a lot. This is the reason why from the ancient times up to now, some papers are of good quality while others are not.

Maya in particular employed the best materials for papermaking and this is why, books that were made from the Maya paper continue to exist up to today. The Dresden codex was a book that was made from the Maya paper. The materials used for making this book seemed to be of high quality since the book is still in existence today.

Apart from paper making, the Maya wood is also used for many other purposes such as; firewood for cooking and firing pottery, construction as well as for making different instruments (Sharer 136). Thus, as we can see, wood, the primary source of papermaking, has many other uses, a factor that calls for the preservation and conservation of trees and forests at large.

The climate of most of the Maya area is humid, a condition that was very conducive for burying books. Burying books was usually done by the kings and priests of Maya during the ancient times (Hunter 5).

Dresden codex The Dresden codex is a Maya book that was produced during the twelfth century. This shows that the book has survived for more than seven centuries as per today. The book has been researched upon and found to be one of the oldest books that continue to exist. This book was actually bought for the Dresden library in 1937 by its director, who had found it in a private library in Vienna (Van 152).

The history of the book is not very much known although; it is believed that the book was severely damaged during the Second World War whereby some pages of the book were damaged. The Dresden codex was made from the Amatl paper, which is a paper that is produced from the bark of a fig tree (Van 152).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Materials used and the processes involved in papermaking Just as we know, different products are usually made by combining different materials. Certain materials are usually required in more amounts than other materials. The most important thing thus becomes the proportions in which each material is used. The quality of a final product depends on whether the correct proportions of primary materials were used.

This is why we find that some products are of low quality while others are of high quality. When we consider the materials used in making the Maya paper in the ancient times, we find that the major material was the bark of the fig tree (Graham 29). This same material was used in making the papers that constitute the Dresden codex book.

The bark of fig tree produces a paper that was referred to as Amatl by the ancient Americans. Today, the paper is referred to as the Amate paper. In many cases, this paper was considered the best paper since the bark of a fig tree was believed to produce the best quality paper. Up to today, this belief still holds its place in the society.

At first, the paper’s color depended entirely on the bark that was used to produce the paper. However, with time, paper makers added dyes as they processed the paper resulting in a variety of colors that can be appropriately used in a variety of artistic projects (Nations 305).

There are different species of the fig tree. Although there is a small difference in all the species, the bark of each species seems to give good quality paper. Particularly the Dresden codex book was produced from a combination of the bark of three different species of the fig tree. It seemed that, through the combination of the bark of different species of the fig tree, a higher quality paper would thus be produced.

We can attest to this because, the Dresden codex book has proven that its paper was of high quality. Most fig trees are found in the Central America, which is the area that constituted the Maya area. The fig trees are also referred to as the amate trees. The reason as to why the bark of the fig tree was used is because; it contains the strongest fibers (Linné 148).

Another material that was used by the ancient Maya in papermaking was plenty of water. Water was required for submerging the fibers obtained from the bark of fig trees. The fibers need to be submerged in water for a long time, such like overnight. During the ancient times, water was mainly obtained from rivers, lakes or even the ocean.

Since most of those sources were located far from the area where the fibers were produced, and it was tedious to transport all the fibers to the rivers or lakes, water was tapped and directed to the areas of production. The water would then be left to run over the fibers for a whole night. The reason as to why water was essential was for the coagulation of the fibers. In other cases, water was used to boil the fibers. In both cases, the outcome was the same, whether the fibers had been soaked in water or boiled (McKillop 193).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apart from bark and water, beaters were also required. According to the people of Maya, beaters were instruments that were used for felting the fibers after they had been soaked or boiled in water. The ancient Maya papermakers mainly used two types of beaters. The first one was made up of a squat stone that had a handle in its top surface, and a bottom that was scored with striations.

Despite being still used by the Otomi, this instrument has had little modifications from that used by the Maya. The other beater was made of a round handle-like part and four other parts, which were larger and less rounded than the handle-like part. The four large parts had some striations, which were made, only on one side of each part.

These beaters were used to felt the fibers. Felting involved beating the fibers together to obtain a thin layer of closely packed fibers. Beating the fibers involved mechanical energy since during the ancient period, technology was not high. The length of the beaters varied depending on the size of paper that was intended to be produced. Since this was a manual process, striation marks were evident on the final paper product having resulted from a beating stone that constituted a beater (Linné 200).

The final step in Maya papermaking involved a material that was referred to as a board. This was a smooth surface. The felted fibers would then be laid on a smooth surface and be allowed to dry in the sun. The fibers would be pressed hard on the smooth surface such that when they were dry.

A smooth surface would then be obtained from one side of the paper while the other side that had not been pressed on a smooth surface would still be dry and rough.

This would then be called the final product of papermaking. After all these materials had been incorporated together to make paper, the paper would then be bend into the desired shape. Books like the Dresden codex would then be produced. In the making of the Dresden codex, the pieces of paper were aligned together properly in order for the page to be consistent in their sizes (Kronowitz 86).

Methods used in papermaking When we keenly refer to reference materials of the past, we find that, only two methods were used in Maya papermaking. The two methods were very much similar with a very slight difference. The two methods followed the processes that have been discussed above with the only difference coming in, in the area of soaking the fibers.

In one method, the fibers would be soaked in running water overnight. This would enable the fibers to coagulate and come together forming a sheet of many fibers. In the second method, the same processes would be followed, but in this case, instead of letting the fibers to soak in water overnight, they would be boiled.

A large boiling dish-like usually made from curved stone that had been scooped at the middle would be used to boil the fibers. The first method seemed to be easier especially when, large amount of fibers were involved.

It also presented fewer difficulties since it involved leaving the fibers in water overnight without paying much attention to them. In the second method, there had to be someone present to make sure that the fire did not go down since by then, only traditional methods of heating were involved. Such methods of heating included the use of firewood and charcoal (Kronowitz 100).

Conclusion Papermaking is an activity that begun long time ago. Although the paper that was made by then was not as refined as the paper that is made today, most of the purposes intended were equally served. Maya paper making in the ancient times was very important since most of the codices found in history were made from the Maya paper.

The primary raw material that was used to make paper was the bark of fig trees although other fiber producing sources such as cotton wool and other vegetable fibers were also used. The Dresden codex is a good example that was produced from the fig tree bark.

The long period of time that this book has existed shows that the quality of fig tree fiber was high and the method used in producing the papers was efficient. The surfaces of the Dresden codex book are not as smooth as the books of today due to the traditional method of production that was used then unlike the high technology methods of today (Van 43).

Works Cited Biermann, Christopher J. Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996. Internet resource.

Graham, Ian. Alfred Maud slay and the Maya: A Biography. Norman, Okla: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Print.

Hunter, Dard. Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. New York: Dover Publ, 1978. Print.

Kronowitz, Ellen L, and Barbara Wally. Native American Arts and Cultures: Grades 4-8. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2000. Print.

Linné, Sigvald, and George L. Cowgill. Archaeological Researches at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003. Print.

McKillop, Heather I. The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.

Nations, James. The Maya Tropical Forest: People, Parks, and Ancient Cities. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2006. Print.

Sharer, Robert J, and Loa P. Traxler. The Ancient Maya. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.

Van, Sertima. African Presence in Early America. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Books, 1987. Print.

Von, Hagen. The Aztec and Maya Papermakers. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1999. Print.

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Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Maya paper making

Dresden codex

Materials used and the processes involved in papermaking

Methods used in papermaking

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Papermaking is a very useful activity that occurs in almost all the countries in the world today. Considering that the technology in the whole world is rising, with many nations introducing and improving their many facilities of learning and the requirements of office work, it has always occurred and it seems to be very useful for every nation to have a source where they can easily obtain papers.

This is because without papers, there would be nothing by the name, documentation of issues. It would be impossible to produce books, journals, articles as well as other publications that generally contain useful information, without having any sources of wood. Thus, for the industry of paper making to continue, preservation and conservation of forests should always be encouraged (Biermann 13).

Many books have been written, and continue to be written, using materials, which are obtained from wood. Some of these books happen to be ancient books, which contain a lot of information that is beneficial to many. At times, the information contained in ancient books may not be needed by many.

The book can thus end up getting lost or being destroyed without the intention of doing so. Later when some information is needed and the information is believed to be contained in the book, a search for the book is usually done. This case used to happen during the early times.

A writer who had some information to convey to the people would put their ideas down in a book and keep it for all interested in finding what the writer wanted to convey. The information would at times not be useful just after being written but later. Most of the times, human beings tend to value the things that seem to be important and valuable at the present time, not bearing in mind that something may not be useful at one time but another.

This is why some useful information in books gets lost through improper handling of the book, not considering the possibility of the book being important during some other time. This was a common condition in the ancient period when, information was only stored through the written word. To avoid such cases, libraries were set up for the storage of important documentations as well as those that were thought to be useful in the future (Graham 118).

Maya paper making As we know, paper is obtained from wood. In trying to explain what paper is, we would say that paper is a substance made of thin sheets made from fiber that has been macerated until each individual filament is a separate unit. The fibers are then allowed to mix with water and by the use of a sieve-like screen; the fibers are then lifted from the water in the form of thin layers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The water in the thin layer is then allowed to drain through the small pores of the sieve. The outcome of all this, is a thin sheet of matted fiber that is the product referred to as paper (Hunter 5). Considering Maya, we find that, Maya extended throughout the Southern Mexican states in the Central America. Maya had an important activity of papermaking.

The paper that was produced by Maya was used to make a wide range of writing materials (Von). This included books, journals as well as other writing materials. In the process of making paper, many different materials were and continue to be used. In order to produce good quality paper, the combination, and the proportions used of each material matters a lot. This is the reason why from the ancient times up to now, some papers are of good quality while others are not.

Maya in particular employed the best materials for papermaking and this is why, books that were made from the Maya paper continue to exist up to today. The Dresden codex was a book that was made from the Maya paper. The materials used for making this book seemed to be of high quality since the book is still in existence today.

Apart from paper making, the Maya wood is also used for many other purposes such as; firewood for cooking and firing pottery, construction as well as for making different instruments (Sharer 136). Thus, as we can see, wood, the primary source of papermaking, has many other uses, a factor that calls for the preservation and conservation of trees and forests at large.

The climate of most of the Maya area is humid, a condition that was very conducive for burying books. Burying books was usually done by the kings and priests of Maya during the ancient times (Hunter 5).

Dresden codex The Dresden codex is a Maya book that was produced during the twelfth century. This shows that the book has survived for more than seven centuries as per today. The book has been researched upon and found to be one of the oldest books that continue to exist. This book was actually bought for the Dresden library in 1937 by its director, who had found it in a private library in Vienna (Van 152).

The history of the book is not very much known although; it is believed that the book was severely damaged during the Second World War whereby some pages of the book were damaged. The Dresden codex was made from the Amatl paper, which is a paper that is produced from the bark of a fig tree (Van 152).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Materials used and the processes involved in papermaking Just as we know, different products are usually made by combining different materials. Certain materials are usually required in more amounts than other materials. The most important thing thus becomes the proportions in which each material is used. The quality of a final product depends on whether the correct proportions of primary materials were used.

This is why we find that some products are of low quality while others are of high quality. When we consider the materials used in making the Maya paper in the ancient times, we find that the major material was the bark of the fig tree (Graham 29). This same material was used in making the papers that constitute the Dresden codex book.

The bark of fig tree produces a paper that was referred to as Amatl by the ancient Americans. Today, the paper is referred to as the Amate paper. In many cases, this paper was considered the best paper since the bark of a fig tree was believed to produce the best quality paper. Up to today, this belief still holds its place in the society.

At first, the paper’s color depended entirely on the bark that was used to produce the paper. However, with time, paper makers added dyes as they processed the paper resulting in a variety of colors that can be appropriately used in a variety of artistic projects (Nations 305).

There are different species of the fig tree. Although there is a small difference in all the species, the bark of each species seems to give good quality paper. Particularly the Dresden codex book was produced from a combination of the bark of three different species of the fig tree. It seemed that, through the combination of the bark of different species of the fig tree, a higher quality paper would thus be produced.

We can attest to this because, the Dresden codex book has proven that its paper was of high quality. Most fig trees are found in the Central America, which is the area that constituted the Maya area. The fig trees are also referred to as the amate trees. The reason as to why the bark of the fig tree was used is because; it contains the strongest fibers (Linné 148).

Another material that was used by the ancient Maya in papermaking was plenty of water. Water was required for submerging the fibers obtained from the bark of fig trees. The fibers need to be submerged in water for a long time, such like overnight. During the ancient times, water was mainly obtained from rivers, lakes or even the ocean.

Since most of those sources were located far from the area where the fibers were produced, and it was tedious to transport all the fibers to the rivers or lakes, water was tapped and directed to the areas of production. The water would then be left to run over the fibers for a whole night. The reason as to why water was essential was for the coagulation of the fibers. In other cases, water was used to boil the fibers. In both cases, the outcome was the same, whether the fibers had been soaked in water or boiled (McKillop 193).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maya Papermaking and the Dresden Codex by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apart from bark and water, beaters were also required. According to the people of Maya, beaters were instruments that were used for felting the fibers after they had been soaked or boiled in water. The ancient Maya papermakers mainly used two types of beaters. The first one was made up of a squat stone that had a handle in its top surface, and a bottom that was scored with striations.

Despite being still used by the Otomi, this instrument has had little modifications from that used by the Maya. The other beater was made of a round handle-like part and four other parts, which were larger and less rounded than the handle-like part. The four large parts had some striations, which were made, only on one side of each part.

These beaters were used to felt the fibers. Felting involved beating the fibers together to obtain a thin layer of closely packed fibers. Beating the fibers involved mechanical energy since during the ancient period, technology was not high. The length of the beaters varied depending on the size of paper that was intended to be produced. Since this was a manual process, striation marks were evident on the final paper product having resulted from a beating stone that constituted a beater (Linné 200).

The final step in Maya papermaking involved a material that was referred to as a board. This was a smooth surface. The felted fibers would then be laid on a smooth surface and be allowed to dry in the sun. The fibers would be pressed hard on the smooth surface such that when they were dry.

A smooth surface would then be obtained from one side of the paper while the other side that had not been pressed on a smooth surface would still be dry and rough.

This would then be called the final product of papermaking. After all these materials had been incorporated together to make paper, the paper would then be bend into the desired shape. Books like the Dresden codex would then be produced. In the making of the Dresden codex, the pieces of paper were aligned together properly in order for the page to be consistent in their sizes (Kronowitz 86).

Methods used in papermaking When we keenly refer to reference materials of the past, we find that, only two methods were used in Maya papermaking. The two methods were very much similar with a very slight difference. The two methods followed the processes that have been discussed above with the only difference coming in, in the area of soaking the fibers.

In one method, the fibers would be soaked in running water overnight. This would enable the fibers to coagulate and come together forming a sheet of many fibers. In the second method, the same processes would be followed, but in this case, instead of letting the fibers to soak in water overnight, they would be boiled.

A large boiling dish-like usually made from curved stone that had been scooped at the middle would be used to boil the fibers. The first method seemed to be easier especially when, large amount of fibers were involved.

It also presented fewer difficulties since it involved leaving the fibers in water overnight without paying much attention to them. In the second method, there had to be someone present to make sure that the fire did not go down since by then, only traditional methods of heating were involved. Such methods of heating included the use of firewood and charcoal (Kronowitz 100).

Conclusion Papermaking is an activity that begun long time ago. Although the paper that was made by then was not as refined as the paper that is made today, most of the purposes intended were equally served. Maya paper making in the ancient times was very important since most of the codices found in history were made from the Maya paper.

The primary raw material that was used to make paper was the bark of fig trees although other fiber producing sources such as cotton wool and other vegetable fibers were also used. The Dresden codex is a good example that was produced from the fig tree bark.

The long period of time that this book has existed shows that the quality of fig tree fiber was high and the method used in producing the papers was efficient. The surfaces of the Dresden codex book are not as smooth as the books of today due to the traditional method of production that was used then unlike the high technology methods of today (Van 43).

Works Cited Biermann, Christopher J. Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996. Internet resource.

Graham, Ian. Alfred Maud slay and the Maya: A Biography. Norman, Okla: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Print.

Hunter, Dard. Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. New York: Dover Publ, 1978. Print.

Kronowitz, Ellen L, and Barbara Wally. Native American Arts and Cultures: Grades 4-8. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2000. Print.

Linné, Sigvald, and George L. Cowgill. Archaeological Researches at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003. Print.

McKillop, Heather I. The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.

Nations, James. The Maya Tropical Forest: People, Parks, and Ancient Cities. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2006. Print.

Sharer, Robert J, and Loa P. Traxler. The Ancient Maya. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.

Van, Sertima. African Presence in Early America. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Books, 1987. Print.

Von, Hagen. The Aztec and Maya Papermakers. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1999. Print.

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Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology Essay college essay help: college essay help

Every day people can observe the changes which are connected with the information technologies and multimedia. It seems that modern scientists can create any technologies with any possibilities.

The limits are only in our mind. Nevertheless, recent inventions support the idea the possibilities of our brain can be combined with information technologies. The progress in computer technology is enormous, and it is related to the aspects of the social and economical development.

Today information technologies are in a constant progress. Several years ago it was impossible to imagine computers which can be controlled with the help of our brain.

Nevertheless, today such technology exists and develops to present more opportunities for people. “In this newly developed technology, the scientists connect a computer with the human brain, and then program it to read the thought of that brain” (Brown 2011). This project can present the hope for the physically challenged people.

The possibilities of such computers are rather difficult to overestimate, and they can be used in different fields of people’s social life. Moreover, scientists state that they “will be able to put tiny, permanent implants in people’ brains, and this will do away with the need for a keyboard or mouse” (Brown 2011). That phenomenon which was considered as a miracle earlier can become the part of our everyday reality in the future.

Furthermore, “the potential to manipulate computers or machinery with nothing more than a thought” is really great (Grabianowski, n.d.). It can open a new age in the development of the opportunities of medicine, business, and entertainment. Thus, the level of people’s interaction with computer technology has shifted from using keyboards to simple touches and then to using their brain.

It was the start for the development of new horizons in the interaction of computer devices not only with people but also with the objects of their surroundings. It is the time when ‘iPad with legs’ appears as the touch-screen table and it “can recognise many gestures, hands and users at once as well as other physical objects placed on the table” (Moses 2011). In the future such devices will be used in airports, big shops, and hotels because their suitability is confirmed. It can be one of the most convenient ways to interchange the information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The possibility to exchange the information is considered as one of the most significant today. This tendency has affected the development of such a notion as a ‘digital divide’. It means that those people who have no access to modern information technologies have no opportunity to act in the information world at the same level as those who have the access (Hertz 2011).

If we compare the possibilities of information technology and multimedia in the 2000’s with contemporary inventions, we can state that the progress is remarkable. The system of social and economical values also changes. Information, multimedia, and technology become the key factors for the human society because they give people a chance to be involved in the world information processes.

References Brown, M., (2011). Scientists create thought-controlled computer. Web.

Grabianowski, E. How brain-computer interfaces work. Web.

Hertz, M. B., (2011). A new understanding of the digital divide. Web.

Moses, A., (2011). Microsoft Surface 2 imminent: More than a big iPad with legs. Web.

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Organizational Behavior in the Health Care Structures Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

References

Introduction Organizational behavior is a study of the human behavior in an organization which covers various topics such as decision making, motivation, conflict resolution, leadership and many more which are aimed at improving maximum performance of human resource.

This unit in Health Care presents a mutual understanding of individual and group behavior within the health care structure settings. The essential learnt gives the human resource manager a critical approach in understanding related workplace problems and dynamics, hence enabling the health care organization to achieve success via job satisfaction and total productivity (Griffith

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The Future of Human Computer Interface and Interactions Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Future of Human Computer Interface and Interactions

List of References

Introduction The society today has completely changed due to technology. Technology is changing at a very rapid rate and with the changes come the need to adapt to them. Computer has changed the way human being does his activities (Beaureau 2008, p.36). Unlike before when most of the activities were done manually, computer has enabled automation of most of activities, especially in large companies.

It is now possible for a manager to monitor activities taking place in a different company’s branch from where he or she is by use of computerized gadgets. Management and other duties have been redefined by introduction of the modern day gadgets that are computer controlled.

The Future of Human Computer Interface and Interactions Human Computer Interface refers to the interactivity between computer and people (Sutherland, Robertson and John 2009, p.49). Unlike other gadgets that do not communicate with the user, computer is the only tool that will have a direct communication with the user. This interactivity is made possible by both the software and the hardware.

The user passes the communication by use hardware like mouse and keyboard and receives the communication through characters displayed on monitor, or through sound. However, this method of communication is only reliable to people who are not handicapped. People without hands and those that are mentally handicapped may not be in a position to operate the traditional computers properly (Rodgers and Streluk 2002, p.98).

However, this may be changing very soon. Dr. Eric Leuthardt and a group of other scientist have developed a new computer interface that would accommodate the physically handicapped.

This interface allows one to control the computer using the brain. The computer is programmed to read the mind and respond to the demands of that mind. By using the power of their thought, these physically handicapped individuals are able to control the cursor to issue commands to the computer. This interface will also benefit individuals with spinal code injuries or paralysis

This invention is so sophisticated as in makes it possible for anyone to use this gadget regardless of the physical challenges that one may be having. Moreover, it comes with speed as the commands will be issued as soon as they come to the mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When iPad was launched, everyone was asking what the next invention will be. A group of Australian scientist has come with a new invention that is very similar to that of iPad. It has the ability to read anything placed on it. This makes it very appropriate in places that require high level of security like in the airports or the five star hotels. It can also be of good use in places like supermarkets in the billing section.

The future of human computer interface and interactivity is already here. Life is becoming easier with every technological invention. This has a positive impact both in the short and long run, especially in the field of entertainment and digital divide. Human being will also be able to delegate much of his duties to computers.

A keener look into this phenomenon will reveal that in as much as these inventions are necessary and that they have positive impact on mankind, it is also true that they come at a cost. The effect of these sophisticated machines on the environment is adverse, especially when poorly disposed (Abbot 2001, p.79). These inventions will also impact negatively on culture, as life becomes what one wants, regardless of age. It is therefore necessary to take care as we embrace this technology.

List of References Abbot, C 2001, ICT: Changing Education, New York, Routledge.

Beaureau, B 2008, Information and Communication Technology: The Industrial Revolution That Wasn’t, New York, Lulu.

Rodgers, A, and Streluk, A 2002, ICT Key Stage 1, London, Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Sutherland, R, Robertson, S and John, P 2009, Improving Classroom Learning with ICT, New York, Routledge.

We will write a custom Essay on The Future of Human Computer Interface and Interactions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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InBev and Anheuser-Busch Case Case Study essay help free

Company Description InBev NV was formed after a merger between AmBev, the world’s fifth largest brewer, and Interbrew, the world’s third largest brewer, in 2004 (Inkpen 121). InBev has its headquarters in Leuven, Belgium. It has a strong presence in Europe, Latin America, North America and Asia.

It employed about 94,000 people and operated in more than 30 countries across Europe, Americas as well as Asia Pacific in 2008 (Inkpen 121). The company had 112 plants worldwide (Inkpen 123). In 2007, the company earned €14.43 billion revenues registering a net profit of €3.048 billion.

InBev had over 200 brands which were categorized into different market segments. It categorized its segmented brands into; global brands, which were distributed in 80-100 countries; Multicountry brands, distributed in 30-60 countries; and local brands, which were distributed in their countries of production.

It also segmented its market into seven zones; North America, Latin America North and Latin South America, Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, Asia Pacific, and lastly, the Global Export and Holdings.

InBev has a unique corporate culture that is based on minimizing costs while modernizing production in addition to streamlining its extensive product line. Inkpen (123) reports that InBev’s corporate culture involves cutting travel budgets, using zero-based budgeting as well as eliminating executive dining rooms by setting up open-plan offices. As a result, it does not own corporate jets. Again, compensation to its staff is tied to performance rather than rank (Inkpen 123).

Problem definition InBev’s aim is to increase its growth and market presence through mergers and acquisitions as it upholds its competitive strategy to achieving sustainability; however, the question remains as to whether InBev its proposed synergies would enhance the merger integration so as to benefit the two companies owing to their different corporate culture.

Who are the actors? Carlos Brito, InBev’s President and Chief Executive, together with other board members at InBev have agreed on a merger with the Anheuser-Busch board members so as to establish a stronger as well as more competitive global company (Inkpen 128).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anheuser-Busch’s board is headed by August Busch IV, who is the company’s President and Chief Executive. Other actors involved in the merger process include the management teams of both companies, independent financial advisers for both companies as well as financial institutions providing financing required in sealing the deal.

What is the strategy choice? InBev’s expansion strategy in this case is to form a merger with Anheuser-Busch through a tender offer acquisition. In the deal, InBev plans to make an acquisition by buying Anheuser-Bush’s voting stock. In a tender offer, the bidding company (in this case InBev) makes a direct offer to the company’s shareholders to purchase their shares, and as a result, acquires their voting rights.

Strategic rationale for the acquisition Under this merger, InBev aims to become a global leader in the brewery industry. The merger would allow it achieve a stronger as well as more competitive international company. It would enable it expand its Budwiser globally and to use Anheuser-Busch established marketing channels to expand its brands internationally.

Inkpen (128) reports that InBev will be able to exploit Anheuser-Busch’s wholesalers as well as its three-tier distribution system. In addition, it will also be able to operate in the communities/countries where Anheuser-Busch operates.

What is Anheuser-Busch worth? The last annual financial statement to be presented to the public at the end of the 2007 fiscal year, Anheuser-Busch had an asset value of $17.155 having achieved retained earnings of $18.715 billion. The price of its closing stock at the end of the financial period was $52.34 per share.

The sources of synergies Inkpen (127) reports that the acquisition Anheuser-Busch would lead to an estimated yearly net sales of about $36 billion. In the 2007 fiscal year, Anheuser-Busch collected $18.989 billion from sales while InBev had pre-takeover sales of $22.5 billion, and this was expected to increase due to improved operating efficiencies resulting from cost reductions.

Inkpen (129) reports that synergies will come from the sale of the company’s non-core assets as well from adoption of more efficient supply chain management.

We will write a custom Case Study on InBev and Anheuser-Busch Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Again, InBev’s value price would increase since the net current value of future cash flows expected to be generated by Anheuser-Busch under its old management team (since Anheuser-Busch had maintained its management team and board); and again, the cost of the bid is higher than the bid price.

Using Black-Scholes model, the hostile bid premium was found to be $11.254/share meaning that the cost of the estimates exceeded $11.25/share (Hancock 5). This meant that InBev had to increase its bid price to above $69.6/per share to promote an increase in its value (Hancock 6).

Thus, by buying the voting stock at $70/share, InBev’s shareholders would benefit from the increase in the company’s value. Again, the variance of both companies’ stock returns are low, with Anheuser-Busch having a variance of 0.000204 while that of InBev was estimated to be 0.0005853 (Hancock 7).

The correlation of their stock returns is also 0.101736 which is lower than the projected value since they both operate in the same industry (Hancock 7). The figures suggest that InBev’s shareholders will benefit from diversification benefits (Hancock 7).

What constraint(s) are present? Anheuser-Busch-InBev faces several merger integration issues.

The two companies have different corporate cultures which may threaten the smooth integration into one company. While InBev’s corporate culture is based on cost cutting as well as incentive-based compensation programs (Inkpen 124), Anheuser-Busch’s corporate culture emphasizes on high salaries, bonuses and gifts, participation in community activities, as well as, executive transport to employees, and offices.

During the acquisition, it was agreed that the board members and the management team of Anheuser-Busch-InBev are to come from both companies. This means that developing a common business strategy could be a major challenge since Anheuser-Busch is not used to the extreme cost cutting strategies that InBev applies.

Possible solutions

Not sure if you can write a paper on InBev and Anheuser-Busch Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Anheuser-Busch InBev has to focus on cutting costs by adopting a more efficient supply chain management without laying off employees at Anheuser-Busch. Supplier innovation will be its key strength to penetrating the markets. Again, it should also implement the sale of its non-core assets.

It should strategize on how to reduce a certain level of its non-material as well as non-product costs per year so as to ensure continued success. These would help achieve operating efficiencies which will in turn help in achieving cost reductions.

In addition, bonuses should be maintained, but they should be tied to meeting targets. The company can also strengthen its products diversification to gain more competitive advantage in its regions of operation. Finally, the company may also consider reducing costs by engaging in mass production of its global and multicountry products by designating specific plants for mass production.

Conclusion InBev adopted a tender offer acquisition to merge with Anheuser-Busch. Despite their different corporate cultures, including members from the two organizations into the board as well as the management team would help steer the company to greater success.

Members from each side have a better understanding of the industry and how the different corporate cultures affect the integration process. This means that they can always find a common way forward that benefits both companies.

Works Cited Hancock, David. How Much Is Too Much? The Case of the Anheuser-Busch INBEV Takeover. International Review of Accounting, Banking and Finance 2.1 (2010): 22-30

Inkpen, Andrew. InBev and Anheuser-Busch. Glendale, Arizona: Thunderbird School of Global Management, 2010. Print.

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The Tang Dynasty Essay college admission essay help

Introduction For any government or political system to flourish, whether in the lower cadre or higher levels, there must be a strong and established leadership, in place, to offer guidance and direction. The same scenario was exonerated in China. This came after the defeat of the Sui Dynasty, by the Tang Dynasty1.

Li Yuan2 established the Tang Dynasty3 with the help of formidable sons, who went to war against the Sui Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty ruled from the year 618 AD until the year 907 AD. The Tang Dynasty formed one of the greatest empires ever experienced in China.

This paper highlights the reasons that enabled the Tang Dynasty to become so large. Great investment in agricultural development, trade, conscripted army, and development in science technology and medicine are among the reasons behind the great achievements of the Tang Dynasty.

However, the Tang Dynasty did not rule forever; it started to experience problems in the mid 8th century, and thus divisions emerged. Consequently, the empire failed. The paper later discloses the reasons that proved difficult to keep the empire intact, after the mid 8th century. Eroding economy and weakened power and authority of the central court are among the reasons behind the fall of the Tang Dynasty.

What enabled the Tang dynasty to become so large? Good governance depends on the ability to feed the population. Tang Dynasty made it through agriculture. The Tang dynasty investment in agricultural production enabled the empire kingdom to feed its population. Rice was established as a staple food for the Chinese diet.

Rice production nourished especially in the warmer and wetter central and southern areas. “When the officials4 debated on the settlement policy, they submitted Eastern Turks in 630” (Zhenping 2009, 262). Even the groupings that had fought against the taking power of the Tang dynasty were considered and allocated fields for farming.

The Tang dynasty ensured the development of cultivation into a scale section of agricultural production. The constant supply of food to the population contributed enormously to the general population growth. Establishment of stable and constant food production meant trustworthy health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There were established farms during the Tang dynasty. This ensured self-sustainability of this particular dynasty.

More investment in agricultural production contributed immensely to the growth in population. With the evident excess in production, there came a need for trade. The presence of rivers such as Yangste River provided an excellent ground for the irrigation agriculture. This specifically provided a new base area for Ham settlement afterwards.

The other pillar for the growth of the Tang dynasty is the established trading routes with other countries. This need brought about the establishment of the first maritime Silk Road paths using the Indian and Persian coastlines. “Taizong’s whose primary concern was without doubt to keep the Silk Road open” (Xiong 1999, 339).

It connected the Arabian Peninsula and oceanic island to Egypt in East Africa. This provided an opening to other parts of the world. This qualifies as a main contributor to the great establishment of trade with other countries. The Tang dynasty established the seaports on the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.

This provided a direct connection to the Mesopotamia areas. The sea and ocean routes allowed free movement of goods and items from other countries into China. The establishment opened up trade routes to Euphrates River, Arabia, Egypt, and Somalia. The main challenge remained the ambush by the armies from other states.

As Graff (2009) states, “on July 7 756 A Lushan’s generals smashed the large government army guarding the road to Chang’an” (105). The trade over the ocean has been risky since time immemorial especially when the country participating does not have a well-established army to guard its people.

The maritime trade provided a trading network that ran through Middle East, India, Persia, and Central Asia including Africa. The well-established trading channels opened up working opportunities for the large population. They were able to exchange their surplus with the items not found in their area of jurisdiction.

We will write a custom Essay on The Tang Dynasty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The connection to other centres of the world increased the cultural ties with other centres that they interacted during their trade. It, further, led to intermarriage that enhanced the population of the empire.

Trading across the ocean is risky even today. The Tang dynasty understood this extremely well and established an exceptionally strong army. The Tang Dynasty had strong, professional, and conscripted armies made up of hundreds of thousands of troops5. Skaff (2004) states that, “the military and civil consolidation of the much longer lasting Tang” (119).

They controlled the trade along their routes by protecting the traders of any harm along the route. They countered the nomadic points in inner Asia and necessitated the lucrative trade routes along the Silk Road. Strong investment in the army is a necessity for any established country.

The developed countries have strong established armies to provide protection to their citizens. Trading across the sea and ocean is dangerous especially when it involves the crossing of other countries territories. It requires the trading state to provide its traders with an escort drawn from their army.

Otherwise, there is a possibility of hijacking in deep seas and consequential loss of trading products or even abduction. The Tang dynasty understood this and hence invested fully in their army along the Silk Road and staffing of their territorial boundary.

The Tang dynasty invested heavily in the establishment of arms for their defence. This necessitated the protection of their civilians. During the reign of Tang dynasty, the army was equipped with many soldiers that protected both the land and routes over the ocean.

The Tang dynasty invested heavily in science and technology6. This acted as a boost to their industrial advancement. They trained their own personnel who worked in these industries7. With the high level of technology, the Tang dynasty was able to invest in the medicinal provision.

The Tang dynasty was able to build hospitals as well. Large population is realised only and only if there is a well-established medical provision. The Tang dynasty knew this and hence made a great investment in the medical provision counter for their ever-increasing population.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Tang Dynasty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The investment in technology assisted tremendously in security provision. It, further, enabled ready employment for their population especially for the trained personnel. The civil service provided jobs to the population without discrimination.

The major cause of failure of many governments is the inability to provide job openings for their population contrary to what the Tang dynasty practised. For the Tang dynasty to control and manage their high population, they invested heavily in the medical provision. They established laboratories and equipped them with well-trained personnel.

The Tang dynasty established the Tang courts that assisted with the administration of law and order. It was during the Tang dynasty governance that they established the first legal code in China. As Xiong (1999) states, “the Tang dynasty also issued land statutes aimed at the implementation of equal field system” (328).

The foresaid legal code has survived up-to-date. The survival of many governments depends largely on investment and independency of the courts. The Tang dynasty ensured this, hence, keeping at bay trouble with its people.

Many of the skirmishes reported so far have been drawn from the poor established judicial system that protects few who are in power. The judicial system that was established looked mainly at the interests of the population without any discrimination.

The success of many societies has been attributed to their cultural and religious beliefs8. “Peaceful and violent encounters between cultures and civilization have been the prime causes of social, economic, political, and material changes” (Skaff 2004, 117).

The Tang dynasty had its feet rooted strongly in its culture and Buddhism religion. This cultural influence spread over the neighbouring states including Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, just to mention but a few. In the real sense, it spread to all the countries with which they traded.

These included Middle East, India, Central Asia, and even Africa. They knew “cultures restricted within the boundaries or countries were static and homogeneous” (Skaff 2004, 118).

Their strong cultural beliefs led to established poets such as Li Bai, Du Fu, Han Gan, and Zhang Xuan who are among the best world-renowned literature men and women of the time. People appreciated their literature, which is even reproduced in the contemporary world.

Why did it prove difficult to keep this empire together after the mid 8th century? In the mid 8th century, it became difficult to keep the Tang dynasty9 based on the weakened power and authority of the central court at Chang. An “Enforcement of regulations broke down in Poa A Lushan period” (Tackett 2008, 108). The weak governance came about following the Lushan rebellion in the final year of the brilliant Tang Xuanzong rein.

As Tackett (2008) states, it is “the Huang Chao rebellion that effectively brought an end to Tang imperial power” (103). The political instability came about as a great cost to the people of China. It led to civil war strikes. There were hurdles in trading with other countries. The fight brought about weakened army.

This consequentially led to displacement of people. Agricultural development became a problem. Even feeding people was compromised. Worth noting is the injuries suffered by the health sector. The scientific and technological development was compromised.

This meant that medicinal research and production suffered the greatest injuries. It proved difficult to feed the nation and consequentially provide medical services to the society. The inability to attend the two automatically meant more death. It affected cultural diversity and literature. The religious values, which are built on well-established governance, were also affected.

The inability to manage the professional and conscripted armies led to eroding of the economy. The army fell apart. “When the Tang emperor Xuanzong placed non-Chinese in charge of the frontier commands in 747 it set the stage for A Lushan rebellion” (Skaff 2000, 23).

Unity among the army was a particularly crucial practise. The idea of was iterated by Zhenping (2009) who says, “China should also maintain military vigilance even when the non-Chinese were submissive to the Chinese court” (264).

It posed a substantial risk to the traders who were still operating on their established routes10. The agricultural production was considerably hampered based on the unfavourable governance and lack of commitment from the government.

The scientific development was affected leading to the reduced qualified personnel in the industries. With massive displacement of population, the industries experienced low raw material production based on the reduced agricultural output. The industries also experienced reduced human labour.

Conclusion In conclusion, the establishment of the Tang dynasty offered a key opening to the Chinese government. It necessitated the opening up of the first maritime Silk Road paths that enhanced trading routes in the Middle East, India, and Persia, Central Asia and East and the horn of Africa.

Cultural and religious diversity experienced during the Tang dynasty narrowed down the evident cultural and trading ties between Arabia and China. The Tang dynasty was shortly interrupted by the second Zhou dynasty between October 8, 690 and March 3, 705.

Otherwise, it stands out as the empire that ruled for a long period characterised by much success. It was during the governance of the Tang dynasty that the Chinese country experienced a vast scientific and technological advancement ever in the history of the Chinese.

The advancement in medical research and subsequent provision of medical services is one of the pillars of its growth of population. Improvement in food production ensured availability of food to the population. The territorial boundaries were well protected against any invaders.

Worth mentioning is the widespread culture that integrated the neighbouring trading countries. The Lushan rebellion eroded the economy causing a widespread displacement of people. It weakened the power and authority of the central court11.

This destabilised the Chinese people influencing heavily on their food production and trade. It left much ruin on science, technology and medicine, as well as dampening the hopes of continual culture and literature advancement.

Bibliography Graff, David. “Fang Guan’s chariots: scholarship, war, and character assassination in The middle Tang.” Asia Major 3rd series 22 no.1 (2009):105-130.

Skaff, Jonathan. “Survival in the frontier zone: comparative perspective on identity And political allegiance in China’s inner Asian borderlands during the Sui

Tang Dynasty tradition (617-630).” Journal of World History 15 no.2 (2004): 117-153.

Skaff, Jonathan. “Barbarians at the gates? The Tang frontier military and An Lushan Rebellion.” War

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Spirit of teamwork Problem Solution Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Statement of the Problem Primary Problem

After recruitment of new employees in the company, a newly composed team/group to pursue the projects of the company faced difficulties thus making the organizational process impossible. The difficulties resulted from poor personal interaction and lack of teamwork.

Satellite Problems

The group is unable to function effectively due to personal opinions and differences.

The company is unable to realize its goals from the duties of the group.

Implications

Organization

It becomes hard to realize the goals of the organization. This will definitely affect the performance and sustainability of the organization.

The problem affects the working environment and other individuals have their capabilities and productivity for the organization reduced.

The situation affects the reputation of the company since more employees will find it impossible to work as teams. This might as well result in increased turnover rates.

The eventual beneficiaries of the project done by the group are the consumers of the company. The continued problem will make sure they do not receive the necessary gains and services from the company. This will definitely tarnish the image of the company.

Personnel

The individuals in the group will be dissatisfied with the working plan. The inability to achieve and deliver will make them quietly and eventually affect the overall performance.

Due to the nature of the problem faced by the group, definitely there will be more stressful working environment. This is because of poor communication and inability to address the problems affecting the individuals.

With lack of proper performance while the individuals had joined the company with high expectations, the newly recruited employees in the organization might decide to leave the company. Majority are finding the working environment unbearable and unrewarding. This might make the individuals give up on the job.

The problem results in a poor organizational structure within the group and the company as a whole. This is a clear indication that the employees will find it unbearable to work one another and this will definitely affect the performance of the organization.

Finally, failure to address the problem will definitely result in low productivity in the company. This means that the company will not implement its skills abilities and skills as it should thereby delivering inappropriate services to the customers.

Alternative Solutions Status Quo

Problem analysis and teamwork

Description

The status quo solution illustrates the possible occurrences if there is nothing done to address the situation as faced in the company. If as members of the group we do not perform any meaningful changes and offer strategic solutions, definitely things will get worse.

According to the status quo, the company will face disagreements will become more evident, individuals will be at loggerheads, poor communication, and lack of motivation. The group will struggle fighting and will never achieve anything. This is what has been the case within the last two weeks. The individuals will also continue to disagree and eventually no one will achieve personal growth.

Pros Cons * The team structure will remain the same. * Everyone will show expertise. * No time used to address the issue. * Disagreements/conflicts will increase. * A lack of productivity will develop. * Personal opportunity will be lost. Analysis

One thing with the status quo alternative is that it fails to address the problem as faced by the group members. Because of this, it would be necessary that another approach or alternative is embraced because it will address the problem.

This approach will not help us to analyze the essential causes of the problem or offer any new insights and ideas to deal with the problem. The conflicts faced are personal with every individual lacking faith in the approach suggested by others. This makes it impossible to pursue a common approach and solve the faced problem completely.

This means the company will never realize its goals despite that it employed numerous and complex recruitment process to bring the best to their company and facilitate performance. With increased pressure in the organization, it becomes extremely impossible to realize the goals of the team. This alternative therefore solves nothing and makes it impossible to address the problem as faced.

Problem analysis and team work

Description

When there is a problem in a group, teamwork is the best approach to address the faced problems. Using organizational theories, teamwork promotes cohesion, decision-making, talent promotion, and solving problems whenever they occur.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the members of our group have the expertise and the necessary skills, their personal ego can be dangerous since they should be working as a team. If as a team we embrace the spirit of teamwork, it will be possible to address the problems faced and ensure we all focused on the final common goal.

As well, the organization should have a procedure of grouping old and new employees together because the new ones need to be guidance, and provide them with the right incentives thereby avoiding similar problems as the ones faced in the group.

Pros Cons *Individual empowerment *Better decision making *Promotes communication and interaction *Strong spirit and motivation *Calls for patience *Withholding personal talents and abilities *Possible conflicts to arise Analysis

Teamwork calls for group motivation and proper communication skills. With that in mind, it will be possible for the members of the group to complement one another and be in a position of addressing the unique problems facing them. When organizational theories are in place, individuals in the group will find it possible to exchange their ideas and opinions about the project. They will offer their unique opinions and address any differences facing the project. This will make the group productive and eventually realize its goals and promote the performance of the organization.

Recommendation From the nature of the case and the projected gains from the group, it is necessary for the members to embrace a spirit of teamwork. This will promote their participatory skills and accept the fact that they have different background and have varied skills.

When they understand this, they will be ready to motivate one another and seek to address their differences rather than showing their personal opinions and expertise. This will make it possible for them to design the right procedure to address their differences and focus their attention on the final goals of the organization.

They will have the capacity to mentor, lead, influence, and motivate one another. Their communication process will also improve and eventually make it possible to realize their personal growth.

Implementation The recommendation of a better group structure and work as a team is something that needs an immediate implementation. This is because the project is urgent and means a lot to the success of the organization. As well, a long-term can be essential towards the success of the company’s business and promote performance of future groups in the organization.

We will write a custom Essay on Spirit of teamwork specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Communication is poor in the group with every individual having his/her own opinions and views about the way forward.

The lack of common goal and sense of direction has affected the responsiveness of the group members. This explains why there is need to address this issue. An organizational culture in the team will promote its performance and inspire the members to goal-oriented.

Immediate (1-2 Weeks)

We need to outline the causes of disagreements and determine the possible solutions to them.

Explore the available solutions to specific problems and differences and determine the most applicable ones.

Embrace the best practices and encourage participation, decision making and personal reflections. It is also necessary to remain focused on the final goals of the project.

Make the best decisions that promote teamwork.

Provide incentives for working as a team and addressing the problems as faced.

Long-term (1-12 months)

Let the organization start to embrace diversity and organizational culture. Recruit individuals with the potential and desire to pursue the goals of groups and organization in general.

Have a HR to address the unique needs and requirements of individuals in the organization.

Promote a decision-making process for different groups whenever they have a mission to accomplish for the company.

Future processes and groups should not bring new employees in one team because they are all new and have no idea what needs to be done, and what has been the process followed in the organization. There should be old employees to motivate and guide the new ones in the organization.

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The Bophal Incident Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Safety and Health Impacts of the Incident

Legal Aspect of the Incident

Management Response to the Incident

Conclusion

References

Introduction The Bophal disaster has always been regarded as the worst industrial accident in the world (Willey and Hendershot, 2006). The disaster occurred on the morning of December 3rd 1984 when a leak of methyl isocyanate gas among other poisonous chemicals and substances (MIC) escaped from one of the storage tanks of Union Carbide of India Limited (UCIL).

UCIL was a pesticide manufacturing plant located at Bophal, Madhya Pradesh in India. It has been alleged that as a result of poor maintenance of plants and equipments within the plant, water entered into storage tank 610 that contained 42 tons of MIC.

The presence of water and MIC resulted to the occurrence of an exothermic reaction that resulted to the increase of temperature and pressure in the storage tank. As a result, the gas escaped from the tank and was blown over Bophal by winds.

The gas leak thus had adverse effects on the local population. It has been estimated that 2,259 individual died instantly as a result of being exposed to the gas while another 3,787 died from respiratory related problems later on (Willey and Hendershot, 2006).

In following weeks, another 3,000 people died as a result of related complication and an additional 8,000 died later on. According to the government affidavit released in 2006, the incident resulted to 558,125 injuries most of which were permanent (Willey and Hendershot, 2006). Most of the people who were affected were children and short people since they inhaled much of the gas as it was denser than air. In addition, those individuals who ran inhaled much of the poisonous gas as compared to those who used vehicles to flee the scene.

Safety and Health Impacts of the Incident The incident had short-term health effects and long-term health effects. During the early hours of the leak, individuals from the surrounding areas complained of vomiting, coughing, eye irritation and suffocation. Since the gas cloud was denser that air, thus owing to their heights, short people and children were affected the most.

In addition, several people were trampled in a stamped while trying to flee to safety. By morning, a lot of people had passed on. In addition, over 2,000 animals had also died. The gas also had a severe effect on vegetation as trees shed their leaves and dried up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Approximately 100,000-200,000 people have permanent health disorders as a result of the incident. These include respiratory problem, reproductive difficulties, vision problems, birth abnormality and immunological disorders.

Legal Aspect of the Incident It has been held that the gas leak incident was an act of negligence from UCIL (Chouhan, 2005). Immediately after the incident, legal proceedings against the firm commenced in both the USA and India. This has led to the compensation of the victims of the tragedy. In addition, several members of the management and technical team have been sentenced to jail due to negligence.

Management Response to the Incident After the incident, the management of UCIL released a statement which stated the companys culture of prioritizing safety. From the statement, the company asserted that the gas leak did not come about as a result of system failure but as an act of sabotage by a defiant employee who poured water into the tank. To emphasize on its commitment on the initiative, the company stated that it has been on the front line to give aid to victims via compensation and provision of professional support.

Conclusion The Bophal incident is regarded as the worst industrial accident in the world. It left over 25,000 people dead and over 500,000 people injured. All this came about as an act of negligence from UCIL who did not adhere to proper safety and maintenance procedures and requirements that was expected of them.

As a result, I believe that severe actions should be taken against the company and any other company that may be involved in such an act. This will guarantee the safety of individuals within the globe.

References Chouhan, T. (2005). Bhopal: The Inside Story. New York: The Apex Press.

Willey, R. and Hendershot, D. (2006). The accident of Bophal: 20 years Later. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The Bophal Incident specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Learning to Speak about the Controversial issues Essay (Book Review) custom essay help: custom essay help

Vance’s Vision of Sex and Gender Issues: Pornography as a Means to Commercialize Man-and-Woman Relationships In her book, Carole Vance makes the audience stand in the shoes of a woman and consider the issue of pornography from a perspective of a feminist and a woman’s rights protector. The author offers a new insight on the problem and provides a description of the legal case with the help of which the author proves her point concerning the humiliating and abusive implications of pornographic materials and explains the messages that the given materials send to the audience.

Taking the case of the attorney’s general commission on pornography, Vance conveys the idea that the latter has the most deplorable impact on people and their social behavior. Offering a considerable shift in gender roles and implying women humiliation, pornography was viewed by the author as a way to make efficient use of women’s vulnerability. In addition, it is quite peculiar that the issues of gender and sexuality were brought together in the given case.

According to the results of the case, the pornographic materials were considered to be the means that gradually led to insulting women and making them feel inferior to men. It is also worth noticing that the issue of degradation was viewed by the author from different angles, i.e. the social one and the cultural one.

On the one hand, the issue is obvious indeed, since the doubtless aim of pornographic materials is to humiliate women and offer the public an image of a submissive female and an object to satisfy men’s desire for lust. Thus, Vince’s idea that pornography should be banned and considered an anti-social and potentially dangerous phenomenon must be admitted as rather reasonable one.

On the other hand, though, it is important to mark that pornography has often been viewed as a social vault, the way for people to indulge into observing sexually explicit imagery instead of conducting the acts of violence against women in reality, which raises the question whether it is reasonable to prohibit the use and production of pornographic materials.

Therefore, it can be considered that the issue of pornography is more complicated than it seems. Despite the fact that pornographic materials are completely hideous and amoral for most people, the social function of pornography cannot be denied, which means that the elimination of pornography can have rather negative effects on the safety of society.

Nevertheless, pornography still must be taken as a serious threat to people’s sexual and emotional health. Since watching pornography is already considered a deviation from norm, people who indulge into watching the corresponding materials should definitely consider their sexual behavior and the probable complexes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With regard to the above-mentioned, there can be no possible doubt that, with the help of Vance’s impressive work, the dreadful effect of pornographic materials has become obvious, which, in its turn, gives the reasons to believe that women abuse can be stopped. Moreover, the problem of gender and sexuality has become explicit. In addition, the scale of the problem, which has literally gained worldwide importance, has been stated.

Therefore, it can be suggested that the given work offers a deep insight on the issue of pornography and explains its key social effects, making it clear that the issue in question is an obvious threat to the social health, women’s safety and normal gender relationships.

Non-Heterosexual Relationships: A Point of View. Jeffery Weeks and His Unorthodox Ideas Despite the fact that homosexual relationships are no longer an issue to be debated over and over again in the XXI century, Weeks marks that there are still certain misconceptions concerning the gay culture that need to be clarified.

Even though considerable time has passed since the homosexual relationships were considered abnormal and gays were viewed as specimens of abnormality in the sphere of sexual relationships, there are certain restrictions for gays in the modern world. Among the most notorious and the ones mentioned most frequently, the problem of gay families, namely, the fact that at present, homosexual people cannot make families in most countries, is brought into view.

According to the author, there can be no possible doubt that, with the advent of tolerance towards homosexual people, cultural changes took place and gay people obtained certain rights; however, Weeks mentions, the given rights are not enough to feel a part of the society.

Offering an extensive and all-embracing study of homosexual relationships, Weeks provides the proof that gay people can make families as well as the heterosexuals, which means there should be a chance for the homosexuals to build their own families.

It is remarkable that Weeks applies to the law and states that, according to the Constitution, people’s rights are equal and inalienable. Therefore, the gay people must be acknowledged as the ones who are capable of making strong, lifelong bonds and, therefore, creating their own families.

We will write a custom Book Review on Learning to Speak about the Controversial issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important that the author provides a detailed overview of the existing sources and portrays the relationships between gay couples rather honestly. Thus, Weeks makes it clear that, apart from the sexual relationships, there are very few differences between a heterosexual and a homosexual couples. Therefore, there should not be any restrictions as for the homosexual marriages, Weeks argues.

In addition, it is rather unexpected that the author embraces every single aspect of a family as a phenomenon, considering the social, the personal and even the political one.

Moreover, the author embraces not only the opinions of the Americans, but also the ideas that the African America population has concerning the issue, which is extremely important. Weeks makes his research an all-embracing study, thus, making the results of this research rather impressive and reliable for the further steps to be based on.

Apart from encouraging new researches, Weeks also conveys several essential ideas concerning gay couples and gay marriages. Explaining the homosexual idea of a family, the author ruins a number of prejudices efficiently, helping gay couples to be recognized as the phenomenon worth existing.

Despite the fact that the given study is really vats and impressive, there are certain constraints that should be talked over. First, it is obvious that Weeks could not embrace the entire number of gay couples and convey a full study.

Therefore, a number of essential details concerning gay couples have been left out. In addition, it is evident that Weeks takes a certain position concerning the issue. Thus, the judgments of the author cannot be viewed as independent and objective.

Nevertheless, the work made by the author is worth appreciation and must be considered as a solid proof to the fact that gay couples should have the same rights as the heterosexual ones.

Sheff Takes the Veil off the Phenomenon of Polyamorous Women: A Deeper Insight on the Issue It cannot be argued that the modern society does not approve of women having several experiences of relationships with men, which is mainly due to the historical development of the social roles of men and women.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning to Speak about the Controversial issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, according to what Elisabeth Sheff claims, even in the XXI century, when the boundaries of sexual relationships have shifted greatly, polyamory still remains one of the tabooed issues that are considered a social abnormality. Opening new horizons for the readers and the researches of the given problem, Sheff offers an exhaustive exploration of the issue.

One of the first details that strike the eyes is the approach undertaken by the researcher. Basing her study on solid methodology and offering considerable overview of the existing data concerning polyamory, Sheff makes it clear that the relationships between a woman and several men are quite possible and, therefore, acceptable.

Among the other details, the specific method chosen by the author deserves a specific attention. Comprising her personal observations with interviews, Sheff created a solid research based on real life experience, which makes the results even more important.

As for the course of the research and the results, one must mention that the author relates polyamorous relationships to social subjectivity. To be more precise, the social constraints that women face in the modern world presuppose that a woman should give vent to her feelings in her intimate relationships with men.

Therefore, the author sees polyamorous relationships between a woman and several men as a logical and practically inevitable result of a woman’s social role. In addition, according to the social morals, a woman must keep with monogamist relationships and to have only one sexual partner. The latter is also a kind of a restriction that is likely to lead to polyamorous relationships.

Sheff also enumerates the social factors which make women enter polyamorous relationships. Therefore, the author implies that the relationships involving several partners are not typical for women. In addition, the author explores such issue as “gender bending,” explaining the fact that the established gender behavior and gender roles are merely stereotypes and that gender fluidity can be observed in a number of cases.

Although Sheff is certain about the fact that women can change their roles easily and choose polyamorous relationships as an alternative to the established single-couple relations, one must keep in mind that people might not be ready yet for the abrupt switch to different ideas.

In addition, when it comes to such delicate issue as sexual relationships, the society tends to be extremely conservative. Therefore, the radical change in the attitudes and the acceptance of polyamorous relationships between men and women will not be accepted soon.

Nevertheless, the author offers a peculiar research which explains a lot about female social roles and the social restrictions that women are to face in contrast to men. With the help of Sheff’s research, one can see the results of the unfair treatment women received for years.

Moreover, the author offers the way to eliminate the consequences of the above-mentioned treatment. Therefore, Sheff’s research proves an essential step in the feminist fight for women’s rights to live the life they want.

D’Emilio about the Phenomenon of Gay Culture: Homosexuality Is More than a Biological Peculiarity The norm is something that goes beyond questioning, whereas every single abnormality is the reasons for another all-embracing research. Among the issues that raise most questions at present, the causes of homosexuality are the most frequently discussed issues.

It is worth mentioning, though, that the explanations for homosexuality range from biological to societal and even cultural, which gives enough reasons for another research. According to D’Emilio, there is more than meets the eye about the factors that cause homosexuality.

It is quite peculiar that the author not only offers his explanations for the phenomenon of homosexuality, but also shows why a certain explanation is accepted by the society and why certain theories appeal to the homosexual themselves. Therefore, the author researches the issue of homosexuality in depth.

It is also quite unexpected that among the factors that concern homosexuality, the author considers political issues. D’Emilio claims that at certain points, homosexuality can serve as a protection shield for the opponents, with the existing political correctness code. Respecting the feelings of the sexual minority, the opponents are likely to compromise. Thus, homosexuality can be used as a means to prove one’s point, which is not quite right.

Hence, D’Emilio states that homosexuality must be perceived in the society only as a specific feature of someone’s personality and character, but not as an excuse for certain actions or statements. The author makes a legit point, since nowadays, the boundaries between tolerance towards homosexuals and permissiveness for the gay culture are somewhat blurred.

However, the above-mentioned are only the “side effects” of the key point that D’Emilio makes. According to the author, the main thing is the question whether homosexual people are born gay or whether people start homosexual relationships because of certain reasons.

Depending on whether gay people simply cannot live any other way or whether they try to be special and, thus, achieve certain goals, the attitude towards gay culture may change. For example, making efficient use of the political correctness standards, the people who have become gay due to certain factors are allowed to act in the way and do the things that heterosexual people cannot.

Therefore, the key argument of the author is whether the people who display their homosexuality openly can be considered sincere or if these people are merely trying to reach certain goals with the help of their specific sexual orientation.

D’Emilio is obviously right about the fact that people must not use their homosexuality as the excuse for certain deeds. In addition, the author proves the idea that homosexuality is not predetermined biologically. Thus, D’Emilio explains that alternative sexual orientation is rather the result of the outer factors, which seems quite reasonable. However, as the author marks, the final decision is yet to be made.

The given work helps to understand the mechanisms of social behavior for the homosexuals and see the facets of the conflict between the homosexual and the heterosexuals. Despite a slight subjectivity, the paper is still worth considering for all those interested in the relationships between the homosexuals and the society.

Considering all the peculiarities of the homosexual culture, one can possibly understand the way homosexuals perceive the world around and the culture of the straight people. Perhaps, with the help of these measures, people will be able to understand each other and be more tolerant towards each others’ peculiar features.

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Education in the State of Georgia Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction: Overview of Education in the State of Georgia

Educational Options in Georgia

Analysis of Educational Needs of the State

National Ranking of Georgia Educational Level

Evaluation of the Georgia Educational System and Curriculum

Cheating: The Circumstances and Outcomes of the Atlanta Scandal

Conclusion

References

Introduction: Overview of Education in the State of Georgia Education in the USA is one of the most problematic issues that the federal, state, and local government faces in the 21st century for the sake of national advancement, development, and evolution.

Obviously, there are a number of state educational standards, and each state has its own number of private and public schools, administers a set of statewide testing and certification procedures, etc.; however, the disapproval of existing norms, policies, and regulations in the educational field is growing.

The reasons for disapproval and discontentment may be found in irrational curriculum, excessive focus on pursuit of good certification grades, low access to prestigious educational establishments, and rising costs of education. As noted by the librarian Joseph Curasso,

“this is what the education revolutionaries have sowed: dumbed-down standards, narrow curriculums, meaningless test drilling, and union busting….

Through large grants to cash strapped states, dependent on such stipulations as not granting teacher tenure in less than three years and ‘ensuring successful conditions for high performing charter schools and other innovative schools’, large donations to both political parties, and hundreds of millions of dollars in media advocacy… big money philanthropists have been able to shape the education debate and be fawned upon by the national media (cited in Richardson, 2011, para. 2)”.

However, approaching the US educational system at the nationwide level is highly ineffective, since all US states enjoy a considerable level of autonomy from the federal government, which explains serious gaps between state standards of healthcare, education, and quality of life.

Therefore, it proves more efficient to treat the problem at the statewide level in order to identify its common practices, rules, policies, and regulations for the sake of further identification of strengths and weaknesses thereof.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The comprehensive analysis of the educational system of any state is likely to provide a realistic picture of the current situation with its pros and cons; it will enable the researcher to produce a set of feasible recommendations regarding the ways to improve and advance the educational practices, curriculum, and related issues.

Taking into account these considerations, the researcher focuses on the analysis of the educational system in Georgia in the present paper; educational options and programs, standards and certifications, curricula and educational success rankings will be analyzed for the sake of making a conclusion about the current state of Georgia’s education development as well as the ways to introduce the optimal and constructive reform to it.

According to the NEA Research (2011) estimate, the total revenue receipts in Georgia accounted $22,328,160,000, state and local revenue receipts equaled $20,330,754,000, which is 46.8% for the state and local revenues, and 48.9% of local revenues as compared to the total revenue amount (p. 67).

The expenditures for education in Georgia accounted $18,536,859,000, and $10,971 per pupil in ENR in 2010-2011 (NEA Research, 2011, p. 67). At the same time, the salaries of instructional staff equaled $56,575, and the salaries of teachers were estimated at the rate of $53,906 per annum (NEA Research, 2011, p. 67).

The estimate for the overall Southeast region (into which the state of Georgia was included in the NEA Research) in terms of operating school districts was 1,604 in 2011; the 2010 enrolment equaled 832,721 pupils in elementary schools, and 856,927 pupils in secondary schools (NEA research, 2011, p. 86). In addition, the estimate for enrolment (despite the low number of school districts as compared to other regions) was 24.4%, which is nearly a quarter of all US pupils (NEA Research, 2011, p. 70).

The overall number of schools in Georgia is 2,221, according to the official data published at the site of the Georgia Department of Education (2012).

Only 1,718 schools meet the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), which is 77.4% of the total number of schools. The present situation raises certain worries in the circles of educators and policymakers, since the expenditures for public schools account for $18,536,859,000 statewide.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Education in the State of Georgia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Expenditures per student equal $11,315 in ADA and $10,971 in ENR (NEA Research, 2011, p. 96). The expenditures for other programs in Georgia account for $34,610, which is a rather low indicator, and the capital outlay in Georgia is estimated at the level of $200,875,000. Finally, the interest on school debt equals $249,070,000 in Georgia, which is growing in comparison with the 2009-2010 estimate of $249,034,000 (NEA Research, 2011, p. 96).

According to the data of the Georgia Department of Education (2012), students in Georgiaschools have to pass the End of Course Test (EOCT) in high schools in grades 9-12, the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) in grades 1-8, and the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) in order to get high school diplomas.

The performance on these key tests is also highly indicative of the academic performance and rating of the state in the overall US-wide scale. Thus, the most recent figures on these tests can be seen in Figures 1-4:

Figure 1. CRCT Statistics for 1

Source: from the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement (2010), Retrieved from http://www.gadoe.org/ReportingFW.aspx?PageReq=102

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Starbucks Company’s Human Resource Development Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The Role of Human Resource Development within Starbucks

The contributions of Human Resource Development to Starbucks

Human Resource Development Issues Facing Starbucks

Recommendations

Conclusion

References

Introduction Starbucks Company is a great enterprise including the chain of coffeehouses all over the world; this is a big organization producing coffee and offering its services to its customers. Currently, it is undergoing changes that require to start and implement reorganization in case the company wants to gain a large market share and remain competitive in the market.

For instance, employees lack skills, products are of low quality, and customers are moving away (Landy et al., 2010). In order for Starbucks to triumph in the competitive business environment, it needs to maximize its productivity and minimize losses (Mariane, 2009).

This is possible due to Human Resource Development. According to Garavan (2010), Human Resource Development concentrates on improving the performance of an organization. This means that Starbucks will greatly benefit from Human Resource Development.

For instance, Human Resource Development will ensure that Starbucks grows and develops by supporting the business, sharing knowledge and training its personnel.

The Role of Human Resource Development within Starbucks According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, Human Resource Development should assess the needs of an organization and address them accordingly (Reilly, 2008).

The needs of Starbucks include a proper specialization of the workers, increase in the profit margin and effective training programs (Landy et al., 2010).

The identification of these needs will assist the Human Resource Development manager to implement programs that address these issues. As a result, problems like unskilled workers and dissatisfied customers will end.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training and development play the main role in Human Resource Development. According to the theory of teaching, effective learning entails the right content, place and time of training (Gilley, 2009). In Starbucks, it is the role of Human Resource Development manager to identify the right content and context of learning.

This will assist in eradication of incidences like the closure of Starbucks for three hours (Landy et al., 2010). Additionally, loyal Starbucks’ customers will not complain because they will not realize that training is to take place.

The contributions of Human Resource Development to Starbucks According to the principles of management, Human Resource Development should enhance unity of strength and command (Stewart, 2010). This means that employees and employers should work collaboratively and share the knowledge and skills that they have.

For instance, if the CEO and the top management of Starbucks work in team with Human Resource Development manager, the organization will thrive in the business environment. This is because they will be able to identify problems that Starbucks faces and come up with the effective solutions.

Human Resource Development should ensure that there is equity between the need of a company and that of a person. The scientific management theory states that employees and employers should forget about their own needs for the sake of the organization (Blackman, 2010).

Employees and employers of Starbucks should focus on the needs of the customers. If a Human Resource Development manager had taken part in workers training, Starbucks could not have closed the business for three hours. Any delay in running business portrays negligence of customers’ needs (McLagan, 2010).

Human Resource Development is like a backbone of Starbucks. This is because Human Resource Development manager engages in activities like recruitment of employees and skills development (Gilley, 2009). Recruitment entails hiring qualified workers who are able to provide quality services.

We will write a custom Report on Starbucks Company’s Human Resource Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Skills development involves the training of the current workers so that they will become more competent. This shows that Human Resource Development will contribute to the success of Starbucks by ensuring that the company will have the skilled workers who are able to prepare coffee of high quality.

Human Resource Development Issues Facing Starbucks Human Resource Development manager plays a critical role in running of an organization because he/she controls all the activities via training and development of the workers (Blackman, 2010).

If Starbucks does not invest in Human Resource Development, issues concerning employees’ qualifications, customers’ dissatisfaction and inappropriate expenditure are likely to arise in the next three or five years.

Most of the employees will lack the required skills because they will not have someone to train and guide them to ensure that learning is a continuous process.

For example, Landy et al. (2010) explain that employees receive a three hours training without follow up. According to the principles of learning, onetime training is an ineffective teaching technique (Reilly, 2008).

This is because people learn the best when the tutor teaches them and follow them up to ensure that they are practicing the correct thing. Customers’ dissatisfaction will arise because unskilled employees and employers cannot adequately address the needs of clients.

For example, in the absence of Human Resource Development manager, Starbucks is likely to close again in order to train employees, and this will lead to customers’ dissatisfaction. Finally, Starbucks is likely to spend more money on employees’ development if it does not consult the Human Resource Development manager.

As a Human Resource Development manager, my focus concerning the aforementioned issues is placed on employees training, career development and organization growth. Employees training will increase the workers’ competencies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Starbucks Company’s Human Resource Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, they will make coffee of high quality, thus attracting many customers. Career development entails organization changes, like recruiting and outsourcing (Stewart, 2010). Career development empowers employees with skills and knowledge.

Empowerment of Starbucks’ employees will alleviate issues like workers’ and customers’ dissatisfaction. Finally, Human Resource Development manager should assist in organization growth by engaging in planning activities.

If Starbucks involves Human Resource Development manager in the planning activities, it will realize the need of more personnel. For instance, it may not need to stop recruiting Human Resource Development personnel.

Recommendations According to the above analysis, Starbucks management team does not have adequate knowledge about the role and contribution of Human Resource Development to the company’s promotion and progress. Therefore, the Starbucks top management and the CEO need to engage in Human Resource Development activities with a positive attitude towards learning.

Moreover, Starbucks can hire Human Resource Development personnel and incorporate them into the training programs. Additionally, the top management should realize the role of Human Resource Development and see it as an asset and not a liability. Finally, Starbucks needs to change its attitude towards training as a onetime activity and invest in continuous employees training.

Conclusion Human Resource Development is the greatest asset of an organization. This is because Blackman (2010) states that Human Resource Development contributes to the growth of an organization through employees’ development.

If Starbucks invests in Human Resource Development, it will triumph in the competitive business environment. This is because Human Resource Development will ensure that training, career development and organization growth take place in the company.

References Blackman, D 2010, ‘ The Role of Human Resource Development in Preventing Organisational Stagnation’, Mangement Decisions , vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 628-634.

Garavan, T 2010, ‘Human Resource Development Literature: Current Issues, Priorities and Dilemmas’, Journal of European Industrial Training , vol. 136, no. 79, pp. 169-179.

Gilley, W 2009, Principles of Human Resource Development, Wesley, New York.

Landy, F.,

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The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

The United Arabs Emirates is one of the leading oil producing countries in the world. Despite the fact that UAE depends on oil for all her energy needs, there are efforts to invest in alternative sources of energy.

As such, huge investments have been made in nuclear energy, creating optimism about the country’s future as a leading producer of clean and cost effective power. However, there are potential pitfalls associated with nuclear energy programs.

In 2005, the United Arab Emirates commissioned a study to explore the possibilities of developing nuclear energy. This led to the formation of The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation.

The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation, ENEC, brought together six UAE member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other countries such as the United States of America. ENEC’s main aim was to propose ways through which these countries peacefully shares nuclear energy.

There were notable short term benefits accrued as a result. This includes improved relations between UAE and other countries especially the USA as well as an improved sense of national pride (World Nuclear Association, 2011). Additionally, in awarding contracts for generation of nuclear energy, priority was given to companies from the UAE.

This boosted political cooperation as well as strengthened economic relationship between UAE’s member states (Murphy, 2011). The World Nuclear Association (2011) explains that for a long time, the UAE has over relied on fossil fuels.

Development of nuclear energy came at a time when UAE’s electricity needs were at an all time high. By 2009, statistics indicate that UAE’s electricity needs increased by 9% annually. Experts argued that overreliance on fossil fuels and the increasing demand for electricity created an energy supply gap.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, nuclear energy was perceived to be the best alternative source of reliable and environmental friendly energy. Additionally, while the initial cost of building nuclear power plants was very high, nuclear energy significantly lowered the cost per kilowatt.

As such, nuclear power proved to be cost effective as compared to fossil and hydroelectricity. It is imperative to note that cheap, reliable and clean energy lowers the cost of production. This leads to economic growth.

While UAE accrues numerous benefits from nuclear energy, there are also notable disadvantages associated with it. Murphy (2011) explains that the Nuclear Energy Agreement signed between UAE, IAEA and the USA includes a non-binding safety clause.

As such, questions have emerged on safety and other issues involved in handling radioactive material. Additionally, nuclear energy is cost effective as compared to other sources of energy. Therefore, the potential of the nuclear energy sector in the UAE threatens the future growth and development of the oil industry (Murphy, 2011).

The assertions made above indicate that UAE relies on fossil and nuclear sources of energy. However, there are other sources of energy which supplement fossil and nuclear energy. These include hydropower, biomass and wind.

While UAE produces much of her electricity from natural gas and diesel, numerous hydropower stations also supply the country with electricity. In addition to this, biomass, solar and wind have not been commercially exploited. Nevertheless, they produce about 1% of UAE’s energy needs, which can be attributed to overreliance on fossil fuel (MAE, 2008).

The development of the nuclear energy in the UAE demonstrates the country’s ambition to invest in alternative sources of energy. However, in the process of exploring other sources of energy, it is important not to overlook existing sources of energy such as fossil fuel.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List MAE. (2008). A study on ‘Energy Sector’ in Dubai. Web.

Murphy, C. (2011). The United Arab Emirates Civil Nuclear Agreement: Promise or problem? Web.

World Nuclear Association. (2011). Nuclear power in the United Arab Emirates. Web.

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Violence against Native American Women Expository Essay essay help free

Native American women have several distinctive characteristics because of the distinct gender roles in the native culture. These roles define their place in the society in both positive and negative ways. Gender violence targeting the Native American women follows some of these patterns.

The goal of this paper is to examine the factors contributing to gender violence against Native American women and the response of their religious and spiritual traditions.

There is need to point out that there is a varying degree of acculturation of Native Americans. Some of them are completely urbanite with little or no tie to ethnic life, while others have the full ethnic upbringing. This paper focuses on the ethnic Native Americans with a strong tribal background.

Several factors contribute to the violence against Native American women. These include the weaknesses of the criminal justice system, racism and the “lasting legacy of colonization”. The Native American society has its own criminal justice system. This system is not as elaborate as the federal law.

There was a push to expand the jurisdiction of the tribal courts to give them the power to give sentences longer than three years. In their current state, they do not have the power to issue sentences that have a strong deterrent effect. Women who undergo domestic violence do not feel safe to report perpetrators because of the high risk that the system will not deliver justice.

When cases of assault do not end with a conviction, the society ostracizes the women. It is difficult to participate socially after such as experience. This situation makes it impossible or highly undesirable for women to report cases of violence against them. They prefer to save face and to live with the consequences of violence.

The second major factor responsible for violence against Native American women is racism. Along with other minorities, Native Americans are the target of racism because of their distinct culture. Statistics show that there is a greater incidence of violence against Native American women compared to any other ethnic minorities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The simple conclusion to this fact is that there is a race factor behind the high levels of violence. Native American women tend to be less educated than all other minorities.

They also have very visible cultural tendencies, which make them an objective target of hatred from dominant communities. They are also the object of many stereotypes that arise out of this cultural distinctness.

The third issue that influences violence against Native American women is the lasting legacy of colonization. In the native Indian societies, violence against women was unheard. It was a sign of lack of control to beat a woman.

Since the arrival of colonialists, violence against Native American women grew, both from their tribesmen and from those from other derivations. The main reason for this is that social balance deteriorated with the arrival of settlers.

They disturbed the cultural systems that the Indians lived under for the time before the arrival of the settlers. Some of the forces that weakened the tribal safety net were the attempt to evangelize the natives, efforts to school them, and the general violence that affected the entire Indian people accompanying colonization.

Religious and spiritual traditions of the Indians had a very revered view of women. Women played an unmatched role as the givers of life who perpetuated life. The Indian culture revered life as sacred and sought to live in harmony with nature.

In those days, men who meted out violence on their wives faced harsh censure from the community. It was a sign of weakness to beat a woman.

We will write a custom Essay on Violence against Native American Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the repercussions of such actions was that the perpetrator could never lead other men in any activity. They could not lead warriors to war, and they could not lead hunting parties. It also limited their role as elders and guides to the community in later life.

There is significant weakening of the religious and spiritual systems because of the forces discussed earlier. Unlike the past where the entire community could hold an errant member to account for misdemeanors, the systems collapsed over time making the punishments either irrelevant or mild because of the multiplicity of options available for perpetrators to escape punishment.

There is reduced significance of the place of women in this society as life givers because of all the alternate philosophies affecting perceptions of the roles of women.

In order to reverse the current trends, the most significant thing that can help to catalyze the process is increased involvement of the federal government in the administration of justice in gender violence cases.

The federal government needs to either empower the tribal courts to deal more firmly with cases of violence against women, or to establish alternative criminal justice processes that are friendlier to victims of abuse.

The best way to participate in this process is to join or support advocacy groups working towards getting greater involvement of the federal government in the cases of violence against Native American women.

References American Psychological Association. (1989). Contemporary Psychology. (E. G. Boring, Ed.) Michigan: American Psychological Association.

Chapin, R. (2010). Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis

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Barclays Bank Strategic Plans Essay college essay help

Brief history

Barclays bank was founded in 1690 in the city of London, which has remained its headquarters to date (Berclays Bank PLC, 2011). From a meager start, the company has gradually but steadily grown to become a key player in the banking industry.

Through its parent company and a host of other subsidiary companies, the firm has diversified its services to investment and corporate banking, retail banking, credit cards, and wealth management.

Currently, the bank’s reputation is universally acclaimed, with a customer base of forty eight million customers in fifty countries.

According to Dr., James, the local branch Human Resource Manager, the journey to the top has been long fought, but staying on top against the prevailing market competition is the company’s primary objective (S. James, personal communication, April 7, 2012).

Strategic plans

As an international firm, Barclays Bank faces stiff competition on the international platform. Most of its competitors are firms well endowed with financial might such as HSBC, Standard Chartered, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, and Lloyd Banking group.

Remaining profitable in such a market is a formidable challenge that requires excellent strategic measures. This far, the bank has been able to grow its customer base, thereby increasing its profitability through offering relatively lower interest rates on loans, and more personalized customer experience.

However, as globalization gains momentum, the already fierce competition is expected to intensify. As a result, the company intends to adopt many strategic options to gain a competitive edge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Exploit the Middle East market

Launch massive marketing campaigns across the globe

Reduce social responsibility programmes, which already consume a lot of money

Seek funding through issuing of shares but not debts

Pursue mergers and acquisitions

Dr. James’ Roles as Human Resource Manager

As the branch human resource manager, Dr. James is responsible for many tasks relating to human capital. First, he is responsible for recruitment, selection, and placement of personnel. In liaison with the operations manager, they identify areas of shortage; establish the required qualifications for the position before organizing for interviews.

He is also responsible for organizing training and development of employees. Training needs are essential for employees to remain competitive. It also ensures that the quality of employees’ services is unrivaled. After identifying training needs, he contacts the executive manager for approval and then contacts the finance officer for funding.

Additionally, Dr. James is responsible for employees’ discipline. With over 152 employees holding different capacities in the bank, cases of indiscipline cannot be ruled out. He says, “Despite the gravity of the case, the approach of handling it can make a great difference.”

Manpower planning also falls under his docket. In liaison with all departmental heads, he finds out how many employees are required to complete departmental tasks and assign them.

He is, therefore, responsible for defining the scope of every job for employees. Finally, yet importantly, together with other managers, he is responsible for setting specific management policies for organizational leadership.

An assessment of how the Open Systems Model and Training Processes Model apply to The Company

Describe any additions, alterations, or substitutes for the Models that you discover.

As a branch of an international bank, the bank adopts many strategic resolutions made at the headquarters. However, this is subject to the evaluation of the branch executive manager and other managers. This reevaluation is meant to ensure that any operational model adapted is in line with the banks local communities’ beliefs, values, and economic situation. As a result, the bank has been able to attract more customers and hence become highly profitable.

We will write a custom Essay on Barclays Bank Strategic Plans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bank’s management values training as a key component of growth. As such, their training process has been modeled to ensure little expenditure with high results. They call it “a high return less investment” programme (S. James, personal communication, April 7, 2012).

Instead of the traditional training process model involving analysis of the current situation and establishing training needs, designing of a training programme, developing training materials, implementing of training and carrying out an evaluation to establish the effectiveness of the training, which can take months, the company employs a daily evaluation and mini trainings.

After setting organizational goals, the goals are broken down into small tasks, which are then assigned to each employee. The goals are further broken into daily targets. Employees who meet their targets assist those who fail to through giving tips. This has proven remarkably effective and minimized frequent training needs.

Reference Berclays Bank PLC. (2011). Annual Business Report. London: Barclays Bank.

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Organizational Behavior and the Individual Essay essay help: essay help

Organizational behavior is a section of study that is closely associated with the study of individuals and occurrences within an organization. It entails interrelations amid individuals within a given association and the nature of an existent interrelationship within varied organizations.

Structurally, the constituent factors of an organization are the individuals pooled from dissimilar sections and enable the organization realize its preset goals and objectives. The divergent roles undertaken by these differing individuals within the margins of the organizational structure cumulatively defines the organization’s behavior.

Evidently, there is a deeper association between the individuals within an organization and the obvious organizational behavior. This essay attempts to unravel this relationship through an exploration the driving factors behind an individual behavior. It borrows heavily from observations made within RBS citizens.

Pilati

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Electrical Injuries and Fatalities Essay (Article) custom essay help

Electrical injuries are believed to have started within the last two centuries; however, humans have been exposed to electrocution through lightening for a very long time. These injuries are not frequent but they pose devastating effects with high mortality and morbidity on human beings.

Most of them occur at workplaces although most children are exposed at home. Severity of injuries depends entirely on three factors. The factors are magnitude of electric current, duration of contact and the pathway which current follows in ones body (Koumbourlis, 2002).

The aim of this article is to give an implementation plan for ARC Flash Management and a statement of legal aspect of Occupational Safety and Health topic.

ARC flash is caused by an electrical short circuit which can cause fatal injuries to an electrician or anybody around. According to White (2006), to protect employees from electric shock at workplace, the following strategies should be implemented.

As an employer, a leader or a manager, one should develop zero-tolerance policy towards energized work especially in highly mechanized factories. Although some electrical equipments and tasks are not considered to be energized, electrical hazard analysis should be conducted on them.

Some tasks like racking circuit breakers in and out of their cubicles seem to have no hazards, but they involve breaking electrical connections which are risky to electricians. Therefore, they pose a danger of ARC flash hence requiring ARC flash PPL when racking breakers.

Leaders and employers should frequently go to the working areas to see what their employees are usually doing. This will help to develop a checklist for tracking best employees who can perform particular tasks in the workplace (Gregory, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees should not be restricted to a single activity. Therefore, it is necessary to train all of them to perform any task or attend to hazards associated with those tasks. Supervisors should know how they can do some tasks without exposing themselves to some risks.

As a manager, a leader or an employer, one should develop safe working practices and procedures which can guide workers hence minimize risk of electrical injuries and possible fatalities. These practices may include use of electrical work permits, clearance procedures and switch orders which help in developing the correct step to be used when there is an accident.

Periodical safety audits should be performed at workplace to ensure that workers are always ready. Therefore, workers will always keep up with safe work practices and maintain standard procedures.

Whenever procedures and scope of work change, they are accompanied with different hazards. Organization’s management should conduct briefing sessions when there is a new procedure in place. Change of job scope calls for new briefings which are in line with expected hazards (Gregory, 2003).

When safety award programs are being carried out, high level of caution should be exercised so that the laid down procedures are not compromised. In earlier years, Occupational Safety and Health Association cited many occasions where award programs led to discouraged accident reporting which in turn compromised the laid down procedures and guidelines.

Leaders should be acquainted with regulations and the National Fire Protection Association Standard 70E which addresses electrical safety practices at workplaces.

It is also necessary to use IEEE 1584-2002 to guide management and safety team while performing Arch Flash Hazard calculations at work place. This should be done especially on what is considered hazardous (White, 2006).

We will write a custom Article on Electrical Injuries and Fatalities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also necessary to document every single activity which is performed at a workplace.

Finally, one should show good faith effort when undertaking all implementation activities. This helps to save one from a lot of pain when trying to have the above mentioned activities done (White, 2006).

Electric current exposes workers and other people who visit workplaces to various occupational hazards. Generally all members of a workforce are at risk of electrical injuries although most of them are not aware of any hazards at workplaces.

This makes them vulnerable. Injuries due to electrical malfunctioning or occurring while one is carrying out activities at workplace may be prevented, punished or compensated through legal procedures. Legally, organizations are required to comply with Occupational, Safety and Health requirements to ensure that their employees are protected.

Implementation of Arc management plan is a continuous and complicated procedure but when approached carefully, electrical injuries and fatalities can be avoided or reduced.

Many people may see the requirements to be too much, but any committed leader works extra hard to ensure that his workers are protected from electrical hazards. Training workers on various work related practices which safeguard their safety is a key activity. This should be done not only in their specific tasks, but also related tasks.

Various procedures and guidelines have been provided by regulatory bodies and manufactures of electric gadgets used at workplaces. If these procedures and guidelines are followed to the later, electrical injuries will be minimized.

Occupational safety and Health requirements provide a clear legal engagement for employers to prevent, punish and compensate their workers who are involved in electrical injuries at workplace. All employers, work leaders and supervisors ought to comply with such requirements to improve working conditions for their employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Electrical Injuries and Fatalities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion electric injuries and fatalities can be prevented or managed by implementing Arc Flash Management plan. Legal requirements of Occupational, health and Safety help to prevent or mitigate effects of electric accidents at workplaces.

References Gregory, G. (2003). Preventing Arc Flash Incidents in the Workplace. EC

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History paintings Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Romanticism can be described as a period that was characterized by numerous changes in the works of art.1 Besides, the period of romanticism is estimated to have existed between 1760 and1870. During this era, numerous changes occurred in the works of art coupled with reactions against the rise of Neoclassicism that was taking shape in most parts of Europe.

History painting artists such as Kauffmann, David, Delacroix and Gros were against what was particularly referred to as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment, or rather the18th-century materialism. Romanticism was characterized by passion, imagination, autonomy and independence.2

Additionally, it emphasized on favorite historical art subjects, nature, people and landscapes. The Romantic Movement first developed in northern Europe as part of rejecting the new technical standards of art which were fast emerging.3 It is against this scope that this paper aims to explore the aspect of romanticism in the history of painting by considering the works of artists such as Kauffmann, David, Delacroix and Gros.

Kauffmann: It is apparent that Kauffmann was one of the prominent artists who were among the remarkable history painters during 18th century.4 He emerged as an active painter who used figural arrangements of old sculptures, poses and vase paintings. The artist figuratively influenced the stylistic trends of his times. For this reason, she emerges as a lucrative academic painter and thus left a mark in the field of history painting.

Historical records have revealed that Kauffmann made inspirational and editorial paintings that were based on her lovely imaginations. Besides, she had made several fine etchings, friezes and ceilings. Myriad of decorations which she made around 1771-81 can be traced in some of the deluxe houses in Rome. 5

During the late 1770s, the artist did history paintings mainly for monetary returns. Shortly after this period, Kauffmann drew her attention on neoclassicism. She produced paintings that were based on historical events that existed in ancient Rome an Athens. During this era, neoclassicism considered the work of art from the esteemed artistic perspective.

Kauffmann participated in the movement. She produced a lot of exhibits mostly nude models that were used to illustrate the anatomy of human body. Moreover, she made historical paintings on landscapes and flowers. Regardless of the fact that painting of nude pictures by women was highly criticized she fairly improved her skill at drawing and painting human forms. To ward off criticism, she painted nude paintings and draped them with clothes

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to research evidences on Kauffmann works; it is evident that she participated on exhibitions at Royal Academy in 1769. She presented four of her history pieces referred to as the iliad and odyssey.6 Out of the remarkable praise she received from the paintings, she was motivated to do more entries.

Other remarkable entries include the “Venus showing Aeneas and Achates the way to carthage”.7 Evidence has that Kauffman’s history paintings were different from works of other artists of her time because she portrayed women at the center of the events she painted. In addition to this, it is beyond doubt that Kauffman established a gender neutral figure in her works.

In return this became an upcoming image that illustrated her personal understanding of gender parity. As an outstandingly successful female painter, she received privileges that most women were denied. For instance she received a membership in the Royal Academy that positioned her in better ground to exhibit her work.8

This position enabled her to bring a new perspective to history painting, particularly rendering the human figure. In producing gender neutral figures she managed to highlight the female role in most of her history painting.

Due to the emergence of romanticism in the 18th century, Kauffman experienced all of these societal pressures and serious criticism rose against her works. However, she was able to ward off the critics as a woman and understood fully her role as an artist.

During the wave of romanticism, only writers and poets were able to give their initial expression to romantic ideas. In that case, painters remained subject to such ideas and feelings. However, Kauffman acquired her inspirations from the romantic literature of the period. With the romantic movements Kauffmann gained awareness of how various form of arts interacted.

Romantic critics asserted that that experience of insightful inner emotion was the major theme of creation and pleasure of art. For this reason, Kauffman became more determined to make her work pleasurable and insightful irrespective of the critics.9 To achieve this, she explored the idea of genders neutrality and incorporated it in her history paintings. Moreover, she emphasized effeminacy, androgyny, cross-dressing and the mother as hero.10

We will write a custom Essay on History paintings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, by incorporating cross-dressing and androgynous images, she reinvented the figures in history painting to emphasize on the theme of gender neutrality. It is beyond doubt that Kauffman was a highly privileged female artist who was talented and accepted in the masculine realm.11 Throughout her work, she incorporated all the aspects of romanticism in art such as originality, creativity, heightened sensation, fascination and emotional pleasure. Below is sample of Kauffmann works of art.

Description: Angelica Kauffmann, her own portrait

Source: Description: Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Her Treasures, 1785, Oil on Canvas.

Jacques David David’s art initially embodied the neo-classicism style that was dominant in France during the late 18th to early 19th century.12 During this time, he flourished in styling rigorous contours, polished surfaces, history painting and sculptured forms.

He abandoned the style due to its primacy and hence set a radical redefinition for the history of painting that drew their themes upon ancient events and distant civilization. David s work was grounded on the new found freedom of expressing emotions after countering neoclassicism.13

In his new style, he painted nature in it wild state that later stirred up creative imaginations. That’s not withstanding, David became a prominent artist of history and a virtual dictator of art. This artist was perfect in ethical paintings that focused of the moral climate that existed during the ancient periods

Later on, the artist gained interest on romanticism as a student leader in France. He dealt with history paintings that made him to become renown worldwide. He was a landscape artist who achieved dramatic visualization in his pictorial work. Apparently, David had a marvelous mastery of his work as it was depicted on the effect of light and color on his exhibitions.14

Some of his remarkable works include the Hay wagon, snow storm and steam boat off a harbor mouth.15 It is apparent that romanticism influenced Jacques to appeal to the human need to appreciate the work of art since his exhibits held standard s of beauty that heightened public sensation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History paintings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the new romantic style, David got an opportunity to adventure in repertoire subjects through painting that made him get exiled to Belgium in 1816.16 David History painting emerged as the most notable works of art. Several of his collections are still preserved in world renowned museums as exhibits. Below are samples of David’s works of art.17

1780

Source: Description: Jacques Louis-David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784-1785, Oil on Canvas

Background of Eugene Delacroix

One of the most remarkable aspects of romantic literature and art history that portrayed the natural world and expressed intense emotion and passion in the history of France came from Eugene Delacroix.18 Rubin describes Delacroix in his earthshaking article Eugene Delacroix as the most influential and greatest French painter and writer in the history of the French Romantic Movement.19

Delacroix (1798-1863) made astonishing use of colors in his paintings which many art scholars claim were very instrumental in developing the impressionist and post-impressionist activities. It is imperative to point out here that his exotic locale was important for his artistic work as not only entranced him, but also provided inspiration for his art and a source for his high and mundane artistic elements.20

Delacroix works

Wilkin points out in her publication that one of the most defining literary pieces done by Delacroix was the Journal d’Eugene Delacroix which greatly displays his extensive and substantial literacy.21 It illuminates and describes his paintings while articulating his view on life, politics and art. As a matter of fact, his artistic beauty as described in the paper has been inspired by writings of Sir Walter Scott, Shakespeare, Goethe and Dante. Additionally, it represents unique contribution to the study of painting history.22

Liberty Leading the People

Liberty Leading the People is one of the most epochal and monumental paintings made by Delacroix in response to an event in France described by biographers as a political upheaval of 1830 which almost caused the then reigning monarch called Charles X to be overthrown by the opposition.23

Spitzer describes the painting as a complex one that is weighed down with spectrums of emotions like despair, anger and grand heroism, and which is pregnant with historical references of the political upheaval.24

It is important to note that the painting characterizes French Romanticism which is expressed in complex interaction of colors showing dark shadows and brightly reflective areas. Rubin concurs with Spitzer’s view of the painting and suggests that the complex communication of colors, like rapid-fire brushwork creates vivid contrasts which augments the sense of energy and movement as well as activating the surface of the painting.25

Figure I: A Liberty Leading the People painting by Delacroix

Tim argues that the unique style of painting Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People shows that he did not depend on the subtle and painstaking modulation of colors.26 Tim hinges this argument on the view that the painting has broken away from the tradition of painting and instead applied traces of shocking, brilliant and pure color pigment.27

From the diagram above, a person can clearly observe primary colors like the yellow, blue and the powerful reds which appear in sharp notes. In agreement, Trapp indicates that the effects in the picture are electrifying and vivid especially when observed against broad gray and brown areas.28 He concludes that this style faultlessly corresponds with the event and shows how liberty is advancing over barricades that are made of debris, and signify Parisian rebellion.29

Modern Nike

Another fascinating piece of art history personifying freedom and standing in the tangled streets of France is the Modern Nike which the French refer to as Marianne.30 Scholars of history argue that before the 19th century, the largely medieval city of Paris and its streets were developed without a plan and this made it to appear chaotic.

Nicholas posits that the warren, tousled and disheveled streets of Paris with narrow alleys presented major social and economic problems as they slowed down the movement of troops, trade and travel.31 It is in this crowded area that Delacroix artistic work personifying freedom, democracy and revolution stands.32

Figure 2: A Modern Nike sculpture in France representing romanticism

Podro describes the piece of art clothed in a drapery circling the hips and which is being spun by wind as a picture that has a touch of classical statuary.33 It is on the imitation of Delacroix’s Modern Nike work that certain works like the Hellenistic sculpture with spiraling costume of the late ancient Greek and the Samothrace Nike were found.34

Of utmost importance to analysts in the picture in figure I is the idea behind Delacroix exposing Marianne’s breasts, and which analyst posit that since the figure is not a real human being, the exposure indicates an embodiment of an idea. Indeed, Marianne signifies a democracy that was created in ancient Greece.

Delacroix uses partial nudity to refer to that kind of ancient democracy. In addition, the exposed breast depicts the first revolution in France which began in 1798 and created a new democratic state which was seen as an infant which needed to suckle from the breasts of its mother Marianne, and who represented freedom.35

Class distinctions

Delacroix describes the phenomenon of class distinction in the history of France in the portrait below that show a menacing crowd that is partially hidden by a heavy smoke from the raging battle.36 Brown points out that these figures play a pivotal role of representing individuals of very different economic and social positions.37

For instance, the man with a jacket, Waistcoat and a top hat falls in the category of middle class citizens while the second figure in a cap and white shirt represents a laborer and a member belonging to a lower class. Delacroix message in this picture clearly shows how in fighting a ruling aristocracy, a revolution has the power to unite different classes.38

Figure 3: A picture showing class distinction in France

Rebellion and its consequences

The foreground of figure I above shows bodies of two dead people with the one on the left side meant to enrage those who see it. Southgate argues that Delacroix brings the excesses and brutality exhibited by the king’s troops.39 In essence, the impression created by the painting is that of pure propaganda.

The other dead person on the left epitomizes how the royal troops carry out despised practices of terror. The picture shows an individual in a nightshirt who seems to have been dragged from the comfort of his bedroom into the streets into the streets where he ends up being shot.40

In addition, there is a dead figure in uniform lying at the right side which Delacroix brings out as a royalist and an enemy who in such instances is vulnerable. At the far right end of the picture there are buildings like the Notre Dame de Paris and the great Gothic Cathedral, which symbolize the power of the king and which in the picture are flying in the tricolor triumphantly.41

Conclusion To sum up, the discussion has clearly indicated that the period of romanticism was characterized by flourishing intellectual movement in Europe in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Many artists, composers, writers and philosophers responded to the complexity of that age with pieces of art showing the implications of the period. Besides, in the analysis, it is clear that the romantic thought during this time largely reflected organic conception of interconnections, the society and an individual’s life.

Bibliography Ann-Marie, Michel. “Delacroix and My Modern Masters”. ARTnews 9, no.8(1999): 160- 168.

Barbara, Gabriel. “Performing theory, performing gender: critical postscript”. Essays on Canadian Writing 54, no.6 (1994) 237-260.

Barkley, Wilson. “JacquesLouis David”. Smithsonian 29, no. 5(1998), 80-91.

Bordes, Philippe. Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile, Exhibition catalogue. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Brookner, Anita. Romanticism and Its Discontents. New York: Farrar, Straus

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Morgan Hotel Group Corporation Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Morgan Hotel Group Corporation offers hospitality services in major gateway cities in the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries in Europe. It acquires, redevelop, develop, operates, and own boutique hotels and resorts. According to Adner (2006), major competitors in hotel industry are Marriott and Hilton with over 2,200 units and 499 hotels worldwide respectively.

However there are other players who are direct competitors in Morgans Hotel Group in Boutique hotel industry. The major ones are Kimpton Group and Starwood’s W Chain (Adner, 2006).

Morgan Hotel Group Corporation has enhanced its market share in the last five years. In 2007, Morgan Hotel Group opened Mondrian Scottsdale urban resort in Arizona. In February 2007, the company further acquired the hard rock Hotel and Casino and its related assets in Las Vegas.

Kimpton Holdings which own Kimpton Groups of Hotels and Restaurants increased its value from $157 million in 2005 to $246 million in 2008. Starwood Capital on the other hand had a value of $900 million in 2007 with plans to acquire a group of hotels in Europe (Meridian Capital, 2008). This shows that Morgan Hotel Group and its competitors are working hard to enhance their market share through expansion.

Starwood competences are based on some pillars including structure, support and financial management. In its expansion program, Starwood has been renovating physically tired structures rather than engaging new construction.

Through this, Starwood has reaped significant value in cost saving. It has further benefited from large scale purchasing and maintenance contracts. Starwood has been focusing on transient business customers. These types of customers constitute over 70% of the total customer base. This serves them well during good market conditions.

One competence which Starwood is banking on is employee skills. It has a skillful workforce which ensures customer satisfaction. They use employee assessment services to ensure that skills acquired by employees are well utilized.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kimpton on the other hand has a strong revenue management culture which has seen it go through success in the last couple of years. Kimpton’s target market is wide and non selective. The hotel’s policy support same sex relationships making it convenient to all customers (Pangborn, 2012).

Kimptons has several strengths. Company culture is inclusive and unique with four and five star accommodations in major cities. Its personal approach is what has brought most of its customers. Company image is another key strength which has maintained the company’s reputation.

It is modern, stylish, involved, indulgent and innovative. Key staff values make Kimpton Hotels a successful company. They have excellent service at all customer contact points.

Kimpton has a high level of operational efficiency in each property. It has a vast financial resource which has enabled it to purchase several properties. Finally Kimpton has promotional and motivational programs which are aimed at recognizing frequent guests (Pangborn, 2012).

Kimpton weaknesses include poor success to natural resources. This is because most of its properties are located in cities. Other weaknesses are poor experience in the hospitality industry and low market share (Pangborn, 2012).

Starwood has a fare share of its strengths too. It has a wide range of geographical diversification, strong brand portfolio, efficient use of resources and very strong growth prospects.

Starwood weaknesses include limited liquidity position, declining market share and weak financial performance.

We will write a custom Essay on Morgan Hotel Group Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Kingdom remains the main market for Starwood’s future plans. It has found out that boutique hotels industry is not developed in the United Kingdom and has been planning do major expansion program there. Major cities in the United Kingdom have no boutique hotels (Ruddick, 2012).

Kimpston has wide developments in urban market. It draws most of it customers from urban areas. Its future plans include development of more properties in urban areas of Virginia, Dallas and Los Angeles (Ehotelier.com, 2012).

Works Cited Adner, Ron. Lifestyles of the Rich and Almost Famous: The Boutique Hotel Phenomenon in the United States. 2006. Print.

Ehotelier.com. Kimpton Hotels and restaurants to expand Hotel Palomar Brand in key Urban Markets. 16 May. 2011. Web.

Meridian Capital. “Hotel Investment: Challenging Times.” Research articles 8.8 (2008). Print.

Pangborn, Patti. Kimpton Hotels and Restaurants. Chicago: Columbia College Chicago, 2010. Print.

Ruddick, Peter. UK market remains key to Starwood’s development plans. 23 Mar. 2012. Web. https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2012/03/23/UK-market-remains-key-to-Starwood-s-development-plans

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Stereotyping in the Human Culture Essay online essay help

Stereotypes have existed as long as human culture has been in existence. They are a reflection of what certain people or groups of people think about others who are different from them. They are expressed by a single phrase or words, images or words combined with images.

Those who share similar views on stereotyping understand and recognize the evoked images easily. There are both negative and positive stereotypes. An example of a positive stereotype is the phrase ‘black people are good in running’ while ‘women are irresponsible’ is a negative stereotype. Individuals who stereotype others feel superior to them.

Stereotyping disregards the fact that individuals have their uniqueness and assigns common qualities to all individuals who belong to a certain group. People use stereotyping in order to simplify their world since they involve themselves in little thinking when they encounter new people .

Through stereotyping, it is inferred that people possess certain abilities or qualities assumed to belong to all members of the group they belong to.

Stereotypes amount to social categories which cause prejudice. Although some stereotypes are positive, most of them are negative and affect individuals negatively. This essay will discuss some common stereotypes and their effects on people.

The first type of stereotype is youth stereotypes. Stereotyping a particular group of individuals may have an influence on how the group is perceived by the society and probably alter the expectations of the society on the group.

Continued exposure to stereotypes causes the society to consider stereotypes realistic as opposed to sampled representations. The media at times plays a significant role in making stereotypes more pronounced. An example of a stereotype is the notion that youths are uncontrollably engaged in crime.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a perception which is highly developed through the media when stories on property crimes, students shooting their colleagues and acts that involve perceived youth gangs are publicized by the media.

However, statistics paint a different picture since there are indications that youth homicide cases have decreased considerably. Since 2001, such cases have continued to drop remarkably.

In addition, the number of youths accused of committing property offences which are the most prevalent youth crimes reduced remarkably between 1987 and 1997.

As a result of this impression created by the media that youth crimes are ever increasing, lobby groups politicians have been advocating for stringent disciplinary actions to deal with young people who commit criminal activities and reduce the perceived increase in criminal activities committed by the youths.

This has been in total disregard of the truth that young offenders are punished more severely than adults who commit similar crimes .

Negative stereotypes affect they way adults look at youths and also have an impact on how young people perceive themselves. The impression that young people do not earn respect from people around them does not motivate them to perceive themselves positively.

Minority groups like women, blacks, lesbians and gays experience the impacts of negative stereotyping and are hardly represented positively in the media. This causes most of the minority groups to fight for the elimination of the negative stereotypes associated with them.

We will write a custom Essay on Stereotyping in the Human Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Youths argue that they are intelligent people but most adults do not believe that they are intelligent. They face discrimination that is stereotypical in nature which is wrong. The only way through which youths can be assisted to realize their goals is listening, trusting and respecting them. They should not be stereotyped on the basis of how they look like or the kind of music they listen to.

The second type of stereotype encountered in daily activities is women stereotyping. In most cultures and societies, women are viewed as people who cannot take up leadership roles.

As a result, leadership positions are only reserved for men and women who attempt to fight for them often face strong opposition from men and the society in general.

The entire society seems to accept that women are ineffective leaders and subscribe to that kind of thinking. It is even surprising that some women discourage their fellow women from getting into leadership instead of supporting them.

Gender stereotyping affects women negatively and prevents them from making a positive contribution in the society. When women are discouraged from getting into leadership positions, this affects the way they perceive themselves negatively.

In addition, the perception that men are the only individuals who lead well breeds poor leaders since they do not face a lot of competition in leadership. Those who deny women leadership positions argue that women should only concentrate on domestic matters and leave leadership for men.

Their arguments are based on a wrong perception that allowing women to get into leadership destroys the societal fabric. The mistake in this kind of argument is that men do not always make good leaders.

In many situations, they are associated with poor leadership which eventually exposes their subjects to suffering. The truth is that there are many women who succeed in leadership and achieve what most men do not achieve. The perception that women are poor leaders is simply a mere stereotype.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Stereotyping in the Human Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third type of stereotype that is common among some whites is racial stereotyping. This is a type of stereotyping that depicts black people as inferior to the whites hence they end up being denied privileges and opportunities that the whites enjoy. Although racial stereotyping is not as pronounced as it was a few years ago, it still exists.

For instance, black people are restricted from accessing certain institutions on the basis of their skin color. There are also cases of individuals who are mishandled simply because they are from a different race.

Racial stereotyping becomes a very complicated issue in cases where the blacks are citizens of countries whose majority citizens are white. This implies that they have to deal with negative stereotypes for their entire lives .

Racial stereotyping affects the blacks negatively because it denies them a chance to live comfortably as the rest of the white population. When the blacks are viewed as individuals with a different identity, the feeling that engulfs them is that they are lesser human beings.

This prevents them from making positive contribution in the society even when they have the ability to contribute positively. The mistake in this kind of thinking is that black people have the same qualities as white people.

The perception that white people are better than the blacks is wrong since whatever they can do, the blacks have the capacity to do it too. For example, black people have succeeded in many sectors in places where they are considered inferior to the whites. A good example is the incumbent US president whose roots are of black origin.

References Benson, J. (2006). Exploring the Racial Identities of Black Immigrants in the US. Web.

Marcella, L.,

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Working in Internet Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Internet is a very effective medium for communication. The introduction of electronic communication has greatly boosted the performances of many businesses nowadays. Despite, the high costs that are associated with establishing electronic infrastructure, electronic communication has proved as a very effective medium that has greatly boosted the performance of organizations as well as business enterprises. Electronic communication has facilitated communication greatly.

With the help of electronic mails, instant messaging as well as face book and twitters, many business associates are now at a better position to communicate with each other more efficiently. Similarly, the existence of internet has played a great role in the process of enhancing the awareness of products, services as well as the branding process.

Many companies nowadays are using the internet to market their products, services as well as their brand in order to enhance their sales in the market. The invention of a business idea of establishing a Gift Basket Store is a superb business idea. The reason behind the establishment of the Gift Basket Store was meant to give individuals as well as business entities a facility to pass their gifts to their friend or clients. As a result of the good management of the entity, the business became very successful in the locality2.

As a result of the good performance of the business, the partners are opting to augment their operations by adopting a virtual Storefront. The establishment of the virtual Storefront will help the business to increase their market niche. This is because more customers who are not within the locality will be in a position to access its service.

In addition, the establishment of the virtual Storefront will be accompanied with greater awareness of the service when it is well promoted in the social media such as face book and twitter. Despite, the initial challenges such as high costs that will be required to transform the business from Gift Basket Store to virtual Storefront, the business will eventually overcome its financial challenge and perform exceptionally.

The transformation of the Gift Basket Store into virtual Storefront will greatly affect the manner in which the business was formerly operating. The enterprise will change the manner in which it was branding itself. As a Gift Basket Store, the enterprise mainly focused on the local market that comprised of local residents as well as local businesses.

With the transformation of its operation from being a Gift Basket Store into a virtual Storefront, the enterprise will operate in a global market and thus, it will target customers from within its locality as well as across the border. Apart from using the local media as well as posters and billboards to market its brand, the management will consider adopting other advertisement means such as the internet to market the business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management should use Face book and twitters for creating awareness of the enterprise. Internet marketing and particularly face book and twitters are often very cheap. Customers can be in apposition to order for the services using their cell phone1. Therefore, the business will not incur a lot of expenses in promoting its services.

Subsequently, internet marketing will help the business enterprise to reach customers from far away without undergoing considerable expenses. The enterprise will also design and launch a website that it will use to brand as well as to sell its service to distant customers. The management will require hiring a web-designer who will design, develop as well as being responsible for maintaining the business website. The website will expound on the service(s) the enterprise is offering.

In addition, it will be designed in a manner to facilitate electronic buying. The virtual Storefront will have local as well as international clients. Therefore, the website should allow international clients to pay for their services online through the use of credit cards or PayPal among others.

The website should be secured accordingly in order to avoid exposing the credit codes of their customers to potential hackers who can use their credit cards to make unwarranted purchases like it had happened to many businesses. Thus, the web-designer should make sure that he/she has included encryption software to enhance the security of the system.

By establishing the virtual Storefront, the management will have an opportunity to access consultation services from appropriate professionals online. For instance, the management will not be required to employ someone to maintain its website, instead the management will make use of the available consultancy agencies to maintain as well as update their website. This will help to do away with unnecessary expenses.

For Example, the money that could have been used to pay the Information Technology (IT) personnel as salary can be channeled to other areas such as marketing or production to enhance the performance of the enterprise. The use of consultants for maintaining as well updating the website will help the management to receive updated information about new inventions IT that can be incorporate to establish a competitive edge over their rival brands.

Similarly, the management will get appropriate chance to get relevant information on how they can manage their businesses online through virtual trainings. Another aspect that is likely to change by establishing virtual Storefront is the mode of communications. Electronic mail, instant messaging as well as chats will be the most common form of communications. The website should have a feature that allows chatting in order to enhance customer care services.

We will write a custom Essay on Working in Internet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of the chat feature will help customers to receive feedback for their quires promptly in order to help them make informed buying decisions. The management should hire people that are well informed about the existing intercultural communication challenges in order to be able to market their service to foreign regions effectively 3.

Operating a virtual Storefront will entail the business extending its operation to bigger market niche. The business will serve both the local as well as far away clients that have diverse culture, tastes, values, beliefs as well as attitudes. Therefore, the business will experience a lot of challenges in operating as a virtual Storefront than when it was running as a Gift Basket Store. The challenge will result because of the resultant customer diversity.

The customer care, sales and marketing team will take some time before learning their market accordingly. This will result to challenges in marketing as well as selling the service to new regions. Similarly, the management will have a lot of challenges in using the new technology that involves extensive use of the internet in marketing as well as selling their services.

Because the enterprise will be operating in a global market, it will face more competition from other international companies that are offering the same service. Moreover, doing business over the internet will be challenging because of the insecurity associated with e-commerce.

Nevertheless, the adoption of virtual Storefront will help the business to extend its market niche to other regions that will eventually increase the sales of its services and revenue generated. The existences of stiff competition from other companies that are offering similar services will help the business enterprise to became more innovative and differentiate its service accordingly in order to establish a competitive edge in the market4.

Bibliography Apple Small Business Home Page. Supercharge Your Business. Web.

Canada Business Centre for Entrepreneurs. How to Run a New Business. Web.

Small Business Centre. Small Business Solutions. Web.

U.S. Small Business Administration. Starting a Business. Web.

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Kent Reilly III’s article on Olmec iconography Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The article relates the shaman transformation pose and the leadership in societies where shamanism is practiced. The shaman transformation pose portrait involves the Olmec style. Olmec is an art style that was used back in early Pre-Columbian period. It is also an archaeological culture.

In the Kent article the shaman in transformation pose, the Olmec art style has mainly been employed. The Olmec culture was found in southern Mexico in the Mesoamerican prehistory. However, it was found to be more popular in Heartland.

The art was indicated in various objects linked with formative period society members. This indicates that, it was employed as a charter for leadership. The art was displayed on rulers’ images in a specific pattern which allowed easy interpretation of the rulers’ source of supernatural power.

Discussion The article highlights the relation of the shaman transformation pose to leadership in the middle formative period. Transformation was involved with shamanistic activities which included rituals. The presence of the art in ruler’s grave highly suggests that, the art which pointed some transformation was linked with the leadership of the then formative period complex.

This has been brought out clearly using the description of the shaman portrait. The shaman transformation pose is a portrait which is believed to be found in Heartland, southern Mexico.

The portrait is described as an unclothed, kneeling man who from the view of the muscle tension and relaxation shows he is about to rise. The facial expression of the man in the portrait seems charismatic. The individuals who practiced shamanistic powers according to the article got the power from the personal charisma.

Posture of the portrait is significant in the transformation process. The head features are more emphasized than those of other areas. The head is shaved where the scalp hair is partitioned into two layers. The naked parts indicate some transformation process where the person skin is peeled off to reveal an underlying supernatural creature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same part of the head is used as a poster to show symbolic evidence (9). In the shaman transformation pose portrait, a toad with a protruding tongue is the symbolic information. The toad according to researches has been indicated to be Bufo marinus which is believed to be important in shamanistic activities due to its pharmacological substances.

Hallucinogenic substances from the toad have been indicated to be used in transformation rites. Kent goes ahead and describes several portrait of the toad which holds other meanings. However, the toads including the one on the portrait have a distinct stripe on the back. The stripe later splits during transformation which is shown as elongated diamond elements on the portrait.

When the portrait is aligned together with other four transformation portraits, the shaman pose portrait is shown to be still in the initial changes of transformation to a jaguar. Other portraits have different postures and features which show different stages of transformation.

They have some similar features which include shaving and red cinnabar traces (16). In relation to leadership, the transformation figures in sequence symbolize the various stages in a ritual act while the toad signified zoomorphic supernatural. It was also used to locate place and action.

The presence of red cinnabar on the statuettes signified their use as grave equipment or their use in burial rituals where they were left on the grave. After a thorough research, the red cinnabar was shown to be used to differentiate the tombs of the rulers in the formative period. The transformation ritual was significant since the rituals including communication with the ancestors and sacrifice supported the ruler’s office.

Olmec culture is an intriguing culture which has stimulated researchers to find its relevance. Many writers have come up with articles explaining the culture but Reilly brings out the picture more clearly than any other.

He is a renowned author of great art articles. In the shaman in transformation pose article, Kent employs simple language which makes it easier for one to understand the article though some terms are complex. The description of the shaman in transformation pose in a simple language also facilitates understanding of its theme. The format employed is excellent as it allows free flow of the various descriptions in the article.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Kent Reilly III’s article on Olmec iconography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employment of pictures to illustrate the descriptions in the article makes it even simpler to understand. Moreover, the pictures used in a given page are relevant to the content of that particular page. For example, the description of the toad on the portrait head is excellent as he involves a picture to demonstrate it and further uses other art on the same to describe it.

This makes it easy to understand the symbol. He expresses his suggestions openly and gives substantial discussion which proves the point. This is evident when he suggests that, the naked part of the shaved hair also is a platform to show hidden symbols. In this case, he brings out the feature of the toad on the head which he readily proves and gives even more additional information like the name of the toad and how it is associated with shamanism.

At the beginning of the article he provides definition of Olmec term which is related to the topic and is used in the article content. This is important as it makes one understand the content of the article and its main theme. Furthermore, it eases the understanding of the article making it convenient to read without any guidance.

ncorporation of other people suggestions on the same topic helps one to get more information on the discussed topic. The article explains several aspects separately after which they are combined to prove the topic of the article. This enhances the understanding of the article subject.

The article is basically correct as it provides substantial information about the relation between the transformation rituals which involve the Olmec art and leadership in the then formative period.

Though there is some background information about the shaman in transformation pose, the format used does not bring out the information clearly making it hard to have a good flow of the information ( Klein et al 398). The article however is up to date as it has cited some recent researches on the same hence reliable. Different points of view are adequately presented however some are extensively presented which make it inconsistent. The reference citation is properly done.

Conclusion For the provision of knowledge on different cultures including Olmec culture, Reilly work on the same is effective. This is because it is fully detailed, thus, enhancing understanding as well as giving more knowledge on the subject. The presentation style used makes it even more interesting and easy to understand. This makes it an article of choice that should be incorporated in everyone’s library.

Works Cited Klein, Eulogio Guzmán, Elisa C. Mandell, and Maya Stanfield-Mazzi. “The Role of Shamanism in Mesoamerican Art: A Reassessment.” Current Anthropology (2002): 383-419. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kent Reilly III’s article on Olmec iconography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reilly, F. Kent III. “The Shaman in Transformatin Pose: A Study of the Theme of Rulership in Olmec Art.” Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University (1989): 4-21. Print.

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Foreign Direct Investment in Argentina, Brazil and Chile Report argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Foreign Direct Investment in Argentina

Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil

Foreign Direct Investment in Chile

References

Foreign direct investment is an establishment of a long-lasting relationship by an investor of one economy in an enterprise owned by another economy. For the relationship to exist both parties must agree on certain terms of operations and the relationship starts with an initial transaction between investors and the enterprise of interest and among affiliated enterprises.

Foreign direct investors may be organizations, people or public enterprises which run in foreign countries. This relationship between investors with foreign economies has a degree of influence on the management of various economies.

The following is information about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Argentina, Brazil and Chile. FDI environments of the three countries have been compared in terms of the countries’ trading partners and major foreign investors.

The FDI performance index together with the merger and acquisition level for each country has also been highlighted. According to UNICTAD (2012), FDI in Argentina, Brazil and Chile and generally in Latin America is high and this has been attributed to major privatization and growth prospectus in the region.

Foreign Direct Investment in Argentina Argentina is a South American country neighboured by Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. Argentina possesses a mixed economic system characterized by private freedom and a centralized economic regulation and planning by the government. Major trading partners of Argentina in Latin America include Brazil, United States, Mexico, Paraguay, Chile and Venezuela.

Foreign trade plays a bigger role in Argentine economic development and it contributes a lot to the Gross Domestic Product of Argentina. However, agriculture is the backbone of the economy. Export goods include grains, cattle and farm products. It has been reported that Argentina is the world’s largest cattle producer (globalEDGE, 2012).

High technology goods and services at the moment are also becoming important export goods for Argentina. Argentina has many foreign direct investments; the leading firms doing FDIs are United States companies. About 500 United State companies are currently operating in Argentina.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Main investment sectors in Argentina include financial, information and manufacturing sectors. Between 2001- 2002, it has been reported that increased arrears to international creditors and increased level of claims from foreign direct investments caused an economic crisis in Argentina and this is yet to be solved (globalEDGE, 2012).

The Foreign Direct Investment Performance Index computed for three years from 2005 to 2007 for Argentina was 0.871 which ranked the country at position 90. This was a drop in the FDI index because Argentina was ranked position 81 based on the FDI performance index computed for three years from 2004 to 2006 (UNCTAD, 2012). FDI performance index is usually calculated for three years to account for errors which may occur during collection of data for estimation of the FDI performance index.

Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil Brazil is the largest country of South America; neighbouring countries of Brazil include Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. The country has a free price system which determines the prices of goods and services.

Brazil trading partners in South America include Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Mexico. Most of these countries have bilateral or trilateral ties with Brazil. This trade agreement allows free trade between these countries and Brazil.

Agriculture is the major sector which supports the large economy of Brazil. Foreign exchange is also important for economic development of Brazil. Trade goods include: sugarcane, coffee, tropical fruits, frozen orange juices, cattle and milk (globalEDGE, 2012).

Brazil encourages foreign direct investments and indeed it has the largest number of FDIs in South America. This is because FDIs contribute a lot to economic development of Brazil. Foreign direct investments in Brazil are dominated by United States Companies. Areas of investments include off-shore oil, biofuel and nuclear power production. Infrastructural sectors like roads, airports, spot facilities are also major investment areas (global EDGE, 2012).

Brazil FDI performance index computed for three years from 2005 to 2007 is 0.751 which ranked Brazil position 97. Similarly, Brazil was ranked position 97 based on the FDI performance index computed for 2004 to 2006(UNICTAD, 2012). According to 2012 ranking, Brazil has been ranked position three with a FDI performance index of 1.60 (ATKearny, 2012).

We will write a custom Report on Foreign Direct Investment in Argentina, Brazil and Chile specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreign Direct Investment in Chile Chile is a South American Country neighbouring Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Chile has a republican government with a free price system which determines the prices of goods and services. The country has trade agreements with sixty countries. These free trade agreements promote foreign trade between Chile and the countries involved.

Trading partners of Chile include United States, Brazil and Argentina. Chile has a high annual economic growth which ranges around 6%. Main exports goods include copper. Indeed the country has the largest copper producing firm (globalEDGE, 2012). On the other hand, Forestry and wood products, wine products and fish meals are also important trade goods in Chile.

The country has welcomed a lot of foreign investors recently. One reason which has attracted a lot of foreign investors to Chile is equal treatment of foreign investors and Chilean investors. This equal treatment of investors in Chile together with simple and transparent registration has increased the number of FDIs in Chile. In addition, foreign director investors in Chile are able to make use of foreign exchange markets where they reap a lot of benefits.

According to UNICTAD (2012), Chile was ranked position 37, based on the FDI performance index calculated for three years from 2005 to 2007. On the other hand, the FDI performance index computed for 2004 to 2006 which was slightly higher was 2.686 and it ranked Chile position 35.

Foreign Direct Investment index is an important tool because it provides information current and future foreign investments. The index assesses the effects of economic, political and regulatory changes on foreign direct investment in various parts of the world.

The level of merger and acquisition activity has been on the increase in Latin America particularly in Argentina, Brazil and Chile (UNCTAD, 2004). North America companies, European companies and other companies which are prominent in the region have been highly active in acquiring other firms and merging with other firms. For instance Spanish largest company, Repsol has merged with various Argentine companies where it has made huge investments (UNCTAD, 2012).

Six Spanish companies are also operating in Argentina and are merging or acquiring various Argentine companies. With merging and acquisition, most companies increase their production output and their net sales and this leads to high profits. Due to this, we have cross-border acquisitions and merging where firms are willing to go beyond their countries in which they run to merge and acquire other firms.

References ATkearny. (2012). Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Confidence Index. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign Direct Investment in Argentina, Brazil and Chile by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Global EDGE. (2012).Global Insights. Michigan State University. Retrieved from: https://globaledge.msu.edu/

UNCTAD. (2004). Latin America and the Caribbean.United Nations Conference for Trade and Development.9, 1-599. Retrieved from: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/Home.aspx

UNCTAD. (2012). Inward FDI Performance Index 2005-2007. United Nations Conference for Trade and Development. Retrieved from: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/Home.aspx

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Bid for the 2014 World Cup – Brazil Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) world cup is an event of a global inclination. This is a major sporting event that has the highest number of spectators in the world. It is a football competition that is contested by national football teams of men (Wong, 2009).

The nations that participate in this event are members of FIFA. The World Cup is classified as one of the biggest events in the world (Clark, 2008). It is also one of the longest international events in the world whose magnitude has been growing with time from the time the event was incepted. The event has been taking place for 82 years since its inception back in the year 1930 (Lisi, 2011).

FIFA is the overall organization that governs football in the world. The federation does the overall administration of the world cup soccer event. The first world cup was held in the year 1930. From then, the event was scheduled to be taking place after every four years. The event has been taking place except for two seasons that are the 1942 world cup and the 1946 event that did not take place due to the Second World War which was going on that time (Stroud and Hein, 2009).

The number of participating teams has been increasing from the inception time. The number of teams that do participate in the sport has been standardized at 32. The 32 teams come from all the five continents of the globe. World cup football matches are held in different venues – stadiums within the hosting nation(s).

The event takes duration of a month. However there are a lot of events that precede and come after the event. A total of 19 world events have taken place and hosted by different countries with a number of countries having hosted the event more than once (Stroud and Hein, 2010).

The 2014 world cup final will be the twentieth world cup since the inception of the event. The football matches will be played in different stadiums across different cities in Brazil.

The cities include Brasilia and Cuiaba which lie in the central west region of the country, Manaus that is in the North region, Fortazela, Natal and Salvador that are found in the Northeast region of Brazil, Curitiba, Porto and Porto Alegre in the South region of the country and Belo Hoerizonte, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo that are found in the Northeast region of the country (Thorpe and Thorpe, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, Brazil is a football loving nation. Brazil is the best performer in the world cup competition having won the world cup trophy 5 times which is the highest number of times that a country has won the trophy in the history of the tournament. The country is the only country to have qualified to and participated in all the world cup tournaments since the world cup event was initiated in 1930.

Brazil is home to great football in the world. All good football and footballing skills are linked to the country. It has the best talents when it comes to football. Football us the most liked sport in Brazil with the highest number of fans in comparison to other sports (Woods, 2010).

Majority of the most talented players come from Brazil. These players include Ronaldo Luís Nazário de Lima Comonly known as Ronaldo, Ronaldo de Assis Moreira commonly known as Ronaldinho Gaucho, Romario de Souza Faria commonly known as Romario among many others other talented players who are playing in different leading football leagues in the world.

Brazil hosted the world cup event of 1950 (St, 2010). A number of cities that hosted the event are still among the potential cities to host the event in the year 2014. The 2014 event cannot in anyway compared to the 1950 world cup event because the 1950 event had less number of participating teams. The 1950 event had only thirteen participating teams and a total of twenty two games to be played in only six arenas.

The 2014 world cup will have a total of 32 participating teams and a total of 64 football matches that will be played in a potential eleven locations. However from the time the country hosted the 1950 world cup, there are many economic developments which includes a lot of infrastructure development. This has raised the capacity of Brazil and put it in a better place to host the world cup event (St, 2010).

Conception of the Bid The FIFA world cup is an event of a big magnitude that is held in different countries across the world. The countries that do host the event are supported by FIFA though most of the initiatives are done by the hosting nation. I am making a bid for Brazil to host the event in the year 2014. I am the leader of an event administration and organizing firm. The government has contracted my company to my company to make a bid for the country for hosting the event.

Therefore the whole responsibility of researching and making an analysis of the country is done by my company in order to make a report (bid) for the country to host the world cup. The bid will then be presented to the government which will forward it to FIFA for assessment in comparison with other bids from different countries that have interests of hosting the event.

We will write a custom Report on Bid for the 2014 World Cup – Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a one month event which entails a lot of logistical issues because of the large attendance which is attracted by such an event as it was witnessed in the last world cup final event in South Africa where more than one million foreigners attended the event.

Therefore the responsibility that is upon my company is carrying out a thorough assessment of Brazil as a country in terms of many aspects that include infrastructure which includes the transport infrastructure and the sporting infrastructure in terms of the sporting grounds and other sporting facilities, the security, the hospitality industry that is important because of the high number of guests among many other aspects.

All the research that will be carried out will bring out the potential of the country in terms of the structure that is already in place and the ongoing infrastructural projects as to put the country in a better place to host the event. Therefore a comprehensive quantitative as well as the qualitative study will be done in the general country and more emphasis will be put on the cities that have the potential of hosting the event. A comprehensive report will then be compiled compile that will reflect the picture of the readiness of Brazil to host world cup event.

Findings: The Political and Economic Factors of Brazil Political Factors of Brazil

Brazil covers an area whose size is approximated to be 8.5 million square kilometers. The size of the country almost doubles the size occupied by European Union states. The country has a very large population. The population of the country is approximated to be 200 million people. It is the 11th most populated country in the world (Forest, 2012).

Brazil has a democratic system of governance. The country has consolidated institutions of governance that have been behind sound administration and political stability. Brazil has good political relations with other countries. It has never involved itself in interstate war since the times of the Second World War (Organization for Economic Cooperation an., 2011).

The country has a federal system of governance. It has 26 states that make the federation. Brazil has a president who is elected and whose mandate lasts for a period of four years. The country has a stable government and a good foreign policy that aims to increase its presence at the international stage. The foreign policy of Brazil bases on commercial collaboration principle. The country has set up embassies in seventy four countries in the world (Organization for Economic Cooperation an, 2011).

Economic factors

The country has vast portions of natural resources which include oil and iron ore. These form part of the basis of economic development of the country. The country has fertile lands for agricultural production which is averaged at over 300 million hectares. The country is safe in the sense that it is not prone to natural calamities and or hazards and disasters. This puts the economy of Brazil in a better position when it comes to competition in the global market (OECD, 2011).

The country has a positive outlook in terms of the growth of its economy. Brazil has attained a big growth in the economy more so from the year 2000 to date. Its real Gross Domestic Product has been rising; it has doubled from 724 billion US dollars to 1.5 trillion US dollars for the period ranging from the year 2002 to 2009.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bid for the 2014 World Cup – Brazil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The country has had a constant economic growth from the year 2004. The country has the largest economy in the Latin America Region. When looked at in comparison to all the economies of the world, Brazil is classified at number ten in terms of the size of the economy globally. The United Nations Development Program has classified the country as having the highest human development index when compared to other industrializing nations (López-Claros, 2010).

The country plays a big role in the global market in sectors like aerospace, mining, energy and agriculture. The domestic market of the country has been expanding. This has resulted from sound policies that relate to economic growth and the distribution of income. The household consumption has grown to reach 236 billion US dollars by the year 2009. The country has a promising economy which has enticed foreign Direct Investors.

The foreign direct investment in the country has risen to more than double for the last five years – from 2005 to 2010. The country has good trade relations with other countries of the world. It has formed trade partnerships with different countries across all the continents. The major trade partners of Brazil include the larger Europe, China, United States, Japan and South America. This is according to the Brazil’s Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade (International Business Publications, 2005).

In spite of having a business environment which is functioning well the country the study has indicated that the country has wide spread bribery and corruption which hinders business and development of the country. However, there are positive developments concerning corruption.

The country has been cited for developing a strong legal base for mitigating corruption. Brazil is more often than not used as model for the development of legal anti-corruption frameworks by other developing states of the world. Brazil has anti-corruption frameworks that are generally well developed.

President Lula who is the current president of the country has shown serious commitments of fighting the vice of corruption. The country is still working on other legislations of ensuring that there is the participation of citizens in ensuring that the government s accountable and in sealing the loopholes for corruption (Yadav, 2011).

Brazil has a god communication network. The country has diverse means of communication across its different cities. Extensive means of communication that are used include landline phones, faxes, cell phones, the television and the radio. The use of computers in communication has been increasing. The use of internet and the social network in Brazil has gained fame in the country (ACC and Abraham, 2011).

Social Environment of Brazil

Brazil as a country has a rich culture. The country has a racial mixture. The also has different ethnicities. This brings a lot of diversities. The races in Brazil have a very thin line between them because here have been a lot of intermarriages between the races thus facing off individual races.

Brazilians are friendly people who like to interact with different people. Social classes in Brazil are determined by the economic status as well as the color of the skin. There are elements of racial discrimination in Brazil. The people with dark skin are the victims of discrimination and form majority of those who make up the low class in the country (Douglas, 2011).

The general religion of the country is Roman Catholic and most of the civil laws of the country bases on the Roman – German traditions.

The commitment of Brazil for hosting the event has been going on for quite a long time from the year 2003. All government sectors and departments are showing commitments of hosting the event. The citizens of the country are also showing lots of interests and commitments of having the event hosted in the country (Douglas, 2011).

Brazil has high rates of criminal activities. Crime is the major problem to the security of the country more so in the big cities the capital being one of the cities that is mostly affected. A ray of criminal activities that are common in the country include murder, carjacking, kidnappings, burglary and armed assaults.

The media and the media have reported increase in criminal incidences in the country. The nature of violence has shifted from gang-on-gang and criminal activities are targeting civilians. Organized crime is aggravated by drug barons and gungs who mostly operate in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Homicide in Brazil has been on decline in the recent times. Very violent crimes have dropped in recent times therefore the country is no longer classified as a very dangerous country in terms of crime (Human Rights Watch, 2011).

Most of the cities that will potentially hold the world cup events do not have high rates of crime. Crime is only prevalent in two of the cities which are Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The government of Brazil has launched a security plan that is geared towards combating crime and increasing the general security of the country.

The government has taken two approaches in tackling the security problem which are the increasing and deployment of security forces and the launching of preventive social programs. The government has launched a national security campaign and has planned to invest more than 3.3 million US dollars to bring down crime in the affected regions of the country. The plan is expected to have cut down crime in a big way by the end of the year 2012 (Conflict, security and development, 2011).

Moreover, the country is putting in place enough security details in places like the stadiums, main hotels and media centers which will be hosting a big number of guests who attending the event (Conflict, security and development, 2011).

Brazil as a country does not have terrorist activities. There are no terrorist groups that have been reported to be in the country. The country does not have alignment with enemies therefore this puts the country out of the dangers of being attacked and or terrorized by radical terrorist groups (Conflict, security and development, 2011).

Infrastructure of Brazil

Hosting cities have good infrastructure. The country has good air and land transport. The airports of the potential hosting cities are in a fairly good condition. This is a plus because the host cities have no proper hotel infrastructure in terms of the spacing and the quality to accommodate the anticipated large number of guests who will be attending the matches which will be played in the cities.

In general, the country has put in place transport and logistical measures to solve the anticipated transport problem which include the possibility of airlifting of fans to the cities as well as the transportation by road (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2010).

Given that Brazil has a good football and footballing culture for both men and women, the country has numerous football training centers. These training centers are stadiums that belong to the local clubs in Brazil which are participating in the Brazilian league. The country has good football infrastructure. Brazil has eighteen football stadiums that have the potential of hosting the world cup football matches. Fourteen of the stadiums are old stadium which have been operating for quite a long time.

There are other four stadiums that are still under construction. The old stadiums have been undergoing reconstruction to ensure that they are brought back to an excellent status in readiness for holding big events of the world cup caliber. The country lacks enough media facilities in the stadiums that have the potential of hosting the world cup event. There are good projects that are ongoing to address media requirements.

The country also has excellent football training facilities that have been in use for quite long. Some of these facilities have grown old and are being improved.

Environment and Geography of Brazil

The country has good geography and a good climate. The country has a varied topography which is inclusive of mountains, highlands, rivers, plains, savannas, grasslands and rainforests.

It has a big coastal stretch which covers a distance of 7,367 kilometers. The country has a big rainforest – the amazon rainforest which covers most of the terrain of the country in the north region. Brazil has a total of five climatic regions.

The climatic regions include tropical, equatorial, highland tropical, semi arid and the subtropical climatic regions. The different climatic regions have varying climatic conditions (Petersen, Sack and Gabler, 2012).

Sustainable Opportunities accruing from Hosting of the world cup event

By the virtue of hosting the event, Brazil as a country could benefit a lot as in many developments will be brought about by the event. This can be looked at in relation to the development that has taken place in South Africa due to hosting the event in the year 2010. Brazil is a country which is in the transition stage as in relation to economic development.

Brazil is a country that is developing at a relatively faster rate. South Africa is also a country that is in transition from a developing to a middle income economy. The infrastructural growth which is a vital component of economic growth was boosted in a very big way as in the preparation to hosting the world cup event in 2010.

This includes the construction of world class stadiums, the transport infrastructure which includes the upgrading of the airports to international standards as well as the roads and railway networks. There was also tremendous development in the hotel industry which has boosted tourism in the country therefore increasing the earnings from tourism thence economic development.

Social and Economic Impacts

The study conducted indicates the world cup event when hosted in Brazil will produce a positive impact on investments inn the country. The result of the study shows that if the e vent is hosted in the country, the economy of Brazil will increase five folds in terms of the total amount of direct investment in the events that are related to the hosting of the world cup. This will result directly and indirectly impact on the development of other industries.

Brazil will have to spend a total of R$ 22.6 billion in developing to ensure adequate infrastructure and the organization for the world cup. The event is estimated to bring to the Brazilian economy R$ 112.79 Billion. Also, another R$ 142.79 billion is projected to flow to the country as a result of the event.

The flow of money in the economy will generate an approximate of 3.6 million jobs per year. This will greatly aid in solving the unemployment crisis in the country. Furthermore an income of R$ 63.48 billion is expected from the event. This income for the population will impact positively on the consumer market at the domestic level.

The amounts of tax collected by the local, state as well as the federal government is expected to rise by R$18.13 billion. The direct impact of hosting the event on the Gross Domestic Product of Brazil is estimated to reach R$ 64.5 billion.

The sectors that will majorly benefit from the event include the construction sector, the hospitality sector which includes the food and beverages, the business services sector, the utilities sector that entail water, sanitation, gas and urban hygiene. The information services sector will also benefit from the event. The general output of these sectors will increase by R$ 50.18 billion.

Analysis of finding and justification

From the findings, it can be deduced that Brazil is a football loving nation. The country has passionate football lovers. The history of Brazil cannot be complete without mentioning football. This is a positive point that perhaps explains why the country is the favorite in hosting this kind of an event.

One of the most important factors of success for the world cup event is the number of people who buy tickets and or attends the event as the event aims at raising money for the football governing body. Therefore apart from foreign spectators, a big number of tickets will be bought by the Brazilians boosting the earnings from the event.

Also being a footballing nation, Brazil has a well developed football league. The country has a fairly good football infrastructure. This includes the stadiums and other football training facilities. These facilities are a good basis for hosting the event. The stadiums that are owned by the Brazilian football clubs are being upgraded to standards that are required to host the event.

This is a plus to Brazil when compared to other countries that do not have well developed local football where an overhaul of infrastructure will need to be undertaken. What is only needed and which the country is doing is the construction of ac few other stadiums.

Drawing from the findings of the research, it has been noted that Brazil as a country has never been attacked and or targeted by extremist and terrorism groups. This is an important considering the fact that terrorism has become an issue of international concern and that terrorist groups do target places with big gatherings as will be during the world cup event.

The country is mostly marked with internal criminal activities that are more prevalent in only two of the cities that will be hosting the world cup event. it has however been that the government of Brazil is investing a lot in issues to do with security and it has so far achieved remarkable success.

Brazil has had stable politics for a long period of time. It has a stable government and good foreign relations with almost all countries of the world. The country has a good record of human rights with absence of civil wars and or conflicts. This makes the country to have a neutralist view by other countries of the world and thus an attracting factor to foreigners who do attend the event.

Brazil has different climates owing to the different climatic regions that the country has. Moreover, the country has a long coastal stretch. All these are attraction factors for foreigners who will not only come as football spectators but also to explore the nature of the country.

Federalism has helped the country to attain widespread development throughout the country. Therefore the country has god infrastructure. Brazil has good airports. The government is working on expansion of other airports across the potential world cup hosting cities across the country. The country also has good roads which are being improved. Generally the infrastructure of the country is fairly good and the weak pints in infrastructure are being worked onto bring them to good standards.

The country has good hotels and restaurants. The hotels are however not well spread across the country. The transport infrastructure will aid in movement of spectators from stadiums to the hotels. Brazil is doing a lot in marketing the event both through the internet and other audio-visual media.

Conclusion Brazil is a country whose development is accelerating at a faster pace. The country has a good economy and good infrastructure. The country has a stable government. The country has adopted and embraced modern technologies in development. When all these factors are coupled with the football culture of the country, it puts the country in a better place to host a successful world cup in 2014.

Reference List ACC and Abraham, 2011, Advances in computing and communications: First international conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011 : proceedings. Heidelberg: Springer.

Clark, G., 2008, Local development benefits from staging global events. Paris: OECD.

Conflict, security and development., 2011, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Douglas, I., 2011, Global usability. London: Springer.

Forest, C, 2012, Brazil. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub. Co.

Human Rights Watch., 2011, World Report 2011. Seven Stories Pr.

International Business Publications., 2005, Brazil tax guide. Washington, D.C: International Business Publications.Lisi, C. A., 2011, A history of the World Cup, 1930-2010. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press.

López-Claros, A., 2010, The innovation for development report 2010-2011: Innovation as a driver of productivity and economic growth. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

OECD., 2011, OECD economic surveys: Brazil. Paris: OECD.

Organization for Economic Cooperation an., 2011, Government at a Glance 2011. Organization for Economic.

Petersen, J. F., Sack, D. I., and Gabler, R. E., 2012, Physical geography. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

St, L. R., 2010, Brazil. Footscray, Vic: Lonely Planet.

Stroud, J., and Hein, D., 2010, History of the FIFA World Cup. Scoresby, Vic: Five Mile Press.

Stroud, J., and Hein, D., 2009, History of the FIFA World Cup. Stirling, SA (Australia: Murray Books.

Thorpe, E., and Thorpe, S., 2010, The Pearson General Knowledge Manual. South Asia: Dorling Kindersley.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme., 2010, The state of the world’s cities 2010/11: Cities for all: bridging the urban divide. London: Earthscan.

Wong, G. M., 2009, The comprehensive guide to careers in sports. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Woods, S., 2010, World cup companion: The essential guide for all England fans 2010. Aylesbury: ShieldCrest.

Yadav, V., 2011, Political parties, business groups, and corruption in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Diverse Leadership Theories and Their Classifications Essay essay help free

Introduction Leaders are often forced to find a procedure to search for and understand true administrative techniques such as implementation of models for enhanced management. The personnel are made of diverse age groups, and therefore there is need to find different and unique styles of developing the way people interact through building rapport and communicating.

There have been evident increases on the number of interests in leadership styles and theories since the twentieth century. Leadership theories of the early styles mainly focus on the qualities that are distinguished between the subordinates and their leaders.

The subsequent theories changed focus to identification of variables required to cater for various situational demands and the diverse levels of skills. Diverse leadership theories emerged but there are common classifications of various groupings.

Theories of Leadership Great Man Theory

Acts on assumption that leaders exist intrinsically means the leadership is thus an aspect of birth and not formation. According to this theory, leaders exist as heroic figures, and mythically they are bale to meet demand due to ability to respond in accordance with the human needs/demands.

The term is a clear indication that the theory emerged when leadership qualities were primarily based on single gender; “male” and was particularly based on military form of leadership (Daft and Marcic, 2008, 182).

Trait Theories

The theories are also based on inheritance of various leadership traits/qualities. The theories are often base on specific leadership qualities and behaviors attributable to certain people. According to Dodds (2008, 1), the trait theories were conflicting since there was lack of explanation to cases of people who possessed these leadership traits but were not leaders.

Situational and Contingency theories

These theories forms an analysis of environmental variables that assist to determine leadership style that is best suited for a given situation. The theories therefore indicate that there is no particular leadership style that best suites all situations (Miller, 2008, 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Success depends on numerous situational variables, for instance style of leadership, qualities of followers and other aspects of the circumstance. Situational variables may therefore determine the leaders’ decisions.

Behavioural Theories

According to Mathis et al, these theories emphasize that leaders are made and not born (2008, 29). The ability to lead therefore depends on the leader’s actions as opposed to the environmental influences of other personal traits. Any one has the ability to gain skills of becoming an effective leader through guidance, active teaching, surveillance or presentation.

Participative Theories

The leader in this case considers the input or efforts of other involved persons. The leaders support involvement and participation of staff in decision-making procedures and other relevant fields. The leader is however in control of inputs from other group members.

Management Theories

“These are transactional presumptions that focus mainly on supervision and organization of group performances (Mathis et al, 2008, 29)”. The theories have deeper focus upon rewarding mechanisms for successful employees and punishment of failures.

Relationship Theories

They are transformational mechanisms that strengthen the links between managers and other personnel (subordinates). The leaders who use this form of model encourage members by inspiring them to achieve better results and emphasize the importance of having highly motivated employees.

The members are thus assisted to understand the importance of better and higher quality tasks, need for better group performance and ability to engage a fulfilling participation in accordance with personal abilities. According to Pride et al, “Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards (2009, 71).”

Current Leadership Development Plans The current leadership development plan is based on a model that assists in defining and responding to the queries of why leadership development is important. The model therefore lacks various development features but it is a management plan that improves performance through enhancement of underlying leadership elements.

We will write a custom Essay on Diverse Leadership Theories and Their Classifications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leadership style is both an individual or group administrative capability. Current model is therefore an oriented model that expresses organization performance in-terms of skills and knowledge that enhance performance.

The tasks for organization personnel are arranged in a manageable framework, to form a clear understanding of who does best and in what area. In accordance with Clark (2008, 1), “individual attributes, competency and outcome” are the main aspects that determines effectiveness of a leader.

Existing leadership Development Plan Individual Attributes Common Cognitive Ability – My common cognitive abilities mainly involves educational intelligence as opposed to exposure, involvement or experiences.

Specific Cognitive Ability – I have gained intellectual capabilities cumulatively through continual career growth. The cognitive ability therefore forms the concepts acquired mainly through experiences and it depends on my mental capabilities.

Motivation- I have the motivation and will to act in accordance with influences such as the overall performance requirement for the firm.

Personality – My personality involves personal leadership traits/characteristic that assist in overcoming complex organizational demands for instance charismatic leadership style.

Personal Competency Skills for solving Problems – the model enable me to strengthen my creative ability to solve simple as well as complex organizational challenges

Judgement Skills – I also have the ability to identify and understand social problems such as work-related conflicts, which requires an understanding of the personnel and how their social system works. I am thus in a position of smoothing the employees progress by coordinating them to work as a group or team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Diverse Leadership Theories and Their Classifications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Knowledge – the model has assisted me to cumulatively acquire information for managing complexity involved in organizing learning and data mining.

Professional Dexterity – I have the skills for enforcing delivery of the right output

Viable Outcomes My current Leadership plan therefore involves analysis of the degree to which I am in a position to enforce personal duties for success in accordance with the standard analysis criteria.

Current Personal Leadership-Development Model The model has five attributes namely modelling teams, mentoring personnel, coaching team, training staff and procedures for getting feedback from personnel, as indicated below.

Modelling involves leadership through observing others and imitating good aspects of their social form of learning. It is a more effective style when people are within a common environment with others. Mentoring involves the informal style of encouraging personnel through knowledge interpretation besides providing psychological and social support.

Thirdly, teaching enable those involved to gain new skills and knowledge in support of leadership. It is a slightly different from developmental training that involves provision of knowledge to improve present job-related performances in the aim of enhancing new technological developments. Lastly, feedback enables the personnel to respond by placing personal opinions and take part in decision-making or organizational changes.

Interface of Various Parts of the Model The modelling of teams’ performances based on leadership strategies and procedures has direct influence on the personal attributes and indirectly affects my procedure of finding and understanding my personal competencies. Leadership of the team therefore mainly depends on mentoring the employees through improvement of their trust.

Subordinates therefore remain encouraged due to my personal critical and accurate knowledge interpretation especially the social and psychological support. The personal trust of employees has direct impact on individual’s understanding of personal competence, but indirectly influences the individual attributes.

I also need to coach the team into production of feasible outcomes. Through the coaching process subordinates are able to understand my personal leadership competency and relate to the anticipated outcome. Training program also converge the teams to a common work environment.

The personnel gain some unique performance and leadership skills and are thus able to support leadership. The procedures for getting feedback from personnel through collection of personal opinions’ questioners support productivity and ability to understand my personal competency.

Lastly the collection of feedback is directly connected to decision-making process since I am able to assign various organizational changes as per the requirements. The whole model therefore enables me to promote interaction of different departmental groupings, different personnel competencies in the knowledge structure.

The interrelation also assists personnel to share tasks by subdividing into various categories depending on leadership skills, competence and professional abilities. Thus is the reason my leadership skills are mainly focused on competency.

The current leadership model focuses of competencies of various personnel. The tasks in the firm are identifiable from the departmental groupings, duties, and project frameworks over and above personnel competency in the knowledge structure.

The interrelation of skills assists personnel to move through a certain career path. Management through competency levels is thus sub-divided into various categories depending on leadership skills, competence and professional abilities.

The competences groupings form the leadership pyramid comprises of various basic leadership requirements as indicated by the illustration below

The part of the pyramid shows the core competencies, which entails personal abilities such as the skills for leading others, and the requirement levels of performance. The competencies provide the basis for other forms.

Existing Core Competencies Communication skills – My current basic communication skills involves proper, proficient and professional style of presenting instructions or guidance verbally and in written form. I am also able to present my planned activities in a manner that promotes employees participation and voluntary involvement such as sharing of ideas and offering suggestions. Communication also entails active listening to participants, mainly stakeholders, employees and clients concerns. The personal leadership style also focuses on ability to negotiate for the best market offers through skilfully using special wining approaches such as ability to maintain healthy business relationship with potential competitors.

Teamwork – the existing core competency also Involves enhancement of interpersonal relationships through team participation and enforcing growth of members’ responsibility to achieve set goals. The administrative skills also involve allocation of responsibilities to individuals as well as teams, negotiation and organization of resources in accordance with the tasks and for maximal efficiency aiming at achieving beyond the set goals through influencing group activities.

Creativity – Problems solving skills works well due to the personal creativity skills of identifying challenges, collecting the relevant information about the challenges and enforcing the brainstorming techniques to come up with appropriate choices. Eventually creativity requires selection of the best course of action through logical analysis of available alternatives.

Interpersonal Skills – interoperability is a major aspect of current model since the clientele respect, trust and distinction emerges from leadership skills. The current model focuses of treating personnel and clients with dignity they deserve in order to consolidate and cater for individuals’ feelings, desires and needs. Current leadership model thus supports personal abilities/traits by supporting the cultural and social contributions.

Managing Relationships with Clients – The feedback collected from customers is considered keenly since it encourages collective decision-making procedures and encourages contribution.

Self-Goals – The personal goals often include the personal deliverables, budgets, time schedules that encourage self-motivation as opposed to passive acceptance of imposed organizational culture. Self-direction enables the team to achieve goals within the set deadlines.

Flexibility – As the leader, the ambition to accomplish the required and anticipated change that meet organizational needs is desire to adjust the existing norms and make tough but accurate decisions especially to overcome challenges.

Establishment of Work Relations – work-based relationships requires association between workmates through social networks and building of relationships that are important and constructive at the work base.

Professionalism – Current I take actions by being the example to the rest. Professional leadership therefore requires one who is able to have a quick and instant link to the current professional developments. My current leader style is also active in supporting community-based developments through active community participation.

Financial – The leadership program provides keenness on resources management and is able to establish processes that have positive impact at the outcome.

Business Shrewdness – My current leadership provides insight over key developmental activities especially over the key areas that may affect the firm. The acumen provides improvement on area concern with major system improvement.

Although the current leadership model has the important aspects that form majority of the core competencies, the aspired leadership consist of stronger professional and leadership competencies for guiding or training personnel predominantly the subordinates.

Current Vs Aspired Leadership Competencies Leadership competencies are skills that are relevant for driving the firm into new and competitive levels particularly through embracing new technological advancements. These basic skills separate bosses or people concern with general management from those skilled and highly motivated leaders. Leadership competencies are thus the basis for other leadership qualities. Common competencies include:

Leadership Capabilities – My current leadership style has the required attributes that can be mimicked by the team members since they trust my abilities and have high work morale to achieving goals.

Processing of Company’s Vision – As a leader I have measures of increasing productivity through analysis of areas that requires more support. Visioning also involves “setting of goals, visions and having good organizational guidance principles (Mathis et al, 2008, 25).” Besides following procedural guidance as indicated in organizational learning, I am capable of implements personal observations to sway the subordinates into better procedures of attaining goals. Visioning also calls for leadership measures to ensure commitment of the team through setting team objectives and convincing those involved to buy to the process. Currently my aspiration is to have a model that enforce changes and encourages subordinates to embrace these changes, in the aim of preventing service or products deterioration.

Creating a Successful Team – Current leadership model focuses keenly on individual presentation thus establishment of strong group works and work spirits for cooperation and achievement of the set goals. However, my proposed leadership model must focus on the phases of storming ideas for better performance.

Quick and Accurate Assessment – Situations requires the leader who is in a position to take control as per the situational demand and enhances time management.

Conflict Management – I am in a position to resolve conflicts timely by solving the problems without offending those involved. “Expertise advice and support by leaders with respect to management of people requires establishment of a win-win situation (Mathis et al, 2008, 25).” One of the major concerns in conflicts management involves evaluation of procedures to establish alternative cause of actions during dispute resolution.

Project Management – The current leadership model is able to enhance timely procedural measures especially during project-management, for instance ability to ensure that tasks are comprehensively done on time. The organizational goals are easily changed or influenced by external factors, and therefore the leader must be in a position to establish and react to such influences. The leader must also have alternative plans for specific goals. Current management plan will focus on identification and evaluation of current and future projects.

Employee Involvement Strategy – This involves “development of need for ownership as a measure of bringing employees nearer to the decision-making and planning procedures (Mathis et al, 2008, 25)”. The employees’ success depends on the set objectives and implementation procedures. Empowerment is therefore a vital aspect of accomplishing various aspects in an effective and timely manner.

Subordinates’ Training program – Every opportunity presents a learning process and therefore future administration plans requires leaders who are more involved in coaching and mentoring programs as a measure for promoting performance feedback and enhancing career growth for teams as well as individuals. Chances for enhanced success depend on disseminated form of governance. According to Booyens, “the future performance feedback is an integral part of our day-to-day activities (2008, 23).”

Professional Competencies The training or learning procedures for leaders provide knowledge and skills required for controlling the system processes. The professional competencies are the binding aspects that enable all the other competencies to work as a system unit.

The technical aspects and skills are essential features of professional competencies. As a competent leader I must therefore have general understanding of systems and various processes they control. Technical expertise is thus not a main requirement of the leader since different personnel have specialty such as unique skills and knowledge depending on their area of operations. Some of the professional competency requirements involve:

Employees’ learning – Includes implementation of facilities to enhance understanding and assist them appreciate the different experiences in their professional fields. The informal learning in organizations also facilitates sense of direction for the personnel particularly when relating with counterparts from different departments.

Designing of Instructions – “Instructional Design (ISD) Model assists to conduct firm assessment and performance analysis of needs to enhance maximum growth and development of instructional materials for flesh designs (Booyens, 2008, 24). The leader is tasked with the program of enforcing the learning package through evaluating summative and formative ways of enforcing the entire process.

Rapid Design – Implementation of new techniques requires use of prototypes that assist in delivery of knowledge of new work-related packages

Consultation – The leader must determine stakeholders’ requests particularly ability to negotiate for solutions and fulfilment of various business requirements

Instructions – professionalism requires leader’s ability to prepare instructions, demonstrate presentations, clarify enquiries, facilitate transfer of skills, and provide knowledge as well as proper responses to feedbacks.

Summary of my Personal Approach towards Leadership Good communication skills – I implement my professional style proficiency through presentation, guidance sharing of ideas and offering suggestions. I am an active listener and have ability to skilfully negotiate for the best market offers.

On team work projects, I am able to support and promote employees’ participation. My excellent interpersonal relationships and team participation enforces individual members’ responsibility to achieve the set goals.

I take actions by being an example to the subordinates but as a good administrator, I am capable of allocating responsibilities to individuals as well as teams, negotiation and organize resources in accordance with assigned tasks. This is my simple approach towards maximizing efficiency and aim at achieving beyond set goals through influence of group activities.

My personal creativity skills include ability to identify challenges, collect relevant information about the challenges and enforce brainstorming techniques to come up with appropriate choices. I am thus able to select the best course of action through logical analysis of available alternatives.

I adjust existing norms and make tough but accurate decisions especially to overcome leadership related challenges. Beside the personal leadership traits, I engage diverse knowledge and skills required for controlling the system processes.

Conclusion The proposed leadership development plan focuses on the participative, management and relational theories. There is a wide gap between the espoused and current leadership model since there is more emphasis on the behavioural theory that emphasizes on learning leadership skills and knowledge.

This leaves out the main aspects of participative and management theories. Focusing on ability to react in accordance with the environmental influences disconnects from need to encourage participation. The inputs by others members are very critical in development. There is a clear indication that my current leadership model often fail to support others’ point-of-views through encouraging participation.

The current leadership style also fails to safeguard organization of group performances, with a deeper focus on rewards for success. One major setback that my new model will address involves relationship theories, where formation of a link between managers and other personnel (subordinates) will be crucial. One of the key issues on the model will focus on competencies and establishment of measurs to maintain relationship to inspire members to achieve better results.

Reference List Booyens, S. W. (2008). Introduction to Health Service Management. Juta and Company Ltd. South Africa.

Clark, D. R. (2008, August 21). Leadership style. Journal of Social Psychology, April 1982, 116, pp. 221-228. Web.

Daft, R. L. and Marcic, D. (2008) Understanding Management. Kentucky, KY: Cengage Learning.

Dodds, B. (2008). Pandemic Planning and Business Continuity. Web.

Mathis, R, L., Jackson, J. H. and Elliott, T. L. (2007). Human Resource Management. Thomson Southwestern Publishers.

Miller, C. (2008, May 30). Cultural Diversity is an Opportunity. Web.

Pride, W. M., Hughes, J. M.

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Employability and Professional Development Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Employability in the business environment

A case for personal development

Reference List

Introduction Employability is the capability of an individual to be initially employed, continue being employed and get a new employment when needed. However the definition has to take into account the fact that employability relies on the labour market more than the capacities of each worker.

The classical definition of employability therefore seems to blame the victim for not demonstrating a capacity to handle a job when in actual reality there are only a limited number of jobs available.

On the other hand, an interpretation of the definition of employability might be that given the scarcity of jobs, those who are able to manoeuvre the competition and emerge as the most suitable for the job are deemed to be more employable than the others.

According to Weinert (2001), the development of worker’s employability is dependent on the development prospects of the organization and its environment and the needs of the workers for personal development.

While most of the initiatives and procedures of evaluating skills rest with the employer, a worker is still expected to voluntarily dedicate effort to become suitable.

Organizations have different tools for evaluating a worker’s competencies including, assessment of occupation orientation, competencies portfolios indicating the worker’s knowledge of what she or he can do, skill referentials that indicate the difference of the requirement of a job post and the actual skills possessed by the worker at the given time.

An individual’s employability is affected by the employability of others. When everyone has a degree, then the possession of the degree is only a ticket for the individual to still fit as a candidate for the job. Employability is not only about having the requirements of a given job but also about knowing the chances one has for the job compared to other job seekers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In view of this dependence of an individual’s employability on the employability of others, then the true definition of employability as defined by Brown, Hesketh

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The Concept of Induction Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction For most organizations, induction programs for new employees are becoming a common practice. This is because the retention of employees has become a critical problem owing to the changing workforce trends and business setting. Induction programs are being adopted to enable the employees adjust to the new work environment. This discussion explores the concept of induction and its benefits to both the organization and the employees.

Current Business context Learning and Development in the Current Business context

Learning and development is the process of improving employees’ performance in the organization through training, education, and development. It entails a continuing commitment towards the development of employees as an important part of the operations of an organization. Learning and development involves continuous professional development of the employees and this gives them a chance to improve their knowledge, skills, and practice (Sadler-Smith 2006).

Learning and development has various benefits. It increases the confidence, motivation, morale, and satisfaction among the employees. Moreover, it enables the employees to perform their roles efficiently and therefore increases the productivity of the organization.

Learning and development also increases the organization’s capacity to keep pace with new methods and emerging technologies, and also increases innovation in terms of products and strategies. Proper learning and development also minimizes employee turnover. In addition, it enhances the organization’s image (Joy-Matthews, Megginson,

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Advertisements Description of Amara Hotels and Resorts, and City Seasons Hotels Report college essay help online

Advert 1 The advert shown below (see Appendix 1) is a magazine advert by Amara Hotels and Resorts; it is an example of a simple but effective advert. From a glance, target market can learn of features and services in the resorts. It has combined bright (shouting) and dull colors (colors of harmony) well to create a pleasant feeling that visitors are likely to get in the hotels and resorts.

In the advert framework, target customers can learn more than four services offered by the hotels. The advert users get into details of the advert to understand what the hotel offers and its locations. The above attributes of the adverts make it simple and straight-forward.

Color mix used in the advert is another strength portrayed; the colors make the viewers feel harmony and peace. They have been used to communicate the feeling customers are likely to get from their stay in the resorts. The advert background is not only made by appealing combination of shades, but the shades also communicate of more features likely to be found in the hotel.

Since the advert is divided into different segments, each area seems to address particular service in the resort. The above gives the advert an upper hand and facilitates effective communication with target customers.

The words correctly rhyme with the advert tag; they both have been used to bring more information of the resorts/hotels. The marketing team has used selected words to ensure that customers understand more about the facility and how well they can enjoy their time there.

As if all above mentioned is not enough, the advert gives the company an opportunity to write to the customers on different issues regarding the resorts. The advert meets all the requirements of an effective advert (Rakesh, 2005).

Advert 2 Advert 2 (see Appendix 2) portrays an ineffective advert made by City Seasons Hotels. There is an obvious mismatch between the name of the hotel and what is portrayed in the advert. When making adverts, it is important for the management to consider even the name of the hotel or the product. In this case, the name of the hotel suggests a place with numerous activities that meet the season of a year.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is not reflected in the advert. According to it, the place has more of indoor activities; it seems so because of the image of a beautiful interior design that the advert portrays. Although the finishing looks superb, the notion created by the name dismisses the good look.

The color mix of the advert is not appealing; there is monotony of brown color which is supposed to be a shouting color and color of harmony. The background colors of the advert do not also go with each other well, there is nothing else communicated by the advert than what is coming out explicitly.

Another problem that the advert has is the use of computer generated/artificial vegetations. The advert should show that the facility has well maintained vegetation. However, a closer look at the picture creates the impression that these trees are made to fit the situation or emphasize a decor and design of the interior, but here they seem to be out of place.

The advert has concentrated on one area of its service, provision of accommodation. It has ignored the outdoor services that the resort offers. Since making an advert is expensive to every organization, it would be wiser to take all the possible advantages of it (Kerin

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Music and Healing Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help: best essay help

Music is the notion that makes people think about the tunes they really adore. There are different genres and directions in music that help it to be in favor of different people. There are many specific qualities which apply to music. Thus, it may help think about something important, remain happy or remember something sad and unpleasant. However, there is an assumption that music possesses useful qualities, it can heal. The healing qualities of music are researched by numerous scholars.

They believe that listening to some specific genres in music it is possible to impact the particular organs in human organism. However, there are other ideas in regards to this belief. Reading an article Sacred and Profance: Music in Korean Shaman Rituals by Keith Howard it seems obvious that music may be used as healing for human soul and body. Using the example of the shaman ritual the author wants to prove that music is healing not only to human soul, but also to human body.

One of the main priorities of shaman rituals is the music which sounds all the time the ritual is in action. Keith Howard is sure that this music can be useful. Thus, listening to music of the ritual which may serve as the stimulant, people can experience block out of the physical environment. Additionally, rhythmic sounds “can be used to regularise body activity or to destabilise mental and/or physical behaviour” (Howard 1).

Therefore, listening to active and rhythmic music people appear in the situation that their bodies are impacted by the rhythm even though people do not notice this. Human body is a complicated structure. Additionally, human brain has never been researched to the full, therefore, the perception of the music which appears constantly in rhythm might be perceived by the brain and delivered to the human body accordingly.

It is impossible to disagree with the statement that rhythmic music influences human brain and is reflected on the body. Listening to the rhythmic music many people want to dance, they feel how their body seems to be dancing. Is not this the proof that music impacts human consciousness? Dwelling upon the shaman rituals and rhythmic music used there, the author of the article mentions the impact of some particular instruments (double-headed drum and oboe) on human emotions.

Keith Howard is sure that “oboe is the melodic instrument considered closest to the human voice since it, virtually uniquely, is capable of the same wide and sudden fluctuations in dynamic, rapid and large melodic leaps, gentle ascending and descending portamenti, and subtle pitch shading” (Howard 2). The music impacts human emotion by means of heightening the change of rhythm, tone and other characteristics.

Additionally, the author states that “rhythm, whether in perception or action, is emotional when highly developed, and results in the response of the whole organism to its pulsations” (Howard 3). Pulsation is a kind of movement. Life is movement, the more people move, the healthier they remain. It seems that shaman rituals are aimed at those who want to remain healthy bearing the healing aspects on the human organism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The final problem considered by Keith Howard in the article Sacred and Profance: Music in Korean Shaman Rituals is its belonging either to the sacred or secular uses. The author considers the history of the music paying much attention to the instruments and their origin. However, attention is paid to the origin of the music which is played during shaman rituals.

The author believes that it is really important not to distinguish the specific nature of music as being sacred it remains essential for every day of human life. The specific use of the music in such cultures where rituals are important is explained by the close connection of human spirit to the emotional side. Those people got used to rituals and consider them as an essential part of their life.

The rituals are always supported with rhythmic music that helps people remain active. Having a sound mind always presupposes having a sound body. Ancient cultures knew it and their desire to use rhythmic music in their rituals was a great opportunity for people to remain healthy in their everyday life, both physically and mentally.

Therefore, it may be concluded that the article under consideration Sacred and Profance: Music in Korean Shaman Rituals by Keith Howard states about the useful impact of music on human mind and body. The research conducted by the author helps draw conclusions that music is an essential healing for those who use it appropriately.

Rhythmic used during the shaman rituals is a good stimulator for human brain and body. Having an impact on human mind, music influences unconsciousness desire to move their bodies. The influence on emotional state cannot be even considered as everyone knows how music impacts human mood; the rhythm and melody may make a person both smile and cry influencing the general condition of human health.

Works Cited Howard, Keith “Sacred and Profance: Music in Korean Shaman Rituals.” Indigenous Religious Musics. Eds. Ralls-Macleod and Harvey. New York: Ashgate: 2000.

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Current Day Racism vs. Traditional Day Racism Essay best essay help

The foremost characteristic of a traditional racism is the fact that, while deriving out of an empirically obtained scientific data, which suggests the objective nature of people’s inequality, this type of racism used to justify the institualization of a number of different racialist policies, such as Jim Crow laws in America, or the policy of apartheid in South Africa.

Traditional (or scientific) racism is based upon the assumption that the actual reason why, throughout the course of history, it were mostly White people who used to push forward cultural, social and scientific progress, is that unlike what it happened to be the case with non-Whites, they remain on the leading edge of biological evolution – hence, their socio-political, scientific and geopolitical dominance (Jackson

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Business Ethics and Governance Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Personal ethics

Organizational ethics

Arguments in favor of CSR

Arguments against CSR

References

Introduction During the end of 19th century big business owners who were really concerned about the social abuses and demands of labor unions, started the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). They constructed abodes and medical facilities in order to improve the living standards of their employees. This gesture paid back. The employees were motivated and there was an increase in the worker turnover.

This happened because the business houses cared for the society and in return, the society cared for the business houses. This is a small example of business ethics. Business Ethics means the moral principles that a business should follow while performing.

Chris MacDonald indicated that “Business ethics can be defined as the critical, structured examination of how people $ institutions should behave in the world of commerce” (MacDonald). Today, the world is full of competitions in all walks of life.

Owing to the technological developments and the businesses growing on a worldwide level, it has become very essential for business houses to follow business ethics in order to gain public support and to enhance the image of their business.

There are many plus points of following the business ethics but the demerits of not following the business ethics are countless. During the years, owing to the great effect that business ethics have on a business, organizations have started laying greater stress on adhering to the business ethics.

There are many instances during the performance of a business where the performers are confronted by the business ethics. Basically, there are two kinds of ethics that business houses should follow namely, personal ethics and organizational ethics.

In both the situations, it is crucial to know what exactly should be the individual’s or the organization’s conscientiousness in any particular business. For individuals, it is a greater task since they tend to have different ethical values outside the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While in the organization, individuals have to act differently, according to the business ethics of their company. It should be understood that personal ethics are not suitable within the organizations. “External behaviors would be issues such as conflict of interest or treatment of citizens.

Internal behaviors would be issues such as sexual harassment or inappropriate preferences in hiring” (Gilman, 2005). Organizations, on the other hand, have to understand their social responsibilities and act accordingly.

By the advent of CSR, expectations of the society have increased. People form good opinion about the companies or business houses that care for the benefit of the society.

This enhances their public image. This helps them to increase their customers and greater admittance in the money markets. Such companies or business houses are supposed to have a longer profit run. This is because of their better social relations and productive actions towards the benefit of the society. Actually this has to be a conscience decision from them.

There is no more powerful institution in society than business… The business of business should not be about money, it should be about responsibility. It should be about public good, not private greed. (Roddick 2000).

The main objective behind the requirement of the business houses following the business ethics is to ensure that they don’t practice such actions that might menace the enduring soundness of the earth and its inhabitants. Sustainability is the capacity for continuance in the long term.

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Tomlinson 1987).

We will write a custom Essay on Business Ethics and Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issues covered under business ethics are:

Social issues like human rights, child labor, standard of living of the workers, multiplicity, etc.

Environmental issues like pollutions, emissions, wastage of natural resources, wastage of energy, environmental management systems, etc.

Economic issues like financial performance, etc.

In the following paragraphs, the main principles of personal as well as organizational ethics shall be discussed.

Personal ethics “An individual at the institutional stage becomes aware that others also have needs and begins to defer to them to get what the individual wants” (Mulcahy).

“An individual at the interpersonal stage considers appropriate behavior as that which pleases or is approved by friends or family” (Mulcahy).

“An individual at the law and order stage recognizes that ethical behavior consists of doing a person’s duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining the social order for its own sake” (Mulcahy).

It is not feasible for organizations to have a separate educational training course in order to teach their employees the business ethics or the way in which they should behave.

As such, organizations around the globe haven’t come up with any system to regulate the business ethics among their employees. “Ethical issues are difficult to resolve because they involve values and because ethics cannot be taught” (UNCP).

Organizations can only provide an outline of the business ethics. It is up to the employees to set up their own standards. One thing that can help in inculcating the business ethics within the individuals is the motivation. Motivation can be provided by various means that are listed below:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Ethics and Governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to an old proverb, in order to change anything, one should be able to see it first. This saying is apt under circumstances where employees behave unethically simply because they are not aware of the ethical values. They don’t know what the business ethics are. So they need to be taught how their conduct should be.

Efficient leaders can have a great impact on the employees. Organizations should employee such leaders who have the competence to motivate the employees and lead them to follow the business ethics. “Even if senior management and employees embrace a code of ethics, someone needs to be put in charge of applying and updating it” (Spiro, 2010).

Installing an incentive on following the business ethics seems to be unfeasible because the employees should themselves think morally and learn what is right and what not. Nevertheless, incentives do motivate employees and results can be monitored easily.

For example in a service industry, if there is an incentive for the employee who has the best customer remarks, the employees will try and behave in an ethical and moral way with the customers.

Group meetings of the employees should be conducted wherein they should be given any particular situation and asked to deal with the situation in an ethical manner. This way, the employees will be afresh with the business ethics.

It has been observed that sometimes the leaders themselves are confused on the validity of the employees’ behavior as being ethical.

This happens because those particular behaviors of employees have been prevalent since long and moreover, it becomes a habit. In such circumstances, some outside counseling should be beneficial. There are consultants who provide training based on ethics.

Organizational ethics Organizational ethics can be termed as the social responsibility of business houses. Any business cannot flourish without the participation of its workers or the masses. It is good for business houses to be concerned about the profit makings but they should not neglect the fact that they are what they are due to their employees and the layman who is a consumer.

It should be the moral duty of all business houses or corporations to ensure that the interests of the people are not compromised. Another major factor is the environment. We all are so concerned about pollution nowadays. We have pollution free vehicles, fuel, etc.

Our scientists invented such things because the pollution was evident. But there are certain things that mankind cannot visualize, like for example, earlier we never used to hear about the global warming syndrome. Moreover we actually didn’t know that things like this could happen.

But it is happening and we are doing our best to save the Earth and its environment. The reason why I mentioned this here is that unless we understand the basis of any action, it will be difficult for us to understand the motive and its long-term effects.

When we talk about business ethics, Social and Environmental Reporting Assurance (SERA) or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) automatically come into the scene.

The motive or intention that lies behind business ethics is social welfare and environment protection. There are three main considerations that organizations need to follow in achieving the business ethics standards.

Firstly, organizations should involve the maximum number of employees possible in order to deal with the customers, the reason being the vast number of stakeholders.

As such, it will not be feasible for a few employees to understand the nature of problem of each stakeholder and the resultant will be utter chaos. More employees will mean more brains at work and ethical solutions to the problems will be easier and up to the required standards.

Secondly, organizations should contribute towards the social reforms and benefits. Monetary considerations should be kept aside while making such contributions.

Even if any social service program involves some expenditure, organizations should not step back. Ultimately, it is the society due to which businesses flourish and as such, it is the moral responsibility of organizations to take care of the society. If the society is happy, businesses will flourish more.

Thirdly, organizations should try to hire more people from the underprivileged groups. It’s not that such groups don’t have qualified people. The only thing is that they require a chance to prove their worth.

If organizations adopt the strategy of recruiting a certain percentage of its vacancies from the underprivileged classes, it will be a great step towards following the business ethics. “The diversity of the company’s employees is a tremendous asset” (Knowledgeleader, 2011).

“If organizations concentrate on acquiring those virtues which are most useful in the business world, then it will have made great material progress since it attempts to improve employees who, in turn, help the institution to be more profitable” (Arjoon).

There have been mixed reviews on whether corporate social responsibility, a part of business ethics, is of any use or not.

Arguments in favor of CSR A company is considered to be sharp if it ensures that right information is passed on to the groups. It should not matter whether the group is the one that has direct contact with the company or the one that is in the society. Such groups have the capability of influencing the company’s present and future success.

Environmental concerns are addressed properly when business houses get involved. They have better finance, technical experts and managerial qualities to support charitable trusts. This creates better standards of life and employees feel safe and obliged in continuing working.

Government imposes restrictions and regulations on companies to ensure better and safe environmental conditions. This increases the cost factor of companies. But if a company is socially responsible and works for the benefit of the society, it can expect less government restrictions and regulations.

Socially responsible companies are at less risk and are not prone to public attack or ire. The stock price of such companies improves in the long run. The stock market evaluates the public standing of that company and awards higher price factor.

Arguments against CSR There can never be unanimous agreement on any topic or issue. Similarly, in this case also, there are people who feel otherwise. They have different opinion and are against CSR. Any business is considered to be socially responsible if it looks after the economic interests of the society.

It is understand that any social work involves a lot of money. No one wants to pay from his or her pocket. As a result, the company will add the costs to the products and ultimately the consumer has to bear it.

Some people are of the opinion that social service is a gimmick by a company to gain popularity and subsequently capture market for its products. Corporations don’t really care – “they’re just out to screw the poor and the environment to make obscene profits”. (Baker 2008a)

According to some people, social reforms are the duty of politicians and not the business community. “It’s the responsibility of the politicians to deal with all this stuff. It’s not our role to get involved”. (Baker 2008b)

Companies hire professionals according to their expertise in accounts, sales, management, production, etc. But no company hires professionals who are expert in social service. It means the people who will be responsible for any particular social service, will not be qualified for that. They will not have that skill. Then how will the job be carried out successfully?

Due to the materialistic interests, not much information is provided on the environmental; issues that are governed by accounting standards. Moreover, the standards of accounting don’t matter much because they are very narrowly focused and don’t make much of a difference. (Buhr 2003)

There are so many noteworthy companies that are very aware about the environment. Such companies provide ample information along with their financial reporting. (Hannele, 2008)

Another drawback of SERA is due to indifference in the government policies. Due to the ‘free rider’ pattern, the reporting companies are at a disadvantage when compared to those that are not reporting. As a result, the government agencies are prone to pressure to review its policies. The governments are feeling a need to have regulated reporting requirements, at least for the key industry sector. (SustainAbility et al, 1997).

References Arjoon, S., Corporate Governance: An ethical perspective. Web.

Baker, M. 2008, Arguments against corporate social responsibility-and some answers. Web.

Buhr, N. 2003, ‘Mandatory Environmental Disclosure: The current practice in Canada with a comparison to the United States’, AccountAbility Quarterly, vol. AQ21, pp. 29-34.

Gilman, S. C. 2005, Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons. Web.

Hannele, M. 2008, Construction of the social dimension of CSR in corporate disclosures. Web.

Knowledgeleader 2011, Code of business conduct-sample. Web.

MacDonald, C., Definition: “Business Ethics”. Web.

Mulcahy, A., Individual and Organizational Ethics. Web.

Roddick, A. 2000, Business as Unusual, Harper Collins Publishers, London.

Spiro, J. 2010, How to write a code of ethics for business. Web.

SustainAbility

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How the Media Influence Society’s View on Mental Illness Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Throughout history, the public portrayal of mental illness has been subjugated by depictions of violence, seclusion, madness, loss, desolation, homelessness, personal failure, witchcraft and unsuccessful health and social outcomes (Henson et al 2009).

Although the media have been credited for producing some of the most sensitive, educational and award-winning material on mental illness, the same institution is also blamed for generating a huge store of negative imagery with some of the most malevolent depictions of mental illness and horrendous illustrations of psychiatric treatments (Stuart 2006).

It is acknowledged in the literature that not only does media framing of health related issues influences both public and political opinion and may consequently impact on health and social policy (Henson et al 2009), but framing of mental illness is oriented more towards depictions of negative imagery, which are more memorable and of enormous concern to individuals with mental health challenges, their family members and mental health professionals (Stuart 2006).

The latter view is reinforced by Sieff (2003), who suggests that negative perceptions of mental illnesses are relentless in the mainstream media, in spite of advances in treatment and superior understanding of disease processes.

The present paper uses secondary research to investigate key issues of how the media influence society’s view on mental illness. In particular, the paper aims to highlight how media framing of mental illness influence society’s perceptions in five critical areas, namely: perceptions of crime and dangerousness; negative connotations; community care options; stigmatization, and; social relationships.

In recommendations, the central role of the media as allies in changing the negative perceptions held by society with regard to mental illness is highlighted with a view to advance greater awareness of the significance of advocacy in this area.

It is important to note that the articles used to conduct the secondary research have been selected to exemplify dominant themes, present interesting examples and draw attention to the principal issues on how the media influences society’s view on mental illness. Consequently, no attempt has been made to avail all-inclusive listing, synthesis or critical and analytical review of all publications in this domain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Media Framing of Mental Illness

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Texting in Modern Society Expository Essay essay help free

When making a choice of a subject that others have not focused on, I usually reflect on it without any particular method or order. By so doing, the reflections appear in freedom and looseness of an essay more than the regularity of a discourse set. It is in this manner that I consider Texting in my present essay.

All the creations below and above a man are considered serious because he the merriest of all. A man will always see things in a different angle from other beings and, therefore, find his mirth developing from objects that cause things like displeasure or pity in higher nature. Texting is indeed an incredible counterpoise to spleen.

As observed, the master pieces and vast souls of human nature were formed in the worlds first ages, a time when text messaging was not there. Men were strangers to little embellishments and texting which are more fashionable in the present days. They shined from the noble simplicity of their behaviors. Texting has tried to bridge the gap between the unreachable and the civilized world. In the gap, there stretches a treacherous barrier.

There is no accounting for the best text, they spring up from anybody. They can come from people in whom, for many generations never had a slight idea attached to them. A persuasive text is proficient in consoling. A person in deep grief and sorrow will not feel like anybody else. There is nothing that can convince him or her otherwise. It becomes less heartrending than more pitiful to see them immensely cheerful while going about their businesses.

In addition, it becomes particularly poignant to see them humming or whistling as they go, unconscious of their terrible quandary. The text gives them utmost which results to whole humored patience altitude, dutiful words of approval, and praises with pale damns. To cut the long story short, he or she is left with a firm heart that, everything is all right.

The adults’ activities of all the species are much known to us. When you are not feeling well, who is the person that makes haste to your bed side with moods of blancmange which you have hated from childhood with unspeakable loathing? My dear, gentle reader, you are way ahead of me as usual- it is in deed the authentic text.

The entire text effectively smooth out the bolster after you have just worked in the contented shape, screech into the room on less noisy tiptoe, affectionately lay on the delirious forehead damp cloths which trickle incessantly down your neck.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The latest advancement in technology and the increased desire to be wealthy have made people extremely busy. Nowadays there are no people to befriend you. Everybody is busy trying to make ends meet. In times of illness, a text will always act as a comforter which makes the sick have hopes towards fulfillment of destiny.

Texting reveals the truth in the statement that was given by Louis that, ‘we grow weary when idle” (4). A person is not only considered idle because of doing nothing, but it also includes doing great things that are not recognizable by the relevant ruling class. Texting is a great deal that is recognized in the ruling class. A person who drafts a text with an intension of creating an impact to somebody’s life is a hundred times better than a person spending the whole day begging.

Both the beggar and the writer are considered busy but, the result obtained from their work is what matters. This is what makes texting recognizable in the diagnostic formulas of the ruling class. Some people may argue out that texting is time consuming, that is okay because they are right to some extent, but, the effectiveness of their statement is reduced when the benefits of the text are reviewed.

If you look back to your life, am sure most of the time you write a text you realize afterwards how much time have gone. Texting makes your hands and brain so active and the act of being busy results to kinetic stability. I am much sincere that, you would confidently join me when I say that, “texting is a legitimate medicine for killing idleness”.

One evening I was scrolling though my phone as I went through the old massages which I had not discarded. I slowed down to re- read a text which I had received from my former school mate a few months ago. I had not given much concentration to it when he sent me because I was listening to summon. It was a story of a tycoon who took his only son for a picnic to show him how poor one can be.

They spent the whole day in a poor man’s farm exploring from one corner to the other. On their way back home, the tycoon asked the son, “Did you see how poor they are?” The son looked at his father and said, “we have piped water, they have a river; we have a wall to protect us, they have friends to protect them; we use bulbs for lighting, they use stars; we read encyclopedias, they read a bible; I have seen how poor we are”.

The text inspired me a lot, and I felt the need to share it with other friends. I edited a few words and forwarded to my friends whom we had not chatted for long. Later at night, five of the friends replied expressing how they felt after reading the text.

We will write a custom Essay on Texting in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most startling and shocking thing happened in the morning when another friend appeared to me with a small bottle on his left hand. He was intending to poison himself because of some challenges he was facing. He had spent many days in distress with no one to comfort him. Do you still argue that texting does not encourage?

This is just a single scenario out of many which happen in our daily lives. I am extremely sure that, people are full of stories to tell about how encouraging a text can be. A text can trigger the mind and make it focus on a totally different thing than the one it had. It is a fact that, texting is a productive mental exercise which functions effectively when sent to the right reader.

It is a savior to people who have been dominated by slavery careers, people who have many alternatives and options to choose in life but all of them are the same, ‘giving up’. These are people who live a life of complaints, all they say is, “my strength has failed me”, and they have no better alternative than losing hope.

People will always ignore many things, but advice is much of this. We find that the people giving the counsel as citizens who present a challenge to our mode of thinking and take us to be children. The instructions given by these people are considered as the zeal and implicit censure with presumption or impertinence. Due for this reasons, the art of making an advice agreeable becomes exceedingly difficult.

It is from this weakness that I take the chance of considering texting the best method to give advices. Advising people through text is easier than through face to face conversations. This is because it is the less shocking and it makes it easier for people to talk about private and personal issues that one would otherwise feel shy to talk about face to face. A reader is also able to read the message several times and reflect on it.

The advice intimates itself barely, the one reading it learns in a surprise, giving him or her wisdom. This simply means that a man is over reached as he follows the dictates of another. Reading the text gives a masterly ambition of the soul as well as gratification. When reading, everything comes out to him as a discovery of his own. He is simply busied to apply the circumstances and characters of the adviser (Addison, 3).

At this stage of the essay, I intend to support the wise men who said that, “every thing that has advantages has disadvantages too”. We can all agree that all the people born after 1980 are digital natives. They have grown up under the influence of the new technology because they use it every day. Texting is as delightful as amateurish especially to learning students.

Text messaging is time consuming because it takes time to write particularly on cellular contrivances like keyboards. Just like all other forms of writing, texting takes time especially on cellular devices like keyboards. For many years, ‘texters’ if so called have been saving time through the use of short hand commonly referred to as ‘chat- speak’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Texting in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The form used abbreviations which include numbers, incorrect grammar, and symbols. Students are the most users of texts as they do it most often. This has highly affected them because it has led to extension of the habit to school related projects, job applications and in the real world scenarios.

As Tomita puts it, texting has destroyed the way kids think, read, and write because it has reduced their level of critical thinking (5). Students have gone to the extent of instant messaging, which reduces time, resulting to conversion of formal English to informal one. This has made them unable to pronounce and punctuate correctly and hence poor performance. My question is; where will we get the professionals? Automatically, the answer is ‘no where’.

Gone are the days when people could write compelling grammar and converse correctly. Unless something is urgently done in the learning institutions, we will end up with a society of a few or no competence personnel to work and serve people. This is the generation that uses small letters in place of capital letters. Are they the same people who will teach the future generations? I question the future of literacy. Our generation is ending; we better conclude that.

There are very serious issues that arise from such things as social text sending. I think everybody will support me when I say that, chatting with friends by use of text messaging is as addictive as any drug. It is a natural, human tendency that needs to be responded to. These circumstances are much prevalent in places where the medium for communication are readily available.

In addition to that, text message conversations take longer than face to face conversations. But, is this a problem? This brings us to the second negative effect of text messaging. It has created a lot of problems in the social communication. It is not astonishing to hear a child say to everyone around him that, they are not valuable like the person on the phone.

According to the survey done by Zogby International, there is a serious risk on roads. The survey showed that, out of a hundred people, sixty six text while driving. This is indeed a behavior that can be taken as compulsive as well as obsessive, and a stupid thing to do. People who are much addicted to text messaging do not live a comfortable life.

You try to be in two places at the same time and end up, not in either, this leads to lack of comfort when doing things and it is a lousy way to live your life. To a person driving, texting is a vital distraction. It is devilishly hard for him, or her to maintain focus while texting and driving at the same time. This reduces the competence levels of controlling vehicles and increases the time of response to any danger. Texting while driving is equally risky as driving while drunk.

The prospect of a driver getting into an accident increases while he is texting. It does not matter how well one drives, if one driver on the road is not careful, all of them are exposed to a danger of losing their lives. Even though, it is a not a consistent problem, texting do cause wrecks for which some are fatal. I have a pal who was lately involved in an accident because of texting on the road. It is only because he was not driving fast; otherwise, it would be seriously hazardous (Baggott, 2).

Time wasting is another dissenting that makes my heart sunken. According to the survey conducted in year 2000 by Harris Interactive, forty seven percent of the teenagers felt that, texting reduces the time for socializing. It has led to deteriorating of social life. Fifty four percent of the female crowd concurred with this saying that; it leads to over- communication. A lot of time is spent chatting over pointless things.

In the coming years, literacy will eventually fade away or deteriorate. The various aspects of literacy vary in respect to the types of media being used to pass information to people or to varying audiences. Switching to a linguistic mode from a text massaging language mode will be singularly appropriate to students because it will help them in addressing the teachers and essay writing.

As per facts given in various researches, there is a very dynamic change that is happening in the world of text messaging. We need to act now. ‘Tomorrow’ will never come. It is the high time we settle the battle between the past and present. We need to bring down the texting technology that has dominated communication between young people to a lower level. There is a need to change the necessity and purposes of analyzing audience in a tone that will find intelligence and persuasiveness.

Works Cited Addison, J. On giving advice, Reading and resources, classic essays. New York. Penguin.1984. Print.

Baggott, K. Literacy and text messaging. Technology review. New York. MIT. 2006. Print.

Louis, R. S. An apology for Idlers. Reading and resources, classic essays. New York. Penguin.1984. Print.

Tomita, Dean. “Text Messaging and Implications of its use in Education.” TCC 2009 proceedings. 15 Aug. 2009. /https://coe.hawaii.edu/ltec/. 8 February 2012.

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SMEs Case Study: The Red Eagle Corporation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Short term plans

Long Term Plans

Budgets

Requirements

Resources

Recommendation

Conclusion

References

Introduction Red Eagle Corporation should maximise its scarce resources to reach the company’s organizational goals. The research focuses on the Red Eagle Company’s responsibility to easily attain its goal of increasing its revenues.

The research centers on the revenues pertain to the equipment and records management market segment, facsimile market segment, and water cooler market segment. The study centers on reducing the Red Eagle marketing and expenses will increase the company’s net profit output.

The research focuses on the company’s willingness to assign a significant amount to the marketing activities of Red Eagle to effectively ensure there is an increased awareness in the minds of the current as well as prospective clients. Marketing will help in enhancing the company’s forecasted net profits for the next accounting year (Fisk, 2006).

The Red Eagle Corporation was founded by Tony Falkenstein, a blazing and adventurous business person. The company’s sales had catapulted to the point where 2001 was seen as the acquisition of the new line of business –Cool Water business type.

The company’s main business products included office and home furniture. One of the company’s major advantages is the implementation of the Barter system of purchase transactions. As the name goes, the barter system excludes the use of cash in both purchase and sale transactions.

Further, the company came up with a metamorphosis of the company’s original Cool Water brand to the more persuasive Aqua –Cool. The Aqua –Cool business is focused on delivering water to the company clients. With the Clean Filters is one of the first big drinking water businesses in Australia.

Red Eagle is on the right path of innovation in the Australian business world. With the opening of Red Eagle’s new head office in Onehunga, New Zealand, the company has maximised its presence with its three major business operations in 1993. The three other major businesses are the facsimile machines, water cooler business, and the business record management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Short term plans Water Cooler Business Segment

The company must implements its short term plans. The short term plans include increasing its marketing services to the New Zealand officers. Falkenstein’s purchase of Just Water water cooler business must be promoted at a more synergized level.

Current revenue data indicates that only 25 percent of the New Zealand offices are buying water coolers. This is in stark contrast with the United States market where only 20 percent of the offices are not using water coolers.

To accomplish this, the company will advertise the company’s products under a new category in the New Zealand telephone yellow pages. The current New Zealand Yellow pages do not include a listing under water coolers. Consequently, there is a low trend of water cooler sales in the local water cooler market segment. Advertising will focus on the many advantages of preferring the water cooler over tap water liquid products (Fisk, 2006).

Another short term plan would be to sell the water coolers at cost plus a 15 percent profit. The cost of delivering the water coolers is minimal compared to the cost of delivering water coolers in the United States.

In the United States, the water cooler companies had to travel longer distances to deliver their water cooler products to their client’s offices. On the other hand, due to the lesser territorial jurisdiction of the New Zealand water cooler market segment.

The cost of delivering the water from the water purification outlets is minimal. Consequently, the selling price of the New Zealand company’s water cooler are lesser than the recuperating selling prices of the American water cooler companies. Despite the high selling prices, it is noteworthy to indicate that the American water cooler companies current fill 80 percent of the American offices (Fisk, 2006).

In addition, the company should include a one day advertising that replicates the algae in water advertisement. The advertisement indicates the regular tap water has algae. The algae is instrumental in causing health occurrences among the people.

We will write a custom Assessment on SMEs Case Study: The Red Eagle Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The advertisement will be run only once a month to ensure that people’s love for tap water will be reduced. In turn, the people will prefer the many health advantages of gulping a glass of Just Water’s water cooler drinks (MacMillan, 2010).

Relating to the same water business, the company must strive to increase its current revenue output by ten percent. The water cooler current revenue output in New Zealand stands at an average of 2,500 clients.

The current clients contribute to a profitable cash inflow in terms of water cooler leasing that includes water cooler sales of $ 1 million per annum. The aim is to increase its current $150 per bottle, $30,000 per month revenue data through advertising the health benefits of the Just Water’s water output.

The key strategy is to ensure an increase in the water cooler business is to offer different water cooler size prices to cater to the budgets of each business office client. Some businesses can buy more than 50 water coolers per month. Other companies can only rent 20 coolers a month. Still, other companies have budgets for less than 50 water cooler rentals per month (Czinkota, 2007).

The company must streamline its water delivery services. The company will schedule the delivery service to lessen the cost of delivering water to its clients. For clients that order only a few water cooler bottle a month, the supply chain manager of Red Eagle can schedule a once a day delivery.

The one day delivery will cater to the once a day delivery of all clients who order one, two, three water coolers a month. This way, the company can save on gasoline and other transportation costs. A reduction in the transportation cost will translate to lesser water cooler selling prices.

Lesser selling prices will result to an increase in the demand for the company’s products and services. A reduction in the water cooler delivery costs will result to higher net profits. a higher net profit will increase dividends distributed to the Red Eagle Company’s investors.

An increase in the company’s profits will result to possible increases in the company’s employee salaries. An increase in the employees’ salaries will increase employee work quality and employee loyalty (Czinkota, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on SMEs Case Study: The Red Eagle Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More TRM Business segment

Likewise, Red Eagle TRM records and equipment market segment must increase business records management revenues by ten percent. The TRM segment must continue on its current process of reducing operating costs to a bare minimum.

The reduction in costs will increase the company’s net profit presentation. TRM’s permanent overhead cost reduction should not be recalled in the near future in order to ensure that the TRM business will continue to survive until the next foreseeable decade (Fisk, 2006).

In addition, The Red Eagle fax services should increase its revenues. To achieve this, the company must set up a new branch other busy locations. The setting up of a new branch will cater to the locations that cannot be reached by the current Red Eagle fax service centers.

To reach the company’s goal, the company will advertise the company’s records and equipment products under a new category in the New Zealand telephone yellow pages. The new New Zealand Yellow pages will have new listing called equipments and records management.

Advertising will focus on the many advantages of preferring the Red Eagle equipment and records management products over tap the competitors’ products as well as alternative products and services (Fisk, 2006).

The company should creatively innovate its boxes to be at tune with the constantly changing needs, wants, and caprices of the discriminating current and prospective records management and equipment clients in the New Zealand market segment.

The clients are given different box designs that will fit the unique design demands of the company’s current and prospect office record clients. The designs will include different colours. The designs will incorporate different box sizes. The designs will focus on having different box thicknesses.

In addition, the company will focus in increasing its client base. The company will offer its office record box products to clients outside the New Zealand business segment. The office record boxes will be displayed as one of the items being sold in the company’s proposed website (Fisk, 2006). The company website will be named www.RedEagle.com

Facsimile Machine Market Segment

The company will introduce the new water cooler products. The popularity of the foreign water cooler brands will lessen the cash outflow requirements to advertise, and sell the imported water cooler brands. The foreign cooler brands include Sunroc, a major American supplier of water coolers.

Another foreign water cooler brand exclusively being marketed in the New Zealand market is the EBCO deluxe water cooler brand. The company will also market the Mini Chiller water cooler brands. Each of the foreign water coolers cater to different water cooler client needs.

Some of the prospective clients will prefer the Sunroc brand. Other prospective clients will prefer the EBCO water cooler brand. A third set of prospective clients will cater to the Mini Chillers. For example, some clients will prefer the Mini Chillers because the fit the prospective clients’ need for small bench-top cooler (McDonald, 2007).

The company will also focus on creating a demand for its refrigeration technology product. Under the new technology, the need for a compressor is eliminated. Under the proposed new technology, the refrigeration product eliminates the use of a thermostat and other cooling parts.

In turn, there is no need for Freon requirements. Freon is the main ingredient that causes the refrigerator to produce coldness and freezing temperatures within the refrigeration units (McDonald, 2007).

The company should also metamorphose its market to the global market place. The company can offer its water coolers to clients around the world. The company can open a website that displays all the products of Red Eagle. The global client can order the Red Eagle products by placing an order on the Red Eagle website.

Long Term Plans The company must implement its long term plans. The Red Eagle Company’s long term plan for the water cooling marketing segment is to increase its revenues by 10 percent per year. In the same manner, the marketing expense for the water cooler market segment is budgeted to increase by 10 percent per year.

In addition, The Red Eagle Company’s long term plan for the Equipment and Records Management market segment is to increase its revenues by 10 percent per year. In the same manner, the marketing expense for the Equipment and Records Management market segment is budgeted to increase by 10 percent per year.

Likewise, The Red Eagle Company’s long term plan for the facsimile marketing segment is to increase its revenues by 10 percent per year. In the same manner, the marketing expense for the facsimile market segment is budgeted to increase by 10 percent per year (Czinkota, 2007).

Budgets In terms of budgets, the total operating expenses will include marketing expense amounting to $100,000 for the water cooler business. This amount is estimated to increase the sales by more than ten percent of the Red Eagle’s total water cooler sales for the next accounting period (one year).

In addition, the Red Eagle company will allocate $4,000 to its Equipment and Records Management market segment. The budget is enough to catapult the Red Eagle Company from its current net loss of $169,408 to a crystal –clear profitable level.

The estimated marketing allocation is based on the company’s consolidated equipment and records management net profit of only $43,426 for the current year 1993. The Red Eagle company must allocate $2,000 to its marketing activities. The amount represents ten percent of the company’s projected net profit for the next projected year (Hilton, 2007).

The above movable budget ceiling is grounded on the theory that the end justifies the means.

The allocation of funds to the marketing process is based on the principle that money used to pay for advertising the benefits of using the Red Eagle Company’s products and services will precipitate to an increase in the current and prospective clients’ awareness that the Red Eagle Company can easily fill their needs, wants, and caprices during the current and prospective clients’ time of need, want caprice.

The awareness will translate to the increase in the current and prospective clients’ desire to acquire the products and services of Red Eagle Company (Hilton, 2007).

The moving budget ceiling will serve as a benchmark for the marketing department. The marketing department will strive to limit their advertising expenses to within the limit preset in the marketing expense budget allocation.

Further, one year after the implementation of the above marketing budget, the long marketing budget will increase by ten percent based on the prior year budget (Hilton, 2007).

Requirements In terms of requirements, the company’s various activities are geared towards accomplishing its major requirement. The major requirement is to achieve organisational goals and objectives. The organisational goals include increasing the Red Eagle share in the water cooler market segment.

Another organisational goal i s increasing the Red Eagle Company’s share in the equipment and records management market segment. A third organisational goal is increasing the Red Eagle share in the facsimile market segment (Hilton, 2007).

Resources The resources will come from revenues, and investments. The resources will fund the marketing expenses earmarked in the budget section discussed above for the Equipment and Records Management market segment, Facsimile market segment, and Just Water water cooler market segment.

The company will offer more shares of stocks for the current and prospective investors to generate more cash inflows. The investors can invest as much money as they can afford. There are several advantages of investing the Red Eagle shares of stocks.

Investors owning ten percent of the company’s outstanding shares of stocks will generate dividend income amounting to an equivalent ten percent of the company’s net profits. In the same manner, an investor owning 40 percent of the Red Eagle Corporations’ total outstanding shares of stocks will receive an amount equal to 40 percent of the Red Eagle company’s total net income.

This clearly shows that investors owning more investments will receive more dividend income. Likewise, investors owning lesser amounts of investments in the Red Eagle Company will generate lesser dividend income (Rix, 2007).

Further, the company will spearhead a revitalised drive to collect all receivables that fall due. The increase in the collection of receivable amounts will increase the Red Eagle Company’s available cash needed to defray currently maturing accounts payable and other debt instrument maturities.

The increase in revenues will increase the company’s current cash on hand data. The increase in revenues will precipitate from the Red Eagle company’s vigorous marketing efforts. The marketing efforts are pegged on operating expenses.

The operating expenses include advertising expense, transportation expense, gasoline and oil expense, repair expense, employee salaries, marketing personnel sales commissions, client entertainment expenses, rent expense, and depreciation expense (Hilton, 2007).

However, the sudden surge of the company’s projected revenues occur, the company can borrow money to fund the unexpected increase in the client’s demands, needs, and caprices. Borrowing can be done by applying for a bank loan.

In this case, the Red Eagle company will pay for the cost of borrowing the bank’s cash deposits. The cost of borrowing money is classified as interest expense. Often, the interest expense is computed based on a certain percentage.

The interest expense can be computed using ten percent interest on the principal amount borrowed, five percent on the principal amount borrowed, 20 percent on the principal amount borrowed, or any other amount borrowed. Borrowing money will be the last alternative to generating available cash on hand.

Recommendation It is highly recommended that Red Eagle increase its marketing budget. The budget is necessary to increase the company’s revenues. The revenue increase will translate to higher net profits. Higher net profits will translate to higher dividend income given to the investors of Red Eagle Company.

The marketing aspect will focus on the increasing the product quality of the company’s three major market segments (facsimile, equipment and records management, and water cooler). The marketing aspect focuses on making the Red Eagle products accessible to current and prospective clients.

The marketing aspect includes selling its products at reasonable prices; reasonable prices does not always equate to the lowest price in the same market segment. The marketing aspect includes advertising the benefits of using the Red Eagle products to the current and prospective clients; advertising includes television, radio, newspaper, and online avenues.

The above discussion is based on related marketing and management literature. Inmaculada Martin (2008; p1009) emphasized a large quantity of the human resource management literature has displayed the impact of high performance work systems (HPWS) on the line and staff in terms of the organizational performance.

Scott Highhouse (2009,p1461) reiterated the study proponents have only newly looked into the study of corporate reputation. As is characteristic of several prior areas of management inquiry, the field is characterized as multidisciplinary and disconnected.

The article chose reputation studies conducted mainly at the same time as the past decade. A prior returned affirmed prior views concerning the perspective of organizational impression management. Corporations are generally seen as social actors, intent on increasing their respectability and impressiveness to its stakeholders.

Richard Priem observed (2011,p553) “An effective bridge for spanning the macro—micro divide in management studies requires strong disciplinary foundations on each side of the chasm, along with the versatility to address a range of management issues.

This will likely involve simultaneous multilevel, multiparty action—response research. The authors argue that judgment policy studies are especially suited to developing the interactive multilevel context theories that are necessary to narrow the divide across multiple areas of management research”.

Literally several organization members go pass the judgment processes every day, on several subjects, and their choices significantly affect individual, group, and organizational achievements. The researchers offer relevant examples to clarify their thesis.

The examples bear towards the importance of the literatures on the trust, diversity climate, workplace romance, and strategy implementation. The process focuses on indicating how judgment policy analysis processes can aid in the reduction of the macro—micro division in each area.

The authors also summarily explain the available techniques for analyzing individuals’ judgment policies and recommend other high-potential areas for management’s future macro—micro bridge building in its drive to increase revenues and net profits. This can be done through judgment policy studies, including business ethics, entrepreneurial opportunity identification, and international management.

Oliver Schilke (2010, p1192) theorised this research “conceptualizes and operationalizes alliance management capability. The authors develop alliance management capability as a second-order construct to capture the degree to which organizations possess relevant management routines that enable them to effectively manage their portfolio of strategic alliances.

In addition to identifying and measuring specific organizational routines as critical dimensions of alliance management capability, the authors advance knowledge on the performance effects of dedicated alliance structures and alliance experience based on survey data from 204 firms”.

The researchers’ primary input is a theoretically sound alliance management that can be able to measure quantitatively by five underlying routines. The routines are interorganizational coordination, alliance portfolio coordination, interorganizational learning, alliance proactiveness, and alliance transformation.

One of the major findings shows that the alliance management capacity has a positive impact on alliance portfolio performance and mediates the performance effects of dedicated alliance structures and alliance experience.

Nicholas Ashill (2010, p1278) stated “an important contribution to the literature on perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) is Milliken’s distinction between state uncertainty, effect uncertainty, and response uncertainty.

However, despite its appealing logic in capturing the types of uncertainty managers may experience as they seek to understand and respond to changes in an organization’s environment, there has been no full and rigorous psychometric development and testing of scales to measure the three constructs”.

The study focused on the implementation of a two-phase empirical study. The study focuses on the development and trust to develop and test organizational performance scales in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity.

The results suggest that managers do make a meaningful distinction between different types of uncertainty, that it is worth its grain of salt in terms of quantifying all three constructs (as they have differential impacts on outcome variables), as well as the connections between them. Management’s inputs and proposals for future research are relevant to the current research.

James Leigh (1988, p41) theorized “the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of two perceived organizational indicants. The two indicants are the psychological climate and perceptions of the management control system-on the often-studied relationships of role conflict and ambiguity with job satisfaction and intentions to change jobs.

Based on a cross-sectional survey of 423 marketing professionals, it was determined that these two perceived organizational factors predominantly accounted for the shared variability inherent in the relationships considered and in certain instances resulted in a change in the direction of the correlation”.

Specifically, the relationships of both role conflict and vagueness with pay and promotion satisfaction and with turnover proposals had been very the most heavily affected variables. The relationships of the role vagueness with overall satisfaction and with work itself were also affected.

Analysis of unrealistic outcomes showed that the findings hold across various sample segments. This indicates that the role perceptions and job attitudes are both directly related to perceptions about the broader organization. The implications and research trends of the research outcomes for the study of role stress correlates are considered for further research activities.

Francis Yammarino (1990, p87) opined “although prior studies in psychology, management, and marketing have explored the association between salesperson performance and managerially controllable factors, an assumption of these investigations is that the relationship between performance and such antecedents is applicable to salespersons viewed only as individuals without regard for their work group.

In the present study, relationships between variables from three categories of managerially controllable factors (reported by salespersons) and salesperson performance (assessed by supervisors) were investigated in terms of individuals and work groups using Within and Between Analysis procedures”.

The findings from two research experiments indicate that though many relationships between managerially controllable factors and salesperson performance are individually focused, some of the relationships are relevant for the work group as a whole. Implications of the results for management practice are discussed.

Marta Geletkanycz (2001, p3) insists this study “extends research into the determinants of executive commitment to the strategic status quo (CSQ) by examining the effects of functional and educational experience.

Regression analyses conducted on the survey responses of 1385 executives representing 20 different nationalities reveal that experience in the traditionally dominant career tracks of finance, marketing, law, and general management is positively related to CSQ”.

The findings of the research indicate that while functional diversity is negatively connected to the commitment to extant policies, graduate (MBA) education is unrelated to CSQ and does not significantly attenuate the narrowing effects of functional specialization. The theme for executive leadership, management development, and strategic adaptation vividly show that the research was very successful.

Danny Miller (1996, p863) emphasized “some companies compete in a comprehensive and multifaceted way, paying close attention to costs, quality, marketing, expansion, and innovation. Others embrace much simpler competitive strategies and concentrate on just one or two of these elements.

This paper examines the causes and consequences of such strategic simplicity in two very different environments: the stable furniture industry and the more turbulent software industry”. The research findings indicate that a “passive” model of the organizational implementation applied in the former industry shows organisations simplified their strategic repertoires unless managers had noticed their firms were threatened or unless the firms had built a lackluster performance.

Further, the simplicity of the outcome had been inversely related to managerial discomfort and administrative slack, as well as positively associated with financial liquidity. By comparison, an “opportunistic” model of adaptation had been felt to characterize the behavior of companies in the more fast-faced turbulent computer software industry.

In this setting, firms tended to venture into new and uncharted market segments to extend their repertoires of competitive strategies whenever “outsiders” with new ideas were added to the top management group. In both industries, simplicity was found to increase subsequent return on assets.

Justin Webb (2007, p891) insists “the eclectic and pervasive benefits of entrepreneurship are generating research questions that interest scholars in a variety of disciplines. These questions have been primarily examined within the context of a scholar’s home discipline while ignoring insights from other disciplines.

This approach has left entrepreneurship research as a widely dispersed, loosely connected domain of issues”. In this area of discussion, the researchers explored the entrepreneurship aspect in terms of in accounting, anthropology, economics, finance, management, marketing, operations management, political science, psychology, and sociology.

The researchers were trying to pinpoint common interests that can serve as a bridge for scholars interested in using a multitheoretic and multimethodological lens to design and complete entrepreneurship studies.

Kurt Christensen (2001, p777) stated this article “posits a framework that shows how market-based assets and capabilities are leveraged via market-facing or core business processes to deliver superior customer value and competitive advantages. These value elements and competitive advantages can be leveraged to result in superior corporate performance and shareholder value and reinvested to nurture market-based assets and capabilities in the future”.

Ernst Verwaal (2009, p 420) stated “this study integrates the concepts of value creation and value claiming into a theoretical framework that emphasizes the dependence of resource value maximization on value-claiming motivations in outsourcing decisions.

To test this theoretical framework, it develops refutable implications to explain the firm’s outsourcing decision, and it uses data from 178 firms in the publishing and printing industry on outsourcing of application services”. The results of the study showed that the new view on any probabilities will point to the main points of value that optimise the inter-organisational decision making activities.

Edgar Ennen (Ennen, 2010, p207) introduced the concept of “complementarity denotes the beneficial interplay of the elements of a system where the presence of one element increases the value of others. However, the conceptual work on complementarities to date has not progressed sufficiently to constitute a theory that would offer specific predictions regarding the nature of the elements that form complementary relationships or the conditions for their emergence.

To advance our understanding of complementarities, the authors provide a synoptic review of the empirical studies on this concept in leading journals in management, economics, and related disciplines over the period 1988-2008”.

The authors discovered that whether a study gives evidence of complementarities in organizations is at least partially affected by its investigative approach. Based on the outcome of the research, the proponents are steadfast in their aim to the complements will appear from the triggering activities of the significant variables of the organisational processes.

Consequently, the vanishing occurrence in terms of the complement factors among the limited set of variables. The findings of the research showed that the hypothesis is correct. The related experiments that were conducted showed that the hypothesis was positive.

Jeremy Short (2009, p40) proposed opportunity is a central concept within the entrepreneurship field, and there is now a critical mass of literature centered on the concept. The researchers are often on the edge of their seats waiting for the erring employee to be discovered and brought out into open and accept any punishments that are necessarily meted out for violation of any statute or law. The authors seek to make two main contributions to this literature.

Martin Hoegl (2005, p530) insists “prior research on supplier involvement in product development projects has produced contradictory results, with some studies showing a positive relationship, others no relationship, and still others a negative relationship between supplier involvement and project performance”.

Based on the research findings taken from 124 managers, project leaders, clients, and supply store representatives in terms of the 28 product development projects, the researchers discovered that the client – seller collaboration positively pertains to product quality, compliance with product cost targets, compliance to development budgets, and compliance to development schedules.

In addition, the research findings clearly indicate that communication repetitiveness and intensity have a curvilinear relationship with the project development budget as well as product cost estimation.

Conclusion Based on the above discussion, Red Eagle Corporation must harness its scarce resources to achieve organizational goals. The company can easily achieve its goal of increasing its revenues. The revenues pertain to the equipment and records management market segment, facsimile market segment, and water cooler market segment.

Reducing the Red Eagle operating expenses will increase the company’s net profit. The company must allocate a significant amount to the marketing activities of Red Eagle to ensure there is an increased awareness in the minds of the current as well as prospective clients. Indeed, marketing will hasten the increase in the company’s forecasted net profits for the next accounting year.

References Armstrong, M., (2007) A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. London, Kogan Press.

Fisk, P., (2006) Marketing Genius. New York, J. Wiley

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Texting in Modern Society Expository Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

When making a choice of a subject that others have not focused on, I usually reflect on it without any particular method or order. By so doing, the reflections appear in freedom and looseness of an essay more than the regularity of a discourse set. It is in this manner that I consider Texting in my present essay.

All the creations below and above a man are considered serious because he the merriest of all. A man will always see things in a different angle from other beings and, therefore, find his mirth developing from objects that cause things like displeasure or pity in higher nature. Texting is indeed an incredible counterpoise to spleen.

As observed, the master pieces and vast souls of human nature were formed in the worlds first ages, a time when text messaging was not there. Men were strangers to little embellishments and texting which are more fashionable in the present days. They shined from the noble simplicity of their behaviors. Texting has tried to bridge the gap between the unreachable and the civilized world. In the gap, there stretches a treacherous barrier.

There is no accounting for the best text, they spring up from anybody. They can come from people in whom, for many generations never had a slight idea attached to them. A persuasive text is proficient in consoling. A person in deep grief and sorrow will not feel like anybody else. There is nothing that can convince him or her otherwise. It becomes less heartrending than more pitiful to see them immensely cheerful while going about their businesses.

In addition, it becomes particularly poignant to see them humming or whistling as they go, unconscious of their terrible quandary. The text gives them utmost which results to whole humored patience altitude, dutiful words of approval, and praises with pale damns. To cut the long story short, he or she is left with a firm heart that, everything is all right.

The adults’ activities of all the species are much known to us. When you are not feeling well, who is the person that makes haste to your bed side with moods of blancmange which you have hated from childhood with unspeakable loathing? My dear, gentle reader, you are way ahead of me as usual- it is in deed the authentic text.

The entire text effectively smooth out the bolster after you have just worked in the contented shape, screech into the room on less noisy tiptoe, affectionately lay on the delirious forehead damp cloths which trickle incessantly down your neck.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The latest advancement in technology and the increased desire to be wealthy have made people extremely busy. Nowadays there are no people to befriend you. Everybody is busy trying to make ends meet. In times of illness, a text will always act as a comforter which makes the sick have hopes towards fulfillment of destiny.

Texting reveals the truth in the statement that was given by Louis that, ‘we grow weary when idle” (4). A person is not only considered idle because of doing nothing, but it also includes doing great things that are not recognizable by the relevant ruling class. Texting is a great deal that is recognized in the ruling class. A person who drafts a text with an intension of creating an impact to somebody’s life is a hundred times better than a person spending the whole day begging.

Both the beggar and the writer are considered busy but, the result obtained from their work is what matters. This is what makes texting recognizable in the diagnostic formulas of the ruling class. Some people may argue out that texting is time consuming, that is okay because they are right to some extent, but, the effectiveness of their statement is reduced when the benefits of the text are reviewed.

If you look back to your life, am sure most of the time you write a text you realize afterwards how much time have gone. Texting makes your hands and brain so active and the act of being busy results to kinetic stability. I am much sincere that, you would confidently join me when I say that, “texting is a legitimate medicine for killing idleness”.

One evening I was scrolling though my phone as I went through the old massages which I had not discarded. I slowed down to re- read a text which I had received from my former school mate a few months ago. I had not given much concentration to it when he sent me because I was listening to summon. It was a story of a tycoon who took his only son for a picnic to show him how poor one can be.

They spent the whole day in a poor man’s farm exploring from one corner to the other. On their way back home, the tycoon asked the son, “Did you see how poor they are?” The son looked at his father and said, “we have piped water, they have a river; we have a wall to protect us, they have friends to protect them; we use bulbs for lighting, they use stars; we read encyclopedias, they read a bible; I have seen how poor we are”.

The text inspired me a lot, and I felt the need to share it with other friends. I edited a few words and forwarded to my friends whom we had not chatted for long. Later at night, five of the friends replied expressing how they felt after reading the text.

We will write a custom Essay on Texting in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most startling and shocking thing happened in the morning when another friend appeared to me with a small bottle on his left hand. He was intending to poison himself because of some challenges he was facing. He had spent many days in distress with no one to comfort him. Do you still argue that texting does not encourage?

This is just a single scenario out of many which happen in our daily lives. I am extremely sure that, people are full of stories to tell about how encouraging a text can be. A text can trigger the mind and make it focus on a totally different thing than the one it had. It is a fact that, texting is a productive mental exercise which functions effectively when sent to the right reader.

It is a savior to people who have been dominated by slavery careers, people who have many alternatives and options to choose in life but all of them are the same, ‘giving up’. These are people who live a life of complaints, all they say is, “my strength has failed me”, and they have no better alternative than losing hope.

People will always ignore many things, but advice is much of this. We find that the people giving the counsel as citizens who present a challenge to our mode of thinking and take us to be children. The instructions given by these people are considered as the zeal and implicit censure with presumption or impertinence. Due for this reasons, the art of making an advice agreeable becomes exceedingly difficult.

It is from this weakness that I take the chance of considering texting the best method to give advices. Advising people through text is easier than through face to face conversations. This is because it is the less shocking and it makes it easier for people to talk about private and personal issues that one would otherwise feel shy to talk about face to face. A reader is also able to read the message several times and reflect on it.

The advice intimates itself barely, the one reading it learns in a surprise, giving him or her wisdom. This simply means that a man is over reached as he follows the dictates of another. Reading the text gives a masterly ambition of the soul as well as gratification. When reading, everything comes out to him as a discovery of his own. He is simply busied to apply the circumstances and characters of the adviser (Addison, 3).

At this stage of the essay, I intend to support the wise men who said that, “every thing that has advantages has disadvantages too”. We can all agree that all the people born after 1980 are digital natives. They have grown up under the influence of the new technology because they use it every day. Texting is as delightful as amateurish especially to learning students.

Text messaging is time consuming because it takes time to write particularly on cellular contrivances like keyboards. Just like all other forms of writing, texting takes time especially on cellular devices like keyboards. For many years, ‘texters’ if so called have been saving time through the use of short hand commonly referred to as ‘chat- speak’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Texting in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The form used abbreviations which include numbers, incorrect grammar, and symbols. Students are the most users of texts as they do it most often. This has highly affected them because it has led to extension of the habit to school related projects, job applications and in the real world scenarios.

As Tomita puts it, texting has destroyed the way kids think, read, and write because it has reduced their level of critical thinking (5). Students have gone to the extent of instant messaging, which reduces time, resulting to conversion of formal English to informal one. This has made them unable to pronounce and punctuate correctly and hence poor performance. My question is; where will we get the professionals? Automatically, the answer is ‘no where’.

Gone are the days when people could write compelling grammar and converse correctly. Unless something is urgently done in the learning institutions, we will end up with a society of a few or no competence personnel to work and serve people. This is the generation that uses small letters in place of capital letters. Are they the same people who will teach the future generations? I question the future of literacy. Our generation is ending; we better conclude that.

There are very serious issues that arise from such things as social text sending. I think everybody will support me when I say that, chatting with friends by use of text messaging is as addictive as any drug. It is a natural, human tendency that needs to be responded to. These circumstances are much prevalent in places where the medium for communication are readily available.

In addition to that, text message conversations take longer than face to face conversations. But, is this a problem? This brings us to the second negative effect of text messaging. It has created a lot of problems in the social communication. It is not astonishing to hear a child say to everyone around him that, they are not valuable like the person on the phone.

According to the survey done by Zogby International, there is a serious risk on roads. The survey showed that, out of a hundred people, sixty six text while driving. This is indeed a behavior that can be taken as compulsive as well as obsessive, and a stupid thing to do. People who are much addicted to text messaging do not live a comfortable life.

You try to be in two places at the same time and end up, not in either, this leads to lack of comfort when doing things and it is a lousy way to live your life. To a person driving, texting is a vital distraction. It is devilishly hard for him, or her to maintain focus while texting and driving at the same time. This reduces the competence levels of controlling vehicles and increases the time of response to any danger. Texting while driving is equally risky as driving while drunk.

The prospect of a driver getting into an accident increases while he is texting. It does not matter how well one drives, if one driver on the road is not careful, all of them are exposed to a danger of losing their lives. Even though, it is a not a consistent problem, texting do cause wrecks for which some are fatal. I have a pal who was lately involved in an accident because of texting on the road. It is only because he was not driving fast; otherwise, it would be seriously hazardous (Baggott, 2).

Time wasting is another dissenting that makes my heart sunken. According to the survey conducted in year 2000 by Harris Interactive, forty seven percent of the teenagers felt that, texting reduces the time for socializing. It has led to deteriorating of social life. Fifty four percent of the female crowd concurred with this saying that; it leads to over- communication. A lot of time is spent chatting over pointless things.

In the coming years, literacy will eventually fade away or deteriorate. The various aspects of literacy vary in respect to the types of media being used to pass information to people or to varying audiences. Switching to a linguistic mode from a text massaging language mode will be singularly appropriate to students because it will help them in addressing the teachers and essay writing.

As per facts given in various researches, there is a very dynamic change that is happening in the world of text messaging. We need to act now. ‘Tomorrow’ will never come. It is the high time we settle the battle between the past and present. We need to bring down the texting technology that has dominated communication between young people to a lower level. There is a need to change the necessity and purposes of analyzing audience in a tone that will find intelligence and persuasiveness.

Works Cited Addison, J. On giving advice, Reading and resources, classic essays. New York. Penguin.1984. Print.

Baggott, K. Literacy and text messaging. Technology review. New York. MIT. 2006. Print.

Louis, R. S. An apology for Idlers. Reading and resources, classic essays. New York. Penguin.1984. Print.

Tomita, Dean. “Text Messaging and Implications of its use in Education.” TCC 2009 proceedings. 15 Aug. 2009. /https://coe.hawaii.edu/ltec/. 8 February 2012.

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Desirability for Control in the Workplace Essay college admission essay help

Introduction In the psychological studies concerned with the behaviour of human beings and their reactions to different situations, there is one character present in human beings that is of great interest to scholars and researchers. This is the degree to which the way different individuals believe in themselves and seek to control the things that happen around them.

There are two main categories of people in this aspect; people who believe that they can control what goes on around them and those who believe that things happen by chance and hence only let things happen and allow themselves to flow with them (Hammond

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Definition of Being a Man Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents There Is no Single Viewpoint

Social Roles

Relationships with Females

Ethnic Identity

Universal Definition

There Is no Single Viewpoint Every male in the world tries to define being a man at least once in his life. Some researchers state that the first attempt takes place at the age of three in the majority of cases when a boy learns about certain peculiarities of his body. Of course, men try to understand what it is like to be a man much later. It goes without saying that men have different viewpoints on the matter. However, in the majority of cases they contemplate similar categories.

Therefore, it is possible to draw a universal definition of being a man when these categories are analyzed. Though, such category as physical features (e.g. strength) should be taken into account, it cannot be the principal one. There are more important categories that make a man ‘man’. These major categories to analyze are as follows: social role, relationships in a family (interaction with females) and ethnic identity.

Social Roles In the first place, it can be important to look at the way men identify themselves in the society. Interestingly, there are certain stereotypes concerning men in this respect. For instance, men often try to hold leading positions. They try to fit the image of a tough guy who can reach his aims and who can reach the top.

Therefore, men often try to measure their ‘masculinity’ (or other male’s ‘masculinity’) with the help of this category. The higher post a man holds, the more manlike he seems. It is also important to note that many often think that men have no right to be sentimental when reaching their aims. However, these are only stereotypes.

Now men are not expected to be sharks in the human society. Though, masculinity is still associated with a high social position, men are not expected to make their way over corpses. Now such feature as responsibility is more important.

Men are regarded as human beings who are responsible when it comes to making decisions. Being a man presupposes being responsible for various projects and for various people involved. Now this is the most important measurement for males.

It is also important to state that masculinity has always been associated with competitiveness. Thus, men have always tried to prove they are ‘tough’. Now this competitiveness is also associated with responsibility. Men do not simply try to win the race; they are supposed to be responsible. Men cannot lose self-control. Thus, masculinity presupposes responsibility, competitiveness and self-control.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationships with Females Admittedly, there are loads of stereotypes when it comes to relationships between men and women. Historically, males were supposed to dominate females. Several centuries ago males were regarded as superior creatures. They could suppress their women and their children.

Being a man could be synonymous to being cruel to a woman. Husbands were regarded as masters of their wives and their kids. Therefore, masculinity was measured by the level of his woman’s obedience. This stereotype is still prevailing in many societies.

However, many understand that this stereotype is outdated. Nowadays men do not need to show how strict they are with women. Marriage has transformed into the institution of two equal partners who take care of their children. Of course, it is important to note that these partners have a bit different roles. Thus, masculinity is not synonymous to superiority now. Men do not try to suppress their wives (or partners).

Now an ideal husband is supportive and caring. He is also responsible. Notably, responsibility is important in this category as well. Being a man presupposes being responsible. Men should care about close people. They still should be strongholds of their families. Masculinity is now traced in the ability to be strong enough to admit that women are equal to men.

Remarkably, this ability can be traced in men’s attitude towards feminist movements or even feminist ideas. Now many people understand that only weak and unconfident men try to prove that women should fulfill tasks that they have been carrying out throughout centuries. Such men do not want to let women hold high positions in the society. These men think that the institution of masculinity is in danger if women become in charge of men.

On the contrary, really tough guys accept the changes which took place. They welcome women who can successfully hold the high position. Competitiveness is one of the most common features of masculinity. Real men welcome a deserving competitor, even if it is a female competitor. Therefore, responsibility is one of the most important features of masculinity when it comes to relationships with females, too.

Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity is also one of the most important categories to analyze. Being a man means to be responsible for the entire group of people. This category is a bit similar to the previous one. Men often associate themselves with the entire nation. They feel ties between members of the group.

We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Being a Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is possible to state that they also feel responsible for the future of the entire nation. Admittedly, this can be compared to one of the basic instincts which make people continue their race. Likewise, men are supposed to be strongholds of their families. Thus, responsibility appears in the category of ethnic identity, too.

Universal Definition On balance, it is possible to state that men have different viewpoints on masculinity. Likewise, there are many definitions of being a man. Nonetheless, it is still possible to come up with the universal definition. Thus, being a man means being committed and responsible for those who are dependent. Being a man also presupposes ‘healthy’ competitiveness which leads to development of the society

Finally, being a man means being able to accept equality. Of course, it is important to note that this universal definition touches upon the major features of the real man. There are many other qualities that make a man “man”. Nonetheless, if a male is not characterized by such features as responsibility and ‘healthy’ competitiveness, he cannot be called the real man.

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Strategic Management: Internal Analysis and SWOT Essay best essay help

Toyota Motor Corporation, the world leading car maker, has not been performing well over the recent past as it has been recalling some of its cars because of technical problems. This has been the company’s first car recall in 59 years and it led to an annual net loss (Takahashi, 2010).

However, the car maker was reported to be on the verge of making a 48% profit growth estimated at 310 billion yen (the equivalent of $3.32 billion) by March 2011 (Takahashi, 2010). This is a major breakthrough despite the fact that company had made losses in 2009 fiscal year.

The implication is that even after recalling 8.5 million cars, this would not deter it recovery process. The paper explores the Toyota’s SWOT analysis basically on it weaknesses and strengths and expounding how it has been able to capitalize them in meeting the threats and taking in the opportunities for competitive advantages. It also analyses whether the weaknesses identified will impede its recovery process.

Based on the 2009 annual report following strengths and weaknesses have been identified. The company has a well established marketing mix that incorporates the different marketing concepts like segmentation, targeting and positioning.

This has made it reach the different customers from different segmented markets (Ichimaru, 2009). For instance, the automotive operations are the major business segment which makes it a global competitor.

Also, it has segmented and positioned itself in different geographical markets over some of its competitors giving it a competitive advantage. Some of the differentiated markers are the emerging market like Asia, South and Central America, and China.

The company has diversified its products range which is aimed at targeting different customers depending on social class, geographical location, income and status quo among other factors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The product-oriented management of Toyota has made it possible to make cars that meet the different customers’ needs in the different regions, at a customer satisfying price (Ichimaru, 2009). For instance, the company introduced Toyota Prius a hybrid that meets the current expectations of its customers.

On the other hand, there are weaknesses that have may be an impediment to the recovery growth of the company. Toyota main markets have been the U.S and Japan.

Dependence on the single markets has seen the company face the financial markets crisis and fluctuating prices that resulted to loss in 2009 fiscal year (Ichimaru, 2009). This coupled by the highly fluctuating interest rates and currency, have left adverse effects on the Toyota daily operations.

For Toyota to retain its operational efficiency, it has to rely on mass production (Marketing Teacher Ltd, 2011). When a down turn is experienced in the world market, the company may be exposed to over capacity.

Contrary, when an upturn is experienced in the world market, the company faces the potential sales because of under capacity (Marketing Teacher Ltd, 2011) because to accommodate either scenario takes time.

To remain relevant in the market, the company has to capitalize on the potential strengths to deal with the threats by taking advantage of the opportunities conveyed. The different segmented markets especially the emerging markets like China and Asia will help in retaining market share and lead to market expansion.

The different markets it operates from have different exchange rates and interest rates, so the investments in emerging markets have the capacity of enabling the market enjoy different market responses. China was not badly affected by the financial fluctuations, thus Toyota enjoyed high sales during this period in china.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management: Internal Analysis and SWOT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different segmentation, positioning, and targeting has made it possible for the company produce vehicles that meet the changing trends in preferences and test. For instance, the company launched a hybrid car in 2009 (Ichimaru, 2009) as well as Toyota Lexus hybrid that meets the expectation of the people (Takahashi, 2010).

Therefore, market diversification has made it possible for the company to utilize the opportunities like producing hybrid cars for different people. With focused targets, the company has been able to utilize this strength in manufacturing vehicles that target the urban youth like convertibles which represent a particular segment of the youth (Marketing Teacher Ltd, 2011).

Not all the weaknesses will hinder the recovery efforts of the company. The company has continued to invest in emerging markets like Asia and China (Ichimaru, 2009), which during the financial market economies and downturn were not significantly affected.

This has boosted its sales as they have become huge consumers of Toyota Motors Corporation differentiated products. Being a mass producer of vehicles is a weakness that has the capacity of ruining the company as it exposes it to competitive threats.

For instance, the company has been recalling cars since 2003 (Ichimaru, 2009). The latest car recalls have reduced the customers confidence although the company has set have a quality management to oversee the production of quality vehicles (Takahashi, 2010). This may hinder its efforts of recovering quickly if not addressed to.

Although Toyota has been facing some operational issues related to quality, it is still doing well. The recalling of vehicles and loss made in 2009 did not deter its recovery process as it increased its growth by 48%.

The identified strengths are the ability to use different marketing mix and concepts in expanding and maintaining its customers. It has also ensured that it produces different varieties that satisfy the needs of different customers.

The company has been targeting US and Japan as the major markets which have exposed it to financial market crisis and different exchange and currency rates. Lastly, it has faced with issue of mass production which may jeopardize the quality of its vehicles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management: Internal Analysis and SWOT by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Ichimaru, Y. (2009). Toyota Motor Corporation: Annual Report 2009. Web.

Marketing Teacher Ltd. (2011). < SWOT Analysis Toyota. Web.

Takahashi, Y. (2010, May 12). Toyota Registers Surprise Profit. Wall Street Journal. Web.

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Chinese Traditional Festivals and Culture Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction The Chinese culture is one of the most celebrated cultures over the world. Owing to this culture, there are many festivals associated with it. Through these festivals, the Chinese culture has become overwhelmingly popular in many parts of the world.

The festivals fall in different times of the year and are celebrated in differing styles. All these festivals may be classified under four categories (Gibney, p. 109). This paper will focus on the three Chinese traditional festivals.

These are the Spring Festival, the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Dragon Boat festival. This paper will briefly describe the three festivals and their importance to the Chinese people.

The paper will also explain what the festivals tell the audience about Chinese traditional culture, values and the similarities among these festivals’ values. Chinese have various festivals and Cultures which have different values and similarities. The festivals tell more about the Chinese cultures and values.

The Spring Festival Of all the Chinese festivals, the Spring Festival has the greatest value to the Chinese people with its value equated to the value of the Westerners attachment to Christmas. It is a time of the year designated for merrymaking when family members come together to celebrate the occasion.

This period is characterized by congestion and overcrowding in all the transport networks. Millions of Chinese fill the airports, bus stations and rail stations in a rush to return home (Kalman, p. 20).

The Spring Festival is celebrated for a period of three days every year though its entire duration is a bit longer. The festival falls on the first day of the first lunar month but starts unceremoniously in the early days of the twelfth lunar month and extends to the mid of the first lunar month of the following year.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this entire period, the eve of the Spring festival and the following three days have the greatest importance to the Chinese people (Kalman, p. 20).

The history of this festival dates back to the 12th century. The custom has survived through the centuries though the meaning has slightly changed. Today, the festival does not necessarily involve offering sacrifices to gods or ancestors, but simply marks the end of a year and the beginning of another.

The government attaches a lot of importance to the festival and even stipulates that people take the first seven days of the New Year to celebrate. A series of events carried out by the Chinese people mark the Spring Festival (Kalman, p. 21).

The occasion starts on the eighth day of the last lunar month. On this day, families make laba porridge which is made of beans, rice, lotus seeds, millet, jujube berries, longan and gingko. Following this, preparing delicious meals is held on the twenty third day of the same month.

Initially, the meaning of this day was to offer sacrifice to the Chinese kitchen god; however, today, people prepare the meals to enjoy themselves. The day is called the ’Preliminary Eve’ after which people commence the actual preparations for welcoming the New Year. During this period, people go into a shopping spree buying all they will require during the New Year celebrations (Kalman, p. 21).

To mark a new beginning associated with the up coming New Year, all the people carry out a thorough cleaning of their clothes, utensils, houses and compounds. This is followed by colorful decorations to create an atmosphere of joy and festive mood.

At this time, the Chinese mastery in calligraphy is brought to the fore. All houses are decorated with various patterns depending on the tastes of the owners; however, the most common colors are red and black. The most popular decorations involve pasting of the door panels with couplets which have red and black collage patterns.

We will write a custom Essay on Chinese Traditional Festivals and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Chinese associate different colors and patterns with personal wishes, such as good luck and success in the New Year. Those who still harbor strong traditional attachments decorate their houses with images of the gods of wealth whom they believe will bring them abundant wealth in the New Year (Kalman, p. 22).

The most remarkable symbol that is almost consciously mandatory in the New Year celebrations is the character fu which stands for the happiness and blessings. Other characters and patterns with various meaning associated with the festivities are also commonplace around this period. For example, red lanterns erected on opposite sides of the doors and other brightly decorated images have special meanings of the new beginning or renewed hope to the Chinese populace (Kalman, p. 22).

Another popular custom is the setting of fire crackers and fireworks. The special meaning of this practice is biding farewell to the previous year and welcoming the New Year. The custom of using the fireworks exists in China for a long and is an integral part in many other occasions, such as sports events and wedding ceremonies.

An important event on the New Year day involves visitations. People move around to visit friends and relatives to send their New Year wishes. Culturally, the young visit the elderly to offer the wishes. The elderly in return offer them monetary gifts wrapped in special red wrappings.

It is considered essential to visit one another and pass the New Year regards; however; with influence of technology on the modern generation, nowadays, people use phones and e-mail services to pass their New Year messages (Kalman, p. 23).

A characteristic delicacy during the festival is the Jiaozi, a preparation of flour stuffed with various fillings. The meal is culturally recommended since its shape which resembles an ancient Chinese currency means that the New Year will bring wealth.

To add to that, different ethnic groups attach other symbols to the dumplings associated with good luck. For instance, candy is believed to signify sweet life, and chestnuts represent vigor. To start the year on the right footing, people try to avoid bad behavior or explicit use of some words such as kill, dead or bad because they believe they could be a bad omen for the New Year.

No sweeping of floor is allowed as it signifies pushing away blessings. There are many other taboos associated with this festival that vary from one ethnic group to another. These signify the wealth of the Chinese culture and the value attached to it (Kalman, p. 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Traditional Festivals and Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mid-Autumn Festival The Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival also referred to as the Moon Cake Festival is commemorated every fifteenth day of the eighth month. The festival is associated with the connection between the mankind’s spirit and nature. The term Moon Cake Festival is used in reference to a special sweet cake, yueh ping, which is baked during the festival and resembles the moon. The cake is prepared and filled with duck eggs, sesame and ground lotus seeds (Kalman, p. 27).

The history of this festival can be traced back to the 14th century. Different theories explaining the origin of this festival exist, but this is not withstanding; the Chinese continue to celebrate annually. One myth about the origin of the Moon Cake Festival states that China was under the control of oppressive Mongols in the 14thcentury.

A revolutionary named Chu Yuen-Chang and his deputy Liu Po-Wen came up with a strategy to overthrow this leadership. Liu entered a besieged city in the disguise of a Taoist priest and distributed cakes in the shape of a moon to the city inhabitants in readiness for an up coming festival (Chung Chiu).

On opening the cakes’ wrappings, people found messages calling on them to help coordinate a rebellion with his army located outside the city. The plan succeeded, and Chu Yuen-Chang became their emperor successfully overthrowing the oppressive rule of the Mongols.

Every following year during the Chung Chiu festival, people in the empire prepared moon shaped cakes, and the custom stuck into all the upcoming generations to signify freedom (Jasmine, p. 38).

Another version argues that a woman lived on the moon during the Hsia dynasty. This woman, Chang-O, was the wife of a great general, Hou-Yi. One day, this general, a skilled archer, shot down eight suns that had mysteriously come out.

These suns, they believed, would have brought disaster to the Earth. The General was thus rewarded by the emperor. People believed that those suns could re-appear and cause more havoc. They, therefore, offered sacrifices to the god of heavens to make the general immortal, so he would forever protect their generations. Their prayer was answered, and Hou received the immortality pill (Jasmine, p. 39).

It is said that the wife, Chang-O, stole the pill and went to live on the moon. Due to the cold weather on the moon, she began coughing until the pill came out. She decided to crash it and scatter it to the earth so all the people would become immortal.

A hare described in many Chinese mythologies as Jade hare helped her and gnawed the pill into dust. Together, they spread the dust all over the earth in the hope it would reach everyone. Owing to this worthy gesture, the Chinese always put images of Chang-O on moon cake boxes and Moon Cake Festival posters as a gesture for good wishes (Jasmine, p. 39).

The third version is based on an ancient belief that marriages are organized on the moon. Yueh Lao Yeh, an old man who was believed to live on the moon, carries out this role. He is said to have a record of all the newborns, their future plans including their matching partners in marriage.

During the Moon Festival, many Chinese including little children climb onto hills and mountains or visit open beaches to have a clear view of the moon and make their wish to the old man. They use symbols with a cultural meaning.

For instance, a butterfly signifies long life, star-like fruits symbolize seasons, a lobster represents mirth, a crap is used to signify strength and wisdom since the symbol was originally a decoration of ancient emperors’ gowns.

The value of this cultural practice among the Chinese indicates that they believe in presence of supernatural beings who determine mortals’ destiny as it is common across almost all the cultures all over the world (Jasmine, p. 40).

The Dragon Boat festival In China, the Dragon Boat Festival is referred to as Duan Wu Jie. This festival is commemorated every fifth day of the fifth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. The origin of this festival dates many centuries back and is based on activities in remembrance of a great Chinese poet, Qu Yuan.

The Chinese culture has a strong connection to the history of Yuan who is still regarded to be one of the greatest patriots in the Chinese history. It is said that Qu Yuan served as an advisor to the emperor Huai. He opposed corruption fervently which apparently annoyed many of the empire’s officials.

Due to corruption and bad leadership, the empire of the Chu state was easily defeated by the Qin state. This disappointed him so much that he committed suicide by drowning into the Miluo River (Stafford, p. 113).

The Chinese government has tried to emphasize the importance of this holyday for the entire nation apart from being held in remembrance of a great patriot and also offered an appropriate platform to remind everyone the importance of good conduct and loyalty and inculcate the culture of being committed to the national course in the people (Stafford, p. 113).

What the festivals tell the audience about Chinese traditional culture and values The Spring Festival can be said to be a time for family members to remember one another by coming together and celebrate the success of the past year together and cross over to a new year encouraging each other. Giving money to the young by the elderly is a sign of wishing them good fortune in life.

This creates oneness in the society and shows the caring nature of the populace. It is also a time dedicated to commemoration of the ancestors from whom the current generation emerges. This ensures continuity and inculcates the sense of belonging (Katz, p. 27).

The Mid-Autumn Festival is characterized by worship. People use this festival to offer their thanksgiving to the moon (heavens) and the earth for all the blessings and successes they have had in their lives. It is also a time to pray for good fortunes. The moon shaped cakes consumed during this festival demonstrate family unity. During this festival, the Chinese people also take time to observe serenity (Katz, p. 27).

Nowadays, the Dragon Boat Festival is also called the Poet’s Festival as it commemorates the death of a great patriotic poet. This patriot committed suicide following disillusionment by the failure of the ruling class to fight corruption or uphold integrity in leadership.

Through this festival, the Chinese are reminded about the value of upright nationhood, commitment to the national course and integrity observation in all the deeds of day to day lives (Katz, p. 27).

These festivals are part of the Chinese effort to maintain their culture and values amidst the overwhelming globalization. The involvement of the Chinese government in promoting these festivals goes a long way in creating a national culture for all the Chinese ethnic grouping which in turn would enhance harmony.

Almost all Chinese ethnic groups attach a lot of importance to these festivals and other cultural practices which has resulted in the practices gaining prominence across generations. The Chinese have indicated the importance of their culture on many more occasions and not only the three festivals mentioned above.

For instance, in 2004, during the Athens- based Olympics, the Chinese performed an extravaganza displaying colorful features of their culture. The use of Chinese only attire and symbols at the event and many other events they perform all over the world, in particular during cultural exchange events only acts to demonstrate the actual value they attach t their culture (Katz, p. 89).

Numerous transformations have occurred in the way the Chinese run their politics, education, family structures, language, the military and the judiciary, however; the traditional practices and festivals that demonstrate the Chinese value attachment to their culture have undergone little or no transformation over the their entire 5000-year history.

Social experts claim that the modernized Chinese who have tried to embrace other cultures of the world that are deemed more civilized especially western cultures have found themselves in a ‘lonely world. This has therefore forced majority of the Chinese to tow the cultural line in an effort to remain relevant (Stafford, p. 202).

One of the strategies that the government has employed includes offering sponsorship and an aggressive media awareness campaign to sensitize the populace on the importance of observing and participating in cultural events and festivals.

Aside from the national governments efforts, local authorities have also made it their responsibility to inculcate the essence of observing the festivals and teaching the importance of the same to their children.

Several individuals have also been involved in promoting culture development by sponsoring events or other programs with a cultural orientation. The maintenance of cultural activities in china such as the traditional festivals has also been prominent due to efforts of non-governmental organizations that have kept the government on its toes to protect culture as it was demonstrated in the out cries when the central government started destroying traditional shrines, artifacts and other heritage sites (Stafford, p. 207).

The national media has lately been at the forefront in promoting traditional holidays and events such as the Dragon boat festival, the Mid-Autumn festival, the Moon festival and other cultural events that were earlier deemed contradictory such as the Maoism, globalism and socialism.

These traditional Chinese festivals have gained so much popularity to an extent of being integrated into the curriculum from basic level education to higher education (Katz, p. 28).

All the Chinese festivals described above have many characteristics in common. They all demonstrate a common desire for joy, well-being, and encourage unity among the people to unite the family. They show an element of the vital link between mankind and their creator.

The issue of avoiding misfortunes is also highlighted. The Chinese use all these festivals for relating and merrymaking. It can be also stated that these festivals are an important opportunity for Chinese to take a break from the hectic day to day life chores (Katz, p. 28).

Conclusion Chinese have various festivals and Cultures which have different values and similarities. The festivals tell more about the Chinese cultures and values. Despite the culture transformations going on in all the parts of the world that have led to erosions of cultures, China is among the few societies that have maintained traditional festivals and customs.

The continued cultural links of the modern Chinese population show the importance of the attachment to the history and culture. There are many other factors that unite the Chinese community, such as language, and ethnic ties, but none of these has a stronger bond than their cultural identity.

Works Cited Gibney, Matthew J. Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present. Entries A to I, Volume 1. California: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Print.

Jasmine, Julia. Multicultural Holidays: Share our Celebration. Huntington Beach, CA : Teacher Created Materials, 1994. Print.

Kalman, Bobbie. China, the Culture. New York: Crabtree, 2008. Print.

Katz, Paul R. Demon Hordes and Burning Boats: The Cult of Marshal Wen in Late Imperial Chekiang Albany. New York: State University of New York Press, 1995. Print.

Stafford, Charles. The Roads of Chinese Childhood: Learning and Identification in Angang. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.

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Indifference has Robbed Generations of our History Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Issue of the Author

Why is the Aboriginal Issue so Important to the Author?

Why are the Issues in this Article Important to the Course?

Values and Assumptions in the Article, and their Implications

References

Introduction The issue of the welfare of the Aborigines has been a controversial one in Australia for the longest time. It is a fact beyond doubt that Aborigines were the original occupants of this continent before the arrival of the white man, but today, they live on the periphery of their own land.

Documented history indicates that the Aborigines have been displaced from their land, pushed and relegated to reserve settlements and ghettos where they live under deplorable conditions. They have undergone untold terrors under the hands of the white man since 1788.

It is in the year 1788 that the Aborigines had their initial contact with the British settlers with the docking of the First Fleet in Botany Bay (Pardoe 2006). Some scholars claim that the white man brought with him diseases such as small pox and tuberculosis, and given the fact that the Aborigines have been a closed society with no contact with the outside world, these diseases wiped whole communities out.

This is given that they had no natural immunity against these diseases. As earlier indicated, they were also displaced and their land taken over by the colonialists, who started engaging in agriculture.

Circa 1869 to 1969, children of Aborigines were forcibly removed from their families and placed on mission homes or engaged in forced labour as a result of a government declaration. These are the children that form the infamous “stolen generation” (Edwards 2004).

Many books have been written, many films produced, all depicting the current and past life experiences of the Australian Aborigines. Most of them revolve around the issue of the conflict between the settlers and the Aborigines, and the minority status of the Aborigines in their own land.

One of such writings is Nowra Louis’ 2008 piece titled Indifference has Robbed Generations of our History. This article was published on the Sydney Morning Herald on December 27 2008, and in it, Nowra gives his views about the plight of this community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Main Issue of the Author In this article, the major theme that stands out is how latter day Australians are ignorant of the country’s history. This is especially the history detailing the life of the Australian aboriginal.

Nowra (2008) begins the article by giving the story of how he saw a not so sober Aborigine woman nearly getting ran over by a car on a town street. Drunkards in a nearby bar started laughing at the woman, making fun of her race and her drunken stupor.

Nowra (2008) is of the view that these drunkards are a vivid representation of the “general populace’s attitude towards the first Australians- they are indifferent” (p. 4).

This view is of latter day’s Australian ignorance of their history is supported by other scholars such as Callaway (2011), who are of the view that this ignorance is one of the reasons why the Aborigines lead such a deplorable life.

It is a fact beyond doubt that the history of the Australian continent cannot be separated from that of the Aborigines. Nowra (2008) drives this point home when he says that the historical identity of Australians is “inextricably bound up with the Aborigines and the Torres Strait Islanders” (p. 4).

In fact, it can be argued that the history of latter day Australia has been drawn on an Aboriginal’s canvas. The background of the picture itself is the Aboriginal’s who lived here before and after 1788, and the middle ground and foreground of the same picture is made up of shades of the aboriginals together with the British settlers.

Why is the Aboriginal Issue so Important to the Author? Writers use their work in most cases to communicate and articulate those issues that they feel are important to them. The importance of the issue may draw from the personal experiences of the writer or the experiences of other people around them.

We will write a custom Essay on Indifference has Robbed Generations of our History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nowra’s article is influenced a lot by his personal experience. The issue of the indifference of Australians towards their history emanates from his personal experience in the Australian society, and especially as a white male playwright, novelist and screenwriter.

When he helped in producing the documentary First Australians, depicting the history of Australia, and especially the Aborigines, he expected that a lot of people will watch the series. However, it was only 300,000 who people who were interested in the documentary series.

As he was talking to a friend of his, bemoaning this fact, the friend told him that she had not watched the series. She was honest enough to tell him that “I have no excuse……actually, to be honest, I am totally indifferent to the whole subject of Aborigines” (Nowra 2008; p. 4). This appears to have influenced so much in writing this article.

Why are the Issues in this Article Important to the Course? Sociology deals with the study of the interaction of people within the society. Nowra’s article is seminal to this end, given the fact that it gives a detailed account of the type of interaction between the Aborigines in Australia and the whites.

Conflict is a major theory in sociology, detailing how different social actors in the society are always in disagreement with each other. This article depicts the conflict between the aborigines and the whites in this country.

According to conflict theorists such as C. Wright Mills and Herbert Spencer, conflict in the society has both positive and negative consequences. One of the positive attributes is the fact that it is a source of internal cohesion among members of the different warring parties.

A negative consequence is the fact that some of the parties are the losers in the conflict, and their life becomes deplorable as a result. This article is important as it depicts the results of the conflict between the aborigines and the whites.

According to Zuckermann (2009), the aborigines are some of the most illiterate individuals in Australia, with school retention beyond primary school standing at less than 20 percent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Indifference has Robbed Generations of our History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This may be attributed to the conflict between the aboriginals and the whites, with the whites taking most of the resources. However, the conflict has led to some sense of togetherness among the aborigines, and this may be well symbolised by the flag that they have adopted.

Values and Assumptions in the Article, and their Implications In this article, Nowra (2008) makes the assumption that the indifference towards Australian history among the general populace is a matter of personal choice.

He is of the view that it is up to the individual to make a conscious decision to learn the history of their country. He asserts that this indifference and nonchalance attitude can be callous, and to some extent even cruel to the country and the individual at a micro level.

This assumption and value by Nowra (2008) makes him present a strong case for his argument. However, he does not lose sight of the fact that the ignorance may have been passed on from one generation to the other.

References Callaway, E 2011. First Aboriginal Genome Sequenced, Nature News, September 22.

Edwards, W H 2004. An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies, New York: Social Science Press.

Nowra, L 2008. Indifference has Robbed Generations of our History, Sydney Morning Herald, December 27.

Pardoe, C 2006. Becoming Australian: Evolutionary Processes and Biological Variation from Ancient to Modern Times, Before Farming, 2006.

Zuckermann, G 2009. Aboriginal Languages Deserve Revival, Australian Higher Education, August 26.

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Knowledge Work and Organization Essay essay help

Introduction Many organizations in different sectors are using community of practice and innovation to improve on their productivity. Community of practice and innovation are interrelated in some ways. This study seeks to identify their similarities, differences and the effects each have on the organization. The last part explains the challenges that firms that participate in social networks face.

Communities of Practice From the community’s point of view, communities of practice are groups of people who come together to meet a common goal. In the business perspective, it is a group of self-motivated people who follow laid out procedures and are challenged to train the persons working with them in order to improve their productivity (Wenger 2000, p.45). These communities of practice are responsible for the smooth running of the organization.

Therefore, they are accountable using their knowledge and skills, are included in the planning of the budget of the organization, and provide the time schedule for the activities carried out in the organization. They have artifacts which are documents, websites and stories and the appointed member maintain them since they are useful in the organization (Kortum

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PUMA SE Company Analysis Proposal essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents PUMA SE Company

Products and Market Area

Justification of the company choice

Key players in the industry

Interesting aspects of sports industry

Methodology: Assignment approach

References

PUMA SE Company The strategic research report will delve much on Puma SE Company. This is renowned German International Corporation which conducts most of its business operations in the universal sports industry. Rudolf Dassler inaugurated Puma in 1948 after a family shoes business was split. The corporation developed into a limited partnership in late 1950s but became a public company in the financial year 1980 (Puma, 2011, p.10).

Products and Market Area Puma SE operates in various regions across the globe. However, the key operational areas for Puma SE include Asia, Latin America, North America and Europe. The corporation has expressed interest in Africa since 2005 where it aims to market its products and outsource raw materials. The major primary dealings of Puma SE include accessories, footwear and apparels (Puma, 2011, p.10)

Justification of the company choice Puma SE has become a renowned multinational corporation whose operations have attracted many investors and researchers alike. The transformation of Puma into a market focused firm means that it has to diversify its brands into superfluous fashion and lifestyle alternatives (Miller, 2010, pg.2).

However, to overcome various market entry barriers, gain competitive edge and emerge a global leader in the sports industry, the company has developed and implemented various market and operational strategies (Spence

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A Comparison of the Lottery and the Destructors Short Stories Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction In society, some people derive joy from seeing other people suffer. The above-mentioned fictional stories have a rather sadistic point of view. A specific group in each story derives its comfort in watching its fellow human beings suffer. One of the groups that could be excused are children who often derive fun in extreme and weird situations. However, in the fiction written by Shirley Jackson, the characters involved are adults.

These two fictional stories were both published in the early 1950’s and late 1940’s at a time when there was liberation and mockery during the end of World War II and undesired segregations. The authors’ ideas might have developed due to the situation at the time when the fictional stories were written.

“The Lottery” takes place during a fruitful month of summer, when flowers are blooming and grass is richly green yet the event that followed was utterly unexplainable. Why would anyone want to stone someone on such a beautiful day just because the lottery suggested that it was his or her time to be stoned?

As for “the Destructor”, the scenery is a spontaneous car park, the spot of the most recent bomb of the first bombardment. Next to the car park stood the house of ‘Old Misery’ -a name that had been given to him by the gang. However, his real name was Thomas, a nice person who even more than often tried befriending the gang.

The contrast is that, in “the Destructors”, it is children who are considered to be naive and clueless to the harm they cause to others and themselves but as for “the Lottery”, a whole community just decides to stone one individual. The community which comprises of adults is in support of the idea. In “the Lottery”, the mood is hasty, everyone is eager to wind up and go back home to their daily routine.

The author uses several sentences and describes the events around to lure the reader into presuming that it is a normal community. In developing the plot of the story, the author foreshadows the story’s ending by talking about the black box and the black dot at the end of the story, which symbolized the person to be stoned (Jackson et al).

Irony is employed in the same story in other instances. The beginning tells us of a happy normal hardworking community, but the end contrasts the character highlighted at the beginning. The author in this story also uses the names of the characters to create different styles like allusion, symbolism and irony. Names like Graves symbolize death, but this is ironical because Graves and his family evade death, which befalls Tessie of the Hutchinson’s.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, in “the Destructors”, there is very little or no symbolism created in the names used. Irony has though been used to describe the driver who began to laugh instead of sympathizing with Thomas when he learnt that the old man’s house was in shambles (Greene et al).

“The Destructors” shows Blacker as the team leader. Seemingly, Trevor wanted this post for quite some time. The reader would expect him to go for it as his name, Blacker, suggests it. However, Blacker gives in, and lets Trevor be the leader after he came to the realization that Trevor would lose the gangs’ trust. Furthermore, he had helped him at times. Despite his darkened name, he had a soft spot, which showed some sort of irony intentionally or unintentionally done by the author (Graham et al).

The contrasting bit of these two stories is the fact that the setting of one gives an illusion of a different ending with happiness. What comes out is the stoning of one of the members yet the other one just shows destruction which is eminent at some point. “The Lottery” satirizes a number of social issues, including the reluctance of people to reject outdated traditions, ideas, rules, laws, and practices as well the effects associated with them.

The perspective of Mr. Thomas guards the traditional ways and the archaic trust in the power of elders. He believes he has the ability to control what the boys do and forbid them from taking part in some things simply because he is elder. (Jackson et al). The author demonstrates the lower class and represents it by the gang. The lower class is not content to see the upper class take pleasure in valuable property. Instead, they destroy the property and somehow manage to create equilibrium between the wealthy class and the poor.

Works Cited Greene, Graham. 21 Stories. New York: Viking Press, Questia, 1962. Web.

Jackson, Shirley. The Lottery. Classic Short Stories.n.d. Web.

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History of Economic Thought Essay college application essay help

Labor theories of value advanced by Smith, Ricardo and max Marx measured value in units of “simple average labor”. According to Marx, skilled work counts for multiple values of unskilled labour. The average labour time expended in a unit of production can be measured in money. According to Marx’s theory of exploitation, labour can create profit on its own.

Labour power is a component of labour time, wages and profit. Exploitation can be explained in terms of profit. It is from money obtained from labour that a capitalist meets rent and interest expenses (Brue et al. 2007).

Smith advocates for division of labour. Division of labour saves time because workers improve efficiency in a task and specialized machinery can be developed for performance of the tasks. In division of labour, competition is emphasized since employees perform similar tasks.

Exchange value is determined by production costs without considering land and capital. The exchange value is determined by labour inputs. Smith supports growth in wages as a means of achieving equality. As profits increase, so the wages are to do the same.

Ricardo argues that in determining exchange value, labour associated with produce input should be considered. According to Ricardo, increase in wages lowers profits rather than increasing exchange values. Labour creates value, but this is not the absolute value.

Marx’s maintains value is absolute while Ricardo argues on relative values. Mercantilists consider the advancement of foreign trade to be a key to the attainment of state security and prosperity of a country. The expenditure of surplus is individuals’ contributes to the national income.

Physiocrats credited creation of national wealth solely to agriculture. To the physiocrats, the enjoyment of goods and services is viewed as the expenditure of surplus from agriculture. These two divergent views of wealth creation can be observed in the Ancient Greek economic thought.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On economic organization, Plato affirms that no man is self sufficient. To satisfy our myriad of needs, we need to find a person who has surplus which you need, and who is in want of what you are able to offer. To this end, division of labour is paramount. We will then have people practicing specialized trades, e.g. physicians, farmers, cobblers, etc. The state is the product of these different individuals living together symbiotically.

Nations will specialize in what they are good in, giving rise to international trade. Plato maintains that no country can attain self sufficiency. All the countries require imports from time to time. Countries should then strive to produce enough for their populace, to avail a surplus for international trade.

With trade, a unit of exchange that observes fairness is important. Aristotle affirms that commodities are not always portable in their natural state. To ease trade, currency was invented as a means of exchange. The portability of money and its international acceptability have made trading far easier, and increased the volume of trade.

According to Aristotle, the downside of a money economy is the Usury. There is a tendency to want money for accumulation, rather than for the purposes it was intended for. This should not be encouraged. The law of diminishing returns holds that for every extra particle of an item one obtains, the level of happiness attained from its acquisition diminishes.

Xenophon affirms that money can only create wealth for us in so far as we know how to use it. The aspects of wealth and the activities that encompass its creation in the Ancient Greek significantly inform Physiocratic and mercantile economic thought.

Similarities between Marxian analysis to classical tradition of Adam Smith and Ricardo Like Smith and Ricardo, Marx can be credited with participation in determining the theory of exchange values. Like Smith, Marx maintained that growth in productivity activities was a positive aspect of capitalism.

Marx like Smith argued that as productivity increased, workers would be more susceptible to harm. Marx lauded an advance made by Smith beyond the physicrats that only agricultural labour creates value. General social labour is to be credited with creation of value.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Economic Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A case in defense of classical economies The notion that classical economies are excessively self centered and do not address aggregate economic activity is unsound. For instance, our moral faculties inhibit the extreme practice of selfishness. Our conscience and reason play a big part in inhibiting impulses of self-love.

Inadvertently, though of a selfish nature, our actions advance societal interests. For instance, a developer constructs a rental building after accumulating wealth. Division of labour means we don’t need to master all trade (Medema et al. 2003).

We only need to perfect one trade. The proceeds from that trade can be utilized in procuring services and goods that one cannot produce. By perusing our own interests, we inadvertently promote the good of the society more efficiently than we would if the societal interest had been our key objective.

The baker will bake the best cakes to maximize his sales while a butcher weighs his meat fairly to avoid a bad reputation. Engagements of the two entrepreneurs are informed by individual interest, but their interests are harmonized by the unintended societal good.

Society will only prosper if equity amongst its people is championed. Smith argues that wages should rise in tandem with economic growth. Workers should combine to bargain for wages in unison. As the economies prosper, more borrowers will want money.

Classical economists affirm that interest should be treated as a deduction to profits. It does not need to be higher than the rate of profit, but it is to be high enough to compensate for the loss occasioned by the lending.

Conclusion The average labor time expended in a unit of production can be measured in money. According to Marx’s theory of exploitation, labor can create profit on its own. Labor power is a component of labor time, wages and profit. Exchange value is determined by production costs.

Without considering land and capital, the exchange value is determined by labor inputs. Smith supports growth in wages as a means of achieving equality. According to the physiocrats, the enjoyment of goods and services is the expenditure of surplus from agriculture.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Economic Thought by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These two divergent views of wealth creation can be observed in the Ancient Greek economic thought. To this end, division of labor is paramount. We will then have people practicing specialized trades e.g. physicians, farmers, cobblers etc.

Division of labor means that we do not need to master all kinds of trade. We only need to perfect one trade (Marshall 2009). The proceeds from that trade can then be utilized in procuring services and goods that one cannot produce.

By perusing our own interests, we inadvertently promote the good of the society more efficiently than we would have done if the societal interest had been our key objective. Ultimately, workers should combine to bargain for wages in unison. As the economies prosper, more borrowers will want money. Classical economists affirm that interest should be treated as a deduction to profits.

References Brue, Stanley L., and Grant, Randy R. (2007). The History of Economic Thought. 7th edition. Mason, OH: Thomson-South Western.

Marshall, A. (2009 reprint). Principles of Economics. 8th edition. NY: Cosimo Classics.

Medema, S, G., and Warren J, S. (eds.) (2003). The History of Economic Thought: A Reader. London: Routledge.

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Forgiveness best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Ethical Aspect of the study

Strengths, Limitations and Suggestions

Design

Participants

Data Quality

Analysis

References

Ethical Aspect of the study Psychologists view forgiveness and reconciliation as two parallel phenomena; this difference, they say, is adaptive, such that one may forgive a deceased person without necessarily returning into (the) relationship (Frise

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Ideology of Gender Roles Essay essay help online free

In the world of literature, ideology has played a vital role in depicting the condition of the society. The society has used ideologies to obscure the nature and composition of domination. According to Marxists, ideology is designated as a form of politics and law that is used to legitimate power to certain social class in the society. In the traditional setting, ideologies were used to discriminate one community or gender from the other.

It enhanced the superiority of the dominant community through decision-making and social consciousness (Clinton et al. 48). Although ideologies are sometimes true, they have played a vital role in defining the social structure based on gender roles in society.

The attitude towards gender role is often characterized by different opinions and beliefs on the roles of women and men in the society. For instance, the common ideology is that the place of women should be in the kitchen. The ideologies on gender roles have enhanced the society to define distinct roles of women and men.

In most cases, women have been reported to be the victims of discriminatory acts. The belief has enabled men to have dominance over women in society. Various ways have been used to reveal the perception of ideologies in the society.

In Shakespeare’s work, portrayal of ideology in his work is imminent through Medea’s character. Feminist theorists of theater turned insistently to consider how ideology was embedded in texts and performances. It displays how spectators were positioned to accept such ideologies unquestioningly.

For instance, when Medea initially walked on the stage in fifth-century, she was not a woman at all; she was a man in a mask speaking of words of a male playwright to a gathering of male citizens. This has evoked legal and dramatic narratives that her daughters were succumbed to, following her stand in the society (Massai 52). Most often, like Medea, they are referred to as “non” women.

Gender role ideology is demonstrated by Shakespeare through Othello’s character. Indeed, absolute social and spiritual equality between different sexes do coexist with equal absolute subjection of women that is decreed and then subverted. Puritan marriage ideology in the Renaissance provides a remarkable index of the ways in which modern values were being created, and conflicts were taking shape.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Othello’s character demonstrates the apprehension and exploitation of ideological inconsistencies that prevails in the current society. In the scene (1.3) in which Desdemona and Othello seek to justify their marriage before the Vietnam senate, she unwittingly articulates a conception of sexuality and its relation to public life that is antagonistic to Othello’s (Massai 68). This demonstrate the clarity in the perception of gender role ideology in the society.

In No Name Woman and White Tigers by Maxine Hong Kingston, she used storytelling to demarcate the ideological belief and expose the truth behind the perceived social structures in the society. Kingston’s chronicle, No Name Woman, demonstrates various examples that show men’s dominance over women. For instance, when men migrated from China to America in search of work, they left women to look after the household chores and the children.

The women were expected to keep the customs and rules of the society while their male counterparts fumbled without being detected. Ideally, the work of safeguarding the tradition demands that an individual’s feeling towards an action should be played in one’s guts without exposing the rage to the society (Kingston 8). This implies that there is a significant difference between female and male’s roles.

Consequently, Kingston reveals various forms of ideologies in these two stories that he wrote; blame, oppression, and humiliation. The ideologies are intertwined to demonstrate the society’s perception of gender roles and its implication on mask superstructure. Kingston demonstrates blame ideology through the revelation of aunt’s act of committing adultery. The blame is leveled on the woman’s shoulder while the man is unaccountable of the situation.

Although the aunt is stuck in an unsuitable predicament, it is clear that ignorance persist in the society as they are blinded by gender roles’ ideology. Adultery can only be committed by two people of different sex. In this scenario, Kingston reveals that the men out-live their roles in the society, and they are taken to be in the higher social order than that of women (Massai 32).

The ideology of humiliation is demonstrated in No Name Woman when the mother of Kingston narrates the story of her aunt. This was aimed at forewarning Kingston against humiliating the family and the clan. Mother tells her story as she feels it is essential to warn her in the early stages of life, that is, before commencing her periods. However, Kingston understanding is quite different from that of her mother.

The story reveals the discriminatory acts that exist in the society when one is confined in the cocoon of the society’s culture. It shows that men will always be dominant in the society if they are not punished equally from the acts they commit. Women are not supposed to be punished excessively and men are treated as royals despite committing the same felony. The ideology outlines that men are not supposed to be humiliated.

We will write a custom Essay on Ideology of Gender Roles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society provides that women are the only ones who can be humiliated from the unacceptable deeds. Ideologies of oppression do exist, as the women cannot air their grievances publicly. This is demonstrated by the community’s council of elders where only men are entitled to be the leaders of the community while the women should stay at home (Clinton et al. 254).

Kingston’s memoir focused on gender roles’ ideology. It shows how men are dominant figure in the society. She also reveals her experience on the society’s superstructure that discriminates women. Indeed, women have tried to achieve a high social order like their male counterparts, but they are hindered by these ideologies.

The use of storytelling aimed at demarcating oppression, discrimination, and humiliation that women face in the society. Her writings provided a challenge to the society on the role of women and men. Kingston’s chronicle is not an ideology reflection, but it is aimed at enabling the literature work to distance itself from ideological misconceptions.

In conclusion, ideology has been the dominant factor in the traditional and current society. Individuals seem to embed on ideological perception when defining gender-based roles. Human being should not be immune to crime in the society. Men should not be treated fairly when both women and men are found guilty of the same crime.

As such, by means of storytelling and writing, Kingston and Shakespeare were able to reveal gender ideologies, and the way men benefit from this misconception. The society needs to understand that ideologies discriminate individuals in the society. Literature work should not instigate gender roles’ ideologies, but it should demarcate its existence. Women’s roles should be distinct and where a crime is committed, like in the case of her aunt, both the genders should be treated equally.

Works Cited Clinton, Jerome, Irele Abiola

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The United States and the GCC (Gulf Countries) Multinationals, Strategies Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Support Strategies

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Support Strategies Strategies should be aimed at making the production more available to customers with regard to target audience and ways of delivery and should include analysis of the rivalry in terms of competitive advantage and best practices that can be implemented in their companies.

In other words, support strategies should include the theoretical and practical perspectives on the supply operations.

By facilitating access to foreign technology licenses, it would become easier to open new markets for building and construction materials supply because of the legal perspective of the case. For instance, it is necessary to follow the laws of the countries of customers because the materials should be manufactured with regard to all technical characteristics allowed for a particular country.

Besides, as suggested in the report by representatives of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2010), “high royalty costs associated with foreign technology licenses and fees, for example, are costly and can have negative effects on competitiveness” (p. 150).

Regarding the issue of concern, facilitating access to foreign technology licenses in terms of low-carbon economy investments can be costly though effective making it a competitive advantage compared to companies that would not have free access to licenses thus bearing losses.

Power sector funding of re-tooling costs for production lines and product designs can be improved with the help of a research conducted on the operation of large and small contractors as well as distributors to analyze the channels of supply.

Assessment of distribution channels is the method of active application of effective improvements introduced into the current operation. As suggested in the study by Liu, Meyer, and Hogan (2010), the supply chain should “begin to develop and produce more energy-efficient buildings and to integrate energy efficiency requirements into standard practices” (p. 11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, it is necessary to remember about the licenses that can facilitate emergence of innovations in the countries where energy-efficient buildings are very popular whereas the appropriate materials are not available. Market research should include analysis of the markets, rivals, and available technologies with regard to their use.

On the other hand, Cavinato, Flynn, and Kauffman (2006) analyse the cases when manufacturers cooperate actively with their suppliers and “capitalize on technology innovation” with the latter (p. 270).

The process of upgrading capabilities to produce and supply energy conservation materials can be more time- and cost-consuming than facilitating access to foreign licenses and other ways of entering the foreign market with manufacturing and supply of materials for building and construction.

Discussion For instance, the information by United Nations Publications (2001) supports the idea of active use of the polymer industry focusing on the biotechnology inputs as well as polymer modified cement materials that can be used in future. Delivery of such materials would not be complicated in case customers are interested in the use of such materials.

As claimed by McCabe (2010), “the bargaining power of a supplier is based on their ability to control what they provide” (p. 69). This means that providing materials of high quality makes suppliers more competent in their activity, which also enables them to use this as a competitive advantage and often to use their reputation in order to make deals and carry on negotiations.

The challenges encountered by suppliers can be overcome with the help of a multifaceted approach used in order to investigate and analyse the situation in order to solve all the problems using the drawbacks of the system. In this respect, the foreign market as well as all other markets has its backdoors that can be opened obeying the laws and following the rules of the market.

At the same time, it is possible to capture the market suddenly in case the company possesses the information necessary for that.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The United States and the GCC (Gulf Countries) Multinationals, Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, if the market is growing and population and contractors desperately need materials for building and construction, it is possible to cooperate with the largest rivals and enter the market. Furthermore, the cooperation can be stopped as soon as the customers are familiar with the products and quality offered by suppliers.

Conclusion Support strategies aimed at helping local manufacturers and suppliers enter the foreign markets with their materials for building and construction include a number of practices. It is necessary to conduct a research in order to analyze the foreign market with regard to possible cooperation with currently operation companies that have some position in that market.

In addition, companies can facilitate licensing with regard to evaluation of costs necessary for operation in the new market and potential profit from such a campaign.

Finally, manufacturers and suppliers can improve the technologies in order to meet the increasing needs of the international building and construction area in terms of the green innovations and energy-efficient policies.

To conclude, it is necessary to compare the potential profit with the expected costs on innovations and profits from the entrance to the market and make necessary corrections to the approaches implemented in the pasted to enter the same markets as new technologies require new application.

References Cavinato, J. L., Flynn, A. E. and Kauffman, R. G., 2006. The supply management handbook. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Liu, F., Meyer, A. S. and Hogan, J., 2010. Mainstreaming building energy efficiency codes in developing countries: global experiences and lessons from early adopters. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications.

McCabe, S., 2010. Corporate strategy in construction: understanding today’s theory and practice. Oxford, OX: John Wiley and Sons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The United States and the GCC (Gulf Countries) Multinationals, Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2010. Investing in a low-carbon economy. London: United Nations Publications.

United Nations Publications, 2001. Review of science and technology in ESCWA member countries, Issue 4. London: United Nations Publications.

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The application and implementation of short term and long-term remuneration reward plan Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Justification of Long-Term and Short-Term Rewards Plan

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction For any given Company, Business, Firm or Organization, it is the paramount duty of that Institution’s Human Resources or Compensation Committee to recognize the crucial role people play in the achievement of both the Institution’s short-term and long-term objectives as a key source of gaining advantage over its competitors1.

Therefore, for the Institution to grow and become successful it must not only be able to attract talented and capable employees, but also to retain and motivate such employees.

Employee remuneration thus becomes one of strategies that are employed by successful institutions to not only attract and retain top talents, but also as a strategy to remove ineffective and under-performing employees.2 To enforce this, such Institutions employ short term and long-term remuneration and reward plans.

The United State of Florida defines short-term rewards and benefits as benefits payable to individuals in an affected unit under an approved short-time compensation plan.3

In the general sense, short-term compensation refers to a pay strategy where evaluations of an individual or organizational performance have significant sway on the amount of pay increases or bonuses given to each employee.4 It may also refer to a system of compensation where employees are paid according the amount of hours, extra sales or targets achieved by an employee.5

In this remuneration scheme, employers are spared the expense of recruiting, hiring, and training new personnel. In turn, the employees are spared the hardships of full-time unemployment thus a more flexible means of working.

Long-term rewards and compensation scheme is aimed towards the attraction and retention of capable employees to enable an institution achieve its long-term goals and objectives. This means that a company can afford to spend more money on training, recruiting and hiring new employees.6

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It therefore includes the payment of salaries, house allowances, insurance and other benefits payable to an employee as stipulated by the law.7 This makes this reward scheme to be deemed by employees more financially secure and sustainable.

New University graduate students often require financial security with a vision of becoming top professionals within their respective careers. They therefore prefer a long-term rewards and benefits plan that offers security in employment and an incentive to excel in their careers.

Whereas in the past most employers remuneration strategies were rigid and did not allow for creativity,8 present remuneration strategies require creativity on the part of the employer with employee motivation and welfare placed at the centre of these strategies.9

This now entails the payment of perquisites, commissions, bonuses, special awards, profit sharing, stock options and cost reduction incentives.10

This report will therefore examine how these long-term and short-term remuneration and reward plans are implemented and measured to remove ineffective and under-performing employees at the modern day work place.

The Justification of Long-Term and Short-Term Rewards Plan The introduction of a pay for performance remuneration system provides the best platform to employ both long-term and short-term remuneration and reward plan to remove ineffective and under-performing employees at the modern day work place.

This is because the system links a worker’s pay to some measure of personal or organizational pay performance, usually through an official performance assessment.

We will write a custom Report on The application and implementation of short term and long-term remuneration reward plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, ineffective employees under this system of remuneration can be easily identified due to their incapacity to meet the company’s goals and targets hence excluded from payment of incentives. This will eventually create room for dismissal such employees.

Pay for performance system can include a variety of rewards for exceeding average performance. One such reward is the payment of bonuses. Bonuses represent an amount of pay that is “at risk” every year. This is in contrast to basic pay, which is fixed, and primarily reflects an employee’s market value, and thus bonuses ought to depend solely on performance.

When the employee excels, he may receive a sizable bonus, but if the employee’s performance is lower, he may not receive a bonus and his salary drops to the base rate.11 As a result, above average employees are assured a certain salary, with the prospective for earning more.

On the other hand, ineffective and under performing employees do not earn any extra rewards and are thus encouraged to either raise their performances or face lay offs. Payment of bonuses is a justifiable motivation tool for employees because they give employees the much needed extra incentive to work harder to augment the base rate wage thereby increasing the company’s wages.

In fact, market trends indicate that bonuses increased employee motivation levels by up to 10%.12It should however be noted that bonuses should be payable to excellent employees only on a yearly basis.

Performance-based compensation increases are another form of short-term rewards that can be incorporated into long-term remuneration to offer incentives to high-performing employees in a company. In contrast to bonuses, performance-based pay increases are integrated into the employee’s base pay and are generally only adjusted upward.

Organizations may differ in how they move staff through the performance-based wage scales. Some pay systems include predetermined levels, which employees step through in an orderly manner, while others allow the supervisors to determine salary amounts anywhere within a broad range.

When the employee’s performance warrants a raise, the employee receives an increase. The main difference of performance-based compensation increase with bonuses is that whereas bonus is paid annually, performance based-compensation increases are permanent. Hence, an ineffective employee cannot be entitled to a raise where his/her performance does not warrant a raise.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The application and implementation of short term and long-term remuneration reward plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The offering of the company’s stake through stock options is a long-term remuneration strategy that is employed to attract and retain highly qualified individuals, especially at the management levels.

Company’s and top institutions have realized that in order to retain top talents within their institutions, they need to offer a sought of entitlement to their top performers to tie them to the company. This is a paradigm shift from past practices where employers thought that the mere payment of hefty of hefty wages was enough to tie top talents to their companies.

Commission is generally based on the performance of an individual or team and is commonly applied to sales people. It is usually paid sales people either individually or as a group depending on the number of sales made or the targets achieved by the employees either individually or as a group.

Commissions may offer an attractive pay to employees who are highly active in their jobs and are an extra source of income for employees who reach and exceed their targets. In recent times, employers have been creative with the use of commissions to motivate highly productive employees.

As opposed to the past practice of basing employees’ base pay on commission, employers may pay a sizeable amount of pay and leave the bulk of pay to be on commission per sale made by the employees. In this way, highly productive employees take home the base pay in addition to the percentage of the commission of the sales they make.

This gives the employee a chance to earn a lot more money through commissions. On the side of the employer, it is a plus sign as the employer stands a chance of making more sales from increased merchandise sales. It also creates a healthy competition among the workers who may try overriding their colleagues in the sale of the company’s product.

Many employers take advantage of this by introducing individual awards such as ‘best individual performer’ whereby the winner may also be awarded with the further payment of a bonus award.

In such a scenario, ineffective employees who are unable to meet the targets or are unable to compete with the rest may voluntarily resign from the work. This remuneration strategy thus be utilized to remove ineffective and under-performing employees and to retain valued and talented employees.

Conclusion Employee remuneration and rewards strategies should be flexible to meet the changing dynamics of the modern day employment needs. They should therefore not only incorporate strategies to retain effective talent, but also to get rid of ineffective and unproductive employees.

By thus adopting and implementing the aforementioned remuneration strategies that incorporate both the long-term and shot-term remuneration strategies, a modern day employer is able to remove ineffective and under-performing employees while on the other hand retaining valued and talented employees.

Bibliography A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Merit Systems Australian and International Experience. Web.

Coulson J. Scot, ‘Module 6: Remuneration Strategies’. Web.

Day, John and Fitton, Gary. Best practice long-term incentive based remuneration: The Australian and International Experience. Web.

Labor Section 443.011, Title XXXI of the Florida Statutes. Web.

Michael C. Jensen, ‘Remuneration: Where we’ve been, how we got to here, what are the Problems, and how to fix them’ p.20

Protection Board, Designing an Effective Pay for Performance Compensation System. Web.

Randall S. Hansen, ‘Responding to Requests for Salary Requirements or Salary Histories: Resource-Management. As at October 2, 2011.

Specke, John. Human Resource Management Strategies and Suggestions. Web.

Stone, R. J. Human Resource Management. Queensland: John Wiley

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Historical Milestones of AFL. Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help

Effects of Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike and Pullman Strike on AFL The Haymarket riot helped the AFL by increasing pressure for the creation of reasonable working hours. The AFL took the initiative to campaign for short working days. It is also believed that the strike led to growth and vitality of trade unions. The Homestead Strike on the other hand saw the defeat and collapse of the of The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AA) and this acted as a great setback to the efforts put forward in a bid to unionize the steel workers.

The fact that most steel companies decreased their wages and continued with de-unionization efforts meant that the AFL efforts were also undermined. The Pullman Strike boosted the AFL due to the immense support and great success achieved. The strike did not only increase national attention, but also led to the demand of federal action. The success of the strike was a big milestone to AFL.

These three events hurt AFL as union membership began to decline. This was fuelled by employers developing their own strategies, which they used to counter the activities of the trade unions (Holley, Jennings

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Australian Economics in 2009 Essay essay help free: essay help free

The year 2009 was the year of inquiry on the financial services industry in Australia. During the year, the Australian government officially ‘formed three separate inquiries into financial products and services, taxation and superannuation, commonly known as the Ripoll, Henry and Cooper reviews respectively’ (Papandrea 2009, p.01).

The Henry inquiry into taxation is the root and branch review into the taxation and transfer system. This essay focuses on this report. In order to comprehend the contents of the report, the following issues are addressed: the reasons for the Henry review into taxation, its recommendations and the government’s response.

Papandrea (2009, p.02), explains that issues concerning the challenges the Australian and state government taxes face like the interactions with transfer system due to factors like demographic, social, economic and environmental necessitated the formation of the inquiry in order to determine ways in which the government can position itself to deal with them in the future. The commission was also formed to enable the government to address some regulatory and modernization issues to ensure post-retirement products meet retirees needs.

Henry Report recommended that ‘the taxation system should raise revenue from four efficient tax bases, namely: personal income tax, business income, private consumption and economic rents’ (Thompson, 2010, p.01). Concerning company tax rate, the commission suggests that ‘the rate to be reduced to 25 per cent over the medium term and compulsory superannuation to be increased to 12 per cent’ (Thompson, 2010, p.02).

Thompson points out further that the report states that financial institutions operating in Australia should not be subject to interest withholding tax on interest paid to non-residents. This will position Australia as a regional financial centre.

The government’s response to the Henry Review has been to adopt a quite limited number of the recommendations. In regard to the company tax, the government proposes a reduction in the rate of company tax from 30% to 29% in 2013–2014 and a further reduction to 28% although small business will obtain the benefit of the new 28% from 2012-2013. The government also proposes a tax offset for exploration companies where the Australian exploration expenditure results in a tax loss (Thompson, 2010, p.03).

In conclusion, Henry report sets out the principles upon which future Australian tax reform should proceed. In that light, the report is a most significant contribution to the future economic planning of the nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Papandrea, V 2009, ‘Inquiries galore’, IFA cover story, 16 November, pp. 01-02. Web.

Thompson, WD 2010, ‘A long-term plan for Australian tax reform – the Henry Report and the government’s response’, Minter Ellison Lawyers: Keeping Good Companies, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 01–04.

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Definition of Deontology Theory in Philosophy Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online

The theory was formulated by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The word comes from the words, “deon” or “duty” therefore, the reasoning behind the word deontology is on the idea that as human beings, we have the duty to do certain things and avoid others (Hugh, 2000, p. 6). This theory does not look at how much good might be realized from a certain action but rather it looks at the actions of the individual.

The principle of this theory of ethics has been adopted in various ways to achieve a common goal. For instance, beneficence principles help or guide one to do what is good. Respect of autonomy principles helps in reaching a consensus and allowing people to make decisions that are important to their lives (Catherine, 2002, p. 5).

Justice principles endeavor to ensure fairness in our actions, while least harm principles help in making choices that are geared at causing least harm to many. Therefore, they help in reaching a common goal.

The theory dictates that individuals need at all time exhibit behaviors or actions that can become a universal rule. Individuals should also act in such a way that they treat humanity both in their own person and in that of another, usually as an end and not as a means (Hugh, 2000, p. 7). Furthermore, morality of individuals is judged based on nature of their actions and will, not on goals attained. This is because we cannot control our future despite of the best efforts we put in.

Therefore, we are usually blamed because of the actions that are within us, our will, but not our achievement. Individuals should always do unto others as they would have them done unto them. The theory emphasizes on respect of persons and should be treated with the respect that they deserve. Therefore, individual human rights should be acknowledged and should not be violated.

In my nursing practice, this theory has been of great importance. I have used the theory as my guideline in respecting the desires of my patients. For instance, I have respected their wish not to disclose their confidential information to third parties.

Virtue theory is an ethics theory which deemphasizes rules, or consequences but it focus on the person that is involved in an act (Catherine, 2002, p. 8). It does not deemphasize on whether the act is right, abiding rules, and good consequences of our actions. The most important thing is whether the individual acting is expressing good character-moral virtues or not. As the person character is the totality of the individual character traits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism theory is associated with the British philosopher by the name John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), who developed it. The theory holds that individuals’ actions are right if only they promote good to majority. The theory, therefore, agitates for the respect of every person through our actions. The critics of the theory question the extent on how the good of the majority goes.

Another ethical theory is the casuist theory. This theory is used in comparing the present ethical problems with the past examples and outcomes of similar ethical problems that was experienced. This, therefore, helps in the determination of severity of a given situation and helps in creating of best solutions in relation to another person’s experiences.

Does justice require universal access to health care?

For justice to be realized there is need for universal health care. Universal access to healthcare as embodied in the health systems of developed countries is aimed at securing an equal access to the healthcare. There have been various disagreements pertaining to the accessibility of health care (Jim, 2009, para. 23). Some people view health care as social good and like any other commodity that needs to be purchased. The healthcare should be made accessible to its entire people.

In most circumstances, those people that are not able to access good healthcare services do not have the money to pay for their health, while those who have the resources can afford good healthcare services. This inequality has created disparities and contributed to injustices. Heath care should be rolled out in order to be accessible by every person in need. Health care is important in fostering justice to the whole society. Therefore, I do agree that justice requires a universal access to health care.

References Catherine, R. (2002). Descriptions of ethical theories and principle. Web.

Hugh, L. (2000). The Blackwell guide to ethical theory. New York: John Wiley

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Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Introduction In the book ‘You don’t Always Get what you Pay For’ by Elliot D. Sclar, the author examines the merits and demerits of privatizing the public sector in United States. He provides a detailed explanation of how the private sector works in conjunction with the public sector and the assumptions made by supporters of privatization.

Sclar says that although the model of competitive market may be preferred by many, it lacks a full and comprehensive explanation of the intricacies involved in providing public services on contractual basis. This essay will present a critical book review of Sclar’s book ‘You don’t Always Get What You Pay For’.

Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar

The book “You don’t Always get what you pay for’ by Eliot Sclar is a focus on privatization which has seemingly been elusive. In his attempt to analyze the subject, Sclar utilizes case studies to show the advantages and disadvantages of transforming public services into private ones.

After referring to various case studies, his conclusion is that privatization of public services is detrimental to the society. Sclar argues that the perspective presented by neoclassical adherents regarding competition in the market is not clear enough to explain the concept of competition.

However, it is apparent from the way he presents the model that he is against free markets. “The economic playing field is more realistically conceived as mountainous terrain that includes several high peaks from which well endowed corporate and individual warriors swoop down to seize targets of opportunity” 1.

The perspective held by Sclar from this statement is that there is monopoly in the economy where wealth rests in the hands of a limited group of people.

Sclar’s book is easy to read since information is presented in a clear manner. The book lays emphasis on two major issues the first one being that privatization is not the solution to effective and better means of production. He points out that various situations have their uniqueness hence privatization decisions should be based on particular cases.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The approach used by Sclar to analyze the concept of privatization basically revolves around the government’s decision on whether it is supposed to buy or make its own goods.

According to him, the efficiency achieved when the government decides to produce its own products is not different from the one achieved when competitive markets are involved. Sclar argues that the focus should not be on economy analysis but on dealing with management organization2.

The case studies he uses present a valid contribution and the challenges he finds out to be inherent in the process of contracting out. For example, identification of the services to be provided by the private companies becomes difficult.

Judging which is better between producing goods privately or publicly also becomes a difficult task. In addition, what determines the production of goods most is the organizational structure as opposed to the question of whether the producer is from the private or public sector.

Sclar points out that the issue is not producing goods privately or publicly but what matters is recognition of the fact that both public and private production of goods can be used in the improvement of public service.

Sclar attempts to make an evaluation of the degree of success in privatization. He points out that privatization should be aimed at reducing the production cost and it does not necessarily reduce the cost instantly. The notion that producers and consumers gain important information from the prices when assigning resources is an extremely simplified one.

Sclar argues that government agencies incur additional costs such as monitoring costs that are ignored by those who support privatization. The cost of the whole agency should also be put into consideration instead of focusing on the section that is under contract.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To sclar, the most appropriate method of making a comparison between work done on the basis of a contract and in-house work is basing it on the avoidable cost. On the basis of this accounting strategy, Sclar views the merits of privatization to be minimal.

Sclar has a feeling that private competition affects the consumers negatively through increased costs. For instance, when trying to analyze the medical industry he points out, “we pay a steep price for this competition. In the United States about 25 cents of every health care dollar is spend on administration and profits.

In Canada, which has national health insurance, the comparable overhead figure is 15 cents”3. Sclar is not concerned with the cost or the quality of the product. According to him, the problem of producing goods for public use cannot be solved by privatization but the solution lies in adopting different organization structures for the bureaucratic agencies.

Sclar argues that the ultimate goal should be improvement of the services offered to the public by public agencies. He uses the view of institutions on the economy and costs of transaction to show how the economy can achieve such a goal.

Sclar is keen to identify some of the problems associated with contracting services although he does not acknowledge the steps that have been taken to solve the problems. He suggests that contractual deals between private and public institutions are usually characterized by immense corruption and interference from the political class.

He attributes this kind of interference to the failure of competitive forces. He believes that corruption takes place when the private sector gets involved in matters of the public sector but is not caused by organizational or competition issues.

This book criticizes the way neoclassical theories explain competition as well criticizing the view that bureaucrats and individuals from the political class can produce goods and services better than players from the private sector.

Sclar argues that analyzing the economy in the right manner and having appropriate organizational structures is the key to determining the most appropriate means of production but not relying on ideologies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He points out that the focus of conservatives is ideology and trimming the size of the government, a factor that causes them to advocate for privatization with little regard on whether it is cost effective with regard to provision of public services.

The contracting method has some problems and can actually lead to reduced government costs but it is not real privatization. He says that the theoretical approach of competition in Austria where privatization involves transfer of resources from the public to the private sector has been successful.

However, to him this should not be an ideology to be emulated by small governments but a factor of appropriate analysis of economic situations4.

Conclusion In the last chapter of his book, Sclar gives examples of privatization in New York as he attempts to explain the challenges of privatization. He outlines several rules that can be used to improve service provision in the public sector.

Sclar points out the negative aspects of standard economic model which is used by supporters of privatization. He argues that supporters of privatization make assumptions that are not realistic. He further argues that they do not have the right ideologies hence ruling out the possibility of reforming the public sector.

Bibliography Calcagno, P. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.

Sclar, E. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Footnotes 1Elliot,Sclar. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.pp.9

2 Peter,Calcagno. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.pp.3

3 Elliot,Sclar. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.pp.92

4 Peter,Calcagno. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.pp.5

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E-Commerce Website: Creation, Growth and Security Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Executive Summary

The E-Commerce Website Security Features

Securely Managing the E-Commerce Website from a Remote Location

Anti-Theft Protection for Johnny’s Laptops

Budget

References

Introduction Jonny is a potential investor into an E-Commerce website and hopes to be able to create, manage and expand the website even as he takes safety measures to ensure that the website is safely operated and accessed from any location, including remote locations.

He therefore plans to spend an amount of $2 million into the project so as to gain a powerful and perfectly-operating website that may be able to eventually compete with top E-Commerce websites like PayPal (Duran, 2009).

This study seeks to identify the different ways in which Jonny may establish a successful and powerful website, its potential to expand, how he may be able to ensure its security and also how he should organize his budget so as to complete the whole process in the right way.

Executive Summary Electronic commerce (E-Commerce) is the form of trade that involves buying and selling of products and services using such connections as the internet, LAN, WAN and other computer networks.

The process has also developed to include other processes such as online payment options where a client is able to pay for whatever they have bought online, market development, advertisement and marketing for products over the internet, products delivery services as well as many other trade-related activities that occur over the internet.

E-Commerce has been on the acceleration especially due to the vast technological advancements and innovations that have taken place over the recent past resulting to an unprecedented increase in the use of personal computers as well as internet activities.

With the developments that have been established in E-Commerce, internet users who wish to buy or sell products have been able to have an easy connection with each other from all over the world in such a manner that a seller is able to advertise and market for their products online, converse with the client, negotiate on prices and finally sell the product to the client even without them meeting or even seeing each other physically.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same way, a buyer is able to view online many products that he/she has an interest in from all over the world and from different sellers, compare prices, quality and other aspects of the products of interest, choose the one’s to purchase, make online payments and then get the products delivered physically to them.

These processes may take place from the comforts of one’s home or office, provided there is internet connection (Howard

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A Change of UK Political Policies Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Cause of Political Reforms

Effects of Political Reforms

References

Introduction Over the years, United Kingdom politics have generated a lot of interest globally. In the recent past, the centre stage of the UK political arena has been the formation of a coalition government in 2010 between two major UK political parties; the conservative and the liberal democrats.

This paper is going to dwell on the coalition government as a change in political policy that has caused the emergence of the UK political reforms and its effects (Dorey, Garnett,

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