Heavenly Bodies Research Paper Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Advantages of Space Exploration

Disadvantages of Space Exploration


Works Cited

Introduction Man has been fascinated by heavenly bodies since time immemorial. The inquisitive nature of human beings pertaining to what lies beyond the glittering sky and the mystery of how the moon constantly changes shape, made man embark on a journey to space. In this regard, early scientists like Galileo delved into astronomy in a bid to demystify the theories of creation and the possible existence of other heavenly bodies aside from earth.

These early astronomers faced resistance from the church, because they were proposing scientific theories that went against the doctrines of the church. By and large, significant strides have been made in space exploration ever since the first man landed on moon (Lambright 174). Despite the fact that space research has some negative effects, it has highly benefited the human race.

Advantages of Space Exploration Some scientists are arguing that the earth is currently coping with population pressure, which is straining the available resources. From an economic perspective, there are too many competing wants that should be met by limited and non-renewable resources (Czysz and Claudio 269). Consequently, space research is paramount in the research on possibilities of harnessing space resources. Arguably, space resources may be used to augment production on earth so that firms do not go out of business due to input scarcity (Morris 5).

It is important to note that space exploration has enhanced people’s understanding of how fragile our planet earth is. Through space exploration, the human race has been able to appreciate that the universe needs care from each one of us. Moreover, it is as a result of space research that some questions regarding how the universe works has been answered.

Space exploration has provided answers to questions like, what exactly is up in the sky and what goes on there which would otherwise be troubling human beings (Huadong and Ji 10). On the same note, many students are motivated to work hard in their studies by the idea that one day they might be among the astronauts who will discover something new.

Admittedly, space exploration has led to the discovery of new and faster modes of communication, thanks to satellites that have been launched into space. There are many internet applications that are used for navigation via Global Positioning Systems (GPS) which are aided by satellites in space.

Furthermore, images of the earth can be captured from space enabling the location of buildings or other objects (Morris 7). The information gathered is useful to civilians, the government and security forces in fighting crime. Additionally, satellites in space also improve the accuracy of weather predictions by meteorologists all over the world. At the same time, satellites can be used to develop reliable Early Warning Systems (EWS), to mitigate the effects of calamities such as tsunamis and earthquakes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, space exploration has contributed to the study of other atmospheric phenomena like global warming and climatic changes, thus helping in the preservation of the ecosystem (Huadong and Ji 23). In this regard, space exploration has highly influenced the improvement in modern science thus positively contributing to technological advancement.

Furthermore, space exploration stations offer employment opportunities to many people, from non-skilled workers to professional scientists. Besides improving the living standards of these people, space exploration also helps in fortifying economies of participating countries (Rau 5).

Additionally, machines used in space exploration are bought from various companies, some of which are large and influential in the economy. Therefore, space exploration is indirectly beneficial to economies because money that critics argue is wasted in exploration is actually channeled back to the economy by way of purchases and salaries.

On the same note, space exploration widens the knowledge base of scientists involved. Consequently, technological advancement that has resulted from space exploration is useful in other sectors of the economy (Lambright 181). Most importantly, there are cases where the widened thinking of space scientists has led to paramount discoveries on earth, like the artificial heart.

In this regard, the importance of space exploration cannot only be looked at in terms direct benefits, but also on the indirect benefits like spin-off technologies (Rau 15). On the other hand, there has been great technological advancement due to the need to explore the space. As scientists are working hard to advance how they conduct their space exploration, they have managed to advance computer and robot technology.

Disadvantages of Space Exploration Much as space exploration is good, there are negative effects that have been linked to it. To begin with, space exploration is a very expensive affair because it entails launching of spacecrafts several miles into orbit with expensive precision instruments on board. For the most part, politicians and the public at large get disgruntled when an exploration falls short of expectation and astronauts come back without making any headway in their endeavors (Czysz and Claudio 13).

Some may argue that there is no need to channel resources outside the planet yet they can be more productive here on earth. Instead of feeding people who sleep hungry in different parts of the world, governments choose to fund space explorations which sometimes do not give positive results. The people who bear the brunt of the wasted money are struggling tax payers, who labor hard only for their money to end up in smoke.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Heavenly Bodies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When spacecrafts get into orbit, they are controlled by astronauts who are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the mission is completed to the latter. Unfortunately, due to the risky nature of the flight to space and the temporary stay over there, accidents can occur which harm or even kill the astronauts (Rau 26). There have been instances where rockets blow up mid-air due to technical malfunctions thereby causing death of the astronauts and wastage of money.

Conclusion There are prospects of building a multi-utility space station in orbit, to improve efficiency in research. This is an initiative that will hopefully be realized in the next decade. Moreover, engineers are also looking at the aspect of capacity building targeting building of bigger spacecrafts.

The big spacecrafts will come with additional facilities and safety features to counter any contingencies that may crop up (Huadong and Ji 35). Curiosity is what landed man on the moon and still remains part of human nature. Therefore, each generation will want to know more about space than the previous generations. As a result, space exploration is a necessary evil that man has to live with.

Though its dissidents will forever be campaigning against it, space exploration will continue to spur technological and economic growth for centuries to come. It is important to note that benefits of space exploration are more than just the knowledge that is gained. They include how well we are able to appreciate our universe using the knowledge and the ability to build a good future for generations to come. Consequently, space exploration is worth its cost.

Works Cited Czysz, Paul A., and Claudio Bruno. Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems: Enabling Technologies for Space. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.

Guo, Huadong and Ji Wu. Space Science and Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050. New york: Springer, 2010. Print.

Lambright, Henry. Space Policy in the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2003. Print.

Morris, Neil. What Does Space Exploration Do For Us? Oxford: Raintree, 2012. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Heavenly Bodies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rau, Dana Meachen. Space Exploration. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2003. Print.


History of Hippie’s Culture Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Historical Development of Hippies and Communes

Communal Census

The First Communes in East and West Coast


Works Cited

Introduction Hippies emerged from the mainstream culture of the 1950s and 1960s, following in the footsteps of an earlier counter culture group, the rebellious youth movement known as the Beat Generation (Issitt 1). According to Miller (xiii) communal societies have long been an American cultural fixture, with anywhere from dozens to hundreds of them operating at any given moment.

However, nothing in the American communal past would have led any judicious observer to predict the incredible communal explosion that began during the 1960s. The years that followed saw the number of communes and hippies increase in different parts of the world.

The size and diversity of the new communitarianism made accurate counting of communes and of their members impossible. Nevertheless, the overall significance of the 1960s era as a watershed in American communal history communal history is undeniable.

Despite the fact that there have been challenges trying to the population of communes, the exact number of communes has continued to increase. Today, we are no longer dealing with communes numbering in the low hundreds but rather with thousands and, probably tens of thousands of them.

Numerically, however, the hippies probably constituted a minority presence on the 1960s communal scene, as thousands of other communes sprang up as well. In addition, there were new communes founded by spiritual seekers of all sorts.

Historical Development of Hippies and Communes According to Miller (5), more than a generation has elapsed since the communes of the 1960s era burst onto the American scene. At the same time, those who were involved in the great American 1960s era communal experiment, whether still living communally or not, are more accessible than they used to be in the past.

Apparently, the majority of the 1960s era communes were short lived, but their impact on American life has been really solid. According to some scholars, communes have for a very long time had social influence beyond their own memberships and typically, brief lifespans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of the 1960s communards were well educated, and they produced a variety of creative works that help us to understand the period from which they emerged.

Communal Census Practically, it is impossible to establish the number of communes who existed during the 1960s era. The plain fact is that no one has a better idea than that of just how widespread communal living was in those days. Of the many observers who visited and tried to track the communal America, dozens made estimates of the size of the communal outpouring, but in all but a few cases, those estimates were simply wide guesses, utterly without foundation, or quotations of the wild guesses of others.

The most recent guesses as to the number of communes were in the low thousands. An article in the New York Times in the late 1970 gave the figure of nearly 2,000 communes in America. Although the article makes an attempt to explain how the 2,000 was arrived at, it appears to be simply a guess and nothing more.

Benjamin Zablocki, writing about the same time, offered another widely cited of about 1,000 rural communes (Miller 15). Other scholars provided estimates of local communal populations much higher than the figures already given. William Speers, a newspaper reporter writing in 1971, calculated that 100 to 200 communes existed in his city of Philadelphia alone.

In the same year, another observer reported that members of the Christian World Liberation Front, a leading Jesus movement organization, counted over 200 Jesus communes in California alone, a number supported by pins stuck in a wall map (Miller 25). Also, in 1971, Mark Perlgut surveyed his immediate neighborhood in Brooklyn and noted several communes close by, with at least four on one specific street, leading him to conclude that New York alone probably had as many as 1,000 communal houses.

A scholar writing in the mid 1970s found estimates of 200 to 800 communes in Berkeley and 200 in Vermont in 1972. In spite of the fact that some of these numbers are not solidly founded, they generally would point toward a count of American communes well up in the thousands.

The First Communes in East and West Coast According to Oved (64) the first communes begun to appear in California in 1965. The background to their creation was the same as that of the original appearance of the hippies. It resulted from protests against the changes in the American society, and aversion of materialism, as well as the experiences of young members of the New Left in the struggle against the Vietnam War.

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Hippie’s Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disillusion from politicians that became stronger after the events of the Democratic conference in Chicago also led to a major turning point. Although political groups became more violent, there were also many who sought a new way of life. The romance of a return to values that had been abandoned by the prevalent culture which included the return to the community, to social obligation, to relationships with each other, and to nature and the land, also played its part (Smith 25).

The communal movement of the sixties began in the eastern and western regions of the United States, and spread from there to the center of the continent. Beginning in California it reached Oregon, and, later northern New Mexico and Colorado, and on the East coast, from Vermont southward to Virginia.

This wave was at its height from 1967 to the early seventies. After its initial stage in the mid sixties, the trickle became a flood and young people established communes in hundreds of localities in and outside the big cities. Many scholars and journalists have tried to estimate their numbers. Newsweek claimed that in 1969 there were some five hundred communes, with ten thousand members.

Benjamin Zablocki distinguished between rural and urban communes, and estimated that in 1971, there were about one thousand rural and about two hundred urban communes. The urban communes were small, with no defined doctrine. They were pluralist and poor, practiced partial cooperation with no independent productive branch, and generally lived in rented accommodation. Considering that the communes were not included in the urban census reports, it became quite hard to estimate their exact number.

In Boston, attempts to determine their numbers in the autumn of 1972 concluded that there were approximately 200 in the city, 350 in San Francisco, another 200 in Berkeley, and about a thousand in New York (Oved 64). In addition, there were similar communes in most of the big towns, particularly those with a number of universities. Despite their impressive numbers, the urban communes are not a representative sample of communalism, since they encompass many temporary phenomena connected the students’ way of life.

According to the New York Times, there were some two thousand communes in thirty four states in the year 1970. In his book, Families of Eden, Jerome Judson claimed that at the beginning of the seventies, the communes numbered 5,000, and that rural communes had a membership of about 250,000.

Richard Fairfield’s estimate, in the preface of his book, Modern Utopia, is similar. He maintains that the average membership of the rural communes is between twenty and forty and that most of the members were in their twenties (Oved 66). Apparently, the rapid expansion of the communes was connected with the development of the media such as television, radio, and the press.

There is no doubt that publicity in Time, Newsweek, and Life encouraged the growth of the communes. Through the media, local events made a resounding impression and influenced parallel processes on the national level. Interest in communes reached its peak between 1968 and 1971, when the media displayed considerable interest on the phenomenon. They saw in it and outstanding expression of the counter culture and the realization of its deals (Smith 35).

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Hippie’s Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Although the hippies’ individualism and anarchism would seem to conflict with their tendency to foster communal life, whether in small groups traveling together over highways in America, or in urban communes or more stable rural communes. For most of the young people who adopted this life style, the commune was not a permanent way of life. It was simply a temporary refuge that gave them a place of retreat in which they could reassess the individual’s disappointment with the society.

Clearly, the escapist tendencies of most of the hippies who joined communes led them to form a picture in their minds of the society from which they were fleeing, rather than an imaged of an ideal society.

Works Cited Issitt, Micah. Hippies: A Guide to an American Subculture, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.

Miller, Timothy. The 60s Communes: Hippies and Beyond, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1999. Print.

Oved, Yaacov. Globalization of Communes: 1950-2010, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print.

Smith, Sherry. Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.


Should the United States Stop Immigrants? Essay online essay help: online essay help

The United States of America considers illegal immigration as one of the national issues that need immediate concern. In his article, ‘‘Kidding Ourselves about Immigration’’, Michael Kinsley argues that the immigration process is not as easy as it was some 50 years ago (Kinsley 12). This is because the American government is very strict on offering immigration permits to foreigners.

The author believes that the Americans should clarify the meaning of their opposition towards illegal immigration. Most American politicians argue that they support immigration but oppose illegal immigration. The point of concern is whether the law is right or not. According to Michael, in contrast to the political perspective, Americans are not actually bothered by the legitimacy of the immigration but the immigration itself (Kinsley 12).

If the concern is about illegal immigration and not legal migration, then legal immigration should be increased or even doubled. The republicans perceived the issue of immigration as cultural, while the Democratic-led opposition believed that the issue was predominantly economical.

Immigrants renew the national identity of the Americans but do not destroy it. Critics of the registration process in the United States are of the opinion that if a large number of immigrants are invited into the country and assume permanent citizenship, the process will steer a fading of social cohesion.

They argue that this may lead to the immigrants being more intertwined into the United States fabric. If United States can offer opportunities for the rising mobility of immigrants, it can strengthen what the nation requires for its identity. They worry that the newcomers may destroy their identity as Americans (Kinsley 12).

In his article, ‘The next Americans’, Tomas argues that some eugenicists felt that Southern Europe Immigrants who were dark-skinned would infect the gene pool of the Americans. The concern was also politically motivated, as there was worry that the population power of the immigrants would grant the Pope the guts to seek leadership in the country, as most of the immigrants were Catholics.

They were worried that immigrant anarchists would destroy the American democracy. This did not occur as the pope does not have any authority over the American political affairs and the American gene pool is still good.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This clearly indicates that the immigrants of the European origin as well as their descendants effectively incorporated into a monolith of an American society. There is substantial evidence that the immigrants are playing an important role in significantly redefining the American identify. There is evidence that the immigrants especially the children born of immigrant parents in the US are adopting the American way of life and thus changing the American identity.

For example, there is a rapid growth increase in the population of non-English speakers in the United States. In particular, the number of Latinos and Hispanics is on the rise. Even in some American states with a large number of foreigners (such as Los Angeles with a foreign population of more than 36%) English remains a strong language. All the immigrants’ children born in the United States speak in English (Jimenez 251). The immigrants as well as their children have become very different from the ones in their ethnic motherland.

The immigrants of today keep in touch with their relatives in their home countries and support them financially. The availability of the recent technology, which is affordable such as emails and telecommunication, helps them to communicate constantly and since they have dual citizenship, they can contribute to their countries’ political affairs from abroad.

Back to their home countries, the recognition of Americanism in the immigrants is evident because families and friends easily recognize their American accents, new American ways of life and the detachment from their culture. In American identity, the immigrants have caused some changes. For example, holiday traditions, entertainment, food and language.

However, these changes are not an important social factor among the Americans. United states believe that their identity is a land of opportunity. This easily ensures that children born of immigrant parents are able to revive their American dream. It is important to provide them with better public schools and inexpensive college education. In the United States 14th Amendment, all persons are citizens of the United States provided they have legally obtained American citizenship.

In the article ‘Anchor Babies’, Reynolds Holding argues that the controversy occurs where children are born to illegal immigrants but in the United States. These are referred to as ‘Anchor Babies’ (Reynolds 232). Any child with as legal American citizenship, regardless of ethnicity or background, should have a gross salary of not less than 125 percent higher than the poverty threshold in order to file for his or her parents’ visa.

Thus, the illegal immigrants must illegally remain in the United States since they have children in United States .Those who oppose birthright citizenship claim that there is no need for amendment. This is because it may keep illegal workers in a country making them take the jobs that could otherwise benefit the legal citizens. An estimation of 7 million illegal foreign workers have taken most of the jobs thus causing unemployment and low paying jobs to millions of children born in America

We will write a custom Essay on Should the United States Stop Immigrants? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The best way to fight illegal immigration is by making it difficult for illegal immigrants to work in the United States. This can be achieved by fixing the E-Verify system that allows the employer to verify that job seekers are in the States legally. About 30 million Americans are not well educated, most of whom are immigrants. In addition, these immigrants are jobless.

These people are actually disadvantaged by anything that does not quicken the process of illegal workers returning to their homeland, as they cannot get jobs (Jimenez 251). However, the United States should not stop immigration; rather it should regulate it by allowing only the legal immigrants.

Works Cited Jimenez, Tomaz. “The Next Americans.” Time. 29 May. 2007: 251-254. Print

Kinsley, Michael. “Kidding Ourselves about Immigration.” Time. 6 Dec. 2007: 12-13. Print

Reynolds, Holding. “Anchor Babies.’ Time. 1Feb. 2011: 232-234. Print.


Young black people in the United States Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Black Panther and Gender Politics

Competing Gender Ideologies


Works Cited

Introduction By the middle of the 1960s, young black people in the United States were growing weary of civil rights leaders telling them to turn the other cheek so that they could overcome someday. The inspiring eloquence of Martin Luther King, Jr. had been challenged, even ridiculed by the fiery message of Malcolm X (Jones 267).

For black youth, who increasingly found themselves trapped in overcrowded Northern urban ghettos, many of the old movement slogans and ideas, particularly non violence as a philosophy, were becoming obsolete.

In spite of the gains of the Southern black freedom movement, civil rights organizations and leaders, especially king, were slowly but surely becoming aware of growing dissatisfaction among blacks with the limitations of hard won legislation, especially its failure to ensure economic gains and tackle seemingly intractable forms of Southern and Northern racism. As a result, the call for Black Power became the order of the day.

Beginning in 1964 and continuing each summer through 1968, disillusionment, frustration, and economic disenfranchisement fueled urban rebellions in Black communities across the country. It was within this context that the Black Panther Party for Self Defense (BPP) was formed and staked its claim for leadership of the black masses. In the year 1966, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale officially founded the party in Oakland, California, one of many U.S. cities noted for its racists and repressive police force.

The main targets of their initial organizing efforts were disaffected urban black male youth, and their activities centered on addressing police brutality through armed self defense. Although the actual size of their constituency and membership is a subject of debate, the party had a significant impact on the consciousness and political developments of the late 1960s and early 1970s both nationally and international (Jones 267).

The issues raised by the Black Panther Party were salient for the black communities at the turn of twenty first century. Economic conditions for the majority of the black people had already declined and as a result, most blacks were in a very pathetic state. The decline was in a large measure as was as a consequence of structural adjustments in advanced capitalism in response to global competition and the shift from industrial to service based economies, all of which undermined the security and safety of workers globally.

The social consequences of these changes, including more sophisticated and insidious forms of racism and sexism, demand not only new responses, but also a closer investigation of and learning from past practices of collective organized resistance (Joseph 119).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apparently, the current feelings of dissatisfaction with traditional black middle class leadership, especially among the young African Americans, are reminiscent of the sentiments that led to the revolutionary youth movement of the late 1960s in which Panthers played a critical role. Yet, in spite of renewed popular interest, the political ideology and inner workings of the BPP still remain hidden from those most likely to take up the mantle of resistance in this era.

The first two years of Black Panther Party’s development were fictionalized, romanticized, and popularized in the recent larger than life Hollywood film titled Panther, complete with a supporting cast that looks like a black entertainment television top forty count down.

Allegedly, then content of many contemporary popular sources influence our collective memory of the Panthers, including movies, hip hop, magazines and music, and mainstream newspapers, may in fact serve to reproduce rather than rectify mistakes and miscalculations of the past.

The goal of this essay is to provide a perspective on an often ignored aspect of history and legacy of the BPP, namely, its gender politics. The gender ideology of the BPP, both as formerly stated and as exemplified by organizational practice, was as critical to its daily functioning as was the party’s analysis of race and class dynamics in black communities.

Rather than the party’s gender politics bring secondary to the larger struggle against racism and capitalism, one may instead that the politics of gender were played out in most aspects of party activity and affected its ability to function as an effective political organization.

Black Panther and Gender Politics In my view, gender is not to be understood as a discrete category unto itself, but one of several interacting factors such as race, class, color, age, and sexual orientation that together make up individual identities as well as the social terrain upon which our realities are experienced.

As noted by Jones (269), the category of gender was not as fully politicized and theorized during the late 1960s as it is today. One must, therefore, resist the temptation to impose current standards to measure the feminist, nationalist, revolutionary credentials of the BPP. Each of these social theories must be understood as being historically specifically. Clearly, what may constitute feminism or radicalism in one time period may not necessarily be recognized as such in another (Joseph 219).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Young black people in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ideas about gender and gender roles were far from static within the BPP. As the party spread numerically and geographically, class and gender diversity within its ranks increased.

New members brought new and old ideas with them. Despite the initial self conscious creation by the leadership of a masculine pubic identity for the Panther, some women and men in the party challenged the characterization of the struggle as one solely for the redemption of black manhood and worked within its constraints to serve the interests of the entire community.

Somehow, the stories of the BPP can not be reduced to a monolithic party line on the woman question or a linear progression from an overtly and overwhelmingly sexist organization to a pro black feminist or womanist one. Instead, one must pay attention to internal conflict as well as agreement, overt as well as covert manifestations of this dialogue, change over time, diversity of individual experiences, and internal as well as external influences.

While it can justifiably be argued that the BPP at various points in its history was a male centered, male dominated organization, this point should not negate the important ideological and practical contributions of its female members or of the men who resisted chauvinistic and sexist tendencies.

Indeed, the diversity, both in terms of geography and personnel, of an organization whose existence spanned from Oakland to Algiers and from 1966 to 1982, can not be understood and appreciated through simplistic explanations or superficial head counts of official leadership roles. Undoubtedly, black women were critical players in the BPP, and the party overall had a significant impact on the political life of an entire generation.

Competing Gender Ideologies The designation, conscious or otherwise, of specific gender based roles for women and men within the Black Panther Party began with the party’s inception. Obviously, this process did not happen in a vacuum. In addition to having their own ideas about the roles that men and women should play in the society and within the party, the founders and members were also influenced by competing ideologies and vice versa.

These competing ideologies could be either supportive of or opposed to the status quo of American society. Three such ideologies that bear mentioning because of their enormous impact on the period are cultural nationalism, feminism, and the black matriarchy or tangle of pathology thesis. These three ideological discourses illustrate historian Francis White’s contention that counter discourse struggles against both dominant and competing oppositional discourses.

In other words, the oppositional rhetoric of the BPP challenged and was challenged by other alternative as well as mainstream perspectives. There were, of course, many other important hegemonic and counterhegemonic theoretical constructs vying for prominence. These three are highlighted because of their impact on the consequences of the period in general and on the BPP specifically (Gore et al. 34)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Young black people in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most popular proponents of black cultural nationalism, at least on the West Coast in the late 1960s, was the Los Angeles based US organization headed by Maulana Karenga. The US organization stressed the necessity for cultural awareness among blacks to be gained primarily through the revival of African traditions, whether real or invented, of dress, language, religion, and familial arrangements as well as the rejection of White supremacy.

The relationship between Karenga, the US organization, and the BPP changed over time just as the panthers’ own ideological positions changed (Ogbar 84). In the early years of the party, Karenga participated in meetings are rallies in support of the BPP. However, over time as their respective ideologies were clarified and contradictions exposed, the BPP became scathingly critical of the US organization.

Mainly, the party’s critique was based on the fact that Karenga’s group promoted cultural nationalism and black capitalism. Drawing on the theories of Frantz Fanon, the panthers repeatedly asserted that cultural pride was a necessary phase in the political development of black people. It, however, did not guarantee black liberation, nor did black skin necessarily identify on as an automatic ally.

The open conflict between the two organizations came to a head in the year 1969 when two prominent panthers were killed by US members in a shoot out at a black student union meeting. This incident sparked numerous articles and political cartoons in The Black Panther that criticized cultural nationalism in general and Karenga in particular.

There were even charges leveled that Karenga himself was on the payroll of the FBI and various other police and government agencies. One major component of the US rhetoric called for women’s submission to traditional male authority, and promoted the notion of complementary gender roles (Ogbar 113).

Conclusion Based on the arguments presented in this paper, it is obvious that women had a big part to play in the advancement of the Black Panther movement. This is a stand that was, however, refuted by Karenga who regarded men highly and considered women as subordinates.

According to Karenga’s teachings, what makes a woman appealing is femininity and she can not be feminine without being submissive. A man has to be a leader and he has to be a man who bases his leadership on knowledge, wisdom, and understanding. There is no virtue in independence.

The only virtue is interdependence. The role of the woman is to inspire her man, educate their children and participate in social development. In general, male supremacy is said to be based on three things. These are tradition, acceptance, and reason. Equality is, therefore, regarded as false and the devil’s concept.

Works Cited Gore, Dayo, Theoharis, Jeanne,


Problems Facing Human Beings In 2050 Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Currently, infrastructure has become paramount in our daily lives. In every country, infrastructure determines the growth of its economic and social sectors. Over the last century, improvements in infrastructure have resulted in better standards of living. In spite of these benefits, environmental researchers suggest that the future advancements in infrastructure would result in numerous challenges. Currently, several countries are planning to invest massive resources in infrastructural developments.

In this regard, environmentalists assert that all the relevant stakeholders should address the future infrastructural challenges. By focusing on the future land-based transportation issues, this paper seeks to highlight challenges that would be faced by human beings in the year 2050.

At the present, the effects of climate change are widespread. According to environmentalists, by the year 2050 climate change will have increased in its intensity and occurrence. As such, climate change will ultimately have an effect on our land-based transport sectors. The increase in temperatures will affect transportation in a number of ways. Higher temperatures will lead to an expansion in the metals used in the railway lines and bridges.

As a result, bridges’ joints and the efficiency of our railway transport will be compromised. If the government fails to reconstruct our transport facilities to suit the current changes in climate, delays and accidents in the industry will be rampant by the year 2050. It is estimated that the world population in the year 2050 would be 9 billion. Owing to this factor, many individuals would be negatively affected by the situation.

Equally, recurring floods will affect both land-based transportation system and water infrastructures. In the coastal and lowland regions, climate change will result in unprecedented floods leading to an interruption in the flow of traffics. The flooding will not only interrupt traffic, but will also result in frequent infrastructure repairs and delays in construction. Similarly, bridges and motorway safety will be threatened by the consequences of climate change in the coming decades.

Personally, disruption in land-based transport systems will lead to delays, increase in the cost of travelling, and increase chances of being involved in disasters. Considering the fact that the world population would have increased significantly by the year 2050, implies that more time will be wasted travelling back and forth to the workplace. Since a significant amount of time will be spent on travelling, my production will be negatively affected leading to a decrease in my returns.

With the thoughts of future infrastructural challenges in mind, I wonder whether the challenges faced in land-based transportation system in the future will have significant effects on other infrastructural sectors. Equally, I cannot comprehend whether these challenges will reduce the economical gains achieved by then. With the ever-increasing consequences of climate change and the governments’ unwillingness to formulate appropriate mitigation measures, I wonder whether the looming risks are avoidable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my opinion, the threatening infrastructural challenges that would be faced by the year 2050 are real. In this regard, governments and relevant sectors must acknowledge the risks posed by these infrastructural challenges, and create and implement appropriate mitigation measures.

Similarly, environmental engineers should work together with other engineers in developing infrastructures that will sustain the risks resulting from climate change. Through this, the risks associated with the future infrastructural challenges will be reduced fostering sustainable economic growth at the present and in the future.


Greek and Roman Art in the Campus Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents The Three Works

Greek Roots in Irish Mother and Child

Roman roots in Mona

Roman Roots in Night Without Dawn


The Three Works Admittedly, Greek and Roman art traditions have affected the development of the contemporary arts. At present, it is possible to find Greek and Roman traits in many works of modern artists. Our campus is also decorated with works which are influenced by Greek and Roman arts. It is possible to consider such works as Night Without Dawn, Mona, Irish Mother and Child by Glenna Goodacre. These bronze works bear characteristics which are associated with Roman and Greek arts.

Greek Roots in Irish Mother and Child Irish Mother and Child can be regarded as a work inspired by the Bronze Age in Greek art. The figures are quite idealistic, which was a characteristic feature of Greek art at that period. The faces have perfect proportions, especially when it comes to the girl. The faces are quite distant and no meaningful emotions can be traced.

The absence of emotions is obvious and it is even stressed as the figures are depicted in motion. The child is holding her mother tightly. Therefore, it is possible to state that this work is more Greek in nature as it is characterized by major peculiarities of the Bronze Age in the Greek ancient art, i.e. people are idealized, people’s emotions are not depicted.

Roman roots in Mona On the contrary, Mona is characterized by great tension and particular realism. In the first place, this is a bust depicting an ordinary person. It is not a deity or some famous personality. Depiction of ordinary people is a characteristic feature of Roman, not Greek arts. Apart from this, the face is depicted with a specific precision.

There is no trace of an idealistic depiction of youth and beauty, which was typical for Greek arts. Mona is an old person who had a really hard life. Every hard year is revealed in numerous wrinkles. The expression of the figure’s face shows present suffering of the person. Thus, it is possible to note that the present artwork is inspired by Roman arts as Roman bronze works are associated with realistic depiction of ordinary people. More so, emotions and aging were quite central to Roman works.

Roman Roots in Night Without Dawn As far as the third work is concerned, it also bears Roman traits. In the first place, the sleeping figure is very realistic. Again, there is no idealistic depiction of perfect forms and perfect faces. The face of the figure bears traits of aging and suffering. One more characteristic feature of this work is that it does not depict a famous personality or deity. This is an ordinary person who is overwhelmed by hardships of his ordinary life.

Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the three works are quite similar as they bear traits of Roman and Greek arts which shared common values, i.e. exquisite depiction of people. However, the work Irish Mother and Child differs from the two other works as it bears Greek traits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The figures are depicted in quite an idealistic way and no emotions are revealed. In contrast to this work, the other two works follow Roman tradition. Ordinary people are depicted and the major focus is on facial expressions and realistic depiction of people’s emotions as well as appearance. Of course, it is also necessary to note that even though the works bear traits of Greek and Roman arts, these are artworks reflect trends that reign in the contemporary society.


The Role of Responsibility in Creating and Maintaining a Civil Society Essay argumentative essay help

Politicians and sociologists agree that the question of determining the characteristic features of the civil society is rather controversial because there are a lot of details and aspects to take into consideration. Nevertheless, the notion of civil society is closely associated with such concepts as social or collective rights and freedoms.

From this point, it is possible to state that the civil society is the society in which collective interests of individuals are met with references to their personal freedoms and rights as citizens. That is why, it is important to pay attention to the rights and freedoms of all the citizens in the society to discuss it as civil.

Although the ideas of providing equal rights and freedoms should be followed without references to the people’s race, gender, and class, there are a lot of examples in history when these principles are violated in relation to such phenomena as discrimination, colonialism, or slavery; that is why, the question of the citizens’ responsibility should be discussed from this point, and social freedoms and rights should be really equal for everyone in the civil society.

During the 18th-19th century, the Westerners justified their actions and the ideas of colonialism and slavery from the point of necessity to civilise the population of the colonised territories. However, the actions of colonists were based only on the economic reasons.

Thus, Britain colonised the African lands, and “the biggest prize won by Britain is control over local trade. Once, this had meant gold and enslaved humans…” (Getz


“The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The Secret is a book authored by Rhonda Byrne that was published in 2006. It is based on a film of the same name produced in March of the same year. The Secret centers on the law of attraction. Byrne expresses positivism about notions that can change life. The book has been translated into more than forty languages.

Byrne has used the power of the pen to impact positively on people’s lives. Her well-choreographed description of the chronology of events helps her make the change. This is what makes me like her style of writing and delivery of the message. This paper seeks to prove this success.

Byrne starts by explaining the dynamics of the law of attraction, and then she explores how men and women used its power to gain wisdom. This shows how well she is prepared before beginning to write the book. Byrne explains that people through their positive thinking can change their health, expand wealth, and become happier. She analyzes the law of attraction in a perfect way. She illustrates how the law attracts events, situation, and experiences of people by matching their feelings and thoughts.

She further inspires people from the fact that two years before she wrote the book, she underwent a terrible condition that brought trauma. This gave her the opportunity to read varied genre of literature by great scholars and thinkers. Through this, she gained wisdom and proper methods of delivering the message to the world. Therefore, when you sit down to read The Secret, you know you are reading a piece of work by the author who was ready for her job. This book is planned well and its content collected over time.

The Secret is a well thought out book based on rich wisdom that Byrne acquired by reading widely and internalizing from articles that enriched her mind, giving her adequate capacity to write.

To confirm that she did a better job, The Secret gained popularity selling more than nineteen million copies earning Byrne a call to appear on The Oprah Winfrey Show. The fortunes from the sales of the book were marvelous. I contributed to this because I acquired a copy to make sure that I am part of the population that benefited from this knowledge.

The book plays a big role in empowering people who want to be self-reliant. Her explanations of the thoughts and feelings transmitting into the surrounding from the human brains, to attract equivalent actions and situations and therefore creating experiences are very fascinating. Through this, the book has managed to transform the thinking of many people. People’s thoughts have shifted to the positive minds. This has created confidence and self-belief, which are key elements to success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Byrne uses metaphors to pass her message to the readers with clear expressions. She does this by comparing the power of thoughts to a transmission tower. The tower transmits frequency to the universe and then relays the same to the earth in equal measure.

Her prowess is captivating and is felt when she derives from the Bible to create her three-step process for manifesting the dreams. Byrne outlines that it is Ask, Believe, and Receive. She combines these by capturing the complete human body very well. She points out gratitude and visualization as the driving forces for achievement.

Using her conscience that is very clear, she understands that being grateful rests in the human heart. Similarly, having vision is centered in the mind. By doing this, she manages to put together the human mind and heart. This is the best way a human being can move forward and change his destiny. In order to succeed the mind should first think about success. The law of attraction will then reorganize the events to make sure success is achieved.

The Secret is without doubt a product of great minds in various fields including art, philosophy, and great thinkers. Synthesizing this, together with the first intention of the author that is to bring joy to many human beings, it becomes an educative and interesting book.

Byrne’s organization of her work is exemplary. She delivers her message through the film and then follows up with a captivating book. This indicates the value she put on the message organized to deliver. She creates a deeper understanding from the reader’s perspective by dividing the human thoughts into three categories.

Remembering that comes first puts the mind in the past, observation that is second puts the mind in the present, and imagination that comes at the end puts the mind in the future. Synthesizing the three steps, Byrne gives one an opportunity to look back, see his present mind-set, and by changing his focus, he can change his thoughts to align with success.

Her explanation of positivism elaborates how change from a positive mind is more powerful than negative thoughts. The more positive the mind the closer the results are achieved. Byrne excellently transfers thoughts to feelings. Good feelings are because of positive thoughts and a proof that one is ready to receive good results.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She explains that feelings predict outcomes to me this is true. For example, if I am from an interview my feelings will show the outcome. If my feelings are good, then definitely I have done well at the same time if my feelings show low self-esteem then the chance that I have fared poorly is high.

In her words, feelings and thoughts consist of emotional guidance system. Byrne has used the book to help people open up to themselves and the world. With oneself, personal life is evaluated including their health. To the world, the key to financial successes as well as secrets of relationships are analyzed.

Assessment of these factors puts one in a place to develop and expand. The reason attributed to this is that one’s status is a result of his past thoughts and feelings. I totally agree with her. Taking students’ performance in class for instance can be seen through examination preparations (Byrne 78). Their feeling and thoughts can be overheard in grapevine. Their expressions are used to decide how they are going to do when the results come out.

Byrne identifies that the state of the mind now and the feelings find one’s future. Preparations that are done now create the type of situation in future.

The future status is projected now. In conclusion, we are justified to state that Rhonda Byrne has succeeded in achieving her first intention of bringing joy to millions in the world. She achieved this through her organized and thought out arrangement of ideas. Evidence that she has done this arises from various accolades the book and she have received, the sales not withstanding.

Works Cited Byrne, Rhonda. The Secret. New York: Atria Books, 2006. Print.


Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem Research Paper college essay help online

The reality of domestic violence in most homes is that many men and some women often show intolerance against those who face this issue. The main questions are always the same. Why victims of domestic violence do not just go away? If the problem of domestic violence is a social problem, why is not it solved up to now?

The problem of domestic violence was raised many yeas ago. Nowadays, this problem is considered as one of the most urgent ones, still it has not been decided yet. There are a lot of possible reasons which may be the main reasons for presence of violence. Today, in the debate surrounding domestic violence, it is believed that society concedes that mental state of many victims of domestic violence has often been psychologically changed or culturally habituated, so they cannot escape the abusive relationship without outside assistance.

In this action, victims of domestic violence do not display rational or reasoned behavior because of a myriad of extraordinary complicated circumstances. Their mental state has often been psychologically tainted by an experience that often can leave them intellectually incompetent of making rational decisions regarding the situation they have occurred in. The understandable belief is that through most of human history, men have been in charge of making the family decisions.

In the modern society, each of the cohabiting spouses, because of current social changes, wants to dominate the decision-making process. Conflicts and violence can occur as there is no process in place that regulates family life. The ethical principles of fairness and equality arise from a mutual human respect for the extent in which we can all act with an awareness of our actions and their consequences.

Nowadays, many specific actions are made in order assist those who have been abused at home. Ultimately, we must come to understand that the primary obstacle to modern society’s ability to reach an agreement regarding the domestic violence is that too many studies and several critiques about domestic violence basically support measures which are to be taken after the violence has occurred. This frequently presents people with two disconnected and separate notions of the problem.

Some people believe domestic violence to be a central concern in the society, while others do not consider it to be a problem at all. Domestic violence is not an issue of gender as it is rather about how social and economic decisions are made within relationships at homes (Ratterman).

A person in relationships that has control of the decision-making process will often use threats and/or violence to keep control over the partner. It must be fully apprehended that to ask an individual to stay in a relationship when it becomes too domineering for them is immoral and diminishes the value of their life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is not to argue that a man cannot be the victim of domestic violence or that women cannot be the primary assaulters of a domestic violence occurrence. Men can be the victims of domestic violence as well as some women can be the primary assaulters (Ratterman). The reason of one becoming an offender or a victim lies in one’s character as the person who dominates is to be more stubborn or more steadfast (Folstad).

Domestic violence is a world problem and there are a lot of initiatives and programs aimed at eliminating the effects and complicated consequences of this issue. There is a phone number where people who have occurred under the affect of domestic violence may call and get a piece of advice.

Such phone numbers are aimed at assisting psychologically those who need help. People can get the assistance in further behavior and treating of those who abuse them. People can get the information about the places where they can go. T is very important to know that there are people who can assist you. It is also important to speak to somebody. It is a universal problem that those who are abused, mainly women, do not turn to police.

There are many reasons for such decisions, however, these women still need help. Speaking about this problem, those who appear under the affect of a domestic violence do not usually want others to solve the problem, they just want to tell about their problem and to express their ideas about it. Many people who call to such centers do not even need advice they just tell about their problem and disconnect. It is also possible to report about the case of domestic abuse in the neighboring house.

Ultimately, in times of fast social change, there are always deceitful machinations to avert or slow societal change. In current society, as a result of the confused emotional change in relationships between men and women, they often emerge to be worried, suspicious, and fearful of each other. Coming to police before the violence is committed results in nothing as police is sure that fear for violence is always a result of emotional instability of a weaker position in family relationships.

Thus, some cases left without attention remain just the cases, but the part of such requests for help usually result in further violence. For example, Patty Prickett, the counselor (Catania), was the witness of a situation when a woman who came six months before to police to ask for help was refused and she was killed at the moment. It is impossible to combat the problem dealing with its results. It is important to make sure that the causes of the problem are considered.

The absence of the correct social programs at schools and the lack of desire of government and police to pay more attention to the prevention of the problem while it is not too late are the main reasons of the increased number of the cases of domestic violence.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the problem was considered before the irreversible effects appeared, it would be easier to reduce the rate of domestic violence in the country (Abner). Looking at the current situation, the most reasonable actions which are to be done are the implementation of the school programs directed at reducing the number of the domestic violence cases and an implementation of an initiative devoted to preventing the causes of domestic violence rather than dealing with the consequences.

David A. Wolfe and Peter G. Jaffe are sure that adolescence is a particular time when crucial cognitive and social processes occur in the development of youths. During this time adolescents “learn to think more rationally and become capable of thinking hypothetically” (Wolfe and Jaffe). At this stage of development, adolescents understand the main idea of complex interpersonal relationships with reference to possible risks and consequences of decision making processes.

Trying to implement such an initiative, the effectiveness is to be considered along with the specific measures which are to be taken. As for consequences, it must be stated that if people are taught from their youths that domestic violence is something illegal, awful and incorrect, it is possible to reduce the number of the cases of domestic violence in the future. Many people commit such actions just because they are unable to solve problems in another way.

The main idea of the initiative is to develop the school lectures which show students the cases of domestic violence and teach them solve problems without applying to violence. Adolescents are to understand that there are a lot of particular situations where emotions may become predominant, however, emotions must never rule people and their decisions. So, the implementation of such initiative will help give students some knowledge about handling relationships, coping with conflicts and preventing domestic violence.

The potential victims should also be taught the basic principles of behavior. Domestic violence is a very complicated problem as sometimes the victims of the accident are guilty in the fact that such a case took place. Inappropriate behavior, failure to select necessary words and many other factors may cause unpredictable outcome.

The knowledge about the psychological grounds and some useful information may prevent a crime or at least to reduce the consequences. Much attention should be paid to those children whose parents have been involved into domestic violence. Having already been at the side of a victim, such children should be involved in the discussion of a problem to help them overcome the already existing fears (Gemma 113).

Another proposed measure in dealing with domestic violence is trying to prevent the act at all. There are several specific measures which may assist police in preventing the domestic violence before it is committed. First of all, it is important to have a list of all the houses where the case may take place. Additionally, police is to react to any sign of possible abuse and take some measures.

For example, the requests of aggressive behavior of one member of a family must not be ignored, even though there are no signs of violence of abuse have taken place yet. It is inadmissible to wait until a crime is committed. It is necessary to find the reason (e.g. drunk condition, aggressive behavior, etc.) and to isolate a possible abuser. Additionally, it is essential to make sure that a possible abuser does not think that it is a family member who has taken a police to the place.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A possible criminal is to come though the psychological treatment in order to make sure that he/she looks differently at situation and aggression has been treated. It is important to visit the homes where domestic violence took place once, but the offender was allowed to remain in the family. Such families are to be under special control (Krueger and Labbe 40).

Therefore, it should be concluded that there are a lot of measures which are taken in order to reduce the number of the cases of domestic violence, however, not all of these actions are effective as in most cases the measures are take after the crime is committed. It is important to think about the specific actions which may help prevent domestic violence at all.

School lectures for students is one of the ideas which is to be implemented. Moreover, attentive following of the homes with possible domestic violence cases is to be conducted as well. The country should be under constant control. Even though much is done in order to reduce the number of cases of domestic abuse, there are a lot of measures which may still be taken.

The problem is not going to be solved by means of changing the criminal or civil court systems. The change of this doggedness must start in community involvement through a multi-strategy educational plan. The use of civil preventive orders and compulsory arrest policies by police departments without appropriate criminal approval to alleviate the ills of domestic violence is a deception in which firm realities are inadequate and it is difficult to tell reality from fable.

The regrettable fact is that many empty spaces must be filled before proceeding any further and the only way to realize this is by using political smoke and mirrors to change facts.

Society must merge empirical studies with psychologically held ideas and become more loyal to the judgment of reasonable problem solving. Society must also become more practical and ask questions about who the people are and what the suitable relationship between men and women should be. The society must understand that success is distinguished by what is put in life and not by gains. It must become the responsibility of the community to identify what the current social positions should be in terms of gender and family.

Works Cited Abner, Carrie. “Addressing Abuse.” Print.

Catania, Sara. “Domestic Violence: The Counselor.” Print.

Folstad, Kim. “Are You Shackled to a Bad Boyfriend?” Print.

Gemma, Ellis. “The impact on teachers of supporting children exposed to domestic abuse.” Educational


Thanksgiving History and Significance Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Significance of Thanksgiving


Works Cited

Introduction Thanksgiving is a day celebrated in the United States every year. The tradition of Thanksgiving celebrations in the United States can be traced back to the year 1863. Important to note is that Thanksgiving Day is a public holiday in the United States which is celebrated every year in November, (usually the fourth week of that month) and ” it is a big deal in America because Americans believe it to be the unique holiday, hardly found in this form anywhere else on earth” (Baker 1). This holiday is celebrated with a lot of merrymaking and communal

Thanksgiving as it is the day celebrated with an aim of showing gratitude for all the great things that life has given to a person, for example, family, friends, positive feelings and emotions. In an argument advanced by Bradford, “children should be enlightened on the importance of Thanksgiving so that it can be easy to preserve and pass the tradition to the present and future generation” (144). Even though Thanksgiving is often referred to as the harvest festival, it is something more than what it seems to suggest at first sight.

History Thanksgiving Day was created by people, who were religious people that were running away from persecution in England; they were referred to as pilgrims. Initially, the pilgrims went to settle in the Netherlands, but later, they went to the North America for the purposes of setting up a colony.

Most of the pilgrims arrived in North America in the year 1620 at a time when the autumn season was welcoming the winter season. As Snow says, for them it was “a day of prayer and meditation, not necessry connected with a harvest or a feast. It was a special day of religious observance to acknowledge an act of God’s benevolence” (108). Unfortunately, a big number of the pilgrims died in the North America due to the cold weather they encountered.

The pilgrims began to engage in farming activities during the spring season. During their short stay in the North America, the native Indians assisted the pilgrims by means of guiding them on how to do farming, and also how to cook.

By the end of the summer season, the pilgrims had managed to get a bumper harvest and as such, they were able to store enough food to last out to the winter season . Following the good harvest, the pilgrims decided to organize a festival for the purposes of showing their gratitude to God for the good harvest they got.

Discussion Throughout the existence of mankind, the greatest happiness emanates from contentment of the individual. As such, it is always prudent for an individual to show his or her gratitude especially to those who in one way or another enabled this or that person to achieve what they were eager to achieve.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Needless to say, the foregoing principle forms the basis of Thanksgiving celebrations in the United States. During Thanksgiving, people celebrate and honor those who forfeited their own interests for the sake of others. The sacrifice made by the native Indian Americans is, therefore, celebrated and honored during the celebration of Thanksgiving. The United States sacrificed their land and gave up their culture for the greater interest of the nation.

Appreciating people is a simple and yet very powerful way of encouraging people for them to continue making more sacrifices and doing what is best for the sake of others. What is more, appreciating others through Thanksgiving presupposes a clear and loud message that the sacrifice made is recognized by the person it was meant for, and that it was satisfactory. “After all, the phrase thank you is cited as a virtual that is above all other virtues in the universe” (Weaver


The Problem of Ocean Pollution in Modern World Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

As a concerned member of the community, I am writing to relay my thoughts on a considerable geo-social issue affecting the community. It is of considerable concern how pollution in the ocean has been a major predicament, which is not only affecting the water masses, but people as well. The pollution of the water masses not only inhibits water life, but also affects people’s health as well as other natural resources.

Although there are many natural wastes that affect the ocean life, it is evident that people are the principal cause of ocean pollution. Wastes such as toxic matter, plastics, and human wastes are some of the major sources of pollution in the ocean. In addition, chemicals such as bathing lotions, sunscreens, and other chemicals used by humans affect the toxicity level of water, which in turn affects marine life. Water is the most valuable resource for human beings, as such, it is pertinent for people to protect it.

Parent (7) asserts that solid content kills marine life, for instance, fish die due to their consumption of plastics. Up to 90% of foreign bodies, which float in the ocean, consist of plastics. it imposes some danger since it does not break down for a very long period of time (Parent 1).

When fish ingest plastics, they are unable to digest it since it cannot be broken down by their stomach chemicals. Eventually, they end up dying out of starvation being unable to find food. Large marine animals are also not exempted. They are affected by chemicals present in plastics and other things abundant in the ocean.

Chemicals from plastics in their turn increase global warming, which has been a major issue that affects the ocean causing water to rise in level eventually influencing animals, and humans near the ocean. Many people consume fish as food; when marine life is affected by toxic substance in the ocean, they can adversely affect humans to the extent of causing food poisoning, and even deformation of unborn children (Parent 8). Therefore, to save marine animals, it is necessary to conserve the ocean.

In order to make this dream a reality, people need to adopt changes starting from their own culture of behavior. These include aspects, such as training themselves to use reusable bags while going for shopping. Furthermore, people should avoid littering garbage and chemicals used in their homes into the ocean. Parent (4) contends that people should be interested in making the ocean pure and not polluted (Parent 1).

The government has been a supportive mechanism in this initiative by ensuring they provide litter bins in the surrounding areas near the ocean to enable those at the beach to put litter in the correct place. The community should work hand in hand with the set up organizations that ensure the safety and maintenance of the ocean. The organizations should also set up classes to educate the community on ways to protect the ocean, and the dangers they expose themselves to when they do not take care of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I do believe that if every person is to do all the right things in order to ensure the safety and maintenance of the ocean, people would be creating the best environment for themselves and their future generations.

Works Cited Parent, Jason. Ocean Pollution Sources, Effects, and Prevention. 2010. Electronic Print.


Traditional Forms of Media vs. the Modern Ones Essay cheap essay help

Of all the treasures in the world, information has always been the most valuable one. In the present-day world, its value should have dropped. However, weirdly enough, the “inflation” has never taken place. Because of the increasing importance of the new forms of media, the old ones can possibly become obsolete. Therefore, the question of which of these is more valuable and whether people should pick one of these or maintain the use of both arises.

Though the choice seems obviously be in the favor of the new media, there are a couple of issues to consider before passing the verdict. It is obvious that the modern forms of media namely, the online media, are very accessible. While there might be no place to buy newspapers or other media in the vicinity, the online media is always close at hand, except for the cases of power cuts. Hence, online sources are on par with the traditional media in terms of accessibility.

When it comes to reliability, the traditional media is in the winning position. However, the traditional media comes first by a very narrow edge. The key reason why it should be considered more reliable is that no one can edit it anonymously.

The final point of comparison between the two media types is the person delivering the information. At this stage, the two media types have a lot in common. As much as in online media, in newspapers and journals, the author’s name can be easily omitted or altered. Hence, the traditional media seems to have more potential.

Therefore, the rivalry between the traditional forms of media and the recently invented ones is obvious; moreover, it seems that the given contest is going to continue for a while and is highly likely to make one of the kinds of media disappear or, at least, become very unpopular. If comparing the viability of each of the forms of media in question, one must admit that the newest and the most recently developed forms of media, such as social networking or online blogs, are most likely to be the winner in the final battle of the media.

However, the given hypothesis does not mean that the older forms of media are going to be washed away by the sands of time. It can be suggested that the “survivors” are still going to be used, though by considerably less people than it used to be, and on certain occasions. Hence, none of the media forms will ever disappear completely, since there will always be the people who will prefer to use less popular one.


The Problem of Bullying Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Bullying is primarily based on intimidation and fear. The victim is physically assaulted or psychologically tortured to bring him or her to submission. In most of the cases, bullying involves verbal intimidation, physical assault and psychological torture. Victims of bullying are usually physically weak, socially disadvantaged, or both.

Since bullying takes various forms, it is not well defined by most laws (Ericson, 2001). However, it is obvious that most elements of bullying are criminalized in the United States. A person who is considered different among peers is likely to be a subject of bullying.

While bullying is common among small children and teenagers, it is also found at the workplace. Supervisors and colleagues at the workplace may bully subordinates and other people who are not necessarily junior to them (Zapf


Gender Studies: Advertisement and Gender Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Advertisement is considered by many people to be the most ‘actual’ method or approach of communicating through the media. As a result of this, it is important to analyze the qualities that are expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements.

Barthel Diane explicitly described in “A Gentleman and a Consumer” that the quality that is expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements is the reflection of their values, wants, needs and beliefs.

In the field of advertising women, appearance has traditionally been in a limited number of stereotype roles. Women’s roles frequently entail being women first, that is, women take part in limited roles limited to their gender. These include being viewed as a sex object (the image of the slim, sexually seductive, scantily clad figure) in their relationships with men, and as emotional and unpredictable being.

Furthermore, Barthel Diane described that the qualities that are expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements are sexiness, glamour, and a comfortable life (Barthel 1983).

The qualities expected of a woman from advertising perspective are to be desirable in terms of what they look like, not what they think or do. They (women) encourage a positive satisfaction and even egotistical attentiveness (Barthel 1983).

Ultimately, the woman is the attention getter and thus the reason for the sale becomes the woman and not the product. This state of affairs of using women in advertising is due to the present society which promotes materialism above all else and has no equal qualms in treating women as objects which could result in higher sales.

Works Cited Barthel, Diane. “A Gentleman and a Consumer: A Sociological Look at Man at His Best.” Boston: Bedford Books, 1983. Print.

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The ethical and legal guiding principle Essay essay help online free

It is crucial for a supervisor to develop and enhance the professional competence of the intern through correction and guidance. Because the intern is sincere and motivated, a good supervisor will soon turn the weak points of the incompetent intern into strengths.

The ethical and legal guiding principle see supervised clinical experience as a prerequisite for competency and credentials. However, clinical competence alone is not enough for supervisory competence. Due to the motivation of the intern, it is only a matter of time before he or she grasps the rules of the game and becomes able to perform to the satisfaction of the supervisor.

However, the supervisor should be ready to offer positive criticism where the intern is not doing as expected. The supervisor benefits when the intern is able to learn from the experience of the exposed supervisor and integrate the new knowledge with what was learnt in class. A good working relationship between the supervisor and the intern usually yields very good results and leads to a high level of knowledge accumulation within a short time by the intern.

Although it is paramount that interns who are in sensitive areas like the medical field are not allowed to do mistakes, it is crucial to allow the intern time to improve their skills and gain new knowledge.

However, the amount of time will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to motivation, degree and frequency of errors among others. It may take a few days if the task at hand is simple to several weeks if the task is complex. But again, it will depend if the action in which the intern is making mistakes is severe as to warrant immediate or quick removal from contact with clients.

The show titled, “mom before Dr.Phil” in Youtube shows a family dealing with teen pregnancy. The main character of the show is Emily who wants to be a teen mother. Her mother, Jeanie supports her decision to keep the baby while her step father, Charles, is against this idea.

Emily’s younger sister thinks that although Emily is too young to be a mother, if given support, she may end up raising a child well. According to Dr. Phil, statistics indicate that most of the teen mothers end up poor as a result of dropping out of school. Emily’s mother does not believe that statistics always predict the truth as she talks of her background whereby she was successfully raised by a teen mother.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is despite her parents forcing her mother to give her up for adoption. Dr. Phil’s instant decision and advice to the mother is to offer the child for adoption. He sees this as good for the child who will grow in a complete family having a father and mature parents. According to the Doctor, a child without a father is more likely to end up poor and in prison, than a child with a father. Therefore, Dr. Phil advocates for adoption of the baby.

This show by Dr.Phil does not address the whole issue and is therefore not very helpful to the young mother. For example, the show does not go to the root cause of why Emily is engaged in teen sex. Was it as a result of lack of parental love? Emotional turmoil of the expectant young girl is not taken into account. However, the show wants to portray the picture that giving up the child for adoption will make all people in the family happy.


Feng Shui: Does it work in modern times? Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Fung Shui originates from the ancient China and is a philosophy of a harmonious coexistence of humans and the Mother Nature. Feng is the Chinese word for wind while Shui is the Chinese word for water (Montenegro). The Chinese believe that these two components of nature are instrumental in the establishment of good health (Montenegro). Consequently, good health and affluence are because of good Feng Shui while bad health and misfortunes denotes bad Feng Shui (Montenegro).

The idea is concerned with the surroundings as well as the constitution and interiors of buildings (Montenegro). They say, building constructed in a good landscape bring good fortunes while the opposite is true. The ancient Chinese believed that the effects of Feng Shui influence the location of one’s home and they may experience good or bad fortunes.

Good fortune included things like good health, joyful relationships, and abundance of food and economic muscles (Montenegro). On the other hand, bad fortunes included things like sickness, death, scarcity, and distress among other things. They believed that, by occupying a home that is located in a landscape that has a bad Feng Shui, it would attract bad fortune and vice versa.

It was an ancient Chinese belief that the study of water and wind can help the human race to create and achieve health, wealth, fame and fortune (Montenegro). This ancient philosophy concentrates on the balancing of the environment and Chi is a vital component of this study (Montenegro). Chi means the vital life force of energy.

On that note, it is important to note that Feng Shui is a process of maintaining a good environment for Chi to function properly. In traditional explanation of Feng Shui, Chi is protected from being dispersed by the wind as well as retaining it with water (Emmons). This is how the philosophy balances the environment creating better conditions for human existence.

The concept of this balance is as follows: Chi is an energy flow and needs to be in circulation for the society to benefit from it. Consequently, its protection from dispersion by wind comes from barriers such as trees and mountains are vital to keep Chi contained. Having a good Chi in one’s location signified well-being (Emmons). Water, on the other hand, holds Chi together but, again, to avoid stagnation, the water must be flowing to achieve favorable Chi (Emmons).

The best description of Chi is as the soul or better still or as one’s destiny as the Chinese saw it (Emmons). It can have mass and sometimes can lack mass hence the complexity of describing the exact form of Chi. In today’s environment, people may discredit the existence of Chi but looking at the current philosophical world, it exists even in the 21st century. The three types of Chi, which included the heavenly luck, the earth luck, and the man luck, are true to date (Emmons).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a modern setting, the heavenly luck is what they call birth luck in China. This includes the things one is born with, that give him or her advantage over other people. The second Chi, which is the Earth’s luck, in the modern setting, is the advantages the environment you are in. In addition, the third chi, which is the man luck, is the luck you create for yourself through your personal efforts.

This describes the three Chi in a modern context thus proving that the philosophy still works and has passed the test time to be true. The human Chi or man Chi is however the most important. The human luck greatly depends on the choices one makes and the actions he takes in his or her life. This shows that Feng Shui actually works but there has not been a scientist proves to substantiate the philosophy.

However, Feng Shui is an act of faith and only through faith; we can realize its full potential and experience it as well. There are practitioners in the 21st century that specialize in professional consultation on one’s Chi. These professionals offer services such as mapping out Chi flows of a person’s environment (Montenegro). Feng Shui is all about the surroundings and, to start the process of achieving a positive environment, “Sheng Chi”, one must start by tidying their environment.

The principle of Sheng Chi finds its influence mainly through beauty. The opposite of having an excellent setting is the Sha Chi, which means repulsive smell (Montenegro). Sha Chi promotes a negative energy and is a component of bad Sheng Chi as taught by the Chinese philosophers. The principle of Feng Shui teaches that small things or events around us influence our lives greatly more than we think. That is why, the philosophy deals with the environment and surrounding.

The principle of the effect of small things in our lives as the Feng Shui teachings are comparable to the principle of water drops on a rock. Drops of water may not have a great impact on a hard rock but with time, they build a hole in the same rock. This is the basic principle of the Feng Shui and it works even in the 21st century (Montenegro). This is reality.

Feng Shui teaches that disorganization drags energy and through the negative influence of objects around us, and things that invoke a negative thought in our brains (Montenegro). Feng Shui teaches that things and objects surrounding us possess a form of energy and that they influence us either negatively or positively (March). Today’s philosophers are teaching the same although in a modernized language.

The modern psychologist is encouraging people to cheer up and surround themselves with positive materials, which is Feng Shui the 21st century version. Bottom line, although it may seem like it is superstitious to practice Feng Shui, its philosophies are purely logic and nothing magical (Montenegro).

We will write a custom Essay on Feng Shui: Does it work in modern times? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the body of this research work, we can see that the existence of the Chinese work of philosophy is still alive and in motion even in this advanced generation. Feng Shui used in the ancient China and is still used in modern China as well as in other countries around the globe (Montenegro). Therefore, to answer the question whether Feng Shui works in modern day, yes it does work in the modern days and is still in use.

Feng Shui relates greatly with the Japanese Yin and Yang. Feng Shui shares the same fundamental principles of Yin ‘negative, dark, wet, and feminine’ and Yang ‘Positive, bright, active hot and masculine’ (Li). Both relate philosophically as they share similar ideology of having a harmonious balance between humans and their environment.

Works Cited Emmons, Charles. “Hong Kong’s Feng Shui: Popular Magic in a Modern Urban Setting.” Journal of Popular Culture, 26.1 (1992): 47-48. Print.

Li, Liu. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. London, UK: Cambridge University Press (2004). Print.

March, Andrew. An Appreciation of Chinese Geomancy. The Journal of Asian Studies, 27.2. (1968): 253–267. Print.

Montenegro, Marcia. “Feng Shui” New Dimensions in Design.” Christian Research Journal. 26.1 (2003): 26-29. Print.


Kinship among the Inuit of the Arctic Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help

Kinship systems among cultures that depend on foraging and horticultural activities are usually very well formulated. Foraging and horticultural based societies are often faced with harsh climatic and environmental conditions.

Such realities make it necessary to have a strong kinship system in which all members of the group take care of one another. One of such cultures is that of the Arctic Inuit. This paper will explore the kinship system of the Inuit, and how it affects its members’ behaviors. The kinship system of the Inuit and its effects will then be compared to those of my society.

The Inuit people have their home in the Arctic area of North America. The culture of the Inuit people also known as the Eskimo is unique mostly because they have managed to live and survive in a cold desert. Their territory is vast and covers several continents along the Arctic. Kinship among the Inuit is mostly emphasized on the father’s side.

However, in some instances kinship on the mother’s side can be considered. This bilateral mode of tracing kinship is not very common among the Inuit. The Inuit live in groups consisting of nuclear families. This family consists of a father, a mother, and their offspring. A group will therefore include an extended family. This family is mostly on the paternal side although sometimes it stretches to the maternal side. In the Inuit’s kinship system, there are usually strong ties between sons and their elderly fathers.

The kinship system of the Inuit has a direct impact on their behavior. For instance, the Inuit do not own any property. The only property owned by an Inuit includes a few personal belongings and tools. This usually eases tension between potential property owners and enhances kinship. Properties such as land and houses are owned collectively. Another behavior of the Inuit that is affected by their kinship system is their hunting pattern.

Usually, members of one band consisting of about fifteen families come together during this exercise (Nowak


Analyzing the Relationship between Frustration college essay help

Although the phenomena of human anger and aggression have been of scientific interest for many years (Lange 60), academics and practitioners argue that they have gained particular prominence in recent years, given the high incidents of school and domestic related violence (Fives et al 199). Today, more than ever, mainstream media outlets are often flooded with reports of people who go berserk when exposed to minimal provocation, while others go to the extent of murdering their childhood friends and workmates in range.

A recent trend observed by researchers is that frustrating experiences, especially among the youth, are increasingly acting as predictors to aggressive behavior rather than consequents to aggression (Harenski et al 402). The interest of this topic, therefore, stems from the need to explicate why frustration is increasingly playing the role of predictor to aggressive behavior.

As acknowledged in the literature, “…decades of research on the etiology of individual differences in overt aggressive behavior have pointed to the importance of temperament and interplay of biological and environmental factors” (Deater-Deckard et al 992).

This assertion points out to three possible predictors of overt aggression – genetic factors, environmental influences, as well as negative affectivity (e.g., frustration or anger). Some environmental influences, such as lack of understanding from parents and peers, disciplinary issues in school as well as conflict of interests, have been known to enhance aggressive predispositions in children and adolescents (Fives et al 200).

For example, an adolescent who feels that he or she is not understood by parents may engage in aggressive behavior triggered by the immediate environmental influence of not been understood. However, available literature suggests that such aggression is reactive and spontaneous, implying that it is not planned (Lange 60).

Another strand of literature reveals that “…psychopaths show high levels of reactive aggression due to their increased susceptibility for experiencing frustration” (Harenski et al 401). These authors further posit that the enhanced vulnerability to frustrating experiences originates from cognitive deficiencies in stimulus-reinforcement learning and response reversal, leading to repetitive unproductive goal-directed actions that are frustrating to the psychopath.

It may therefore be argued that normal persons experiencing lapses in their cognition, particularly after injuring their ventromedial prefrontal cortex, may be prone to ‘acting out of character’ after exposure to frustrating experiences, leading to aggression (Harenski et al 401. Such individuals, it seems, are never able to apply behavior learnt in childhood to control the situation due to abrupt cognitive impairments in their stimulus-reinforcement mechanism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The discussed instances have demonstrated how frustration is rapidly becoming a predictor to aggression rather than its consequent. It is important to note that aggression has far-reaching ramifications on the social life of the individual concerned as well as the society he or she resides in. Reactive aggression triggered by environmental incidences not only makes social interactions with significant others impossible, but also acts as a barrier to inclusion in social activities affecting the community (Deater-Deckard et al 995).

Parents of aggressive children live in fear and record heightened stress levels than the general population because they are not sure how their children will behave in different environmental scenarios (Dill et al 359). It is therefore important to look into this topic in more detail, with the view to develop interventions that could be used to assist people faced with this type of aggression cope with their frustrating experiences without reaching a breaking point.

Works Cited Deater-Deckard, Kirby, Charles Beekman, Zhe Wang, Jungmeen Kim, Stephen Petrill, Lee Thompson and Laura DeThorne. “Approach/Positive Anticipation, Frustration/Anger, and Overt Aggression in Childhood.” Journal of Personality. 78.3 (2010): 991-1010. Academic Search Premier. Web.

Dill, Judy C., and Craig A. Anderson. “Effects of Frustration Justification on Hostile Aggression.” Aggressive Behavior. 25.5 (1995): 359-369. Academic Search Premier. Web.

Fives, Christopher J., Grace Kong, J. Ryan Fuller and Raymond DiGiuseppe. “Anger, Aggression, and Irrational Beliefs in Adolescents.” Cognitive Therapy and Research. 35.3 (2011): 199-208. Academic Search Premier. Web.

Harenski, Carla L.,


The Magic of the Family Meal Essay essay help: essay help

In her article The Magic of the Family Meal, Nancy Gibbs discusses the importance of family meals. In particular, the author argues that they can improve the relations between parents and their children. Overall, it is possible to agree with this argument; however, one should bear in mind that family meals bring benefits only in those cases when children sense that parents genuinely care about them. Provided that this feeling is not present, they are not likely to affect the wellbeing of families.

Overall, Nancy Gibbs provides convincing evidence that confirms the importance of family meals. The writer believes that they can be viewed as civilizing moments during which children learn behavioral norms and values. Moreover, in this way parents can learn more about the possible problems that children can face in school. So, these experiences can be important for every member of the family. The main role is that they help to promote communication between parents and children

Nevertheless, this effect can be achieved provided that parents know what their children value and what they need. For instance, such meals may not necessarily help families in which domestic violence takes place very often. Similarly, they will be useless in those cases, when parents constantly quarrel with one another or vent their spleen on children. Under such circumstances, children will only avoid family meals in every possible way. This is the main issue that parents should keep in mind.

So, family meals are important for the socialization of children and their wellbeing. Yet, they may not bring any improvements if there is certain conflict between parents. So, people should not assume that such events will automatically help families.


Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Social Media and Politics

Social Media and Human Rights


Works Cited

Introduction The media has great power in society since it informs people, provides the basis upon which people make sense of new information presented to them, and focuses attention on particular issues.

For this reason, traditional media such as TV, radio, and newspaper have influenced the society greatly over the past century. However, with the huge evolution of technology and new media over the past two decades, people no longer depend entirely on traditional media. People are more skeptical about news and advertisements reported in traditional media.

Unlike traditional media in which people are only allowed to read and listen , new media offer a variety of communication channels in which new media users are allowed to interact with events and news instantly. In this essay, I will discuss the effectiveness of traditional media and social media, and how social media has a better participation in changing the world in terms of politics and human rights.

Social Media and Politics Social media acts as a powerful agent for change when it is used to encourage people to fight against social injustices. Historically, the traditional mass media has been used as an agent of change with professional journalists acting as the society’s watchdog.

These professions have brought to the public’s attention issues that need to be dealt with and called for action. However, this great power of the traditional media suffers from too much government scrutiny and media houses that are anti-government can be penalized in authoritarian states.

Social media provides a more potent tool for encouraging people to fight against injustices. Social media can be used to encourage popular uprisings, as was the case in the Arab Spring. In Tunisia, the civil unrest was organized through social networking sites that encouraged people to protest against government oppression (Alqudsi-ghabra 154). Political change was achieved by using social media to mobilize people to fight against government injustices.

Social Media promotes political activism in people who would otherwise be apolitical. Many social media forums encourage individuals to be politically active with people being persuaded to take part in activities such as online protests or join certain online causes in order to make their voices heard. People who visit social media spaces for entertainment purposes may be drawn into discussion forums where people share opinions on political issues therefore sparking in them an interest in political discourse (Himelboim 95).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opponents of social media as a tool for political change assert that this media promotes low-risk activism that does not motivate people to make a real sacrifice for their cause (Joseph 150). This argument has some validity since some people just propose to support certain ideals through their computer but do not take any action towards achieving the ideals.

However, social media helps people to obtain information on the political status of their country and start a debate on the topic (Joseph 152). Political change can then be catalyzed because of these functions of social media. Himelboim notes that the political awareness of people is greatly enhanced through the political discussions that take place through social media (93).

Social media helps the audience to access information that is free from bias. While traditional media sources claim that the information they provide is objective in nature, this is not always the case since the private bias of the journalist of the media house influences how the reporting is done.

Traditional media reports are structured in such a way that the recipient will form a certain pre-determined opinion on the subject. The report of scandals by a high-ranking politician may appear objective but the analysis of the issue provided by the journalist will be highly subjective. To make the matters worse, traditional media is driven by self-interest such as making a profit and expressing the sentiments favoured by the corporations that sponsor them.

The CCHR notes that new media promotes citizen journalism where individuals report events instead of waiting for the traditional media to give the information to the public (21). While the reporter’s opinion and attitude will color their reporting even in social media, the effect of this bias is tempered by the availability of many social media outlets. The audience can therefore form their own opinions on the issue based on the many different sources reporting the same thing.

Traditional media can be used as a tool of propaganda by tyrannical governments. In most cases, traditional media houses are centralized in nature with a well-defined chain of command (Joseph 151). While this centralized leadership structure is a major strength of traditional media, it poses a significant problem.

It is possible for an outside party to dictate on the reporting of the traditional media by simply commanding or corrupting the top management to express certain ideas through the media. When used for propaganda, traditional media polarizes people and makes them take stands that they may not have taken without being persuaded to. This misuse of the media is best illustrated through the case of Nazi Germany.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hitler and his subordinates made use of traditional media to advance unpopular ideas and encourage hatred of the Jewish community. Social media is not prone to this governmental manipulation since it is run in a decentralized fashion. Anyone who wishes to use it for manipulation would have to corrupt so many independent parties to achieve this end. In most cases, the people engaged in social media are unknown to the government forces and they can therefore report without any governmental influence.

Social media is free from most of the political restrictions that traditional media suffers from. In countries experiencing authoritarian rule, the government keeps a close watch on the media outlets and regulates the information released to the public. Alqudsi-ghabra observes that in the authoritarian regime of Tunisia, the government closely controlled the traditional media (151).

Traditional media outlets are forced to stick to the regulations and avoid any inappropriate content. This is not the case with social media, which is characterized by high mobility and lack of a well-defined network. Social media activists can therefore operate outside of government control and foster greater political changes in their country.

The interactive nature of Social media gives individuals a platform through which they can engage in conversation with others and therefore forms political opinions. Traditional media is characterized by being one-way; with the audience being passive recipients of information doled out to them by the reporters.

Himelboim elaborates that “Information flows in one direction via traditional media (newspapers, television), allowing audiences only to consume information” (94). In this kind of relationship between the information provider and recipient, critical through is not encouraged since there is no meaningful exchange.

Social media acts as a facilitator of mass conversation among the many receivers of the information and this leads to meaningful debates. Himelboim states that online social media is gaining popularity as a public forum for political discussions with more people consuming political content using this medium (93). Joseph notes that it is this social media attribute that has caused some governments to take steps to monitor, limit, and even block social media forums (155).

Social Media and Human Rights Social media can report more freely on human rights issues in a country. Historically, the society has relied on traditional media to bring human right issues to the public’s attention. By publicizing human rights violations, the media has helped elicit reactions and positive changes.

However, this reporting by the traditional media is greatly regulated by legal obstacles that sometimes make it impossible to address human rights violations by the incumbent government. Social media can exploit the lack of regulations to highlight human rights issues. Alqudsi-ghabra corroborates this point by revealing that a creative use of the lack of legal obstacles can help journalists tackle issues that would never be addressed by the traditional media (153).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social media has provided the means through which oppressed people can highlight their problems and gain the support and assistance of the international community. Some human rights violations occur since the victims do not have the power to speak out on their own behalf.

While the traditional media has in the past tried to give voice to the victims, it could only deal with few cases. Social media is available to most people and they can articulate their own issues and solicit for action from the relevant authorities (the Cambodian Center for Human Rights 3). By using social media tools such as tweets that reach a global audience, local activists can expose the human rights violations going on in their country to the international community.

The timely nature of social media tools makes them very useful for the task of monitoring human rights issues. Most human rights violations occur in secret and the victims keep suffering in silence.

By the time the violations are made public by traditional media, very little can be done and there may not be evidence of the violations. This point is reinforced by Joseph who observes that in 1982, “the Syrian army apparently massacred tens of thousands of residents of the town of Hama in roughly one month and the world did not learn of the killings until much later” (154).

Social media assist to overcome these limitations of traditional media by providing real time information from activists or even the victims of human rights abuses. For example, the tweet feeds of a jailed Bahrainian human right activist’s daughter provide a window into the human rights issues in the country at the present time (Joseph 153).

Social media assists in the prosecution of human rights abusers. Traditionally, the perpetrators of human rights abuse have been able to avoid facing justice because of lack of evidence. The words of the victims in many cases are the only evidence available. The CCHR asserts that while evidence is of great importance, many human right cases only rely on the testimony of witnesses (3).

Without more evidence, the case may be dismissed and the human rights abusers walk free. Social media helps remedy the situation by allowing witnesses to document and publish the evidence of human rights abuses as the crimes happen. This video or photographic evidence offers solid proof and it can be used in the criminal justice system.

Conclusion This paper set out to argue that social media is a more effective in promoting political and human rights activism than traditional media. The impact of social media on society is quickly increasing even as a marked decline in traditional media’s reach is experienced. This paper has highlighted how social media gives citizens the opportunity for political and human rights participation.

It has noted that social media does not suffer from problems such as government censorship, propaganda, and media bias that are inherent in traditional media. Social media should therefore be promoted in all countries since it increases participation in changing the world in terms of politics and human rights.

Works Cited Alqudsi-ghabra, Taghreed. “Creative Use of Social Media in the Revolutions of Tunisia, Egypt


The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

I have recently had a chance to take a look at the famous Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings. Its construction was completed in 1941 and now it is regarded as one of the most famous attractions in Houston (Reynolds 131). This architectural complex can be discussed in connection with the topics raised during the class, namely globalization, gender, empire, orientalism, and identity. On the whole, the analysis of these questions can give people better understanding of how American culture evolved.

Moreover, this example demonstrates that culture often transcends national borders. Moreover, it is closely related to the norms and values existing in a certain society. These are the main issues that should be discussed in this paper. In my opinion, this architectural masterpiece can be of greatest to people who want to have a better idea about Houston and the history of this city.

First of all, the Esperson Buildings shows that architecture transcends national borders. It cannot be limited to only one country, region or culture (Reynolds 131). In part, it is the result of the globalization process. This is the term which is used to describe the movement of people or ideas across national borders. This concept can also be defined as international integration (Marter 549). It is often argued that this process began in the late twentieth century.

Nevertheless, this integration began much earlier, at least in the early nineteenth century. For example, this architectural complex was partly inspired by Italian Renaissance that was developed in the fifteenth century (Reynolds 131). In particular, one can speak about the use of such elements as columns, dome, as well as terraces (Reynolds 131). Similar buildings can be found in Rome, Venice, Florence or other Italian cities.

Nevertheless, this architectural complex can be viewed as a traditional American skyscraper. The very idea of a skyscraper emerged, because people had to find more effective uses of land (Reynolds 131). It should be noted that the Esperson Buildings were constructed by at the time when many architects preferred such a style as post-modernism. According to it, a designer or an artist can freely combine different national styles (Reynolds 131).

His creative freedom should not be limited by any formal boundaries (Reynolds 131). On the whole, the Esperson Buildings show that art is created when different ethnic cultures interact with one another (Reynolds 131). This is one of the reasons why this architectural complex stands out among other buildings in Texas. So, to a great extent, this architectural complex is also the result of the globalization process.

The second topic that should be examined is gender, especially the stereotypes about gender and the role of women in society. In this case, one can speak about the importance of Mellie Esperson who initiated the construction of this architectural complex. It should be taken into account she was one of the few women in the United States who played an important role in the business world of Houston (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To a great extent, Mellie Esperson was able to break popular stereotypes according to which women could not participate in business activities or create successful projects (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged). Not every person, who lives in Houston, knows that it was Mellie Esperson who commissioned the construction of these buildings (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged).

It seems that Mellie Esperson is different from the female characters who were discussed during the classes. For instance, one can mention such a character as Umm Hamida from the novel Midaq Alley. She is accustomed to the idea that women are dependent on men and she cannot understand why a woman can “remain single for so long” (Mahfouz 40). In his book Sea of Poppies, Amitav Ghosh also explores this theme.

In particular, he mentions women who care only about “shawls, jewelry, and jobs for their relatives” (44). The book Season of Migration to the North written by Tayeb Salih also describes the subservient position of women in the Sudanese society (8). Mellie Esperson would not be the role model for the characters described in these books.

Additionally, such as concept as an empire should also be discussed in the paper. In this context, the term empire should not be understood only as a powerful state that colonizes other countries or nations. It is also used to describe a powerful company or corporation.

These buildings were constructed for Niels Esperson who was a very successful entrepreneur in Houston and the entire Texas (Marter 549). To a great extent, this architectural complex was supposed to demonstrate the power and efficiency of corporate America (Marter 549). In this case, one can draw parallels between the contemporary urban landscape of America and Roman Empire. At that time, buildings had to reflect the power and greatness of the Empire.

The same thing can be said about the Esperson Buildings that had to illustrate the greatness of the United States and the rapid growth of its economy. So, one can say that architecture often reflects the political and economic situation in the country and its development in the course of history. This is one of the main issues that should be taken into account.

Furthermore, it is vital to speak about such an issue as the relationship between Western and Eastern cultures. The differences between these cultures have always been important for architects, writers as well as artists (Said 11; Chen 8). Very often, they are believed to be in conflict with one another. Additionally, in many cases, the role of Oriental culture is overlooked by Western scholars (Said 11). The Esperson Buildings can be viewed as an example of Western architecture.

We will write a custom Essay on The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The oriental elements are not present in this architectural complex. Overall, its influence is not noticeable. This is one of the traits that immediately attract attention to these buildings that represent distinctly Western art that is based primarily on the Italian tradition of architecture. This is one of the trends that emerged in American architecture in the first half of the twentieth century.

The relationship between Western and Eastern cultures is explored in the books studied in the class. For instance, one can mention Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North. In particular, one should focus on such a character as Mustafa who tries to reconcile his Western education and Sudanese cultural heritage, for instance, when he secretly recites poem in English, but does not to admit that he studied in England (Salih 23).

On the whole, the Esperson Buildings can be regarded as a great example of the post-modern American architecture. It shows that works of art can incorporate different styles and movements that could be developed in different countries. Moreover, these buildings suggest that in many cases, people should not rely too much on popular gender stereotypes.

Additionally, one should bear in mind that modern architecture reflects the values and norms of a certain society, especially the need for efficiency and the willingness to demonstrate ones power or strength. This is why the Esperson Buildings are worth attention.

Works Cited Chen, La. Tradition and Modernity: A Humanist View, London: BRILL, 2001. Print.

Ghosh, Amitav. Sea of Poppies, London: John Murray, 2008. Print.

Mahfouz, Naguib. Midaq Alley, New York: Transworld, 2011. Print.

Marter, Joan. The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art: Aalto, Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reynolds, Richard. Texas Then


Introduction of Information Technology to Canadian Public Administration Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The use of the Nolan Model to eliminate information lag

Technology conversion and reforms

Managers’ role in implementing information systems


Introduction In pursuit of implementing an information technology, there are common aspects, such as information lag, that arise and are sometimes inevitable considering that the information system of technology is implemented in an environment that is not used to information technology. Such information lag was evidenced in the city of Montreal. In order to run various information systems, the aspect of management of the very information is very crucial in such a case.

As a matter of fact, information lag can be described as a delay created by the system before the information is made available to the end-users. In this case, the system is described as ineffective as it does not fulfill its main goal within the given organization. Therefore, improving information management within the city was the primary objective. In such a case, the Nolan model was critical in improving the situation. The use of the Nolan model in eliminating the information lag below is discussed (Watkins, 2012).

The use of the Nolan Model to eliminate information lag The first phase of Nolan model is the initiation stage. At this stage, the director of information technology is to introduce the information system technology as a new concept to the city. The information system should prove that it aims to ensure there is a better management approach to information, and as such it requires new technology to be implemented.

During the initiation stage, the director of information systems should create awareness among various departments involved. In addition, information technology experts must be sourced or availed to oversee the implementation of the information system. A team of information technology personnel should undergo training to be able later to perform an information technology planning. This planning entails identifying applications to be used to ensure the system is effective in terms of time and cost reduction.

The second phase is known as a contagion stage. The contagion stage eliminates the existing information system. Apparently, this oversees opposition from many of the employees, who feel alienated by the new system. The new system may lead to adoption of new and complex applications. Consequently, running of these applications requires professionals to be employed. During this stage, the management plays a critical role in explaining the significance of a new system to the staff.

The third phase of the Nolan model is known as the control stage. During this stage, information lag is eliminated by ensuring that there are check-ups of time and cost spent on the system. For example, a need to control the cost of operating various computers and networks becomes of paramount importance.

Then control improves the flexibility of data to be processed. Nevertheless, this stage ensures that a management control policy or mechanism is implemented to eliminate end-user’s frustrations. The mechanisms include central controls to ensure compatibility of applications, mostly done by IT professionals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fourth stage of the model is integration stage. This stage ensures that the new system is integrated with the already existing one. Moreover, the system must be user-friendly in order to promote control. By the onset of this stage, data processing is harnessed, and accountability in information management is evidenced.

The fifth phase is known as data administration stage. This stage emphasizes more on managing data that is being processed. This stage ensures that information is used according to its purpose. Moreover, data processing and storage are performed at this stage.

The sixth and the final stage is called maturity stage. This stage gives a general reflection of information management from its well-organized information systems. The organization starts to use information in implementing its key strategies. Moreover, decision making is influenced by available information.

For the above to be achievable, an information technology learning program can be used to ensure there is a smooth transition of a new system with a co-operation.

Technology conversion and reforms Technology conversion is an effective tool in implementing reforms. In order to engage the public in a broader perspective, the availability of information should be ensured. New technology systems like Internet have harnessed interaction between humans, and as such they can be used in the Montreal case study.

In such a case, the use of blogs and website is very important. In the case of the public enterprise, making available information that relates to enterprise is undeniably important. This offers unforeseen opportunities that many people would not have been given unless the information available. As a matter of fact, these will make the elimination of the information lag justifiable, considering the benefits that will emanate from the use of information system management.

Managers’ role in implementing information systems It is important that the management department fulfills its critical role in ensuring information systems are implemented. In this case, management responsibility in planning, controlling and implementing is critical (Rothwell, 2001). Moreover, managers are supposed to influence other staff members to accept that information systems are beneficial. Many of the employees are supposed to be assured of their job security. In this case, managers should use their skills to resolve crisis and influence the employees.

We will write a custom Case Study on Introduction of Information Technology to Canadian Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Rothwell, W., J. (2001). Workplace learning and performance roles: The manager and the changer leader. Washington, WA: American Society for Trading and Development.

Watkins, J. (2012). Information technology, organizations and people: Transformations in the UK retail financial services. New York, NY: Routledge


Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” Essay best college essay help

Empathy is one of the things that distinguish a human being from other species. This concept can be understood as the ability of an individual to recognize and understand the feelings and emotions of another person.

In some cases, the word empathy implies that a person can accept the humanity of others despite social, economic, or political differences. This paper is aimed at discussing two novels, namely The Reluctant Fundamentalist written by Mohsin Hamid and Flight by Sherman Alexie. These novels have recently attracted much attention of critics and scholars.

One of the main themes that the authors explore is that the ability to empathize can often be impeded by the borders of race, nationality or culture. Moreover, it can be limited by the memories of violence, humiliation, and loss. Nevertheless, both Mohsin Hamid and Sherman Alexie create protagonists who can transcend these borders. These authors focus on the idea that empathy is essential for the fulfilling life of an individual. The writers also undermine popular stereotypes about the behavior of an individual.

For instance, Mohsin Hamid shows that the need to achieve success does not deprive people of their ability to feel loyalty to ones country or fellow countrymen. In turn, Sherman Alexie demonstrates that different worldviews and ideologies do not necessarily separate people and make them hostile to one another. These are the main questions that should be examined in more detail.

Special attention should be paid to the narrative techniques that the writers employ. They rely on the first-person narration which is particular suitable in those cases, when the author wants to focus on the feelings, attitudes, and emotions of the protagonist, rather than people with whom he/she interacts.

For instance, Sherman Alexie starts his novel with the following introduction. ‘Call me Zits. Everybody calls me Zits. That’s not my real name, of course. My real name isn’t important’ (Alexie 1). To a great extent, this is an allusion to the famous novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville. Similarly, at the beginning of Mohsin Hamid’s novel, Changez introduces himself to the reader and identifies oneself as a Pakistani.

Overall, this form of narrative voice is important because it implies that the major characters may be very subjective when evaluating the behavior of other people and their own actions. Overall, such form of story-telling is often regarded as unreliable narration. It is possible to say that subjectivity is one of the things that prevent a person from being empathetic because he/she is unable to place oneself in the position of others or look at the problem from a different perspective.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This statement is particularly applicable to Zits and his unjustified hatred toward others. Moreover, they tend to focus on their own experiences and may disregard the feelings of others. So, extreme subjectivity is one the main challenges that both Changez and Zits have to overcome.

There is another thing that Zits and Changez have in common. They are aware that they are different from the majority of the population since they are perceived as non-white people. They also understand that they may not be fully accepted by others. This is one of the things that the protagonists are keenly aware of.

For instance, Changez knows that as a Pakistani he had to face more challenges when he was applying to Princeton (Hamid 4). In turn, Zits also understands that he has a complex identity. In particular, the protagonist says, “I’m not really Irish or Indian. I’m a blank sky, a human solar eclipse” (Alexie 5). He cannot identify with any particular group in part because he has never felt the care of his mother or father (Hamid 3).

This lack of care is the underlying cause of his animosity toward others. On the whole, the problem of identity is important for each of these characters. Changez wants to become a full member of the new society, but at the same time, he is attached to his Pakistani heritage.

In turn, Zits is convinced that the community in which he leaves is hostile to him, in part because his father was a Native American. Thus, the concept of identity plays an important role in each of these novels. In both cases, the characters understand that they are different from others. This is one of the main things that should be taken into account by the readers of these novels.

One can identify other barriers that can make empathy very difficult for the protagonists. For instance, Changez has to be competitive in the workplace, and this competition prompts an individual to focus on his/her strengths, but it is difficult for him/her to be sentimental or compassionate.

On the whole, the author shows that Changez’ need to achieve success as a professional and his willingness to integrate himself into the society can often impede his ability to empathize with other human beings. Changez has a chance to climb a career ladder in the firm but he eventually rejects this opportunity and returns to his homeland. So, one should remember about this decision when discussing this character. This is the critical moment in the development of his character and his attitudes toward others.

We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his turn, Zits is afflicted by the memories of abuse both at home and in school. He cannot expect anything good from other people, especially from adults. Moreover, this boy is keenly aware of the social inequality that has become typical of the modern American society. For instance, Zits says, “I hate my country. There are so many rich people who do not share” (Alexie 26). It should be noted that this boy frequently uses the word hate, and it is directed against various social, ethnic, or religious groups.

The protagonist does not explain why he feels in such a way. He cannot even accept the possibility that other people can face the same misfortunes. Certainly, one has to admit that this boy has endured a lot of suffering, but he cannot accept that other people do not deserve his hatred. So, at the beginning of the novel, empathy is not typical of him and he even tries to reject it. This is how the character behaves at the very beginning.

Nevertheless, Mohsin Hamid and Sherman Alexie show that an individual can overcome these obstacles that prevent a person from being empathetic. To some extent, they are able to recognize the humanity of other people and see that they can encounter the same problems. However, their empathy takes different forms.

When speaking about Changez, one should first speak about the September 11 attacks and increasing suspicion of Pakistani people. This is why Changez begins to empathize with his compatriots, especially when he notices that they can be treated unjustly. This is why he quits his job at a prestigious consulting firm and prefers to move back to Pakistan. On the whole, the behavior of this character undermines the so-called common sense story according to which an individual strives primarily for success.

Certainly, it is important for the wellbeing of a person, but he/she also wants to have a sense of belonging to a certain community. Without it the life of a person can hardly be fulfilling. This is one of the reasons why Changez chooses to highlight his Pakistani descent, for example, by growing his beard (Hamid 130).

Later, he decides to become a teacher in a Pakistani university, but he could have made a career in a prestigious American firm. This is how he deviates from the traditional common-sense story. Still, one should bear in mind that his empathy is primarily directed to his compatriots; Mohsin Hamid does not show that Changez can be equally compassionate toward people representing other nationalities or religions. So, his empathy still has national boundaries and to a great extent it is very limited.

The main protagonist of Flight also undergoes a dramatic change. Sherman Alexie is able to create a series of flashbacks during which Zits places himself in the position of other people. For example, he sees himself as a mute Indian boy, an Indian hunter, and most importantly the father of the protagonists. On the whole, these flashbacks demonstrate to him that his hatred leads only to self-destruction. He can see that other people can encounter the same problems or similar forms of injustice.

Thus, he can see the futility of violence and its adverse impacts on an individual. He understands that his deviant behavior, such as shooting can actually harm other people who have nothing to do with problems. So, in this way, Sherman Alexie was able to show how empathy could overcome such barriers as the memory of loss and the feeling of alienation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Only when he comes to this conclusion, he finds the family where he can feel at rest. On the whole, Sherman Alexie has been able to show the transformation of the main character and this is one of his major achievements as a writer.

These novels tell the stories of people are different in terms of age, education, nationality, and cultural background. However, they struggle to find their way to empathy. The protagonist of Sherman Alexie’s novel is affected by alienation from others, abuse, and the feeling of loss. This is one of the reasons why he is obsessed with hatred, and the very idea of empathy is unacceptable to him. In his turn, Changez is affected by the need to achieve success and integrate himself into the society.

However, due to various external factors, the main characters realize that the ability to empathize is critical for the happiness of a human being. It gives a person a sense of belonging. This is one of the messages that Sherman Alexie and Mohsin Hamid try to convey. The main message that the writers try to convey is that political, cultural or national differences do not deprive a person of his/her right to empathy.

Works Cited Alexie, Sherman. Flight, New York: Grove Press, 2007. Print.

Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist, New York: Harcourt, 2007. Print.


Sociology and Religion Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Sociological Assumptions

Sociological features of Religion

Sociology of Religion


Introduction Sociology and religion have significant relationships, as sociology is the study of human behaviors and interactions at the individual level or group level. On the other hand, religion is composed of a group of individuals having the same beliefs, values, and principles, and thus they influence one another and society in the development of social systems that hold people together.

Usually, sociology has two important aspects in the study of groups or individuals. First, sociology enhances understanding of group dynamics in terms of their functioning, nature, interaction, and individual differences. Secondly, sociology provides a way of understanding how a social group influences individuals and humanity in the society.

The process of socialization has enduring impact on one’s life because from birth to old age, social forces shape human behavior and societal beliefs, values, and principles. Fundamentally, religion comprises a group of people that share the same social dynamics and have the same influence on individuals and society, thus it is of great interest to sociologists. In exploring religion in society, this essay examines sociological assumptions and features with a view of observing the sociology of religion.

Sociological Assumptions The first sociological assumption is that an individual is a biological organism. As a biological organism, an individual has physiological needs, drives, potentials, and limitations that are subject to biological factors.

Essentially, biological factors can either limit or enhance the socializing influence of groups on individuals and society. In this case, religion is a group that has the capacity to socialize and influence biological factors of an individual. As religious beliefs, values, and principles differ from one religion to another, they have varied influence on individuals.

While some religions are liberals, others are very restrictive, thus they have a differential influence on the development of human behavior and social interactions. For example, a religion can have beliefs, values, and principles that encourage its members to segregate from the rest of society. The influence of causing segregation is central in sociology because it changes biological factors that determine human behavior in the society.

The second sociological assumption is that human beings have the ability to attach meanings and symbols to certain things that they associate with within their environments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the process of socialization, human beings build consensus on how to label or attach meanings and enhance communication. In religious circles, people can attach meanings to abstract concepts such as love, righteousness, wickedness, and happiness. Symbolization enables people to communicate effectively among group members without involving other people.

Moreover, symbolization enables people to communicate intricate meanings regarding religion given that different religions have different beliefs in which people can best present them symbolically. The use of symbols in religious activities allows people to internalize religious beliefs and gain a deep understanding on religious mysteries. Thus, the interpretation of religious symbols indicates maturity of religious growth for symbols have intricate meanings that enable believers to comprehend the essence of religion in their lives.

The third sociological assumption is that groups play a central role in human development because, through socialization, people can gain their human nature. If social groups do not exist in the society, people will not gain their human nature. As babies grow into adulthood, the experiences of socialization influence their development into humans, who have internalized societal values, principles, and beliefs that people hold in the society.

Normally, when children grow up, they acquire their behaviors from the immediate environment, which has significant influence in their lives, thus shaping their behaviors in society. In the aspect of religion, children grow up while internalizing religious beliefs, values, and principles, which shape them to behave as dominant members of the religions. Therefore, a religious group has considerable impact in humanization of people through the process of socialization.

The fourth sociological assumption is that human actions exist because they are important in problem-solving. Every action that human beings carry out in society has the ultimate function of solving a given problem. For instance, one can struggle to get biological needs, such as food to avoid hunger or strive in school to improve literacy and gain new knowledge and skills.

This aspect implies that hunger and illiteracy are problems that human beings struggle to overcome, for without their resolution people would perish. In this case, religion enables human beings to solve problems because by adhering to religious laws, beliefs, values, and principles, they avoid evil behaviors that have detrimental effects on their lives. Hence, religion is important in the society because it promotes peaceful coexistence in the diverse society by pushing for good moral behaviors.

Since sociology examines interactive behaviors of people, the fifth sociological assumption is that various social phenomena that exist in a given group interrelate. Different social phenomena interrelate either in an indirect or direct manner. In religious groups, religion influences humans and humans in turn influence religion.

We will write a custom Essay on Sociology and Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From a sociological perspective, religion is both an independent and dependent variable having the ability to influence or be under influence respectively. The interrelationship of sociology with other social phenomena in a cause-effect manner is central in understanding the sociology of religion.

Sociological features of Religion The first sociological feature of a religion is that it is a group phenomenon. The group phenomenon is an evident feature of sociology because people gather in hundreds or thousands in worship places. People gather as they have common beliefs and expectations in a given gathering.

For example, Christians gather during Easter to celebrate the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ, while Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca to celebrate the life of Prophet Mohammed. For a gathering of people to become a group, sociologists state that a group must have two or more people who share common goals, norms, responsibilities, assigned functions, and should profess as a member of the group. Based of these characteristics, a religion qualifies as a sociological group.

Additionally, in religion, one becomes a member of a given religion voluntarily without undue coercion, which means that religions cater for individual interests. Hence, religion exists as a group of people with common beliefs and interests, which hold them together since individuals are independent agents who have the freedom to interact and associate with other people irrespective of their religious backgrounds.

Religion comprises a body or a system of beliefs, which is its second feature. The major difference amongst religions rests in the body of beliefs that a religion professes. The differences that exist among religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism emanate from differences in religious beliefs and principles. People choose to belong to a certain religion based on the religious beliefs that it holds.

The diverse religious beliefs originate from teachings passed from one generation to another and scared books. Sacred books such as the Quran, the Bible, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Book of Mormon form the basis of religious beliefs that have caused the existence of diverse religions in the modern society. Although the diverse religions started from a given geographical location, the spread of beliefs across the world has led to the growth of religions, thus having considerable impact on society.

The third feature of a religion is that it comprises a set of practices that people perform. Different religions have their own religious practices that they perform according to their ritual beliefs. Some of the prevalent religious practices include foot washing, baptism, Last Supper, Mass, dancing, fasting, and offerings. Although these practices are common amongst Christians, other religions have theirs.

For example, Muslims perform their prayers four times a day, while Buddhists perform their prayers as many times as they can. Actions that religions perform when they gather constitute religious practices because they have their basis on religious teachings, which are present in holy books. The religious practices are important because they define how people should conduct their worship in holy places. Worship usually entails rituals that guide worshipers to adhere to religious beliefs and principles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociology and Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An important feature about religion is its role in prescribing morals in the society. In different societies, people agree that religions have a noble role of determining moral principles that are prevalent in society. Without religions, it could have been hard for the society to be the custodian of morals since it is very diverse and does not qualify to be a group with significant influences on societal members or other groups.

Therefore, religions are not only custodians of moral values and principles, but also define them so that societal members can acquire moral behaviors. Through religion, supernatural powers influence society by causing transformation of human behavior. Since religious followers subscribe to given moral principles, they also advocate for these moral principles in the society, thus transforming societal perceptions on certain moral issues like abortion and drug abuse.

The last feature of religion is that it entails sacred elements and teachings. The basis of any religion is sacredness. Religious leaders and followers alike believe that their religious beliefs are sacred because God has blessed and ordained them for humanity.

Presumably, if human beings follow all sacred teachings and adhere to religious laws, one day they will link up with their God, who provides spiritual nourishment and healthy life to people. The sacredness of a religion is evident in the use of scared symbols like cross, manner of worship, offering of sacrifices, belief in blessings or curses, and respect for holy places of worship. Therefore, religion is a social group that values sacredness of their beliefs and practices in society.

Sociology of Religion Based on sociological assumptions and features, it is evident that religion is a social phenomenon, which interacts with other social phenomena in the society. Since religion interacts with other social phenomena, empirical studies can determine how interactions occur and establish their extent in causing social changes that shape the society.

Through the scientific method of study, sociologists can conduct systematic research to disapprove myths and verify theories associated with sociology. Although religion entails spiritual powers and supernatural forces, it is hard for sociologists to measure its impacts in shaping the society. However, given that religion is a social phenomenon, examination of its interactions with other social phenomena provides a means of empirically studying the sociology of religion.

Sociologists have examined religion from two different perspectives. The first perspective is substantive approach, which views religion from the perspective of its core principles.

Examination of the core principles that underpin religion is central in the sociological study because they provide the foundation of the religion in question. The “substance” or “essence” of religion in society forms the basic understanding of the impact of religion on society because beliefs, values, and principles that it advocates are important in shaping human behavior in society.

Owing to the complexity of substantive approach in studying religion, the second approach, viz. functional approach, is effective in studying the impact of religion on society. From the functional approach, sociologists examine what religions do to the society and how they influence human behavior. This perspective is important to sociologists because it facilitates the examination of how religion, as a social phenomenon, interacts with other social groups that exist in a given society.

Conclusion As religion comprises a group of people sharing the same beliefs, values, and principles about life, it qualifies as a sociological group. Based on sociological assumptions and features, religion meets the requirements of a social group in terms of being a group with common beliefs, practices, morals, and sacred teachings.

Religion is a powerful social agent that aids in shaping human behaviors at the individual level or societal level. Therefore, sociology of religion is imperative in enhancing understanding on how religion interacts with other social phenomena, thus causing significant influence on human behavior in society.


Traditional Vs. Modern Medicine Essay college admission essay help

In the modern society, traditional medicine is considered the most appropriate way to treat sick people. In other words, modern medicine should incorporate technology-based medicine and traditional practices. This would let the doctors to dispense medicine in the best possible way to satisfy each cultural group. Modern doctors and physicians tend to neglect traditional practices in favor of modern technologies.

This creates a conflict between traditional medicine and modern medicine. In this regard, effective healing is affected because patients are reluctant to disclose information to doctors that do not consider culture when asking questions. As Anne Fediman observes, the misunderstanding between patients and doctors affects service delivery in a number of ways. This clearly shows that culture plays a significant role in enhancing the healing process. It makes sense to argue that little medicine and little need facilitate healing.

In her book, Fadiman (1998) notes that Lia could have lost her life due to cultural differences between her parents and doctors. Doctors interpreted Lia’s condition differently, because they believed that she suffered from ordinary epilepsy. On the other hand, Lia’s parents believed that their daughter suffered from a traditional disease.

They based their interpretation on the Hmong culture, which was considered powerful in the community. Doctors could not embrace the ideology of the Hmong community because they believed the culture was inferior to science. On their part, Lia’s parents questioned the methodology employed by doctors when diagnosing diseases.

This misunderstanding could have been resolved in case doctors understood the cultural values of Lia’s parents. For instance, doctors could have used records from Lia’s parents to identify the medical problem. The author shows that culture helps understand the way of living of a particular community. Doctors can come up with the best ways of delivering their services if they understand cultural practices. In the modern society, western medicine is believed to be accurate, yet it is full of mistakes.

Religiously, colonialism shaped the religious practices of Americans because people were forced to abandon traditional religious beliefs in favor of modern forms of religion. For instance, people were forced to adopt Christianity and drop traditional religions. In fact, religion was used to pacify the population.

Even in the modern society, religion is still used to pacify the population. Ethnically, colonialism generated ethnocentrism whereby people would identify themselves with certain ethnic groups. This led to discrimination because groups would judge others using their cultural standards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Noonday Press.

Gurung, R. (2010). Health psychology: A cultural approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.


Quantitative data analysis Essay (Book Review) college application essay help

After having looked at quantitative data collection, Grinnell, Williams and Unrau move into a critical and important step in social research which, in this case, involves analyzing quantitative data covered in chapter 15. Quantitative data analysis is the process of making sense out of numbers in order to allow meaningful interpretation.

This process involves four key steps which include data organization, doing calculations, interpreting information and explaining limitations. The authors break down each step of analyzing quantitative data, through explaining what quantitative data entails, definition of terminologies in quantitative data analysis and expounding on the steps involved in quantitative research. The authors also show how the analysis of quantitative data is significant by giving various examples of data sets to illustrate the process of data analysis.

The authors begin by stating that quantitative data is the type of data that measure a quantity or an amount. The process of measuring quantities or amounts involves using specific rules to assign labels or numerals to the attributes of observations, events or objects. There are various levels of measurement in the analysis of quantitative data.

These levels, according to the authors, determine degree to which characteristics of a data set can be modeled mathematically. Grinnell et al list four measurement levels as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The nominal classifies variables by assigning names as compared to the ordinal which classifies variables by rank. The interval has an arbitrarily chosen zero point while the ratio has a non-arbitrary, fixed zero point.

After defining the levels of measurement with illustrations, the authors examine the three main measures of central tendency which are the mean, the median and the mode. The mean is the average score in a data set. The median is the middle value of a specific data set arranged in order of magnitude. The mode is the most frequent score in a given data set. In addition the authors illustrate how these measures of central tendency are useful in the analysis of quantitative data.

Quantitative data analysis also involves the use of variables in measuring data. A variable, according to the authors, is a concept with attributes that can take on different values. Variables are classified according to their attributes and the type of data set to be analyzed. The relationship between the variables is then determined using the measures of variability. There are two main types of measures of variability that are common in quantitative data analysis.

These methods are variance and standard deviation. The authors demonstrate how to derive these measures of variability and their role in the analysis of quantitative data. The analysis of quantitative data includes data coding and analysis through the use of t-tests and computer applications such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The t-tests involve assessing whether the means of two groups of data sets are statistically different from one another.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the process of analyzing quantitative data ends by interpreting and discussing of information. During interpretation meaning is attached to data by judging the results fairly and carefully. This process helps in identifying the emerging lessons which are important in discussing the limitations of the data analyzed. In conclusion, the process of analyzing quantitative data helps a social researcher to carefully organize data, do calculations, interpret information and discuss the results.

References Grinnell, R.M., Williams, M.,


A Pool of Opportunities or the Scourge of the XXI Century? Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

There is no secret that social networking has become an integral part of the present-day reality. Personal conversations are no longer as popular as they used to be in the recent past, and live communication has been substituted by its virtual equivalent. It goes without saying that there are a number of advantages in communicating online; however, the latter also possesses a lot of negative features, not to mention the fact that it ousts live communication out and, therefore, can trigger further complexities in teenagers’ interaction in reality.

To be fair, one must introduce the key advantages of social networking first. As a matter of fact, there are a number of issues that make social networking worthwhile, and the key one is the pool of opportunities for learning, experiencing and getting new skills. As Godwin stresses, such applications as Innovative Language Learning (Godwin 5) are no longer something out of the ordinary. Hence, learning opportunities for teenagers is a massive advantage of social networks.

However, when speaking about the negative impacts of the social networking and the way it shapes teenagers, one must take into account the reasons which stand behind a teenager’s decision to create a profile in a social network. According to the recent researches conducted by Danah Boyd, what attracts teenagers in online networking is the fact that they can get closer to their idols, i.e., movie/music stars, DJs, etc.

Herein lies the difference between the behavior of an adult and a teenager in a social network system: “While many adults find value in socializing with strangers, teenagers are more focused on socializing with people they knew personally and celebrities that they adore” (Boyd 121-122).

Hence, for teenagers, social networking functions as a worldwide fan club, which also affects the communication negatively, focusing it on a single aspect. In addition, though social networking does score a couple of points for the above-mentioned feature, it is still necessary to admit that the given means of communication has failed to improve some of the issues which appear regularly in the course of live communication among teenagers.

For instance, the problem of social outcasts, weirdly enough, exists even in online social networks, such as MySpace and others. According to the research conducted by Costa, Beham, Reinhardt, and Sillaots, in which students were to engage into microblogging, “Some respondents also alluded to the fact they decided to adopt a more passive approach, as they preferred to take part in the microblogging activity as observers and not engage fully with it (Costa, Beham, Reinhardt, and Sillaots 7).

Hence, social networks in general and microblogging in particular do not solve communicational problems – instead, they take it to another level. For those, who find communication difficult in reality, online networking is not a chance to engage in a conversation incognito, but to watch the others communicating. Hence, the feeling of loneliness is enhanced and the decision to stay away from socializing is undertaken with even greater conviction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, social networking has a lot to offer, and one of the most alluring offers is its incredible accessibility. What used to take days and even weeks, e.g., sending a friend a letter, now takes less than a millisecond. In addition, the information can be squeezed to the size of a nutshell, which is also a huge advantage.

As Catanese, De Meo, Ferrara, Fiumara and Provetti explain, “The growing accessibility of the Web, through several media, gives to most users a 24/7 online presence and encourages them to build an online mesh of relationships” (Catanese, De Meo, Ferrara, Fiumara and Provetti 1).

Still, it seems that computer networking and its effect on teenagers is yet to be researched. Among the most important concerns that arise in the course of analyzing people’s behavior online and comparing it to the one in real life, the tendency to develop a virtual self should be mentioned.

As Best, Krueger, Hubbard and Smith specify, the decisions of the Internet users are quite different from the ones of the people without the access to the Internet. Creating multiple online personalities, one can finally end up in a stressful state or even in a depression. While the emphasis on the importance of online communication is important, such facts as losing one’s own identity in the multiple online clones must not be swept under the rug either.

According to the arguments mentioned above, it can be concluded that both live communication and social network have their positive and negative aspects, especially when considering them not only from a psychological standpoint, but also in terms of studying and international communication. Therefore, it must be admitted that none of the alternatives should be eliminated completely for the sake of the development of another one.

Although the newest technology can offer efficient communication between the teenagers who can be in completely different parts of the world at the moment of the conversation, it still hinders personal communication much.

However, it opens great perspectives for the entire world and its further development. Hence, supporting the evolution of the social networking as an efficient communication medium, it is also required to encourage live conversations and make it clear that social networking is merely one of the many options existing.

We will write a custom Research Paper on A Pool of Opportunities or the Scourge of the XXI Century? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Best, Samuel J., Brian Krueger, Clark Hubbard, and Andrew Smith. “An Assessment of the Generalizability of Internet Surveys.” Social Science Computer Review. 19.2 (2001): 131-145.

Boyd, Danah. “Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life.” Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. Ed. David Buckingham. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge MIT Press. 2008. 119-142. Print.

Catanese, Salvatore, Pasquale De Meo, Emilio Ferrara, Giacomo Fiumara and Alessandro Provetti n. d., Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations. PDF file. 4 Dec. 2012. .

Costa, Christina, Guenter Beham, Wolfgang Reinhardt, and Martin Sillaots 2008, Microblogging in Technology Enhanced Learning: A Use-Case Inspection of PPE Summer School 2008. PDF file. 4 Dec. 2012. .

Godwin-Jones, Robert. “Emerging Technologies Mobile Computing Trends: Lighter, Faster, Smarter.” Language Learning


Health Behavior change. Theory and Application Research Paper best essay help

Health is a condition of being physically, socially, mentally, and emotionally well (Carstensen, 2006). Behaviour involves a collection of dealings and characteristics that individuals make within their surroundings. With this respect, health status of an individual can cause behavior change and vice versa.

Carstensen (2006) provides that there are many factors that can cause behaviour change. They include age, peer group influence, and financial status just to mention but a few. Age, as a sole factor, determines physical, emotional, mental, and social characteristics of a person.

This research paper deals with health behaviour change for ageing people especially those aged sixty five years and above.

Physical, Emotional, Mental and Social Characteristics of Ageing People Physical Characteristics

Biological functions slow down and reserves get depleted.

The skin looses elasticity and becomes dry and wrinkled.

Coldness is felt as blood supply to the skin is limited.

The skin becomes thinner, might be prone to breaking and eventually contract infections.

Loss of teeth, lengthening of the nose, and whitening and thinning of hair.

Decrease in the bone mass and compression of backbone causing a bowed back.

Loss of bone elasticity making them to become more brittle, thus increasing the chances of breaking.

Sense of hearing, sight, taste, touch, and smell become less sensitive.

The above characteristics cause discomfort and illness in old people. For example, they may lead to loss of appetite leading to poor eating habits. This may result to malnutrition, disorientation and inactivity. Lack of coordination may results in failure of the nervous system leading to wrong perception of reflex messages such as thirst, hunger, walking, chewing, and breathing. Those disorders make an aging person to isolate himself/herself from the community. This makes them to suffer from depression, lack of appetite and decreased vitality.

Mental Characteristics

The memory of an ageing person decreases progressively. Moreover, the ability to handle large tasks and recall them diminishes. However, the ability to learn does not decrease, for those individuals who do exercises continuously. Their short-term memory declines while long- term memory remains sharp. Mental illness in aged people is another old-age characteristic associated with infection, poor nutrition, poor medication and hydration (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1998).

Major Health problems of aged people (65 years and above)

Common health problems associated with old-age are as discussed below:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Incontinence

Incontinence is a condition of loss of control of the bladder leading to involuntary urine leakage (Eisdorfer, 2007). It is caused by stress and urge urinary incontinences in women. According to research work done by several specialists, the urethra may fail to provide the necessary support. This usually results from the damage of the pelvic structure which occurs during childbirth. It is identified by the leakage of small amount of urine when the abdomen experiences a rise in pressure through coughing, lifting, and sneezing. Other causes include caffeine beverages, which stimulate the bladder, enlarged prostrate (in men above 40), other disorders such as injury of the spinal cord, strokes, and multiple sclerosis which interfere with the functioning of the bladder nerves (Eisdorfer 2007).

Heart Diseases

Heart diseases include: heart attack, high blood pressure, stroke, and coronary artery disease.

Coronary artery disease

The main symptoms of coronary artery disease include nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness, sweating, and chest pain, discomfort, heaviness, and pressure and fullness .This condition is also experienced in the arms, back, neck, jaws, shoulders, and the throat.

Heart attack

It is characterized by heaviness, discomfort, pressure, pain in the arms and chest, fullness, heartburn, sweating, dizziness, vomiting, indigestion and nausea. However, some people (more particularly diabetic people) suffer from heart attack without experiencing any symptoms.


Stroke occurs when brain cells die abruptly due to limited supply of oxygen. It can be caused by the blockage of blood flow to the brain or breaking of the artery that supplies the brain with blood. The affected individual may become unconscious or get paralyzed one side of the body. Research provides that stress exists in two types namely ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

Ischemic stroke is more common as compared to hemorrhagic. It occurs when blood flow into the brain is hindered. On the other hand, hemorrhagic stroke occur when a blood vessel on the surface of the brain breaks, and hence limiting blood supply to the brain. Blood from the ruptured vessel fills the space brain and the skull. Severity of a stroke depends on where it has occurred and the amount of brain distressed (Adelman


European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries Essay best essay help: best essay help

Jews have a history of conflict with various governments. One of the reasons for this is the nature of their culture and the fact that they share history with Christianity, which most of them did not adopt (Brenner 159). Jews have lived in almost all sovereignties in Europe and have faced constant segregation and mistreatment.

Jews have always struggled for equality among other communities with which they have coexisted. For a long time, Jews had settled in Poland after migrating there from other kingdoms of Europe (Brenner 161). Perpetual anti-Semitism in Europe necessitated the migration.

However, in the eighteenth century, Poland began disintegrating. By this time, Jews had not managed to acquire freedom and equality among other races in Europe. In 1792, a civil war broke out in Poland and Jews were caught in the middle (Brenner 164). Russia and Prussia divided the country and annexed parts of it. The first partition of Poland by Russia and Prussia occurred in 1793 (Brenner 167). The regimes that took over administration were largely anti-Semitic. For this reason, Poland revolted against the conquerors.

However, the revolt ended with the Russian empire capturing a bigger territory with Jews living in it. At first, Jews received a mild treatment from the government (Brenner 169). Education was offered to them, but they were separated from the Christian population by the Russian government. Most of the problems faced by Jews were due to the government’s quest to make Jewish populations to integrate into the rest of the people in religious and cultural terms.

While children were sent to schools to learn, the government tried to make them abandon their religion. The failure of the government to make Jews abandon their religion even led to more severe consequences for them. More restrictions and harsh policies were implemented against Jews. One such policy required conscription of Jewish minors into the army (Gartner 51).

Several incidences triggered the emergence of Zionism in Europe. The most significant cause of Zionism was the statelessness of the Jewish people. For centuries, several empires hosted Jews and treated them with contempt. Poland, being one of the few states that could accommodate Jews, became a haven for them (Brenne 168).

Even then, anti-Semitism was rife. However, with the partition of Poland between the Russian empire and the Prussian empire made life unbearable for the Jews. Their last vestige had been annexed, and was slowly becoming uninhabitable for them. Due to this pressure, an idea developed among Jews that the Jewish community had to become a state rather than a common religion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Jewish fraternity had to be regarded a nation. Several isolated incidents accelerated the adoption of this idea with some dire consequences for some empires in Europe. Haskala, the education of Jews and Jewish children to adopt cultural ideas of the larger society, was the cause of secular Zionism that began emerging in Europe (Gartner 55). Haskala was the major cause of the secular Zionism that has persisted to the present day. Political ideologies and labor movements characterized the secular movements.

By the end of nineteenth century, the Jewish people were seeking to establish a nation where they could reside as equals with other people. However, just before the end of the nineteenth century, an incident that would eventually cause a revolution occurred (Gartner 56). In the 1890s, there was tension in Europe. It was at this time the European countries were competing for superiority within their continent and within their colonies (Gartner 57).

Military buildups were common, and suspicion and mistrust were the order of the day. In1894 a French intelligence officers noticed that German military was unusually informed of the progress of French military regarding armaments (Gartner 59). The intelligence officer, Jean Sandhe, raised the issue with higher authorities. However, due to the influence of the informant who was leaking the information to the Germans, a decision was made to accuse a Jewish army officer of the betrayal (Gartner 71).

Alfred Dreyfus, the victim of accusation, was arrested and tried for high treason. He allegedly informed German officials of the progress within the French military (Gartner 73). He was sentenced to life in prison, and was incarcerated in French Guiana. Two years later, another officer was put in charge of the intelligence office. This officer took interest in Dreyfus case, and realized that another military officer had been the real traitor.

To avert controversy the intelligence officer who raised the issue was relocated to a new outpost. Somehow, the printing press, which constituted much of the mass media then, uncovered the plot to accuse Dreyfus falsely in favor of the real traitor. A debate on anti-Semitism arose in the French community.

An author known as Zola wrote a passage in a national newspaper accusing the French government of trying to protect perpetrators of high treason by accusing and imprisoning Dreyfus (Gartner 81). Earlier, the French citizenry had been led to believe that their nation bas based on Christian values that included equal treatment of all people.

The author of the inflammatory newspaper article had to flee the country after he was convicted of criminal conduct. Some other newspapers and periodicals followed suit and accused the government of impartiality and criminal activities. To reinforce the perception that Dreyfuls was guilty, the French government subjected Dreyfuls to a second court martial, and added ten years to his prison sentence (Gartner 84).

We will write a custom Essay on European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, protest continued and France became politically divided between those who supported the government’s position and those who claimed Dreyfus’ innocence. This division seemed to be a struggle between anti-Semites and those who had other liberal ideas. To ease the pressure due to the Dreyfus’ case, the government retried Dreyfus and acquitted him of all charges. Furthermore, it brought him back into the French military and made him a major.

He later resigned in 1907 due to poor health. Dreyfus made a comeback to serve as an officer in the First World War. He died in 1935, and was buried in a state funeral. The Dreyfus affair made the plight of Jews and the prevalent anti-Semitism an open issue in France and the neighboring countries (Gartner 102).

The Dreyfus affair had significant political effects for Europe. Anti-Semitic factions and liberal factions dominated the French political scene. Theodor Herzl, a journalist, who investigated and reported on the events following revelation charges against Dreyfus, continued to publish articles that aimed at persuading Jewish people to create a Jewish nation in another location away from Europe.

This was based on the assumption that Jews would never be accepted as equal citizens in any European state (Brenner 115). Even within the French government in the twentieth century, there were differences regarding the Dreyfus affair. At one time, a sculpture made in the honor of the soldier was never put to public display because senior officials in the French government could not agree on whether it should be displayed or not.

In central and western Europe, Jews were encouraged or coerced to assimilate into the mainstream European communities. This way they could avoid persecution. Emancipation in western and central Europe led the Jews who resided in these areas to believe that their only hope for freedom was through creation of a pure Jewish state (Brenner 115).

This Jewish state could only be possible outside European territories. Since Jews in central Europe had tried to integrate themselves into the European community, Zionism arose in this are with a characteristic intellectual aspect. The Jews in central and western Europe were less religious unlike those in Eastern Europe. They relied on a secular government for maintenance of civil order.

Due to the enlightenment of the western and central European Jews, the influence of Judaism on their communities was not significant. Most of the Jewish communities in central Europe were convinced that all other solutions had failed and only the formation of a Jewish state would liberate them form serfdom (Brenner 117).. These Jews were the minority compared to the vast Jewish population in Eastern Europe.

Jews in Eastern Europe maintained their culture and religion. In addition, no emancipation occurred in Eastern Europe. For these reasons, Jewish communities in Eastern Europe were governed by the wealthy among them (Brenner 121). Judaism was the major religion and its practices were the major tools of instruction. The rulers were also scholars and relied on the communities’ adherence to religion to establish their authority.

Not sure if you can write a paper on European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, with the emancipation of the Jews in the west, some of the scholars in authority in the east became worried about losing the grip they had on their societies. The scholars and the wealthy started becoming ore dictatorial to avoid an uprising against their rule. The autocratic authority was reinforced by the Russian imperialists of the time. Most of the communities in rural areas migrated into towns and began clamoring for better treatment by the authorities.

In the late nineteenth century, Jews in Eastern Europe were vigorously resisting the new regime of the new tsar, Alexander III. The new ruler had become anti-Semitic. He conducted pogroms, or mass killings of Jews. For this reason, Jews lost hope of liberation by intellectual movements, and went on to shift to cultural and religious movements for support (Brenner 130). These mass movements were created to depose the tsar of Russia due to his aggressive and hostile policies against the Jewish communities.

All Jewish communities in Europe hoped to establish a purely Jewish state all the time. Even those communities that were under the autocratic authority of Russian monarchy hoped to one day migrate to Palestine, which was of significant cultural importance to all Jews.

While Jews in central and Western Europe hoped to acquire political power in the countries they resided in, those in the east were bound to their belief in their religion and ancestry in Palestine (Brenner 125). For this reason, Jews in central Europe had a primarily intellectual stance while those in east were adherents of mass movements.

The most influential Zionist figure was Theodor Herzl. He was a German born in Hungary to Jewish family of Serbian descent. His parents led a secular lie, so he was brought up a secular boy. Although he was fond of the idea of emancipation of European Jews as a boy, his perception of the situation changed after the Dreyfus affair. The hatred of Jews displayed by native Germans influenced his perception of the Jewish question. However, he was never completely convinced of the importance of religion in Jewish affairs throughout his life.

While Dreyfus was being persecuted in the 1890s, Herzl wrote a book about the aspirations of Jews and their desire to establish a Jewish state (Dubnow


Use of Animals in Research Testing: Ethical Justifications Involved Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Discourse about the use of animals in research has characterized the domain of science for a couple of decades now. Debate about whether animals should be subjected to experimental research remains divided, with advocates suggesting that this is a matter of necessity (Francione, 2007), whereas critics use the ethical bandwagon to demonstrate that use of animals in research settings is neither ethical nor justified (Portaluppi et al., 2010).

The present paper argues that it is ethically justified to use animals in research settings if the goals of the research process are noble and oriented towards the advancement of human life.

As postulated by Kent (2003), “…research using animals has led to substantial advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms which results in sickness, disability and premature death” (para. 3). In the absence of this knowledge it is clear that much of what is known today would still exist in the realms of the unknown, with the consequence that researchers would now be further away from the prospect of making timely and accurate diagnosis for various diseases affecting certain segments of the population.

Equally, individuals would be constrained in their application of effective treatment regimens that have been made possible courtesy of the knowledge acquired from animal-based research. Consequently, it can be argued that the noble goal of availing medical breakthroughs to solve health issues that have been affecting mankind justifies the inclusion of animals in research.

Critics to animal-based research often point out to the pain subjected to animals in scientific research laboratories as comprising enough ground to do away with the practice. More importantly, they argue that scientists should use alternatives to conduct their research rather than subject animals to intense pain and death in the name of making scientific discoveries (Francione, 2007).

But when critically evaluated under the ethical lens, these assertions are without justifications because it is yet not possible to exclude the use of animals entirely without compromising the safety and health of humans in dire need of medical interventions to cure their ailments, with the consequence that the pain or harm subjected to animals in research settings would be transferred to individuals in the form of disease prolongation, ineffective therapeutic interventions, as well as lack of scientific data regarding the pathophysiology of various diseases that continue to affect mankind (Kent, 2003; Francione, 2007).

Scientists who have realized this noble goal are currently experimenting on monkeys to understand and cure the Parkinson’s disease (Portaluppi et al., 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of-course it is inherently wrong to inflict “unnecessary” suffering on animals to derive pleasure, amusement, or mere convenience (Portaluppi et al., 2010). However, the goal of advancing knowledge for the advancement of mankind supersedes other issues presented by critics, including the argument that animals are sentient and have an interest in not being subjected to suffering (Francione, 2007).

Indeed, this author further posits that “…we can ignore that interest when it benefits us to do so because animals lack some characteristic supposedly unique to humans – must usually a cognitive characteristic – and are thereby the natural inferiors of humans” (p. 245).

This assertion demonstrates that the goal of human advancement is supreme to any other argument; however, it should be the task of scientists using animals in research settings to ensure their comfort, proper housing, feeding, sanitation, as well as minimal exposure to painful experiences through the application of anesthesia.

References Francione, G.L. (2007). The use of non-human animals in biomedical research: Necessity and justification. Journal of Law, Medicine


Martin Luther King JR. “I have a dream” Essay college admissions essay help

Martin Luther King is optimistic that African Americans will have basic rights including voting and other social rights in the future. Such rights will allow African Americans to vote, live in good neighborhoods and interact with White Americans without any discrimination (Gates 107).

In a perfect society, all Americans will be treated equally by the constitution. According to Martin Luther, freedom is about people being judged based on their characters, but not ethnicity (Gates 107). In a perfect society, the constitution will protect all citizens equally. Martin Luther defines freedom as the ability to live how individuals want and to attend any school or motel of choice without restrictions based on race (Gates 108). Luther urges people not rest until freedom is attained.

The speech “I have a dream” by Martin Luther King continues to challenge leaders today (Hansen 23). Today, this speech has continually challenged Americans to recognize everybody’s potential in areas of politics and leadership among other fields.

However, cases of police brutality and incarceration of African Americans are relative high in the American society today (Gates 109). Just recently, there was an African American young man who was shot three times in the neighborhood for walking in White’s settlements. When lobby groups enquired about this incidence, police officers argued that the boy was a criminal. This is an indication that Americans have not yet attained freedom.

The coming of President Obama to power has given most African Americans hope (Gates 109). In fact, the number of African Americans who turned out to vote in the last election is an indicator that Americans are ready to attain freedom. Evidently, Africans and White Americans are now getting to a level where they are putting their differences aside for development.

Works Cited Gates, Louis. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York, NY: Norton press, 2004. Print.

Hansen, Drew. The Dream: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Speech that Inspired a Nation. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2003. Print.

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Well-Being as a Happiness Definitions Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

It is always pleasant to experience positive emotions. Everyone strives to attain a positive mental state. There are various perspectives that define happiness.

Many religious approaches and perceptions on happiness define happiness as a spiritual fulfillment that is transcended with inner peace and contentment. Such religious perspectives towards achieving happiness are advocated by religion factions such as Christianity and Buddhist. Psychologists also have a strong view on happiness. In this perspective, psychologists view happiness as a scientific concept.

Nonetheless, the sociological approach in defining happiness is more satisfying. For example, the approach acknowledges that happiness has two dimensions; psychological and economical (Hirata 5). As a matter of fact, many people are accustomed to the above dimensions whenever happiness and well-being is discussed. Personally, I always feel happy when I am able to meet my basic needs and afford a luxurious life.

For example, if I don’t get sick within a year, I tend to think that as a sign of positive well-being. Moreover, if I can buy a luxurious car, a house and afford a balanced diet, education and entertainment, I will consider to be living in happiness. The following discussion below highlights how happiness and well-being is viewed from both a psychological and economical perspective.

Michael Marmot in his book The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity tries to justify happiness from a social perspective. In his article, Marmot alleges that social standings can only be viewed from an economic perspective.

In his article, Marmot justifies that one must have a certain economic stability to have good health. According to Marmot, an individual’s happiness can only be derived, if the individual is employed, healthy and well educated (Marmot 2). The writer exemplifies how a well educated person is in a higher social hierarchy than an average educated person.

An educated individual understands the importance of family planning, and controls his earnings and lives in a good house. To the author, these are the basics towards achieving happiness and living healthy. Marmot highlights how the poor in America die early. This is a social trend that Marmot describes as very common in the underdeveloped communities. He alleges that people who live below the poverty line are more prone to depravity of basic needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, Marmot is very categorical in his theory of the status syndrome. According to Marmot, the status syndrome does not necessarily affect the poor, but also the rich (6). The status syndrome determines an individual place in the society status hierarchy. From the status syndrome, the author demystifies the assertion that lifestyle diseases are only associated with the rich. Marmot uses a sociological, scientific and political approach to analyze the status syndrome concept (18).

From a personal point of view, happiness can only be achieved, if one has control over certain aspects of life. For example, control over economic, social and political independence is critical in achieving happiness. A happy life should be void of diseases, poverty and lack other essential commodities.

A happy life should consist of political freedom and respect to personal rights. An economy that allows people to develop and grow financially is an ideal environment for happiness. In such environments, families afford luxuries and enjoy holidays, when the society’s economy allows affordable health care for all. I believe that with a good education, I will be able to get a well-paying job or at least create an economic project that creates profit and eventually benefits the society.

Works Cited Hirata, Johannes. Happiness, ethics and economics. New York, Taylor


The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer Essay online essay help

The end of the free market by Ian Brimmer is an important book that explains economic concerns of the various global economies. The inexistence of cooperation between states has continued to prompt the increase in number of national and state conflicts.

This fact necessitates the formulation of proper operational mechanisms aimed at enhancing a high sense of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Different aspects of a free market economy stipulate how state capitalism affects both local and international economies. The existence of authoritarian governments remains to be a major focus of the global economic development.

Economic struggles and capitalist policies have increasingly become major issues of concern as they shape the manner in which economic development and efficiency are enhanced. Dictatorship and ineffective authoritarian governments also exist in state capitalism and free-market states. Authoritarian governments continue to play a pivotal role in shaping the overall global economy and enhancing a high sense of efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

The existence of free-market economies is believed to be a serious threat to the economic development of a number of states and national economies. As analyzed below, critical issues that relate to free-market economies include dictatorial leadership structures, capitalism and the failure of corporations to adhere to the rule of law. Other aspects include increase in global economic crises and emergence of new economies. The mentioned issues are vital economic issues that deserve proper planning and streamlined business strategies.

The explanation of the manner in which state governments approach the economic aspects of the country through the purchase of key state corporations is clearly highlighted to depict the level of seriousness of various financial strategies of the governments. Book summary The book depicts state capitalism and free-market capitalism as two very different entities. In a state capitalism, society, politics and success in profit-making is the core driver of national decision-making process.

State-based capitalism, therefore, poses a lot of challenge to a country’s economy as it is likely to limit the extent to which free-market is undertaken. In reference to the emergence of the recent patterns in the global economy, Brimmer, the author of the case study book reveals that the expansion of non-western states and the overall expansion of the global economies contribute to the increase in economic freedom of said states.

The differentiation of capitalism is very dependent on the manner in which wealth is used to create more wealth and establish control of global economies. According to Ian Bremmer, both state capitalism and free-market are best defined by their ability to use wealth, spread the wealth and enforce better wealth creation strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Capitalism and free-market economies emerge as the major drivers of the economy. The free-market form of capitalism is dominated by a country’s constant implementation of wealth creation and state enforcement of legal procedures that would enhance business contracts and limit the influence of immoral acts. Immoral acts in this context include greed, selfish desires, unworthy business contracts and sabotage of development strategies of emerging economies.

Initially, state-sponsored capitalism led to the perception that countries like China, Saudi Arabia, and China had perverted economic strategies. However, the book reveals that the economic approaches have come to be appreciated. A number of benefits and economically sound business processes are equated to the economic approaches.

The domination of the government in a given economy often influences a number of happenings. An authoritarian government can focus on enhancing its economic superiority rather than realize profitability on the investments made. Secondly, the government can end up fostering economic, social and political interests that only address its needs and issues aimed at enhancing its international relationship.

The rise of new forms of market economies reflects a paradigm shift in the operation of major economies of the world. This fact is a sure indicator of the emergence of a new form of capitalism in areas that were originally dominated by communist practices.

It also emerges from this book that the end of communism was influenced by a number of factors and that its collapse was never followed by the existence of free-market economies but rather by international politics and a struggle between modernized forms of state capitalism and free-market liberalization. The concept of state capitalism aims at ensuring that the form of capitalism practiced is restricted to addressing the economic wellbeing and political goodwill of the state.

Free markets are only allowed to exist if the business strategies employed are aimed at limiting countries’ dependence on those states that are usually considered to be superpowers. Ideas from the book Government ownership of a country’s big business organizations and other investment opportunities are a sure concept that is developed throughout the book. It is evident that this idea aims at enhancing strict accountability of all existing businesses of the governments.

The book intends to demonstrate the manner in which government agencies can be employed in ensuring that large corporations that have excess capital are controlled by the government. The government, therefore, uses such investment strategies for social and political gains. There exist a number of vital insights of business persons, policymakers and investors. The idea of state capitalism as explained from the book is a distortion of how free-market economies should operate.

We will write a custom Essay on The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This concept partly explains the reason why western companies have been compelled to compete across the globe against business organizations that have enormous political and financial support from their home countries. In the end, it is evident that new business strategies emerge with the view of encouraging international cooperation and overreliance on global economic state leaders. What has been known to be a global free-market economy is no longer in existence.

Dominance of states in the local or domestic economies is a sure proof of the existence of state capitalism. This idea leads to the revelation of the continued use of state dominance strategies. The strategies focus on ensuring that political leaders and major market economies foster national unity as well as encourage the initiation of a number of state strategies aimed at encouraging national growth, transparency and tranquility.

For the government to achieve its development goals, state-owned business organizations and privately owned government-friendly companies are used in enhancing a high level of efficiency, cost-effectiveness and overall success of government strategies. The intervention is mainly done on major aspects of global economy such as the energy sector, aviation industry, power generation, shipping and related aspects of transport and communication industries.

Other sectors include metal, mineral, and petrochemical among others. A government strategy that outlines the degree to which government agencies can work towards enhancing efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of all operational strategies being employed is necessary. The strategy can improve state-based capitalism.

State-sponsored capitalism emerges as a critical issue of concern in the book, The End of the Free Market by Ian Brimmer. However, it is clear that the term “state capitalism” carries a slightly different meaning from what has been used with reference to a fascist engagement and the socialism economic model used in East Germany. It, therefore, emerges that unlike the socialism and fascism models, the state capitalism model does not dwell on economic ideologies.

State capitalism, as explained in the book, refers to the different political and economic ideologies that are put in practice and which are unique to every country. On the existing capitalism concerns in the book, it is evident that the invention of state capitalism, as is articulated in book, The End of the Free Market brings about sensitive issues.

Through the analysis of the interaction between state capitalism and the challenging global economy, the book brings out vital global aspects that demand to be accorded due attention, proper allocation of time and other related scarce resources and streamlined management strategies. State capitalism is likely to pose a number of challenges to the global economy. The emergence of state-owned business firms has increasingly continued to shape the ever-changing financial status of the various global states.

This trend continues to be heightened by protectionist and populist economic pressures from the developed states and the emergence of state capitalism. Sadly, state-owned multinational companies receive a lot of financial, political and cultural favors, thus reducing their operational costs. This aspect leads to a major imbalance in the economic competition in state-owned corporations. State capitalism also presents a number of challenges to the modern economies. Global free markets are very dynamic and complex in nature.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They demand proper planning and strategic management of all resources with the view of fostering healthy national economic relations. State capitalism’s dangers are varied, many and likely to cause a lot of conflict in future economic developments of various states. Regardless of the economic situation in question, it is highly likely that there will always be major issues that relate to the existence of many competing economies across the globe and hence the end of free-market economies.

Economic competition can take a unique and different approach. Countries like Russia employ state capitalism in achieving political mileage within countries that were originally neighbors of the Soviet Union. However, due to unforeseen capitalism issues such as emergence of the most unpredictable superpowers, it is apparent that the success of certain state-capitalist strategies are limited by the existence of complex economies such as Kazakhstan and Ukraine which have other security, political and commercial interests.

The future of the global economy The future of the global economic development is an important aspect of global economic progress. A strong economy employs effective economic policies. Many global states today encourage diversification of their existing investment strategies.

The United States of America no longer possesses unmatched dominance and control over the global economy. As outlined in the book, it is evident that greater and fair economic competitions are emerging. The competitions are focused on issues and not a country’s ability of being depended upon by other global economies. It is therefore evident that the United States of America has to formulate other competitive or reliable long term economic solutions in order to effectively have a long term development strategy.

The possible continued existence of authoritarian governments is a sure indicator of the direction that the global economic is likely to take. Political and economic drivers in China, Russia and many Arab monarchies agree that they are not better placed to determine long-term economic growth and development. Major global economies are likely to continue developing political systems that would be tailored to fulfill the economic and political needs of the majority in society.

Rather than focus on state capitalism, free-market economies, dictatorial state governments, and some countries’ desire to achieve market autonomy, it is crucial for all states to contribute towards the expansion and steady growth of global business strategies. This step should be undertaken on a non-discriminatory basis and in line with the stipulated international obligations and the need to enhance global economic wellbeing.

State capitalism is an ever-growing global concept that is believed to be a major threat to the economic development and wellbeing of the different national economies. The Intersection of economies and state-owned firms in Iran, China, Venezuela, Persian Gulf, Russia, the United States and Japan plays an important role in shaping the operational strategies of a free market.

With regards to a free-market economy, it is least likely that state capitalism can emerge in the United States of America though it can happen in many world nations, albeit not with similar political and economic ideologies as those that shape China and Russia’s state capitalism. This fact is partly because the interconnection between government agencies and state contractors seems to move quickly into the domain of cybersecurity and information system.

In the U.S., economic challenges such as the global financial crisis have managed to shift the balance of financial decision making authority from the Wall Street to the Washington State. Due to the continuous development of the global economy, the benefit of self -evaluation is likely to be exploited to transform retrogressive social, political and economic statuses of a number of leading global economies.

The existence of a “long boom” resulting in the implementation of dynamic economic strategies is an important aspect of the future of the global economy. Implementation of technological platforms, fair economic competition, and existence of environmentally sustainable economic strategies, formulation and implementation of economically sound policies can foster a “long economic boom” in the near future.

Evidence to support the views The concept of state capitalism is supported by a number of real-life global undertakings. Policymakers demand proper organization as well as integration of business leadership, policymakers and formulation of new internal and local political mechanisms of enhancing reliability.

As the biggest, renowned, and most influential state capitalist, it is its unique strength, challenges, and philosophy that have continued to uniquely separate China from other state capitalist states. While China’s state-capitalist perceptive comes from its long-term relationships and government support for state-owned business corporations, Russia thrives on the ownership of a lot of natural wealth while Saudi Arabia is rich in oil.

China’s success is likely to convince many other countries to embrace ideologies that promote national growth. The slow emergence of the cold war strictly associated with the global market economy remains a major challenge. Capitalism related issues are of great concern and cannot be ignored.

The continued rise of many “emerging markets” such as Brazil, China, Japan and a host of European states illustrate the degree to which the world economy can help enhance a greater level of efficiency and also implement economically appropriate strategies of dealing with serious financial crisis.

The emergence of the global economic crisis, political tension and lack of economic vitality supports the fact that free-market economies are concepts that no longer have significance as state capitalism has increasingly become popular in many countries.