Introduction The state sponsored, bureaucratic and systematic murder and brutal persecution of over six million Jews in the holocaust by Nazi regime has been a major distressing issue in the history of the world.
The sacrifice of individuals by fire as the Greek word Holocaust suggests was an act by the Nazi under the leadership of Adolf Hitler who in 1933 had risen to power and who believed that compared to the Jews, Germans were racially superior and that the latter were a threat to the racial German community. This paper analyses local relations between Jewish and non-Jewish populations in Germany from the perspective of Helmut Walser Smith’s The Butcher’s Tale and how it contributed to the Holocaust.
A brief overview of the origin of Holocaust from the Butchers tale Different studies have revealed the causes of holocaust to have been attributed by many factors some of which include demonization of the Jewish community, the rise of the Nazi and the fact that Hitler hated the Jewish society. However, Smith in his book the Butcher’s Tale indicates that it begun from the murder of a youth called Ernst Winter in a German town, Konitz in 1900.
He posits that while strolling in Konitz, West Prussia, two residents of the area discovered the dismembered dead body of Ernst Winter carefully tucked in a package and dumped besides a lake. The discovery of the body drew national attention and sparked off a series of events and suspicions on the involvement of the Jews. Rumors began spreading that perhaps some visiting Jews might have had a hand in the killing of the youth and that it was a Jewish ritual murder.
The police force in Berlin became convinced that the Jews were involved in the murder, a consideration that was witnessed by the accusations leveled by a Berlin police inspector along with his allies against a Jewish Butcher called Hoffman. The accusations among other tense issues led to the rise of mobs in Konitz who began to violently attack Jews in the area.
The violent chaos in Konitz drew the presence of the army which came to quell the violence. Smith creates an understanding from the series of events that were happening that it was the beginning of a process that led to the Holocaust. A town which had earlier on been peaceful turned violent with neighbors turning against one another.
It is imperative to note that from the outset, anti-Semites were bent on turning the murder suspicion against the community of the Jews. It was evident that there was no connection of the murder with any Israelite. The police who as earlier indicated had become so engrossed in the issue were accused of plans to shield the Jews.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That same year in June, agitations and other excesses from the anti-Semitic groups were witnessed in different places like Komarczyn, Tuchel, Butow, stolp, Czersk and Konitz where Jewish homes and synagogues were set on fire. Many Jews who sought help from the courts did not receive justice as their sentiments were met with hostility. Those who tried to fight back were apprehended and given heavy sentences.
The Holocaust The events that culminated the Holocaust in Germany saw the country perceived as a genocide state since the killing processes that occurred were directed by the sophisticated bureaucracy of the country.
During that era, many institutions in Germany collaborated key among them being the interior ministry and parish churches and the finance ministry which played important roles of supplying records of birth to Nazis showing which individuals were Jewish, confiscated their property and delivered denaturalization and deportation orders.
Many Jewish stockholders, academics and workers were disenfranchised and fired while students were denied admission in colleges. Individuals who reached the concentration camps went through untold sufferings in the hands of German authorities. Scholars reveal that while the motivation behind the genocides of the holocaust might have been surrounded by non-pragmatic, abstract and mythical ideologies, the systematic slaughter of the Jewish community was systematically carried out in Nazi occupied territories.
These areas by 1939 had a total population of over nine million Jewish citizens. Over three million Jews were killed in Poland while about five million died in Eastern and Central Europe. Other hundreds of thousands were murdered in Greece, Yugoslavia, Belgium, France, Netherlands and the Soviet Union.
The fate of Jews in Germany was already drawn as their properties, arms, security, and even lives were taken away with human rights and dignity completely absent from German authorities. Though having stayed and contributed towards economic development of Germany, the Jewish community found itself under attack by their closest friends, the Germans.
Their property, shops, warehouses and even security were withdrawn and were left to live like slaves in the mercy of a ruthless and merciless German society. Besides, reports given by German authorities were falsified and failed to give to the entire world the suffering that Jews were undergoing.
We will write a custom Essay on Helmut Walser Smith’s The Butcher’s Tale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The picture of the events created by Smith in the book the Butcher’s Tale generates the impression of a friend turned into an enemy and therefore making it easy for Germans to totally destroy thousands of Jews. A time came when Hitler argued that the Jews were making life for Germans difficult by occupying their land, using their resources and even taking employment opportunities that were meant to be for Germans. However, as other scholars narrate, Jews had greatly supported the economic progress of Germany.
The argument by the scholars further point at the ruthless mechanism that Germany used to make Jews be viewed by local people as enemies and thereby legitimized the need to eliminate them. Smith’s clear reflection of the manner that orders to destroy Jews properties were executed, ruthless, brings out the picture of a highly polarized Germany of the greatest enemy of the time, Jews.
Smith reports that the level of destruction of properties and lives the Jewish community in most towns in Germany was extreme. However, the world was made to understand that they were few and not worth getting major focus. A motion was passed to have the Jews excluded from participating in any German cultural event and that for every damage they had caused they pay one billion as fine.
This evidenced that their human rights were no longer observed. The Jews were even not expected to defend themselves because the state was correct and no opposition could be tolerated.
The publication by Smith reflects a view of totalitarian states in the classic period. For Germans, Hitler made them belief that the Jews were the greatest, worst and most dangerous enemies that required not just beating, but killing in a holocaust. The publication further reflects a continued replica of Bismarck’s view and preference of running with Iron and blood as outlined in the Bismarck Germany.
The need to protect the honor of Germany Protection of German blood and honor was directed at Jews because the society considered them as enemies and therefore poised to destroy the sacred German orientation. From Hitler’s perspective, the German race and its purity was at the brink of getting assimilated by the Jews. He forbade Germans from marrying and forming relationships with Jewish women. As such, the Jews became Isolated and could not relate for development purposes.
This was a sure way of bringing their hardworking nature and efforts into jeopardy. Imposing greater fines as the publication indicates was highly frightening and it clearly indicated that Jews were completely unwelcome in the country and an indication of more sinister actions, holocaust to come. However, Smith’s the publication only indicates measures that Hitler intended to take against the Jews, it fails to cite what Jews had done to warrant such ruthless treatment.
Besides, Hitler appeared to have lived his words as expressed in the Hitler Youth Quex where he sought to challenge existing authorities and give Germany high pride. Notably, Hitler laws carry forward emergent classical typical model of bad leadership in the name of protecting one’s own people. Former German leader in late 19th century, Bismarck had indicated the need for Germany autonomy and its self independence without external influences.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Helmut Walser Smith’s The Butcher’s Tale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, Jews were considered as outsiders and therefore only affecting negatively the progress of Germany and its people. Like in Hitler’s efforts to conquer and expand the territory of Germans as expressed in the Butcher’s Tale, Hitler is seen as a person who did not care the feelings, emotions, suffering and losses of others as far as in his perceptions, Germans would benefit.
Racial Definition of 1933 This decree created the first definition of racial discrimination which increased and culminated to ultimate decision to destroy Jews and their property in trial to protect German honor.
The decree is a strong undercurrent that drove all people in Germany to remain highly faithful to Hitler by executing his orders without questioning and making his ideas come to reality. This decree, as the first racial move by the Nazi administration to discriminate against non-Germans set the pace for latter rules such as Laws for the protection of German blood and German honor.
By seeking to redefine people in Germany on the basis of race, the decree only created animosity and made the entire Germany population to run wild against non-Germans especially of Jewish descent. The decree could also be described in analyst’s considerations of totalitarianism where a leader’s view points was absolute and always correct. The decree, as drawn, was final and all people in Germany had to classify themselves either as Germans or non-Germans, with the latter requiring approval for one to live in Germany.
Adolf Hitler and the Nuremberg laws The creation of Nuremburg laws by Adolf Hitler reflects his intolerance with Jews and their behavior mediated by international nations and guided towards offending and taking away Germans pride. The laws were meant to incite and poison Germans against Jews who they had lived earlier on as one family.
By considering that Jews existence in Germany was a problem, Hitler, as manifested in many historical accounts caused the Jews to start suffering as their land, property and other belongings were taken away. As they became entirely dependent on the Germany authorities because they could not be involved in economic production, Hitler was able to even make his created scenario appear to be real to Germans.
The notion of external influences and how the Jews were being manipulated to defy Hitler and existing authorities could be understood as part of the Hitler’s efforts to show the world that Germany was back and could not be dictated to, like it happened during the Treaty of Versatile. By indicating that the laws he presented were supported by the people, Hitler reflected the thin difference between him and the people. In him was Germany and Germans had him in their hearts, a factor which he thought was unchangeably the will of the people.
Nuremburg laws were set up with the notion that it was meant to come up with a legislative solution to the problems that the Jewish society was facing. While it was already clear that the Jews were already a problem and an urgent solution was important, Hitler used the laws to legitimize his actions against the Jews and gathers even greater support by accusing them to his people.
However, international observers opposed his move and incited the Jews against such laws, a consideration that saw Hitler react by subjecting Jews to Holocaust which saw massive numbers of Jews being killed.
The Nuremburg laws are a replica of the laws that sought to protect German blood and honor from Jews interference. Hitler in both cases moved to set out conditions that would oppress the Jews and support Germans. From Smith’s perspective, it could appear that the Jews had made gross moves to undermine the German administration.
As Bismarck indicated in his speech on Bismarck Germany, there was strong move to ensure that more Germans were in control of resources to make it easy to mobilize them in the war to conquer neighbors. Jews, having acquired large quantities of wealth largely from their efforts and enterprising nature could not have evaded being the first target in the looming fight to revenge for WWII and expand Germany beyond its boarders by then.
Conclusion To sum up, the discussions in this paper were based on the thesis statement ‘The state sponsored, bureaucratic and systematic murder and brutal persecution of over six million Jews in the holocaust by Nazi regime has been a major distressing issue in the history of the world’. It is evident form the discussion that the death of a young boy and the violent riots by Christians claiming the murder was ritual was one of the major factors that led to the Holocaust.
As indicated, the blood-libel charge that was witnessed during the holocaust has for many centuries haunted many Jews. The book the Butcher’s Tale offers lessons for leaders in the modern society to keep off vices like ethnicity and racism which impact negatively on the peaceful existence of a community.
Bibliography Smith, Walser. The Butcher’s Tale: Murder and Anti-Semitism in a German Town. London; W. W. Norton, 2002.
Footnotes Walser Smith, The Butcher’s Tale: Murder and Anti-Semitism in a German Town. (London; W. W. Norton, 2002), p. 5
Ibid. p. 18
Ibid. p. 58
Ibid. p. 84
Ibid. p. 154.
Rome in the Middle Ages and Cultural Transformation Expository Essay best college essay help
The fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth century marked the collapse of one of largest civilizations, as well as the beginning of radical cultural and social transformations. Hence, the Empire initiated the significant changes in all spheres of life including culture, art, politics, and philosophy.
The newly emerged civilizations, therefore, applied to the cultural ancestry left by the rich of the Greco-Roman culture. As a result of the transformation, the new world adopted Christianity and rejected the traditions of the Classical Antiquity as well as deviated from the famous Greco-Hellenistic models. Hence, the remnants of the great Roman Empire had been preserved in the philosophical, scientific, and artistic achievements representing the major cultural sources influencing the reformation of the European society in the Middle Ages.
Before the decline of the Roman Empire, Rome had considered the largest center of culture. Along with the Greek rich ancestry, including its philosophy, architecture, and culture, the Rome worshipped Greek-Hellenic models. However, their styles and models differed significantly from those represented in methodological themes.
Hence, they were more concerned with depicting real heroes and current events, including portrayal of military exploits and leaders. In addition, the Romans “…celebrated the achievements of a state that was their chief patron so that all the world might stand in awe of the state’s accomplishments” (Sayre 176). In addition, the Roman identity was also expressed in its marvelous architecture.
At this point, its architecture is especially known for the expansive interior spaces combined with the structural strength and unique form of the arch. Being great engineers, the Romans attained much importance to the public work so as to enhance the sense of identity and Roman power.
The adoption of the Christianity was among the most important events marking the development of the medieval society. New civilizations were developing their distinctive styles and visions that significantly deviated from the previously existing norms.
As a result, the Roman world experienced serious decline in cultural terms because the German invaders were not reader to undertake the role of cultural restorers (Perry 132). Nevertheless, the Greco-Roman world left rich ancestry due to high literary, scientific, philosophical, and artistic achievements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, because the invaders could not meet the high cultural and social structure of the previous civilizations, they heavily relied on religion and church being the only institution ready to reconstruct the civilized life (Perry 132). While denying humanities and prioritizing the role of the church and God in shaping the society, the medieval society centered on Christianity as a new philosophy of salvation.
Despite the new religious ideology, Roman rule both triggered and hampered Christianity. The centralized government guaranteed protection and peace because Rome stood against violence because of the fear of political revolt. At the same time, the Roman government was the major antagonist of the Christianity because it advocated the classical pantheon of Gods.
Roman cultural influence on the development of the European society was also expressed through use of folklore in the Christian literature. Because the religious teaching of the Middle Ages had not been singled out as a single ideological and philosophical teaching, introducing classical traditions complemented its philosophical basis.
In particular, St. Augustine, the pioneer in the Western Christianity often referred to the philosophical teachings of Cicero represented in Hortensius, introduction to philosophy (Highet 10). With the help of these works, the classical philosophy became a part of the Christian tradition and managed to preserve its basis to the present times.
Despite the rejection of previous cultural achievements, Roman cultural influence on the church and religion were still tangible. In particular, the Roman-Christian art focused primarily on spiritual rather than physical representation of the subject. The portrait of Constantine is one of the brightest examples of this artistic tendency (Sayre 258). Apart from sculpture and architecture, Roman culture had a potent impact on Christian music (Porter 202). Many Christian liturgies were largely influenced by the Roman classical traditions.
Despite the ignorance and rejection of the classical tradition at the beginning of the medieval period, the Middle Ages were still marked by the revival of the antique classical traditions, which justified the richness and depth of the Greco-Roman culture. Specifically, the European community in the twelfth century resorted to the scientific teachings of Hippocrates and Galen on medicine, Euclid on mathematics, and Ptolemy on astronomy and geography (Spielvogel 263).
Aristotle’s scientific works were also highly popular and they were translated in Latin, an international language in the West (Spielvogel 263). In this respect, the European community managed to intellectually recover from the Dark Ages by referring to immortal philosophical and scientific works of the Great Roman and Greek philosophy.
We will write a custom Essay on Rome in the Middle Ages and Cultural Transformation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, despite the significant influence of the German invasion and the adoption of the Christianity, the threads of classical tradition run through the period and managed to recover and reform the European community at the threshold of the era of enlightenment. Due to the artistic, philosophical, and scientific heritage left after the collapse of the Western Empire, the newly emerged civilization managed to advance their intellectual knowledge and develop different academic disciplines.
Works Cited Highet, Gilbert. The Classical Tradition, Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature. UK: Oxford University Press, 1985. Print.
Perry, Marvin. Western Civilization: A Brief History. US: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Porter, Stanley. Christian-Jewish Relations through the Centuries. US: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. Print.
Sayre, Henry M. The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change US: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: To 1500. US: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Comparative Analysis of the View of God, Jesus, and Salvation among Adoptionists and Gnostics Report essay help online: essay help online
Although both Adoptionists and Gnostics were Christians and in general their beliefs were closely connected, some of the Christian ideas had been considered in the different way. According to Oxtoby and Amore, the ideas and statements present in Bible were treated by people differently (138). A number of religious groups arose. Thus, the main postulates of Christianity such as the view of God, Jesus, and Salvation among the representatives of those two groups of Christians as Adoptionists and Gnostics were absolutely different.
The view of God of Adoptionists is based on the idea of monotheistic essence of God-father and God-son. They considered God as the supreme power; however, Jesus was seen as the part of this power. Adoptionists were not considered the dogma of Trinity. For Gnostics, this world is full of evil power and it could not be created by God. According to their beliefs, God is the supreme essence that has the universal knowledge. People also can get this knowledge by using of the spiritual practices.
For Adoptionists, Jesus is adopted as God’s Son, while Gnostics believe that Jesus came to earth in order to bring gnosis – supreme and universal knowledge. According to Oxtoby and Amore (2010), Adoptionists believe that from his birth Jesus was not Son of God and he was adopted only after the process of baptism. Besides, Adoptionists emphasized pre-existence of Jesus, they believed in several Logos of God where Jesus was only one of the incarnations.
Thus, Jesus was a good sinless man who was adopted by God. On the other hand, Gnostics also believed that Jesus was not God’s Son and they even considered Jesus as a false messiah. This principle is based on the idea of importance education, intellectual knowledge and self-development. Agnostics believed that only intellectually rich man can achieve the supreme knowledge. In this case, Jesus could not be God’s Son as well as he could not help people to achieve this pure and universal knowledge.
Salvation for Adoptionists was the main reason of why God sent Jesus to people. Jesus had to save all people on the earth and give them changes to get the salvation. Gnostics believed that God wanted to make a favor for people, providing them the chance to be saved. They also believed that the real existence is not physical, but spiritual.
Therefore, only after the death one can get the real life. This idea is similar to the main doctrine of Christianity. However, on the other hand, Gnostics did not considered sin as the significant issue that may prevent one from getting the salvation. For Gnostics, the main issue was to think about the sense of live and attempts to get more knowledge. Only one who seeks for the universal knowledge in this life will get the eternal life after the death.
Works Cited Oxtoby, Willard G. and Roy Amore. World Religions: Western Traditions, 3rd ed. US; Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
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Blood Diamond from Sierra Leone Research Paper argumentative essay help
Management of natural resources is central to quality of governance in a country. An endowment of mineral resources such as diamond, gold or oil should foster economic development. However, there are areas in Africa where such resources have caused serious conflicts (Levy 36).
Sierra Leone’s diamond has fueled a long and bloody military campaign ever witnessed in the history of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone experienced an eleven-year civil war from 1990’s to 2002 between the Government of Sierra Leone and Revolutionary United Front (RUF).The civil war in Sierra Leone was officially declared over in January 2002. However, over 70,000 people had been killed, 10,000 maimed, and more than half of the population fled the country or were internally displaced (Keen 15).
‘Blood diamond’ or ‘conflict diamonds’ are gems mined in war zones and are smuggled into the legitimate industry through illegal means. According to Levy (3), diamonds mined in Sierra are smuggled to other countries through Ivory Coast (Lincoln 36). Civil wars that are a result of resource conflicts have been manifested in a number of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries where resource endowment has resulted in civil wars.
For example, Angola, South-Sudan, Liberia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Sierra Leone are amongst those countries that are endowed with mineral resources but still have high prevalence of poverty, social inequality, and conflict (Omeje 2008 in Lincoln 39).
From the above examples, it can be deduced that armed conflict is a major manifestation in resource exploitation. Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) countries that are endowed with alluvial deposits of minerals such as diamond, colt, and gold. However, they are faced with the problem of illegal mining and smuggling. The rise in diamond smuggling during the Stevens and Momoh eras is explained by rent seeking instincts of the political elite.
This was furthered by the peculiar organization of the international diamond industry (TRCV in Sierra Leone 17). Illegal exportation of diamond has taken place since the 1950s, with most being channeled through Ivory Coast, endowed with smaller number of diamond deposits (Lincoln 38).
Although most observers have viewed the causes of these conflicts as complex, reflecting a combination of political and socio economic factors have increasingly focused on the connection between contested natural resources and political conflict (Levy 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It argued that diamond played a vital role in fuelling the conflict as various parties funded war efforts through mining activities. These diamonds have been labeled ‘blood diamonds’ or ‘conflict diamonds’ (Levy 2) because the resources obtained from their sale is used to fund purchases of arms and military ammunition by rebel forces.
Although blood diamonds contribute the income of countries where they are mined, it also contributed greatly to warlords within Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Angola (Sean and Rorison 21). The problem involving conflict diamonds is that there are many victims who suffer including diamond miners. Many diamonds are harvested using practices that exploit the workers, children, and communities (Keen 13).
As depicted in the movie Blood Diamond, those that attempt to escape the mining camps or try to steal the mined gem face punishment of having their limbs removed or shot. Many miners find diamonds unwillingly and attempt to hide them (Solomon in the Movie). They are hoping to find large diamond that will transform their lives since a significantly high number of miners are trapped in absolute poverty. Several people have been killed retrieving hidden diamonds.
This number is estimated at 3.7 million people who have directly succumbed to diamond-fuelled wars. More millions have lost their homes and livelihoods (Abdullah 101). In the movie Blood Diamond, Solomon is poor fisherman in a war torn country. His and several other houses are burnt by the rebels led by Captain Poison (RUF Commander).
Smuggling of conflict diamond and illegal diamond trade has brought suffering to neighboring countries since these countries are trading and transit grounds for the illegal gems (Levy 10). For instance, countries such as Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo suffered from wars within themselves and between warlords who fought over the mined diamonds being smuggled into the industry (Keen 15).
Several rebel forces and commanders also exploited children as child soldiers. In the movie, for example, Captain Poison (RUF Commander) raids Solomon’s village captures children to use as his soldiers including Dia Vandy-Solmon’s son.
Lack of adequate monitoring of the source and origin of diamonds is one of the major problems in the industry as illegitimate mineral exploitation flourishes. The illicit mining has resulted in lower mineral revenues for governments. This has caused serious development implications to Sierra Leone which relies heavily on proceeds from mineral exploitation (Levy 40). This is the case with Sierra Leone, a country whose economy depends essentially on revenues from its mineral resources.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Blood Diamond from Sierra Leone specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reduced mineral revenue for an already heavily indebted country like Sierra Leone is likely to obviate realization of national development projects. Efforts to control illicit extraction and smuggling of diamonds in alluvial mining areas in Sierra Leone are hindered by large influx of miners, presence of foreign mining agents, and porous borders (Lincoln 38).
The large influx of miners in extensive mining areas supervised by few mines monitoring officials has hampered Sierra Leone government’s effort to prevent illegal extraction of diamond. Moreover, some foreign mining representatives take advantage of this weakness by sponsoring illegal mining, buying, and smuggling of diamonds (Lincoln 37).
The problem of illegal exploitation of alluvial deposits is largely attributed to activities of artisanal miners and their association with social actors in the mining industry. Despite the fact that the government of Sierra Leone has made progress in formalizing artisanal mining, illegal exploitation is still a key issue of concern.
Though artisanal mining is still widely used in the outskirts of Koidu Town in Kono District, most of it is illegal mining and involves deplorable working conditions (Levy 36). According to Lincoln (38), the government officials in Sierra Leone complained that it was difficult to control and manage the diamond industry and as a result the smuggling of illegal diamonds continued as late as 2009.
Diamond smuggling in Sierra Leone have undoubtedly contributed to large scale corruption in the Sierra government, and denied the country millions of dollars in foreign exchange income. Unfortunately, it has promoted political instability within and without the boarders of the West African sub-country (Gberie 2005 cited in Lincoln 39).
The pressing concern however is debate on the role played by illegal diamond exploitation and sale to the country’s future political and development path. Quite a number of observers have warned that diamond trade in Sierra Leone presents a considerable threat to security in the post-conflict time.
Great numbers of ex-combatants who continue to return to diamond mining regions in the Eastern Province has exacerbated the situation. Similarly, there remain widespread concerns about socio-economic consequences of this scenario to wider state interests. Therefore, without major efforts to provide better alternative socio-economic opportunities for socially excluded rural youths, there is a substantial risk that fighting might resume in future (TRCV in Sierra Leone 19).
On the other hand, in spite of extreme levels of poverty in modern-day Sierra Leone, particularly in the diamond mining regions themselves, there was an era when diamonds played vital role in the country’s national economic development agenda and were a significant aspect of the local economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Blood Diamond from Sierra Leone by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Specifically, before the start of this war in 1991, mining played a central role in economic development of Sierra Leone, as it was the major foreign exchange earner for the country, accounting for over 80 per cent of export earnings and 20 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) (Keen 26).
The history of great effort against blood diamonds has involved a number of stakeholders. In the beginning, NGO’s with an interest in peace and development in the Sub Saharan country acknowledged the role of diamonds in conflict. On the other hand, social scientists and researchers were doing research and modeling the role of natural endowments in long-standing violent conflicts witnessed in many Sub Saharan Africa countries.
The United Nation, governments, NGOs, civil society groups, and the diamond industry recognized need for a global system to prevent blood diamonds from entering lawful global diamond supply chain to fund conflict. In 2003, the diamond industry, together with governments and civil society, launched the Kimberly Process, a diamond certification scheme that aimed to get rid of blood diamonds from global markets.
The process attempted to curb trade in illegal diamonds that has helped to fund rebels and conflicts aimed at overthrowing governments as it did in Sierra Leone (Lincoln 38).
While the Kimberley Process embodies a significant step in an attempt to control and eradicate trade in blood diamonds, strengthening of the control apparatus is unquestionably required (Lincoln 39). Awareness of the illegal trade in precious gems has increased significantly since the onset of the Kimberly process. “Blood diamond”, the movie addresses the concerns behind glittering diamonds which are not as pleasant as the diamond looks. It shows the conflict in Sierra Leone and its devastating consequences.
In conclusion, the trade in diamond and other gem or precious stones has played significant role in civil conflicts witnessed in many Sub Saharan African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. Smuggling and illegal mining of these gems denies these countries revenue. Besides, it has exacerbated poverty levels that are already soaring high. Changing these conditions require joint efforts from the government and industry players.
Works Cited Abdullah, Ibrahim. (Ed). Between Democarcy and Terror. Dakar, Senegal: African Books Collective; Codesria, 2004. Print.
Keen, David. Conflict
Individualism as the Desire to Show Personal Grace Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor is a short story and many critics have various points of view about it. Some scholars pointed at the greatest problem of individualism, others referred to the religious themes in the story. Moreover, the story relation to the Eddie Green’s 1918 song with the same title is observed and many scholars cannot reject this idea, “the lyrics avert attention from the illusive to the near” (Nester 115).
The very story is focused on many specific aspects and smaller themes which are closely interconnected, however the idea of individualism is the dominant. The author touches the family relations, the contradiction from the very first sentence and many other themes which may be considered in the story. However, the problem of individualism is believed to be the central theme in the paper.
Grandmother is believed to be the person who has managed to become individuality in dangerous world where people who lived with her were unable to understand her desire to be the one who differs from others not because she is special, but because she has her point of view, her specific ideas and consideration in the direction of many aspects and the inability of other family members crates a kind of a contrast.
Considering individualism as the social notion, it may be concluded that it should be defined as the moral worth of a person. Individuality is a person who deserves much attention. It is a person who has personal ideas, personal point of view and particular attitude to the things. The more personal issues are considered in the story, the more attention should be paid to the person. Individualism is a desire of a person who has managed to enter the society to show personal opinion.
It is obvious that calling a person individuality we mean in most cases the person who manages to express his/her ideas in such a way that many people should listen to them. Thus, calling the grandmother in A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor individuality who deserves attention is correct. Additionally, it should be stated that the grandmother is the only individuality in the story. Each her movement, each her phrase is the expression of the personal ideas and desires.
She does not pay attention to anyone who tries to contradict her point of view, she does everything to make sure that her opinion is heard and that she has done everything to protect herself. Such individualism is seen from the very beginning of the story and is not finish up to the very end of it. Hooten is sure that “the grandmother in A Good Man Is Hard to Find loses her earthly life, but in the last moment when she renounces her individualism, she may also be finding spiritual life” (200).
Proving the idea of the grandmother’s domination, her individualism and the desire to show that her point of view should be listened to, it is important to conduct a close reading of the text. It will help to see all the quotes which show that the grandmother managed to express her point of view in such a way that all the members had to do nothing but to submit. “The grandmother didn’t want to go to Florida. She wanted to visit some of her connections in east Tennes – see and she was seizing at every chance to change Bailey’s mind” (O’Connor 495).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the first sentence in the story. It may be said that the whole story is supported with such statements. The grandmother wants something and she is intended to do it. Such phrases are numerous. It is easy to remember the way how the grandmother insists on the ideas she likes and what she does to convince others that the opinion she has created is the only necessary and the only correct. Showing her personality, the grandmother does everything as she likes without being interested in what others think about the issues.
It is obvious that the grandmother is sure that she is wiser and everyone has to listen to her, “She said she thought it was going to be a good day for driving, neither too hot nor too cold, and she cautioned Bailey that the speed limit was fifty-five miles an hour and that the patrolmen hid themselves behind billboards and small clumps of trees and sped out after you before you had a chance to slow down” (O’Connor 495).
This phrase seems to be the statement of the fact, however, the grandmother makes everyone believe that this is her idea. Such cases are numerous in the story and this may be one of the reasons why in some situations it seemed that the grandmother was not noticed at all.
Considering the attitude to the grandmother, it should be stated that no one treats her seriously. When she speaks to someone – no one answers her the way she deserves it. Being the mother of her “only boy” (O’Connor 495), when she speaks to any other member of the family they answer her as if she was nothing for them.
Doing their business, those people managed to answer the questions without looking at her. This is exactly what happens in the family. Reading that the grandmother “has to go everywhere” (O’Connor 495) the family goes it appears that other members of the family consider her as a one who is to be near them without noticing her individuality, “Bailey didn’t [even] look up from his reading” (O’Connor 497).
This is not the disgrace, it looks more like the situation when people got used to something and do not consider them as something valued. This is one of the reasons why the family members do not consider the grandmother appropriately. She is individuality. She has a personal point of view about each issue, in the relation to every problem and situation and this is the fact that makes others to be disturbed about their personal individualities as they failed to be as smart as the grandmother was.
Even the analysis of the story conducted by Keil makes it obvious that “O’Connor’s grandmother… is alienated from other members of creation. She is surrounded by people without any sign of intimate fellowship, just as the sailor is surrounded by water without being able to quench his thirst” (45). It is impossible to disagree with the statement as even at the end of the story the grandmother stays alone.
We will write a custom Essay on Individualism as the Desire to Show Personal Grace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She appears an eye to eye with the killer trying to express her individuality and to convince him not to kill her. Additionally, considering the text, she is trying to behave in the way how she sees herself, she is trying to make sure that the Mistif is individuality, “”Jesus… You have got good blood! I know you would not shoot a lady! I know you come from nice people! Pray! Jesus, you ought not to shoot a lady. I’ll give you all the money I have got!” (O’Connor 506).
In conclusion, I should be stated that the problem of individuality in the paper is closely related to the absence of the individual features in other members of the discussion. There is an opinion that the grandmother lies to everyone and tries to manipulate others. This is true in some way and it is impossible to reject this idea.
However, all these actions show the grandmother as a strong personality and individuality who manages to reach the purposes she wants. It is obvious that the possibility to manipulate others points at two factors, a person who manipulates other is a strong individuality while those who are manipulated are the weaker ones.
The grandmother is individuality who has her personal point of view and does all possible to convince others that her opinion is the only correct. The purpose of this paper is not to show whether she is right or not. The individuality may have many points of view. At the same time, it is possible to state that it was proven that the grandmother deserves to be called individuality. The whole short story proves this idea via her actions and statements, and the behavior and opinion of others who surround her.
Works Cited Hooten, Jessica. “Individualism in O’Connor’s A Good Man is Hard to Find.” Explicator 66.4 (2008): 197-200. Print.
Keil, Katherine. “O’Connor’s a good man is hard to find.” Explicator 65.1 (2006): 44-47. Print.
Nester, Nancy L. “O’Connor’s “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”.” Explicator 64.2 (2006): 115-118. Print.
O’Connor, Flannery. “A Good Man Is Hard to Find.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. 10th ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. 495–506. Print.
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Smart Grid Technology Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Smart Grid Technology Applications
Introduction Smart grid technology is technology that utilizes both remote home monitoring and automation. This technology was first used with electricity grids but it has since been utilized in other applications. This technology is meant to improve efficiency, reliability, and economics of supply and consumption services.
Once employed, smart grid technology ensures that the infrastructure of a grid includes an intelligent monitoring system. Smart grid technology relies on a highly efficient two-way communication system. A smart grid system usually consists of centralized software that is used together with millions of end user devices. The most common application of smart grid technology is in electricity distribution.
Multiple power generating companies, together with multiple aggregated electrical networks form an electrical grid. This grid is incorporated with technology to increase coordination of services between suppliers and consumers over long distances. Smart grid technology was instituted to improve energy consumption efficiency, manage real time flows, and to provide billing and compensation frameworks.
Technology The main idea in smart grid technology is to incorporate monitoring, analysis, communication capabilities and control into an electrical network (Feinberg 15). To achieve this, many technological concepts are incorporated into a smart grid.
The first concept used in smart grid technology is integrated communications. Smart grids rely on reliable end-to-end networks. Recently, modems have been used to collect data. Network technologies used in smart grid technology include wireless networks, fiber optics, and power-line carrier communications. The technology is used to ensure data exchange optimization, efficient asset management, and data security.
The other form of technology is the one used to evaluate grid performance. Smart technology involves measuring grid stability, equipment stability, and energy theft instances. The technology that helps achieve this includes smart or microprocessor meters, temperature-sensing mechanisms, electronic signature analyzers, advanced switching, radio technology, and real time pricing. Smart grids also use advanced technological components to improve efficiency.
Alternating current devices are examples of such devices. Other such tools include voltage stabilizing components and optimization control mechanisms. In some instances, advanced software is used to take over power system automations. Such software takes over the main operations areas of a power system like distribution, analysis, responses, and calculations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the complicated nature of a smart grid, some technological improvements are needed to support its capabilities. There is a need to improve interfaces for them to be able to support the grid’s heavy load. For example, technology may be improved to increase visualization capabilities. Visualization is an important tool when it comes to monitoring grid activities. Simulation tools are also vital components of smart grid technology.
For smart grid technology to be operational, it has to rely on the already set industry standards. Any technology is guided by a set of standards. IEC TC57 creates the standards that apply to smart grid technology.
For instance, substation architecture is governed by IEC61850. CIM (Common Information Model) provides data handling frameworks. Other bodies that are involved in creating smart grid technology standards include the IEEE, OASIS Energyinterlop, and the UCA international group. These types of standards continue to be developed as smart grid technology develops.
Smart Grid Technology Applications Smart grid technology is mostly used with end user devices. These devices are known as IEDs (intelligent electronic devices). This technology allows these types of devices to be multifunctional. In a smart grid system, the IEDS function as sources of information and automation for a smart grid. Apart from supplying values, they record information on the health, history, assets, and transformers of a system. IEDs communicate data to other IEDs, computers in the system, and to technicians.
Smart grid technology is also applied in power distribution. Through smart grids, it is possible to have an automated power distribution system. This process can be tracked from generation to delivery.
One application of automated distribution and transmission is in fault identification in case of a power failure. Another application is in maintaining devices and optimizing assets. Automation also helps in data acquisition and when supervising operations. Automation also ensures better monitoring of load flow, load balancing, and generation control.
Smart grid technology centralizes the decision-making system in an organization. Most smart grid systems are organized in hierarchies. This mode ensures that data is collected and organized in different levels. In turn, this ensures that the decision making process is aligned. This is because if a problem occurs in the lower level, it can be sorted out without involving the top management. This eases the management’s work and ensures efficiency.
We will write a custom Essay on Smart Grid Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Smart grid technology can be applied when pricing electricity products. This is very important especially in situations where pricing incorporates other variables (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 4). For example, some power companies reduce prices during off-peak periods to encourage usage during these times. To make this happen, smart grid technology uses intelligent metering services. These can track usage during different times with different prices.
Conclusion In conclusion, smart grid technology has changed the way power is generated and transmitted. Most developed countries have been using this technology for quite some time. This technology has achieved great efficiency in power distribution management. A lot still needs to be done to make smart grid technology easy to adopt.
Works Cited Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 2008, Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering. PDF file. Web.
Feinberg, Richard 2009, Achieving Consumer Acceptance of the Smart Grid -The Intelligent Project. PDF file. Web.
Cannabis in Canada Term Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
4/20 protest in Canada
Cannabis trade in Canada
Effects of cannabis on the Canadian society
Canadian government and cannabis
Introduction Even though the Canadian government has illegalized the trade of cannabis, it is evident that it still legalizes it overtime considering the events that have happened and continue to happen, among them being the 4/20 protest. Every 4th of April, protesters meet to celebrate the smoking of pot and demand that the product to be legalized just as tobacco. The law enforcers are always on the lookout to ensure that safety is maintained during such occasions. However, they do little or nothing to control the smoking of the pot.
4/20 protest in Canada The code 4/20 is rumored to have been started by ‘the Waldos’ in San Rafael High School. They used it to refer to the time they met to smoke pot which was usually at about 4:20pm everyday. The name was later used as a code by other pot smokers to keep the police, parents or school administrators unaware of their activities. There are other stories that speculate the origin of the code which may not be ascertained at the moment.
However, what is known for sure is the date the protests began and it is believed to be in 1995. It all started in Vancouver when a manager, Rozek, and one hempe store employee, Cindy, put up a request to their boss, Marc Emery, to start the movement. “They asked if they could hold a 4/20 celebration next door in Victory park”. Marc declined this request but they insisted on going ahead with their plans despite his lack of approval.
Therefore on April 4th, 1995, about 200 hundred people met in Victory Park and smoked pot all day long while playing loud music. In the following years the number of people who joined the meeting had grown to five hundred and promised to become even larger. By 1997, the number had grown to such an extent that the venue was too small. “It is then that Vancouver Art gallery was selected as the next venue and has been used to date”.
The main occurrence in the celebration is the smoking of pot and its trade. Police deployed to the scene do not engage themselves in preventing the smoking of cannabis. Rather, they insist that their main responsibility is to combat those who traffic and smuggle the commodity.
Cannabis trade in Canada The growth of cannabis in Canada can be dated back to the early seventeenth century. It is actually believed to be one of the first crops that had been farmed in Canadian soil. “Parisian is believed to have migrated to Nova taking with him a wealth of knowledge on the farming of cannabis” . The trade has been going on since that time to the present day.
Initially, it was grown naturally but due to the new rules set by the administration, farmers have gone the extent of growing the product indoors. In order to achieve this, state-of-art equipment was used to attain almost natural atmospheric conditions that are favorable for the growth of the product. The THC content in the marijuana grown in doors ranges from 10-15% while that from naturally grown marijuana contains slightly over 2%. The indoors product thus fetches good money in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The trade is said to be masterminded by Vietnamese gangs who operated in family units, a large market share of the product sold come from the Vietnamese groups”. The units can range from as few as four to as many as a hundred people. The operations revolve around how debts are settled and secrets kept in the area. “The main strength of the trade is the co-operation exhibited among families that keep the business well networked and funded”.
The multibillion business has grown so dynamic that the Vietnamese groups have gone to the extent of hiring security men to guard the crop. These groups then sell the grown product to other organized gangs in the region. The families preferred the trade to the normal day jobs as they regarded it as a quick way to make cash.
Besides, their language was poor and would not permit them to secure well paying jobs. Cannabis often goes to the extent of being traded at $6000 for every pound. Given these insane amounts, people can then manage to do all that money can do. “Helicopters are sometimes used in the trade, particularly for transit purposes”.
The trade was first illegalized in the late nineteenth century. Then, the police were on the look out for all the smugglers in the region and for any equipment that would be on transit with the intension of the cannabis growth. When the rule was first established, people brushed it off saying people would eventually break the rule.
The example given was the tobacco trade that was illegalized for one decade and legalized in the years that followed. Government efforts to decrease the trade in the industry may have doubled but many of those convicted ended up in being bailed out only to embark on the trade.
Many of the 4/20 protesters argue that the product has medicinal value unlike tobacco, yet the later is legalized while the former is illegalized. The money spent on combating the growth and trade of the product should be re-channeled and boosted from the revenues of marijuana to cater for the health issue of the people in general. According to them, “cannabis users never commit the social crimes such as wife battering that is pronounced among drunkards”.
Effects of cannabis on the Canadian society Cannabis, unlike other drugs, has both positive and negative effects. Acute use of the product can result in increased vulnerability to heart and lung diseases. However, the effects occur rarely and in occasional cases will lead to the loss of memory by the user. Studies conducted indicate that cannabis has no relation to increased crime. “Drunken people often become violent but cannabis does not particularly cause aggression”.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Cannabis in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the positive effects of consumption of the drug are reduced pains, anti-vomiting and anti-spasmodic. Owing to these effects, the Canadian society has not been affected gravely by the product. However, the frequent charges imposed on the people found in possession of cannabis have increased greatly.
Canadian government and cannabis The laws that govern the possession of cannabis in Canada have often been accused of having no particular effect on curbing the trade of the product. Though the product is illegal, the smoking of the drug is carried out in the open right in front of the law enforcers. Activities of the government have in the long-run led to the implicit legalization of the product.
This effect has manifested itself in different ways. For instance, the prohibition of the drug as per the bill passed in 1923 indicates no apparent reason for the enlisting of the drug as illegal. “Its inclusion may have been done by accident”. .Therefore, when the law enforcers began executing the law, they had never felt the urgency of holding culprits. It is no surprise that the first case of one charge with possession of cannabis occurred more than nine years after the bill had been passed.
Secondly, the ambiguity in the law causes confusion to even the law enforcers. The law states that “cultivation of cannabis is illegal except for when it is used for medicinal purposes”.
This does not specify how much of the product should be for the medicinal value. It also implies that individuals who are found in possession of the product and who smoke it are called not be tried against the law. Therefore, when policemen are deployed to the 4/20 protest areas, they do not arrest those who smoke; instead they claim to be on the look out for those causing chaos or found trafficking the drug.
Another factor is the kind of action taken against those found in possession of the cannabis, “culprits are taken in for a few days, charged and then released”. The more relaxed the laws on the crimes committed by people, the more the perpetrators are encouraged to continue with their actions.
The Canadian government seems to take the cannabis case lightly. The policemen are not motivated to charge those found in possession of the drug. When they do, they never follow up the cases with seriousness they deserve. The courts, on the other hand are changed with responsibility of charging the criminals. However, “the ambiguous law surrenders them into toothless dogs that only bark but never bite”.
Initially, just after the enactment of the bill, people felt it was unfounded and strongly advocated for the legalization of the commodity. However, “all attempts to alter the act were thwarted by the emulation by foreign countries to ensure the drug is illegal”. In 2002, Jean’s liberal government attempted to pass a bill that legalized small amounts of cannabis. However, the bill died when parliament was prorogued. Similar attempts were made in 2004, but still the bill died in the process and never made it into a law.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Following the pressure from the United States and other neighboring nations, the Canadian government is under pressure to stiffen its rules on cannabis trade in the nation. However, Canadians think otherwise, “Anglo Reid poll indicates that about 53% of Canadians seek the legalization of the drug”.
Legalizing the drug would mean allowing the commodity to be legally traded within the nation’s borders. The cultivation would increase the supply of the product in the region and its great cash rewards would result in countries that have illegalized the trade experiencing frequent cases of cannabis smuggling.
To avoid such an occurrence, the Canadian government should amend the bill to be more precise on its restrictions and freedoms. Where possible, there should be no exceptions as they make the separation of the entities a difficult task. The policemen should then be motivated to charge anyone found in possession of marijuana- whatever the amount. Courts, on the other hand will be in a position to issue judgment accordingly.
Bibliography Bello, Joan. The Benefits of Marijuana: Physical, Psychological
Health Economics-SIC and NAICS Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Executive Summary Private health insurance industries play essential role in the healthcare system of America. Reflectively, “one dollar out of every three dollars spent in 2011 on healthcare was paid to private insurers” (Davies and Crombie 22). The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was created to establish a standardized system of classification for business organizations to aid in the comparison of statistical data used in describing various aspects of the United States economy.
Reflectively, the main objective of health economics is to promote better understanding of economic aspects of health care problems so that corrective health policies can be designed. Therefore, it is important to analyze fixed and variable costs in private health care insurance industry and how these determinants interact with demand in the market.
Among the general strategies adopted by players in this industry include developments of an inclusive stakeholder strategy, designing of competitive insurance packages, and diversification in terms of designing tailored products. This reflective treatise attempts to explicitly reflect on the Porter’s model founded on the premises that corporate plans should meet the opportunities and pressure in the organizations outside setting.
Among the discussed factors include threat of entry of new competitors, the bargaining power of buyers, and suppliers bargaining power. In addition, the influence of substitute products and stiff competition between industries are analysed in terms of how they affects profit margins. Specifically, the focus is on management strategies to counter competition as applied by the Grand Valley Health Plan (HMO) Michigan.
Health Economics-SIC and NAICS Introduction
Private health insurance industries play essential role healthcare system in the U.S. today. Davies and Crombie note that “one dollar out of every three dollars spent in 2008 on healthcare was paid to private insurers” (Davies and Crombie 22). Moreover, several public insurance plans now rely on services of private insurers to help manage a significant share of spending (Davies and Crombie 32).
In spite of this important role, the private health insurance segment has gained relatively modest attention from researchers, mainly because of limited availability of data on insurance contracts. By studying health economics, Neun and Santerre argue that Health economics encompasses a broad range of theories, concepts, and topics thus it is difficult to precisely define (4).
Davies and Crombie define health economics as “study of supply and demand of health care resources among a population” (Davies and Crombie 12). They note that the study of health economics encompasses the application of a range of micro-economic tools which include demand, to health concerns and problems (Davies and Crombie 32).
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The key objective of health economics is to promote the better understanding of economic aspects of health care problems so that corrective health policies can be designed. To be able to tackle the problems mentioned Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in collaboration with other agencies created the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), a classification system that substituted the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.
Since 1993 efforts have been made to enable the transition from NAICS to SIC, and in 2001 NAICS was formally adopted. These efforts have materialised into reliable and relevant classification systems within the periphery of private health care insurance industry. The NAICS, OMB, and SIC are associated with progress in the development of health economics solutions through insurance premiums. Besides, these agencies are associated with the review of health policies across the United States of America.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was established in 1938, and since then has been recently revised. The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was created to establish a standardized system of classification for business organizations, and in so doing to aid in the comparison of statistical data used in describing various aspects of the United States economy.
After a series of revisions to SIC, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 1997 approved the adoption of North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to substitute the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) in the collection of industry statistics.
As a replacement to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) were established in 1997. Like SIC the NAICS has been revised and updated. For example, a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) the NAICS codes have been revised in 2002 and 2007, and NAICS now apply to Mexico, Canada, and the United States.
Experts argue that rationale for introducing NAICS codes to replace the SIC was to permit the inclusion of industry ratios and averages that could be compared between the three countries, and to incorporate newer industries not covered in the SIC codes, like, high tech industries, biotechnology, and services industries (Tolley 33).
NAICS and SIC and industry categories cannot be compared directly because the NAICS codes change has split some SIC categories. Previously, under the SIC groupings; there was no distinction of corporate headquarters from the service or product they produced. However, under NAICS codes there is the recognition of corporate headquarters in the Management Sector.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Health Economics-SIC and NAICS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Manufacturing, for example, has been is reorganized to include high-technology industries. Moreover, NIACS offers a more detailed account on a company including an additional breakdown of services sector in SIC system into nine new sectors.
Office of Management and Budget established the Economic Classification Policy Committee in 1992 to pursue a fresh slate examination of economic classifications for statistical purposes1. Since 1939 the U.S. has been using the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.
While SIC had undergone periodic revisions, the last one in 1987, rapid changes in the U.S. and world economies brought SIC under increased scrutiny. In response to the need for a classification system that better reflected the dynamic nature of economies, OMB established the Economic Classification Policy Committee 2. Government agencies from the United States, Mexico and Canada3 were tasked with the development of a system that accounted for rapid changes in the U.S and world economies.
Industry Demands Determinants of existing firms Fixed costs
Irrespective of the dynamics in the private health insurance industry, fixed costs does not change over time. For instance, utility costs are characterised as fixed cost since the accrued value remains constant irrespective of any change in other cost in private health insurance industry. However, an upsurge in business utilities may transform the same to variable cost in that it may determine profit levels.
This is minimal and has no substantial contribution towards influencing the industry demands. For instance cost of maintaining the insurance firm in terms of bills and rent may not change and has no impact on performance of the firm. Thus, fixed costs are assumed to be constant, are experienced internally, and often budgeted for as component of daily operation.
Variable costs are very responsive to swings in business environment in health insurance industry. As a matter of fact, since these costs are not constant, a firm is likely to experience impact of change in business environment. For instance, when the business volume increases, variable costs also increase.
On the other hand, when business volume decreases, variable cost will respond in the same way and decrease proportionally. Variable costs have direct influence on private health insurance industry demands. Variable costs are also called the deductable and influence the choice between partial and complete coverage as controlled by expected gains on utility.
For instance, an increase in the premium rates may negatively affect demand for private health care insurance since some customer may shy away from one insurance firm in favour of another. In the event of this scenario, demand will decrease. Examples of variable costs in private health insurance industry include expansionary cost, cost of preferring one product over another, and inventory.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Health Economics-SIC and NAICS by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current changes
In the last decade, private health insurance industry has undergone series of changes in line with the American health care reforms agenda. Under the new arrangement, the private health care insurance industry must seek approval from the government and justify charges before clearance (Neun and Santerre 122).
As the cost of living increases, insurance industries offering private health cover have been forced to reduce their premium and embrace bottle neck competition from the government sponsored insurance cover for the citizens of America. In response, most of private healthcare insurance industries have opted for product tailoring and customisation as a remedy for survival. Unlike before, this industry now offers packages such as compensation against incurable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, and other viral infection to their clients.
Shape of curves Average cost curve
The above curve represents the relationship between price and quantity demanded in the long run. The as price for a product decreases, the quantity offered will also decrease. In the long run, an increase in price will respond positively with an increase in quantity of packages offered by private health insurance companies.
Marginal cost curve
AFC- Average Fixed Cost
AVC- Average Variable Cost
MC- Marginal Cost
ATC- Average Total Cost
Among the components of marginal cost curve include the short run and long run curves which directly influence productivity and performance at ceteris peribus. As indicated in the above curve, production inputs changes up to a point of diminishing returns. At this point, market is exhausted. Further introduction of more products will not change returns. This means that economies and diseconomies of scale are exhausted. In relation to private health care insurgency industry, economies of scale margin are noted in the declining long-run average total cost curve. On the other hand, diseconomies of scale trigger the long-run average total cost curve to rise.
Analysis of Competitive Forces as applied in the Grand Valley Health Plan (HMO) Michigan. In 1980, Michael Porter in his book, “Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitor,” indentified a five competitive forces model for strategic analysis of an organizations industry structure and processes. Porter’s model is the founded on the premises that corporate plans should meet the opportunities and pressure in the organizations outside setting. In particularly, competitive strategy should understand the organization structures and their dynamism.
These forces according to Porter show the levels intense competition between industries and therefore, determine the productivity and charm of an industry. As a result, the corporate objective should be to adjust the driving forces in such a way that they improve the situation of the organization same as in the case of HMO which opted for diversification, introduction of competitive price mechanism, streamlining operations, and managing inventory.
Threat of entry of new competitors
Porter argues that competition, especially when stiff, is directly related to performance of a product or service in the demand market. When such phenomena occur, the new entrants have the capability to change key market determinants such as market prices, market share and customer loyalty.
Moreover, the threat caused by new entrants is subject to the barriers to entry in the business. For example, the insurance industry in the U.S. have laid down requirements for any company that intends to run an insurance firm; there is a minimum amount of money that must be deposited in the central bank.
For example, all states require insurers to be financially solvent and capable of paying claims. States also require prompt payment of claims and other fair claims handling practices. These high initial capital requirements have inhibited the numbers of new entries recorded over the decades as HMO remains established and profitable (Neun and Santerre 178).
Intensity of rivalry
Intensity of rivalry is applied by Porter to describe the levels of competition amongst existing industry players. Economically, whenever there is competition between industries pressure is often than not directed in to prices of goods and services. Thus, stiff competition between industries affects profit margins for every single company in that industry.
Porter states that competition between industries is greater when the existing industries have same strategies, there is less product diversification and when the industries are almost the same size. In the US on the contrary, apart from product differentiation by the private insurance companies have, the companies operate at very different levels in terms of economy of scales (Normand and McPake 78).
Competition generally determines the profit margin. Therefore, established companies may be in a better position to compete those weak firms. As a result, this aspect has a very strong influence on survival and performance of firms in this industry such as HMO since it has integrated the ability to survive and thrive amidst competition through tailoring of its family health insurance package.
Pressure from substitute products
Substitute products cause threats in an industry when alternative goods and services are available in the market and offer better prices and performance. Such substitute products are likely to capture a large portion of the market thus reducing the sales volume of each existing industry. The US private insurers provide a variety of insurance policies that suits an individual’s income and needs.
As a matter of fact, these substitutes are spread across the market and may not necessarily satisfy demands of different customer. Though the number of substitutes may be substantial, many players may want to incorporate them in the bracket. Thus, volume of sales realised will be relatively lower as these players outdo one another through modification. However, HMO’s products are unique products that fit different classes of clients from high end to low end income brackets.
Bargaining power of buyers
In addition, the bargaining power of buyers determines how much buyers can enforce pressure on market margins and volumes. The bargaining power of buyers of policies is high when the industry comprises great numbers of small and medium term operators and when buyers purchase large in volumes.
Most policy buyers in health insurance have the opportunity to buy policies from numerous insurance firms that increasing their bargaining power. However, if with this bargaining power, there are federal laws that guide the insurance industry on the amount of premiums to charge (Neun and Santerre 158). These federal laws control and regulate the types of premium which makes it into the market.
On the measurement scale, this aspect can be classified as having a strong influence since bargaining power of the buyer influence quantity of sales and overall returns. Behaviour of utilities is determined by the responsiveness of buyers and their purchasing power to purchase services offered by private healthcare insurance companies. In the last decade, HMO has managed to maintain position four due to its integrated pricing model that is friendly to clients.
Bargaining power of suppliers
Finally, Porter coined the concept of suppliers bargaining power to denote the ability of all those involved in the provision that particular service to influence the terms and conditions of policies in their favour. The private insurance companies without government regulations would want to sell their policies at the maximum possible prices (Davies and Crombie 43).
However, government regulation controls their activities and evaluates their policy before introduction into the market. Thus, government control, through regulatory authority, often influences overall impact of policies floated by players in this industry. As a matter of fact, this aspect has moderate effect on demand in HMO which often uses in house supply chains and outsources the most cost effective suppliers such as the Virginia Medicare.
Conclusion Conclusively, competition is a major factor that influences operation and organization of private health care insurance industry. As a matter of fact, the aspect of historical review displays series of changes that has gripped this industry and threat of high living standards making some of their client opt for public healthcare insurance.
Fixed and variable costs in private health care are determinants of demand in the market. Variable costs change as the demand in the market change. However, fixed costs are assumed to remain constant irrespective of market swings since they are covered in the budget and are predictable.
Threat of entry of new competitors contributed minimal challenge to player in this industry as compared to the bargaining power of buyers which determines how much buyers can enforce pressure on market margins and volumes. Besides, suppliers bargaining power denotes the ability of all those involved in the provision that particular service to influence the terms and conditions of policies in their favour. This aspect presents a moderate challenge to player in this industry since they are easily replicable.
Substitute products cause threats in an industry when alternative goods and services are available in the market and offer better prices and performance. Generally, stiff competition between industries affects profit margins for every single company in this industry. Reflectively, the above aspects control survival and profitability of firms in this industry since they influence positioning and maintaining a market niche.
Works Cited Davies, How, and Crombie Ian. What are confidence intervals and p-values? London: Hayward Medical Communications, 2009. Print.
Neun, Stephen, and Santerre Rexford. Health Economics: Theories, Insights, and Industry Studies. 5th ed. 2009. Alabama: Cengage Learning. Print.
Normand, Charles, and McPake Barbara. Health economics: an international. 2nd ed. 2008. New York: Taylor
Compare and Contrast Paper: The Vietnam War and Korean War Research Paper college admissions essay help
The Vietnam War and the Korean War had many similarities. First of all, the decision to start both wars had an ideological background. According to the Truman Doctrine, the government of the United States supposed that in case if Korea and Vietnam choose communism as the ideology, the United States has to stop this process.
Such measure seamed only one good solution used to prevent the expansion of communism around the Asian continent and around the world. However, the way battles, the use of chemical weapons and millions of victims demonstrated that those wars were unfair regarding the citizens of Korea and Vietnam. While the United States and the URSS were solving their ideological conflicts, millions of the local citizens were involved in this process.
Although the Vietnam War and the Korean War had the same ideological roots, methods of battles, both countries were separated for two parts where North parts were favored communism and South were supported democracy. There were also several differences such as the way of development of the conflicts where the Korean War was during three years, and the Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle, the participation of the Chinese troops in the Korean War, the use of chemical weapons in Vietnam and the different outcomes.
After World War II, the world faced a new way of ideological wars. The world was separated between the United States and the URSS, democracy, and communism. Considering the expansion of the communism among the Asian countries, the United States had to develop the measures which could stop the expansion of communism and to spread the ideas of democracy and liberalization on the Asian continent.
In the end of 50s, when the Cold War started to be more open and transparent, the United States and the URSS decided to find out which political system is stronger. According to the article The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam, “it grew out of long-standing disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union over which type of government and the economic system produced the most liberty, equality, and prosperity” (The U.S. Department of State publication).
Both of the systems did not want to start the open conflict and especially to do it on their territory. They chose Vietnam as the base where both systems could examine their forces, fighting with each other. Such politics was the continuation of colonial rule that always existed in this part of the earth but with a different face.
The conflict of two economic and political systems, communism and liberalism, caused a number of problems and led to several military conflicts. The Vietnam War and the Korean War were two of those conflicts. After World War II, the leaders of Vietnam started to accept the system offered by the URSS and considered communism as the only one possible and acceptable system for this country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflict occurred in the middle of 50s and located in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia (Edwards 1998). In the beginning, it was not an evident war; it was rather hidden, latent conflict overage to the serious and prolonged war. According to the Digital History, the project of University of Huston, “between 1945 and 1954, the Vietnamese waged an anti-colonial war against France and received $2,6 billion in financial support from the United States” (Digital History).
The United States did everything to get support and to provide protection to this area. Thereby, when Vietnam decided to choose a communistic way of development, the United States did not want to lose their power in the country and had to answer.
The county was divided into two parts: North and South. The United States sent 2,000 soldiers to help South Vietnam which preferred liberalism. In 1963, a number of U.S. soldiers in this area was about 63,000 (Digital History). The conflict lasted until the 1970s and ended only in 1973 when the U.S. forces were withdrawn. South and North Vietnam were reunited only in 1975.
The situation in Korea was different. This war started as the apparent military conflict when in 1950 North Korea with the help of the URSS crossed the border with South Korea. North Korea favored communism, while South Korea tried to build the country based on the liberalism.
Again, as it was in case of Vietnam, the country was a base on the confrontation of two political and economic systems supported by the United States and the URSS. One crucial difference between the wars in Vietnam and Korea lies in the presence of the third force. The Chinese troops participated in the Korean War as the country had its interest in this area and wanted to protect it.
The United Nations attitude and influence on the Vietnam War and the Korean War was similar. The war is always a terrible event that should be stopped as soon as possible. No matter who started the conflict and why, the UN has to do everything to make both sides arrange a peaceful agreement.
However, in the case of the Vietnam and Korean Wars, the UN did not provide an appropriate solution. It is evident that the UN could make something and prevent conflicts. However, during the Cold War, the situation in the world was complicated, and even the UN was unable to change this.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Compare and Contrast Paper: The Vietnam War and Korean War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UN supported South Korea during the War. The United Nations Security Resolution decided to help South Korea and to stop the forces of North Korea. In the case of the Vietnam War, the UN supported the US and Korea to arrange a peace agreement in 1975. In honor of this agreement, North Vietnamese Prime Minister Tho and the US Secretary of State Kissinger got Nobel Peace Prize.
In both situations, the United States wanted to protect their interests as well as the Soviet Union tried to help the communistic regime. It would be wrong to claim that the United States only particularly participated in the conflicts. The United States and the URSS supplied the Vietnamese or Korean armies and both the U.S. and the URSS started those wars; moreover, both countries wanted this to happen.
Because it was a real chance to prove their strengths, although it sounds terrible, the Vietnam War and the Korean War were the games of two world’s superstates. Although the UN could not stop the wars, they had to forbid the use of chemical weapons. Besides, after more than 40 years since the Vietnam War, one can notice that no one was punished for the crime towards the Vietnamese nation.
Differences of battle way consisted of the various weapons used in those wars. Thus, first of all, the Vietnam War is noted by the use of chemical weapons and the terrible consequences for the nation. As a result, the Vietnam War “cost the United States 58,000 lives and 350,000 casualties; it also resulted in between one and two million Vietnamese deaths” (Digital History).
As it was mentioned before, this war started as the latent conflict; therefore, the way of battles was different than during the Korean War. Although the United States provided weapons, ammunition and military advisors for both South Korea and South Vietnam, the way of ballets in Vietnam was more aggressive and terrible. As a result of the use of chemical weapons, millions of Vietnamese were infected and got terrible diseases. Even today the nation can still feel the influence of those events.
Although the same reasons caused both the Vietnam and Korean Wars, the circumstances and the peculiarities of them were quite different. The similarities of the two wars were the same ideological background, the confrontation of two super nations, the US and the URSS, and their economic and political systems. Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle and lasted more than 10 years, while the Korean War – only three. Vietnam War was the most unpopular event in the history of the United States.
The chemical weapons were used during the Vietnam War. Two wars had different outcomes: the US protected South Korea but lost South Vietnam. Besides, the territory of Vietnam was exposed to severe damage including people’s loss, spreading of diseases and mass destruction of the cities and villages.
Reference List Digital History, n.d. Learn About the Vietnam War.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and Contrast Paper: The Vietnam War and Korean War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edwards, Paul M., ed. 1998. The Korean War: an annotated bibliography. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
The U.S. Department of State publication. n.d. The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam. In USA History in Brief, https://share.america.gov .
Collision of Two Monorails in Walt Disney World Resort Term Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Cause of the accident
Verdict of the investigators
Introduction At approximately 2.00 am 5th July, 2009, an accident occurred at the Walt Disney Resort. It involved a collision of two monorails that were moving on the Epcot beam, next to the Concourse station in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The accident took place after one of the monorails (the Pink monorail) reversed via an improperly aligned-beam, in effect hitting the Purple monorail (National Transportation Safety Board 2). Although the six passengers did not sustain any injuries, the operator was seriously injured and he later died.
On the other hand, the Purple monorail only had the operator as the sole occupant. He was rushed to hospital and upon examination, was discharged (National Transportation Safety Board 2). At the time of the accident the weather was very clear. The damage as a result of the monorail accident was estimated to have amounted to $ 24 million.
Cause of the accident The federal investigators who were commissioned to initiate a probe into the probable cause of the monorail accident reported that lack of sufficient safety protocols may have contributed to the occurrence of the two monorails in Walt Disney Resort. These investigations were conducted for almost two-and-a-half years. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) released a 14-page report on the accident, in which a couple of employee errors were highlighted as the main causes of the accident (National Transportation Safety Board para. 1).
This report appears to somewhat contradict with the investigations conducted by the federal government investigators, who noted faulted the lack of standard operating schedules at the Walt Disney World Resort, arguing that this could have played a significant role in establishing an unsafe environment, in effect causing the accident when the train reversed and hit the other one.
How the monorail system in Disney World works
There are two areas set aside to facilitate servicing of the monorails in Disney World. The first designated area is referred to as the Epcot, while the second designated area is referred to as Magic Kingdom Park. On the one hand, the Magic Kingdom Park service area is made up of two monorail beams.
The two monorail beams run parallel, effectively forming a complete loop (National Transportation Safety Board 4). The Express beam is on the outside, while the Lagoon/Resort beam is on the inside. On the other hand, the Epcot service area is made up of the Epcot beam. The Epcot beam has also formed a complete loop.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the accident took place, there were a total of five monorails operating at the Walt Disney Resort and they were identified the Purple, Pink, Red, Coral, and Silver colors (National Transportation Safety Board 6). A spur beam acts as a link between the two service areas. Switch beam 9 lies at one end of the spur-beam, while switch-beam 8 lies at the other end. If you want a monorail to move from one beam to another, all you have to do is reposition them accordingly.
The closure of the Magic Kingdom Park does prevent the monorails from undertaking their duties as there is a time allowance allocated to facilitate this. By and large, the Express beam monorails may operate for about an hour once the park has closed. After 3 hours following the closing of the park, the monorails on the Resort beam can no longer work, and this have to be returned for nightly maintenance at the mechanical facility via the Express beam.
When this particular accident took place, three monorails were operating on the Epcot beam. They include the Purple, Pink, and Coral monorails. Because all the passengers had already disembarked from the Pink monorail, it was directed to the Express beam first so that it could be serviced overnight.
It is important to note that the Pink monorail could have only accessed the mechanical facility via the Express beam. At approximately, 1.53 am., the central coordinator of the monorail issues instructions to the Pink monorail operator to enable him get onto the Express beam and back to the mechanical facility. However, the Pink monorail did not stop until it had moved beyond the switch-beam 9.
That is when the operator communicated with the central operator and told him that switch-beam 9 had been cleared. This prompted the central coordinator to get in touch with the shop panel operator so that he could line “switch-beams 8 and 9 to the spur-line with power” (National Transportation Safety board, 2009). Power was then switched from the Epcot beam to facilitate the switch-beam realignment.
Upon conducting further investigations, the National Transportation Safety Board concluded that the shop panel operator may have failed to position switch-beam 9 properly, and this could have led to the collision. The board also took issues with the monorail manager who is supposed to play the role of a central coordinator in determining the position of switch-beam 9 prior to authorizing the driver of the Pink monorail to reverse.
The investigations further revealed that once the operators had switched off power to the beam, there was no prompt initiation of the switch-beam realignment. The shop panel operator received a call from the operator of the Silver monorail at 1:55 Am., so that he could be guided while entering the mechanical facility. At 1:56 Am., the shop panel operator received another call from the Red monorail operator who also wished to enter the facility but he was requested to first hold at a given location (Orlando Business Journal para. 4).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Collision of Two Monorails in Walt Disney World Resort specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the interrogation, the shop panel operator told the investigator that the reason why he switched on power to the Epcot beam was because according to his understanding, there was proper alignment of the switch-beam.
At 1:57 Am., the Pink monorail operator was given the clearance to reverse by the central coordinator, having been informed by the shop panel operator that “Switch-beams 8 and 9 are on the spur-line with power” (National Transportation Safety Board 6).
When the operator of the Pink monorail started to reverse, switch-beams 9 and 8 were yet to be repositioned and as a result, he ended up colliding on the Epcot beam. It is important to note that the Pink monorail was previously travelling on the Epcot beam, and the Purple monorail was also following the same beam.
Verdict of the investigators The National Transportation Safety Board has also taken issue with Walt Disney over the accidents on three fronts. According to the investigations, employees from the World Resort are not obliged to observe specific operating guide. This means that monorail drivers are not obliged to shift to the back cab first before they can drive in reverse. This way, they are in a position to drive the trains in a ‘forward-facing’ position (National Transportation Safety Board 8).
Moreover, the investigator noted that the management at Disney World had not implemented a rule that would ensure that the central coordinator did not leave the central tower. At the tower, there is an emergency shutdown switch and a grid that shows the alignment of all the monorail beams and as such, the central operator would have been in a position to prevent the collision had he been at the control tower when the collision occurred.
Finally, there were no procedures at the resort that demanded monorail shop operators to certify that indeed the beam had already been aligned once they had activated the switch command (National Transportation Safety Board 9).
Although there are video monitors at the shop that enables the shop operators to view the positions of the switch beams, nonetheless, the shop operators informed the investigators that they mainly used the monitors when they needed to determine if there was any train on the beam prior to activating the switch, as opposed to certifying if there had been a realignment of the track once the command had been entered.
Conclusion Investigations into the collision of two monorails at Walt Disney Resort confirmed that the accident took place due to the failure by poor operating procedures by the personnel in-charge of the monorail maintenance shop that is charged with the responsibility of controlling the switches at the track system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Collision of Two Monorails in Walt Disney World Resort by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Also, investigations revealed that at the time of the accident, the central operator had left the central tower and as such, he could not have been able to manage the accident promptly. From the control tower, the monorail systems coordinator would have been in a better position to detect that there was an improper alignment of the track system, and this could have prevented the collision.
Works Cited National Transportation Safety Board.2009. Railroad Accident Brief. 2009. Web. https://www.ntsb.gov/Pages/default.aspx
National Transportation Safety Board. 2011. NTSB releases final report on 2009 monorail collision at Walt Disney World. 2011. Web.
Orlando Business Journal. 2011. NTSB issues report on Disney monorail crash. Web.
Concepts of Ancient Greek Culture Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The period which is now called Classical Greece was marked by significant changes in political, social, artistic and religious life of people. In particular, one can speak about the establishment of a civic state, the adoption of new approaches to education and science, the development of new artistic forms, and more critical attitude toward those people who occupy the positions of authority.
This essay will focus on such concepts that became particularly important during this period, namely eunomania (good governance), polis (collective life), paideia (education), kalokagathia (balance), and hamartia or unintentional sin. These concepts are important because they reflect people’s willingness to live in a just state, and their attempts to determine the limitations of their knowledge. Moreover, they illustrate the aesthetic values of ancient Greeks.
This discussion of these concepts will be based on the study of philosophical and literary works such as Plato’s The Republic or The Clouds by Aristophanes. Moreover, we will discuss examples from visual arts. At first, it is necessary to explain the concepts related to political and social life of Ancient Greece.
Plato’s Republic touches upon many important issues, relevant to people of Ancient Greece, but it mostly reflects such a concept as eunomania. Overall, this notion can be defined as a city that is governed by good laws. It should be noted that Plato, himself, does not participate in the dialogues that he describes.
His teacher, Socrates, acts as the main interlocutor who tries to give a definition of justice and tries to identify the characteristics of an ideal city. Moreover, he and his companions discuss various forms of government such as democracy, oligarchy, timocracy, and so forth. In this work, Plato attempts to illustrate how a good city can be constructed.
Socrates makes a debatable statement about good city and good laws. In his opinion, a well-run state ensures that a person works on “the task he was naturally suited to, and for which he would keep himself free from other tasks, working at it throughout his life, and taking every opportunity to produce good results” (Plato, 57). To a great extent this quotation means the citizen of a good city is able to fulfill his or her talents. Most importantly, it is the best way of creating eunomania or a state that is governed by good laws.
This discussion of eunomania can be closely tied to education and such concept as paideia which occupies an important place in Aristophanes’ play The Clouds. Moreover, this concept plays a significant part in Plato’s Republic. Overall, it can be interpreted as education or shaping the moral character of a young person. In this play, Aristophanes attempts to satirize Socratic education and shows that it breeds complete disregard or even rejection of social and moral norms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is how he describes Socratic education, “they will persuade you to consider everything dishonest as decent, and the decent as dishonest” (Aristophanes, 72). Overall, the author suggests that educators should pay attention to traditional values of a society. The purpose of paideia or education is to instill the values and rules that have already been established in the community. This argument is challenged in Plato’s Apology. In this work, he records Socrates’ defense during the trial.
The author shows that the goal of Socratic education was to teach the ability to question the scope of one’s knowledge. Through Socrates Plato demonstrates that education or paideia can hardly shape a good character unless, educators can acknowledge that “they know nothing” or at least accept the limitations of their knowledge (Plato, 4). This is one of the most important Platonic arguments.
It should be noted that The Republic reflects another important concept, namely polis. This concept refers to the community of people who engage in self-government. This term can also denote collective life of people. In a series of Socratic dialogues, Plato describes how a good community should function. Overall, this author makes a very radical argument about collective life of people.
In particular, Socrates says that the task of rulers is to use “persuasion and compulsion to bring the citizens into harmony, and make each class share with the other classes the contribution they are able to bring to the community” (Plato, 226). To a great extent, this quotation means a citizen has to think primarily about the interests of the community but not about his or her personal ambitions. This quotation also implies that polis has to be premised on altruism rather than self-interest.
To understand Classical Greece, one has to examine such concept as kalokagathia or proportion; it is eloquently illustrated in such sculptural work as the Pythian Apollo. This concept can be defined as harmonic combination or unity of physical and moral qualities. This term can be applied to politics, education and art (Gerder and Gaiger, 26).
This sculpture describes an Ancient Greek god Appolo who supposedly attempts to slay a serpent named Python. This sculpture exudes the impression of courage and reserve. It seems that the main objective of the author was to create an idealistic image of a human being (Gerder and Gaiger, 19). This sculpture is closely related to the concept of kalokagathia because it shows that a perfect human being be able to combine both physical and moral beauty.
Finally, we need to discuss such concept as hamartia which is eloquently illustrated in Sophocles’ play Oedipus the King. This term can be interpreted as a mistake or unintentional sin that is derived from ignorance, rather than malice.
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Ancient Greek Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This play is derived from the myth about Oedipus who tried to thwart a prophecy of the Delphic oracle according to which he was destined to kill his father and marry his mother. However, by trying to avert this tragedy, Oedipus actually fulfilled the prophecy. A blind prophet, who meets Oedipus, makes a very eloquent statement about ignorance as a cause of evil.
He says to Oedipus “You have your eyes, but see not where you are in sin, nor where you live, nor whom you live with” (Sophocles, 7). This argument is aimed at showing that sin does not always originate from malice. Very often, it is caused by people’s inability to realize their ignorance. This play shows that overconfidence in one’s knowledge can result in hamartia or a fatal error that Oedipus made.
The concepts that have been discussed here tell much about the values of Classical Greece. According to its principles, an idea human being should be aware of his or her limitations, especially, if we are speaking about knowledge. Moreover, such a person has to combine both moral and physical beauty. Finally, these concepts indicate that ancient Greek people attached much importance to a society in which one can develop and realize one’s talents.
Works Cited Aristophanes. The clouds: an annotated translation. Trans. Marie Marianetti. New York: University Press of America, 1997. Print.
Gerder Johann and Gaiger Jason. Sculpture: some observations on shape and form from Pygmalion’s creative dream. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Plato. The Republic. Trans. Giovanni Ferrari and Tom Griffith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
Plato. The Apology of Socrates. Trans. Cathal Woods and Ryan Pack. San Francisco: Creative Commons, 2007. Print.
Sophocles. Oedipus the King. Trans. David Grene. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Print.
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Domestic Violence: Predicting and Solutions Term Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Discussion
Predicting Domestic Violence
Discussion Many societies have been reporting great increase in domestic violence, and it is obvious that women and children experience this domestic violence more than men.
Domestic violence has severe effect on societies, families, and individuals themselves and it includes possession abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and sexual abuse and people who mostly experience this kind of violence have higher possibility to be alleged as critical and dangerous to people victimized.
Domestic violence may abandoned them with the feeling of defenselessness, vulnerability, and in most severe instances, fear and this violence within the families include violence carried out by spouses and close family members (Wormer and Roberts 12).
Physical abuse can be described as any conduct which engages damage, pain and harm and this abuse includes using any item to strike, slap, kick, push, drown, force somebody to swallow something, apply weapon, and other abuse approaches (Hines and Malley-Morrison 35).
This physical abuse may also include some traditional beliefs such as inheritance of wives and female genital mutilation, and these traditional approaches are commonly seen in African societies.
Physiological abuse can be any conduct by the partner which is designed to threaten and hound, and serves as a kind of threat of rejection or abuse, supervision, imprisonment of your partner, intimidation to carry away custody of the kids, demolition of items, separation, verbal violence and frequent embarrassment.
Economic abuse is a type of abuse which is commonly experienced in most families and includes activities like limitation of finances, denial to support financially, refusing to provide basic needs, and restricting access to medical facilities, job, and so forth (Hines and Malley-Morrison 35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Predicting Domestic Violence There are several factors which predict the state of domestic violence in the future and this will help in preventing domestic violence. History of aggressive behavior is an effective way to predict future activities of people in their families. Joblessness among men in the society would lead to high risk of future violence or if a partner is employed or has higher rank than the other partner.
Lower education status is also linked with future or current domestic violence in several families. Some children have been witnessing or experiencing abuse from their family members and this triggers severe violence in the future. A partner may be experiencing mental illness which is unnoticeable and age difference between the partners may result in domestic violence. Moreover, couples who are still under 30 years of age have higher risk of engaging in domestic violence.
State laws Several states in United States have different laws governing domestic violence. Some states consider domestic violence as offensive acts while others are not. States differ on the type of relationship that qualifies under domestic violence laws. Many states in America include present or previous dating relationships in their laws of domestic violence, where states such as South Carolina, Montana, and Delaware particularly keep out same-sex associations in their laws governing domestic violence (Itzin, Taket and Barter-Godfrey 10).
The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) was implemented as a law which is intended to improve services for the accused and the victim (Zamara). It has also helped in allocating funds for numerous groups and projects, including clothing and other services, to affected women. It offers judicial education, training plans, and other projects which raise outreach to poor families.
Section 609.2242 of Minnesota’s law states that domestic violence is a criminal act and explains that a person is considered to have committed family violence if he or she has caused another to fear, inflicting or intention to inflict, cause death or injury, and other offenses. Sentences are raised if the accused has been found guilty more than one occasion (Zamara).
Domestic Violence Prevention Act of new York State provides an all-inclusive connection of services for causalities of this family violence (Zamara). This law needs social service zones to provide immediate shelter and other services, including counseling, appointments, and support for the victims. Family Code of California contains sections which are used to protect the victims of this violence and provides clear explanations of the responsibilities of law enforcement teams.
Solutions One of the first recommended approaches in every society is to increase understanding of the issue. Since if members are not aware about domestic violence and its impacts, they will not have any effort to solve the issue or communicate the unacceptability of the abuse. Increasing awareness permits people to have different opinion concerning the issue and to be responsible in solving the problem.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Domestic Violence: Predicting and Solutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Awareness is the initial stage and the next step is assisting the families or partners who need it. The support may come from established or traditional services, along with new plans created by occupants themselves. Society members, who have experienced this violence, provide help to those who are undergoing domestic violence.
The most complex and desired way to solve this issue in the future is through eliminating poverty and engaging community members in transforming those situations, which trigger domestic violence in the future.
Efforts to solve domestic offenses are not simple as it removal needs change in the state of the community and until members of the family create a sense of politeness and respect for the rest of the family members (Ahmed 13). Through appreciating the value of each member of the family, violence can be reduced or stopped and this will prevents the weaker members of the family or the society from becoming the victims of this violence.
Intervention programs have been considered as an effective and legal tool in the control of domestic violence and if an intervention order is provided, it must go together with information concerning the accessibility of counseling.
When one member breaks the participation rule, counseling must be mandatory, as well as any disciplinary approvals. Equal legislation and support from every state permits an order presented in any state to be applicable and enforceable in other states irrespective of the jurisdiction responsible for the presentation of that order.
It is at times proposed that the important way to solve domestic violence lies in the equality of females and especially in making sure that every woman is economically self-governing and thus strong. Family violence harms its victims and humiliates its perpetrator and if the offender looks for assistance to manage his conduct, support must be accessible.
However, this must be offered with, and not as substitute, proper penalty for the offense. Community should identify the unlawful state of the domestic violence and agree on the suitable disciplinary approvals to it.
Conclusion Domestic violence against women and children exist in every state and country, across all cultures and societies, status, wealth, age, schooling, and ethnicity (Lazarus-Blac 139). Although several communities forbid violence against children and women, the truth is that infringements against human rights of women are covered by cultural activities and beliefs, or through misunderstanding of spiritual principles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Domestic Violence: Predicting and Solutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, when the infringement happens within the family, since it is usually the case, the violation is successfully disregarded by the understood silence and the obedience portrayed by the state and the rule of law. Counseling should be applied to help people affected by domestic violence to overpower the stress.
Works Cited Ahmed, Basheer. Domestic Violence Cross Cultural Perspective. New York: Xlibris Corporation, 2009. Print.
Hines, Denise and Kathleen Malley-Morrison. Family Violence In The United States: Defining, Understanding, And Combating Abuse. London: SAGE, 2005. Print.
Itzin, Catherine, Ann Taket and Sarah Barter-Godfrey. Domestic and Sexual Violence and Abuse: Tackling the Health and Mental Health Effects. New York: Taylor
Comparison of Nora from A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and Elisa from The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck Research Paper essay help: essay help
Two female characters Nora from A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and Elisa from The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck have many similar characteristics. Both are women who live with husbands who do not understand them and do not feel the things as women do.
Both characters are intelligent women who need to change their life, but being brutalized by husbands, they do not know how to improve the life. However, there is also a number of differences in the characters’ behavior. One woman stays in the same place with the same conditions and another does away towards the new happy life.
The story of John Steinbeck describes only one day of life of the character, while Henrik Ibsen uses three acts in order to provide the whole picture and to describe the rise of the conflict in details and its future culmination. One can notice that these two stories and their major female characters are similar, as they both face the similar circumstances; however, on the other hand, Nora and Elisa demonstrate different reactions on the circumstances that married life provides.
The play A Doll’s House describes the nature of the relationship between husband and wife. Ibsen as the founder of realist drama uses the ideas, events and characters which are typical in the usual life. According to Goldman, the main ideas of this play are “the Social Lie and Duty” (1914).
Ibsen provides the description of the social duty of woman in a home as the sacred institution. In the world ruled by men the place of women is at home. Some of people willingly accept this way; however, for other people such way of life can be a complicated challenge.
The female character, Nora, seems deeper and more intelligent than her husband Torvald. The woman has many ideas, dreams and hopes; she wants to have better life and feels that all this routine of married life with Torvald kills her personality. She sees that her husband is not that person that she imagined. He is narcissistic and does not care about Nora, children or home. Nora’s enthusiasm does not allow her to be a simple house wife, a doll of her husband.
Obviously, there are many women who can accept such way of life; however, Nora is not one of them. She is not a doll and she cannot live with someone who considers her as a doll, as a toy. Nora’s life seems complicated and painful. However, she struggles for her happiness. On the other hand, many people can say that in this situation Torvald is the real victim.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It may be complicated to comprehend how woman could leave her children; however, for Nora, such method seems only one and right solution. She wants to survive in this world and to start the life from the new page. Ibsen does not provide the ideas about Nora’s future and what she is going to do, where to go and how to life. Nevertheless, the author emphasizes an importance of the personal choice in spite of life of a doll.
A short story The Chrysanthemums describes a life of a strong and proud Elisa Allen. Although this woman has the outstanding principles, intellect, she is kind and well-behavior, her life is full of frustration and even sorrow. She cannot have a child and her husband loses his interest toward Elisa as a woman. Only one good thing she has is her garden where the woman can cultivate the chrysanthemums.
In this context, the flower is a symbol of every woman who feels frustrated and lonely. Devoting all the energy to the house and garden, Elisa is unable to find more interesting business that could draw her attention, to bring more color to her life. Although the flowers are beautiful and make the life brighter, they are not humans; they cannot provide the same feeling, emotions or help to develop the life. Elisa is ignored and lost in her own home.
The evident mood of this story is the total melancholy. The first sentence is a bright demonstration of this statement: “The high gray-flannel fog of winter closed off the Salinas Valley from the sky and from all the rest of the world” (Steinbeck). The city of the heroes is closed from all the world as well as Elisa is closed in her house. It is the story of the desperate house wife where a happy-end seems like an incredible miracle.
One can see the similarities between the image of Elisa and Nora, because both women are intelligent, passionate and unsatisfied by the life that they have to maintain. Both of the characters care about their home. Thus, Elisa’s home is “hard-swept and hard-polished” (Steinbeck), while Nora’s “room furnished comfortably and tastefully, but not extravagantly” (Ibsen).
Both of the stories take place in winter. In this context, the season can be considered as a symbolical expression of mood o the characters. However, if Elisa’s winter may last for a long time, Nora tries to reach the spring of her existence. Perhaps, the life of Nora seems more interesting, because she has children, friends and one man is even in love with her.
At the same time, Elisa seems absolutely lonely and her only friends are flowers. She gets an opportunity express herself only in the conversation with the tinker. However, when this man disappears, Elisa feels even worse than before. Sweet indicates that after the meet with tinker, Elisa “becomes more and more feminine” (212). At the beginning, Nora and Torvald seem normal and happy family.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison of Nora from A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and Elisa from The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author describes their every-days life in details. On the other hand, the beginning of The Chrysanthemums seems already melancholic and cold. It is possible to suppose that Elisa’s married life is full of problems. However, such fast way of determining the problem is caused by the characteristics of a genre of the short story, in spite of play, where the author has the space and time to describe the conflict slowly, preparing the readers for the culmination.
Nora and Elisa demonstrate different reaction on the crisis. While Elisa collapses and gives up, Nora leaves her family and believes in the better future and changes in her own life. Nora does not want to help her husband. She understands that if he did not want to change something in their life before, he will never do it. Therefore, being a clever and intelligent woman, she finds the solution and abandons her family before she will lose herself and lose her dreams. Such culmination seems unusual for 19th century.
Analysis of the cultural background demonstrates that women’s role in the West was simple and all house wives were mostly dependent on their family and especially on their husbands (Mayer 8). On the other hand, Elisa cannot find enough straights to make an important step. She loses her ability to reflect rationally. The ends of two stories are absolutely different. Elisa does not want to argue with her husband and turns up her collar, crying like an old woman.
One day of Elisa’s life can be compared with all her life. The reader can suppose that every day of Elisa is the same as the one described in the story. At the end of A Dolls’ House, Nora turns back on the family and goes away, choosing her own road in this world and making a step forward the new life.
Analyzing the stories A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and Elisa from The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck, one can see the different reactions and responses to the problems and various challenges that married life provides.
Although the major characters of two stories have the similar circumstances, the culminations of their problems are different. One woman decides to leave her husband and children, while another continues suffering. It is obvious that both authors sympathize their female characters; however, they choose different solutions for them.
It is natural that people react in the different way as we all have different characteristics, emotional range, experience and communicational skills. Some people prefer to fight and to improve their life. They know when to stop and make a step. Nora is an example of such personality. Vice versa, Elisa shows an example of an opposite personality, a woman who cannot decide how to solve the problems and to develop her life.
Works Cited Goldman, Emma. The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. Boston: Richard g. Barger, 1914. Web. .
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison of Nora from A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen and Elisa from The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Gutenberg.org. Web..
Mayer, Laura Reis. Henrik Ibsen: A Doll’s House: A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition. US: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
Steinbeck, John. The Chrysanthemums. Web..
Sweet, Charles A. Jr. “Mr. Elisa Allen and Steinbeck’s “The Chrysanthemums.” Modern Fiction Studies. Ed. William T. Stafford and Margaret Church. Vol. 20. West Lafayette: Purdue University, 1974. 210-214. Print.
Biotech Industry Proposal college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary Biotech industry is dynamic in nature and has several companies globally. Furthermore, there are new products being developed in the industry that are new in the global economic environment. However, several people are not aware of the products from this industry. Moreover, the industry is still growing and is among new industries to be developed and is growing at a rapid speed.
This is a marketing research proposal on biotech industry products. It highlights methodology to be used, methods of data collection to be applied in the research study, objectives of the proposed research, expected findings and research limitations.
Introduction Biotechnology is a biological field of specialization involving use of bioprocesses and living organisms in technology, engineering and medicine among other fields that require bio products. Biotechnology utilizes bio products in manufacturing processes. Biotechnology involves modification of living organisms or bio to suit the changing needs of human beings. Generally, biotechnology uses technical and scientific advances in developing commercial products.
There are several advances that have been developed in the biotechnology industry but still require more research, for instance, test tube babies among others. The United States is considered to be the highest consumer of biotech products in the globe. The research based on biotechnology industry provides an opportunity to a student to demonstrate application of his/her knowledge, skill and competencies required during the technical session.
Research also helps a student to devote his/her skill to analyze a problem and suggest alternative solutions, to evaluate them and to provide feasible recommendations on the provided data. This research proposal can be useful for companies that opt to enter the biotechnology industry, and it can also serve as an information resource in the industry. This is a marketing research proposal on biotechnology industry.
Problem definition or statement Which factors influence consumers’ decision on purchasing bio products in the United States?
The overall objective of the proposal is determination of consumers’ attitude towards use of biotech products in the United States and entire globe. However, the objective is further subdivided into sub-objectives listed below:
To determine uses of biotech products.
To determine biotech products that consumers prefer.
To determine why consumers prefer biotech products in the United States.
Determination of biotech products’ promotional platforms (Nelson 31).
The objectives have been detailed below.
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This objective seeks to trace arrival of biotech products in homes or domestic setting, how they are consumed or disposed after use. It will help in estimation of households that purchase biotech products and the products that are mainly purchased by consumers in the United States. It highlights the current uses of biotech products, and it will also identify the constituents of the target group (Nelson 33).
Determination of biotech products preferred mostly by consumers
This objective will help in identification of consumers that mainly prefer biotech products and the respective products that they prefer. It will also assist in determination or estimation of the quantities that can be purchased, and prices at which most buyers are willing to purchase the respective products (Nelson 32).
Determination of biotech products’ promotional platform
This objective will assists in determination of the brand segment that is appealing. This proposal will have three stages, for instance, inspection of existing sources. Secondly, qualitative research, which assists in designing the questionnaire will be used in the third stage of the research proposal. Finally, the third stage will be designing the questionnaire and its use in collection of primary data (Nelson 34).
This section focuses on the research methodology of the study and the theory of research design in detail. There are different types of research methodologies that can be used in research methods, for instance, qualitative or quantitative. Choice of the research method to use in research depends with the subject matter or topic and nature of the study and intended data to be collected among other statistical characteristics or features.
Furthermore, the research should be designed in such a way that the study topic is effectively and adequately addressed. The data collection method should also be reliable depending on the nature of the study and required data. There are two types of data collection methods, for instance, primary and secondary data collection methods (Mouse 63).
Considering nature of biotechnology industry, the research should apply both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Application of both research methods will enable effective and adequate research on the study topic considering the dynamic nature of biotechnology industry.
Moreover, the data collection methods should be both primary and secondary data collection methods. Data required for this research should be obtained from primary sources and secondary sources to enable comparison of the obtained data with past research on the industry because there are similar researches that have been conducted in the past. This will also ensure that the results are realistic and reliable (Sharon 33).
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Secondary sources search will be conducted with an aim of refining objectives and provision of enquiry lines for the subsequent stage of the research. This stage of research will assist in evaluation of biotech products use in the United States over the past ten years. This stage will also be useful and important because it will require identification of competing products and useful information about them.
This will be important in determination of the closest competitors, their weaknesses and strengths and how to effectively approach the market despite their influence or strength in the respective market. There are several objectives of this stage of the research though its main objective is comparison and evaluation of the market trend over the past years (Nelson 32).
How many consumers prefer and or use biotech products?
What kind of biotech products do consumers use?
What are the uses of biotech products currently?
What are the current prices of the biotech products?
What are the packaging used?
What are the promotions used currently?
Who are the target audience?
The desk search should begin internally with the respective company in the industry producing biotech products and supplying the United States being the leading consumer of biotech products globally. Personnel who have access to internal records of the company should be consulted to enhance better understanding of the respective organization or company.
Internal personnel should be briefed on the requirements of the research, and this can be effectively achieved after three consecutive meetings with the company’s personnel. Sales team must be part of the personnel being briefed since the research is directly concerned with their interest and purpose in the respective organization.
There are several internal reports that should be accessed to enable effectiveness of the research. They include any complaints received by the organization, buying patterns in the respective region, customers’ correspondence, and domestic marketplace records among others. These records will be useful in determination of a likely marketplace and indicate weaknesses and strengths that will be helpful and useful in segmentation (Uche 75).
External search will also be useful in the research process. Obtaining and analyzing existing assessments of market by other companies in the respective industry is also useful and important. Relevant associations dealing with trade should be contacted, and an inspection of published research on use and purchase of biotech products in the market should be conducted.
Promotional and advertising materials portfolio should be based on the competition prevailing in the respective industry. This will be useful in choice of materials that will enable effective exploration of promotional platforms (Lenox 56).
Qualitative research Purpose
There are certain explanatory aspects of the research study objectives, and this requires detailed qualitative information. Therefore, the research should be designed in such a way that it enhances better understanding and exploration of potential customers’ attitudes towards the products. This can only be achieved if the designed research is focused on nature. However, widespread attitudes of customers will be effectively and adequately measured by quantitative research. The qualitative research has the following objectives:
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Whether consumers are ready to pay more for the biotech products.
The quantities that consumers are likely to purchase.
The groups of consumers that is most likely to use the biotech products.
Current use of biotech products (McCarthy 67).
Sampling and population
I would like to propose composition of four groups with different profiles to avoid confusion, for instance:
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 South ABC1 South C2DE North C2DE East ABC1 The groups formed will comprises of males and females and both heavy and light users of the respective products.
The product must be introduced, and consumers must be aware of the features, characteristics, uses and advantages of the product over others in the industry among others. Since this is a humble opportunity to introduce the product, it should be described and shown alongside competitors’ products.
Under this stage of the research, one of the most important aspects or factors is the packaging of the respective product that is to be introduced in the industry. The moderator should ensure that the packaging decision does not distract the process. Packaging used in other markets can also be adopted in case they are effective and superior to others in the respective market. It can also be adopted in case it can appeal to the consumers of the respective market (Gowdy 29).
Quantitative research methods vary and they can be applied in this research study. However, the chosen method should be cost effective to ensure it does not interrupt the business and operating costs of the company or organization. I propose use of CATI questionnaire to be carried out through a telephone study because it is cost effective compared to distribution of questionnaires to different people.
This method is effective in contacting specified respondents’ especially relevant respondents. A personal interview might go outside the budget of the company considering operating costs have to be minimized to maximize levels of returns. There are other effective quantitative research methods such as online and postal study approach.
However, I have decided to use the telephone study because it will enhance swift and accurate choice of respondents. Moreover, use of telephone study will assist in achievement of obtaining the maximum number of respondents, hence, increase chances of obtaining the desired data or information (McCarthy 59).
Generally, this stage of the research aims at quantification of the number of consumers that use biotech products and the product commonly used by the respective consumers. This stage of research will also assist in determination of biotech products that consumers are aware of in the market, and those that they easily access. It is also at this stage that prompt awareness and spontaneous percentages opt to be provided.
Furthermore, classification data are established under this stage. These data are essential and important in determination of consumers who frequently purchase these products, use these products, and the prices at which consumers are willing and able to purchase the respective products. Finally, name of the product opt to be probed at this stage though it might be premature to certain extent, but it can be done through the questionnaire (Uche 79).
Sampling and population
Interview should be carried among different consumers from different places in the market. Carrying out 200 interviews among different locations can be effective in ensuring determination of consumer information and understanding their demand pattern in the respective market. It will ensure identification of interesting differences in the respective market.
The interview will mainly be conducted among people who have purchasing power or ability to purchase the products; therefore, the interviewees should mainly be adults with income (Lenox 56). The following interlocking quota will be useful and important:
Geographical area size Male Female Total Population sample 1 25 25 50 2 25 25 50 3 25 25 50 4 25 25 50 total 100 100 200 Procedure
A questionnaire will be used in this stage of the research, and after development of the questionnaire, it will be sent to company for approval. Generally, the designed questionnaire will aim at probing the following:
Current uses of biotech products.
Groups of people that is likely to make use of biotech products.
Quantities likely to be purchased by consumers.
Prices that consumers will be willing and able to pay for the products.
Preparedness of consumers to pay more for the products (McCarthy 69).
Questions might be pre-coded where possible. However, a questionnaire with five open-ended questions has been designed and is expected to be answered within ten minutes due to cost consideration. Code frames should be prepared for the first 10% in answering the open-ended questions.
Computer tabulations will be involved in the analysis process in frequency distribution form. Thereafter, initial data will be evaluated after discussion of subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, the data obtained have to be compared with past data or research results on the respective market to ensure accuracy and reliability hence use the data in future for reference purposes (McCarthy 75).
Interim presentation-report should be submitted after qualitative research. Thereafter a meeting opts to be held with the respective company to discuss subsequent research stage of the research process.
Power point presentation containing an outline has to be created too. In case the interim presentation-report is approved by the respective company, then findings, conclusion, and recommendations should be formally presented. Furthermore, three copies summarizing research findings of the different research phases have to be submitted. Moreover, tabulations should be provided in three sets. Interview transcripts may be presented to the organization at request but at extra cost (Gowdy 31).
The project has to be planned to ensure all phases are adequately and effectively addressed. A time table must be designed to ensure that all the important phases of the research are adequately responded to, and the report presented within the stated deadline by the company to enable discussion and smooth implementation of the report.
However, though the project will take couples of weeks, project weekly progress has to be sent to the respective organization via e-mail. Sending weekly progress to the company will allow for incorporation of modification suggested by the company (Nelson 32). Below is the suggested time table for the research to be conducted.
Week Activity 1-4 Desk research 4-6 Qualitative fieldwork 7 Desk research/qualitative research final report available 8 Developing the questionnaire 9 Pilot 10 Debriefing the pilot 11-12 Quantitative stage 12-13 Data presentation and coding of the respective data 14 Analysis of the data 16 Presentation of the interim presentation-report 18 Presentation of the final report Limitations of study The research study is effective, but limited to certain areas. This is a market research in the biotech industry. It is limited to the marketing and sales department of the respective company in biotech industry.
The proposed research is effective in evaluation of a market, but it might not effectively serve the intended purpose because the time set aside for the research may not be adequate in obtaining the required information. Furthermore, respondents may not provide accurate information on the respective product. Moreover, biotech products are not intensively used hence lack of adequate knowledge on biotech products (Uche 86).
Work Cited Gowdy, John. “Marketing: Principles and practice.” International Journal of Marketing research14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print.
Lenox, Marcel. Essentials of Marketing research. New York: Springer, 2005. Print.
McCarthy, David. “Marketing Research”. International Marketing review 12.3 (2010): 56-78. Print.
Mouse, Mika, “Marketing: Essentials of research methods in marketing.” Biological Perspectives Journal 23.4 (2006): 63. Print.
Nelson, William. “Research methods.” Biological Science Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print.
Sharon, Bret. “Data collection: Primary and secondary data collection sources.” Researchnews.com. Research News
The Power of Moll Flanders’ Name and Clothing in Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Research Paper college essay help online
What is the reason for the people’s disguise behind the false names and striking clothes which do not reflect the peculiarities of their personalities? Daniel Defoe is a master of depicting the events close to the reality in his books. That is why his characters often try to hide behind false names in order to present their ‘true’ stories of life.
The female protagonist of Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders can use the masks better than anyone else because she is used to live in false reality using the false name and changing different clothes which do not help to emphasize her identity, but only hide her real nature. To understand the meaning of the name for the person’s identity and the meaning of the appearance and clothes for being recognized and accepted in society, it is necessary to analyze the relationship between Moll Flanders’ name, her clothing, and her role in the society.
In his article “Moll’s Many-Colored Coat: Veil and Disguise in the Fiction of Defoe”, Karl accentuates the fact that Moll Flanders’ “assumption of so many protean roles, then, is twofold: connected to her desire to be something she apparently is not and to her will to survive in a society in which traditional values have fallen away” (Karl 89).
Thus, can different names and clothes help to become the part of the other social class? The disguise of Moll Flanders’s individuality is her effective way to the recognition in the society because fake names and clothes can become powerful for changing identities and deceiving people.
The peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ name The origin of Moll Flanders’ name
In his novel, Daniel Defoe presents the story of Moll Flanders as the story of a real woman whose actual name is too common for the public to be reminded once more.
In the preface of the novel the readers are prepared to encounter a series of disguises “where the Names and other Circumstances of the Person are concealed, and on this Account we must be content to leave the Reader to pass his own opinion” (Defoe 3). However, what significance for Moll is hidden in this name? Why does she prefer to hide her individuality behind this common name and a number of others which she takes during her life?
Moll Flanders does not want to focus on her real name because people gave her another name, and Moll asserts, “These were they that gave me the name of Moll Flanders for it was no more of Affinity with my real name, or with any of the names I had ever gone by…I called myself Mrs. Flanders” (Defoe 179).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, now she is known as Moll Flanders. It is possible to notice that Moll Flanders uses aliases in order to hide her real origin as she hides her real appearance under different clothes. Moll Flanders understands that to be accepted in society, it is important to look like the representatives of this society and to present oneself as the part of this or that social class.
This ‘masquerade’ is complicated with the fact that to gain the definite recognition, it is more significant to be associated with the name of the expensive fabric than to reveal the real name which is known to the lowest social classes (Brown). However, it is rather difficult to state clearly the origin of Moll’s name. It is possible to speak about the name of the “very good Flanders-Lace”, and it is possible to refer to the situations in Moll’s life on which she does not want to focus the reader’s attention (Defoe 240).
The role of the name in the society of the 17th – 18th centuries
To understand Moll Flanders’ motivation not to reveal her real name and try to change her aliases regularly, it is necessary to concentrate on the role of name in the society of the 17th – 18th centuries. Names and titles always were considered as indicators of the persons’ ranks and status in the society, especially in the 17th – 18th centuries. Many people were inclined to struggle for achieving or inheriting their titles and name indicators with the help of trials and different legal procedures.
The aristocratic name gave them the chance to take the higher place in the society and that is why to be recognized as a gentleman or a gentlewoman (Simms). In spite of the fact that such situations were rather typical for the society, Moll Flanders chose another way to use the power of names. Moll Flanders was an easy name which could not be recognized in any social class. Thus, the main Moll’s task was not to be considered as a representative of the lowest class.
A neutral name gave her the opportunity to mislead the public according to the question of her origin the aspects of which she wanted to conceal. When it was necessary for Moll to realize her specific and dishonest ideas, she was able to choose any appropriate name for the definite situation. Thus, the issue of ranks and status was overcome because Moll did not see the necessity of being truthful when it is possible to lie effectively.
The highest classes of society were interested for Moll Flanders, and her inclination to change names reflected her idea to become a gentlewoman. However, her vision of this notion differed from the public’s common opinions. Moll Flanders states these differences as the key aspects of her wish to become a gentlewoman.
Thus, “all I understood by being a gentlewoman was to be able to work for myself, and get enough to keep me without that terrible bugbear going to service, whereas they meant to live great, rich and high, and I know not what” (Defoe 13).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Power of Moll Flanders’ Name and Clothing in Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, is she sincere while saying these words? The frankness of Moll Flanders’ considerations about her possible positions in society is a rather controversial question because all her activities were always directed toward gaining more and going higher. That is why different name were often used by Moll Flanders as effective and powerful ways to become closer to her desired social roles.
The names of Moll Flanders as a kind of the disguise and ways to change the life
The readers do not know Moll Flanders’ real name. That is why there is the question of her identity as a real figure or just a fictional character and all the sides and faces of this character. The problem of identity becomes one of the most influential for understanding the aspects of Moll’s behavior.
Introducing herself in the first part of the novel, Moll Flanders also accentuates the fact that she has some difficulties with identifying herself by name and as a person. Thus, she is ready to be just “Moll Flanders, so you may give me leave to speak of myself, under that Name till I dare own who I have been, as well as who I am” (Defoe 7).
Moll Flanders is rather uncertain in her perceiving herself as a real person because of a number of ‘masks’ she is used to wear. Simms accentuates that Moll does not know how “to distinguish between the several masks she takes up to address the readers and that the true self which has a name she will not speak is both more and other than the sum total of the articulate parts” (Simms 82).
Moll Flanders is confused by her constant changing masks, and she lost the understanding of her identity during the process. Nevertheless, what is the reason for changing names and life scenarios? Moll states that “it would be absolutely Necessary to change my station and make a new Appearance in some other Place where I was not known, and even to pass by another Name if I found Occasion” (Defoe 76).
That is why she uses any opportunity to be recognized as another person in order to deceive the other people, to steal, to organize provocative situations, to mislead, and to avoid the penalties. If it is useful for her, she is “like a professional actress ready to try any costume and any role” (Simms 87).
The necessity of living such a dangerous life which is full of adventures and fears to be recognized depends on those life conditions which surrounded Moll since her birth. It seems that the story of her mother’s life and her own life story do not leave Moll any chance to live a virtuous life because, in this case, a virtuous life is a poor life. Moll’s survival greatly depends on her ability to take “the advantages of other people’s mistakes” in order to change the conditions of her miserable living and reach her personal goals (Defoe 268).
Moll Flanders considers lies as the main aspect of her life which can help her be successful and hide her real inner world under a number of false names. Moreover, a false name is a powerful way to defend herself and act as another person:
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Power of Moll Flanders’ Name and Clothing in Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When Moll lies to victims in her criminal career, suppresses aspects of her fortune to men and women she likes and loves in order to protect herself from future exigencies, prevaricates with the reader in her attempts at self-justification, and mispresents herself to herself for a variety of reasons (Simms 84).
‘Moll Flanders’ is a never-dropped mask which can serve for being recognized in society as a gentlewoman, but at the same time, it is a way to conceal being a poor with dishonest reputation or a successful thief.
Thus, Moll states that her name was known to the public, and her task was to create a good reputation for being known as ‘Moll Flanders’. “They all knew me by the name of Moll Flanders, tho’ even some of them rather believ’d I was she, than knew me to be so; my Name was publick among them indeed” (Defoe 222). Moll’s name should be familiar to the public only with positive connotations that is why she does all possible to realize her adventures under the other names not to attract the public’s attention.
The peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ attitude to clothing The particular features of the clothes of the 17th – 18th centuries and its role in society
Clothing was always considered as an indicator of social status and ranks because its elements were well known to the public and easily recognized. “Over the centuries clothing has been a mark of the social rank of its wearer; it has also been a striking sign of irreversible social and historical transformation” (Stadler 468).
The clothes of the 17th – 18th centuries could be subdivided into groups according to the social classes. The representatives of definite social classes had the opportunity to wear only that kind of clothes which was typical to accentuate their status.
It was also the question of income because poor people were not able to buy linen or lace. In her article, Stadler states that “cloth and clothing not only constitute visible, ‘countable’ signs of wealth, but the garments themselves, in a strictly stratified society, act as costumes that identify condition and status” (Stadler 469). Thus, wearing this or that dress was a result of following traditions and of the public’s wealth.
Moll Flanders also pays much attention to the clothes when she describes the society. The public’s clothing helps her to identify the persons’ positions and act according to her conclusions:
When I came to receive the money, I brought my governess with me, dressed like an old duchess, and a gentleman very well dressed, who we pretended courted me, but I called him cousin, and the lawyer was only to hint privately to him that his gentleman courted the widow (Defoe 208).
One more peculiar feature of the society of the 17th – 18th centuries was the passion of the highest classes to changing dresses for balls and masquerades which originated from the traditions of the street carnivals and festivals. The wish to change the dress in order to reveal the altered appearance and new acquired traits is typical both for the representatives of the lowest and highest social classes. That is why Moll Flanders used this tendency quite effectively to protect herself from revealing her real face.
The reasons for Moll Flanders’ changing clothes
Why does Moll Flanders use every possibility to change her clothes and play a new role? Clothes can help Moll to act as a wife, a thief, a transported felon, and a beggar. Moreover, clothing is Moll’s chance to attract the public’s attention to her person as a gentlewoman.
To become a gentlewoman is the main goal of Moll who tries to avoid the role which is dictated by the social norms for her since the childhood. Moll does not want to serve as the other young women of the same origin and belonging to the same class. That is why, analyzing the situations in Moll’s life, it is possible to note that “by taking her stand, she has set herself against the social expectations of someone of her low birth” (Karl 89).
Social expectations are also that factor which makes Moll Flanders act with breaking all the norms and expectations. The only thing which is interesting for Moll is her possible wealth, and this wish stimulates her to survive and go directly to her aims. “Her desire to rise, even at the expense of danger, anxiety, dread, flirtation with the hangman, is comparable to her “original sin”, her refusal to serve” (Karl 89).
The easiest ways which can help Moll Flanders survive, and which can lead her to the wealth are lying and stealing. Thus, Moll uses her charms and false clothing to help her steal definite expensive items and seduce men. She is rather perfect in her ability to change the clothes and ‘masks’ because she states that “everything looked so innocent and so honest about me, that they treated me civiler than I expected” (Defoe 181).
The social impact and changes of the clothes and appearance as a kind of a disguise
The most frequent roles which Moll Flanders plays when changing the clothing are a rich woman or a gentlewoman and a criminal, a notorious gifted thief. The first role or ‘mask’ gives Moll a lot of benefits and allow her acting in the highest society. However, the second role of a thief is a challenge to the society and because of a lot of risks Moll has to conceal her personality under the protective cover of the other different clothes.
If it is convenient for her to steal being dressed as a beggar, she does it, if it is convenient for her to mislead people in the clothes of a man, she also does it. In the novel Moll states that when she was proposed to dress up as a man in order to be unobserved and effectively do what she thought over she did it because of the obvious advantages of the situation.
Nevertheless, it is rather difficult to find any distinctive causes for her changes of the clothes besides those which were mentioned. The peculiarities of Moll Flanders origin made her perceive the society and surroundings as the field for struggles and use people and chances to achieve her goals even the methods are dishonest.
Speaking about the peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ character, Karl pays attention to the fact that “she is completely survival-oriented, her disguises are an integral part of her personality, indistinguishable from any ‘center’ we might attribute to her” (Karl 95). The act of changing dresses and using new ‘masks’ becomes one of the main aspects of Moll’s life which allow her being recognized as that person she wants to be, but not to reveal her real nature.
The power of Moll Flanders’ changing names and clothes with references to the social context
Is it possible to preserve one’s identity when it is more important to conceal and protect the personality? Moll Flanders is inclined to change the names and clothes with the same easy. Thus, when she uses a new dress for her job, she presents herself with the help of another name and creates a new legend.
Moll plays a new role in which the necessary changes in name and dress make the image more complete. The influential power which is connected with Moll’s ability to alter the clothes and names is her flexibility. However, is it possible to say that this flexibility is a result of Moll’s lack of ‘center’ in her personality and identity? Karl focuses on the fact that “all her energies are concentrated on appearing to be what she is; at the same time, she has to be careful not be exactly what she appears” (Karl 93).
Nevertheless, Moll’s roles, ‘masks’, and names are her effective ways to overcome the social barriers. According to Stadler, when Moll plays the role of “a gentlewoman wearing a ‘good’ dress and a gold watch or when she is disguised as a man, dress functions as a sign of power, as a false sartorial message of apparent integration within the social hierarchies” (Stadler 469).
Dresses can be used as a perfect instrument for manipulating the public’s minds. Moll successfully uses this instrument with her charms in order to hide her real intentions.
Thus, the chic clothing supported with the necessary names emphasizes her status in society which is just a fake role, but performed effectively. The man’s or beggar’s clothing is the best way to conceal Moll’s appearance and deceive people in order to express the talent of stealing expensive things and treasures. Nevertheless, “Moll is the perpetrator and, often, victim of her own farces. Yet she is driven to creating new roles and re-creating new identities” (Karl 90).
The power of the ‘masquerade’ and hiding the real name under the number of pseudonyms influences Moll Flanders’ feeling of identity. She is powerful enough to mislead any person and to gain the reputation in definite circles for advantageous overcoming difficult situations.
However, she lost herself in all those dresses that she wore in order to become richer and more successful. Moll Flanders is confused by a lot of lies which make the base of her life, and these lies in connection with roles, dresses, ‘masks’, and pseudonyms form the great power which rules Moll’s social and personal life.
Works Cited Brown, Homer O. “The Displaced Self in the Novels of Daniel Defoe”. ELH 38.4 (1971): 562-590. Print.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders,
Sexualization of Children Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Bare midriffs, spaghetti strap tops, skinny jeans and short shorts all once belonged in the realm of teen/young adult clothing yet as of late there has been a growing trend wherein such clothing choices have now become common place among children aged 12 and below (Gill, 137-160).
Such is the influence of modern day popular culture that sexualization and objectification has not been limited to adults and teens but has now begun to encompass children as young as 7 to 10 years of age (Bill, 1). Sexualization can be defined as process where an individual’s sense of personal “value” is actually based on sex appeal or a predefined and narrow standard of attractiveness (Goodin et al. 1).
This has resulted in the proliferation of numerous clothing lines, products and even popular culture shows which place a certain degree of sexualization on children resulting in the creation of what is now perceived as a cultural norm when it comes to children wearing clothes or displaying behaviors with distinct sexual undertones that is many years ahead of when they should be displaying such attitudes (Bartlett, 106-11).
Even parents themselves have contributed to the modern day adoption of the idea that it’s perfectly alright to employ a certain degree of sexualization on children as evidenced by their continued patronage of toys, clothing styles and TV shows for their children that have themes depicting early child sexualization (Albiniak, 1).
Based on this it can clearly be seen that children have been sexualized at an earlier age as compared to their counterparts form 30 years ago yet it must be questioned whether such an early rate of sexualization actually has an adverse impact on their emotional, behavioral and social development.
Several studies examining early childhood development do indicate that a child’s formative years (age 4 to 12) is a period in which they begin to develop the behavioral characteristics and ideologies that influence their subsequent adult behaviors and actions. Aspects related to religion, culture and ideologies introduced during this early stage of development reflect well into adulthood and become an integral aspect of who a person is to become.
It is based on this developmental backdrop that parents and society developed the notion that early onset exposure to sexualized content will have an adverse effect on a child’s development and as such children should be inculcated early on with positive societal messages in the form of cooperation, peaceful action and other similar behavioral characteristics that espouse the creation of a socially acceptable persona (Kopkowski, 220).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other studies though have stated that sexualized media in modern day popular culture such as those seen in TV shows, movies and magazines and other similar forms of consumable media actually have a positive effect on children resulting in the development of independent, socially well adjusted children that from an early age are capable of utilizing what they perceive from sexualized media to become more socially well adjusted as compared to their peers that have been exposed to little if next to no sexualized content.
What such studies are attempting to suggest is that the early sexualization that children are exposed to as a result of modern day pop culture and the media actually leads them to experience the full gamut of emotions denied to them by their parents and society as a direct result of the prevailing social idea that children should not exposed to sexuality at an early age (Merskin, 119-129).
In the words of Melanie Moore “it enables them to explore the inescapable feelings that they’ve been taught to deny and to reintegrate those feelings into a more whole, more complete and more resilient selfhood”. While such notions are relatively alien to the current prevailing societal consensus regarding children and sexuality it does make a valid argument.
Sexuality is an aspect of normal human behavior, while society disparages its utilization and expression it must be noted that it is a normal feeling that has been with humans since the beginning of evolution. Coming to a complete realization of its effective utilization while at the same time limiting its use through calm analytic thinking is actually a rite of passage for most individuals.
It is based on this what this study will attempt to confirm is whether the current trend in the early sexualization of children has a purely negative effect or if there is an underlying positive effect to this level of exposure. From a certain perspective it can be stated that: it is only due to age old conservative social institutions that it is believed that children are being sexualized at an early age when it fact there is no particular limit to the age in which children should learn aspects related to being a mature individual.
Negative Influence of Popular Culture on the Concept of Beauty and Sexuality The influence of popular culture on modern day society can be interpreted as a form of irrational exuberance which is defined as the act of people modeling their behavior on the actions of other people without sufficient justification for doing so.
In the case of children models/child actors seen in magazines and print ads children/parents see these models, which pop culture defines as the epitome of beauty, and attempt to emulate them by buying the products that the magazines say can help you achieve the same level of flawlessness as them (Schwed, 19). Yet this beauty is nothing more than a false image made to entice the masses towards buying a particular product however this doesn’t stop people from attempting to emulate them in whatever way they possibly can.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sexualization of Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What must be understood is that ours is a culture obsessed with the idea of perfect beauty; flawless skin, blemish free features, thin waistlines, striking eyes, perfect noses and not a pimple in sight yet such an obsession has been fueled by nothing more than lies and hypocrisy which has all been for the sake of making money (APA: Analysis Of Published Research Shows Sexualized Images Harmful To Girls, Women, 1).
The fashion industry alones makes billions of dollars a year by presenting women with products and clothing styles that are meant to emphasize sexiness or make them look more like the “standards” of physical attractiveness that many magazines espouse.
Yet this is nothing more than a farce; such beauty and elegance can be summed up in one word “Photoshop”; they aren’t real, no one has eyes that striking, no one has legs that flawless, people don’t glisten in natural light, they really aren’t that thin, and hair doesn’t normally shimmer that way as if they stepped straight out of a Palmolive commercial.
It is fake, unnatural yet it has created an obsession with beauty and perfection that has dominated the fashion industry resulting in the proliferation of photoshopped imagery on almost every page of major fashion magazines around the world (Reynolds, 9).
Not only that, sensuality and sexiness have now become so integrated into modern day popular culture that the sheer proliferation of ads, commercials, movies and TV shows that emphasize the necessity of women appearing in this particular fashion has begun to affect children wherein they themselves look at the sensual and the sexy and develop the notion that this is what they should be (Harris, 1).
Evidence of this can easily be seen in the current proliferation of modern day media in the form of TV shows and movies which also show child stars and actors in various revealing styles of sexualized clothing, scenes or basically wearing a lot of makeup that is more suitable for adults (Odone, 18). This has furthered reinforced the message being presented by photoshopped model images in that in order to be considered beautiful you must try to emulate the model that the pictures in magazines show (International Business, 12).
Media/Social Media that Causes Kids to be Sexualized at an Early Age Action figures, dolls and cartoons are an ubiquitous part of the childhood of most people within the U.S., with various individuals owning/ watching some variation of these aspects of popular culture in one form or another. Based on various studies of childhood development children actually looked up to and tried to emulate the attitudes and characteristics of the cartoons they saw on television.
When examining past and current trends in cartoons, action figures and dolls a rather strange phenomenon was noticed wherein over the years since the 1980s action figures and cartoon heroes took on greater degrees of musculature and size resulting in almost freakishly large heroes as compared to their counterparts prior to the 1980s. Even dolls for girls took on greater degrees of overtly sexual characteristics with emphasis being placed on looks, sexuality and fashion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sexualization of Children by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Behavioral Development While most individuals merely categorized this as a changing trend which was a direct result of the shifting nature of popular culture it must be noted that such changes had a distinct impact on the mannerisms, attitudes and manner in which children believed they should act and mature into.
Studies examining the resulting developmental characteristics of children who grew up prior to the overly muscular and sexual trend of the 1980s showed nearly opposite developmental beliefs compared to children who grew up during and after the 1980s trend.
It was noted that male children who grew up during and after the trend developed the notion that being overly muscular was normal and a state to develop into. It was a notion that was completely at odds with the idea of children who grew up prior to the trend who believed an average non-muscular physique was normal and what should be attained.
This particular difference was also noted in female children who believed that the overtly sexual style and concentration on appearance, fashion and sexuality was what they needed to become in order to be considered normal as compared to the popular notions among children prior to the 1980s which showcased a vastly different and more conservative view on what was considered normal (Helping Kids Manage Their Media, 37).
Cultural Impact What must be understood is that the resulting cultural impact of the change in the depiction of toys and cartoon heroes into either overly muscular or overly sexual characters was noted as being one of the reasons behind the prevalence of various individual behavioral characteristics today such as the belief that looking muscular will make a person popular, that overly sexualized clothing is normal and that violence is a regular aspect of life (Helping Kids Manage Their Media, 37).
While it may be true that such characteristics do not define a majority of the population it is still prevalent in large percentages with various studies confirming that one of the reasons behind their prevalence is their connection to the trend mentioned throughout this paper that began in the 1980s and continues to this day.
Pop Culture and Identification One of the prevailing arguments against letting children see sexualized media is the supposed potential that exists of children imitating what they see in magazines, movies and television shows (Helping Kids To Stop Celebrating Consumption, 11) (Let’s stop teaching preschoolers to be sexy, 220).
Studies examining the effect pop culture has on children reveal that on average children, especially young children, have the tendency to emulate child pop culture icons such as Hannah Montana, Spongebob Squarepants and other similar forms of identifiable imagery (Nairn, 54-60). In fact this behavioral aspect is even noted in members of the adult community and as such is the basis for many arguments stating the potentially harmful effects sexualized media could have on a child’s “proper” sexual development.
What must be understood is that the arguments being presented neglect to take into account the fact that parental influences play a contributing and limiting factor to some aspects of a child’s behavior and as such should be trusted as a means of enabling children to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong (Young, 10).
In fact, various studies have even shown that parental influences play a major role in personality development resulting in either proper growth and maturity or the instilment of negative personality traits similar to immaturity, dependence, and an overall sense of being unable to become self-reliant (Parsons, 5).
The development of a child’s behavior is not dependent on consumable media alone but rather on how parent’s influence and mold a child’s behavior. As such even though sexualized media content is introduced to a child it can be stated that so long as parents are there to enable a child to distinguish right from wrong then there is little cause for concern (Egan and Hawkes, 307-322).
It must be noted though that in cases where there is a distinct degree of parental absenteeism a child’s behavioral development will thus be predominantly influenced by external sources which should be a cause for concern since such instances have been shown to be influential factors in the development of abnormal personality traits which manifest in early onset sexually deviant behavior.
Development and Human Emotion Studies examining the prevalence of independent action and initiative in children show that on average children with the most well rounded set of emotional development often show the most drive and initiative when it comes to independent action and leadership roles.
While various studies which have examined the potential effect of early child sexualization may not explicitly state it in their articles it is actually implied that children who are not exposed to certain types of “mature” media tend to not develop independent personalities but rather take on dependent behavioral characteristics (Hatch, 195-211).
It must be noted that society’s adherence to the belief that exposure to sexuality is bad for children has in fact resulted in parents developing parental practices that espouse isolation from any and all forms of reference to sexual behaviors (Combe, 104). In fact such practices have grown to such an extent that the concept of social conformity and how the expression of sexuality is an adverse form of behavior is often forced upon children resulting in the suppression of the development of certain aspects of their emotional makeup.
This has resulted in children developing behavioral characteristics akin to dependence, conformity and a distinct lack of initiative due to a form of trauma in which they associate aspects related to socially unacceptable conduct to the suppressive actions of their parents.
This causes them to withdraw into themselves rather than become more expressive. As various studies have noted which have examined this type of phenomena children that are allowed to be exposed to “mature” media (sexualized content, violent shows etc.) tend to be more expressive, open minded and have more access to the full gamut of their emotional capacities compared to children whose emotional growth has been inadvertently suppressed by their parents.
What must be understood is the fact that current day parental practices assume that exposure to sexualization is bad based on preconceived societal notions when in fact there have been few studies which have actually successfully connected early sexualization to children developing into sexually deviant adults (Fox, 77).
In fact, for the most part children exposed to various forms of sexualized media and products appear, for all intents and purposes, perfectly normal and turn into well rounded individuals. It must be noted that the parental predilection to believe that sexualized media has negative implications on children is grounded in institutional theory.
Institutional theory specifically states that people have the tendency to adhere to traditional institutions rather than move towards more efficient newer institutions due to their belief that older institutions are more stable due to prolonged length of time that they’ve been around. In this particular case parents adhere to a specific type of social institution that believes that sexualized media and advertisements will create sexually deviant children and adults.
Several studies examining parental predilections towards this particular type of institution have noted that when questioned as to why they adhere to the social institution in question the essence of all answers given show that parents do so due to their belief that since the institution has been around for such a long period of time and that it is widely accepted means that it must be right.
What must be understood is that just because a social institution is widely accepted and has been around for a long time doesn’t make it automatically right. For example, one of the most widely accepted social institutions in the past was the belief that men were superior to women, this resulted in women being thought of as incapable of doing certain jobs, that the place of a woman was at home and that women did not have the right to decide the future of a country.
Suffice it to say, such a view has been recently debunked however it must be noted that it had persisted for several hundred years with most of human culture adhering to its tenets. It is based on this that the social institution advocating that sexualized media is bad for children should not be immediately credited as being absolutely correct. Historical precedent has shown that not all widely accepted societal views are correct and thus this one should not be considered as an absolute truth.
Conclusion Based on the various examples presented it can be seen that the preconceived notions attached to sexualization is in fact fallacious and heavily embedded in parental practices that originate from a social institution that may not necessarily be correct. As it was shown by the various studies cited, children that are exposed to sexualized media in the form of advertisements, movies and TV shows develop into mature and behaviorally stable adults with few problems.
In fact when taking the views of articles presented into consideration it can even be stated that the introduction of sexualized media can in fact enable children to develop stronger and more independent personalities that will enable them to express themselves better, take the initiative more and be more likely to overcome adverse situations as compared to their peers that were not exposed to sexualized media.
While it may be true that when parents prevent their children from viewing “mature” media they are under the belief that they are in effect helping their children grow into better adults but the truth is what they are doing is in effect stunting the full emotional growth of their children. As explained earlier, traits related to sexuality are inherent parts of a person’s normal emotional makeup and as such are a necessary aspect in enabling an individual to grow into an emotionally stable person.
Negative emotional qualities help to balance the positive aspects of an individual’s personality so as to enable them to live a balanced life. By denying children the ability to develop the full gamut of their behaviors from an early stage parents are in effect hindering them from being able to mature at a normal pace which may actually lead to the development of abnormal personalities. This can take the form of dependence, childishness and the inability to take care of oneself without being instructed.
It is based on this that in the case of the early sexualization of children this paper agrees with the assessment that it is up to the parents to properly guide children regarding aspects related to sexuality and sexualization and that it cannot really be stated that it is ever too early to start the building blocks of developing a more well rounded set of behavioral traits within a child and as such this paper suggests that while children are being sexualized at an early age as compared to their counterparts from 30 years ago this may not necessarily be an adverse situation based on the data that has been presented in this study..
Works Cited Albiniak, Paige. “Ad Market Shows Signs Of Recovery.” Daily Variety 310.50 (2011): A1.Print
“APA: Analysis Of Published Research Shows Sexualized Images Harmful To Girls, Women.” Media Report To Women 35.2 (2007): 1. Print
Bartlett, Myke. “Sex Sells: Child Sexualization And The Media.” Screen Education 51 (2008): 106-11. Print
Bill, O’Reilly. “Unresolved Problem: The Sexualization Of American Children.” O’reilly Factor (FOX News) (n.d.). Web
Combe, Rachael. “Little Girls Gone Wild.” Redbook 216.2 (2011): 104. Print
Danielle Egan, R., and Gail Hawkes. “Girls, Sexuality And The Strange Carnalities Of Advertisements: Deconstructing The Discourse Of Corpoarte Paedophilia.” Australian Feminist Studies 23.57 (2008): 307-322. Print
Fox, Roy F. “Manipulated Kids: Teens Tell How Ads Influence Them.” Educational Leadership 53.1 (1995): 77. Print
Gill, Rosalind. “Beyond The ‘Sexualization Of Culture’ Thesis: An Intersectional Analysis Of ‘Sixpacks’, ‘Midriffs’ And ‘Hot Lesbians’ In Advertising.” Sexualities 12.2 (2009): 137-160. Print
Goodin, SamanthaDenburg, AlyssaMurnen, SarahSmolak, Linda. “‘Putting On’ Sexiness: A Content Analysis Of The Presence Of Sexualizing Characteristics In Girls’ Clothing.” Sex Roles 65.1/2 (2011): 1. Print
Harris, DAN. “Little Cover Girls.” Nightline (ABC) (2011): 1. Print
Hatch, Linda. “The American Psychological Association Task Force On The Sexualization Of Girls: A Review, Update And Commentary.” Sexual Addiction
Availability of Childcare and its Effects on Women’s Participation in the Labor Force Term Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Childcare in Contemporary Society
Effects of Childcare on Women’s Labor Force Participation
Introduction For the longest time, women have been considered and treated as the weaker sex as compared to their male counterparts. The human race is considered to be the only one in nature where females depend on males for survival (Perkins 2006). The relationship between men and women is characterized by women serving as domestic workers and playing the role of mothers.
Prior to civilization, women were treated as objects and man’s property and source of pleasure. This role was passed down to the young generation who in turn passed it to their children. This at last developed into a culture that portrayed man to be a better and a stronger being than the woman.
In the recent past, women have come out strongly to defend and fight for their rightful position in the society. They have also demanded to receive the same respect and rights accorded to men. This can be said to have been achieved as a result of education.
Women have resorted to hiring the services of house help and cooks to take care of domestic chores hence freeing them from house work. Women have also sought the services of baby sitters and even child care centers. Creation of this free time away from family life and domestic hustle has made women reconsider their economic viability.
In this paper, the author will look at how the availability of child care has affected the participation of women in the labor force. To this end, the researcher will address some of the benefits and costs of child care to the women.
Childcare in Contemporary Society In contemporary society, male superiority can be considered to be a thing of the past. Both men and women are considered equal and studies have shown that women are also as economically viable as men. Both men and women engage in economic activities and are able to meet their needs without one having to depend on the other.
Such civilization has also led to division of labor, an act previously considered impossible. Men have learnt to appreciate the fact that women are also human beings just like them and that they deserve equal and fair treatment (Perkins, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One factor that has previously inhibited the success of this evolution is the presence of children in the family. Children inhibited their mother’s mobility. Women would resort to seeking the assistance of their close relatives and even neighbors to keep take care of their children while they went to work. This method was however not effective since the mother would have to create extra time to be around her children. As a result of this concentration at work was minimal (Blau et al., 2003).
Children also greatly influenced the mobility of their mother as compared to that of the fathers. Child care is considered to be the responsibility of the mother and includes activities such as breast feeding at the early stages of child development. This meant that mothers had to stay close to their children.
Women would thus be hindered from taking up a career away from home. Men on the other hand would move freely in the job market. Introduction of child care helped turn this round and women would now be able to travel all over the world in search of jobs (Hill, 2006).
Introduction of child care has now become popular in many developed and developing countries among them Canada. This development has helped women to get more involved in economic ventures than before. Women are now able to exploit their economic potential in their respective careers without worrying about their children’s welfare. Women are given the opportunity to compete favorably with men (Hill, 2006).
Effects of Childcare on Women’s Labor Force Participation Childcare services relieve mothers of their responsibility to take care of the children. These services may be sourced from babysitters or even baby day care centers. This renders a mother free to do whatever she may want with her time. It is however important for the parents to explain to the children why they need the services of child care provider so that the children may not feel neglected (Kimmel
Specified Commercial Essay college admission essay help
The face of social media continues to transform our lives, as the nature and trend of modern mediums of communication continue to evolve with times.
As a matter of fact, these profound changes have brought positive impacts to modern businesses, thus revealing a promising future to marketing professionals allover the world. As observed in video game commercials of the day, professional marketers and bottom line businesses are fully utilizing the revolution of social media to attract and retain their customers in all possible ways. ‘Call of Duty: Black Ops TV Commercial’ is a live testimony of how far marketers in the contemporary world can go in marketing their brands.
New trends of modern communication tools and equipment have brought profound shifts in the way information is processed and conveyed to various people in the global society. This has changed the way we conduct business from the habits of the past to ways that are more sophisticated and effective.
For instance, this commercial video employs every rule in the book to successfully pass the message to the intended target. Key aspects of advertisement such as logic, humor and emotion have been applied throughout the advert, to effectively persuade potential customers.
In this video, PR trend has been intertwined with full-fledged in-gaming marketing tactics to come up with one of the most compelling commercials in the warring sector (Gagnon 4). Ranging from the tagline, ‘There’s A Soldier in All of Us’ to the persuasive visuals and tactics applied in the video, there is no doubt that this commercial has successfully achieved its purpose in the world, no matter the controversial messages it conveys.
The commercial is more of a live-action than anything else and it vividly demonstrates the power in the warring equipments being advertised. Just where the slogan of the advert seems to originate, a group of everyday individuals who does not seem to have anything in common in life, join forces in a serious confrontation against the enemies. However, the whole action in the advert gives the impression of a real warring confrontation as the characters manifest great expertise in the way they use their weapons.
Basketball idol Kobe Bryant and comedian Jimmy Kimmel are the most notable faces in the action, among a group of other individuals whose physical appearances and social identities gives the least definition of a warrior. However, the perception is never the same, as the individuals take into the battle with every dangerous weapon in existence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among other key players in this hardcore commercial include a homely waitress and a fast food chef, who brings down the curtains on the commercial by walking out of a big explosion in a stylish manner. In one episode, the homely waitress uses her leg to blast a door open before one of those backing her up in the operation utilizes the opportunity to toss a grenade into the building. In just another episode, Kobe Bryant is seen putting a 40MM grenade through an opening, to put a final end to an enemy.
This episode is actually a representative of the real thing that can be associated with the brands being advertised and it would actually inspire buyers to think of acquiring the products right away. If there are things that most gamers in the contemporary world would care about most, it is the application of the right presentation to come with awesome commercials.
That said, the great fun and emotion in this commercial have been connected with a compelling tagline to give a creative advertisement on the sophisticated weapons. The fun in this commercial is contained in the fact that, the advertisement seems to have used the wrong kind of people in the world to publicize the products, but all the same, the purpose of the commercial is finally achieved in an impressive manner.
As it would be observed, the role being played by technology in the modern world of business is quite overwhelming. Marketers in the contemporary world are taking chance of the great opportunities presented by modern technology to design effective commercial advertisements that are certain to create a big impact on their brands and products at the end of the day.
For instance, the scene in the ‘Call of Duty: Black Ops TV Commercial’ is a real demonstration of the products in action and the only thing that makes people understand that it is just a commercial would be the splash screen at the end of the game video.
Work Cited Gagnon, Frederick. “Invading Your Hearts and Minds: Call of Duty and the (Re) Writing of Militarism in US Digital Games and Popular Culture.” European journal of American studies 2. 3 (2010): 2-8. Print.
Culture, Literacy, and Learning: Taking Bloom in the Midst of the Whirlwind by Carol D. Lee Essay (Book Review) college essay help: college essay help
Introduction In this book, Carol Lee brings into play her experience as a participant viewer to offer an exceptional and detailed opinion of both planning and employing a cultural receptive strategy to enhance learning and teaching in a particular subject.
Through clear reports from real classrooms, Lee explains how AAVE helps students motivate themselves and learn. She describes the way students respond to improved scheme and the way teachers modify the cultural background of the language or English arts program. As the book emphasizes on literacy of African-American students, Lee assesses the role of culture in supporting learning.
She provides approaches of changing cultural knowledge to support the issue, particularly the educational learning. Lee argues that attainment gap to some extent is affected by the restrictions of knowledge based on hypotheses which enlighten decisions concerning pedagogy, curriculum, evaluation, teacher qualification and situations which teachers follow while working.
In this book, Lee reports on her three-year program while teaching students how to respond to literature at Fairgate High School; she states that teachers can achieve their targets if they realize the discourse, practices, and content of their field. Teachers will also succeed if they have precise understanding regarding the cognition, language, incentive, culture, and social certainties of urban learners.
Cultural Modeling The approach which the author employed is based on her practices on cultural modeling, which serves as a learning plan to facilitate solving the issue in learning institutions. This helps both learners and teachers discuss the differences between the school-based and community-based standards. For example, African American learners are supported to generate clearly their understanding and responses of their cultures which are used outside the school.
Their knowledge and answers are then implemented in the sphere of educational learning. In this manner, learners are offered support to create their culture applicable in the school environment and classrooms. They use certain languages to address the problem-solving lessons which help them create links between what they have done and what they are expected to perform with school based issues.
When teachers and students assess the function of satire in literary understanding, cultural modeling contains outlines of this issue which students practice daily using oral traditions, songs, television, and film. Students create clear approaches of distinguishing satire set up in music lyrics, film, and television.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They may keep on looking for satire in African canonical performances and in non-African, American canonical performances which help them improve their knowledge. Another issue for students is to distinguish the functions of symbolism in literary reasoning. Lee starts with students examining closely the cultural relics of their daily practices, such as hip hop lyrics, hip hop records, etc., observing and intuitively interpreting the difficult views in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.
Most influential are the transcripts which are there in classrooms. These disclose discussion of student and teacher in interpretive reasoning articulated in AAEV. They also reveal daily language used by students, method of thinking, and significance of complex text applied in classrooms. Lee, in her book, describes the readers a classroom where animated discussions concerning the significance of satire and symbols prosper are aroused, and students experience a great desire to express their understanding openly.
Correcting the Way Students Talk Lee persists that teachers can attain better outcomes and success if they only appreciate the strength of instructional talk derived of the standards of AAEV. They should put more focus on supporting students’ reasoning in a perspective of literary rather than correcting the manner they are used to communicate.
Lee chooses not to correct students when they are responding to literature and states that they should feel that their views are well-considered and taken into account. She argues that selecting a student who will speak should not be regulated by the teacher. Lee continues to state that teachers should have both the content and educational understanding, and these two issues needed for the effective teaching are both valuable and compound.
The teacher in this situation should be able to teach using various approaches which will help students struggling against literary problems. Lee argues that teachers should be aware of what students understand and value. Teachers should hear and respond to a wide range of students’ debatable questions with proper understanding.
Additionally, Lee shows some important pedagogical understanding including some abilities, such as possibility to evaluate what students know and do not know. Other abilities include understanding several ways to capitalize learning and the way to know developmental progression.
Lee considers that teachers should enter modern reading areas susceptible to the usual range of social and developmental issues displayed by students who are identified as incompetent. She considers that this is a requirement which almost all learning institutions or schools disregard.
We will write a custom Book Review on Culture, Literacy, and Learning: Taking Bloom in the Midst of the Whirlwind by Carol D. Lee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lee specifies her instructional choices in many examples in her book. She uses Taquisha’s conflict to discuss this issue. Taquisha seems to be reading a newspaper instead of attending to Sax Cantor Riff. This is evident when Taquisha questions the function of the film in their study programs. Lee mentions that she employs her understanding of adolescent growth as a basis for managing the conflicts which Taquisha have.
Lee also states that she uses her knowledge of Taquisha as an individual African American communication experiences to reconstruct the condition. Moreover, she offers the readers and students six guidelines for teaching which clearly create a precise reasoning to difficult theme or issue as well as provides interesting instances. Her example is re-voicing learners’ expressions to guide students to huge plans within the area under discussion.
Lee favors responsibility but is uncertain of problematic evaluations which are not genuine and rigorous in corrective reading at the resultant stage. Hence, these do not bring about students to find out ways to participate in very complex and analytical reasoning concerning the theme. In chapter seven, Lee offers instances of the post and pre evaluations of literary learning, and I hope Lee will add example of students’ essay. This could portray the language of literary reasoning.
Several books and journals are used by teachers so that they can improve the students’ language through the application of literature and culture. Lee’s book can be recommended since it addresses this issue. The book begins with an issue concerning literacy, culture and learning, then it suggests values of student’s culture and understanding in the service of attaining educational success.
Lee proposes that achievements in urban schools are not easy for the teachers to gain and need plainly a profound understanding of the theme of the book, language, language socialization and the way students learn. They should also understand the process of the children and teenagers’ maturation. Teachers should improve their teaching skills and knowledge used in urban schools.
Princess Diana’s Life Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Her Childhood and Family
Her Engagement and Wedding
Her Childhood and Family The late Princess Diana has a unique and humble, yet shocking biography; she led a fascinating life right from her birth to her death. The full names of Princess Di, Princess Diana, Lady Diana or The princess of Wales as was famously called were Diana Frances Spencer. The late princess Diana was born around 7 in the morning, on 1/7/1961 in Sandringham, Norfolk, England. She was baptized at St Mary Magdalene church in Sandringham, Norfolk. The baptism was presided over by the Rt. Rev. Percy Herbert.
Her family was a humble one. The father of the late Princess Diana was called Earl Spencer. The mother was known as Mrs. Shand Kydd. Her parents, former lord and lady have since died. Right from her beginning, Princess Diana’s family was privileged to be very close to the royal family.
Earl Spenser was an officer in the Royal Scots Greys, attending to the sovereign King George VI and later Queen Elizabeth II. Her parents’ wedding was the year’s social event in 1954. The chief guest for this wedding at Westminster Abbey was Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles’s mother .
Princess Diana’s father inherited the title, Earl Spencer, consequently making her Lady Diana Spencer in 1975. She was a shy girl in her growing up. Her hobbies included fashion, dancing, helping children, shopping and listening to music. The late Diana was the third born in a family of four. That is, a younger brother and two sisters who were older than her. Her eldest sister was Jane and the other, Sarah. Their brother was called Charles.
The princess grew up in the estate of the Queen, in Sandringham and later in Northamptonshire. Diana studied at Riddles worth Hall and West Heath School. Here, Lady Diana was good in sporting activities, especially swimming, but failed in her academics. She completed her studies in Switzerland. Her first job was at a central London kindergarten immediately after completion of her education. Before she worked as a kindergarten teacher, Diana volunteered as a nanny and a cook in London .
Her problems commenced right after birth. Her parents were not happy when she was not born a boy as per their wishes. Then, at the tender age of 6, in 1969, Princess Diana’s parents divorced, marking the beginning of her misery. The issue affected the princess emotionally and only her strong character made her pull through the hardships. The misery intensified with the parents’ disputes over the children’s custody. After a long struggle in the law courts, all the four children were finally left under their father’s custody.
She got so stressed that she made several suicidal attempts. Throughout her life, Princess Diana faced much criticism from her parents, her husband and the press. The burden was made lighter when she was sent to a boarding institution, West Heath Public School in Kent. Here, she concentrated more on her studies than on her family, though she eventually failed in her final examination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her Engagement and Wedding The humble Diana was to later be the talk of the century after she walked down the aisle with her prince in a colorful wedding. Princess Diana and Prince Charles started dating and later got engaged in 1980 and 1981 respectively. At that time, the whole world was awed by their blooming romance. In the first weekend of February 1980, the princess spent at Sandringham, with the royal family only.
This was an exciting experience for the late Diana. In July 1980, a friend of Diana known as Philip invited her together with Prince Charles and several other guests to a barbecue in Petworth where his family lived. During the event, Prince Charles and Princess Diana sat next to each other and they chat about general life issues. After that, the prince called the princess for several dates. For instance, they went for fishing together on River Dee. This is where their love started and the rest is history.
On 6th February 1981, Prince Charles asked Diana whether she would marry him, at an outing at Windsor castle. The excited Diana accepted the proposal. The two made a public appearance as a couple on 9th March 1981 during a charity event in London. Consequently, Princess Diana lost her private life to the media who were always abreast with what the couple was doing.
Initially, everyone doubted the couple’s compatibility as the two did not have a lot in common. Their hobbies were diverse and their age gap was a big one. Prince Charles loved gardening and was reserved. On the other hand, the princess loved dancing, music and charity work. Moreover, the princess was 13 years younger than Princess Charles.Bottom of Form
On 29/7/1981, the world joined the couple in celebrating their beautiful wedding. Only three thousand, five hundred people were allowed to attend the wedding while about seven hundred and fifty million followed the proceedings on television. The wedding took place at St Paul’s cathedral, London. A renowned singer, Kiri, performed Handel’s song, Let the bright seraphim during the wedding. Their wedding was the wedding of the decade and everyone wished them well.
Her Marriage The entire world expected that the marriage of the prince and her princess would be a fairy tale; one that everyone would admire. Their marriage steps were thus followed keenly by the media. However, contrary to people’s expectations, the marriage was not a perfect one. Princess Diana was Prince Charles’ first wife. She earned herself the title, “Her Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales” immediately after her 1981 marriage to the Prince of Wales. Another example of a princess of Wales at that time was Alexandra of Denmark.
The couple was blessed with two handsome boys. The first son was called William Arthur and the other Henry Charles David. They were born on 21/6/1982 and 15/9/1984 respectively. Their second born was popularly referred as Prince Harry.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Princess Diana’s Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The beginning of the troubles in her marriage was after the birth of their second born prince, Henry. The late Princess Diana got overwhelmed by the stressing and dynamic responsibilities of being a mother of two boys, a wife of a prince, a princess and handling the constant pressures of the media.
These overwhelming roles made her more depressed, sad and lonely. This consequently made her husband drift away from her, hence adding to her loneliness. The issues got intensified with time and eventually, the love birds had to separate.
Her Divorce The couple’s separation was a great shock to the entire continent. Everyone thought that their love was destined to flourish forever. In 1992, British Prime Minister John Major, announced the separation. Apart from her stressful roles and pressures, Princess Diana had been fighting a chronic disease and was evidently leading a lonely and sad life that caused her depression and bulimia.
She kept all the sadness and unhappiness to herself as she was not allowed to share with anyone. The public only got aware of this sad life during a press interview with Prince Charles. The prince publicly admitted to straying with Camilla Parker Bowles, who was his ex-girlfriend. The interview confirmed that the royal family was not as perfect as people thought; it also had defects, just like any normal family.
A Reliable source, a close friend of Prince Charles, revealed that prince Charles admitted to not love Diana at the time of her engagement though he would, with time. Moreover, the prince admitted that he married so that he could be relieved off the pressures to marry by the media and his family especially his uncle, Lord Mountbatten.
The qualifications that the royal family wanted were all favorable for Diana. That is his bride-to- be had to be a virgin, a protestant and not a widower or separated. Prince Charles’s former girlfriend, Camilla parker, became his second wife after he divorced Princess Diana. Weirdly, Camilla had selected Princess Diana to be Prince Charles’s bride.
Prince Charles and Princess Diana got separated on 9/12/1992 and finalized their divorce on 28/8/1996. As a result of the divorce, Princess Diana received $28 million and $600,000 annually. Moreover, she lost the title, “Her Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales” after her divorce in 1996. Although everyone called her, “Princess Diana” till the time of her death, she had already lost the title.
The prince and the princess blamed one another for the breakup of their marriage. After the breakup, both moved on, with Prince Charles dating his first girlfriend, Camilla Parker Bowles. The princess dated various other men, including James Gilbey and Dodi Fayed, among others. In 2004, the media broadcast episodes of confessions of the princess’s suicide attempts and her struggles in the marriage.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Princess Diana’s Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her Achievements Although Princess Diana was not properly educated, she beat all odds to make achievements that she is world widely celebrated for. Her achievements made her be admired and loved by the entire world. Although she was deeply hurting within, her good character, right from her childhood made her a role model to the entire continent. She was generous and had a bubbly personality. Princess Diana Spencer was a philanthropist and a generous lady. She was warm, vibrant, cheerful and cared for the poor and everyone she met.
She was not only a princess to her prince but also a princess to the general society. It is due to this reason that she received various awards that made her be respected worldwide. For instance, the photo on appendix I below shows the princess smiling during a fundraising event in New York, where she was given the UCP humanitarian award.
The late princess was involved in various worthy causes that were of great human benefit. For instance, Diana was actively involved in the creation of awareness on the deadly disease, AIDS. She broke down the prejudices of HIV/AIDS. She was the first person to be photographed shaking hands with a victim of the deadly disease.
This tore down the prejudice that people should not shake hands with infected persons. In 2002, former South African President Nelson Mandela, during a press conference announced his plan to collaborate with the princess’s memorial fund to support orphans and families of victims of HIV/AIDS. The president during the conference, praised the princess as someone who had a heart for the world.
Moreover, during a lecture in December 2001, Bill Clinton said that the princess was enough prove that victims of HIV/AIDS should not be isolated but should be treated with kindness. She thus, changed people’s perception of the virus and encouraged the victims to live on. This saved very many lives. She also used to appear unceremoniously at the hospitals to visit the sick. For instance, she frequented the Mildmay hospice, London, under instructions that the media should not know of her visits.
In addition, she was also a source of motivation for the people who had depression issues. The late princess Di was a heroine due to her extemporary service to the community. She took advantage of her powers and famous nature to improve the lives of the needy. The needy were the less privileged in the society like the poor, the sick and victims of social injustices.
She was mostly concerned with victims of AIDS, substance abuse, orphans, and the homeless. The princess was also an activist for eating disorders. This was motivated by her personal experience with an eating disorder. She raised awareness on the same to make people live healthily, to keep fit.
In addition, Princess Diana was opposed to the massive land mines. She therefore campaigned against landmines. For instance, In January 1997, she visited Angola as a red cross volunteer. During this time, she talked to the landmines survivors in the hospitals and also took part in landmine awareness lectures. Here, the dangers of landmines to the society were discussed. Then, in August 1997, she visited Bosnia for the same purpose as of the Angola visit.
Moreover, as part of her philanthropy, Princess Diana went back to give support to her old boarding school where she attended her O level education. She offered financial and emotional support to the students and the teachers. This was as part of her appreciation to the school for molding her into whom she had become.
It is therefore, very evident that her memory will live on forever in the lives of the Britons. People continue to celebrate her life, more than a decade after her death. She will definitely be missed by those people who appreciated her charitable causes, in Britain and the rest of the world.
Her Demise More than a decade after her demise, questions are still being raised as to the cause of the princess’s death. This is due to the circumstances that preceded her death. After her divorce, Princess Diana fell in love with someone. His name was Dodi Fayed. On Saturday, 30/8/1997, the two had a wonderful time during the weekend in Paris.
That night, they had dinner in the Ritz restaurant, which was owned by Dodi’s father. The media, as usual, followed the couple wherever they went and watched their every movement. Diana never liked this idea as it made her uncomfortable and nervous. She had undoubtedly become the most photographed person worldwide as the media used to follow her everywhere she went.
That night, the two tried all they could to hide from the press. They even used a rare exit from the hotel and used a different vehicle (Mercedes 280) from the one that the press knew, both as tactics to evade the press. However, the journalists couldn’t be kept away. One of the hotel’s security guards known as Henri Paul drove the car while their body guard, Trevor Rees-Jones occupied the seat at the front. The couple occupied the back seat.
This was some minutes past midnight. The journalists were all over the sides of the car with each of them trying to get perfect photos of the couple. The driver, in an attempt to overpower the press sped off but unfortunately lost control and crushed in a tunnel. The crush sounded like an explosion. The car rolled over for 360 degrees.
Henry and Dodi died on the spot. The body guard got severe injuries. Sadly, the princess lost her life at 3:57 am, Sunday, 31/ 8/1997, in the operation room in La Pitié-Salpêtriére hospital, due to a torn vein in her rib cage that caused severe internal bleeding .
The questions as to whom or what was responsible for her death still remain unanswered. This is because, some people say that the press overwhelmed the driver, others maintain that the driver was too drunk to drive, others suggest that the occupants of the vehicle did not stop the driver from over speeding while others blame it on the fact that they did not have seatbelts on.
On 6th Jan.2004 a special British inquest, that required that the police investigate the death of the princess, was launched. A separate one that investigated Dodi’s death was also started. The aim of these inquests was not to lay blame on anyone but to determine the facts of the mysterious death.
Her Burial Princess Diana’s last progression reminded the world of several years ago when the world watched her carriage as it moved towards a seemingly bright future during her wedding. The heroine was laid to rest on 6/9/1997. She died at the age of 36, and height 1.8metres, in Paris, France. The big capital city of London was host to millions of mourners, on the Westminster Abbey Route.
A somber mood engulfed the city as mourners followed the proceedings of the ceremony. The hooves of horses and the alternating soothing sounds of a bell could be heard in the hush of the moment. Flowers carpeted the streets. As mourners got a view of the procession, wails could be heard.
People screamed Princess Diana’s names in despair and also how much they loved and will miss her. The traditional norms and values of silence during burials had therefore been broken as people’s hearts were now open to express how much grief they felt for the princess’s death.
Her burial received wide media coverage with mourners all over the world following keenly, every single bit of the burial. It was a sad burial as those who attended hugged and cried in celebration of a life well lived. Her life was celebrated in a modern and liberal manner .
Queen Elizabeth II, in her tribute noted that the princess is hard to forget, especially by those who knew or felt her. Only 2000 people were allowed inside the Westminster Abbey to bury her. However millions of mourners gathered in the streets. White lilies, which were her favorite, were spread on the top of her coffin. Moreover, Prince William placed on it, a bouquet of white tulips. Then, a card that accompanied a bouquet of white roses was also placed on the coffin by Prince Harry.
There were several close family members, among them Prince Charles, that accompanied the cortege. Alongside them were, 5 representatives from the a hundred and ten charities that Diana was part of. Some of these representatives were on wheelchairs while others were on crutches. Celebrities like Diana Ross among others were also present. Conclusion
In a nutshell, the princess’s life from 1/7/1961 to 31/8/1997 is heartbreaking and fascinating one. Although her life seemed like a perfect one, it was not without flaws and defects. She however emerged a courageous woman who tried to make the world a better place not only for her but also for the rest of the citizens.
She suffered greatly during her life. This was in her childhood, health, marriage, and social wellbeing. Her marriage was loveless and full of rejection from the prince and the rest of the sovereign family. This contributed to her divorce.
However, her good character and strong will, right from her childhood made her a role model to the entire continent. Her life and marriage may have ended but her memories live on forever in the hearts of those whom she helped. Her death was a great loss to people who had trusted her to help them financially and emotionally. Until her demise, Diana’s occupation was a children’s activist. Due to her cheerful personality, she pulled through all the life’s hurts.
Works Cited “Accident: Princess Diana’s Accident.” 1998. Web.
“Princess Diana Dies in Paris Crash.” BBC News. Web.
Chua-Eoan, Howard., Wulf, Steve., Kluger, Jeffrey., Redman, Christopher and Van Biema, David. “Diana 1961-1997: Death of a Princess.” Time Magazine 08 Sept. 1997 .print.
Elliott, Michael. “Why Princess Diana Mattered.” Time Specials Thursday, 2007. Print.
Engagement: Princess Diana’s Engagement. Web.
Gray, Paul. “Farewell, Diana.” Time Magazine. Web.
Lowe, Brendan. “Why Princess Diana Mattered.” Time Specials 2007. Print.
Mayer, Catherine. “Why Princess Diana Mattered: How Diana Transformed Britain.” Time Specials Thursday 16 Aug. 2007. Print.
Morton, Andrew. Diana: Her True Story. 1992: 1-272. Gale Virtual Reference. Web.
Princess Diana (1961–1997). Web.
Princess Diana Biography. 2006. Web.
Princess Diana. Web.
Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Diana, Princess of Wales.” The New York Times 2007. Web.
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. Diana, Princess of Wales 1961-1997. United Kingdom; London. Web.
The Life of Diana, Princess of Wales. Web.
Footnotes Trussell, Jeff. “Angel Hero: Princess Diana.” 2006. Web.
Princess Diana (1961–1997). Web.
Princess Diana Biography. 2006. Web.
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. Diana, Princess of Wales 1961-1997. United Kingdom; London. Web.
The Life of Diana, Princess of Wales. Web.
Morton, Andrew. Diana: Her True Story. 1992: 1-272. Gale Virtual Reference. Web.
Engagement: Princess Diana’s Engagement. 1998. Web.
Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Diana, Princess of Wales.” The New York Times 2007. Web.
Princess Diana. Web.
Mayer, Catherine. “Why Princess Diana Mattered: How Diana Transformed Britain.” Time Specials Thursday 16 Aug. 2007. Print.Top of FoBottom of Form
Trussell, Jeff. “Angel Hero: Princess Diana.” 2006. Web.
“Princess Diana Dies in Paris Crash.” BBC News 1997. Web.
“Accident: Princess Diana’s Accident.” 1998. Web.
Chua-Eoan, Howard., Wulf, Steve., Kluger, Jeffrey., Redman, Christopher and Van Biema, David. “Diana 1961-1997: Death of a Princess.” Time Magazine 1997 .print.
Lowe, Brendan. “Why Princess Diana Mattered.” Time Specials 2007. Print.
Gray, Paul. “Farewell, Diana.” Time Magazine. Web.
Elliott, Michael. “Why Princess Diana Mattered.” Time Specials Thursday, 2007. Print.
Jacksonian Era in the History of US Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
The figure of Andrew Jackson in the history of the USA is closely connected with the notion of ‘Jacksonian democracy’ which is based on the principles of the equality in policy.
Nevertheless, today historians argue the most controversial aspects of Jackson’s political activity with paying much attention to the inequality of his actions’ effects for different classes of the American society of the 1830-1840s. To understand the nature of the debates, it is necessary to analyze the most significant political controversies of the period which help to reveal the key divisions among the Americans regarding the development of the nation.
The period of ‘Jacksonian democracy’ is characterized by the formation of the new Democratic Party and by the development of the opposition to it in the form of the Whigs.
There are two contrary visions of the peculiarities of the period which, one the one hand, depend on the opinion that Jackson was inclined to abuse the Executive power and, on the other hand, on the image of Jackson as the protector of the public’s rights, freedoms, and interests against the monopoly of the powerful aristocracy (Ogg, 90-91). Thus, Jackson accentuated the limitation of the federal governmental rights and the opposition to corrupting alliances between the government and business (Meacham).
That is why the central conflicts in the political life of the USA in the 1830s were the problem of protective tariffs and the issue of the National Bank of the United States. The growing dissatisfaction with the protectionist’s system and with the ‘tariffs of abominations’ resulted in the open confrontation of South Carolina to the federal government. Thus, South Carolina passed the nullification ordinance in 1832 (Meacham).
This political conflict between the North and the South in America was a serious challenge for the President. However, Jackson showed his firmness and inflexibility while solving the crisis and accentuated the unconstitutional character of the state’s actions because there was a real threat to the state’s integrity (Ogg).
The most acute, but also successful was Jackson’s struggle on the issue of the extension of the National Bank’s activities. The idea of the extension was developed by the opposite Whigs. Nevertheless, concentrating on the dissatisfaction and disappointment of the ordinary investors, farmers, and workers, Jackson transferred the governmental deposits to the local banks, and in 1836 the Second Bank of the United States was closed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the negative effect was that the states’ banks became actively involved in the speculative activities without the control from the centre. The situation in the country became particularly tensed when the economic crisis began in the United States in 1837 (Meacham).
The next controversial aspect of Jackson’s political activity was connected with the issue of the expansion of the state’s territories to the Western coasts and the governmental policy in relation to the Indians. Moreover, this problem was closely associated with the question of slavery and its possible limitations at these new territories. These questions were considered as contrary to the traditional principles of the democracy that is why the Whigs opposed Jackson’s manifests and the idea of such expansion (Satz, 78-79).
There is no single opinion on the question of successes and failures of ‘Jacksonian democracy’. It is possible to state that many of Andrew Jackson’s decisions did not depend on the traditional democratic principles and involved controversial social and political issues as the problem of the Indians. Nevertheless, those Jackson’s actions opposed by the Whigs were actively supported by the public and influenced the further development of the nation.
Works Cited Meacham, Jon. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. USA: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2003. Print.
Ogg, Frederic A. The Reign of Andrew Jackson. USA: Qontro Classic Books, 2010. Print.
Satz, Ronald N. American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era. USA: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Print.
Argument for Gay marriages Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract There have been heated debates over legalization of gay marriages in the society with varied opinions on its acceptance all over the world. Legal and social issues come into force when the debate of gay marriages is discussed. The parameter that gets a lot of attention when gay marriage is discussed is the legal issue because it entails issues to do with civil and basic equal rights.
It is argued that, even though gay marriage is not acceptable to many people, the choice of lifestyle should be respected. There is no tangible evidence though not a fact, that gay marriage has any harm in the society. Some researchers argue that there are good reasons to support legalization of gay marriage.
On the contrary, other scholars propose that legalizing same sex marriages will lead to enactment of more gay rights with time. Serious effects on religious beliefs and communities that oppose same sex marriages in the society may also be encouraged. Some of the laws that are likely to be enacted are those that will compel employers and landlords to hire and lease their property to homosexuals respectively.
Despite the differences in sex orientations, many people hold to their principles and characters in life. Sex and romance activities among individuals who practice monogamous relationships in same sex marriages have proven to do well in the society.
This has been impounded by the decline of sexually transmitted illnesses among couples practicing homosexuality. Children brought up in such families grow up to be stable emotionally and financially. This is due to the fact that rearing of children would not stop even if same sex unions become dominant.
This may be necessitated by adoption and inheritance of children. Through these unions, individuals are able to make long term plans for investment by making sacrifices for future benefits. For all the good reasons for supporting opposite sex marriages, the benefits are the same for same sex unions. This is due to the fact that same sex unions cannot lead to accidental kids, which result in an assumption that same sex marriage should be the most preferred.
Body Enacting laws that recognize gay marriages would be beneficial to the society in the sense that it promotes equal rights among members of the society. Even though the law recognizes marriage, it should not be taken as a moral right but a sign of appreciation because it does not specify sexual orientation. Therefore, it follows that legalizing same sex marriages is a promotion of harmony in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I would also argue that refusing to legalize gay marriages would not affect the perceptions of people about the act of homosexuality. This can adversely affect the livelihoods of people. In my opinion, gay marriage is not immoral, and the globe would be better placed if all people believe the same.
If discrimination on sexual orientation is persistently practiced, the situation would get worse and cases of abuse would grow rampantly. Therefore, continuous legal bias against gay marriage would contribute to harmful behaviors against other people in the community.
People who oppose gay marriage argue that the practice would adversely affect opposite sex marriages. I do not agree that allowing close to three percent of the population to practice homosexuality would have a harmful effect on the whole population. Making the practice legal would make some people who are heterosexuals shift towards homosexual practices.
There are some individuals who display both homosexual and heterosexual tendencies and are referred to as bisexuals. These groups of people would likely shift to one of the orientations if gay marriages are legalized given their interpretation of the law and the benefits that they would get from the constitution.
Enacting laws that legalize same sex marriages would have very little effect on the way things are carried in the society. As much as there is little to benefit from this practice, the benefits are almost insignificant to members of the society. It is obvious that there are benefits of giving preference to opposite sex marriages. Some people argue that engaging gay marriages encourages the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
I would argue that just as the practice is the same with same sex marriages, there is a greater risk of sexually transmitted diseases in opposite sex marriages compared to gay unions. In the same manner that multiple relationships expose people to sexually transmitted diseases, the same applies to homosexuals who engage with multiple partners. Therefore, gay marriages cannot be merely dismissed on the basis that it propagates transmission of STDs.
From the ancient times, the practice of marriage has always meant the union between a man and a woman and has passed the times from one generation to another. Throughout all the civilizations and modernization that have been witnessed in the globe, polygamy has not been done away with and has remained to be a normal practice among many nations.
We will write a custom Essay on Argument for Gay marriages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With all the civilizations that have been witnessed in history, same sex practices have merely been witnessed. There are worries that this practice would destabilize the longest practices of opposite sex marriages. There are numerous changes in the society that have been witnessed in the recent past including premature sex, divorce, and separation. Some people argue that these occurrences have contributed to a better society but on the other extreme, they have caused harmful effects in the society.
In the same manner that these changes intruded the society like premature sex and divorce, allowing gay marriages would not cause any harm to members of the society but would bring more good. A very small percentage of people would be affected and a state of stability would be promoted among individuals who practice it.
When gay marriages are discussed, most people conclude that the act between two individuals of the same gender is not a natural biological process. They argue this on the basis that the act does not lead to procreation.
If one was to consider that the union of marriage must lead to children, then there would be severe consequences for people who could not get children as a result of sterility or impotence. If it is compulsory that people must give birth to children in marriage, then one is left to wonder the reason for marriage of women who have aged beyond menopause.
This implies that it would be unfair to discriminate against impotent, sterile and aged people. Therefore, it follows people marry for important reasons that include getting children, individual commitment, religious identification, satisfaction and to meet the requirements of the law.
In addition, one cannot merely dismiss the idea of marriage on the basis of age, sterility or impotence clinging on the traditional concept that it is meant for procreation. Gay marriages should, therefore, be allowed irrespective of the reason for their union.
Another popular idea in the public domain is that legalizing gay marriage would endanger the institution of marriage. Majority of the people who are conservatives argue that the institution of marriage is the most important unit in the society.
In my opinion, to deny people from getting into unions is a strange rejection of their basic right. A few years ago, blacks were not allowed to marry the whites yet very few people raised concerns that it was denial of a right. It would not be right to say that bad things would happen if gay marriages are legalized. Those people who criticized contraceptives argued that legalizing it would lead to bad things, though the implementation has brought many good things with it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Argument for Gay marriages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To date, the original meaning of marriage has undergone a lot of changes in several dimensions. It is bias to look at marriage from one point of view and leave the other. For instance, making women be owners of property even in their marriage life, or giving them room to sue their husbands of rape. As a result, for any reform that is anticipated in the society, it would be unfair to consider only people among different sex partners without considering homosexuals.
Traditional beliefs which do not support gay marriage have contradictions. According to some researchers, there are very few marriage practices that are believed to be traditional and are indeed in tandem with traditional practices. One of the practices is that marriage is a union between two people. Looking at the bible, there are many instances of men with many wives. For instance, Jacob had two wives who twelve tribes of Israel originated from.
This is typically a religious dimension. In the ancient times, marriage was not recognized in the law neither did it have any attachments with property in Europe’s prole marriages. Marriage was about agreement as a result of love and no attachment to property. All the ideologies that support the concept of marriage today are inconsistent and illogical. Therefore, marriage has been practiced differently in all the communities in the world and gay marriages should be given a chance.
As I stated earlier, being gay is not something of a choice rather, it is something to do with a biological explanation. Most gay people have secondary characteristics resembling people of the opposite sex, some of which are like soft skin, soft voice even the walking gait resembles that of the opposite sex. Secondary sexual characteristics are usually brought about by the hormones in the body. Male and female have different hormonal balance, some are dominant than others.
This is purely biological occurrence not influenced by external forces. In case of a male with female hormones dominating against female hormones, he may develop secondary sexual characteristics resembling that of female. Gay should just be taken as a lifestyle and not be viewed as people with no morals.
Discriminating gay is like discriminating against minority religious groups. Laws in a country are based on religion which is dominant, how about religions which do not have many followers, should they be discriminate against in the expense of the others or treated equally.
This is against the law of freedom of worship. Some religions believe in gay marriages and based on the freedom of worship, gay marriages should not be discriminated against. Therefore, I propose that gay individuals in the society should be embraced and treated normally as others.
Conclusion Gay is a practice that has been brought about in the society as a result of modernization and civilization. Just like any other changes in the society, gay marriages should not be condemned. People should accept the practice in the society so that there is understanding and respect of people’s rights. As argued above, I strongly support legalization of gay marriages.
References American Civil Liberties Union. 1996. Gay Marriage. California, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Sullivan, A. 2000. Why ‘civil union’ isn’t marriage. Web.
The Issue of Abortion Essay writing essay help
Introduction Since the Supreme Court made abortion a legal procedure in the United States over three decades ago, the issue of abortion has continued to elicit highly charged debate both in the political and social scenes (McCoy 45-50). In such a context, inflammatory anti-abortion versus pro-choice sentiments are inevitable, hence the need to use a rational approach in this crucial topic.
In this paper, I discuss the litigious issue of abortion on a moderate position. I argue that the act of abortion is morally wrong and problematic. However, minimal/slight moral permissibility of this act should be allowed especially during instances of need to restore the health of the mother.
The Moderate Position of Abortion The moderate position on abortion is a mid-position that agrees to the moral permissibility of some abortions, but at the same time considering suffering and pain both on the part of the mother and fetus. Therefore, the moderate position regards the mother and fetus as having certain entitlements and rights.
It also recognizes that permissibility of abortion causes suffering to both the mother and fetus. In this sense, a moderate position considers the moral permissibility of some abortions while at the same time having a sense of loss of entitlements to the mother and fetus. In the moderate position, abortion is only indicated in the hardest instances e.g. abortion may be considered in cases where the life of the fetus greatly puts the life of the mother at risk (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
Why I Agree With the Moderate Position A moderate position on abortion is a strong and comprehensive argument against the act of abortion, especially regarding issues of morality and permissibility. This is because philosophers have argued that a woman has duty to protect herself while at the same time having much consideration to the life of the fetus (the moral status of the fetus) (McCoy 45-50).
In this part, while I concur with the liberalist position that the life and the agency of a pregnant mother should take precedent over fetal life, such people must also bear the consideration that the life of a fetus is a potential human life and the act of aborting a fetus entails ending this life. Therefore in this context, I consider the right to life and other entitlements of the fetus as important discussions which should be engaged especially when addressing litigious issues of abortion (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
Since the conservative approach towards abortion strictly prohibits abortion, it denies the mother the rights and entitlements she should access, such as the right to life. A moderate position is an important position which I adopt because it prohibits the act of abortion, while giving a chance for slight/minimal permissibility where the life and entitlements of the woman have to be protected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, I adopt this position because I consider the act of abortion of a fetus which endangers the life of the mother as being morally permissible and therefore the moderate position on abortion is a more comprehensive solution and should be adopted. In addition and from a philosophical perspective, a mother who continues to carry a fetus which greatly endangers her life denies herself the ‘perfect duties’ which she should accord herself and her body (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
The moderate position regarding abortion is the best position I adopt because it does not set the bar too low regarding the permissibility abortion. This is because this position is considerate of the fetus as a potential human life which has rights and entitlements.
In this case, moderate positions on discussions of abortion prohibit approaches which tend to lie greatly towards permissibility while at the same time refuting conservative approaches which insists on absolute impermissibility of abortion. Therefore I consider this position the best which should e adopted as a societal approach to curb increased permissibility of the act or total impermissibility.
For instance, the argument by liberalists on this matter that abortion should be allowed in various circumstances and a wide range of moral justifications contravenes the right to life of the fetus as a potential human being. This is because in my perception, the liberal position sets the bar too low regarding the permissibility of the act of abortion e.g. the suggestion that abortion should be allowed in certain instances like maintaining the bodily integrity of the mother is ‘a bar too low to set’ regarding the permissibility of abortion.
In addition, philosophers e.g. McCoy have argued that a woman who aborts or considers an abortion just to maintain her twenty six inch waist denies the fetus the right to life and goes against the natural orientation which perceives women as having the natural and ethical desire to love, nurture and care for their children (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
Therefore in my argument, I settled on the moderate position because it does not set the bar too low regarding permissibility of abortions. In my opinion, a woman who aborts because effects of pregnancy and motherhood are incompatible with her life projects contravenes the rights to which the fetus is entitled e.g. the right to life.
Therefore, the moderate position is best to be adopted. For instance, in my view, it is morally permissible for women to have abortions in cases of great need to safeguard their life but such reasons propounded by liberalists such as rewarding hobbies, once-in-a-lifetime trips, and important careers are imperfect choices which should not be morally and legally permissible (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Abortion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rights Ethical Approach Therefore the moderate position which I adopt to argue the issue of abortion emanates from the rights ethical approach. In the moderate position, I argue that abortion should only be allowed for the hardest of indications e.g. safeguarding the health of the mother or a deformity of the fetus.
From the rights ethical approach, I have mentioned that the act of abortion is morally wrong and should be permissible only during hard indications. Since the fetus is a potential human life which has rights and entitlements, it should not be aborted unless strongly indicated.
Therefore, the most ethical choice for women is to carry the pregnancy to term, as aborting the child for reasons short of ‘hard indications’ is unethical and a disregard of the fetus as a potential human life which has a right to live. In addition, using this approach, the mother has an ethical obligation to the fetus as she knew that the act of sex which she got involved in would result to a pregnancy.
It is also natural and ethical for women to desire to love, nurture and care for their children, thus abortion is regarded as unethical unless indicated. Furthermore, the fetus is a potential human life with moral standing and complete with rights and entitlements. Thus aborting a fetus for reasons below the ‘hard indications’ bar is unethical, morally wrong and a contravention of the right of the fetus as a potential human life (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
How People Who Don’t Agree With the Moderate Position Might State Their Position Since my argument in this paper lies in the moderate position, it is inevitable that it is likely to elicit debate in different scenes such as philosophical and social scenes. A conservative approach to the issue of abortion adopts a position of absolute impermissibility; hence such conservative positions should be moderated to adopt some extent of permissibility.
Similarly, the liberal approach should be moderated to adopt slight permissibility of abortion. Therefore, liberalists should not set their bar too low (regarding permissibility) and the conservatives too high (regarding impermissibility) (Shannon and Kockler 82-88; McCoy 45-50).
Conclusion In the above paper, I have adopted the moderate position to explore the issue of abortion. I have also used the rights ethical approach to explore this topic. As abortion continues to raise heated debate in various parts of the world, the moderate position is the most comprehensive approach towards addressing issues of permissibility. This is because a mid-position considers the rights and entitlements of both the mother and fetus.
Works Cited McCoy, Ronny. The Morality of Abortion, Coe College: Coe College Press, 2011. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Issue of Abortion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shannon, Thomas, and Kockler Nicholas. An Introduction to Bioethics, Paulist: Paulist Press, 2009. Print.
The Investigation of Ethical Issues in The Tell-Tale Heart and The Pond Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
In a nutshell, ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with human behavior and how people should live. Ethics deals with the capability to determine what is right or wrong. There are many ways to investigate ethics. There are many ways that can be used to determine if a decision made was the most ethical thing to do.
There are many ways that can be used to achieve that goal but an interesting method is to develop a short story to deal with ethical issues. This technique was used in the development of The Pond (Munro, 2000) and Tell-Tale Heart (Poe, 2004). These two stories examine the thoughts and feelings of someone who wanted to do something unethical.
In Munro’s The Pond there are at least three ethical issues. First of all, the heroine in the story contemplated suicide. She was always fascinated with death. She kept on talking about death in the same way that a person talks about their chauffeur that was about to fetch them. In other words she made people understand that at any moment the Angel of Death will come and whisk her away. Her morbid fascination with death graduated to suicidal thoughts when she married a man who did not share her interest in the spiritual realm.
Her husband pushed her to the breaking point because they had very little in common. She realized this problem a few days after her marriage. Their thoughts occupy different spheres. She was interested in the unseen while her husband was focused on the practical aspects of life.
He reasoned out that life has many troubles. His philosophy is supported by various events in his life as a farmer and businessman. He had to contend with different types of problems, from government related difficulties to pest control troubles in his farm.
His indifference towards his wife brings to the surface the second ethical issue. The secondary problem is related to an ethical dilemma with regards to the responsibility of the husband to provide and care for the family. It is an ethical dilemma because the husband is supposed to work hard in order to provide food, clothing and shelter for wife and children.
However, the wife and the children made demands beyond the scope of physical needs. They also demanded emotional fulfillment through the interactions in a husband and father relationship. The added demand is a problem because it requires time to take care of the farm and create a system that will yield a profit. However, it also requires time to establish an emotional connection with the family.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problems at home brought to the surface the third ethical issue in the story. The other issue was not developed fully but it can be argued that the heroine of the story was so unhappy with the marriage that she wanted a way out. The conventional and legal way to break-up a marriage was not available to Mona and John.
If they lived in the big city, perhaps they could have availed of a legal remedy. But since they were in a rural area, marriage was expected to last for a lifetime and only death can separate them. It is the inability to find a solution to her predicament that led Mona to contemplate suicide. It has been made clear that these three different ethical dilemmas were all related to each other.
Munro investigated the ethical issues not by pointing out the best way to deal with the problem. The author presented the different aspects of the ethical issues and provides a framework for the reader to understand why it is called a dilemma. In other words, Munro found a way to examine the different components of the ethical problem to demonstrate that human beings are prone to these problems not because they are inherently bad, but because of the circumstances that they cannot control. Nevertheless, this does not suggest that suicide is an acceptable behavior. The moral of the story is that it is important to determine the underlying factors before judgment is made.
In Edgar Allan Poe’s The Tell-Tale Heart there are two major ethical issues. The first one is the desire to kill a person not because of self-defense but fear. The action of the killer is questioned because of the motive. In most societies, the murder of a person is acceptable only on one condition and that is self-defense. The ability to take away the life of another is so contemptible that it is justified to kill to prevent the murder of an innocent person. Therefore, there is no greater sin than to murder an innocent man.
In the Tell-Tale Heart the man’s obsession to murder his employer was not only despicable it can be considered as an act of lunacy. This impression comes early in the reading of the story that the narrator himself became defensive and stated that it is unfair to judge his mental state and compare it to those who belong to the psychiatric ward of a hospital. But there is no other explanation for his bazaar behavior. He was the one who divulged that he had no ill-feeling toward his victim.
It is interesting to point out that in the examination of the ethical dilemma faced by the murderer he had to find a justification for his action. Thus, the author wanted to demonstrate that those who are guilty will always have the burden to prove their case.
Those who have nothing to hide are not bothered by this need. But those who are guilty, the need to clarify their motives and the need to present the rationale for their action forced them to find someone who can empathize with them. It is illustrated in the story through the manic behavior of the killer.
We will write a custom Essay on The Investigation of Ethical Issues in The Tell-Tale Heart and The Pond specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The killer said that he was nervous and this confession reminds the reader that the business of taking away another person’s life is never going to be a pleasant experience. The author made it clear that a murderer is still a human being and subjected to the same emotional burdens that accompany an action that is considered barbaric in many cultures.
However, the author also illustrated the reason why a murderer continues with the plan even when confronted with vexed emotions and other factors that make it extremely difficult to carry out the plan.
In the story the author pointed out that the fear of being caught and the fear of legal repercussion is overpowered by the nagging feeling of discomfort that only the killer can understand. In this particular case, the killer feared the “eye” of the victim.
He was so frustrated and so uncomfortable every time the victim gazes at him. It created in him such a level of discomfort that the only way to relieve that pain and to correct the problem is to find a way to close the eye forever. There is no other option for him other than to take away the life of his employer.
The second ethical issue that was addressed in the story is the problem when it comes to covering up the crime. The negative feeling of covering up the deed is linked to the consequences if the perpetrator of the crime is apprehended by the authorities. The killer succeeded in eliminating what he believed was a threat to his well-being. However, the eradication of his employer will have no value if he is apprehended by the authorities. Thus, the same energy used to commit the crime was the same energy expended for the cover-up.
One can just imagine the stress and the anxiety that the killer felt as he worked overnight and overtime to conceal the crime. He said that he worked with the speed of the wind but he was able to accomplish all of that in silence. There is no need to elaborate how difficult it is to work without creating a sound.
Pulling out the planks from the floor in a normal manner is a tremendously difficult task. But if one will add another requirement, which is to remove the boards without creating a sound to alert the neighbor, it will require double effort. There is the need to apply strength to remove the board and another extra effort not to let any vibration or collision of objects in order to prevent unnecessary noise.
The author illustrated the difficulty felt by the murderer before the crime was committed and after the criminal act was brought to completion. The author did not only provide a way to present an ethical dilemma but also made it clear that the criminals suffer from the consequences of their actions. They suffer not only from the legal ramifications of their actions but also from the torment that they received from a conscience that bothers them continuously.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Investigation of Ethical Issues in The Tell-Tale Heart and The Pond by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The secondary problem discussed in the story is the difficulty of covering up the crime. The killer experiences changes in demeanor as well as thought patterns. In this particular case, the killer was so distraught about the whole criminal act that he was forced to the brink of a mental breakdown. He tried to keep it under control. But when the investigators came to pay him a visit, everything was unraveled. He could no longer control his emotions and he began to see and hear things.
The author made it clear that guilt as a result of a non-resolution of an ethical dilemma or the violation of an ethical standard can result in unpleasant mental and emotional effects. The conscience of that person will continue to hound him until he can no longer deal with the consequences of his actions.
Conclusion Ethical dilemmas were present in both stories. The main characters were faced with problems that made them emotionally and mentally unstable. Both authors attempted to point out that there is an underlying reason why a person is forced to commit a crime or to break a particular ethical standard. Munro and Poe did not develop a legal discourse in order to show the difference between acceptable and non-acceptable behavior.
They used a different strategy to investigate the ethical dilemmas in the story. They made it clear that an unacceptable behavior can make life difficult for the person. But indirectly, they were able to show that it is important to find out the reason behind an action because most of the time people are forced to violate an ethical standard to find relief to an emotional or mental struggle.
References Munro, S. (2000). The pond. Web.
Poe, E. (2004). The tell-tale heart. Web.
The Teachings of Sikh Report college application essay help
Sikhism began way back in the 16th century in India by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It was responsible for establishing the religion. Guru Nanak advanced the ideology of devotion, and put an emphasis on the importance of giving priority to God. In this respect, Sikh refers to a ‘disciple.’ Additionally, it also refers to people who subscribe to the teachings of Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of Sikh. Today, 2% of all the Indians in the world practice Sikhism.
Sikhs teachings about the four Gurus include the teachings about Guru Nanak. He is explained as the founder of the religion who lived in the period of 1469-1539. He had mastered Punjabi, Persian and Sanskrit. Additionally, he has revolted against caste, hypocrisy, ritualism and the practice of idolatry. He moved throughout India and spoke against the sacrifice of widows, empty rituals of religion, and the caste system.
The second teaching of Guru is about Guru Angad who lived in the period 1539-1552. He is said to have introduced the Gurumukhi, which is the written equivalent of Punjabi. He is taught as a model of self-less service to other Sikhs. They say, he had also emphasized on devoted prayers (Willard, Oxtoby
Does the Vice Presidency have power because the office has grown or because power is tendered by the sitting President? Term Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale for the Study
Introduction In the history of the American governance, different Vice Presidents have held different powers with some being powerful and influential than others. This has caused a debate in the country regarding the source of the VP powers. The argument has been whether the power is in the VP office or the sitting president decides to share his/her powers with the vice president.
This calls for the need to explore this situation and determine the source and nature of this power. This is a proposal for a research to dig deeper in this issue to determine and establish the powers of the Vice President in the government of the United States.
Rationale for the Study Different vice presidents in the American government have portrayed varying powers with some being extremely influential and powerful than others. With the current Constitution, the powers vested in the office are clearly stated. However, history shows that some VPs have shown enormous powers under different sitting presidents.
For example, Dick Cheney and Walter Mondale are two famous vice presidents who had enormous VP powers and made many decisions during the time. On the other hand, Vice President Bush had minimal powers during the Ronald Reagan Administration.
These observations therefore call for a research study to explore the unique powers of different vice presidents in the history of the United States. The most important thing is to explore how the Vice Presidents in the country receive and exercise such powers.
Using the examples of Dick Cheney, Walter Mondale, and Bush, the study will analyze the source of the VP power in different governments led by different presidents. This will establish if the sitting presidents decide to grant their powers to the Vice Presidents or the office has such powers.
Research Questions The research will present meaningful solutions to this question: Does the Vice Presidency have power because the office has grown or the sitting president decides to tender power to the Vice President? The study will explain the Constitutional powers of the VP office and determine if the office has grown to become powerful or whether the sitting presidents willingly share power with the VPs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussions In this study, the key perspectives of the research question is whether the presidents decide to share their powers with the vice presidents, or whether the office of vice president have grown to become powerful within the last few decades. If that is so, the study will determine why they have been differences in power possessions by deferent VPs in the American history.
The findings will therefore explain why some VPs in the United States have shown enormous powers while others have played minor roles in governing and making decision during their respective terms in office.
Conclusion With increased VP power, chances are high that the office might offer enormous challenge to the power of the president. There are implications such as war decisions made by the vice president that might have enormous impacts on the power of the president. This has been a source of debate regarding whether presidents should grant their VPs powers, or whether the VP should be granted with such powers. The research study will discuss this issue in details and present the way forward for better governance in the United States.
Bibliography Goldstein, Joel. “The Rising Power of the Modern Vice Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 10, no. 11. (July 2008); 34-49.
Jillson, Cal. American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change. New York: Taylor and Francis Press, 2005.
Wilson, James. American Government: Brief Version. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
Footnotes Joel Goldstein. “The Rising Power of the Modern Vice Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 10, no. 11. (July 2008); p. 49.
Cal Jillson. American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change. (New York: Taylor and Francis Press, 2005), p. 32.
James Wilson. American Government: Brief Version. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011), p. 83.
AT online essay help: online essay help
Job analysis refers to the information about the roles and tasks in performance of a given job. It ensures that the employees will be handling manageable tasks that are assigned to them. Job description refers to the written explanations about what a particular job entails in terms of the responsibilities and the results expected by the employer (Jackson, Schuler
The Photon Definition and Effects Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents The photon description
The photon properties
Lab experiments about the photon
Experiments conducted on the mass of a photon
The particle-wave duality
The life cycle of the photon
The photon description Basically, a photon may be termed as a quantum, a detached packet of light or an electromagnetic power. This implies that the photon occurs as an electromagnetic force carter, a different kind of electromagnetic radiation and a light quantum. The electromagnetic force effects can simply be observed under the macroscopic and atomic level since the photon is massless at rest.
In fact, the photon seems to be constantly moving and while in vacuities, each and every viewer can tell that it bears a constant velocity of light which is 2.998×108 meters per second. This readily lets in the long distance interactions. However, given that the photon appears like any other elementary particle, it is presently best described as a duality particle which exhibits both the properties of particles as well as waves (Griffiths 15).
The photon properties From the theory of light, the photon:
Have zero rest energy and mass
Can have collisions or particle like interactions with other particles and electrons
Can move in free space at a constant light speed of 2.998×108 m/s
Can be created or destroyed when the emission or absorption of radiation occurs
Carries momentum and energy that similarly relates to electromagnetic wavelength lambda and the frequency nu.
Lab experiments about the photon Various laboratory experiments have been conducted to prove the viability of the above named photon properties. These are as subsequently discussed.
Experiments conducted on the mass of a photon Photon is still perceived to be massless, and this has been subject to experimental investigations. Lab results show that if a photon particle has some mass, it will fail to travel at a similar velocity as light when in a free space. The speed will rely on its frequency yet it will be lower.
Since its relativity is not affected by this factor, the light velocity will not be the definite speed that the photon will move at. It will rather be a constant speed that an object can hypothetically reach as its maximum while in a free space (Grangier et al. 74). This means that it will not be the photons speed, but the space time velocity for gravitons and gravitational waves.
Under Coulombs law, the effects of a massive photon are made apparent. The electromagnetic fields are seen to have some degrees of freedom with the modification of this law. The tentative lab review indicated that the quantity of a photon produces very complex upshots in comparison to the reliance on the light velocity frequency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, if this law is held invalid, the subjection of a photon to external electric fields would cause some electric field to be present within the hollow-conductor. This means that there is some accuracy that a photon bears no mass this law (Dehlinger and Mitchell 903). Finally, in a galactic vector potential experiment, it was observed that when a photon has no mass, magnetic field will be observed and the reverse also holds.
The particle-wave duality Just like any other quantum element, the photon tends to display the characteristic of both particles and waves. It is very hard to visualize the particle-wave dualistic nature. However, laboratory experiments confirm that the photon noticeably shows waves-like occurrences namely interfering as well as diversion on its wavelength measures.
For instance, in an experimental illustration, there was a real slit that was ran across, and one photon which passed through that double slit experiment landed on the used screen and exhibited the interference incidence (Hardy 1666). Founded on Maxwell photon function, such an occurrence is dubbed as chance distribution.
The laboratory experiment nonetheless verified that the photons barely fragment or divide when they are meeting ray-splitters. Moreover, they hardly sprawl as they propagate since they are not tiny electromagnetic energy beats. Most experiments indicate that photons are more similar to the point like particles.
From these experiments, the assertions are that the photons are emitted and absorbed in totality by very lesser systems as compared with their wavelengths and these include the point like electrons or even the atomic nucleus which approximately measures 10-15 metres across.
Einstein and other scientist conceived that photons are point like units whose paths become formed by chance. Current lab experiments have shown that this is not the case and the proposition was disproved by the lab experiments known as the photon correlation experiment (Hardy 1667). The experiments showed that the photons produce the electromagnetic fields by themselves that sequentially stem from the quantum field theoretical laws and the local gauge symmetry.
Furthermore, as photons pass via the double slit experiments, corresponding interference patterns are likely to be generated by both the material particles along with the photons. With respect to the measurable atoms, such an incidence takes place due to Schrodinger wave-function. In contrast, Maxwell light-wave interfering is assumed to be the basis in relation to the photons.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Photon Definition and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, physicists have disagreed with the assumption that both Schrodinger and Maxwell equations for the proton are similar. Mathematically, lab experiments have disproved this postulation by showing that they are totally different because the probability wave function by Schrodinger merely explains the complex fields whilst the equation formed by Maxwell explains issues encountered in the real field.
Schrodinger equation is hence not applicable to the photons. Since photons have no masses, their localization cannot happen without any destruction (Kwiat and Hardy 34). The lab experiment nullification of the Heisenberg normal uncertainty principle which was linked to photons implies that it is only the second quantum photons theory that is generally accepted by physicists.
The life cycle of the photon All photons normally behave in a similar way. In vacuums, photons tend to travel at a similar velocity with other forms of energies. Light which is defined as photons permits the disappearance as well as the absorption of light that is to be visualized. On metal surfaces, when an incident of the photons occurs, all energies will be transferred to the electrons and the photon will disappear (Hardy 1666). The electron which has the photon charges will then depart the metallic cover. This is illustrated in the diagram 1 below.
In diagram 1, all the energies are transferred to electrons by the photon incident that takes place on the metal surface within a free space. In fact, photoelectric effect occurs if an electron that has the photon energy tries to leave the metal surface but becomes detected.
At exceptional high powers, photons could produce electrons. At this point, positrons (anti particles of an electron which is definitely indicted with matching electron mass) in addition to electrons are formed at great resultant powers. The gamma-ray similarly dubbed as great electrical powers vanishes when positrons in addition electrons are made in the brace making. See diagram 2 below.
The electron anti-particles along with the electrons which are reversely indicted particles mutually reunite then vanish when the photon is formed. When visible light is available, the created photons become engrossed and then vanish as they give their energy to the furthest atomic electrons which seem to be seized in position by little electron voltage energy. Diagram 3 below exhibits an eventual photon that loses its energies and disappears through transferring electrons to upper energy levels.
The path taken by light is always reversible under bending and mirror image. An identical reversibility is usually found when electron and photons interacts. In diagram 3 above, when the energetic electron goes back to the initial place, the energy transferred during the shift from higher energy states to lower states materializes in form of the photon.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Photon Definition and Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In pair production, similar reversibility is also apparent (Hardy 1667). The entire processes are what give rise to the photon life cycle which is represented by the creation and disappearance of photons and electrons.
Basically, the photon life-cycle is soundly expounded on by photons as well as electrons interfaces as revealed in chart 4 below.
In this diagram, the electron life cycle shows that when an electron loses energy at point ‘a’, it leads to the creation of the photon. This photon at point ‘b’ travels within the available space and encounters the electron at point ‘c’ then it vanishes.
Conclusion Even though the photon is massless, it appears as a simple atom or particle. Laboratory experiments have shown that the photon might not decay by itself even when its energy is produced and transmitted as the photon interacts with another particle. Further, experiments have shown that the photon appears to be electrically neutral and bear particles which are similar to the anti-photons.
Works Cited Dehlinger, David and Wilson Mitchell. “Entangled photons, non-locality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory.” American Journal of Physics 70 (2002): 903-910. Print.
Grangier, Peter, Greg Roger and Andrea Aspect. “Experimental evidence for a photon anti-correlation effect on a beam splitter: A new light on single-photon interferences.” Euro physics Letter 1 (1986): 173-179. Print.
Griffiths, David. Introduction to Elementary Particles, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2008. Print.
Hardy, Larry. ‘‘No locality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states.’’ Phys. Rev. Lett. 71.2(1993): 1665–1668. Print.
Kwiat, Paul and Larry Hardy. “The mystery of the quantum cakes.” American Journal of Physics 68 (2000): 33-36. Print.
The History of Relational Database Technology Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of SQL
Historical Background of Object Oriented Systems
Evolution and History of System R.
Introduction In recent times the use of object-oriented designs in manufacture of software has skyrocketed. This has led software engineers to think of ways of coming up with database systems that are object oriented since they are much capable of meeting market needs. At the moment, there is no standardized language that can be used to program relational database systems. The field of relational database is still evolving and stakeholders hope to formalize some standards for object oriented database systems.
To maximize utility of relational database systems, concerted efforts must be initiated and which should aim at containing the shortcomings associated with the current technology. A historical analysis of evolution of relational database technology will help us to understand how object oriented database systems can be implemented with the aim of eliminating the aforementioned shortcomings.
Relational database system is defined as a database that allows any data visible to the user to be organized in form of tables that allow all operations on them to be possible (Chamberlin, 1990).Database refers to collectively to data or information organized and stored in a manner than allows for quick access to enhance usability.
Between 1950 and 1960, a system called database management system was invented which provided necessary functionality for maintenance, creation and modification of databases. This systems were however not efficient due to complexity associated with them. A client in database client/server architecture makes an application by requesting for data related services e.g. filtering or sorting from a server (Batory, 1998). The later is also known as the sequel/ SQL engine or database server in full.
The clients request is granted by the SQL by returning a secured access to data that is to be shared. SQL statements allow client applications to perform certain operations on a set of server database records such as retrieval and modification of data. The engine also allows for other operations to be performed on the data such as filtering of query result sets there by improving communication of saved data.
There are various types of database management systems such as hierarchical databases, network databases and relational database models. The later had less advantages compared to the previous ones. This led into increased interest in how it worked. Relational database systems are unique in that data is organized in separate structures commonly known as tables which can be linked so as to enhance storage of data.
This model was first discovered by Dr. Codd who’s aimed at was to eliminate shortcomings of the previous database management which was mainly huge amounts of information and complexity. Dr. Codd invented relational database management model in 1970 at San Jose Research Laboratory. Sequel or structured query Language is one of the most renowned standardized languages for enhancing interaction with a database.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More History of SQL Dr. Codd and his colleagues had developed SQL or SEQUEL (Sequential English QUEry Language) as a data sublanguage for relational model at IBM San José Research Laboratory in 1970. The language was originally put down in a series of papers from 1974.
IBM used this language in a prototype relational system known as system R. which was developed in 70s (Codd, 1970). Other prototypes that were developed then include INGRESS and Test Vehicle developed by University of California Berkeley and IBM UK Scientific Laboratory respectively.
The first relational database management to be released to the market came about when system R was refined and evaluated in 1981 to come up with fine product that was user friendly. Other DBMS (database management systems) developed using SQL included Oracle, IBM DB2 in 1970 and 1983 respectively.
Other relational DBMS that were to later incorporate SQL into their system included but not limited to, MySQL,Paradox, FoxPro and hundreds of others (Codd, 1970). Dr. Codd’s 12 initial rules for relational database model have increased through time to total up to 333.
SQL was endorsed as the standard language for relational databases by both International standards Organization and ANSI, the American National Standards Institute. Its use was formalized in 1986 and given the name SQL 1. Three years down the line, a publication of some trivial revision known as SQL-89 was made. However, during the year 1992, major revisions were done and endorsed by both ISO and ANSI.
These revisions reduced the size of SQL and made it simpler to use. In 1999, another SQL standard known as SQL: 1999 was published and endorsed by ANSI and ISO. This version which is currently in use had additional features such as user-defined data types and most importantly, it had object-oriented data management capabilities. It is common to find most dealers of relational database management systems implement their own extensions of the SQL to enhance functionality.
Historical Background of Object Oriented Systems The need for advanced relational database technology that was easier to use made researchers consider the possibility of incorporating object oriented capability in DBMS. In 1980’s the disadvantages associated with relational database systems and the need to increase capacity of manageable objects led to the invention of commercial object-oriented database systems. Database systems have evolved overtime to allow for step by step incorporation of object oriented capabilities.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The History of Relational Database Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first object oriented language was Simula-67 in 1967. This was followed by Smalltalk. After this, the researchers saw it fit to come up with new languages by creating extensions of existing ones instead of coming up with a new language from scratch. Programming languages formed as a result of extension of LISP included LOOPS and Flavors (Codd, 1970).
Extensions were made to C to come up with languages like C and objective C and so on and so forth. Similarly semantic data models for database systems like ER/ entity relationship, DAPLEX and SDM were developed (Batory, 1998).
There are five generations of evolution of database technology. The first being files systems, followed by hierarchical database systems, then CODASYL database systems and the fourth one is the relational database systems. The fifth generation is still under development. The third and second generations had allowed remote users to access a central or integrated database.
However, it was difficult to navigate through these systems and there was no data independence. This led to the rise of the next generation of database systems, the fourth generation. The four generations are designed for use in business applications such as accounts, sales inventory, purchases inventory, pay roll and hundreds of other data processing applications. The fifth generation database technology is expected to meet needs that go beyond business applications.
The database systems have subsequently lain of some functionality from successive generations that caused users to suffer from fatigue due to repetitive nature of some functions. This has enhanced database systems by enabling programmers to carry out their duties with ease.
This move was no without some shortcomings since performance of these systems was compromised. This made researchers to work extra hard in trying to make sure that the performance of next generation of database technology was at par. The use of declarative queries in relational database made it easier for programmers to retrieve information from the database. Performance was enhanced by introducing a new functionality, the query optimizer that determined the fastest method of retrieving record from the database.
Concerted research efforts were focused on developing reliable relational database technology in 1970. This saw the introduction into the market of commercial relational database systems. Apparently, there were major shortcomings when it came to use of this technology in other applications.
Researchers undertook to investigate these shortcomings in the 80’s. The affected applications included knowledge based systems i.e. expert system shells etc, CAD, CASE, multimedia systems etc (Batory, 1998). The main difficulty arises from the difference that exists between programming languages and database languages in that their data structures and data model vary to a wide degree.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Relational Database Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evolution and History of System R. System R. was a prototype database system from where relational database technology was derived. This prototype proved that relational data model had various utility advantages that could be successfully realized in everyday use. The most important aspect of a computer is the ability to store and retrieve data.
Modern DBMS offer the user with the very much needed independence through the use of an advanced user interface. This allows the user to deal with every aspect of information content rather than representatives of that information i.e. lists, pointers, bits etc.
As stated earlier, the pioneer of relational data model was Dr. Codd in the early 70’s. According to Codd (1970) there are two ways through which conventional database systems store information:
Through record contents in the database.
Through the way in which these records are connected to each other.
This is to show that different systems use things such as parents, links etc to connect among the various records.
Codd observed that there were two important properties associated with relational database technology. First, data values represented all information and second the system is capable of supporting a very high level language. Through the later, the users were able to request for data without the unnecessary use algorithms. System R. was intended to accomplish seven goals.
System R. has three phases namely, ‘zero’ phase which occurred from 1974 to 1975 and it involved the development of a user interface. The other phase ‘one’ occurred from 1976 to 1977. This phase a fully functioning multiuser version of the prototype was designed. The final phase ‘two’ that occurred from 1978 to 1979 involved the evaluation of system R. after this, further experiments were carried out on the system but the system was not to be released to the market until much later.
Of particular concern to our historical review is the optimizer that was built at phase ‘zero’ and final phase ‘two’ that involves the introduction of the concept of normalization. As previously discussed, optimizer facilitates navigation in a database system by minimizing the number of page fetches through the use of clustering property. This is possible because a clustering index enables all records with the same key to be placed on the same page.
Phase ‘two’ took two years to be completed and it consisted of two main parts:
San Jose experiments that were conducted on system R.
Actual application of the system at various IBM sites and selected client outlets.
System R. was not to be used for any commercial purpose at this stage. This stage was to test the usability of the system on experimental basis only. The first experiment on usability of the product was carried out in 1997, June.
All users who were involved in the experiment gave positive feedback. Some of the qualities whose efficiency was being investigated included ability to reconfigure the database as fast as possible, high level of user language and ease of installation among other things. It was reported that several users found it possible to load a database with ease apart from being able to install and design the database.
Further reports suggested that users found it quite possible to adjust the performance of the database system after loading data by creating and dropping indices without interfering with the application programs or the ends user. Tables could be updated and database tables adjusted even when on read only mode.
Users rated the system R. experiment as satisfactory in terms of fair consumption of resources and performance that was ostensibly reliable for a project at an experimental level. Multiple users accessed the relatively smaller System R. experimental database; the number was often restricted to ten of them. Naturally, interactive response time was longer whenever a complicated SQL statement was being executed (Codd, 1970).
To solve this performance problem, a concept called normalization was taken into account. Since performance slowed down every time a complicated SQL involving several tables was being executed an alternative would be to break large database tables into smaller parts to eliminate the occurrence of redundancy and later joined back together by user applications or the view mechanism, this process is known as normalization.
Normalization Normalization is the process of eliminating redundant information from tables. It improves the efficiency of a database and makes the data resistant to corruption. For instance, if a certain computer user had two tables labeled Black and White and he uses both of them to store peoples contact details like cell phone numbers, postal addresses, emails etc. If the User changes or someone else makes changes to either of the tables, then there is the probability that changes made in table black will not reflect in table white and vice versa.
This means that if the user changed someone’s cell phone number in table white that change might not be shown in rows or columns of table black. If the change was to be shown, then it would involve tremendous amounts of work from the part of the user a case that would beat logic given that database systems are meant to improve efficiency and save the business as much time and money as possible.
This problem can be solved by keeping only the ID of the person in table Black. This will in turn give the user the freedom or independence to make changes of cell phone number or to make changes related to any other contact information in table white. Such adjustments or changes would be reflected on table black automatically.
References Batory, D., et al (1998). GENESIS: An Extensible Database Management System. IEEE Trans. On Software Engineering, 11(13), 12-14.
Chamberlin, D. (1990) Relational Database Management System. Computing Survey. 19(20), 5-9.
Codd, F. (1970) A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Communication. ACM. 13(6), 377-387.
The Interference of Colors Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
In physics, a new waveform results when two or more waves superimpose on each other, and this development is referred to as interference. This interference, as it applies to waves, is either constructive or destructive, or a combination of both. In constructive interference, “the amplitude of the wave that results is greater than that of the original waves” (Hecht 87).
This occurrence is in contrast to destructive interference whereby the amplitude of the resultant wave is lesser than that of the original. Light is made up of waves, obeys all the rules of waves, and is thus subject to superimposition, and hence interference.
For interference to occur, some conditions that relate to the source of light or waves should be taken into consideration. There should be coherence of the sources, that is, they must maintain a constant phase with respect to each other. The sources should also be monochromatic meaning that they have a single wavelength.
A commonly used method to produce coherent sources is by using a single source of light and illuminating a barrier with two slits. The light emerging from these slits is, thus coherent. The waves spread out from the slits according to Huygens principle, and this divergence of light from the initial line of travel is what is called diffraction (Gordon, Beichner, and Serway 23).
Thomas Young first demonstrated the principle of interference in light waves from two sources in 1801, where two slits acted as sources of the light waves. The waves were always in phase since they were from the same wave front. The light passed through the slits and illuminated a screen.
A stationary interference pattern occurred on the screen. Constructive interference occurred where dark fringes resulted while destructive interference occurred where bright fringes occurred (Jenkins and Harvey 65). This case is an outstanding example of interference of light from a coherent source.
The phenomenon of interference, depending on the mode of production, has traditionally been divided into two classes. In the first class, the division of the wave front into two parts produces the interference by use of the phenomenon of diffraction, refraction and reflection (Fowles 89).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Young’s double slit experiment falls under this form of interference. Amplitude division of the incident light produces the second nature of interference. This occurs by either parallel reflection or refraction of the incident light. The resulting light waves reinforce each other after covering different distances producing interference. An example of this form of interference is Newton’s ring.
The phenomenon of interference can explain the colors commonly seen on soap bubbles, oil slicks or even thin films. In all the above examples, interference pattern formation is by amplitude division. In the thin film observation, for example, plane waves fall on it, and light waves reflected from the lower and upper surfaces interfere with each other.
Since the condition of interference is influenced by the thickness of the film, angle of refraction and the wavelength, the eye observes different colors at different positions. Other colors will be absent where an only one-color maximum is satisfied, and hence only this color will be seen at this position (Knittl 43).
By using the same principle, Newton’s ring becomes easy to understand. If a Plano-convex lens is placed on a glass plate with its convex surface, a film of air with a gradually increasing thickness is formed in between the two. Alternating dark and bright circular fringes are seen when monochromatic light falls normally.
The fringes appear “circular because the air film has circular symmetry” (Jenkins and Harvey 49). The Newton’s rings are formed because of “the interference of the reflected waves from the top and bottom surfaces of the air films between the plates” (Knittl 46).
For the soap bubble, “light traveling through air strikes the soap film” (Bass 87). Air with has a larger refractive index than the film. Refraction occurs at the upper film surface, and transmission to the lower surface occurs interfering with the other waves. This creates the observed patter (Bass 88).
The soap bubble thus appears lovely with colors of the rainbow due to this phenomenon. The striking resemblance of the color patterns observed in the oil film and soap bubble only serves to indicate the similarity in the formation process of the two.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Interference of Colors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are many similar applications of this phenomenon of interference. Some animals we consider beautiful with iridescent colors apply this principle. An example is the Morpho didius butterfly, which commonly inhabits the Amazon rainforest and can be found flying high on a normal day.
It appears bright blue due to the natural grating on its wings. Most people would think that it is due to a dye. Another animal considered being among the most beautiful and attractive is the peacock with its colorful tail. It applies the principle of interference of colors that it acquired naturally to produce the different colors observed on its tail. Pearl shells and opals also utilize this principle of interference of light and colors for camouflage and beauty and is an eminent character in their process of finding a mate.
One or more colored light rings are usually seen around the moon when it shines through light clouds. This occurrence is due to the light from the moon diffracting as it penetrates the water and ice droplets in the light clouds.
These haloes seen around the moon also appear around streetlights on foggy or misty nights and are all because of the principle of diffraction and interference (Gordon, Beichner, and Serway 75). The colors appear beautiful and are because of the many wavelengths in light. Another example is the hazy appearance of smog.
Light passing through the smog particles is diffracted, scattered and absorbed producing the hazy appearance (Knittl 67). Research around this property has resulted to highly innovative inventions applied in some areas, around the world, to establish the cleanliness of air and water turbidity. This has contributed in efforts of environmental health and assessment of levels of pollution especially in the major cities of the world enabling proper environmental rehabilitation measures.
Holograms, like those seen on credit cards, for example, diffract each color from a different angle creating a complicated pattern of lines on the card. This behavior is utilized or security purposes. Diffraction is applied to measure exceptionally small distances, and diffraction grating is applied, in spectroscopes, to investigate the color component of light from specified sources. In diffraction grating, each color of light diffracts, at a specified angle, producing the various colors.
Thin films have the commercial use in mirrors, optical fibers and anti-reflection coatings as well as other optical materials. For a given wavelength, “thin films are in the market engineered to control the amount of light transmitted or reflected through a surface” (Jenkins and Harvey 35). A Fabry-Perot etalon utilizes “the principle of the thin film interference to select the wavelengths of light transmitted through this device” (Bass 47).
A special application of the above properties of light is in interferometry, which is the science, and art of using coherent light to make measurements. When interference of light is measured, then the distance it has covered is easily established. Some of the applications of interferometry are optical testing, which is the use of interferometry to measure surface quality and inspection of slip gauges and measurement standards.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Interference of Colors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another application in interferometry is direct phase measurements in multiple wavelengths and phase stepping and phase shifting. Another use is in the alignment of unusually high quality lenses such as those used in telescopes, cameras, and steppers, which are photolithographic tool used in fabricating intricate circuit patterns.
Another use is to measure small angular sizes from distant stars. The oldest form of interferometer that is used is the Michelson interferometer, but which has been modified with the introduction of sophistication (Fowls 56).
In conclusion, the interference of colors, which is due to interference of light, results in the production of wavelengths, which are different from incident light. This principle of waves has many applications in nature as seen above and science is in the forefront in the application of this phenomenon. Advances in the field of interferometry applied this principle, and is a fundamental branch of science. A lot of research still needs to go into this branch of science to maximize on the principle, which is not fully exploited.
Works Cited Bass, Michael. Handbook of Optics. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.
Fowles, Grant. Introduction to Modern Optics. 2nd Ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1975. Print.
Gordon, John, Robert Beichner, and Raymond Serway. Student Solutions Manual
Rhetoric in American Politics Expository Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The explosive climate
Introduction Some individuals believe that free speech is the ultimate representation of liberty. They argue that more speech is better than no speech at all irrespective of its manner of expression. However, these analysts forget that political rhetoric in the US has consequences and that sometimes it can go overboard.
The explosive climate The American political climate is characterised by the demonization of politicians’ opponents. Although this is nothing new in politics, one must take caution when the habit becomes inaccurate and juvenile (Hunt 13). Words, in today’s political scene, are not used to achieve precise aims but to ruin everything that can possibly be damaged.
As such, clearer thoughts and fully-developed ideas get drowned in national conversations. American political rhetoric has reached overdrive levels and thus, made it much easier for politicians to practice partisan politics, or say things that they may not really mean. They reassure listeners that their opponents are much worse and this distorts reality.
A case in point was the distortion of Barrack Obama’s background. Political rhetoric led to misinformation about his religion and his citizenship. Some individuals alluded that he was a Muslim and was not patriotic to the nation. Such half-truths breed an atmosphere of accusation and disengagement, which counteract the very principles that make this nation so strong.
A number of Americans are highly distressed by angry politics in the land. Approximately seventy percent of Americans believe that the negative political atmosphere in the country is detrimental to democracy. Many people’s political expectations are diminishing owing to this state of affairs and the country appears to be heading in the wrong direction (Lawler and Schaefer 94).
A number of observations have also indicated that it is not just the political and social well being of society that will be affected by excessive political rhetoric but the physical well being as well. Political rhetoric can reach levels that manifest as violent behaviour. One such case was the shooting of Gabrielle Gifford, a representative of Arizona. The latter leader was shot and injured adversely during an interactive session with her electorate at a grocery store.
The attacker fired at twenty people, including Gifford, after the representative had tweeted that she was at that location. While investigations are yet to establish whether the shootings were inspired by the assailant’s psychological state or deeper political issues, it is still imperative to remember the latter option is quite probable. The sharp, antagonistic language aimed at government has increased the likelihood of violent incidents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most politicians employ radio talk shows, internet blogs, social networking websites like Twitter, television shows and many more to disseminate vicious rhetoric. In the case of Gabrielle Gifford, the state of Arizona had become highly polarised before her attack (Kaplan 22). Many residents in this state mistrusted government and were paranoid about their healthcare laws. This daily exposure to destructive rhetoric through various media outlets may have had a violent impact on the people of the state.
It was especially probable among unstable individuals than well-balanced ones. Increasing verbal attacks in certain political debates has heightened security concerns. Many protests have turned violent during public meetings. One such instance was the healthcare debate that took place in 2010. Even death threats against congressmen were not uncommon.
Conclusion The use of political rhetoric for selfish gains among politicians has bred an atmosphere of divisive and violent politics. This has been manifested through disengagement and violent confrontations against political leaders.
Works Cited Hunt, Geoffrey. We need more political rhetoric, not less. 12 Jan. 2011. Web.
Kaplan, Marty. 2011 January 8. “The lock and load rhetoric of American politics isn’t just a metaphor.” The Huffington Post 8 Jan. 2011: 22. Print.
Lawler, Peter and Robert Schaefer. American political rhetoric. NY: Rowman and Littlefield publishers, 2000. Print.
Knowledge Management in e-Learning Research Paper essay help: essay help
Abstract In the modern world, knowledge can be divided into two distinct concepts, viz. e-learning and knowledge management. This research looks at some ideas for knitting these two concepts into one model. In the theoretical part, this study discusses a number of standards referring to these concepts.
Besides the basic standard and the standalone significance of the e-learning and knowledge management, combinations will be addressed. Today, e-learning is mainly used for handcrafting courses, which are cautiously chosen to teach workers or students in an organization or learning institution.
Among corporate organizations, knowledge management helps to collect, systematize, and deliver huge amounts of corporate knowledge. This thesis explores the integration of knowledge management in e-learning to improve the collection, organization, and delivery of knowledge, whether in traditional learning model or corporate setting. First, a model for working out e-learning procedure is designed.
This model is then augmented with concepts, strategies, and technologies from knowledge management. Knowledge management lifecycle helps to understand e-learning and flow of information. The impact of knowledge management will be well understood following a study of the process on any organization.
Introduction The modern world, particularly the information society and the advancement of technology, has brought great improvements to the traditional study represented by the everyday structure of learning; more outstandingly, it has reduced the distance that learners have to cover in pursuit of education. At the beginning of the 21st century, most organizations, including Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) practitioners, introduced shared communication and networking using newer technologies.
The Australian Flexible Learning Framework offers schemes and imperatives, to aid e-learning and inspire more practitioners to pursue e-learning classes. By the year 2005, the significance for VTE practitioners, to concentrate on the power of learning and business by networking, begun to bear fruits with the establishment of 20 unique networks.
Most of the e-learning strategies and networks are still functional and highly beneficial. This reinforces the idea that knowledge management is a force that drives educators forward to better ways of planning and dissemination of knowledge even beyond their domain (Lindstaedt,
The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Cathedral is a short story written by Raymond Carver in 1983. During this period when the short story was published, there was an increase in the level of poverty throughout the world. Nevertheless, the situation in the United States was quite different and only a very small section of the population was considered as being poor. The expectations of the American people had significantly declined following the high rates of inflation, the raising rates of unemployment as well as the skyrocketing rates of interest.
During this period, the gap between the rich and the drastically widened, the poor became poorer and the rich wealthier. It is against this backdrop that Raymond Carver wrote the short story entitled “The Cathedral”. regarding the life of the Raymond Carver, who is the author of the story, Webster (3), observe that the story came at a time when he had quit his heavy drinking, he had also survive an annulment of his marriage.
Brief plot summary The story opens with the narrator who is a man very upset with the fact that a blind man who is a friend of his wife is about to arrive. The conversational tone of the narrator is a clear indication to the reader that he is not happy about the blind man’s visit. The narrator is upset with the visit of the blind man simply because he is blind. The introduction of the story emphasizes the dislike and fear directed towards individuals who are blind.
For this reason, the author uses the words “the blind man” in his introduction of the story. As a matter of fact, the blind man is not even given a name because what seems very important to the narrator is the fact that the man is blind. The narrator gets a moment to flashback on the circumstances under which the blind man and his wife met. In the flashback, the reader is made to understand that the narrators’ wife and the blind man met when the wife of the narrator worked for the blind man as his reader.
The narrator is irritated by the fact that during the time when the blind man Robert and the narrator’s wife were biding each other goodbye, the blind man asked her if he could be given a chance to touch the face of the narrator’s wife.
The blind man and the narrator’s wife have for more than ten years maintained their contact but they had not met during that duration. The visit by the blind man would therefore, be the first time when the two would be meeting since the narrator’s wife got married. The blind man is head to Connecticut where the family of his deceased wife lives.
On his way, the blind man intends to spend a night at his long time friend’s (the narrator’s wife) home. The narrator is informed by his wife that Beulah the wife of the blind man had a very good relationship in their marriage. Nonetheless, the narrator could not bring himself to imagine how horrible life must have been for Beulah the wife of the blind man Robert to spend the whole of her life without being seen by the person she had loved the whole of her life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On arrival of the blind man at the narrator’s home, the narrator hardly engage in any form of interaction and only observe his wife and the blind man. After a while dinner is set and they sit at the table for the meal after which drinks are served. During this period, the narrator continued with his silence and did not take part in the conversations. To the surprise of the narrator’s wife, the narrator turns on the TV for them to watch a show.
The narrator’s wife excuses herself and leaves the narrator and the blind man. As they watch the show on the television, the two men share a cigarette made from cannabis. Ultimately, the narrator’s wife is overwhelmed by sleep and leaves the blind man and the narrator watching television. Having been left with the blind man, the narrator attempt to explain what the television show is all about to the blind man. Unfortunately, the narrator is unable to describe a show about the cathedral on the television.
The blind man request the narrator to bring a piece of paper and a pen for purposes of drawing the cathedral and the narrator obliged the request. The blind man Robert touches the paper brought by the narrator to determine its size. After the paper and the pen are brought the blind man holds the hand of the narrator in an effort to direct him on how to draw a cathedral. The blind man assures the narrator that it will turn out well if he follows the direction of the blind man.
The two go on with the drawing and ate one point, the blind man ask the narrator to continue drawing but with his eyes closed. The narrator tells the reader that at this stage something unusual occurred, and even when the blind man told him to open his eyes the narrator kept them closed. The narrator admits that something took place during the time he had closed his eyes that transformed his perception about life.
The narrator tells the reader that while his eyes were closed, the only thing he knew was that he was in his house but he felt free. He also states that the blindness of Robert was no longer an issue of concern to him and it was not a justification for him to propagate his hostility towards blind people.
The Importance of historical time period in the author’s body of literature The historical relevance of the short story by Carver is the fact that during the past years, the same way in which the narrator of the story treated with contempt the blind man Robert, it is the actual way in which people treated the blind in reality. The story depicts how the society in the period isolated particular individuals among them for different reasons and considerations.
In the story for instance, the blind man Robert is gifted with the ability to establish a special kind of bond with other human beings an ability which is ignored.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a known fact that over the years, the people who are list expected to perform, often outshine the individuals who are perceived by the society to be competent. It is usually unexpected that people who can clearly see or have the ability to see can be lead to see by a blind person. In the short story the Cathedral, however, the blind man leads the narrator who can see to a new light of life.
Additionally, in the same way the narrator chooses to lead a life of seclusion, there are individuals in real life who opt to seclude themselves from communal life. The short story clearly indicate that even those individuals in our society who may be disadvantaged in one way or another, may present an opportunity of hope and encouragement to the normal people in their lives.
The author has employed symbolism throughout his work. There is the use of sight and blindness which dominate the narrative. In the story, the narrator’s intellectual blindness is changed by Roberts’s physical blindness. In an ironical twist of the narrative the blind man who is physically blind is able to see, while the narrator who is physically able to see is psychologically blind.
Ultimately, the narrator through the blind man realizes that all along he has been blind and that the misconceptions he had about the blind people are injudicious and hence realizing that individuals who are not fortunate enough to physically see are as worth if not more than the people who are gifted with the ability to see.
The ignorance of the narrator is what manifests his blindness. The narrator thought that all blind people wore dark glasses and used a walking cane. Nevertheless Robert the blind man in the short story does not use any of those things to the surprise of the narrator. This shows how ignorant the narrator is, particularly in relation to his point of view about individuals who may be blind.
Conversely, the blind man in Carver’s narrative has self assurance, he is quite sensitive, and he is confident. Surprisingly, blind man Robert is well aware that the narrator needs to be assisted in a certain way but the narrator does not know that.
The narrator is also blind in terms of his communication skills, unfortunately; only the blind man Robert is able to see this predicament of the narrator. As the watch a show on the television, the narrator cannot be able to elaborate what the show is all about. The show on the television is on cathedrals but because the narrator is a poor in communication he is unable to explain it (Billington 22). According to Malamet (18), the cathedral in the story is symbolic.
It is used to symbolize a spiritual house of God. In the Historical context, and indeed in modern times, cathedrals are used to symbolize the presence or existence of God. The inclusion of the cathedral in the television show is used by the author to assist the narrator realize his mistake beliefs. The narrator has lead a life without a friend in the world , he is not even close to his wife, dislikes his job, have no purpose for whatever he does in his life, and above all, the narrator does not believe in the existence of God.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It goes without saying that the author inclusion of a cathedral in his work is to bring about the aspect of faith in the life of his narrator. The function of a cathedral is generally a place of worship. It also represents how previous generations have been involved in the construction of the cathedral in the successive years (Carver 105).
In the past years, most of the individuals who were involved in the construction of the cathedral never witnessed the completion of the worship house. The drawing that the blind man Robert and the narrator sketch symbolizes the generations that were involved in the building of the cathedral and never lived long enough to witness its completion.
The narrator is also likened to the generations who were involved in the building of the cathedral but never lived long enough to see the completion of the structure. The narrator is not able to see the final and complete structure of his own drawing of the cathedral like those past generation who were not able to see the complete structure of the cathedral they has started building.
The narrator through the help of the blind man realizes that he is able to build an insight and a vision in his lonely life because deep inside him there a spiritual center. According to Lehman (77), the narrators’ experience with the blind man liberates him from his anomie. The use of the television or the media by the author is an effort to unite individuals with different perceptions in life.
Thus media in the story symbolizes a sense of unity and bringing people together. It worth noting that in the narrative, the blind man and the wife of the narrator frequently exchanged cassette tapes. For this reason, the two characters in the story were always in touch with each other even in instances where they did not meet physically with one another.
The media is further used in Carvers’ literal work to link different people with different perceptions in life like the narrator and the blind man. After watching the show in the television, Robert the blind man and the narrator who at first disliked blind people forms a strong bond, and this bond assist the narrator to realize that he was mistaken about blind people, thus, he learn to appreciate them.
Conclusion The short story by Raymond Carver entitled Cathedral is set at a period when there was an increase in the level of poverty throughout the world. Nevertheless, the situation in the United States was quite different and only a very small section of the population was considered as being poor.
Carver’s narrative is a clear depiction of how different people in the society have coexisted and the fact that during the past period, the same way in which the narrator of the story treated with contempt the blind man Robert, is the actual way in which people treated the blind in reality.
This gives a great importance to the historical time period in the author’s work. In the Historical context, and indeed in modern times, cathedrals are used to symbolize the presence or existence of God as well as faith. The author has used a cathedral in his work as to cultivate the aspect of faith in the life of the narrator, and to symbolize how earlier generations have been involved in the construction of the cathedral in the successive years.
In the historical time period, most of the individuals who were involved in the construction of the cathedral never witnessed the completion of the worship house. Likewise in the narrative, the narrator like the past generation is not able to see the final and complete structure of his own drawing of the cathedral like those past generation who were not able to see the complete structure of the cathedral they has started building.
Works Cited Billington, Michael. “Review: Theatre: Carver: Arcola”, The Guardian newspaper, July 11,(2005): 22-23. Print.
Carver, Raymond. “Cathedral. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing”, X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia New York: Pearson, 2007. 98-108.
Lehman, Daniel. “Symbolic Significance in the Stories of Raymond Carver”, Journal of the Short Story in English 46. 2 (2006): 75-88.
Malamet, Elliott. “Raymond Carver and the Fear of Narration”, Journal of the Short Story in English 17. 4 (1991): 59-74.
Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Renaissance Culture in Hamlet
Hamlet’s Attitude to Death
Renaissance Perspective About Death
Introduction Shakespeare has been credited for being a renaissance writer and has continuously been referred to as an Elizabethan playwright. In most of his work, Shakespeare has included the act of Renaissance with Hamlet being no exception. In Hamlet, Renaissance was introduced to the readers mainly through the way Hamlet contemplates death.
Hamlet’s character is seen to be strongly associated with Renaissance ideals, and not with medieval times, as one could think. Typically, the Renaissance is considered as being the time during which learning and culture are reborn. This period is mostly associated with the European historical period in the Middle Ages between the 14th century and the 17th century (Shakespeare 167).
This has been passed on to the modern literature work with the renaissance period going through a resurgence of philosophies that were characteristic of the ancient Greeks. This led to new interests being renewed in the classical work of arts.
Most artists were compelled to go back in history and explore the work that had been done during the classical age, putting more emphasis on the form of human beings and the ancient mythologies portrayal. The philosophical movement that relates to ‘Hamlet’ is the Humanism Renaissance. This Renaissance focused on the man’s position in nature, putting him at the centre nature (Shakespeare 134).
Renaissance Culture in Hamlet In ‘Hamlet,’ Shakespeare makes use of the Renaissance in a way that moves away from the beliefs accepted by the Christian’s afterlife. The Christians believe that it is one’s decision as to whether to end up in hell or heaven after death. During the Renaissance, death remained one of the main fears because of its widely uncertain and uncharted destination and not because of its godly vengeance.
The death of Hamlet as the play ends indicates that though he was the definite answer to all the questions before him as he faced death, he was not in any position to give any assurance about his fate to the audience. In the play, Hamlet has reflected renaissance ideals in several other ways, but still, the concept of death remained predominant.
This was seen in several scenes when he was always lurking below the surface. His actions while still in the world were the beginning of his fate after his death. Concerning nature, Hamlet considered himself privileged regarding other animals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is seen when, after murdering Polonius and doing away with his body, Hamlet cryptically tells Claudius of the nature of the matter, making the living and the dead. Hamlet can be considered as being deracinated from his own life that puts him in a comfortable position to address severe mental issues on his own. This reflects the historical belief that a tragedy was the most excellent way of punishing sins committed by an individual. The graveyard scene is also a clear reflection of Renaissance in the play (Shakespeare 123).
During Hamlet’s monologue at Ophelia’s funeral, the remains of the clown led Hamlet to engage in discussion with Horatio on the nature of death. He held his skull in his hands as he reflected how well he knew him. In the same position, he goes further to reflect on the contrast between the living and the dead.
According to the summary, he contrasts the way he knew Yorick and the bones that remained of him. The scene of Yorick’s skull in Hamlet’s hands was so dramatic that it has since then remained a cultural icon (Shakespeare 102). The words Helmet used in this scene were symbolic, reflecting the themes of mortality and death, guiding the tragedy that took place. The way Hamlet reacted to scenes of death is an indication of rebirth in his character.
The audience was left surprised by the way Hamlet reacted to the remains left by Yorick’s after his death. Most had regarded Hamlet as being a rational character. However, this was not the case when he looked at the remains of his friend and appeared to be feeling a physical sensation. The prince is nauseated when he thinks about the jester who had passed on.
This is seen when he talks to Horatio, telling him that “my gorge rims at it” (Shakespeare 78). This was a real reflection of the way the character of Hamlet had significantly changed. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet had the chance to kill Claudius, but he did not do this because of his belief in the afterlife blissfulness for his rival.
Hamlet’s Attitude to Death His ideas about death completely changed after this scene. By looking at the skull of Yorick, he accepts the fact that everyone will, at one time, decompose just the way jester did. Helmet admits, “Despite all human efforts to evade death, it is inevitable” (Shakespeare 123).
Earlier in the play, Hamlet had considered death to be a distant experience. This is evident in his soliloquy, where he used the famous statement, “to be or not to be” (Shakespeare 213). After his interaction with death, Helmet changes his perspective on spiritual regeneration. This revelation contributed to the plot development of the play as it gave way to the play to develop into more scenes. Hamlet had developed a new and complete understanding of what death entails. Hamlet is more than ready to face death and commit murder out of his belief.
We will write a custom Essay on Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Speeches have been included in most of the scenes and have echoed the common themes during old times. Events described by Hamlet mostly feature a representation of the current times embraced mainly by the youth. This is seen in the way Hamlet described the life lived by Yorick as being colorful, filled with songs and games.
The contrast comes in after his death; Yorick’s death is considered to be colorless by Helmet, and this remains a spectacle in his mind living him unsettled. These elements are conflicting, and that has been used by Shakespeare in Hamlet to bring out Renaissance as a popular motif of artists. One of the major characteristics of the period is that most of the artists in the Renaissance period regarded life’s glory as being ultimately temporary.
The status of people, including their wealth, became meaningless once they die. The way Hamlet reflects the life of Yorick is clear evidence of this belief. He states that “the cheerful jester has been reduced to an unsmiling set of bones” (Shakespeare 90).
Yorick’s life aspects were a reflection of Hamlet’s character, which sums up to be common philosophical questions that were characteristic of the times of Shakespeare. Some of the scenes in the play show several facets of the total Renaissance. Hamlet’s attitude and belief towards death reflected the society’s renaissance ideology.
Renaissance Perspective About Death The play begins in such a way that life is presented to the audience as being disillusioned following the reality that death cannot be avoided, and Hamlet ends up regarding death as being vulgar. Through the soliloquy, Hamlet can be seen complaining that the fear of death comes between a person and his life accomplishments. He later settles for a different renaissance perspective about death when he encouraged people through preaching to them to go to the cemeteries and do exactly what he did, ‘hold a skull in their hands’ (Shakespeare 178).
Shakespeare explicitly gives this line to Hamlet to show that he had finally accepted the mortality reality (Shakespeare 209). This helped him to go over the mortality fears of life’s Renaissance and not its preparation. It is during the same period that valuable things can be accomplished and passed on to the time in the future, thus giving people a chance to continue living through fame.
Thus eventually, Hamlet comes to terms with the idea of death, and after Ophelia’s death, he manages to move on with life and comes up with ways of achieving his purpose in the world. By the time Claudius dies, Hamlet is used to death, and he even makes fun out of it even though he is fully aware that he was risking his own life. He also goes ahead to accept the reality that the way and time one dies is God to decide. He, however, remains a concern with two main things; the state’s welfare and his own name in future (Shakespeare 363).
Conclusion The play, in general, assists in demonstrating the society’s ideology of the Renaissance, with Italy taken as the country of reference. Through Hamlet, Renaissance assumes a three-dimensional human face. Set up in Denmark, the ideology of the play tended more to Europe than Italy but still maintained the Italian Renaissance. There is also the issue Renaissance conflict in Hamlet; the modern renaissance way of reasoning and the revenge tradition.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two affected the way Hamlet acted as well as his thinking throughout the play. Hamlet tries the best he could to justify what he did to keep his conscience clear. This is a representation of the ideals of the new Renaissance. Though the renaissance ideals used by Hamlet were a justification of what he deed, it led to unnecessary deaths of the people around Hamlet.
Works Cited Shakespeare, William. Tragedy of Hamlet prince of Denmark, Los Angles: Heritage Book Shop, 2007. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Buenos Aires: Magnasco, 2006. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet (Norton Critical Editions), New Delhi: Foreverbooks, 2005. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Wallingford: Christopher Edwards, 2010. Print.
Renaissance Culture Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The period between the mid-fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries is known in the history as the era of the Renaissance. Moreover, the Renaissance is the significant part of the culture and social life in the history of each European country which is characterized by the national peculiarities of the development. In Britain this period began in the sixteenth century, later than in the other European countries.
The main features of the Renaissance culture which also determine the elements of the Renaissance literature are the philosophy of humanism, the secular character of the art pieces, and the orientation on the antique patterns. To focus on the realization of the Renaissance values in the British literature, it is necessary to analyze the features of the works written by Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe.
The formation of the Renaissance’s values depended on the development of new social relations which was also expressed in the liberation of the personality. That man who was liberated from the medieval class bonds faced the great opportunities of the creative realization in art. The era of humanism began when the spiritual dictatorship of the Church was broken, and the person became the center of the social and artistic interests (Baker and Maley). The man of the Renaissance is characterized by believing in his mind and power.
The world view of the man of the Renaissance is based on the freedom of thoughts and new visions of society and the universe. Moreover, the man of the Renaissance is inclined to combine the real facts with the poetic fiction and express it in different genres with using the elements of the figurative language and wide imagery (Bowers and Keeran). The ideals of the British Renaissance also depend on the works of such famous figures as Francesco Petrarca and Erasmus Roterodamus.
In spite of the orientation of all the Renaissance authors on similar patterns and following the same principles, their works are characterized by a lot of peculiarities and differences. Furthermore, it was a special period in the British literature during which new literature themes, genres, and forms developed with basing on the ideas of humanism and the works of the antique authors (Baker and Maley).
Sir Philip Sidney is one of the most famous poets of the Renaissance period. Nevertheless, he is also known as the author of the pastoral novel The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia which is considered by many critics as the experimental work which determined the beginning of the new age in the literature.
The final version of Sidney’s novel was published in 1590, and it was the presentation of the unique combination of prose, dramaturgy, and poetic works. The language and style of the novel are characterized by pretentiousness, exquisiteness, and the usage of a lot of metaphorical devices. This style became known as ‘euphuistic’, and it was named after the title of the novel written by John Lyly in which all these details were depicted vividly (Bowers and Keeran).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The values of the Renaissance were developed in The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia in a rather specific manner. The rejection of the religious motifs and the concentration on the human’s feelings and emotions determined the peculiarities of the plot of the novel and its genre (Baker and Maley).
The main accent was made on the inner world of the characters, their ideals, visions, and feelings. This novel can be considered as a romantic one in which the relations between the lovers are depicted. They are emphasized by a number of comic and tragic situations.
And all these elements are expressed with the help of the complex metaphorical language which is full of epithets, antitheses, quotations and references to the ancient authors (Hopkins and Steggle). The ‘euphuistic’ style marks the shift from the language of poetry to the language of drama and fiction with the elements of the language and speech typical for the secular society of that period.
The peculiarities of the vivid metaphorical writing style typical for the British literature of the Renaissance were also developed in the works by Edmund Spencer, especially in his The Faerie Queene. The author was working at the poem during the period of 1590-1596, but it was not finished. Today it is one of the most interesting allegorical poems considered by critics as the unique pattern with a lot of specific features.
Paying much attention to such antique ideals as virtue and courage, Spencer develops these motifs combining them with the principles of the heroic legends and novels about King Arthur. It is significant that Spencer concentrates on depicting a definite virtue in each of six books of the poem (Bowers and Keeran).
The allegorical nature of the poem can be explained by the fact that, creating the characters’ images of the fairy-tale world of the knights, the poet was inclined to depict the real people of the historic period. Thus, it was possible to observe the features of Queen Elizabeth in the image of the Faerie Queene, and Prince Arthur had the traits of Elizabeth’s favorite known as the Earl of Leicester (Hopkins and Steggle).
Emphasizing the unique and perfect nature of a human, Spencer creates a wonderful and fantastic world in which the knights defeat dragons and perform numerous feats, and fairies are the embodiment of beauty and perfectness.
We will write a custom Essay on Renaissance Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, the literature of the Renaissance also concentrated on definite realism and truthfulness. That is why real descriptions of the English nature can be observed among the fabulous and decorative images of the poem.
There were not such vivid descriptions, fantastic and diverse images, flexibility and musicality of the verse, and the richness of the language means in the English poetry earlier. Spencer created a new poetic form while developing this poem. It is a stanza of nine lines with the special rhyme known today as ‘Spencer’s stanza’ (Bowers and Keeran).
If Edmund Spencer influenced a lot of poets of the later periods, Christopher Marlowe is famous for his impact on the works written by William Shakespeare. One of the most well-known plays written by Marlowe was The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus which was first published in 1588.
In this work the rejection of the medieval religious principles and the emphasis on the role of humanism and knowledge in the life of people were accentuated. Marlowe as the creator of the English tragedy of the Renaissance developed the play according to the principles of the antique literature in which he was interested in. The tragedy can be characterized by depicting the emancipation of the individual from the ascetic medieval morality (Baker and Maley).
Christopher Marlowe had his own vision of the role of the Church in society and criticized the religious principles, norms, and ideals. All his opinions on the religious topics were rather skeptic. Nevertheless, the rejection of the religious principles acquires a specific character in his The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. Doctor Faustus is a tragic titanic character who in his desire to have the unique knowledge rejects the religion and chooses the world of magic (Hopkins and Steggle).
Rejecting the principles of philosophy, law, medicine, and especially theology as a rather false science, Marlowe’s Faustus tries to find the realization of his hopes in the magic which is able to raise him up to the enormous height of the unique knowledge and power. Thus, Faustus as the real man of the Renaissance cannot find the satisfaction of his desire of knowledge in the passive examination of books. His extreme desire and energy made him being involved in the interactions with Mephisto which leads him to death.
Thus, there is a vivid depiction of the tragic destiny of the man of the Renaissance who knows that he has powers and wants to use them in order to create a new reality (Bowers and Keeran). The play is written with using the metaphorical and figurative language in the form where the free verse is combined with the prose.
The ideals of the humanism, the rejection of the religious principles, the orientation on the antique patterns and the secular society were developed as the main values of the Renaissance. These features were characteristic for the literature of all the European countries, but they also acquired definite national elements. The works of Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe include all the specific details of the Renaissance culture and determine the development of these tendencies in Britain.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Renaissance Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Baker, David J., and Wiliam Maley,. British Identities and English Renaissance Literature. USA: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.
Bowers, Jennifer, and Peggy Keeran. Literary Research and the British Renaissance and Early Modern Period: Strategies and Sources. USA: Scarecrow Press, 2010. Print.
Hopkins, Lisa, and Matthew Steggle. Renaissance Literature and Culture (Introduction to British Literature and Culture). USA: Continuum, 2007. Print.
Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary Report scholarship essay help
The Situation In this case, the situation is about developing a batter marketing strategy, using perceptual maps for a product that targets a particular group of people. Perceptual maps do represent the visual aspects of the product for easy conceptualization since it provides more details about the brand (Surhone, Timpledon
Iceberg Principle and Landscape Symbolism Reveal the Development of the Character Explicatory Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Iceberg Principle and the Landscape Symbolism
Introduction The short story by Ernest Hemingway “Hills Like White Elephants” can be regarded as one of the best examples of the use of the iceberg principle and the role of landscape symbolism. The author manages to reveal the development of the woman’s character without revealing her ideas and thoughts. All the reader has is the landscape and the dialogue. The author depicts a short episode from a couple’s life.
The man (the American) is trying to persuade the woman named Jig to undergo an operation. The woman hesitates as she wants to start a new life which is meaningful and complete. The woman soon becomes reluctant to continue the conversation. She focuses on the landscape to avoid talking about the matter.
The author does not reveal the decision made by the two. The conversation stops abruptly. However, it is rather clear that the woman makes up her mind. The author makes it clear that the woman undergoes some important changes during this short conversation.
The Iceberg Principle and the Landscape Symbolism The iceberg principle makes the story really expressive. The author manages to say about the two people’s conflict without mentioning the exact reason of the argument. Likewise, the author never explicitly depicts the woman’s thoughts. He does not even describe her actions. There is a kind of motion picture which enables the reader to see the facts. Ironically, this specific incompleteness makes the reader clearly see the change that takes place in the woman’s head.
First, the woman tries to discuss the situation and she keeps asking: “Then what will we do afterwards?” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 230). However, soon the woman stops arguing: “Can’t we maybe stop talking?” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231) These words signal that the girl needs to think.
She is focused on her own thoughts and she does not want to let the man in her world. She simply gazes at the hills thinking over the issue. The author does not depict her face. He does not reveal her thoughts. However, it is clear that the woman manages to make up her mind. Her nervousness is gone as she knows the right answer to her questions. Her smiling at the end of the story suggests that she has made the decision, which has nothing to do with the man’s arguments or his desires. She is calm and content.
Apart from intensity achieved with the help of the famous principle, the author makes use of landscape symbolism to reveal the change in the woman. Thus, she looks at the “line of the hills”, and the hills are “white in the sun” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 229). The hills perform several roles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the first place, the hills can be seen as the symbol of pregnancy. Thus, the pregnant woman who is trying to make up her mind looks at the hills and sees white elephants as her mind returns to the issue over and over again: “They look like white elephants” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 229).
On the other hand, the white elephants can be regarded as the woman’s own world. They can be seen as her way to escape from the necessity to make the difficult decision or even the necessity to talk about it. In fact, Jig starts speaking about the white elephants to start some kind of talk. She knows that the conversation is inevitable, but she wants to postpone it making the man think of other things. She starts their conversation with a rather bewildering phrase: “They look like white elephants” (Hemingway, 1927, p.229).
She continues referring to the hills throughout their entire conversation. The woman is trying to avoid speaking about the matter: “The girl stood up and walked to the end of the station” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231). The woman tries to plunge into the world of calmness and beauty. She admires the majestic hills which make her feel better. Whenever she looks at the hills, she becomes more confident and she starts seeing things clearer.
Furthermore, the white hills can be regarded as a sign that helps the woman to make the right decision. The landscape is so right. It is so calm and easy. There is nothing more natural than the view of the beautiful hills. The woman “looked across at the hills on the dry side of the valley” and this is the moment she understands everything (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231).
This is the moment when the woman gets enchanted by the calm beauty of the hills. This is the moment when she changes. She becomes confident and she understands that she does not want to listen to the man. She wants to feel what is really important. She wants to take in the power of the majestic hills.
Thus, the landscape plays rather essential role in the short story as it inspires the woman to make the right decision. The reader can also follow the changes taking place in the woman’s character. Obviously, the landscape is the symbol of nature and natural things like having a baby.
The pure beauty of the hills makes the woman feel better. She finally understands: “There is nothing wrong with me” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231). The landscape makes the woman solve the issue. The woman accepts her mission in this world. She is ready to make her choice and make her life meaningful.
We will write a custom Essay on Iceberg Principle and Landscape Symbolism Reveal the Development of the Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remarkably, the author enhances this idea of the rightness contrasting two pictures. The woman inevitably compares her present life which is nothing more but looking “at things” and trying “new drinks” and her possible future life filled with meaning (Hemingway, 1927, p. 230).
The bags symbolize her present and hills symbolize her possible future. The girl makes up her mind and her decision is clear. The man is preoccupied with the bags taking them “over to the other side of the station” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 232). However, the woman keeps looking at the hills. She definitely chooses the meaningful life. She is going to let the man go if necessary. She is committed to start a new better life which is as majestic as the hills resembling white elephants.
Conclusion To sum up, the short story is one of the finest examples of the role of landscape symbolism and Hemingway’s iceberg principle. The author does not say explicitly what the problem is. This makes the story more expressive. The reader is free to make any conclusions and evaluate the problem in any way. This freedom makes the short story so strong.
More importantly, the author uses really expressive symbols. The hills (the nature itself) make the woman change. Thus, a carefree girl having a meaningless life turns into the mature woman who is ready to make the right decision and to feel her life with meaning. The reader can trace the change which is taking place in the woman’s character. The hills which are calm and pure make the woman strong and committed.
Reference List Hemingway, E. (1927). Hills like white elephants. Retrieved from Hamilton Elementary Web site: https://www.hamiltoncps.org/
Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related Definition Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
List of References
Introduction With the ever changing business environment, change management and strategic planning activities are increasingly becoming issues of focus in the modern business environment. This is because of the significant role they play in helping organizations adapt to the turbulence of change. In this paper, I explore change management and strategic planning in terms of definition, inter-relationships and the impact of change on individuals and organizations.
Main Body Change management refers to the manner in which top-level managers shape the way organizations adapt, respond to, anticipate and learn about change which occurs within them and the environment.
This is a central tenet to organizations as it enables us understand how these organizations help people (internally and externally) to embrace change. Therefore, change management is the way organizations are designed to positively and proactively anticipate and react to the external environment which is ever-changing and competitive.
Change management also involves institution of internal structures in the organization to enable it to respond better to the turbulence of change (Johnson 1998). If change management is effectively undertaken, it results in creation of a learning institution where employees continuously broaden their capacity to create truly desired outcomes and nurture new and expansive thinking patterns (Johnson 1998; Jager 2006).
Change management also involves equipping employees to acquire knowledge and skills to learn in institutions they encounter. In this context, change management is enhanced by encouraging deep commitment where employees build required skills through out the work place. In addition, change management requires commitment especially at the absolute pinnacle of the organization.
Various authors e.g. Jager and Johnson have pointed out that change management involves the regulation of speed, breadth and depth of learning which should be managed at different levels (Jager 2006; Johnson 1998).
On the other hand, strategic planning refers to long-range planning undertaken to set goals, objectives and policies of the organization and to determine tactics, strategies and programs under which these goals will be achieved. Strategic planning is undertaken by top-level managers who make plans to chart the best courses of future action.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, strategic planning activities involve defining the mission of the organization using the organizational purpose as a key tool for identification of products, services and customers. Strategic planning also involves setting objectives i.e. purpose, goals and desired outcomes for the organization and its parts (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).
When objectives are set, it is important that strategies are developed. These strategies involve activities which enable the organization to adapt and achieve its strategic objectives. Therefore, strategic planning has a longer time horizon and it deals with the interface of the organization and its external environment. In strategic planning, top-level managers use an instrument called SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats).
SWOT analysis is usually used as a framework for organizing the way the organization consumes data and information derived from a situational analysis. When applying the SWOT analysis, top-level managers assess the internal environment (strengths and weaknesses) and external environment (opportunities and threats).
Therefore, during this process, top-level managers carry out long range planning (strategic planning) which is enhanced by considering organizational strengths (positive attributes internal to the organization and within its control), weaknesses (factors which distract the organization and are within its control), opportunities (factors that represent the reason for organizational existence and development) and threats (external factors which risk the mission or operation of the organization but are within its control).
Studies have revealed that if top managers plan strategically by putting up contingency plans to address threats that have a likelihood of recurrence, the organization will be better placed to benefit as it is enabled to withstand the turbulence of change (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).
Organizational change has been regarded as a venture that is incredibly difficult for majority of organizations. Although organizations may be aware of the need to communicate change, most of them lack the knowledge, skills and competencies necessary in communication.
Therefore, in the context of these organizations, change management involves communicating of change that is implemented within them. In addition, change management will involve ability of these organizations to define change in great detail.
We will write a custom Essay on Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, communication of change during change management is a pre-requisite. Authors e.g. Jager have also pointed out that most organizations are unable to define the change they are implementing and as such, they are pushed to the brink of collapse especially if the change implemented cannot be communicated effectively. This implies that the ability to communicate change is crucial to the success of organizations (Jager 2006).
Johnson (1998) mentioned the overwhelming impact of change on individuals and organizations by exploring the importance and awareness of people adapting to change and their response to inevitable consequences of change. Different studies have also demonstrated that change limits individuals and organizations as they encounter difficulties in prophesying the future.
For instance, Johnson (1998) argued that organizations have encountered numerous challenges due to inability to adapt or shift to configurations that come with change. In addition, organizations have had other challenges as a result of change. These include difficulties in creation of new internal structures and rigidity in letting power balances move with change (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995; Jager 2006).
Authors like Johnson (1998) have used water analogies to depict the ebb and flow of change in the economy. These studies point out that various industries such as telecommunications and consumer electronics have encountered technological change with increased frequency and absorption of major market shifts at a rapid pace.
Under these circumstances, organizations that are more stable are able to sustain rapid change over a short period. Furthermore many organizations face imminent collapse if they do not move with change that is taking place in the economy and in competing organizations. Therefore, if change is not managed effectively, it hinders growth of organizations in the global economy (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).
If change is not effectively managed, rigid organizations encounter numerous challenges and are likely to collapse. This implies that organizations that will be prosperous in future are those that have an understanding of change and proactive recognition and embracing of this change (Jager 2006).
In addition, authors e.g. Johnson (1988) have used Lewin’s Model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing to explain the effect of change on individuals and the organization. In line with this model, contemporary life is full of constant and accelerating change and therefore individuals and organizations that speculate and anticipate future events are likely to be more effective and successful. In addition, the model establishes the link between change management and strategic planning.
This is based on the argument that the effective management of intensity, speed and direction of strategic plans and organizational change results in a future difference between those who win and those who lose. Consequently, the losers lose because they are unable to recognize, respond to and manage change while the winners win because they are able to recognize, manage, respond to and propagate the rate of change in the organization in an attempt to survive (Johnson 1998).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, if organizations are to withstand the turbulence of change, the extent of learning should be more than or equal to rate of organizational change. If this is not the case, organizations risk falling back and collapsing due to loss of market for their products. Furthermore, organizations with higher survival chances during times of change are those which manage competencies, structures and leadership processes effectively (through strategic planning).
This is because of lexibility which is present in such organizations, hence they effectively adapt to change (Jager 2006). Research studies e.g. by Johnson have revealed that bureaucratic practices hinder ability of organizations to move with change. Therefore, If top-level managers stick to bureaucratic practices and do not own change, a “not invented here” syndrome occurs in lower organizational levels (Johnson 1998, p. 10).
Conclusion In this paper, I explored change management and strategic planning as inter-related factors which affect individuals and organizations. Strategic planning has been perceived as a process which involves systematic use of criteria and rigorous investigations to formulate and control organizational expectations.
On the other hand, change management has been perceived as the way organizations are designed to positively and proactively anticipate and react to the external environment which is ever changing and competitive (Jager 2006; Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995)
List of References Bryson, J 1995, SWOT Analysis: A Facilitation Tool for Identifying Strategic Issues. Web.
Jager, P 2006, Seven Ways to Communicate Change. Web.
Johnson, J 1998, Embracing Change: A Leadership Model for the Learning Organization. Web.
To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents The introduction
The introduction When discussing one of the most well-known novels written by Virginia Woolf, I would like to disclose some fundamentals of her production. First of all, I would like to point out that the techniques the author uses seem to be defensive, as Woolf is known for her feminist views.
In other words, one is to keep in mind that the expressions of anger the author highlights in her novel are related to three issues. Thus, it should be pointed out that aggression in relation to the patriarchy; the aggression male characters express; and Mrs. Ramsay’s aggression are considered to be the key manifestations of anger. Generally, it is also necessary to clarify what reason of the author’s aggression and anger is.
Thus, on the one hand, it seems that Virginia’s description of her parents is negative; however, on the other hand, a deep analysis of the novel gives us an opportunity to suppose that there are no parents who cause the author’s anger, but the oppressive patriarchal system the main characters live within.
The body When speaking about the language and writing style the author uses, one is to keep in mind that affective and non-semantic qualities of language are rather complicated. Thus, Woolf mostly uses numerous passive constructions, and the pronoun one in her novel.
The extraordinary sentence structure the author uses cannot be neglected too. For instance, when reading the second paragraph of the novel, (a description of Mrs. Ramsay), one can make a conclusion that the writer’s language is also based on numerous parenthetical phrases, clauses as well as modifying constructions.
The gruff murmur, irregularly broken by the taking out of pipes and the putting
in of pipes which had kept on assuring her, though she could not hear what
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More was said (as she sat in the window which opened on the terrace), that the men were happily talking; this sound, which had lasted now half an hour and had taken its place soothingly in the scale of sounds pressing on top of her, such as the tap of balls upon bats, the sharp, sudden bark now and then, “How’s that? How’s that?” of the children playing cricket, had ceased…. (Woolf 15)
It is not the end of the sentence; generally, this sentence includes 260 words; so, it is obvious that the author’s language is rather difficult to understand. While reading the paragraph, the reader loses the full meaning of the sentence and cannot understand its importance.
On the contrary, such complex constructions transform potentially clear meaning of the fragment into uncertain and delayed meaning. When analyzing Woolf’s language, particularly the second paragraph, it becomes obvious that the words the gruff murmur at the beginning of the sentence determine the main clause.
Other descriptions are considered to be modifying phrases. Had ceased is recognized to be the main verb; however, all, which is placed between the words the gruff murmur and had ceased confuses our mind, as when analyzing emotional associations between the main clause and the main verb, the reader loses the thread of a story. That is why Virginia Woolf’s language is rather complicated.
The conclusion In spite of the fact that the author’s language is quite complex, nobody will deny the fact that Woolf depicts not only external details, but also important inner feelings of her characters. Thus, she discloses the thoughts and ideas in people’s mind. The novel To the Lighthouse requires the readers’ attention, as the author depicts the current drama of a human existence.
Works Cited Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse, Fort Washington, PA, Harvest Books: 1989. Print.
Greek City state and the Roman Empire Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The Americans and the Western nations’ political systems and ideologies are in a way based on the ancient Greece and the Romans’ ideas. These countries are not the only ones that were affected. However, most of the ideas that are being used by governments in the world were originally borrowed from Greece (Wolin, 1960).
Issues of Democracy and republican governments are some of the major political ideologies that were adopted from these two ancient states. People’s participation in political constitutions and content has its origins in these societies.
Changes that occurred in Greek city-states and Roman Empire that explain the emergence of specific understanding of politics Firstly, the ancient Greece was once never a unified state but a conjugant of different nations. The large geographic boundaries that resulted in travel and communication difficulties brought the need for communities to adopt their own governing bodies and councils.
These political units were known as city-states. These city-states, being separated by large geographical terrains, adopted different political systems. For example, the Corinth adopted the oligarchy system of government. Other city-states such as Sparta established mixed forms of government, which constituted both oligarchy and monarchial systems of government. This is how these aspects of politics emerged.
Athens developed a democratic form of government that allowed the citizens to participate in the drafting of the constitution and the governance of their city-states. They purposefully did this to quell the long periods of unrest and conflicts in the city-state. These reforms transferred power from the hands of a few nobles to the citizens thus ensuring political participation.
This is also known as democracy. Democracy is undeniably the most practiced form of governance in the civilized world. The Athenian government was made up of three major segments. These included the assembly, the council and the people’s court. They consisted of juries made up of the citizens. This was in order to oversee cases involving fellow citizens.
Different from the Athenian form of government, the Romans adopted a Republic structure of governance. In this form of government, the elected persons (apart from just governing) were also expected to be responsible and responsive to their voters (Augustine, 1961).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Romans were the first to draw up a constitution, which was a tool that was later adopted by a majority of governments around the globe. These countries exhibited republican tendencies. These sets of laws written down by the Roman government were, at the time, collectively known as the Laws of the Twelve Tablets. Nations later came to realize that having the laws written down protected the rights of the citizens and shielded them from unfounded prosecutions.
Another important political aspect that was exhibited by these ancient societies was eligibility for political participation. For example, in Athens, the issues of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were seriously upheld.
Therefore, in order to fully participate in politics, one had to be a mature male whose parents were both Athenians. The modern world states and nations that came thereafter came up with various qualifications. For one to be able to participate in politics or to be declared a citizen of the respective nation, he or she had to meet those qualifications.
Philosophers were concerned about the issue of human action since they were greatly engaged in differentiating between activity, passivity, involuntarism and culpable actions. Action became a major philosophical topic in the early 1960s and is slowly becoming a major sub-discipline in modern philosophy.
A causalist school of thought postulates that an individual’s reason for acting is the cause of his or her action. It can be accurately argued that reasons lead to actions. Some philosophers like Harry Frankfurt have tried to explain the concept of human action and has tried to determine its compatibility with the large concept of determinism.
Philosophers argued that political revolutions experienced in the governments of the world were as a result of human action. People are never satisfied with their constitution. They are always grumbling, never quiet and always require that some changes be made on the constitution. Under the concept of human action was another topic of humanism. Humanism marries the concepts of history and human actions.
The concept of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were greatly focused upon and qualifications were set for individuals to meet. The modern world states and states that came thereafter came up with various qualifications for one to be able to participate in politics. Apart from politics, it was also necessary that one met the set standards before being granted complete citizenship of a city-state (Sayers, 1999). The citizens were the only ones who were allowed to own and keep slaves together with all other forms of property.
We will write a custom Essay on Greek City state and the Roman Empire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Sparta, for example, women were afforded the opportunity and privilege of being literate. This was a different ethical dimension compared to what was the norm in previous years.
This was quite different from what other city-states like Athens did to their womenfolk. The liberation of women in Athens, for example, became an inspiration to the contemporary states and societies to recognize the position of women in the society. Another important issue was the payment of taxes. The ancient Greek, Roman and Greek states lay much emphasis on tax payment. These changes in ethical dimensions formed the economic background of a majority of the states that came thereafter.
References Augustine, C. (1961). Confessions. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Sayers, S. (1999). Plato’s Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Wolin, S. (1960). Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political thought. Boston: Brown
A comparison of formulation of government policies; Japan and Britain Term Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Formulation of government policies in Japan
Comparison of Policy Making in Japan and Britain
Introduction Government policies are central to the realisation of government goals and initiatives. Before political can assume power, they are required to convince the electorate fully. This is based on agendas that address different needs of the electorate. In 2009, Democratic Party of Japan assumed power after defeating the long-serving LDP party. One of their agendas was to reform the mechanisms used in formulation of government policies.
Their main aim was to reduce bureaucratic influence and control over the process of formulation of government policies. The following paper explores the process of formulation of government policies in Japan. It provides insight into the role of different stakeholders in the process including the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, bureaucrats and other special interest groups. Finally, it provides a comparison with Britain’s policy making process.
Formulation of government policies in Japan Japan’s government is headed by a Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed from either Houses of Parliament and subjected to a vote. The successful candidate is thereby presented to the Emperor for attestation (Curtis, 2000). One of the Prime Minister’s functions is the appointment and dismissal of Cabinet ministers.
Therefore, the Prime Minister appoints individual whom in his view are representative of the party’s ideology. Under the constitution, the Prime Minister is allowed to appoint fourteen ministers only. However, under special circumstances, he is allowed to appoint up to seventeen ministers. Ministers oversee activities in various ministries.
Government policies in Japan mainly originate from government ministries. Government ministries mainly consist of bureaucrats who have wealth of information regarding various issues affecting the ministry (Nakamura