Introduction Harvey Norman is a leading firm in Australia’s retail industry. Founded in 1961, the firm has since expanded its operations to foreign markets such as “Singapore, Ireland, New Zealand, Malaysia and Slovenia” (Harvey Norman, 2011). Currently, the firm has over 300 stores of which 195 are located in Australia (Harvey Norman, 2011). The firm’s core business activity involves retailing a variety of consumer products and property.
The main products it sells include “computers, TVs, portable electronics, furniture and home appliances” (Harvey Norman, 2011). In the first half of its 2010 financial year (as at 31/12/2010), the firm realized a gross profit of $198.61 which was 16.5% less as compared to the $237.77 which was realized over a similar period in 2009 (Harvey Norman, 2011).
The core values of the firm include honesty, fairness and integrity. Its main competitors include, JB Hi Fi, Retravision and Myer. It is the first firm to contemplate expanding to India.
Environmental Analysis In order to expand its market and to improve its profitability and competitiveness, Harvey Norman is planning to join the Indian market. Thus the firm has to understand the business environment and competition associated with India in order to make the right entry decision.
Consequently, the Indian market and the firm’s ability to succeed in it will be analyzed through three concepts namely, SWOT analysis, Porter’s five forces analysis and the PESTEL analysis.
Macro-environment Analysis: PESTEL Political
India is one of the most politically stable countries in Asia (Chanda and Gopalan, 2009, pp. 66-78). The government of India has forged strong political relationships with most countries in Asia and other foreign countries (Chanda and Gopalan, 2009, pp. 66-78). The political stability encourages investments in the country since the investors are assured of the security of their investments.
Strong political relationships with foreign countries encourage the flow of foreign direct investment into India (Aisen, 2005, pp. 100-113). Thus Harvey Norman can take advantage of the political stability and investing the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic
India is the “tenth largest economy globally by nominal GDP” (Virmani, 2010, pp. 320-340). By purchasing power parity, India is ranked at fourth position globally. Its economy is currently recoding a high growth rate of 7.2% (Virmani, 2010, pp. 320-340). In 2010, the country’s GDP per capita was $ 3,339 which was one of the highest in Asia (Virmani, 2010, pp. 320-340).
The robust economic growth is likely to translate into high disposable income (Krugman, 2009, p. 78). This leads to high demand for goods especially in the retail industry. Due to the rapid economic growth, India’s retail industry is expected to grow by 14% between 2011 and 2015.
India has a population of 1.2 billion people thus making it one of the largest markets in the world (Bloom, 2010, pp. 84-100). Majority of the population has a high purchasing power following the expansion of the “upper and middle class consumer bases” (Bloom, 2010, pp. 84-100).
This has led to high demand for consumer products especially in the retail industry. The consumers in India are highly educated and are price sensitive. This explains the high price elasticity associated with most products in the country’s retail industry.
As an emerging economy, India is focusing on adopting modern and cheap technology in order to improve its productivity. Consequently, capital goods which are associated with technological advancements such as computers are exempted from import duty (Narayanan, Chandna and Das, 2008, pp. 321-351).
Besides, the country has improved its productivity by investing in modern transportation and communication infrastructure such as fiber optic and broadband technology (Narayanan, Chandna and Das, 2008, pp. 321-351). This further increases the demand for computers and portable electronics such as iPods in the country.
The government of India is keen on environment conservation. Companies operating in India are not only expected to engage in activities that are least harmful to the environment but are also expected to participate in its conservation (Senthilkumar and Shivakumar, 2011, pp. 341-410).
We will write a custom Report on Harvey Norman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, majority of the companies channel a high percentage of their social responsibility funds towards environmental conservation initiatives. The firms operating in the retail industry are expected to sell products with clear disposal instructions in order to prevent environmental pollution.
Legal factors refer to the rules or regulations that guide business activities such as importation, exportation and foreign direct investments. India has an open import policy which aims at lowering the cost of imports and simplifying the importation process (Sathish and Venkatramarajiu, 2010, pp. 251-278). There are no restrictions on quantities of goods that can be imported into India.
Even though most capital goods are exempted from import duty, the average importation duty is as high as 30% (Sathish and Venkatramarajiu, 2010, pp. 251-278). The retail industry is deregulated in order to encourage rapid growth.
Micro-environmental Analysis: Porter’s Five Forces Analysis Threat of New Entrants
The firms operating in India’s retail industry are associated with high economies of scale since most of them are multi-national corporations. Due to the high competition in the industry, products are highly differentiated in order to improve the competitiveness of the retailers (Kottler, 2003, p. 67). Differentiation is mainly focused on pricing and product quality.
The cost of joining the industry is very high since it is capital intensive (Sodhi and Lee, 2007, pp. 1430-1439). A lot of capital is required to establish stores and to purchase the merchandise.
Besides, the switching costs associated with the industry are very high. These trends indicate that the threat of new entrants in the industry is low. Consequently, the competitiveness of incumbent firms is not likely to be affected negatively as new firms join the industry (Blanchard, 2008, p. 67).
Buyer’s Bargaining Power
The buyers have a low bargaining power in the industry and this can be explained as follows. First, there is low concentration of buyers as compared to the suppliers’ industry. This means that there are very many buyers as compared to suppliers and this leads to high competition for supplies (Sodhi and Lee, 2007, pp. 1430-1439).
Second, the suppliers or manufacturers of products such as computers, home appliances and furniture are focusing on product differentiation in order to compete effectively in their industries (Hollensen, 2010, p. 56).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Harvey Norman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus suppliers’ products are highly differentiated. Finally, the industry is associated with high switching costs. The low bargaining power of the buyers means that the retailers can be exploited through high prices of supplies.
Power of Suppliers
The suppliers have a high bargaining power due to the following reasons. First, there are a few suppliers as compared to the buyers (Sodhi and Lee, 2007, pp. 1430-1439). This means that the buyers highly depend on the suppliers. Second, there is low availability of substitutes for products such as computers and furniture.
However, sometimes customers substitute various brands of the same product due to differences in prices and functionality (Muthe, 2011, pp. 84-88). Finally, due to the large number of buyers, retailers are not highly valued by the suppliers.
Besides, some suppliers such as Dell Inc. have their own distribution channels. The high bargaining power of the suppliers means that they can dictate the price at which they supply their products thus leading to high prices (Blanchard, 2008, p. 71).
Threat of Substitute Products
The threat of substitute products is low particularly for computers, home appliances and furniture. Customers can only substitute one brand for another but can not easily seek substitutes in different industries (Muthe, 2011, pp. 84-88). For example, computers are highly preferred to typewriters despite their high prices (Muthe, 2011, pp. 84-88). The low threat of substitutes is attributed to low differentiation of substitutes.
Intensity of Competitive Rivalry
The intensity of competitive rivalry is high and this is attributed to the following reasons. There are very many firms competing in the industry, thus reducing the market share of each firm (Dhanabhakyan and Shanthi, 2010). Second, the industry is growing at a slow rate since it is at its maturity stage (Dhanabhakyan and Shanthi, 2010).
Third, the industry is labor intensive and this has led to high fixed costs (Blanchard, 2008, p. 91). Finally, the storage costs are very high due to the large number of goods stocked by retailers and the intense competition for storage space among firms.
SWOT Analysis Strengths
Harvey Norman is associated with the following strengths. First, the company is financially stable. As at 31 December 2010, the firm realized a gross profit of $198.61(Harvey Norman, 2011). Even though the result was 16.5% less than the $237.77 million it realized in a similar period in 2009; the reduction is attributed to external factors.
For example, the unusual wet weather in Australia led to low demand for key products such as refrigerators and outdoor furniture (Harvey Norman, 2011). The Australian dollar also appreciated thus increasing the cost of importation.
Currently, the firm maintains a “low dept to equity ratio of 31.19% and net dept to equity ratio of 25.12%” (Harvey Norman, 2011). Due its financial stability, the firm can easily fund its expansion plan effectively.
Second, the company is associated with the best customer services. Based on its core values, honesty and integrity; the firm focuses on meeting customers’ needs (Harvey Norman, 2011). It not only sells high quality products, but also offers after sales services such as technical advice.
Customers’ experiences have also been enhanced through e-commerce initiatives. Through the firm’s website, the customers are able to access product information and to make instant purchases (Harvey Norman, 2011). The excellent customer services have helped the firm to retain its valuable customers thereby maintaining its markets share.
Third, the company offers a wide range of products (Harvey Norman, 2011). The firm stocks several brands for every category of its products. This has improved its competitiveness in two ways. First, the firm is considered a one stop retailer for electronics, home appliances and furniture (Harvey Norman, 2011). Second, the customers’ experiences have improved since they are able to find all the products they need under one roof.
Stocking a wide variety of products will enable the firm to meet the needs of consumers in India. Since India has a population of over 1 billion people, the preferences of the market are likely to be varied (Muthe, 2011, pp. 84-88). Thus the needs of the customers can only be met by stocking a wide variety of goods.
Finally, the company has been able to maintain competitive prices in the market for most of its products (Harvey Norman, 2011). The low prices will enable it to penetrate the Indian market that is associated with intense competition. Thus as the firm’s sales increases due to low prices, its market share will quickly increase.
The weaknesses of the firm include the following. The firm has always used the franchise business model to expand its operations (Harvey Norman, 2011). Consequently, the firm has not been able to have full control over its marketing activities since the franchisees are responsible for management of their businesses. Besides, the model is associated with low returns.
For example, in 2010 the company’s half year results reduced due to the reduction in franchise fees it collected (Harvey Norman, 2011). Second, most of the firm’s stores are located in Australia. Thus its performance is likely to be adversely affected if the Australian market becomes unfavorable.
First, the interest rates in the property industry have been increasing rapidly over the last one year. This has led to a decline in consumer confidence and reduction in demand (Harvey Norman, 2011). Second, demand for seasonal products such as refrigerators has been negatively affected by an unexpected weather patterns such as wet summer seasons.
Third, the strength of the Australian dollar has led to a significant price deflation. Significant reduction in consumer prices can lead to losses if the firm can not sustain them for along time (Krugman, 2009, p. 90). The threat of competitive rivalry in the market is very high. This means that Harvey Norman can easily lose its market share if it will not be able to improve its competitiveness.
Finally, the market is also characterized by high suppliers’ bargaining power and low buyers’ bargaining power. This limits the firm’s ability to access cheap supplies in order to maintain competitive prices (Krugman, 2009, p. 95).
The opportunities available to the firm include a large, wealthy and educated population (Bloom, 2010, pp. 84-100). This is likely to lead to high demand in the retail industry thereby giving the firm an opportunity to increase its productivity.
Deregulation of the retail industry and removal of import restrictions is an opportunity to the firm to increase its market share by joining the Indian market (Dhanabhakyan and Shanthi, 2010). The low threat of substitute products helps in preventing significant reduction in consumer prices. Thus the firm has the opportunity to set optimal prices that can enable it to make high profits.
Recommendation Based on all the above analyses, the firm should enter the Indian market through foreign direct investment (FDI). This means that Harvey Norman will enter the market by either establishing new stores in India or acquiring existing retail chains in India. The rationale behind this decision can be explained as follows.
FDI will be suitable since the firm has ownership advantages. First, the firm has a well established brand through its trademark, Harvey Norman (Harvey Norman, 2011). This will help in distinguishing it in the market thus enabling it to compete effectively with domestic firms in India. Second, the firm has a highly qualified leadership with excellent entrepreneurial skills (Harvey Norman, 2011).
Consequently, they will be able to formulate effective policies that will enable the firm to improve its competitiveness in India. Finally, as a multi-national corporation, Harvey Norman enjoys economies of scale. It is able to reduce costs by synchronizing the supply chain activities of its branches with those of its suppliers.
Even though the citizens of India are well educated, the cost of labor is still cheap due to the large population (Sathish and Venkatramarajiu, 2010, pp. 251-278). Since the retail industry is labor intensive, Harvey Norman will be able to take advantage of the cheap labor to increase its productivity while reducing fixed costs (Blanchard, 2008, p. 45).
India is a member of ASEAN and has an open import policy (Sathish and Venkatramarajiu, 2010, pp. 251-278). This will enable the firm to access cheap supply of merchandise from the ASEAN member countries in order to maintain competitive prices. Besides, capital goods such as computers are exempted from taxation in India. Thus the firm will be able to import and sell them at low prices thereby increasing its market share.
Since the retail industry in India is characterized by intense competition, it will be advisable for the firm to have full control over its operations including marketing (Hollensen, 2010, p. 69). This will enable it to understand the needs of the market and respond to them within the desired timeframe.
Since the firm is a new entrant, it must directly engage its customers in conversations in order to understand their preferences (Hollensen, 2010, p. 79). This can only be achieved if the management has full control over its operations.
The firm has been able to achieve rapid growth due to the excellent entrepreneurial skills of its leaders. Thus it must preserve its proprietary knowledge in order to outperform its competitors in the new market.
Even though FDI is associated with the highest capital commitment, the firm can afford it. The SWOT analysis revealed that the firm is financially stable. Consequently it can fund its expansion strategies effectively.
Why other Entry Modes should not be used Currently, the firm is using the franchise business model to expand its operations (Harvey Norman, 2011). Even though this model is cheap, it limits the ability of the firm’s leadership to have full control over marketing and other operation activities (Hollensen, 2010, p. 69).
Franchises are associated with inefficiencies in marketing and supply chain operations. This can lead to failure in a highly competitive market such as India. The high competition has led to low prices and low profits. Consequently, the firm will not be able to realize substantial returns if it adopts the franchise model since it has to share the profits with the franchisees.
The export entry mode will not be appropriate since Harvey Norman is a retailer. It will thus be expensive to export its merchandise from Australia to India through an export subsidiary. Besides, the firm might not be able to find an effective distribution channel to help it distribute its products in India due to the high import taxation (Sathish and Venkatramarajiu, 2010, pp. 251-278).
The licensing mode will not be appropriate since the firm has very little knowledge about the Indian market. A firm is likely to fail if it licenses another firm to sell its products in a market that it has little knowledge of.
References Aisen, A. 2005. Does political instability lead to higher inflation? IMF Working Paper. 1(1), pp. 100-113.
Blanchard, O. 2008. Macroeconomics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bloom, D. 2010. Population dynamics in India and implications for economic growth. PGDA Working Papers. 4(1), pp. 84-100.
Chanda, R. and Gopalan, S. 2009. Understanding India’s regional initiatives with East and Southeast Asia. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature. 23(1), pp. 66-78.
Dhanabhakyan, M. and Shanthi, A. 2010. Indian retail industry: its growth, challenges and opportunities. [Online] Available at: .
Harvey Norman, 2011. About us. [Online] Available at: .
Hollensen, S. 2010. Marketing management. New York: Pearson Education.
Kottler, P. 2003. Marketing management. New York: Prentice Hall.
Krugman, P. 2009. Macroeconomics. London: Worth Publishers.
Muthe, P. 2011. Changing behavioral trends of the Indian consumer. Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies. 2(3), pp 84-88.
Narayanan, A., Chandna, G. and Das, H. 2008. Transfer of organizational IT usage best practices to the Indian retail industry: an imperative for enhancing competitiveness. Asian Business and Management. 7(13), pp. 321-351.
Sathish, D. and Venkatramarajiu, D. 2010. The growth of Indian retail industry. Advances in Management. 3(7), pp. 251-278.
Senthilkumar, S. and Shivakumar, P. 2011. Growing prospective of retail industry in and around India. Advances in Management. 4(2), pp. 341-410.
Sodhi, M. and Lee, S. 2007. An analysis of sources of risk in the consumer electronics industry. Journal of the Operational research Society. 58(1), pp. 1430-1439.
Virmani, A. 2010. India’s economic growth. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. 4(2), pp. 320-340.
Risk Management Essay essay help free
Introduction Internal and external environments of an organization pose a wide range of risks to an organization and managers should establish strategies to manage risks for the long-term survival. Risk management strategies are enhanced by the culture of the organization and this can be maintained by inculcating a culture of good values, believes, norms and attitudes.
Changes in the global markets today create a huge risk to organizations and this creates the need to have mechanisms to solve organizational problems in a professional manner. Thus, risk management is a crucial aspect of an organization and proper strategies need to be established to ensure the survival of organizations in the turbulent market environments (Jafari, Rezaeenour, Mazdeh,
Analyzing the Global Marketing Environment Report college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Purpose, Limitations, and Scope of Report
The world has become a global village. Markets are accessible to almost anyone provided they have knowledge about the local conditions. With multiple opportunities, marketers understand the need for a consistent bearing in their planning efforts (Wall, 2004). The possibility of wandering off towards unprofitable opportunities is real.
Marketing strategists must continually ask themselves what they are aiming at (Robert, 2005). With the relenteless forces of globalization continually changing the international business climate, Apple Inc has a solemn role to consider how it gets into new markets. Apple has an interest in the Russian market. Previous efforts to enter the Russian market came to naught.
If Apple wants to return profits in its Russian operations, then it cannot ignore the need for a detailed environemental analysis to determine the issues that influence business in this vast market. They need this analysis in order to develop a strong marketing strategy that will insure good results.
After all, “Strategy is about doing the right things” (The Harvard Business School, 2005, p. xi.) Apple already recognizes the need for the development of a formal strategy. This is a position that Henderson (1991) supports. He advocates for the formal planning of all strategies, which includes marketing strategies.
The analysis will rely on available data. Getting first hand information from the country is very difficult given the government bureaucracy. In addition, the cost of a full-scale market research is prohibitive. Hence, a desktop search is a fitting substitute for the process provided there is a proper appreciation of its limitations.
This report therefore will provide preliminary assessment of the environment of the market, which may inform the need for an onsite market research project. The report covers various aspects of the business climate.
The Background of Apple Inc in Russia
Apple Inc has been in the personal computer and electronics business for more than thirty years. The headquarters of Apple Inc is in the Silicon Valley in California. Its first name was Apple Computers Inc, but in 2007, it dropped the name “Computer” from its name to reflect its growing stature as a provider of personal electronics and not just computers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently its product line includes the world famous Macintosh computers, the I-phone, the I-pad, and the I-pod, in addition to many software products. The company diversified its product portfolio to take advantage of technological advances and changes in consumer preferences.
Apple Inc takes seriously the advice of Mark, (2004) who lists some of the benefits of a consistent strategy as the identification of multiple growth opportunities, and the taking advantage of them.
Apple Inc is set to open up an Apple Store in Moscow in the coming months of this year. This shows that the company no longer views the Russian market as a marketing destination only, but as one where is should have a permanent presence. Apple Stores typically feature a complete product range of Apple products available for testing by potential clients.
The stores have highly skilled staff who provide various services such as trouble shooting and customization, and they also provide advice on the best user plans for the clients who come knocking. The benefit of having an Apple Store in the Russian Federation is that it demonstrates Apple’s commitment to the Russian market.
Instead of planning product launches in its headquarters only, Apple Inc will have the opportunity of planning for the Russian market with the advantage of being right there. The company will find it more convenient to identify the significant factors that will shape its future success in its Russian operations (2007, Morden).
After the fall of communism, Russia opened up its markets gradually to international products. The transition from communism took its toll on the Russian economy. Many industries collapsed when certain regions seceded from the then USSR. Russia has never fully regained its manufacturing prowess.
This has made the country reliant on foreign countries such as Japan, China, and the United States for hi-tech products. Apple produces such products. Russia is a natural part of Apple’s expansion strategy because it is a vast market with huge potential for profits.
We will write a custom Report on Analyzing the Global Marketing Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The choice of Moscow as the location of an Apple Store in Russia validates the adage that, “Location is also important in marketing” (Levinson
Improve standards of living Ethiopian government Essay essay help online
Poverty reduction is one of the core missions of the international community that aims at improving life of people through the world. Poverty is “the result of economic, political, and social processes that interact with each other and frequently reinforce each other in ways that exacerbate the deprivation in which poor people live” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 1).
In this light, improving economical, social and cultural standards of living to reduce poverty is one of the main objectives of international development and, as though, Ethiopian government, “the goals for international development address that most compelling of human desires—a world free of poverty and free of the misery that poverty breeds” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 5).
Economic and social underdevelopment cause high rates of illnesses, violence, inability to resist natural disasters and overcome their consequences, and profound economic shock that impacts, first of all, rural population. Poverty is related to many areas that require institutional strengthening and adjustment.
The institutional adjustment should be aimed at supporting local and national efforts directed on structural transformation that can contribute to the poverty reduction (“Field trip to Mek’ ele, Ethiopia – 2011” n. d.). The aim of this paper is to provide the scopes and objectives of the team, which focuses on infrastructure, with specific reference to electricity.
First of all, the background of the problem should be discussed. According to recent statistics:
“The world has deep poverty amid plenty. Of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion—almost half—live on less than $2 a day, and 1.2 billion—a fifth—live on less than $1 a day, with 44 percent living in South Asia and Africa” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 3).
These days, Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world. More than 44% of its population live under the line of poverty, and almost 13 million people are food insecure. The majority of poor population lives in rural areas which have bad access to various services and resources due to poor infrastructure. Within the national context, the region is characterized by bad economic development, a high level of poverty and fast urbanization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The urban economy of the region feels lack of infrastructure, employment opportunities and extensive informality. Some contribution to the poverty reduction has been helped by internal trade liberalization (“Field trip to Mek’ ele, Ethiopia – 2011” n. d.), however, Ethiopia is still facing considerable challenges that deal with poverty.
In the policy context, some steps have been done in terms of trade liberalization and privatization, policy initiative “a process to formulate a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)” contributed to the poverty reduction in the region, however, further steps should be taken in this direction.
As it has already been mentioned, the biggest part of the population of the country live in rural areas, thus, the main occupation of people is agriculture. This sector is much dependent on the weather conditions and climate change. However, poor development of the agriculture sector is only one of the “stones” that constitute reasons of poverty in the region.
Poor infrastructure and underdeveloped electricity sector are one of the main dimensions of poverty in the country. Ethiopia’s surface and transport infrastructure are still very poor explored and organized. The road density in the country is one of the lowest in the world and only 13 % of the roads are paved. Poor infrastructure is the main reason of bad interconnection between regions.
Thus, many parts of the country are isolated and live solely on agriculture resources and use pack animals for transportation. The electricity sector is also seeks improvement. Hydropower is the main source of electricity (90%). The main provider of the electricity is Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation.
However, Ethiopia has an untapped natural potential to develop this sector, which can greatly contribute to the economic growth of the region. Ethiopian oil and gas resources haven’t been explored.
Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation plans to create more hydroelectric plants to supply people with electric power, but without improving infrastructure, it will be very difficult to deliver electricity services to rural areas, which are extremely in need for them.
We will write a custom Essay on Improve standards of living Ethiopian government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, the approach to reducing poverty is dependent on understanding of the complexity of development of different sectors of national and international economics (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 6).
In the recent years, the emphasis of the international community was placed on “improving economic management and allowing greater play for market forces” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 7).
Thus, in the light of the global context, there is a defined strategy for reducing poverty that should be implemented step by step. The tree major steps are: promoting opportunity, facilitating empowerment, and enhancing security. The background of the problem and international goals for poverty reduction define the scopes and objectives of our mission.
In this light, we have the scopes and objectives that follow:
First of all, we see that poor infrastructure of the region puts obstacles in the way of poverty reduction. Thus, the improvement of the infrastructure can contribute to the support of transformation, with water, electricity, and communication networks (Garcia and Rajkumar 2008, p. 16).
Consequently, one of the core ideas of our mission is to encourage government support building of infrastructure assets, which will be accessible for poor people and provide interconnection and communication between different regions of the country, especially rural ones.
This strategy is also aimed at promoting material opportunities for poor people. It will help create more workplaces, jobs, electricity services and health services, which will create a basis for reduction of inequality and, as a consequence, attack poverty.
Second, our mission is targeted at providing advice to strengthen the roles of urban areas in contributing to national and rural development (“Field trip to Mek’ ele, Ethiopia – 2011” n. d.). In other words, we are aimed at facilitating empowerment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Improve standards of living Ethiopian government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Active collaboration among different groups of society, and “interaction of political, social, and other institutional processes” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 7) can become a moving force that will cause changes in the government structure so that legal institutions, public administration, as well as various public services were accountable to the citizens, “It requires providing social and economic infrastructure in poor, remote areas, including transport, telecommunications, schools, health services, and electricity” (“Attacking Poverty” n. d., p. 9).
We also see our mission in reducing social and institutional barriers as a result of the economic growth of the country and poverty reduction.
Third, we should attract the government’s attention to the decentralization policies.
We are intended to lead work in attraction of foreign investments and private companies to develop projects for improvement of infrastructure and support of the wind energy program TERNA.
We are also intending to strengthen the work of communities to create more opportunities for poor people to be involved in decision-making process and make the market work for people.
The region has a good potential for wind power projects, “With 95 % of its primary energy consumption coming from renewable energy sources, Ethiopia, theoretically, could be a country with a principally sustainable energy system” (Jargstorf 2004, p. 12) Thus, we are aimed at identifying favorable sites for initiating the projects.
Next, enhancing security is one more important issue to be addressed by our mission. National actions should be taken to reduce vulnerability to natural disasters, disabilities, poverty and economic instability. In this light, we are aimed at encouraging government to provide insurance mechanisms to prevent people from the issues mentioned above. Moreover, work of local communities can be a great help in controlling security policies.
Finally, we also work out the strategy to generate the use of renewable sources of energy in the country.
We will also work on the project of changing the core policies to create more opportunities to involve extra actions to reinforce the improvement of infrastructure and electricity sector.
These opportunities presuppose: effective private investments, greater involvement into international trade, creating assets of poor people, ensuring delivery of quality services to poor people, getting infrastructure to poor areas, improving community development in the poor areas and providing decentralization.
We consider that there is a direct relation between infrastructure, poverty and electricity issues. First of all, less than 1 % of rural population in the region has access to electricity services. Modern energy infrastructure is not developed appropriately and only 10% of population has physical access to these facilities.
However, we know that energy infrastructure plays a great role in transportation, commercial and industrial sectors and other sectors that contribute to the development of the country. The improvement of the electricity sector will cause the improvement of the country’s economy and thus contribute to the poverty reduction.
The key actors that should be involved into implementation of our mission’s objectives are: Ethiopian Electric Agency (EEA), Ethiopian Rural Energy development and Promotion Center (EREDPC), Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo), Rural Electrification Executive Secretariat (REES), as well as foreign investments and foundational programs for community-based organizations.
Thus, we can see that considerable work should be done in order to improve the infrastructure of the electricity sector that will contribute to development of the country’s economy and provide opportunities for poverty reduction in the region. In order to achieve this objective, governance of the country should work out an effective strategy for poverty reduction.
It should involve rich countries, international organization and private companies to create and implement effective, consistent and homebred programs of improving infrastructure aimed at providing access to electricity resources that will contribute to the poverty reduction in the region.
Local and global forces should be geared for poor people to promote global financial stability and reduction of poverty in such countries as Ethiopia is a core of this strategy.
In this light, the scope and objectives of our research team are directed on exploring the opportunities for poverty reduction regarding infrastructure and electricity sector while creating basic framework for implementing the strategy of poverty reduction and involving rich countries and financial organizations to participate in the process.
References “Attacking Poverty: Opportunity, Empowerment, and Security.”, World Development Report 2000/2001. Web.
“Field trip to Mek’ele, Ethiopia – 2011. An Assessment of Poverty Reduction in the Context of Ethiopia’s National and Urban Development Strategies”. Web.
Magic Pulse’s internationalization strategy Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The telecommunication industry in New Zealand is characterized by numerous small firms. The firms are operating in a small domestic market and are poorly funded. Consequently, the chances of growth are limited.
Magic Pulse being one of the firms in the industry is considering internationalization as its growth strategy. This paper analyzes Magic Pulse’s internationalization strategy. It focuses on the markets that the firm should join and the entry mode that should be adopted by the firm.
Internationalization of Magic Pulse Mr. Murphy should internationalize magic Pulse. This is because the SWOT analysis (in the appendix) reveals that the firm’s growth in the domestic market is limited by the threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products and high competitive rivalry.
Besides, the firm is weak financially. Internationalization will give it an opportunity to expand its market share thereby increasing revenue. It will also enable the firm to enjoy economies of scale as it expands its operations.
Markets to Join Australia
Magic Pulse should join the Australian market due to the following reasons. It will be cheap to join Australian market due to its close proximity to New Zealand and lack of travel barriers. This will not only reduce travelling costs, but will also enable Mr. Murphy to manage the firm in the domestic market.
Similar legal requirements between New Zealand and Australia will help in reducing the cost and time required to establish the firm in Australia. Thus Mr. Murphy will be able to recover the cost of expansion within a short timeframe. The high growth in Australia’s hair dressing and beauty industry will ensure steady growth in demand for Magic Pulse’s product.
Besides, the Australian hair dressing industry has a large number of firms. This increases the chances of selling more units of Magic Pulse’s products. Since the hair dressing industry is at its maturity stage, firms are likely to focus on product differentiation and improving the quality of their customer services. Consequently, they are likely to resort to kitomba to improve the quality of their customer services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More United Kingdom
The suitability of UK can be explained as follows. Since the legal requirements in UK are similar to those in New Zealand, MR. Murphy will find it easy and cheap to comply with the law. The UK market is likely to facilitate high growth since it has needs that are yet to be satisfied. Most salons are keeping records relating to their sales transactions, appointments and stock.
Thus they are likely to purchase kitomba to help them keep their records efficiently and to manage their appointments effectively. For example, those who use manual records are likely to find kitomba a better alternative for managing appointments. The UK hair dressing industry is also large and has been recoding steady growth. Thus Magic Pulse is likely to achieve a steady demand for its products.
The demand in the hair dressing industry depends on the performance of UK’s economy. This means that the demand is high when the economy is experiencing robust growth.
Currently, the economy of UK is experiencing a steady growth of 3.2% with inflation rate expected to fall to 2.7% by the end of 2011. Thus more firms are likely to join the industry as the demand for hair dressing services increases. This will translate into high demand for Magic Pulse’s products in the UK market.
Market Entry Mode Table 4 in the appendix indicates that the franchise model has the highest score. This means that it is the most suitable market entry mode that should be pursued by Magic Pulse. The choice of franchise model is based on the firm’s growth objectives, strategic capabilities as indicated by the SWOT analysis and the market conditions in UK and Australia. This can be explained as follows.
Franchising is a business model whereby a firm uses existing firms in a market to distribute its products instead of establishing its own stores or sales offices. Thus Magic Pulse will partner with existing firms in UK and Australia to distribute its product. Given the firm’s limited financial capabilities, partnering with existing firms will enable it to save the cost of establishing sales offices in foreign markets.
As a partner in the franchise, Mr. Murphy will still be able to have control over operations and marketing. He can achieve this by setting the benchmarks to be used by the franchisee to distribute his products. Besides, he will still be able to get feedback from the market either directly from the customers or through the franchisees.
We will write a custom Coursework on Magic Pulse’s internationalization strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Magic Pulse has limited human resources, the franchise will enable it use the staff of its partners to facilitate its operations in the foreign markets. This will further lower the cost of joining the new markets. The franchise model will also enable Magic Pulse to reduce the time required to establish itself in the new markets.
Since its partners will be existing businesses, Magic Pulse will be able to start distributing its products in the new markets immediately. Consequently, the return on investment will be realized within a short period of time.
By reducing the cost of joining and operating in the new markets, the franchise model is likely to facilitate high profits. Thus the franchise model will not only lower the cost of internationalization but will also facilitate high profits.
Marketing Challenges Magic Pulse is likely to face two main marketing challenges namely, establishing brand equity and developing its marketing mix. The challenges to be faced in developing the marketing mix are as follows. First, the firm will experience difficulty in pricing its product especially in UK. The UK telecommunication industry is completely deregulated.
Thus it is characterized by intense competition which has led to a significant reduction in consumer prices. As firms lower their prices to encourage purchases, small firms like Magic Pulse might not be able to sustain very low prices and might be driven out of business.
Second, Magic Pulse will experience difficulty in differentiating its product. Unlike the New Zealand market, the UK market is characterized by a large number of IT firms which offer products that are similar to Kitomba. Besides, most of UK IT firms have adequate financial resources to differentiate their products through advertisements.
Due to Magic Pulse’s limited financial resources, it will find it difficult to inform the potential customers about the uniqueness of its product. Thus even if its software is upgraded regularly, it will not help in differentiating it if the customers are not informed of the upgrades. Third, Magic Pulse will experience difficulty in distributing its product.
The difficulty is attributed to the challenge of finding a reliable franchisee who can distribute the products effectively. While potential franchisee can be readily available, agreements on how to share profits and distribution costs might be difficult to achieve.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Magic Pulse’s internationalization strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, Mr. Murphy can not have full control over the distribution channel since the franchisees are responsible for the management of their businesses. Consequently, he might not be in a position to fully implement his distribution strategies.
Finally, the firm will experience difficulty in facilitating its promotional activities due to lack of enough funds. Due to the large size of both UK and Australian market, the firm will be forced to use mass media to facilitate its promotional activities. The firm will fail to improve its brand equity if it will not be able to fund its promotional initiatives.
How to Differentiate Kitomba Product differentiation involves emphasizing the perceived high quality of a given product. This means that the marketer must highlight the key features of his or her product in order to distinguish it from its competitors. Mr. Murphy has succeeded in developing a product that is superior to its competitors in the market.
However, he needs to communicate the superior qualities of his products to the market in order to achieve product differentiation. This means that he must shift his product differentiation initiatives from software upgrades to sales promotional activities such as advertising. Due to its financial constrains, the firm is using direct marketing, word of mouth and few advertisements to market its product.
However, these strategies are not effective in highly competitive markets since they can not reach a large number of people. In response to this challenge, Mr. Murphy can resort to social network marketing to differentiate its product. The social networks such as twitter are not only cheap to use, but can also reach a large number of people.
This will give him an excellent opportunity to highlight the superior qualities of his product thereby positioning it as the best in the market. Engaging customers in conversations through the social networks will also enable him to understand their preferences easily. Consequently, he will be able to improve his product accordingly.
Alternative Growth Strategies Apart from internationalization, Magic Pulse can consider the following options to achieve high growth. First, the firm can target new industries. Most firms within the service industry require effective software packages to help them manage their records and operations. Besides, their employees need a software package to help them manage their busy schedules.
Thus instead of targeting only the mechanics and the hair dressers, Mr. Murphy can also target other markets within the service industry. For example, the cab or taxi industry is associated with busy schedules. Thus taxi firms are likely to purchase kitomba to help their staff manage their schedules and also to manage other aspects of their businesses such as billing.
Second, the firm can introduce new products for different markets and industries. This will involve developing tailor made application software packages for different industries. For example, the firm can develop retail management or point of sales software packages and sell them to firms in the retail industry. Developing such products will be easy since they are similar to kitomba.
The firm can also improve its product portfolio by distributing software packages developed by other firms in various markets. Increasing the product portfolio will not only increase revenue, but will also help in eliminating the risk of being driven out of business should kitomba become absolute in the market.
Finally, Mr. Murphy can change the model of his business from a firm involved in developing text message marketing solutions to a full flagged marketing agency. While the firm will still be involved in the development of marketing software packages such as kitomba, it will also introduce other marketing services.
The new marketing services can include conducting marketing or market research, designing adverts and helping companies to implement their sales campaigns or launching new products. With fifteen years of experience in various marketing roles, Mr. Murphy should be in position to develop and market the above marketing services.
By widening the scope of his business, Mr. Murphy will be able realize high revenue. Besides, he will be able to cushion the software segment of the business from the effects of intense competition. This is because he will be able to use profits from the marketing segment to boost the software segment.
Conclusion Magic Pulse should be internationalized in order to improve its growth rate. It should particularly join the UK and Australian markets. This is because these markets are relatively cheap to join and are large in size. Due to the firm’s financial constrains, the franchise model will be the best strategy to use when joining the new markets.
The main marketing challenges the firm is likely to face include pricing and improving brand equality. Apart from internationalization, the firm can achieve growth by increasing its product portfolio and diversifying its investments.
SWOT Analysis The strengths of the firm include the following. First, it has been able to maintain a low cost structure which will enable it to maintain low prices. Second, it is able to respond rapidly to changes in the market. Finally, it has been able to produce superior product that meets the expectation of customers.
The weaknesses of the firm are as follows. First, it is financially weak and depends on only one product. Second, the company has not been able to implement effective marketing through mass media. Finally, it has inadequate human resources thus limiting its growth.
The opportunities available to the firm include the following. The firm is likely to increase its sales if it joins the foreign markets such as UK which are large. It also has the opportunity to expand with the help of government funding.
The threats likely to affect the growth of the firm in a negative manner are as follows. There are very many substitute products in the market. The competition is intense in all markets targeted by the firm. The threat of new entrants is also high since the technology used to develop the product is not complex. Consequently, the firm can easily lose its market share.
References Akoorie, M.,
Analysis of Capital Structure and Debt Financing of TUI Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The concept of an optimal capital structure for business firms remains a cornerstone of financial economics theory since the seminal works of Modigliani and Miller (1958; 1963) that focused on tax benefits and other costs of debt. According to Vasiliou and Daskalakis (2006), the capital structure of the firm can be a combination of the long-term sources of funds employed by the firm.
A firm is said to be less leveraged when it has not included any debts in its capital structure. On the other hand, with a high level of debts the firm is highly leveraged. In a leveraged firm, the value of the firm is equivalent to the value of the firm reduced by the value of the debt (Brealey et al, 2003; Song 2005).
Large corporations arrive at a combination of owned and borrowed funds to ensure maximum benefits from the capital structure. This paper analyzes the financing of the capital structure of TUI AG, a German based company operating in the tourism industry.
Overview of TUI AG Established in 1997, TUI is the industry leader in the tourism industry of Europe. The Group operates in holiday destinations in more than 180 countries worldwide. The company serves nearly 30 million customers spread in 27 source markets globally. TUI Group is in the business of operating around 240 hotels in different destinations, and most of them are four or five-starred hotels.
TUI travel, hotels and resorts, and cruise lines are the three business segments, which the company is operating. TUI travel division undertakes the businesses of tour operating, online sales, high street outlets and air travels.
The company owned Hapag Lloyd AG, container shipping division and TUI sold this division in March 2009. After the sale of container shipping division, the business of the company has become completely tourism-oriented. The following sections outline the capital structure and debt financing of TUI AG.
Capital Structure of TUI AG TUI is a highly leveraged company with more debt financing. The capital stock of the company as at September 30, 2010 consisted of 251,548,525 ordinary shares having a value of EUR 643,073,592.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s external debt consists mainly of convertible bonds. During the financial year 2009-2010, the total financial liabilities of the company increased by EUR 797 million and as at the end of September 30, 2010 the total liabilities stood at EUR 4,512 million. Table 1 in Appendix shows the breakup of the non-current liabilities of TUI AG.
The total financial liabilities for 2008-09 was EUR 3,275 million and the increase in the liabilities for the year 2009-10 amounted to 37.8% over the previous year’s liabilities.
The total equity of the company as at the end of the financial year 2009-10 was EUR 2,434.20 (for 2008-09 = EUR 2,240.8). Table 2 in the Appendix shows the different components of equity of TUI AG.
The total equity for 2009-10 has increased by 8.6% over the previous year. While the subscribed capital has not changed significantly, the reserves have increased by 14.3% over the previous year. The equity as a percentage of total assets stood at 17% for both the years. Non-current capital of the Group decreased by 4% as compared to the previous year and stood at EUR 6,989 million.
Table 3 in Appendix shows the equity, non-current liabilities and total assets of TUI AG. Equity and non-current liabilities (debt financing) amounted to 36% of the total assets of the Group (for the previous year it was 40% of the total assets). The increase in non-current liabilities signifies that the company has resorted to additional external funds to support its operations.
With increased external debts, the interest burden on the company is increasing, which in turn affects the current ratio of the company, because of the increase in the current liabilities. With this policy of increasing the external funds, TUI AG is increasing its current financial obligations in the form of interest payments. With a strain on the liquidity of the company, TUI may find it difficult to meet the interest payments in time.
Hybrid Capital In December 2005, TUI issued Hybrid Capital to the extent of EUR 300 million, the first of its kind from a non-investment grade organization. The Hybrid Capital represented a debt, which is deeply subordinated and unsecured. “The two main traits of a hybrid bond are a long maturity (hybrids are often perpetual) along with the possibility to defer interest payments under certain conditions” (Carlsson et al., 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Capital Structure and Debt Financing of TUI specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More TUI AG introduced the features of “deep subordination, perpetual tenor, cumulative optional interest deferral and replacement language” (Corporate
Effective use of oral history in the media Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction Educating members of a community using oral history calls for presenting the narrative in a manner that facilitates insight since oral history is sensitive enough to be interpreted differently by the audience. Despite the fact that technology has influenced the modern journalists to focusing on the technological aspect of the media, the journalists should also note that social issues related to communication are equally important.
Thus, the procedures used by journalists while presenting oral history through the media can affect the perception of the oral history to the subsequent generations (Carey 32).This raises the key question: can effective use of oral history in the media be achieved through a clear understanding on how the modern society interprets the intended message?
Problem Statement A majority of the modern journalists believe that effective oral history in the media can be achieved through technology advancement. It is believed that oral history in the media, however, is a powerful tool that aids in passing specific cultural values, customs, and beliefs from one generation to the subsequent ones.
Nevertheless, oral history in the media has received mixed perception, as some psychological and cultural studies have already demonstrated that oral history yields to minimum effects on the society, and therefore the current generation as well as the subsequent generations cannot emulate its teachings (Eadie 47).
Background. Case Study Journalists have endeavored to portray how education was perceived as a tool that created an avenue for the African American to achieve equal social as well as economic status with their white counterparts.
The journalists normally do this by using oral history that narrates a collaboration of African American community activists in a bid to liberate the African American from racial segregation that played role in the education system, among other areas.
Contrary to the psychological and cultural value models, the journalists believe that oral history reveals the advantages associated with it in a number of ways.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the major roles that the oral history has played is demonstrating how the African American people have turned their dreams to reality, which were envisioned by the fore leaders, including Martin Luther King and Malcolm X (Hall 229). Thus, this case study prompts the media communication researchers to find out effective ways of using oral history in liberating the minds of African American of this generation.
Literature Review The media communication discipline affirms that a number of ancestries can be used in outlining the modern communication theory. Communication theory started in the 1940s with adopting of the transmissional model, which was also known as the injection model (Eadie 47). This model alleged that information conveyed by the media is effectively conveyed to the listeners with its intended meaning.
This notion was also supported by the Marxist theory, which holds the view that media communication is in itself an effective communication strategy in communicating oral history. With regard to conveying the intended information, this theory was compared to a powerful drug that had the capacity of influencing positive behavioral change through a change of audience attitude.
However, in 1960s, the transmissional model was found to be questionable since the media communication researchers came to the attention that the audience does not receive the intended message from the oral history appropriately (Eadie 48). This was attributed to limited effects that encompassed low rate of attitude as well as behavioral changes.
This gave rise to more questions from psychologists’ discipline, which explained that people’s perceptions and behaviors could be negatively influenced by a conflict of cognition emanating from oral history, as they can interpret the intended information in a different manner or even discard the information since it may necessitate other obligations that are uncalled for (49).
More so, cultural studies conducted in 1970s to 1980s came up with views from audience, which revealed that oral history has no effect on the audience (Eadie 49).
This therefore necessitated the need of coming up with other media communication theories, which came into place in the 1990s in order to ensure that information brought forth by the media is authentic. However, lack of clear understanding of whether using oral history in the media contributes to positive effects on the audience leaves a gap for more investigation.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effective use of oral history in the media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methodology Purpose of the Study
By using supported inferences and substantiated claims, this study aims at finding out how the journalists should engage themselves in handling oral history through the media in order to benefit the members of the society.
Despite the opposition from the psychological and cultural value models, this research study will be based on media communication models in order to ascertain the role of communicating oral history through the media on a journalism point of view.
This will also provide the journalists with a suitable avenue for becoming skillful in dealing with complex issues pertaining to oral history. Thus, the study will answer whether effective application of oral history in the media can be achieved through a clear understanding on how the modern society interprets the intended message.
Design of the Study
The study will use both quantitative and qualitative designs, with a set of dependent and independent variables.
The dependent variable will include participants’ attitude on the use of oral history in the media and the knowledge of interpreting oral history in the media; the independent variable will include the media communication strategy used in the oral history, and the demographic variables will include age and race/ethnic group of the participants.
The validity and the reliability of this design study will be carefully identified in order to ascertain that the study holds a clear objective in answering the research question.
The study will be conducted for a period of 5 weeks, and several measures and observations will be taken at various points of the study in order to assess the impact of the study on short-term as well as on long-term basis. The qualitative measures will emanate from textbooks as well as journal articles that are grounded with media communication theories.
The quantitative measures, on the other hand, will emanate from a sample size of African American population as well as other racial/ethnic groups. The study will be designed in such a way that it provides an effective analysis of the content in the textbooks and journals, as well as provide significant results of data obtained from the ethnography study.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effective use of oral history in the media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sample
The sample for the qualitative study necessitated the need of selecting high quality primary and secondary sources for media communication. These sources provided the study with information regarding communication on oral history from the onset of media communication models.
The selection was done in a manner that interconnects all the historical information of the communication models; thus, it facilitated an effective analysis since it created room for understanding communication of oral history in the media from its onset.
The sample for quantitative study, on the other hand, necessitated a selection of a sample size of 1,500 participants, who were taken out of more than 2,000 applicants living across the United States. After selecting this sample size from all race/ethnic groups, the researcher described in details to the participants on the kind of study they will undergo.
This was followed by ensuring them that the media research ethics, including anonymity of confidential information will be observed. All the 1,500 participants were contented with observation of the media research ethics; hence, this study was characterized by content validity. Content validity is defined as the extent to which a device represents the content of interest of the participants (Pedhazur and Liora 79).
In addition, the sample size for quantitative design was based on probability-based sampling in order to ensure that participants from all parts of the country were equally represented. However, the applicants who lacked normal communication behavior, including the deaf and the dump were excluded from the study since the study involved learning from oral history through the media without the use of sign language.
More so, the study eliminated the participants who exceeded the age of 45 years since the context of the oral history was based on motivating young African American towards educational goal through the media.
This exclusion criterion helped to improve the internal consistency of the study. Internal consistency is the degree at which the items that make up the scale are all measuring the same underlying attribute (Pedhazur and Liora 81).
Procedure and Data Collection
The procedure and data collection method used for the content analysis was carried out by determining the scope of the research and then defining the extent to which oral history in the media can be utilized in educating the public.
This was followed by determining the evidence that demonstrates the challenges facing the use of oral history in the media. Finally, the researcher organized the ideas collected from the textbooks as well as from the journals articles. These ideas worked as the basis for coming up with the questionnaire that was used in the ethnography study.
The participants were then provided with the questionnaire after they were assured of their anonymity rights. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first part aimed at assessing the participants’ attitude and knowledge towards oral history in the media. The second part of the questionnaire involved collecting data from participants after watching an oral history through the video.
In order to increase the validity of the study, the questionnaire was designed in a manner that accommodated various responses from the participants (Pedhazur and Liora 85). The assessment of the participants’ attitudes’ was also based on observing the verbal cues of the participants as they watched the oral narrative through the video.
Assessing the participants’ attitude and knowledge towards oral history before watching the video helped the researcher to make a cross comparison with the results obtained after watching the oral history from the video; hence, the researcher was able to establish the impact of utilizing oral history in educating the public.
More so, providing the participants with questionnaire after watching the oral history through the video was imperative since the researchers could have misinterpreted some of the verbal cues portrayed by the participants. Hence, the questionnaire provided clarity on the non-verbal cues portrayed by the participants as they watched the oral narrative through the video.
Data Analysis and Results
The statistical data was analyzed using statistical software known as the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and the findings were presented in form of percentages.
This package was used to obtain the mean and standard deviation that helped the researcher to assess the difference in attitude and knowledge between the African American and the other racial/ethnic groups represented in the study. Bi-variate analysis was used to establish the correlation between communication style and interpretation of the message derived from the oral history in the media.
The results of the study proved to be significant, as the study revealed an alpha level of.0.02. According to the research findings, 65 % of the African American believed that the use of many vocal non-fluencies influence negative interpretation of the intended message as opposed to 46 % of participants from other ethnic/racial groups.
This was also evident through the data collected by observation, as majority of African American showed negative nonverbal cues while listening to the oral history through the video. 34 % of the African American believed that there are diverse advantages associated with using oral history in educating the public as opposed to 58% of the other ethnic/racial groups.
Even though the researcher attempted to control the independent variables of the study by employing user-friendly language that encouraged the participants to smile at various points, the research study was still found to be wanting since some respondents proved to be unresponsive.
This could be attributed by the fact that the topic under discussion was based on racial/ethnic ground, which is a sensitive area of research since some responses could seem as hate speech.
Summary Of The Research Data This research focuses on oral history in the media by putting much emphasis on social aspect of communication rather than the technological aspect of communication. This research shows that the advantages associated with oral history in the media can only be experienced if the target group is able to interpret the intended message appropriately.
According to this study, a high number of the African American ethnic group expressed a negative attitude towards much of vocal non-fluencies than the other racial/ethnic groups. This was attributed to the fact that this oral history is aimed at inspiring the African American ethnic group, and hence much vocal non-fluencies can affect them more than the untargeted group.
Contrary to the other race/ethnic groups, a higher percentage of African American believed that oral history in the media lacks substantial benefits. This was attributed to having much expectation from the oral history than the untargeted group. Thus, substantial benefits can only be achieved by engaging the target group with subjects that trigger their mind and making them to process the data under discussion (Carey 73).
In addition to this, using oral history through video shows that the target group seeks for more empathy than the non target group , whereby the targeted group can only get a clear understanding of the message by demonstrating more emotional and intellectual intelligence emanating from the motivation of the content.
Since this study used a large sample size, the results of this study can be generalized that oral history in the media can yield to substantial benefits to the target ethnic or cultural group if a clear understanding on how the modern society interprets the messages is realized by the journalists.
Works Cited Carey, James. Communication As Culture: Essays on Media and Society. London: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Eadie, William F. 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook. Los Angeles: Sage, 2009. Print.
Hall, Timothy L. American Religious Leaders. New York: Facts On File, 2003. Print.
Pedhazur, Elazar J, and Liora P. Schmelkin. Measurement, Design, and Analysis: An Integrated Approach (4th ed.). Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum, 2002. Print.
Techniques for Achieving Effective Communication Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Techniques of Achieving Effective Communication
Introduction The purpose of this research paper will be to discuss the techniques that are used in achieving effective communication within a project team by focusing on the commercial construction industry. The thesis statement for this research paper will therefore be “to identify techniques for achieving effective communication in the project management of a commercial building construction”.
To further understand the various concepts that will be covered in the research paper, the terms project and project management have to be defined.
A project is defined as a temporary activity that a company engages in that has a pre-defined start and end date. Projects are usually constrained by the time period needed to complete the project’s activities as well as the amount of money that will be needed to complete the project (Cleland and Ireland 25).
Projects are usually identified by the number of unique goals and objectives that are needed to bring about a beneficial change or add value to the operations of a company. They differ from normal business operations because they are repetitive and short term in nature.
For projects to be managed effectively, project management has to be introduced to ensure that the various activities of the project have been handled properly. Project management is defined as the planning, organizing and management of resources that are needed to successfully complete a project.
The most common approaches that are used to manage a project include the critical chain management technique, PRINCE2, event chain management, agile project management and process based project management (Haynes 3).
Project management in the construction industry involves developing goals and objectives that will be used to complete the activities of the construction process within the specified time frame and through the use of the allocated materials and resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Project management in construction of buildings involves managing and controlling the various activities of the building project until it is completed. It involves managing the construction project from the time the project is initiated to the time it is completed and also ensuring that the project delivery concepts have been incorporated into the project management exercise.
The role of the project manager during the construction process usually varies with the company contracted to do the construction work and it also depends on the annual revenue, availability of support staff and the complex nature of the building under construction (Levy 9).
Despite the various changes that are taking place in the construction industry, the role of the project manager has continued to remain the same with the main duties and responsibilities being to control work processes for the construction and also manage the costs that are associated with completing the works.
The role of the project manager in the project management of a construction project will also entail utilizing the proper techniques for assembling materials through the use of construction technology, establishing the most effective way of implementing the construction process, controlling the number of laborers who will be needed to complete the project and controlling the costs for the project’s funding to ensure that the endeavor is successful (Levy 10).
Techniques of Achieving Effective Communication According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (33), communication is termed to be the most important tool of achieving effective project coordination.
Coordination and communication are important activities that run concurrently with each other as coordination entails a broad range of project activities that are related to the management of people and resources while communication involves maintaining the flow of information so as to support the activities of the project.
Project communication is defined as the sending and receiving of important, critical or vital information that is appropriate to the various members of the project team. Project communication that is termed as positive involves the free exchange of accurate and relevant information to the various players of the project team in a timely, clear, honest and open manner (Morris and Pinto 133).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Techniques for Achieving Effective Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Achieving effective project coordination will therefore rely on the communication skills of the various participants as well as their ability to incorporate their individual communication techniques to the project.
The main people that are responsible for maintaining positive communication within a construction project include the project manager, project representative, design team leader, the construction manager, the project executive and the construction superintendent (American Society of Civil Engineers 33).
In the construction industry, effective communication is important as it ensures that the contractor saves on money and other valuable resources that are needed to complete the work on time.
Communication is also important in preventing coordination problems during the execution of the project’s works thereby ensuring that the various participants of the project are not frustrated or dissatisfied with the progress being made.
According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (36), various studies conducted on the success of most projects have identified poor communication amongst team members and lack of team coordination to be one of the major contributors of a project’s failure.
The studies also revealed that project owners who resorted to legal action because of unfulfilled project activities cited poor communication and coordination problems as the major cause of the project’s failure (American Society of Civil Engineers 36).
Therefore to reduce the occurrence of law suits and any other form of legal action on the part of the project owner, effective tools of communication need to be used to achieve project success.
There are different forms of communication that exist which can be used to facilitate the flow of information between all the participants of a project.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Techniques for Achieving Effective Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the techniques that can be used to achieve effective communication within a project team for a construction project includes direct communication where face-to-face meetings and consultations are used to address any problems or complications that might arise during the execution of the project.
Direct communication is an effective tool of handling communication within a project team and this can be attributed to its interactive nature which fosters brainstorming and creative problem solving. This technique of communication is also effective when relaying important announcements and decisions that pertain to the progress of the construction project (Curlee and Gordon 158).
Meetings are viewed to be one of the most important tools of coordinating the various phases or stages of a project. Site meetings which are one of the most commonly used communication tools during a construction project are effective in ensuring that the contractor, project manager, design developer, architect and quantity surveyor are satisfied with the ongoing progress of the construction.
For site meetings to be effective, they have to be well planned and coordinated to reduce the amount of time spent by the project team in deliberations and discussions. Meetings that are conducted through teleconferences are also effective tools especially when one of the participants of the project team is in a remote location (American Society of Civil Engineers 39).
Other types of meetings that are used by the project team for effective communication include status review meetings which are used to identify problems and action items needed for the project, technical design review meetings which involve reviewing the technical specifications of the owner of project with the current progress being made (Gido and Clements 380).
Written communication is another tool of achieving effective communication within a project team for a construction project. Written communication involves memos, E-mails, letters, reports and other important documents that are deemed to be valuable for the transmission of relevant information without necessarily calling for a meeting or engaging in teleconferencing activities.
The most common documents that are used for communicating in the written format include contractual agreements, conditions of contract for the project, bills of quantities, transmittal letters, schedules of drawings and project specifications. Written communication is important especially for documentation purposes so as to mark the various milestones of the project (Kendrick 246).
Delegation is another effective tool that is used by project teams to sustain communication within a construction project. Delegation empowers the project team members to accomplish their individual objectives by granting them the necessary authority to make important decisions and also to make decisive actions that will be needed to achieve the expected results of the project.
Through delegation the various members of the project team are given targets by the project manager which they have to achieve with relation to their work scope and the allocated time and resources. The project team has to ensure that they utilize these resources appropriately so as to achieve tangible results for their assigned areas of responsibility and also maintain proper levels of accountability (Gido and Clements 315).
Interactive communication is another important tool that can be used for achieving effective communication within a project. Interactive communication involves two or more parties who are engaged in multidirectional communication channels so that they can be able to exchange ideas, opinions and comments.
The most commonly used techniques for interactive communication include videoconferencing or teleconferencing where the project team members have a meeting over the telephone or through video links to discuss the progress of the construction project.
Face-to-face meetings are also a form of interactive communication used to ensure that members of the project team have relayed their fears and concerns on the progress of the project (Heldman 216).
Audio conferencing is also another form of interactive communication that is used to ensure that the project team is achieving its goals and objectives. Audio conferencing is a fully automated service that involves the use of a phone connected to several audio devices where the calls are scheduled via a web-based front-end. This is an important tool for most meetings conducted in the board room setting or in a conference hall.
Audio conferencing offers live communication for the project team members who might be in dispersed or remote locations (Gupta 7). Effective presentations can also be used to achieve communication within the project team where the team members develop presentations that provide relevant information to the project (Kliem 127).
Presentations have been described as effective tools for communication because they offer a visual representation of the various parts of the project. By diagrammatically presenting the construction progress of a commercial building, the project manager, contractor, design developer and site manager can be able to see how far the building has progressed from the time construction began to the current status.
Visual representations can also be able to help the project team decide whether the current visual design of the building matched the desired or expected results (Kliem 127).
Content management systems, groupware and collaborative workspaces are other techniques that can be used for project management communication. Such networks or systems allow members of a project team to communicate with each other regardless of their geographical locations.
Content management systems and collaborative work spaces facilitate the sharing of information which ensures that there is effective communication amongst the various members of the project team. These techniques also allow project team members to discuss the progress of the project and also seek for clarification and feedback when various issues arise during the project execution (Gido and Clements 394).
Reports are also useful techniques that can be used to enhance communication within the project team where the types of reports used for a construction project include progress reports and the final report. Progress reports are used to relay the project accomplishments to the owner of the project where the team members provide information on whether the progress made has achieved the project’s objective.
Progress reports usually cover a specified period known as the reporting period which could be between a week, a month or a quarter of the year (Giddo and Clements 388).
Final reports on the other hand relay the results of the project and are used to determine whether these results are consistent with the objectives and goals of the project. Final reports are usually prepared once the project has been completed or abandoned and are used to address or identify any inconsistencies in the completed works (Pritchard 185).
Conclusion The thesis for the research paper has dealt with identifying the various techniques that are used for achieving effective communication in a project team. The tools and approaches that are used by various project team members have been discussed as well as their effectiveness in achieving the desired levels of communication in projects such as those for construction.
The study has revealed that effective communication sustained through the various forms of communication is an important activity because it reduces cases of dissatisfaction, conflicts of interests and any law suits which might be caused as a result of ineffective project communication within the project team.
Works Cited American Society of Civil Engineers. Quality in the constructed project; a guide for owners, designers and constructors. Massachusetts : ASCE Publications, 2000.
Cleland, David and Lewis Ireland. Project management: strategic decisions and implementation. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007.
Curlee, Wanda and Robert Gordon. Complexity theory and project management. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
Gido, Jack and James Clements. Successful project management. Mason, Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning, 2009.
Gupta, Milon. Project management tools for communication and reporting. Heidelberg, Germany: Euroscom, 2007.
Haynes, Marion. Project management: practical tools for success. Canada: Crisp Publications, 2002.
Heldman, Kim. PMP: project management professional exam study guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, 2009.
Kendrick, Tom. The project management tool kit. New York: Amacom Publishers
Kliem, Ralph. Effective communications for project management. California: Taylor and Francis, 2008.
Levy, Sidney. Project management in construction. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007.
Morris, Peter and Jeffrey Pinto. The Wiley guide to project organization and project management competencies. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
Pritchard, Carl. The project management communications toolkit. Massachusetts: Artech House Publishers, 2004.
Cross Cultural Analysis of Feminism in the Muslim Community Research Paper essay help site:edu
Muslim women in modern Muslim states encounter numerous predicaments and challenges particularly with the advent of Islamic conservatism worldwide. Muslim women are often oppressed and discriminated because their religion is used as a vehicle to propagate political ideas and form the basis with which the role of women in the society is determined.
The significance of Islamic law in the Muslim culture is extremely strong and one that cannot be ignored. Muslim women cannot snub Islamic law since they would be considered as discarding their identity and heritage. When they inquire about certain facets of Islamic law, they are accused of rebuffing their religion.
Meanwhile, accepting feminism is considered as betraying their political, religious and nationalist identity. However, some Muslim women consider this argument as a misplaced premise and believe that there are other options for Muslim women to make (Othman, 2006, p.339). This paper will thus analyze feminism in the Muslim societies.
Majority of the modern Muslim states have displayed a tendency towards implementing Muslim laws in all facets of life. Sadly, the tenets of these laws are awkward and in most cases, do not subscribe to the modern concepts of equal rights for men and women in the society.
Ever since the worldwide Islamic renaissance began in 1970 in the Muslim states, majority of rulers in these countries, whether contemporary or secular have reacted to these demands of their Muslim brothers. The concessions made by Muslim governments have led to the adoption of progressive Muslim laws that are discriminative and oppressive to Muslim women in the Muslim societies (Othman, 2006, p.340).
The mounting pressure on the majority of Muslim governments to adopt democracy also creates a problem to Muslim feminists. In the many contemporary Muslim societies, democratic structures have been initiated without any political traditions in place.
Therefore, the creation of political space in Muslim states has incorporated a number of political Islamic organizations, in addition to conservative and tribal leaders who do not subscribe to principles of equality in Islam. Consequently, the period after liberty from colonial rule, women have lost a number of achievements made with regard to their personal status and their rights in the marriage institution (Othman, 2006, p.340).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, in Malaysia, an Islamic agenda was adopted with a relative success in economic policies from 1981 to 2003.
The Barisan Nasional, the coalition party led by United Malays National Organization (UMNO) attempted to attract political support from the Muslim electorate that through the adoption of Islamic policies. As described below, some of these policies restricted citizenship and human rights of Muslim women in the country (Othman, 2006, p.341).
The ideologies fronted by Islamic movements in Malaysia are similar to those practised in many Islamic organizations in Arab world. These organizations have attempted to implement Islamic ideals by enforcing a collection of Islamic communal morals. They seek to reschedule tenets of social life, through the adoption of what they consider as authentic Islamic principles.
Their foremost target is usually the rights and status of Muslim women in the society. Their attempt to control women in terms of their societal roles, sexuality and movements shapes the basic tenets of Islamic view of gender roles in the Muslim societies. For instance, the veiling of Muslim women and promotion of gender separation forms the core tenets of majority of Malaysian Islamic organizations.
The subject of donning the hijab in all Muslim societies is a very sensitive issue. A Muslim woman’s commitment to her faith and Islamic identity is usually associated with donning the hijab.
Thus, the impact of this religious requirement on their human rights is that it denies Muslim women the freedom of choice with respect to dressing (Othman, 2006, p.342). The persistence demand by most Islamists movements that women must wear hijab restricts the moral freedom and personal liberty of Muslim women in the society.
An honor killing is without doubt an extreme form of domestic violence against Muslim women in Muslim societies. An honor killing is defined as a “premeditated murder of preadolescent, adolescent, or adult women by one or more male members of the immediate or extended family” (Yurdakul, 2001, p.964). The form of execution is usually determined by the family council which also set the day of the event.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cross Cultural Analysis of Feminism in the Muslim Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The natures of charges leveled against Muslim women are tremendously vague and accusations may vary from dating, holding hands, kissing and having sex with someone who is not the woman’s culturally authorized husband (Yurdakul, 2001, p.965).
Although domestic violence against family member is prohibited in many Muslim countries, incidents of honor killings in these states are rarely addressed by the judicial system of these countries. For example, in Turkey, the law enforcement process against incidents of honor killings is hazy. The principal participants in the criminal justice system are usually male who subscribe to discriminative Islamic tenets against women.
For example, a recent survey revealed that over 65% of the police acknowledged that women were to blame for domestic violence against them because of their provocative dressing manners (Yurdakul, 2001, p.971).
The majority of amendments to Muslim family bylaws exhibit gender biasness in nature. They have made divorce and polygamy more favorable for men and financial obligations of men towards women has been ignored.
Muslim women who are deserted, divorced or beaten up by their spouses have no other options to seek legal redress other than through the shariah legal system which in most cases, rule in favor of men. It is usually easier for Muslim men to marry many women or divorce their wives because the law allows them to do so (Othman, 2006, p.344).
Muslim women are not oppressed; on the contrary, they are liberated. When women don hijab and dress in loose fittings, they are complying with instructions of their Lord to be humble (Al-Oula, 2007, p.6). Islam acknowledges and promotes the inherent differences between women and men in spite of their equality.
These differences do no favor Muslim men over their female counterparts because God is impartial. Islam teaches that Muslim women should be loved and be treated with respect. For example, wives have a right to receive bride price as a gift from their husband for the marriage to be legal (Al-Oula, 2007, p.12). These rights are from God and aim to preserve a balance in the society.
Feminist social movements refer to the escalating tendency of national feminisms to politicize women’s matters beyond the frontiers of the nation state. The term points to the position taken by Muslim women against oppressive Islamic practises in Muslim the societies (Mendoza, 2002, p.314).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross Cultural Analysis of Feminism in the Muslim Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With regard to new challenges to oppressive Islamic practises, Muslim women have adjusted their traditional roles within the modern American Muslim spheres. For example, National American Council for Muslim Women (NACMW) is among organizations that have redefined tenets of Islamic leadership by augmenting authoritative female voices.
The organization educate Muslim women about new concepts regarding gender issues, Muslim culture and their religious roles, concepts that cannot be disputed by traditional Islamic practises (Abugideiri, 2001, p.1).
The manner in which Islamic leadership is practised in Muslim societies- both inside and outside the western world- exhibits the models practised in the early customs. As a matter of fact, Islamic leadership symbolizes masculinity, to which, the role of Muslim women is nonexistence (Abugideiri, 2001, p.2). As a result, some Muslim women have responded to Islamic chauvinism by starting feminist social movements.
For example, the National American Council for Muslim Women (NACMW) was founded by Akhateeb in response to the cynicism encountered by Muslim women in Muslim organizations in the United States. NACMW was set up to provide education to Muslim women and arm them with Islamic knowledge so that they can control their lives (Abugideiri, 2001, p.10).
NACMW has therefore confronted the traditional tenets of Muslim organizations in the United States. Apart from teaching Muslim women about Islam, the NACMW has been bold enough to tackle taboo issues such as domestic violence, polygamy and honor killings against Muslim women (Abugideiri, 2001, p.11).
In spite of the unfavourable cultural and religious practises that restrict the freedom of women in many Arab societies, a good number of feminist social movements have come out to fight for the rights of Muslim women in the society. The National American Council for Muslim Women, for instance is committed to ensuring that the oppressive Islamic practises against women are brought to an end.
References Abugideiri, H. (2001). The Renewed Woman of American Islam: Shifting Lenses towards Gender Jihad. The Muslim World, 91, 1-18.
Al-Oula, J. (2007). Are Muslim women oppressed? Retrieved from https://www.islamweb.net/en/article/109366/
Mendoza, B. (2002). Transnational feminisms in question. Feminist Theory, 3, 313-332
Othman, N. (2006). Muslim women and the challenges of Islamic fundamentalism/extremism: An overview of Southeast Asian Muslim women’s struggle for human rights and gender equality. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29, 339-353.
Yurdakul, SA. (2001). Culture of Honor, Culture of Change: A Feminist Analysis of Honor Killings in Rural Turkey. Violence Against Women, 7,964-998.
Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions (UK) Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lessons for the Future
Introduction Greenhouse gases are often known for their ability to trap heat in the atmosphere and consequently contribute to climate change. Greenhouse gases normally occur either naturally or artificially, through man’s activities.
The most common natural greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide but most greenhouses gases are artificial and they include methane, nitrous oxide, fluorinated gases and the likes (EPA 2011). Greenhouse gas emissions have been a common issue in most environmental debates because it is affirmed that the emission of greenhouse gas is one primary cause of global warming.
Most greenhouse gases are known to originate from developed economies but recent years have seen several countries try to reduce their emissions together. Developing countries are also quickly joining the global trend but much focus has been on developed countries because of their huge contribution to these emissions (Miller 2006, p. 483).
The reason behind this accusation is based on the increase in globalization around the world where companies in developed countries export their manufacturing processes to other regions across the globe. More so, the “outsourcing” trend has significantly contributed to this trend. However, the world still has a long way to go before it truly achieves the goal of a pollution-free planet.
This study focuses on United Kingdom’s greenhouse gas emissions and what the country has done (or can do) to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.
Records showing the changes in greenhouse gas emissions will be factored in the study, plus the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Overall, the study evaluates the determining factors of the changes in greenhouse gas emissions and possible lessons that the world can learn to make the planet a safer place.
Trend UK has in the recent years significantly reduced its greenhouse gas emissions. According to estimates taken between the years, 2008 and 2009, it was documented that, the European nation reduced its greenhouse gas emission by about 9% (Harvey, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When analyzed in terms of the country’s progress since the year 2009, it is established that, UK has reduced its greenhouse gases by about 18%. However, this is still a long way from the country’s ultimate goal of achieving a greenhouse gas emission cut of 80% by the end of the year 2050 (Harvey 2011). However, the country seems to be on its way.
Nonetheless, there are pessimistic sentiments advanced by several scientists who establish that the UK is probably responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than it takes responsibility for (Rees 2011). This assertion is made on the basis that, the UK does not account for the goods it consumes from developing nations where greenhouse gases are emitted in the production of such goods.
The same trend is said to apply to other nations in the developed world. However, according to the Kyoto protocol, countries can only claim greenhouse gas emission produced within their borders (Rees 2011, p. 5).
This observation therefore means that, technically, UK may be on its way towards significantly reducing its greenhouse gas emissions, but realistically, it may be responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than it takes responsibility for.
Nonetheless, regardless of the computation method, it is said that, the drop in greenhouse gas emission, especially through the 2008/2009 period was specifically attributed to the global recession which was felt at the time. From this understanding, some observers note that, UK should not celebrate the fact that, it is on its way towards achieving its ultimate goal of reducing greenhouse gas emission by 80% yet (Rees 2011, p. 5).
Regardless of the above arguments, greenhouse gas emissions can only be predicted through a forecast on man’s activities. In a past study, it was established that, greenhouse gas emissions was going to increase over the next few decades starting from the year 1990 (Rees 2011).
According to the article, the future is bleak, considering many countries are increasing their demand for fossil fuel emanating from an increase in economic growth. This trend can be evidenced from the emergence of new economic powers such as China, India and Brazil which continuously increase their demand for fossil fuel through economic growth.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions (UK) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The trend is no different for developed economies because their economic growth is not stagnant. Generally, it can be said that, the world is quickly increasing its demand for fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions are going to increase as a result, if something is not done to curb the trend. The following factors however determine its intensity.
Politics Political will is important in reducing the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. This is true because in as much as the production of greenhouse gas is an environmental issue, its eradication can be easily done by exercising political muscle.
Considering developed nations contribute the biggest percentage of greenhouse gas emission, there has been a poor political will from some of these nations to significantly reduce their greenhouse gases. This is true because by strongly advocating for the reduction of greenhouse gases, they would be “shooting themselves on the foot” because they are the biggest culprits in climate change.
Developing nations have therefore been most vocal in petitioning environmental bodies to act towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions because ironically, the effects of greenhouse gas emissions (climate change) has been strongly felt in the developing world.
Such is the case evidenced in parts of Africa where there have been severe droughts and floods, killing thousands of people, while the continent produces lower greenhouse gases as compared to its developed counterparts.
It is therefore unfortunate that, countries which have the weakest voice in the eradication of greenhouse gases are the most strongly affected. These observations have led many experts to suggest that, developed nations have to stand up and show their political will in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The laxities of developed nations in reducing their greenhouse gases can be attributed to the fact that, some of the world’s biggest multinationals which are responsible for the greenhouse gas emissions originate from the developed world (Miller 2006, p. 483). In fact, the biggest oil companies in the world such as British Petroleum (BP) Exxon Mobil and Shell originate from either the US or the UK.
These companies are known to profit a lot from the consumption of fossil fuel because this is their major business line (Fearn 2010, p. 192).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions (UK) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, their operations have been known to dent a blow towards the fight for a greener and safer world because they still contribute to environmental degradation from accidents such as oil spills. This is the case evidenced from the recent BP oil disaster in the Gulf region of Mexico (Hiles 2010, p. 619).
Unfortunately, such multinationals have a strong political backing from representative governments and therefore advancing the “climate change” agenda is proving to be a difficult task. This is true because some politicians and governmental officials are known to get financial backing from such multinationals, but at the same time; they are supposed to advance climate change agendas (Fearn 2010, p. 192).
Here, the case of “do not bite the hand that feeds you” surfaces because environmentalists and politicians alike cannot speak out against climate change if they benefit from such multinationals which contribute to the production of greenhouse gases.
For instance, Exxon Mobil has gone on record purporting that, climate change is not caused by the production of greenhouse gases, and in the same manner, the burning of fossil fuel cannot be directly attributed to climate change (Fearn 2010, p. 192).
Similar accusations have also been leveled against the company on grounds that, it is financing protestors at climate events to distract the entire debate regarding the reduction of greenhouse gases and climate change as a whole (Fearn 2010, p. 192).
In the UK, the reduction of greenhouse gases or UK’s carbon footprint has often waivered along the list of issues of priorities for successive governments. For instance, it is reported by Grice (2010) that, conservative members of parliament do not share Cameron’s view of placing the country’s reduction of greenhouse gases a matter of priority.
Grice (2010) further affirms that, “reducing Britain’s carbon footprint was rated the lowest of 19 possible priorities for a Cameron government” (p. 6).
Prior to the UK elections, it was established that, if Cameron tried to scale up the issue of climate change in the list of national priorities for the UK government (either on the domestic or international front), he was going to face stiff opposition not only from rebel members but also members of his own party (Grice 2010). From this analysis, the issue of greenhouse gas emission seems to be largely vulnerable to political intrigues.
In the US, the situation is no different. Politics plays a big role in the determination of greenhouse gas emissions as can be evidenced from the split in the Supreme Court’s admission of the Clean air Act which is expected to impose a nationwide attempt at regulating the emission of carbon dioxide (Kemp 2009).
In fact, the support of the clean air act has been narrowed to the contribution of five judges, where one is expected to be the swinger vote because the rest are divided along political lines (Kemp 2009, p. 4).
Moreover, the imposition of the Clean air act is viewed by some observers as a strategy to make America’s environmental protection agency an economic tool and a business regulator institution. This view is greatly criticized. Kemp (2009) affirms that:
“It would provoke howls of rage from Congress about by-passing the normal legislative process, a criticism to which Democrats are sensitive having accused the Bush administration of much the same thing during its eight years in office. The party is wary of being blamed for raising energy costs for ordinary businesses and consumers without some political cover” (p. 8).
From this understanding, the American government and the environmental protection agency is compromised if it wants to employ any legislative muscle to curb greenhouse gas emissions because it would be subject to legislative battles.
Investments Investment from the government and private sector is crucial to the reduction in the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the UK. These investments are normally centered on developing alternative sources of energy to reduce the country’s reliance on fossil fuel.
One major type of energy investment in this context is the nuclear power energy which seeks to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels for energy generation (Bühl 2011). Moreover, investment in nuclear energy is bound to reduce the reliance of coal which also contributes to the production of greenhouse gases.
Collectively, investments in renewable energy is a viable solution to the reduction in green energy but the giant multinationals, in collaboration with the government, ought to be at the forefront in the perfection of green energy use.
For example, the uplifting of solar power to be one major energy source is a sustainable green energy solution which is supposed to reduce UK’s reliance on fossil fuel.
Though many parts of Europe are not endowed with this energy source, investors in other parts of the world have embraced this energy source and continuously continue to harvest solar power. Such is the case in the US where the government has invested in harvesting solar energy in certain parts of California (Bühl 2011).
In the UK, wind energy seems a better alternative source of energy production, though experts note that, it cannot be relied on as a base source of energy because of its unreliability. This situation leaves nuclear energy as a sustainable and a more reliable source of energy for the UK, although experts also have concerns regarding its use.
The recent Japan nuclear disaster has especially increased concerns about the safety of relying on nuclear energy to supplement a country’s energy needs.
Regardless of these arguments, in the fight against climate change and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear energy seems a reliable source of energy when compared with solar and wind power. This means that safety concerns ought to be addressed if sustainable green energy is to be realized.
Nonetheless, investors who need to invest in renewable sources of energy have not yet shown their full commitment in undertaking more research in renewable energy and producing equipments that rely on clean energy for the future.
Commitment from giant multinationals and the government is key in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK because investments in green energy cannot be sustained by individuals (because of its capital intensive nature). In other words, it is only the government and private investors who can sustain investments into green energy solutions.
Government Involvement In as much as the government needs to partner with the private sector in investing in renewable sources of energy, the biggest player in making countries reduce their greenhouse gas emission is the government. The government’s involvement is key because it has a legislative authority over all companies engaged in the production of greenhouse gases.
It is only through the government’s might that large multinationals can comply with greenhouse gas legislations. It is also through the government’s involvement that effective greenhouse gas policies can be formulated to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas.
Governments can either directly or indirectly regulate the emission of greenhouse gases by ensuring companies comply with regulations governing the emission of greenhouse gases. There are several ways the UK government can manage to accomplish this goal. One primary way of doing so is imposing high taxes on companies which emit greenhouse gas.
In this manner, companies are also bound to invest in finding green energy solutions to avoid high government taxes. For instance, in the US, California has been on the forefront in establishing stringent regulations binding companies to operate in environmentally friendly ways.
There are also increased calls for the government to establish automobile standards to govern all automobile companies in California to produce energy efficient cars because it has been affirmed that the transport sector is one primary platform where green house gas emission is most intense (Kemp, 2009).
There have been similar calls in the UK for the government to establish regulations governing the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere because it is estimated that about 20% of the world’s greenhouse gases are produced from the transport sector (Kemp, 2009). However, the government’s involvement in regulating the industry is a matter of debate as is evidenced by Reuters (2009) which establish that:
“respondents (65 percent) believe the government should regulate greenhouse gases from sources like power plants, cars and factories, including those who believe this strongly (50 percent) or somewhat (15 percent). Only a minority think the government should not regulate them (29 percent).
While the margin favoring regulation has narrowed since the middle of the year (when it was 75 percent to 22 percent), probably in response to a vigorous opposition campaign, there is still a clear majority in favor of taking some action on climate change”.
However, the biggest problem among citizens in increasing government pressure to establish environmental regulation is when they are faced with several cost estimates that allow for a periodic estimate in the increase of household costs such as electricity bills.
Lessons for the Future The reduction of greenhouse gas is an effort that should be forged on a comprehensive front because no single entity can win the fight alone. Lessons to be learnt from these analyses are therefore centered on the importance of having a comprehensive approach towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
However, in the case of UK, it needs to partner with other European nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since there is already an existing framework of the European Union where such an effort can be initiated (House of Commons 2007, p. 3). The initiative will therefore involve hundreds of firms which will have to operate within a given framework of environmental regulations.
The administration of environmental laws to curb greenhouse gas emission can also be implemented under the framework of the European Union because it is easier to do so, and it will be an efficient way of covering significant strides in the fight against climate change.
In making the entire initiative a success, it is important that the allowances to produce carbon should be kept at the operational minimum and their market price should also be high (House of Commons 2007, p. 3). This strategy will ensure businesses in the UK transform their strategies and technical processes for “greener” solutions.
In the same manner, many companies would be willing to invest in “greener” sources of energy and this will ultimately reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The much needed input of private investors will therefore be realized in this manner. Also, as part of the comprehensive approach to reduce global emissions, it is important that EU sets realistic targets which are to be determined through realistic computational techniques.
Since there are existing concerns about the best methods to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the UK, it is essential that environmental protection agencies work by learning from their past.
Considering the reduction in greenhouse gas emission is largely a behavioral issue, it is important for adequate media coverage to be focused on the reduction of greenhouse gas by complying companies so that other companies may be influenced to do the same.
In other words, it is important for the UK government to spread the lessons of good practice to other companies by starting some form of countrywide movement towards green energy reliance and designing operational activities to be more efficient and reliable so that fossil fuel use can be minimized.
The government’s involvement in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the future can also not be underestimated because it needs to set emission caps for companies operating in the UK. Europe in general has not faired so badly in light of this effort and the UK is a leader too.
However, the sustainability of this initiative is at the centre of the reduction of green house gases because the fight against climate change cannot be won without the contribution of the government.
When striving to meet environmental targets set by the UK and the EU in general, it is not only enough for the UK government to uphold environmental policies because more complimentary policies also need to be formulated to support ongoing initiatives aimed at reducing carbon emissions (House of Commons 2007, p. 3).
Conclusion The revolution into green energy is the new frontier of energy reliance because of the adverse effects that the globe is experiencing as a result of greenhouse gas emissions. This study acknowledges that, the move into green and sustainable energy is not as smooth as it should be because there are several determinants to the reduction in greenhouse gases and intensity in the UK, and indeed the rest of the world.
So far, the biggest determinant in greenhouse gas emission is the political will needed from all concerned stakeholders in making the process a success. Across the world, the influence of giant companies and their grip on politicians seem to be the most crucial element barring the realization of a “green” world.
Political influence from compromised politicians and multinational companies which profit from activities that result in the emission of greenhouse gases seem to scale down the prioritization of greenhouse gas debate or global climatic concerns down the list of UK’s government priorities.
In this light, proponents of environmental conservations are compromised in more ways than one because not only do they need to serve the interest of the environment, they also need to cater for the interests of such companies, and the selfish interests of some few individuals.
However, this study acknowledges that this trend is not only unique to UK alone. Another major determinant of greenhouse gas emission is the level of investments made by the government and the private sector in seeking sustainable green energy sources like solar and wind power. If such investments can be upheld in the long-term, not only will UK realize a cut-back of greenhouse gases, but the entire world will realize the same.
Finally, at the apex of the entire debate, governmental involvement is essential in the reduction of greenhouse gases throughout the UK because it has the capability of directly influencing companies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Comprehensively, when these elements are effectively addressed, greenhouse gas emissions will reduce by a significant amount.
References Bühl, G. (2011) UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions Should Boost Green Investment But Don’t Write Off Nuclear Yet. Web.
EPA. (2011) Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Web.
Fearn, R. (2010) Amoral America. New York, Amoral America.
Grice, A. (2010) Will Climate Change Be the Tories’ New Europe? Web.
Harvey, F. (2011) UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions Fall 8.7%. Web.
Hiles, A. (2010) The Definitive Handbook of Business Continuity Management. London, John Wiley and Sons.
House of Commons. (2007) The EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Lessons for the Future. London, The Stationery Office Limited.
Kemp, J. (2009) U.S. Environmental Agency Walks A Tightrope On CO2. Web.
Miller, T. (2006) Living In the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions. London, Cengage Learning.
Reuters. (2009) Cost Of Cap-And-Trade for U.S. Households. Web.
Rees, E. (2011) UK’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions an ‘Illusion’. Web.
Abortion and Parental Consent Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abortion is the killing of an under-developed embryo or fetus, and is therefore an intentional means of terminating a pregnancy. It is legality varied in various aspects of the society with its supporters arguing that the fetus is not yet a grown human. Consequently, it has called on the government to verify if a fetus should be regarded as human or not, in order to solve the issue of abortion.
While on the other hand, abortion opponents have often based their views in religious terms, arguing that the fetus is a full human person while calling on the government to take up its responsibility of protecting life and outlaw abortion. For ages, abortion has continued to undertake a personal and a political connotation throughout diverse cultures and religions.
Since abortion is quite a vivid and significant episode in women’s reproductive health, they generally talk of abortion being a personal choice. This choice can also ‘’snowball’’ into a political event if the government steps in to control the access to abortion, and the ‘’terms’’ involved and required when terminating a pregnancy.
The availability and legality of abortion has being characterized by coarse divisions in some parts of the world, with even an overt aggression and violence being directed to those persons and institutions that provide abortions. This disagreement has widely impacted the public dialogue on aspects that pertains fetal tissue studies, financing abortion procedures and contraceptive provision.
Therefore, a woman’s experience in abortion is widely and deeply influenced by the legal, logistics, and moral contexts for abortion. A woman’s decision is ultimately construed by both personal and political factors which affects the overall psychology of abortion. Abortion can therefore be emotionally stressful due to ambivalence, inadequate coping skills, and lack of social support.
There is no doubt to the high rate of teenage pregnancies and also the high rate at which they are involved in unapprised decisions leading up to abortion. This issue has therefore brought a tremendous focus on parental consent or notice for under-age women willing to undergo through abortion.
Parental consent will require a minor to either notify or consult with the parent/s or a parental figure before obtaining an abortion, which on these terms is usually based on a medical process. In my view, the pregnant minor is best suited to get guidance, counsel, and support from the parent/s as she ponders whether to keep the pregnancy or undergo an abortion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some cases, a pregnancy may be brought about by rape or incest, and the best people that these minors can conform to are parents who will assist them in the documentation process by reporting the crime to relevant authorities.
Such consent will end up strengthening the family unit and also gives support to the minor in her decision with the pregnancy. Parental consent also helps to ensure the general health and safety of these pregnant young girls while supporting parents in exercising their fundamental right of raising their children.
Post-abortion can cause the women involved to wind up with a low self-esteem while being alienated and isolated from the society due to the awful trauma with serious and devastating implications. Although its custom for a woman to base her decision to have an abortion on the view of her psychiatrist, or illegal abortionist, that decision might be based in a context of pathology, deviance, and criminality.
The issue of abortion cannot be sidelined by throwing money at it. Laws that will force under-age pregnant girls to consent with their parents must be put into effect, and by doing this, they will be making an informed decision and get the moral support and advice they greatly need.
Influence of media on Anorexia Essay cheap essay help
Media has a great influence on anorexia worldwide. As far as dieting and size discrimination is concerned, media plays a great role. From childhood, children know that their looks matters a lot. Very small children receive comments of how they look cute from the elders if they are slim.
This influence, children get it from televisions, as they spend most of their time watching, and a sense of who they are, develops with time. Severally, adverts on television spend much time convincing people on the best ways to loose weight and become more beautiful. Through television, people receive advice on what to use, and become more attractive through slimming.
On the tube programs, the characters used are the average and the slim men and women implying that these people have the best lives. Incase there is a big bodied character used, he or she is used to portray laziness and a person without a lifestyle. For the successful and the most powerful people, media portrays them as the slim women and the pumped up men.
In most societies, people try to show their children that inside them matters a lot, but on the other hand, media insists on the physical fitness of an individual. This becomes as a contradictory message to the young children, but the power of the media group has proved to overtake the minds of these young children leading to them to eating disorders, as they also want to become powerful people.
In all popular magazines, the photos of slim models are all over. The modeling agencies have been encouraging the anorexic women such discouraging some eating habits. For a woman to be among the contesting models, she should weigh 25% less than what a healthy woman of her age and height should weigh.
The idea of being slim to contest in the modeling, always assures people that the most beautiful woman should be slim. As the children grow, they disregard big-bodied people, and try as much as possible to maintain a slim figure, as they see from the magazines and televisions.
Some youngsters say that they do not want too much food, because they want to become models in future. Children with such notion try as much as possible and vomit after eating, as they believe that food will make them big and unattractive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, on televisions, magazines and newspapers one would always find a diet plan for people to use so that they can lead a happier life. People are encouraged on using even the slimming pills in magazines to keep them on the right weight.
This has been proving to people that there is no place for average and big-bodied people in the society. According to some of the media messages, average and big people are bad group who lead an unhappy life. Big-bodied people are treated as unequal compared to the slim ones. Beauty, success, and power are the aspects of the slim people in most of the media channels.
Out of all those misconceptions of slimming and gaining weight, some people especially the young generation has acquired a low esteem, depression, and bad emotions such that leading to eating disorders. Although other people may be seeing them as slim, they believe they are big and unattractive hence leaving a stressful life. Some have been unable to deal with their status making things worse in their lives.
Strategic management of Lakeland Wonders Company Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Public administration entails formulation and implementation of sound policies suitable for management of various public institutions. However, the definition is not limited to public institutions since the both leadership and management of public institutions are almost similar to those of private institutions.
Every organization need to have a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who oversees all the activities of the organization and makes sure every thing is done accordingly to meet organizational goals1. The CEO supervises controls and gives directions as what should be done in an organization. In the current changing world, the CEOs are faced with challenging roles to perform their duties as managers.
The CEOs ought to acquit themselves with current strategic management skills to ensure the survival of their firms both presently and in future as well as improving their firms’ competitive position in the market2. Therefore, CEOs need to be flexible and able to perform other duties beyond their fields of expertise. This will enable them accommodate any challenging roles that may prevail upon the organization.
The following brief report will try to analyze some challenges facing Lakeland Wonders Company and some of the possible strategies that can be adopted to take the company into the next level.
Current happenings in the Lakeland Wonders Lakeland Company, a manufacturing organization has had remarkable and good profile over the years. It has made considerable progress in achieving its goals and making sure that the production sourcing and customer satisfaction are adequately addressed. However, the current CEO seems to be having some troubles that may lead to decline of the company’s performance.
Though very skilled with wealth of skills and experience, what is facing the company at the time need critical thinking in order to come up with strategies that will help the company from collapsing. Considering the time at which the CEO leaves the office, bearing in mind that all the other employees of the company have left their offices shows how focused the CEO is in improving the performance of the company.
One important characteristic feature of a manager is that he/she should lead by example and then the others will follow3. This turns out to be not working out in this company since despite the CEO being fully committed towards achieving the company’s goals and objectives to an extend of working odd hours, she’s surprised the way other management team is lagging behind in bringing innovative solutions to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For any company to achieve its goals and objectives there must always exist maximum cooperation on the part of its management team.
It is surprising to note that even the senior most staff of the company for instance the man by the name Mark who heads the manufacturing department does not understand the clear vision of the company yet he participated in one crucial job of preparing a manufacturing strategy.
Nevertheless, the CEO of the company declares the time has now come to make Mr. Mark face the reality and make him understand that the company needs him to progress. This is not advisable in the management, as it seems like some senior staff are being reminded of their duties that is not acceptable.
Managing the resources of an organization is one of the responsibilities of the managers. The most difficult part of the management of these resources is when it comes to the management of human resources, which are in this case human beings. This is due to the fact that unlike other resources that can be manipulated, human beings cannot4.
The CEO’s credentials are questionable. The case study clearly gives her achievements when she was in charge of general merchandise in the Kids
Climate Change as a Global Security Threat Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Climate change is one of the major concerns of humanity. Thousands of scientists try to find the necessary solutions. However, the issue is not only scientific puzzle any more. Security professionals agree that “climate change is real, and it is a real problem” (Sturm 2009, 1).
Reputedly, climate change will lead to energy shortage, food and drinking water shortage, proliferation of numerous diseases, which, in their turn, will lead to mass migrations, increased number of failed states, empowerment of violent non-state actors, and overall instability in the world.
Admittedly, climate change has already made many people to leave their homes and move to other countries to obtain better living. The USA has already faced serious issues concerning immigration (GlobalObservatory 2009). Apart from this the USA is also vulnerable to such problems as natural disasters, food and water shortage, energy crisis.
For instance, Hurricane Katrina which caused 2,000 deaths and $80 billion losses proves that the country is ready to respond to such catastrophes, but if the number of such disasters increases the government will soon fail to overcome disastrous aftermaths (Sturm 2009, 2). Unfortunately, scientists predict that the number of natural disasters will increase due to climate change.
Notably, natural disasters often shape international relations. Thus, a massive tsunami in Indonesia which took place in 2004 is a good example of the influence of climate change on countries’ relations.
The USA assisted Indonesia greatly, the aid cost the USA $5 million per day. Noteworthy, “American efforts after the tsunami dramatically improved the image of the US in the eyes of Indonesians, a major accomplishment in the fight against Islamic extremism” (Sturm 2009, 2).
Thus, mutual help and co-operation when solving environmental issues may be fruitful for the development of friendly relationship among different countries. Such countries as Mexico and Russia can become strategic partners of the USA.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the contrary, if a state has to overcome natural disasters and respond to environmental problems without any help, this state can become hostile to other countries. Such states can threaten stability in the world by adopting extremist strategies.
For instance, the number of disasters which take place in the world each year make it impossible for the USA to respond to each of them. The lack of capacity can be regarded as unwillingness to help, and many countries can turn to terroristic strategies.
Admiral Dennis McGinn claims that instability caused by climate change may lead to many governments’ failure and creation of “power vacuum” which can be filled with various violent non-state actors that “use terrorism as their weapon” to achieve their goals (GlobalObservatory 2009).
Admittedly, climate change raises numerous questions concerning security. Thus, shortage of food and water has already caused unrest in many countries of the Middle East, Africa, Central and Latin America. Rosie Boycott, former editor of the Independent on Sunday, claims that food and water wars can become reality in the nearest future (GlobalObservatory 2009).
It is important to stress that agriculture problems can become real for the USA as well since numerous draughts and natural disasters negatively affect this branch of the US economy.
Finally, climate change causes the sea levels rise which is also regarded as a potential threat to the world security. Rising seas lead to mass migrations which “create refugee population where extremists can hide” (Sturm 2009, 3).
It goes without saying that in situations when people do not have their homes and do not have enough resources to feed themselves and their families, they are especially vulnerable and can be easily recruited by terroristic groups.
We will write a custom Essay on Climate Change as a Global Security Threat specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On balance, climate change is no more a topic for scientific discourse. It is one of the major concerns of security professionals worldwide. The USA has acknowledged the seriousness of the present situation and is ready to act to secure stability in the world.
Reference List GlobalObservatory. 2009. “Climate Change Is a Global Security Threat – Global Observatory.” YouTube. Web.
Sturm, Frankie. 2009. “Climate Change: A New Threat to National Security.” Backgrounder (September, 10): 1-4. Web.
The policy process Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A policy generally refers to a standard or tenet to direct resolutions and attains rational result(s). The reference is in general not used to refer to whatever is essentially carried out; this is usually denoted as either process or modus operandi. While a policy will include the what and the why, processes or practices entail the what, the how, the where, and the when (Radin, 2000, p. 13).
Policies are by and large taken on by the Board of or higher-ranking administration body within an entity where as processes or practices would be built up and taken on by higher-ranking administrative officials.
This expression may be appropriate to government, non-governmental organizations, and individuals. Presidential decrees, commercial privacy principles, and legislative regulations of order are all illustrations of policy.
Policy is different from regulations or tenets. Whereas regulation can coerce or make illegal behaviors, policy only directs actions in the direction of attaining a much wanted result. Professionals who specialize in civic policy have made out for major phases in the civic policy practice.
These phases take account of the classifying of a difficulty, the devising of a policy alteration to get to the bottom of the predicament, the execution of that policy change, and the assessment of whether the resolution is running as preferred. In this form, civic policy procedure can be looked at as the paces an administration takes to deal with a civic predicament.
The initial phase in the civic policy procedure is the making out of a predicament. This phase has to entail not just the making out of the being there of an issue, it as well has to involve a thorough scrutiny of the difficulty and its commencement (Stone, 2008, p. 7).
This phase of the procedure at in most times entails finding out whom or what is impinged on, the extent to which the public is cognizant of the matter and if it is a short or long-standing distress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One more fundamental issue focuses on whether shifting civic policy can bring about transformation. Responses to such inquiries may offer policy crafters a measure for which policy alterations, if any, are required to take in hand the made out predicament.
Policy formulation Following the making out of a predicament and its scrutiny, a civic policy way out is normally created and taken on. This phase in the civic policy procedure is normally manifest by dialogue and deliberations involving government representatives, interest organizations, and individual civilians on the most excellent way to take in hand the matter.
The broad-spectrum aim of this phase is to lay down patent aspirations and catalog the paces to attain them (Rodney, 2009, p. 74). The formulation phase in most times as well entails a deliberation of other ways out, would-be impediments, and the way in which to quantify the consequences of the policy alteration.
In the United States of America, policy creation and take on is normally directed by the Legislative Branch of the administration in office.
Legislative stage In this phase of the policy process cycle, opinionated players at times use their posts of authority to coerce action or transformation. This can be in the sort of an open proclamation or a correspondence from an opinionated leader pushing for someone to do or avoid doing something. It could also entail the assurance of an inquiry, at times achieved by way of unofficial conventions, working parties or other investigative undertakings.
Or it could end up in the commencement of an official inquiry, carried out either by a law implementation body if unlawful conduct is supposed or by way of a civic inquiry. As may be expected, a number of the issues turn out to be part of a political contender’s operation stage, which can be utilized to attract more public concentration to the matter or to acquire votes.
Higher learning ambassadors have an obligation to be more on the go at this phase so as to win over policy crafters to act, or not to act, depending on the case at hand. All this should be geared toward the most excellent interests of the scholastic society (Althaus, Bridgman
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Principles Comparison Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Qualitative and Quantitative Qualitative research is an inquisition method used in different disciplines with an aim of gaining an in-depth understanding of research tool. On the other hand, quantitative research is an investigative method used to establish mathematical models, hypothesis and /or theories that links a phenomenon.
While qualitative research aims at obtaining a deeper understanding of a phenomenon, quantitative research focuses on its empirical observations. For instance, quantitative research focuses on the numbers and their interrelation by trying to establish theories and models based on the fact-findings. this is not the same with qualitative research, which focuses on establishing why such facts exist.
It is however important to note that both research methods use fact –findings from the field, although in different ways. Qualitative research usually approach data by observation and interpretation while quantitative research measure the data and test (McBride
Multi-disciplinary stakeholder analysis Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A project can be defined as a set of planned activities that are used to come up with clear and specific objectives within a given timeline and budget. The activities of a project are generally involving and painstaking, beginning with the identification of resource mobilization team and task force that helps to develop the necessary resource allocations and core operational lending to fund the project.
A full participatory approach that entails a multi-disciplinary/multi-sectored approach is necessary to expedite the project cycle activities. The design phase of a project cycle is very crucial because it is the design process that determines the most feasible way through which the problem can be tackled, or objectives can be met.
The involvement of a multi-disciplinary approach in participation ensures that the project is successful and sustainable. However, as a development practitioner, one experiences various challenges while conducting a multi-disciplinary stakeholder analysis hence affecting the actual outcome of the project.
This paper aims at discussing the challenges/problems that a development practitioner experiences while conducting the aforementioned analysis.
Discussion Stakeholders/beneficiaries are people who have a direct, significant and particular interest in given natural resources hence, have the liberty to express their views in a proposed project. Primary and secondary stakeholders, who have personal interests in the proposed project that addresses the problems concerned, are identified through a stakeholder analysis.
Stakeholder analysis is very important as it helps in the development of strategic views that can be applied to address the problem. Multi-disciplinary stakeholder analysis entails the identification of the different kinds of stakeholders who will take part in project development.
These stakeholders are very important at every stage of the project cycle because each stage is related to the needs of the stakeholders in one way or the other (Caldwell, 2002). Appendix 1 represents a table that could be used in multi-disciplinary stakeholder analysis (Gawler, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are primary/direct stakeholders and these are very essential with regard to conservation. They are directly affected by any outcome of the project based on action taken hence; they are a very critical component of the project design process because wrong action will not yield into the desired impact of the project.
The development practitioner should ensure that he/she clearly identifies the primary stakeholders as they are very essential in ensuring sustainability of the project. Secondary stakeholders are those with an indirect interest in the project.
They entail donors, national government officials, consumers and private enterprises. Despite the fact that they are not included in all stages of the project, their periodic contribution is required (Guijt
Marketing systems Essay essay help
Introduction The study of marketing systems have had mixed reactions as to its link to macro marketing, even though most scholars agree that they are linked. Several articles have suggested that marketing systems be placed under the discipline of macro marketing, this has not gone well with some scholars who feel it should remain supportive but independent of macro marketing.
Some scholars have gone to an extent of reviewing the definition of marketing system so as to relate it closely with macro marketing. This comparative paper will try to review, critique, summarize as well as, make a substantial comparison between two per reviewed articles on marketing systems (Lusch 227-240).
Literature Review In order to understand the link between marketing systems and macro marketing, one needs to comprehend the meanings and reviews on both marketing systems and macro marketing, independently. This way, one can critically assess their interrelation and come up with proper views and understanding on their linkage. In the preceding headings, we shall try to go through the literature review of the two concepts.
Businesses aim to sell their goods and services as well as improve on their quality to invite more customers. This cannot be achieved without a proper marketing system. Marketing systems are aimed at increasing the sales, researching for new market regions, and creating new products as well as market ventures, among others. Marketing systems started long ago even before welfare came into play.
The most significant marketing characteristic in the past was barter trade. In this respect, macro marketing is quite important as it provides the platform for marketing systems, having considered all the options availed. Marketing systems today are sophisticated and modernized with emerging technologies; this has globalized it, placing it as one of the best marketing tools (Lusch 227-240).
Macro marketing is a very important tool in addressing issues relating to marketing and the society. Macro marketing research is usually carried out by stakeholders and marketers on markets and systems that affect marketing. It tries to convey both the shortcomings and opportunities presented by marketing. Its aim is to enhance marketing systems and processes so that more productivity would be realized.
To achieve this objective, extensive research is usually carried out on the various segments of the market and systems. Macro marketing is believed to be as old as the society itself, given that these practices started during the barter trade era and specialization (Layton 240-245).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Welfares were created and these formed societies whose main responsibilities were to enhance marketing strategies and group development. These systems transformed into a series of marketing institutions that the modern world has embraced and continued to promote as well as support in Macro marketing.
The present times have seen macro marketing morph at a higher rate as it draws uncountable number of diverse and new followers. According to editors of journal of micromarketing, macro marketing has entrenched several sub discipline, including marketing systems, as suggested by Layton. It now holds various meetings throughout the world which are aimed at understanding the marketing world.
Purpose This paper is aimed at making a comparative analysis of the two articles, by reviewing, summarizing and making a critique of the same.
To achieve its purpose, the paper aims to review critique and summarize each of the articles provided on marketing systems and macro marketing. In addition, the paper will try to compare the two articles, giving their similarities and differences as pertains the understanding of marketing systems and macro marketing. Finally the paper will endeavor to research implications and conclusion on the two articles.
Analysis One article has been chosen for review and analysis, the other one researched from per review sources. These two articles are to be summarized, reviewed and analyzed critically. They are also top be compared, giving their similarities and differences (Layton 240-245).
Article 1: Marketing Systems—A Core Macro marketing Concept
This article was written by Layton, and tries to link marketing systems to macro marketing. He believes that marketing systems make the core concept of macro marketing. The following subheadings shall follow through its review, critique as well as the summary.
According to Layton, the author of the first article on marketing systems, marketing system as a concept relies heavily on macro marketing. In his fully reviewed article, he tries to explain the link between marketing systems and macro marketing. It provides the main area of study in which marketing systems are entrenched in macro marketing.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article continues by providing various documentaries, examples and literature to arrive at a new definition for marketing systems, which he relates to macro economics more easily. The article goes further to give four ways in which the study of marketing systems can be made, giving details and examples of such examples. The article is full of citations from other authors whom he feels are of ideas that support his proposals.
Throughout the articles, several examples are given, for instance, the examples for different social settings such as Ghana, Australia in which he vividly describes the trade routes across the aboriginal (Layton 240-245).
The article is endowed with facts from other rich sources such as Dowling, Dixon and the rest.
The article gives a number of market places as examples that support market systems; these include, The Makola, in Accra, Ghana, the Dutch Village of Aalsmeer which has a Flower Market, marked as a significant hub that links global trade, The Salaula, which ventures in second hand cloths, and Ito-Yokada a 7-Eleven store based in Tokyo, Japan, among others.
All these have been used by the author to drive his point in marketing systems. At this point, he comes up with a new definition for marketing systems, describing it as a network of individuals, or groups, or/and entities that are directly or indirectly linked to each other through shared or sequential participation in exchanges of economic purposes.
He goes further to state that these exchanges transform, create, assembles and provide availability of product assortments which are given according to the customer demand. These products can be tangible or intangible.
The article provides a varied range of information on the flow of marketing systems as well as research on these systems. This clearly indicates the author’s ability to provide an in-depth focus on marketing systems as he tries to relate it to macro marketing. The author then tries to answer to his questions at the beginning of the discussion.
These answers pertains to information on essential social and economic structures of a marketing system, the relevant linked or parallel marketing systems, the kind of focus on marketing systems (weather wholesome or in parts), and the distinctive characteristics of a system environment (considering both generic and specific).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The article concludes by giving the attributes, models and measurements that marketing systems take. This article is well articulated with evidences and examples from several credible authors. It is a test of a true researcher and conveys the full mind of its author (Layton 240-245).
According to this article, the author insists that marketing systems make the core concept of macro marketing, at the same time, he also claims that marketing systems do not only narrow on macro marketing, but from other fields like economic anthropology, sociology and strategic management, among others.
This seems confusing, since when something is core, then it should contain almost all elements of the discipline, in this case macro marketing. At the end of his article, the author states that marketing systems are still limited and gives an optimistic conclusion on further studies that may open new opportunities for a productive future.
This tells us that there are still some limitations to the subject of marketing systems, in this modern age, in is quite imperative to note that more extensive research sold, or may have been carried out to extend this limit, which may have been ignore in this article.
The link between marketing systems and the standard of living of a population could be far fetched; this is because the globe contains varying cultures that control their marketing systems, using those systems to predict the standard of living without considering other factors can give misinterpretation and misleading information (Layton 240-245).
The article by Layton is well embodied with facts and examples from credible sources. The author talks of marketing systems, which he believes forms the basic concept of macro marketing. In article, he gives ways through which the study of marketing can form the basis of macro marketing.
He also gives several examples of marketing systems, such as Salaula in Zambia that deals in secondhand cloths, Aalsmeer in Netherlands, which deals with flowers, and Makola marketplace which is based in Ghana among others.
Worth noting is his description of the flow of market systems throughout the globe as well as an in-depth of research systems. The other moves on to give the models, attributes and system measures that relate to system marketing. He claims that system marketing enables availability of assorted products to customers (Layton 240-245).
System marketing, as is claimed, makes the core and the drive in macro marketing. Societies and stakeholders research on macro marketing to enhance system marketing. In concluding he talks of the standard of living being directly related to system marketing. To prove this, he gives an example of United States population, by quoting Mazur’s article, that there is a strong link between the standard of living and marketing system output.
The link, as he claims, is in the concept of assortment. The article proposes that studying marketing systems is very important and makes the basis for macro marketing. The article also envisages that this output of marketing system is an assortment of products which may be tangible or intangible, availed to the customers whenever required. This assortment, as is claimed, has a direct link o the living standards of a population.
This poses great challenge to the very existence of marketing systems, which although are observable, can bring more complexities. He however agrees that studying marketing systems does not only narrow on macro marketing, but from other fields like economic anthropology, sociology and strategic management, among others.
Finally the article narrows down on the advantages or benefits of macro marketing and marketing systems, to expound on his, the author states clearly that one needs to have an in-depth understanding of the processes involved in marketing systems and macro marketing.
Marketing systems and macro marketing contributes heavily to the development of flow linking systems that bring together marketing participants. He ends by stating that macro marketing and marketing system as a discipline has a productive future as stakeholders venture on various range of such systems (Layton 240-245).
Article2: The Small and Long View
This peer reviewed article is written by Lusch. He uses his creativity to relate macro marketing to marketing systems and instead concentrate on what macro marketing should keep as its focus. The following sub heading will review, critique and summarize Lusch’s idea of macro marketing as well as marketing systems (Lusch 227-240).
The article tries to define macro marketing and its supposed purpose and focus. The author thinks that just as his title ‘The Small and Long View’, macro marketing should follow its foot steps. To make this work, he proposes that macro marketing focus more on the micro actions as well as the micro actors which in the long run make up micro structures.
He also believes that apart from focusing on the micro elements, macro marketing should embrace or hold on to a long view of things. He says this because according to him, macro marketing has not channeled its focus and thought on the long term things.
He envisages that only a long view of things such as system behavior can detach successful public policy from those that are not. In that regard, his plea is to ensure that macro marketing is transformed in terms of focus for the future and what makes it (Lusch 227-240).
The article states that research in macro marketing started in areas such as ethics, and social marketing. The author goes on to give part of his biography on his experience and knowledge on macro marketing systems, claiming that he spent fifteen year gaining knowledge on macro marketing.
Through his experience and with a number of cited authors, he explains how he arrived at this view of ‘The Small and Long View’ He explains how he went through mare observation to examine the function of policy simulations and its relation to the Long View.
He goes on to give more information on research and works that he did on macro marketing, and insists that his enduring interest for a long time had been to understand how marketing systems work (Lusch 227-240).
The article goes on to describe S-D LOGIC which he conveys as part of exchange system. In defining microscopic actions he expects macro marketing to focus on, he begins with division of labor. He believes that man should interact with others and not with nature alone; it is through this description that he comes up with specialization which in itself is division of labor.
He uses this logic to develop the connection between human beings and through micro actions as well as macro actions to finally come up with his view of (small view and long view). With this, he explains that from division of labor which is a micro action (small view), emerges a complex system (macro marketing), which according to him has evolved over a long period (long view).
It is from this logic that he professes focus on micro actions and micro actors as well as the long term policies. This way he believes, macro marketing will keep improving. Finally, he uses his S-D LOGIC to suggest that marketing systems forms primary divers of society. He also uses the logic to give public policies and comes up with his model known as ABM (Agent-Based Modeling) (Lusch 227-240).
The author talks of his experience throughout the article, giving hi opinions and restricting much of other author’s opinions. As much as his biography credits him with several years of study, he is still prone to mistakes and may hold to misleading opinions about macro economics and marketing systems at large.
It is therefore quite important for him to involve as many people as possible in sharing his opinions based on facts and research. The article is narrowed so much on the author’s opinions, it has not given any chance for criticism nor has he given any example of other thoughts about the same from any of the numerous scholars worldwide (Lusch 227-240).
According to the author, macro marketing research should begin with a proper understanding of his small elements known ads the micro actions. These macro actions, he says, are of the agents such as sellers, buyers and government. He also states that it is these micro actions in combination with their agents named above, who form macro structures for marketing systems and macro marketing.
In conclusion, he emphasizes on the need to focus on what makes something and suitable future policies that can keep the structures stronger. He also mentions the fact that researches conducted as either cross sectional or longitudinal researches of a decade or two, are likely to be limited in information and thus misleading (Lusch 227-240).
Discussion These two articles were written by different authors, one on marketing systems and how they link to macro marketing, while the other on what he thinks macro marketing should focus on, as well as its link with marketing systems. However, they have several parallels and differences, the sub headings below shall provide facts on these similarities and differences (Layton 240-245).
The two article share some ideas in their thought on macro marketing and marketing systems, these similarities include. One clear similarity is the fact that macro economics began in the area of ethics and social marketing.
This sentiment is shared by Layton who also believes that macro marketing began in the social field. The two article talk of an exchange system in reference to marketing system and macro marketing although Lusch provide an in-depth view on it (Lusch 227-240).
Both the authors believe that for one to understand macro marketing and marketing system, they must have a thorough understanding of the process. Both articles are adequately backed up by other credible scholar, enhancing their credibility. At the end of their statements, they both allude to the fact that much is yet to be done on improving the understanding of macro marketing and marketing systems (Layton 240-245).
Even though these article seems to share several points, they also differ in a number of them, for instance, while Layton builds his evidence based on the numerous number of credible authors he has cited, Lusch on the other hand, provides his brief biography on experience in macro economics in addition to citing other authors.
Lusch’s article is more of a personal based writing than Layton’s. This is because he cites most of his researches and his books as opposed to Layton who brings together different views to argue out his points (Layton 240-245).
At the end of each of the articles, the writers allude to limitations in their view and are optimistic of better and concise researches in the future.
Conclusion Marketing systems form an integral part of macro marketing (Lusch 227-240). The standard of living in many areas especially, United States are closely linked to marketing systems. Macro marketing research should focus on the small view and long view (Layton 240-245).
Works Cited Layton, Roger. “Marketing Systems-A Core Macromarketing Concept”. Journal of Macromarketing. 28.02.2011. 27.04.2010.
Lusch, Robert. “The Small and Long View”. Journal of Macromarketing. 14.05.2007.27.04.2011.
Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Learners with disabilities are frequently ignored when they do not perform well in academics. Usually, the cause of their declining performance lies within the four walls of the classroom. It should be understood that these learners have special needs and when these needs are not met, learning becomes difficult to them. In this regards, this paper will shed light on how classroom design improves the education of children disabilities.
Every child has a right to be educated, whether disabled or not, and both the parents and educators want their learners to get the best out of the education system. When both sides realize that the students are not performing as expected, they should consider checking out whether the design of the classroom is compatible with the needs of children with disabilities.
Torelli and Durrett (2008) explain that most schools have smaller classrooms because when the structures were constructed when there were budget constraints.
This is because bigger classrooms require more building materials. Learners without special needs can cope with such situations, but it would be difficult for children with disabilities because they require enough space for them to move around the classroom when the need arises.
Space is vital to children with disabilities because it makes it possible for them to be able to interact with other learners and the environment. For instance, majority of these children use walking aides such as wheel chairs, and when there is no adequate space, their movements bothers the other learners and becomes clumsy and nuisance.
Sometimes, the teacher needs to establish relationships with such learners to be able to know what areas in class sessions need more attention, but then if the teacher’s movement is hindered by congestion the performance of such learners continues to decline.
Furthermore, children with disabilities require individual attention from the teacher just like the other children, and if the classroom is congested it would be difficult for the teacher to reach such learners. In such a case the teacher may not realize the weaknesses that the learner has with regard to learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The choice of interior classroom color is also important because children hate dull colors. It would be better if the walls and ceilings are painted with bright colors so that the children can feel like they are still at home. Dull colors make them feel like they are out of place and some may become recessive when they enter such a classroom.
Having the walls painted in bright colors and complemented with drawings that are appealing to children such as cartoon characters helps them to develop a liking for school environment because they feel like they are still at home.
Gillies (2004) points out that sometimes the windows play a role in the decline in the performance of children with special needs. This is because if the windows cannot resist the noise from outside, the children’s attention can be carried away by the events that are taking place outside the classroom.
By the time their focus shifts back to the teacher, they would have missed important lessons. It is therefore important to raise the window frames so that the learners’ attention is not interfered by external noise and events.
The blackboard should also be placed in close vicinity to the children so that they can see clearly what is written on it without having to strain. When the blackboard is at the extreme end of the classroom, the children do not see exactly the writings on the board and thus, end up missing some points of sentences and formulas.
Similarly, lack of ventilation in the classroom can cause the room to have high temperatures. This can cause the learners to doze while the lesson is in progress and thus, not understand what is being taught. The furniture that is used in the classroom should offer maximum comfort so that the learner does not feel irritated by the rough edges and protrusions that could otherwise harm him/her.
The classroom furniture should offer smooth body coordination such that if the learner wishes to move his legs or arms he should do so without straining. Jorgensen, Schuh, and Nisbet (2005) assert that this makes it possible for the learners to actively participate in learning activities and pay attention to what is being taught in the classroom.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, electrical wiring should be done with a lot of care because if the wires are left hanging the learners can pull them unknowingly and result in electrocution. The classroom should be put in such a way that other equipments such as computers and assistive devices can be easily integrated into the classroom.
More importantly, children with disabilities need some time to play just like the other children, and because they cannot stand on their own the, classroom should have a designated area that can be used for playing. Playing allows the minds of children to refresh and discover their abilities. Moreover, playing makes them get used to their condition and learn how to maneuver without requiring somebody else’s assistance.
Denying them an opportunity to play is like denying them their childhood. The exit and entry of the classroom should be wide enough to prevent them from bumping each other as they leave and enter the classroom.
It is very easy for contagious and airborne illnesses to be spread in congested classrooms and therefore, if an illness of such nature was reported, it often affects the entire class and the learners have to go for medication when they should have been learning.
Moreover, it is better to have fewer learners that are manageable rather than have many learners and make the teachers become overwhelmed. It would be better to have bigger classrooms for the disabled children because in such classrooms the teachers are able to reach out to the learners when the need arises.
In such classrooms the sitting arrangements are made in a way that there is enough space for both the learner and the teacher to move around. Besides, spacious classrooms enhance the development of disabled children because they are able to interact with the environment and become independent and exercise control over their environment.
Thomas and Loxley (2007) argue that meeting the needs of disabled children while designing their classroom offers them equal opportunities. By ignoring the design of the classroom educators would have themselves to blame because it is only the first learners who would excel in academics. In fact, teachers should take their lessons outdoors when the weather is favorable if the classroom is congested.
In conclusion, teachers should use appropriate teaching methods in congested classrooms to ensure that all the learners have equal learning opportunities so that when they sit for exams the teacher is certain that they will perform as expected. The teacher should make arrangements with the school administration to make sure that the materials that are used in learning are displayed appropriately.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the teacher is the one who spends most his/her time with disabled children, he/she should provide counsel to the school administration when new structures are constructed so that they can be designed in a way that they can accommodate disabled children. Therefore, proper classroom design improves the learning experience of children with disabilities.
References Gillies, R.M. (2004).The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Junior High School Students during Small Group Learning. Learning and Instruction, 14(2), 197-213.
Jorgensen, C., Schuh, M.,
Impact of Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) on Education Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
IDEA: a brief overview
The need for IDEA
Impacts of IDEA on Education
Introduction Education has long been termed as the universal “key to success”. It is through a good education that we equip ourselves with the best skills both mentally and physically so as to yield positive results in our journey for success. The educational system of a society is fundamental to the development and ultimate advancement of the entire community.
Educators, scholars and governments all over the world have acknowledged that the educational structure and practices adopted can have a significant effect on the education of the population leading to significant impact on economic and social outcomes of their citizens.
An effective educational system which yields high results is therefore seen as being essential for a nation’s well being. However, there are cases whereby students are unable to fully utilize education systems as required. This is mostly attributed to the fact that individuals differ in terms of ability, intelligence and physical attributes. These differences may inhibit a student’s ability to learn.
Due to the pressure imposed by parents and government institutions, schools all over the world avoid admitting students with disabilities so that they can maintain the required standard of success.
Considering that in most cases the disabilities are not intentional, most parents have over the years recommended that laws be enacted which protect the rights of such students as regarding to getting equal or special considerations as those offered to normal students in school settings. This paper shall therefore set out to explore the Individual with Disability Education Act (IDEA) and how it has impacted education.
To this end, a brief overview of the Act shall be offered and the positive and negative implications the Act has on education shall be discussed. Various case laws shall be used to shed some light on the impact that this Act has had on education.
IDEA: a brief overview According to Javier (2005), the Individual with Disability Education Act is a federal law which was enacted in 1990. It was later reauthorized in 1997 when cases of discrimination against the disabled in schools became rampant. The Act was implemented so as to protect the disabled by ensuring that they had access to free appropriate public education (FAPE).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This Act was therefore enacted to protect the rights of the disabled members of society who would have otherwise been denied access to public education due to their disabilities. In addition, the act also aimed at ensuring that public schools implemented special education services as well as the procedures to be followed in implementing the same (Javier, 2005).
Special education services refer to the policies and programs that are implemented so as to satisfy the unique needs of students in a school setting. Some of the services include but are not limited to various forms of therapy, modified curriculums, assistive technologies and individual or group instructions.
The need for IDEA Shandra and Hogan (2009) state that, in the past, disabled members of society were often discriminated against and were viewed as a burden. This was mainly due to the fact that they could not do anything that would help improve society and if they did, it would not be as quick or efficient as required.
This stereotype was also evident in the education system. Disabled members of the society would not be admitted in public schools since people believed that they would slow down the other normal students. As such, the only shot the disabled had on getting a good education was either through private schools or homeschooling.
Private schools were expensive and homeschooling was not as effective and practical as required. This sad state of affairs would explain why the number of illiterate and semi-illiterate disabled individuals was high back then as compared to the numbers today. So, what changed?
As the importance of education and equality became more apparent, policy makers and governments thought it wise to formulate a law which would ensure that all citizens get access to quality education. This was backed by the fact that education would promote social and economic progress by ensuring that majority of the citizens had a fighting chance when it comes to getting jobs.
As such, this Act was enacted to ensure that individuals (regardless of their abilities) got equal job opportunities. This would only be achieved if they all got the same education which would in turn enable them to have similar credentials needed to apply for a job all the while minimizing the chance of being discriminated against due to their differences.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) on Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impacts of IDEA on Education Proponents of the IDEA have proposed that the Act has promoted equality in our educational systems. In the case Jim v Arkansas Department of Education, 197 F.3D 958 (8TH Cir, 1999), the parents of an autistic boy bought suit against The Arkansas Department of Education alleging that the department had failed to uphold its obligation pursuant to section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.
The Department moved to dismiss the case, and after a lower court denying the dismissal, a higher court reversing in the Department’s favor to dismiss the case, the case ultimately reached the 8th Circuit for a decision. The issue in this case was whether a state had the ability to waive sovereign immunity pursuant to the 11th Amendment (state autonomy) and ultimately insulating a state from a suit against them in federal court.
Brady (2004) states that discrimination against disabled students Is not allowed under section 504 of the rehabilitation Act. According to the author, this mostly applies to any program or activity that is entitled to receive support from the federal government (Brady, 2004). Within this statute, the state does not represent the activity or program in question.
However, the department that is eligible to federal funding falls under the category of a “program or activity”. The Court further disagreed with the defendants argument that Congress over exceeds its spending power by placing conditions on receiving funds. The Court ruled that Congress had the power to place such conditions resulting in the Court ruling against the Arkansas Department of Education.
In this case, the judges were of the opinion that the state had the power to choose whether to terminate federal aid offered to facilitate education or, agree on the fact that the Department of Education was in violation of the rehabilitation Act and could therefore be sued under section 504 (Brady, 2004). The panel was convinced that the spending clause allowed the congress to inform the state of these choices.
Educational Implication If states were able to waive the relevant statute without consequences, children with special needs and disabilities would not be accommodated with the education that they need. This would have a huge impact on parents fighting for their children’s education because they would be faced with no recourse.
Arguably, children with disabilities need access to quality education just as much as anyone else if they are to experience developmental growth. The idea that a school district or board could waive sovereign immunity not to provide the level of education that is needed is disdainful.
On the same note, Connor and Ferri (2004) assert that secluding the disabled from regular classes not only reduces their level of commitment and determination, it also lessens their social development since disabled students often view themselves as being outcasts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) on Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the authors state that the Act’s requirement that disabled students be placed in similar settings as normal students not only gives them a sense of belonging, but motivates the disabled students towards improving their performance so as to compete with normal students.
This is basically a normal psychological response whereby people who feel less worthy work harder so as to prove that they have the ability to perform as their capable friends and counterparts. As such, the IDEA has increased performance in schools as students compete more effectively.
Similarly, Yell (2006) states that the IDEA ensures that disabled students are taught in the same classroom as their normal peers to the greatest extent possible. The enactment of the IDEA was as a result of increased unfair segregation and discrimination against the disabled that was prevalent during the 70’s in most school settings.
For example, in the case Beattie vs. Board of Education (1919), a student who had a disability that affected him physically (drooling, speech problems and involuntary facial movements) was removed from his school on the account that his condition caused great discomfort to his teachers (Jaeger et al, 2009). This was especially unfair considering that the student intellectual capability was intact as compared to the rest of the students.
Consequently, the Wisconsin’s Supreme Court ruled that the school was indeed entitled to expel the child from the public education system. To make matters worse, the student was placed in a school for the deaf. This was hardly an appropriate setting in this circumstance.
Fortunately, the least restrictive environment clause of the IDEA aims at ensuring that disabled students were allowed to get educated at an environment similar to that offered to their normal peers (Jaeger et al, 2009).
Educational implication If schools were allowed to segregate students with disabilities by placing them in less fitting learning environments, disabled students would not be able to get the education they deserve. Some forms of disabilities that do not affect the intellectual capability of the student should not be used as a reason to segregate disabled students from normal classes.
The LRE clause of the IDEA impacts education in the sense that public learning institutions have to make provisions (in terms of structures, curriculum and facilities) that best suit all students regardless of their abilities (Congress, 2010). This has in turn improved the quality of education offered in schools because all students have unrestricted access to various amenities that help them gain the most from the education system.
Similarly, the cases Pennsylvania Assn. for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) and Mills vs. Board of Education (1972) have been documented as being the most influential cases that affected the course of education as regarding to disabled children (Yell, 2006).
In these cases, concerned members advocated for publicly supported education for disabled children, the implementation of special programs for the disabled in public schools and the inclusion of due process in the admission of disabled students into public schools (Siegel, 2011). In both cases, the main concern was that disabled students were not protected by law as adequately as required.
Educational implications If leaning institutions were allowed to discriminate against disabled students in terms of lack of adequate learning facilities that cater for the special needs of individual students or denying them admission on account that they are disabled, such students would be of little to no benefit to today’s society which demands high levels of skills and knowledge if people are to survive (Connor
Customer Centric Organizations and Product Centric Organizations Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction and Definition of Customer Centric In the modern-day era, the way business is conducted changing with most organizations realizing that the key to success lies with the number one priority of the organization who is the customer.
Organizations are (Davis 2004, pp. 14) becoming aware that consumers may not enjoy products that are designed just to drive the sales of the organization higher, rather than catering for the needs of the consumer through incorporating the consumer into every decision that is made by the organization (Davis 2004, pp. 14).
In most cases, large organizations strive to realize more revenues which are generated from the sales of already existing portfolio of products. However, generating increased revenue may be hard for large organizations through the sale of products which have already been launched by the organization, and this calls for the inevitable change by organizations through integrated solutions (IS).
Brandy at el (2005, pp. 4) defines integrated solutions as “combining products and systems with services in order to specify, design, deliver, finance, maintain, support and operate a system throughout its life cycle”. Firms, while moving to integrated solutions, can use their own manufactured products and services or the products and services of competitors.
One of the main reasons as to why firms are shifting to customer-centric (Davis
The contemporary lean construction problems Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of the Problems and Possible solutions
Introduction The aim of lean production is not only to reduce waste, but also to maximize value. This has to be attained through lean production management and by devising particular tools and techniques for effective delivery of the lean production projects.
Some of the ways of integrating lean production into the construction project delivery and it is argued that this can be achieved by improving factory based manufacturing in terms of building elements, sections and components. Inclusion of pre-assembly has attracted a lot of opposition from clients, showing how important these clients are to the process of construction.
Generally, the client and workers are the two most important stockholders in the construction process. The client ought to be involved in decision making and their views should be sought to ensure that products of value and those that meet their needs have been produced. On the other hand, the effective delivery of the construction process requires that the safety, health and welfare of workers have been met.
This assessment discusses the reasons and problems that may lead to the failure of any construction project and analyses these problems and their possible solutions, so that in the future, the project could be successful. First, the work begins by highlighting problems that may be encountered by any project before proceeding to the use of Toyota way to solve the problems.
The problems will be in reference to a number of reports from various construction sites. To begin with, there are several problems that are common at construction sites and had been previously identified in the UK by CIRIA Construction Industry Research information Association abbreviated as CIRIA (Pasquire and Connolly, 2002, p. 9).
Analysis of the Problems and Possible solutions First, there’s a problem of the amount of labour, health and safety. Bigger cities are dominated by skilled labour than smaller ones. This is likely to have an effect on both the quality of work and the availability of employees.
Survey indicates that in the recent past, there were some injuries which a number of employees. Further study reveals that in the recent years, the industry lost billions of workers as a result of work related injury and poor health during work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Almost every nation has a problem of the safety of workers in the construction industry. The industry is ill reputed due to its high accident rates and despite efforts through campaigns, education, regulation and control, the impact has not been remarkable. The best solution of enhancing safety is changing the behaviour of the system to being safer rather than imposing rules (Bertelsen, 2004, p. 63).
Secondly, there the problem of construction site waste. Many builders are finding it an issue to get rid of waste from the construction site. This is an issue in most nations. The waste entails all the unwanted material such as electrical wiring, insulations and rebar.
The waste may comprise of hazardous substances such as asbestos and lead. Other forms in which waste exists are overproduction, rework, unnecessary movement, conducting unnecessary inventory and waiting (Song, Liang
State of Georgia Financial Aid Research Paper writing essay help
Higher education has many functions in the society among them developing human capital, developing knowledge bases and maintaining them. Higher education nurtures the skills required for research and innovation (Johnson, Oliff and Williams, 2011). For this and other reasons, higher education institutions in Georgia receive financial support from the state.
State support for higher education has been chosen as the topic for this study because education is expensive but the support of the state to institutions of higher education has been dwindling over the years. This support is necessary to reduce the cost of education. This means that an increasing number of students in Georgia are finding it hard to get higher education (Brack, 2011).
Georgia is the ideal state for this investigation because of its high poverty levels and low levels of participation in higher education for students coming from poor households compared to other states in the United States of America. Georgia is a state that has a below average income and this adversely affects the quality of education in that state. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the financial support that the state gives to institutions of higher education in Georgia.
Access indicators Indicators of higher education in Georgia include the number of higher education institutions, the amount of funding available each year to support students and the average annual charges that undergraduate students pay for education. The number of institutions of higher education in Georgia is an indicator of how many students participate in higher education. Several universities and colleges exist in the state. Georgia State boasts of more than 35 higher education institutions (Johnson et al, 2011).
The proximity of these institutions to the students is a measure of accessibility to education. The charges students pay annually on average indicate how possible it is for the majority of students to get higher education. If these charges are high, then many students miss education and vice versa (Georgia State Facts and Higher Education Information, n.d.).
Another indicator is the amount of money available from the state to support students pursuing higher education. Currently, the funding of the state has gone down because in 2012, it is at its lowest since 1994. The funding of the state for higher education at present is only 54% having dropped from 75% in 1995 (Brack, 2011).
This shows that many students cannot access education. In terms of availability of higher education institutions, Georgia State has done a lot to ensure that education is accessible. However, the state has scored lowly in the area of funding because the amount of funds released has really gone down compared to other states. Based on the indicators used, the state still has along way to go in making higher education available to students.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Affordability indicators Family income is one indicator of affordability to higher education. The higher the incomes of families in a particular state, the higher their ability to sponsor students in school. In Georgia, the poverty levels are high and therefore many families do not have the capacity to send heir children to higher education institutions.
Tuition fees payable to four year and two year universities and colleges is also an indicator. If the tuition fee is high, it means higher education is not affordable to most of the students. If the rates of tuition fees are low, then many more students can afford to get education (Johnson et al, 2011).
The amount of money released by the state annually to fund higher education also determines the affordability of higher education. Since many households are poor, they are unable to afford the charges levied. Funding from the state helps to reduce the amount of money required from the students hence making education easily affordable.
The average charges paid annually by students are also an indicator of affordability of higher education in Georgia. Since poverty levels in the state are high, the charges should be low to allow more students to afford education (Brack, 2011). High charges discourage people from pursuing higher education since they are not affordable. When charges are high they make education very expensive and unaffordable to the majority.
In conclusion, the paper has examined the indicators of accessibility and affordability of higher education in the state of Georgia. Reasons for picking on Georgia have also been given. Support is required from the state because of the importance of education to the economy and the high cost of higher education.
Accessibility to higher education in Georgia is indicated by the number of higher education institutions, the amount of funding available each year to support students and the average annual charges that undergraduate students pay for education.
Indicators of affordability include family income, tuition fees, the amount of money released by the state annually to fund higher education and the average charges paid annually by students. Georgia State has not done enough in making higher education accessible and affordable for students in the state.
We will write a custom Research Paper on State of Georgia Financial Aid specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Brack, E. (2011, May 5). Georgia Falling Behind Funding Higher Education. Like the Dew: Southern Culture and Politics. Like the Dew. Web.
Georgia State Facts and Higher Education Information. (n.d.). Web.
Johnson, N., Oliff, P.,
Make It Work real time response capability Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Decision making refers to a process of identifying alternatives based on the principles and partiality of the decision maker, evaluating and choosing one than fits goals and situation best. Unstructured decisions are those that one has to provide judgment and solution on a problem. These decisions are critical, non-routine with no stipulated procedure for making them. Structured decisions are repetitive, routine with a stipulated procedure.
There are four kinds of computer systems that provide support to semi-structured and unstructured decision making. They include: Management information systems, which provides regular reports, and review of data at transaction- level to operational-level managers offering effective solutions to semi-structured decision problems. They generate fixed and recurrent information based on data from the firm’s systems.
Decision-support systems merge analytical model with set data, queries for interactive support and scrutiny for line managers in their semi-structured decision situations.
Executive support systems give support to senior management in making unstructured decisions. It takes into consideration both external information and internal information. Group decision-support systems provide a group electronic platform where groups or teams can co-operatively make decisions and draw solutions jointly for unstructured and semi-structured problems.
Computerized decision support benefits firms in meeting their goals. It enables companies to operate in a fast changing market environment, curb difficulties in tracking numerous business operations.
Project Description Make It Work was founded by Eric Greenspan and Jeremy Anticouni in 2001. Their aim was to offer personalized technology services to digital homes with instance response on customers’ problems. It deals with personal computers, home networks, home theaters, online backup, internet security and safety, gaming systems, financial software, mobile devices, printers, iPods among other technological devices.
The real-time responsiveness and delivering of superior customer experience gave the company a competitive advantage edge in the market it served. Make It Work ensured that its tech specialists were highly trained on technological skills, attitude and the policies of customer service for they are the one who directly interact with customers. This was paramount in enhancing employee’s motivation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company weaknesses and threats included low barriers to entry into the market in that the business model would easily be imitated by any prospective competitor, and the customers’ switching cost to other companies that offer similar services were low.
For this reason, Make It Work enhanced instance response to customers’ problems while ensuring high customer satisfaction at the same time through quality delivery of services. Furthermore, Make It Work conducts corporate social responsibility on communities they serve so as to enhance positive corporate image and excellent public relations.
Project Achievements Make It Work real time response capability in supporting its customer centric strategy was named Software Service Company of the year by Software Council of Southern California in the year 2006. Later in 2007, it was listed in the Inc500 as the 78th fastest growing IT Company in the USA.
It was also named “Best Of” in computer repair by the Santa Barbara Independent. They managed to expand their business to other territories while delivering superior customer experience and instance response. Their quality technical service allowed it to charge premium prices, this reflected high profitability.
Its success prompted recognition by large technology partners due to high quality technical service. Moreover, it became host of tech news on LA’s premier news radio station- which helped attract new customers and new co-sponsors for the show.
Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan Case Study college essay help online
Abstract Limited study has been conducted on Japanese culture and its impacts on businesses. Some of the cultural dimensions that influence business activities in Japan include communication, religion, ethics, and social structure, values, attitudes among others. Nuance and subtlety considerably characterize communication in Japan.
The manner in which an individual communicate, dress and portray oneself greatly affect business negotiations. Normally, the Japanese embrace unity and works hard to avoid competition with their colleagues. Hence, most of the businesses are operated in groups where every member of the group emphasizes on the needs of the other members when executing business duties.
The mores of collectivism contributes to the success of the Japanese business entities. American companies wishing to invest in Japan may adopt this culture to boost their performance. In addition, Japanese have the sense of nationalism. It is the sense of nationalism that leads to consumers being loyal to Japanese products. Japanese are popular for their honesty and loyalty to business organizations.
Whenever a business manages to establish a strong relationship with consumers, it is hard for the business to lose these consumers. To survive in the Japanese market, American investors may capitalize on establishing strong relationship with consumers.
Introduction Every business organization is a joint creation that comprises of an assortment of people, their attitudes, behavior, and interaction with one another. To achieve any objective, a business demands joint efforts of most of its members. The results, nevertheless, depend on both personal contribution and how well the business is capable of integrating the efforts of its employees.
Hence, the success of any business dwells largely on employees’ attitude, values, habits, and behavior trends (Brockner, 2003). Popularity of the idea of business culture is associated with the need to enhance business efficiency and success, especially regarding the process of change. Business culture may lead to possible resistance or support during changes. The ability to address changes lies on business members’ wish to embrace the goals of the business and the level of the sense of togetherness.
Limited study has been conducted on Japanese culture and its effects on businesses. Japan is one of the countries with a very rich culture and almost every activity in the country is influenced by culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the cultural dimensions that influence business activities in Japan include communication, religion, ethics, and social structure, values, attitudes among others (Brockner, 2003). Nuance and subtlety significantly characterize communication in Japan (Brockner, 2003). The manner in which an individual communicate, dress and portray oneself greatly affect business negotiations.
Normally, Japanese embrace homogeneity and tries under all means to avoid competition with their colleagues. Hence, most of the businesses are operated in groups where every member of the group emphasizes on the needs of the other members when executing business duties (Brockner, 2003). Japanese culture is highly contextualized. Hence, in business content, the Japanese not only rely on what is said but also on how the communicator uses other nonverbal cues.
This greatly differs with how the Americans communicate in a business environment. This paper aims at looking at some of the Japanese cultural dimensions and their integration in businesses. Besides, the paper will compare these cultural dimensions with the American cultural dimensions and evaluate their implications on American business operators wishing to invest in Japan.
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Japan Communication (Peltokorpi, 2007)
Of all the features of relating with the Japanese, communication is the one that causes the biggest dilemma. Japanese communication is characterized by nuance and subtlety, where individual’s appearance, sentiments, and thoughts are significantly isolated. There is often a huge difference between sentiments and thoughts (Peltokorpi, 2007).
At times, the two contradict each other. Relationship development in Japan depends mostly on the ability of the individuals to read the fundamental truth that may support the spoken expression. For people with limited knowledge in the Japanese culture, it is normally hard to steer through these very baffling inconsistencies. In short, such individuals keep on questioning every sentiment in order to have a clear understanding.
One of the reasons why communication is a big challenge in Japanese business environment is that most of the foreigners in the country do not speak Japanese (Peltokorpi, 2007). On the other hand, most of the Japanese have poor command of the English language. In events of stress or tension in a meeting, the Japanese are fond of maintaining silence.
This helps in relieving tension and allows people to divert their attention to other issues thus conserving harmony, which is very crucial in communication as per their culture. When communicating, the Japanese hardly use body language. They are normally very still when communicating and tries as much as possible not to express their emotions.
We will write a custom Case Study on Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social structure (Lin, 2001)
Japan is in most cases portrayed as a society that strive to circumvent conflict by insisting on homogeneity and considering differentness as secondary. The Japanese do not have the view of person as an individual; instead, they feel most contented with others who have compassion (Lin, 2001).
According to them, people have to collaborate in the same situation. This eliminates the chances of Japanese viewing one another as different individuals. This extreme homogeneous social structure in Japan leads to Japanese disregarding individualism as an affirmative norm (Lin, 2001). In fact, the Japanese value group life as the Americans value individualism. Homogeneity is the principle value of society, which significantly leak into all spheres of life and defines other values.
However, with time, this social structure is disintegrating as more foreigners settle in Japan. The younger generation is continuously abandoning the culture and becoming more independent. Perhaps, they are now realizing that Japan is not as harmonized as the cultural beliefs posit (Lin, 2001).
Hence, the country is gradually identifying itself based on nationality and not ethnicity. Some of the traditional mores are gradually becoming obsolete as the country internationalize. For instance, most of the Japanese feels that they need to do away with the prevalent communication subtleties that foreigners do not understand.
Despite the move towards individualism, Japanese society still exhibits a group-oriented social structure. Japanese teach their children to be group conscious at a tender age. They consider family as the basic group of the society, and this is where children start learning the culture of collectiveness (Lin, 2001).
As one grows, the membership in groups expands. With time, the group comprises of neighborhood, person’s class in school, and when one becomes an adult it comprises of workplace. In one’s growth course, a person is encouraged to commit his or her energy in the group as well as to forfeit personal gain for the sake of the group (Lin, 2001). Besides, an individual is taught to uphold group harmony. Many of the groups have hierarchies and every member has a designated rank and duties in the group.
Most of the Japanese avoid “direct confrontation and competition with others” (Lin, 2001, p.87). Teaming up with other people demands willpower; nevertheless, teamwork brings about emotional surety, identity and joy of participating in a group, hence adding value. Wa, the belief of harmony in a group, demands an attitude of mutual aid and acknowledgement of social obligations (Lin, 2001).
The Japanese believe that success is achieved only when every member of the group puts forth his or her best personal effort. Decisions are frequently realized after consulting every member of the group and consensus does not mean that all members are contented.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Business Cultural Analysis: Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Values Order and status (Brockner, 2003)
It is hard to figure out a Japanese image of the social order without putting into consideration the effect of Confucianism since before the beginning of Chinese influence; Japan did not have structured culture. Confucianism stresses on concord among nature, heaven and human race that is attained through everyone acknowledging his or her duty and sharing in the social order by appropriate manners (Brockner, 2003).
For the Japanese, hierarchy is inevitable. Relative status disparity characterizes almost all social relations. “Place of employment, education, seniority and gender are some of the conventional differences that guide relations. Japanese may opt not to relate with a stranger, to evade possible error in etiquette. Calling cards or business cards so often exchanged in Japan are essential instruments of social relation since they offer adequate information about another being to assist in normal social interaction” (Brockner, 2003, p.351).
Japanese express status differences through language. Verb endings normally portray relations of dominance and lowliness (Brockner, 2003). They have a wealthy vocabulary of honorific that shows an individual’s status or it may be altered to show what the speaker wish the interaction to be. Some words are associated with manly speech and others with womanly.
Attitude Desire for perfection (Schepers, 2006)
The Japanese have an exceptional attitude towards work. They apparently dedicate all their life to work and readily give up their personal life for the sake of work. Unlike in United sates where workers stage strikes because of unfavorable working conditions, Japanese are tolerant to such conditions at workplaces. At times, they go to work even when they are sick and turn down any offer to relieve them from work.
According to Schepers (2006) the Japanese feel that taking seek leave may affect their productivity thus affecting organizational performance. To ensure they uphold the culture of teamwork at workplaces, Japanese spend more time socializing with group members after work. This strengthens their ties thus fostering cooperation at workplaces.
Japanese have the attitude of settling on the best in everything they do. They believe that “only the best is good enough”. They take all their assignments seriously and execute them diligently. Employees at all sectors are required to perfect their art and most of them strive at achieving it.
The Japanese portray their desire for perfection through numerous ways (Schepers, 2006). Some of these ways include the manner in which they arrange food in their plates, the way they arrange flowers and how they organize their gardens.
The Japanese poplar tea celebration is one of the best examples that show how they value perfections. The apparatus used during the ceremony and the movement made are accurately spelled and have to be observed by all participants. It is this desire for perfection that contributes to the veneration accorded to education in the country.
Attitude towards women (Schepers, 2006)
In Japan, the role of women is mostly inclined towards domestic chores. Women are supposed to give birth to children and bring them up, virtually single handedly. In most cases, “they spoil their boys and make all the decisions regarding their education with limited consultations with their husbands” (Schepers, 2006, p.27).
The term okusa, which means “Her Indoors”, is used when referring to women. Other responsibilities of women include conducting shopping for the family. Most of the Japanese desire to eat fresh food purchased on daily basis. Besides, their apartments are small leaving no space for stocking huge amount of foodstuffs (Schepers, 2006).
Consequently, the Japanese woman has to go on shopping on daily basis. With time, women have started opposing this attitude and are seeking to share responsibilities with men. A few young women are participating in business and politics. Nevertheless, for a woman to succeed in business or politics, she has to be more enlightened than men are.
Hard work is normal (Brockner, 2003)
Japanese have the attitude that everyone ought to work hard. No one is supposed to be pushed to work harder. All the Japanese commit themselves to working hard. Normally, they do not value leisure time, and in most cases, they sacrifice their free time to either work in their places of work or do some domestic chores. Unlike in the western countries, the Japanese do not take alcohol during the day (Brockner, 2003).
They believe that consuming alcohol during the day might affect one’s performance at workplaces. A study conducted in 2003 indicated that the Japanese worked for longer hours compared to workers from other developed countries. Nevertheless, this attitude is changing with time. Currently, some Japanese are taking leisure time seriously and opting to take a break from working and spend time with friends.
Appearance (Hong, et al., 2000)
There is a clear disparity between reality and appearance in Japan. This aspect “is expected in a community that highly values presentation, appearance, style and politeness, while at the same time trying to observe numerous feudal outlooks in a democratic and contemporary world” (Hong, et al., 2000, p.718).
These old-fashioned outlooks entail strong stances of social status, and involve involuntary submission and allegiance to those above. These deep-seated attitudes tend to contradict with more Western and current perspectives of equality and conventional ones of group unity and in any case some input in decision-making.
To avert potential contradictions and avoid embarrassment, “everybody accept that one ought to maintain a surface appearance even if a different reality is going on underneath” (Hong, et al. 2000, p.719). This makes it hard for individuals to delve through to the underneath reality, especially if they do not understand how the Japanese express themselves during conversations.
Religion (Beasley, 2003)
Japanese religion is exceptional in that most of the Japanese practice more than one religion at the same time. In a way, this religious practice has contributed to the ability by the Japanese to cope with varied complexities that arise in their business world (Beasley, 2003). Their indigenous religion is Shintoism and it concentrate on the pious forces of life and of specific trees, mountains, streams, water bodies and other geographical features associated with religious meaning.
During the middle ages, missionaries originating from Asian mainland introduced Mahayana Buddhism in Japan(Beasley, 2003). This religion spread during the epoch of Japanese segregation into markedly Japanese groups, like Zen.
The Zen brought in the belief in impulsive enlightenment, while Shingon Buddhism brought in the belief that enlightenment is a process that entails the transformation of both body and spirit (Beasley, 2003). It is this belief that influences the manner in which businesses are conducted in Japan. For instance, the Japanese uphold instinctive decision-making as an authentic criterion for response.
The elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in Japan Collectivism (Faramarz, 1998) (Gambrel,
Sociology of education Essay essay help online
Abstract Cognitive factors such as the poor performance by the students have been found to be major contributors to the student’s indiscipline. It is a well known fact that the major cause of indiscipline in schools is poor performance.
Most of the students who normally perform poorly in subjects such as math, languages or generally poor performers are highly undisciplined than those who perform highly in most of the subjects. Moreover, students that normally perform poorly are more likely to drop out of school than those that perform highly in most of the subjects taught in class.
This paper will be examining the relationship that exists between the low level of high school readers and the increased levels of discipline referrals that are being experienced. The study main question is whether the students that have low reading levels and little reading comprehension skills or the inability to decode create more discipline problems than grade level readers.
More specifically, the study tends to examine whether poor academic performance contributes to the students indiscipline. In order to thoroughly examine this question, a study was conducted using reading levels with a sample of students comprising of 30 black fresh students 17 girls and 13 males. The result indicated that low level readers do create more discipline problems in an effort to avoid reading or being in class.
Introduction Cognitive factors such as the poor performance by the students have been found to be major contributors to the student’s indiscipline. It is a well known fact that the major cause of indiscipline in schools is poor performance. Most of the students who normally perform poorly in subjects such as math, languages or generally poor performers are highly undisciplined than those who perform highly in most of the subjects.
The reason is that these students suffer from low self-esteem, self-confidence as well as motivation in their academic activities. Moreover, students that normally perform poorly are more likely to drop out of school than those that perform highly in most of the subjects taught in class. Also, lack of self-confidence and motivation has been cited as some of the reasons why such students drop out of school. Therefore, there exists a strong correlation between student academic performance and discipline.
Therefore this study will try to find the correlation between the reading levels and discipline among the students. The study will test the hypothesis that low reading levels contributes to the student’s discipline. The study will first provide background information in conjunction with relevant literature before embarking on the research methodology. The paper will then discuss the research findings before drawing the conclusions of the study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background information Reading is inarguably the most critical and vital skills that the students should gain from schools. The reason is that reading influences almost all aspects of academic disciplines. Due to its universality influence, competency in reading has remained a major concern in most of the schools.
Fluency is one of the characteristics of reading competency as well as the process. Fluency in reading can be defined as the ability to read connected texts effortlessly, rapidly, smoothly and automatically without any attention to mechanics of reading such as decoding (Mendez
Digital Business Management for Riley a digital online game and entertainment company. Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Abstract With ever changing economic environment digital information systems is vital for the survivability and growth of the business. Contemporary businesses not only derive enhanced information from the digital information system but also new opportunities for information sharing, joint utilization and the creation of knowledge. Therefore, the implementation of digital information is not just sufficient but necessary for the development and growth of the firm in the modern market place.
Thus, this report will provide a critical analysis of Riley’s website. This critical analysis will be based on how the company manages its digital information system, the business model adopted by the company including the online value proposition together with the online revenue model as well as the company website customer relationship management.
The analysis foundation frameworks stated are related to the company online business management. In fact, the analysis will provide vital information for the development of the company digital business. Further, the recommendations that will be provided after the analysis will be highly essential for the development of the company digital businesses.
Introduction Riley is a digital online game and entertainment company based in the UK. All business processes of the company are digitally conducted (Riley, 2012). This distinguishes the company from all other forms of online business. It also means that digital business management that the company adopts is of great importance in developing its business processes. The company offers different categories of products to individual consumers online.
Analyzing the digital management of the company website will provide a greater insight on how digital business strategies have contributed to the growth of its market share, development and increased profitability.
Further, the analysis of the company website will provide more information on the company adoption and implementation of the information systems that have enabled the integration of internal and external factors. Moreover, critical evaluation of the company website will provide more insight on how companies apply digital business management strategies to create relationships with both the internal and external environment for the development and growth of the company.
Background information The company website (https://www.rileys.co.uk/) provides the space through which all business activities take place. It forms the company business center where all transactions, marketing as well as operational activities are carried out. Though the business seems to be physically located, the integration of digital information systems provides a virtual location that is accessible and convenient to all its clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Like many of the digital type of businesses, the company has applied the information systems to set up a digital business through the use of its website (Riley, 2012). Moreover, the digital information systems have been applied in the development of the internet marketing as well as other business operations.
Statistics indicate that those companies that have applied digital information systems to develop their businesses have greater increase in their market share (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2011). This reason is that digital businesses use their websites to increase accessibility and convenience to their clients. In addition, information systems increase efficiency as well as reducing cost of the operations. Developing these competencies provides an added advantage to these businesses (Latham
Euripides’ Hippolytos Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Relationship between the deities
The relationship between humans and the divine
Introduction Hippolytus (428 B.C) is a tragic prince who likes hunting and chaste. He worships the goddess of “hunting and chastity, Artemis and ignores Aphrodite, the goddess of love” (Halleran 2001). Aphrodite is furious with this act of exclusion and plans to revenge. Aphrodite causes Phaedra (stepmother to Hippolytus) to “fall in love with Hippolytus” (Halleran 2001).
However, Hippolytus does not agree. As a result, Phaedra hangs herself and leaves a note behind accusing Hippolytus of rape. Theseus (Hippolytus’ father) reads the letter and curses Hippolytus. Consequently, Hippolytus dies. Artemis comes and tells the truth. However, the goddess promises to “revenge the death of Hippolytus on Aphrodite’s next favorite mortal before she disappears” (Halleran 2001). Revenge drives plots of this tragedy.
Aphrodite This is the goddess of love. The tragic play presents Aphrodite as feared and revengeful goddess of power. Aphrodite appearance in the prologue influences the whole play. Hippolytus refuses to worship Aphrodite, an act that infuriates the goddess. She plots a revenge on Hippolytus by making Phaedra fall in love with his step son.
This leads to a shameful death of “Phaedra and a curse upon Hippolytus leading to his death too” (Carson 2006). In this case, the goddess makes humans err by blinding them through irrational actions, “It is natural for men to err when gods blind them” (Halleran 2001, 29).
Artemis This is the goddess of chastity and hunt. Hippolytus is the favorite of this goddess as he prefers hunting and staying chaste and rejects worshipping the goddess of love. However, the vengeful goddess of love destroys Hippolytus.
As a result, Artemis promises a revenge of the death of Hippolytus through the next favorite of Aphrodite by asserting “I’ll wait till she loves a mortal next time, and with this hand, with these unerring arrows I’ll punish him” (Halleran 2001, 67). Artemis changes the play when she “appears in the epilogue in order to tell the truth to Theseus” (Halleran 2001, 66).
The Relationship between the deities Euripides portrayed the relationship between deities as opposing and responsible for human tragedies. Aphrodite is revengeful and infuriated goddess who punishes mortal Hippolytus for refusing to worship her. The goddesses are similar because both have vengeful nature. However, they also show differences, as one is love and sexual oriented whereas the other prefers hunting and staying chaste (Barret 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These goddesses oppose each other and are in fierce competition in order to control human destiny. Aphrodite is furious when Hippolytus fails to worship. Hippolytus is the Artemis favorite mortal. She cannot stop Aphrodite from taking her revenge on Hippolytus. This depicts that goddesses do not interfere with works of each other.
However, Artemis promises to avenge the death of Hippolytus through “the next favorite mortal of Aphrodite” (Halleran 2001, 67). This shows a fierce competition between goddesses. The goddesses are tolerant but also hostile. These goddesses also experience human emotions like anger, jealously, and desire to avenge. Such emotions create little differences between “human who worship them, and goddesses” (Carson 2006). Such goddesses have almost same characteristics as humans.
The relationship between humans and the divine We can see how goddesses influence actions of mortal characters who worship them and those who fail to worship them. Goddesses and human relationships seem to be that of give-and-take. Human give goddesses through prayers and sacrifices and expect goddesses to protect them in return. We can notice this relationship between Hippolytus and Artemis, and Theseus prayers for his father, Poseidon. However, goddesses had no obligation to return any favor to human as Artemis fails to protect Hippolytus.
Phaedra’s acts of falling in love with Hippolytus and subsequent suicide and the note are acts of the goddess, Aphrodite. Aphrodite influences the mental process of Phaedra as she looks crazy and makes her hid love she feels for her stepson. Upon the realization that truth about her love is out, Phaedra decides to kill herself due to shame. Aphrodite makes the death of Phaedra looks like Hippolytus’ mistake through the letter.
Hippolytus prayer for death after his banishment shows his relations to goddess. We can link this prayer as an act of asking help from Artemis. However, the goddess does nothing until Hippolytus faces death.
Some characters show concerns about relationships with goddesses. Hippolytus cares about his relationship with Artemis but does not care about Aphrodite. Theseus expresses concern why Hippolytus does not worship Aphrodite. However, Hippolytus does not care about “Aphrodite reactions to his behavior” (Carson 2006). This behavior angers Aphrodite.
Theseus expects god to send a bull that will kill Hippolytus. He also shows concerns for Artemis message. This message changes Theseus mind as he now believes he should die. However, Artemis must convince Theseus that Aphrodite blinded him (Carson 2006, 3).
We will write a custom Essay on Euripides’ Hippolytos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When Aphrodite takes control of Phaedra, Phaedra has “no control over her actions” (Carson 2006). Hippolytus also tells Artemis that his death should be in exile because of the accusation. Goddesses use humans for revenge despite the worship. However, goddesses fail to help humans when they are in great need. This may show that goddesses do not care about their subjects. Goddesses may react negatively due to some human behavior and subject them to suffering through revenge.
Human suffering brings joy and sorrow to goddesses. Aphrodite derives joy from suffering and deaths of Phaedra, Hippolytus, and Theseus. On the other hand, Artemis may feel sorrow for deaths and suffering of these characters; thus, she says “You and I are the chief sufferers Theseus” (Halleran 2001, 66). This may explain why she wants revenge.
Human can forgive each other as the case between Hippolytus, and Theseus. However, Aphrodite demonstrates that goddesses cannot forgive human for their behaviors. Man can realize his mistakes, and goddesses can make them react irrationally and foolishly; thus, Artemis says “It is natural for men to err when gods blind them” (Halleran 29). This is why Artemis does not blame Theseus.
Occasionally, gods may show concern for human suffering. However, humans may also misuse the power of gods to assert revenge. Theseus prays for the bull to kill Hippolytus, a prayer that Poseidon answers.
Conclusion The relationships are about “care and revenge among characters and their gods” (Barret 1964). Goddess desire for revenge also influences human prayers for revenge. Goddesses use humans as means of demonstrating their power and fulfill their competing interests. If Artemis avenges the death of Hippolytus, then it will be a continuous revenge whereby humans bear the greatest loss and suffering.
Humans show that they can forgive as opposed to gods they worship. Gods have the power to control and deceive humans, but fail to protect them when subjected to suffering and death. We may note that these characters live under the mercy of gods who can avenge and do not forgive. Thus, characters have to strive and live according to whishes of their gods.
Reference List Barret, Spencer. Euripides, Hippolytos, edited with Introduction and Commentary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964.
Carson, Anne. Grief Lessons: Four Plays by Euripides. New York: Review Books Classics, 2006.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Euripides’ Hippolytos by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Halleran, Michael. Euripides: Hippolytus. Michigan: Focus Publishing, 2001.
Conrad Hilton Leadership Styles and Principles Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Conrad Nicholas Hilton entered into business at the age of 21 after taking over his father’s stores. After a life in the military during the First World War, Conrad returned to New Mexico at the age of 31 to find his late father’s businesses ailing. He decided to venture into his own business. Conrad relocated to Texas with the aim of entering into banking but ended up buying a hotel. He would purchase more hotels in Texas thereafter following remarkable success.
In 1946, he formed Hilton Hotel Corporation after expanding the hotel business in the whole of United States. However, the Second World War halted his growth shortly and rendered him bankrupt for some time. He expanded the company operations worldwide and renamed it into Hilton Hotels International Company. He ventured into other businesses such as credit cards and car rentals.
He was tremendously successful in every financial venture he entered into before his natural death in 1979. Hilton had sharp business acumen. He had a great sense of direction and was goal-oriented. He once said that successful people keep moving and that there is connection between success and action. Even during calamities and slow business, Hilton remained strong and tenacious and was dedicated to his goals. He took risks, was persistent, and incessantly ambitious.
Additionally, he was socially philanthropic and caring. This paper will take a close look at the life of Conrad Hilton to ascertain his leadership styles and connect his principles to the leadership styles (Scott-Halsell, Shumate and Blum, 2008). However, the author will analyze the two leadership styles that perfectly embody Conrad Hilton (Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles) before connecting his life successes to them.
Transformational Leadership Style This style touches on the higher levels of satisfaction In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: self-actualization, fulfillment and esteem needs. Leaders in this category want to transcend the basic needs of a human being and to have a sense of life success. Sarros and Santora (2001) highlight four crucial characteristics that leaders in this category possess.
These are individualized attention, inspirational impetus, intellectual stimulation, and idealized influence. The leaders pass on these traits to their followers and encourage growth and realization of their goals. According to Scott-Halsell, Shumate and Blum (2008), leaders in this category have a high sense of charisma. This refutes the notion that charismatic leaders have a transformation sense because the opposite is true. Individualized attention refers to a considerable amount of interest in one’s employees.
Leaders realize that individuals are a crucial part of a success story and place considerable attention in their growth and motivation. They achieve this through delegation of tasks, encouraging two-way organizational communication, finding a way to work with different personalities, mentoring, and coaching programs (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inspirational motivation entails having a vision and encouraging workers to work towards achieving that vision. Leaders ensure that employees understand the importance of teamwork in realizing otherwise individually unachievable goals. Intellectual stimulation involves extending creativity and innovation to enhance rationalism. Sarros and Santora (2001) find that this is possible through a considerable self-challenge on the part of the leader.
This way, employees can follow through examples. Leaders, finally, use idealized influence to encourage their employees to meet extended goals. Leaders use ideal situations to show employees that certain goals are achievable. Additionally, leaders exemplify idealized influence through high moral standards, demonstrable determination, attracting admiration from employees and persistence. Followers do not have to be told about all these since they can easily find them in their leaders (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008).
Recently, Scott-Halsell, Blum,
Italy benefits and compensation Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Compensation is defined as the wages, salaries and bonuses that an employee gets while in employment. On the other hand, benefits describe the extra consideration that the employer offers to the employee. However, the employee is not expressly entitled to benefits. Benefits include health care packages, life insurance and any other form of payment to the employer which may be termed as paid off.
The amount set aside by companies for benefits appeal to employees and companies with high compensation rates hence attracting competent employees. Some companies make compensation of different employees to be dependent on the performance of the employees while others put it at a flat rate. It is also imperative to note that some compensations offered at the workplace is an attraction gesture while others are expressly provided by a designed policy (Boyes
Enabling business strategy with IT at the World Bank Essay writing essay help
Impact of information technology on the mission of the World Bank The twenty first century has seen the revolution in business operations using information technology as the main tool. Information and communication technology has been resourceful in the improvement and enhancement of business in both the manufacturing and service sectors.
In the service sector, the banking subsector has been benefiting a lot out of the acquisition and use of information and communication technology instruments in delivering services to customers. The World Bank is one of the major beneficiaries of the use of advanced information technology systems in enhancing service delivery to customers. The World Bank Group is the large source of funding in the world. Therefore, it has wide and expansive operations that extend to the entire world.
Owing to the expansiveness of the services being offered by the World Bank, it can be deduced with no doubt that the bank has an elaborate mission. The World Bank centers on reduction of poverty around the globe by providing financial services like loans to different projects in different countries around the world. Therefore, its activities involve the sharing of information and knowledge within a wide network of employees placed in different destinations across the globe (Mcfalan
Planning and responding to large scale disasters Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Nowadays, private sector is not prepared properly for dealing with the large scale disasters. There is an agency, FEMA, which is responsible for dealing with such disasters, however, it is neither designed nor resourced and authorized for such events. Leonard and Howitt (2006) point to the fact that the modern US legal sphere does not have enough regulatory aspects which could allow the government to construct the agency with could perform the role of the company which is to deal with disasters.
The absence of the infrastructure is another issue. Having a plan for dealing with disasters, it is not “a functioning, practiced, operable system” (Leonard
A Review and Comparison of the Personality Tests Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Construction of Personality Tests
Reliability of Personality Tests
Validity of Tests
Personality Tests and Employees
Introduction Personality tests are a method by which an individual’s proficiency and ability to be integrated within a corporate setting are evaluated based on their inherent personality attributes (Janda, 2001). The popularity of this method has considerably increased as of late due to the way in which it supposedly enables a company to “weed out” individuals who have the possibility of not being able to successfully integrate themselves into the company (Huprich, Pouliot,
The Company “cockpit for you” Case Study: Human Resource Management online essay help
Thematic Analysis As presented in this case study, the Company “cockpit for you” is struggling with multiple problems, which it has to solve in order to achieve its short-term and long-term objectives. The thematic areas that have negative influence on the company should be critically considered by the management in formulating the strategic policies.
This is core in organizational development because, if the influences emanating from the thematic areas are not addressed properly, the company risk loosing the targets it sets to achieve. In this regard, the areas include the following.
First, restructuring of a company is not easy since the company has to spend a lot of money in consulting for the best option that it should adopt. Moreover, the situation becomes worse if the restructuring is hurriedly done without formulating and following the procedure (Armstrong 2006, p. 27).
Considering the latest restructuring measures in the company, the modes of operation and employee relations changed, prompting the workers and management to adjust to the new production system. The alterations also led to changes in the company’s niche market, which affected the overall sales of the products in the market due to stiff competition.
The little competition that the company experiences also influences the operations in the organization. This is because limited competition reduces the probability of engaging in creativity and innovation in the production and the delivery of services (Houldsworth
Theory and Technical Integration Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
choose any five theories (with their accompanying techniques) and write a paper on (a) why you think this combination of theories and techniques would be germane to working with older adults (i.e. how is it applicable) and (b) how that approach would look while working with population. This 3-4 page APA paper (no references or title page needed). The Abstract can be your justification for why you have chosen this combination, and main body can delineate how you would apply this integrated approach with your clients.
Theories include: Psychoanalytic, Adlerian, Existential, Person-Centered, and Gestalt
Planning an Effective Strategic Event Report college essay help online
Introduction J Sainsbury PLC is a UK based company established in 1869 and currently it has grown to up to 890 stores across the globe. The company is a distinguished brand because of its heritage of offering its clients with fresh, healthy and tasty food stuffs which are safe for human health.
Given that it is such a high profile company, the events that precede the planning of trade fair should be equally eccentric and grandeur. This paper details the events for the launch of the trade fair.
Proposed Contingency Plan The plan for the launching events needs to consider a number of things that are important for the planning of the events of the launch. These events constitute things to consider for the preparation of the event and are:
Getting an ideal venue for the event that keeps in mind the theme and objectives of the function
Getting spacious venue that will be able to host all the invitees to the event
Setting up committee and teams to take care of invitees and handle all management issues pertaining to the event
Reception arrangements to avoid inconveniences for the invitees
Safety and health arrangements at the venue during emergencies
With these concerns in mind, the event management committee will institute three sub-committees that will have distinct roles for the organization of the events of the launch. These committees will be: Logistics team, Hospitality and Décor team and Emergency Response Team.
These three teams will work in conjunction and consultation and under the auspice of the Event Management Committee that will coordinate and oversee the overall performance of the teams. It is important to have this overseeing role done appropriately since it is the one factor that the success of the event will be predicated upon.
The teams are formed to meet specific requirements for the event with the kind of glamour reminiscent with the grandeur of trade fair event. To help organize the event adequately, the instituted teams will have the mandate to address the following concerns for the preparation the Launch of J Sainsbury PLC market in London.
Pre-Event Preparation The Event Management Committee
This committee will be the overall management team that will oversee the harmonious running and working of the other three teams. It will set the working plan and the timeline along which the preparation of the event will take place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The committee will then identify and outline the roles that need to be done towards the preparation of the event and then appoint members from the Event Management Company’s personnel to work in the three teams (Raynolds, Murray
The Truman Doctrine Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Historical background
Significance and Impact
Historical background The outcome of the World War II (WWII) led to emergence of two supers power; The United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). This meant that the two had assumed greater responsibility in world affairs.
They both embarked on setting up foundations that would establish them as the new masters of the new world, albeit with different approaches which were largely shaped by their traditional ideologies dating centuries ago. Because of fundamental differences in their ideologies; capitalism and communism, and having defeated a common enemy and therefore no common goal of union, divisions ensued.
The Soviet Union quickly and aggressively moved to establish its influence in Europe. It succeeded in Eastern and Central Europe and Far East Asia setting up communism governments in Bulgaria, Romania, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Northern Korea.
It further sought to maintain and expand its territorial control over Poland in disregard to the Yalta Accord which granted it control over Eastern Poland and left the North and West to the Polish government ironically going against one of the goals of the just concluded war; to stop territorial violations.
In the Middle East, the Soviet Union was reluctant to withdraw from Northern Iran as earlier agreed with Western Powers perhaps due to the huge oil resources in the region. In repositioning itself as the main power in Eastern Europe, it started seeking direct route to the Black sea; a passage that would have been beneficial in the event of an outbreak of war with the West.
This required that it presses Turkey to grant it access to Bosporus and Dardanelles Strait, something which was unlikely Turkey would accept. Soviet expansion tendencies even grew evident in the Far East where it continued its hold on Manchuria (the most highly industrialized portion of China) despite the surrender of Japan.
The Soviet Union also adopted a confrontational stance against the United States, at one point Stalin, the Soviet Leader, perhaps aware of United States sentiments about their expansions remarking that “conflict with the capitalist West was inevitable” (Watson, Gleek and Grillo 49). The Union had also shown great disinterest in diplomatic efforts by United States to maintain friendly ties in recent post-war treaties and accords.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prior to the World War II the US had “practiced a policy of isolationism” whereby, it did not actively participate in political affairs outside its boundaries (Watson et al.42). Even after the end of the World War II it did not start to aggressively sell it ideologies to friendly nations. However, it soon became impossible to ignore the growing expansion of the Soviet bloc.
Pressure starting mounting for it to act. In 1946 the media reported that a Soviet ring was working in the United States passing secrete information on nuclear programs to Kremlin. This created and elevated anti-soviet sentiments in the public. The Republicans also became critical of the ruling democrats policies towards the Soviets which they considered ‘soft ’and ineffective (Watson et al. 46).
In 1946, The United States sprang to action, withdrawing recognition of the communist Bulgarian government, openly supporting Iran on independence and strengthening ties with Turkey thus setting the stage for confrontation with the Soviet Union (Watson et al, 46). However, what would set off the containment of soviet expansion, and its eventual collapse would follow later.
Britain, under Winston Churchill also bore the brutality and ruinous effects of the WWII. At the end of war, it lost all of its vast colonial empire and harvested a dire financial crisis at home. This made it halt it financial obligations abroad. In the final days before its departure it formally requested the United States to take over the responsibility of Greece whom it had all along supported.
At this time, the Greek government was facing a financial crisis and an insurgency from communist groups in the north of the country. It was agreed that the Greek government had to be kept in power. It was feared its fall could have set a bad precedent and negatively impact on adoption of capitalism in the region (Watson et al. 48).
In addition, strategic Turkey had also to be economically supported to weaken Soviet infiltration and maintain order in its neighbors (Fried n.pag). Another important development in the build up to the containment policy was a situation-analysis telegram sent from the American ambassador to Moscow, George. F. Keenan.
In his telegram Keenan made a strong case for the containment of the growing spread of soviet influence over Europe. These developments presented an opportunity to formally launch a policy offensive against the Soviet Union and on March 12, 1947 President Harry S. Truman, in an address to a joint session of congress, requested for approval of economic aid to Greece and Turkey.
We will write a custom Essay on The Truman Doctrine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The speech marked the beginning of the policy of soviet containment. This policy came to be known as the Truman Doctrine and would significantly shape the United States foreign policy for many decades to come.
Significance and Impact In his speech, Truman stated that: “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure” (Hollitz 176).
This statement has been cited by many as the best indication of the policy which was later adopted and implemented, the policy of soviet containment. In an apparent reference to Soviet Union, he stated that:
“The… United States has made frequent protests against coercion and intimidation, in violation of the Yalta agreement in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. I…also state that in a number of countries, there have been similar developments” (Hollitz 176).
Truman also proposed that the policy be effected through help urging that “… our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and political processes” (Hollitz 176). In this respect he requested congress appropriate $400 million for military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece. This was later approved.
By acceding to Britain’s request, the US had formally assumed greater role and responsibility in these regions (Pulis 68). It also signified the start and was the basis of United States policy on ‘cold war’ which was characterized by large scale espionage activities between the two superpowers that continued late into the 20th century.
The Truman Doctrine had many lasting effects. It ushered an era of active involvement of United States in overseas affairs. It led the United States to actively pursue what it considered as vital interests abroad. The policy also completely polarized the world into east and west.
The West (United States and Western European nations) practiced and championed democratic system and capitalism. The East (Soviet Unions and its satellite nations) was governed on communism and socialism principles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Truman Doctrine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Legacy The Truman Doctrine has been hailed by many as a success for United States and its allies. Its proponents claim it succeeded in containing the spread of communism to Western Europe (Watson et al). They hold that the economic aid revamped the economies of these nations leading to peace and stability that is still enjoyed to date and that this was achieved without direct military intervention.
This has been attributed to massive economic aid under The Marshall Plan, which some believe was “simply an extension of the Truman Doctrine” (Pozuelo-Monfort 221). They also point out that the policy also contributed to the eventual disintegration and fall of other only other superpower, USSR (Fried).
The doctrine, to a large extend, also entrenched United States involvement in world affairs and buried centuries of policies of isolationism.It also significantly contributed to the US emerging as only superpower after the 1989 collapse of the Soviet Union and as the “leader of the free world” (Pulis 69).
David Fried, assistant secretary of state for European and Eurasian Affairs on the 60th anniversary of the Truman Doctrine wrote that it “cemented the promotion of democracy [and] in terms of human freedom and dignity, … represents perhaps the most successful foreign policy initiative undertaken by the United States”
Critism Opponents of the doctrine have claimed that it did not leave up to its promises of freeing the oppressed from totalitarian regimes. They cite cases where the United States supported anticommunist but openly tyrannical regimes in Philippines, Indonesia, Iran Nicaragua, Iran and Iraq (Briley n.pag).
They also claim that the doctrine “set the precedence of using troubled nations as pawns in a gigantic context of will with the Soviet Union” (Pulis, 69). Others have termed it as simply a calculated move to “dictate the domestic politics of foreign nations” (Watson et.al 49).
It has also been alleged that the anti-communism goal of the doctrine led to the ‘Cold War’ and wars in Korea and Vietnam that only served to create and “elevate global resentment towards the United States” (Briley n.pag).
Conclusion The implementation of Truman Doctrine policy certainly was without blemish. However, its overall outcome has years later, proved more beneficial to the world. Today much of the world enjoys peace and stability thanks to simple but strong statements outlined by a bold leader more than half century ago.
It should serve as a good example that the potential effects of a presidential doctrine of a powerful nation should never be taken lightly. It may greatly influence foreign policies for many years to come.
Work Cited Briley, Ron. “Mixed Legacy of the Truman Doctrine”. Milestonedocuments.com. Schlager Group, 29 Mar.2010.Web.23 Apr.2011.
Fried, Daniel.”Enduring Legacy”. NYtimes.com.New York Times Company, 12 Mar.2007. Web.
Hollitz, John. Contending Voices: Since1865 (vol 2).3rd ed. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2010.Print.
Pozuelo-Monfort, Jaime. New Architecture of Capitalism.Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. 2010. Print.
Pulis, Fred. Impact and Legacy Years. 1941, 1947, 1968.Bloomington: Traford Publishing, 2007.Print.
Watson, P Robert, Charles Gleek and Micheal Grillo. Presidential Doctrines: National Security from Woodrow Wilson to George W.Bush. New York: Nova Publisher, 2003. Web.
Differences in education theories in China and United States Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chinese social education theory
American education theories
Differences and conclusion
Introduction People of different cultures are bound to practice their customs and their own way of life in a manner that is not common to others. Regardless of the cultures, it is difficult to settle the differences that exist especially in the education and the society at large. In this paper, we are going to compare the education practices in China and American cultures.
The main cause of the differences of education theories is due to the fact that Chinese education system relies on Confucianism while the American system is based on egalitarianism. Confucianism revolves around critical stages and rituals in a lifetime of an individual while egalitarianism favors treatment of people as equals and that all people have an opportunity to excel.
Chinese social education theory Education system in china has a strong foundation on Chinese socialist theory which emphasizes that the aim of education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge to boost development and meet the demands of the society. Since current developments in technology rely on education, all efforts put on education in China are seen as investment and uplift to the economy.
The Chinese government has been facing crucial challenges with regard to industrial and agricultural production hence making the demand for training and labor rise. This has led the governments to run two parallel systems of education, for labor force from rural areas and urban centers. To a large extent, the Chinese education socialist theory borrows a lot of practices from the Marxist theory (Fairbank, 102).
American education theories Unlike China, American theories of education serve to meet the demands of the economy and politics. There are three theories of education that represent the American system of education. First, is the functionalist theory that states that universal education is meant to meet the needs of the community.
The proponents of the theory emphasize that the main goal of education is to give essential skills and knowledge to the coming generation. This theory of education has been considered to bring cohesion between people of different backgrounds especially the immigrants and Native Americans.
Another theory that explains the American system of education is the conflict theory. Just like the Chinese social theory of education, this theory explains that the purpose of education is to maintain inequity and keep power among the dominant people in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the theories, functional and conflict theory, education brings categorization or sorting in the society but disagree on how it occurs. Symbolic Interactions theory also explains the nature of education system in the United States and focuses mainly on what happens within a classroom setting.
This theory focuses on the ability of the teacher’s prospects to manipulate the performance and approach of learners. According to Chan, Khan, and Chan Chak (385), “students who are closer to teachers perform better and receive most attention.”
Differences and conclusion There are several differences that arise as a result of the theories of education in China and the United States. Parents participate actively in the performance of the child by using their investments, time and effort to steer them to higher institutions of learning. The education system is structured differently in that competition begins from kindergarten unlike the US system where it starts from High School.
For one to gain entry to the best schools, performance of tests and extracurricular activities in every stage is considered. Students begin choosing subjects at high school level which is not the same with the American system. Admissions into higher institutions of learning rely on the performance of the learner on extracurricular activities.
The learner is subjected to demonstrate his or her abilities in sporting events rather than American system which emphasizes on performance alone. These differences in the systems of education, though not much, arise as a result of the fundamental theories in the systems of education.
Works Cited Chan, Khan, and Chan Chak. Chinese culture, Social Work and Education Research. International social work, 48(4), 2005: 381-389.
Fairbank, Jean. China: A new History. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2006.
We will write a custom Essay on Differences in education theories in China and United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Critical Review: Czechs in British Literature Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help
The article is written by Joraslav Peprnik. The article is an overview of the Czech themes and figures, and other English literature topics (Peprnik 34). The survey of these factors is based on fiction, meaning there is no tangible evidence on these issues.
The Czechs were not mentioned by many writers in the past apart from Burton and Walton; but in the later centuries, starting from the 18th century, there emerged a lot of information about the Czechs.
The text gives a historical background of the Bohemia, its geographical position and related legendary history (Peprnik 34). The appropriate audience for this work should be scholars, who should be given a hint of the historical aspects related to Bohemia.
The article has a systemic representation of the events that occurred in the field of literature. It gives most of the events that have occurred in early times of Bohemia. In between 1558 and 1609 years, Bohemia was made famous by William Shakespeare in his “Winter’s Tale” (Peprnik 34).
The article looks critically into the life of the Bohemians, their life style and the criticism on the way they led their lives (Peprnik 36). This information was made available by the characters used in a number of plays that depicted Bohemia in the 14th Century (Peprnik 36).
The author does another comparison of Bohemia in the 17th Century using literature. In this century, the author touches on issues such wolf madness, which is shown in the artwork “The Anatomy of Melancholy” done by Robert Burton.
The madness had forced people to run to the graves but the act was not taken with the serious it deserved (Burton 13). Another work of the same year in Bohemia describes the Bishop as an expert in choosing a place for ponds and it depicts him as the authority in the fish age (Peprnik 36).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The artwork Daniel Defoes “Memoirs of a Cavalier” also gives reference to Bohemia. It describes the causes behind the birth of Protestants in Bohemia (Peprnik 36). The 19th century literature also describes Bohemia using work by Thomas Carlyle; the literature basically describes the legendary history of Bohemia.
The author also looks into the historical figures in the 18th to 20th century. The texts have looked at all the kings that were in Bohemia at that time. Some of the literature that describes the historic rulers of Bohemia is “William the Conqueror” that was done by Rudyard Kipling plus other literatures (Burton 13).
The author points out that location of Bohemia in Czech was described in literature. Some of the work that had description of Bohemia was “Tristram Shandy” that was done by Laurence Sterne. Other than the work, there were other books that had given a rational description of Bohemia’s physical location.
Another feature that is mentioned in the duration of 18th-20th century was Prague. The city is mentioned and described by the work of Daniel Defoe and George Eliot (Burton 13).
By 20th century, there were a number of literatures that depicted discoveries that were made by Czech explorers. The author also makes an analysis of literature that was prepared during the world wars. It depicts how Czechs refused to collaborate with the Nazis (Peprnik 36). It further depicts the discrimination that was accorded to the Czechs, which claimed they could not study any technical subject.
Literature of the 20th century has some aspects of sports in it and described Czech as a football nation. There were also the personal responses by the writers, through which every person had a specific way of representing Czech.
The literatures and descriptions by the author are systemic and they touch on many events in Czech. The author has used a lot of literature and books to relate and give a chronological representation of the events. In addition, the author was very keen in ensuring that all the aspects of Bohemia are represented. However, the author does not give us a clear correlation between fiction and reality.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critical Review: Czechs in British Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article does not give the challenges that were faced during presentation of Bohemia from ancient times to the present Czech. The article also fails to give an elaborate account of all attempts to bring all the evidence together. The article has helped the audience create a rough idea of Czech from the historic background to the present Czech.
In conclusion, literature can be used to give a precise account of a place or an event. Despite the fact that most literature uses fiction, there are traces of connection to the real world.
Works Cited Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is, With All the Kinds, Causes, Symptoms, Prognostics, and Several Cures of it. London, UK: J. Cuthell, 1821. Print.
Peprnik, Jaroslav. “Czechs in British Literature.” Perspectives 5 (1995): 32-38. Print.
Promotion: Gloria Jean’s Coffees Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction In every organisation, there are some key management decisions about marketing, which play a pivotal role in determining the performance of an organisation. Managers have the ability to control these variables in their attempt to maximize the satisfaction level of their customers.
These include the product, price, distribution and management. These variables are referred to as management mix. When combined in the right manner, these management mix variables contribute in improving the performance of an organisation.
To Gloria Jean’s coffees, promotion as a marketing strategy has significantly contributed to the company’s success. Gloria Jean’s coffees started as a family coffee shop near Chicago, United States, almost thirty years ago. Currently, Gloria Jean’s coffee has been ranked as the second largest coffee retailer in the world (Becatti, 2007).
Furthermore, the organisation has opened eight hundred stores all over the world. Gloria Jean’s coffee is the market leader in several countries. For instance, the company has dominated the market in Australia.
The company has been attracting cooperation of other companies due to its well developed reputation. For instance, the company joined hands with hospitality major Citymax India to launch a chain of coffee house across India in early 2008 (Rao, 2009).
Up to date, the company has been expanding. One strategy that has contributed to this rapid expansion is promotion. Recently, the company has opened a shop in South Africa. According to Becatti (2007), the company has recorded a rate of growth of between 35 and 45 percent since its establishment in February 2007.
In order to protect its market, the company should effectively apply promotion as a marketing policy mix. This will enable the company to maintain high level of sales.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As already noted, promotion is one of the main marketing mix variables used in maximizing the level of customer satisfaction. The promotion process involves selling the company’s product to the potential consumers.
Promotion tools used by Gloria Jean’s Coffees As already noted, Gloria Jean’s Coffees is one of the most successful coffee franchises in the world. The company has recorded a high rate of expansion and growth which has been the main factors which have contributed to its growth. The company’s success can be attributed to its well structured promotion strategy that is part of its marketing mix. The company uses several methods of promotion.
These include advertising, public relations, personal selling, media, and messages. Gloria Jean’s Coffees supplies each of its market with adequate marketing tools, a factor which has significantly contributed to its success (Gloria Jean’s Coffees, 2011). The company has applied intensively best practices in promotions as well as images in its effort to deliver in the markets its core values which involves adaptation to the local tastes
In advertising, Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company uses several types of media to pass information to the potential customers. In most cases, the company benefits from this method when it opens a new shop in a certain region. The company applies variety of media including print, broadcast and display media.
Television is one of the frequently used media by the company. One of the main advantages of using television is because it helps the company to reach a greater number of its target audience. Therefore, this media lowers the promotion cost per head. Through this method of advertisement, the company has managed to build its brand in the new market. This method has yielded good returns through increased sales revenue.
Another method of advertisement which has been applied by the Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company is the display media. This method has also significantly contributed in increasing sales of the organisation.
Through the display media, the company uses attractive pictures which easily draw the attention of the targeted audience in the market. Consequently, the company manages to pass information more easily to the group. One major advantage of this medium of advertisement is that it is more cost effective. It does not require large sums of money like in the case of television.
We will write a custom Essay on Promotion: Gloria Jean’s Coffees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advertisement as a method of promotion is associated with a number of advantages. To start with, advertisement is effective in reaching a wide range of audience (Trehan, M and Trehan, R., 2009).This is more so when advertising is conducted through a media which reaches a large number of people. The method will reach greater number of people compared to other methods like the sales promotion.
Another advantage of this method is that it is most effective in creating awareness. When the audience views a certain advert on television regularly, this increases their awareness of the product in the market. This builds their curiosity to try the new product. This significantly helps in increasing sales. Again, advertising helps in building customer trust through repetition of the main brand and product.
Despite these achievements of advertising as a method of promotion, it suffers some limitations. To start with, it is impersonal and, therefore, it becomes impossible to answer the customer’s questions (Lamb, 2009). However, when a product is introduced in a new market, customers usually have some questions about the product.
By using this method in promotion, Gloria Jean’s Coffees is limited in interacting with the customers effectively. For instance, the company sometimes needs to learn about the customers’ tastes and preferences. In this method of promotion, it becomes difficult to pick views from the potential customers. This may limit the success of promotion to some extent.
When used on its own, this method is not effective in making the customer to make their final decisions in purchasing the product. In other words, this method is not solely reliable in convincing the customers to purchase the product.
Sales promotion is another method which the company has employed in promotion. Sales promotion has also significantly helped the organisation to boost sales volume. In addition, sales promotion has been of great importance in creating consumer awareness. Through promotion, the company has managed to make their potential customers aware of the product in the market.
This method has been of great importance when the company is venturing into new markets. As already noted, the company has been growing at a very high rate. For instance, it has opened a new shop at Johannesburg. In such a region, most of the people may not be aware of the company’s product.
In this case, it becomes very difficult to sell the product in such market. However, the company has managed to bring awareness to the potential customers through sales promotion. This attracts customers hence increasing the level of sales.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Promotion: Gloria Jean’s Coffees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One advantage of using sales promotion is that it can stimulate quick increases in sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products. These can significantly help in improving the performance of the organisation in the short run. This method has helped Gloria Jean’s Coffees in increasing the sales in their market networks.
However, this method of promotion suffers from the fact that excessive promotion can be dangerous. For instance, customers may get used to the effect in the long-run. Again, promotion can also be harmful on the fact that it may damage the image of the brand (Trehan, M and Trehan, R., 2009).
This is a process where the sellers engage in oral communication with the potential buyers with an aim of making a sale. This method has significantly helped Gloria Jean’s Coffees increasing the level of sales. Through this method, the company manages to convince potential customers to consume its products. This helps in winning consumers from the competitors in the coffee market.
One advantage of this method is that it is interactive and, therefore, possible to get the feedback from the customers on their views on the product. This helps the company in analyzing the tastes of consumers in a certain region. Through this method, the company manages to pass important details about its product to its customers.
This method, however, suffers from the limitation that it is not possible to reach a very large number of people. Therefore, it proves impotent in some cases whereto the market is too big. This method is also costly as it requires the organisation to hire more sales force which comes along with hidden costs. This has negatively affected the productivity of the organisation.
According to Pezzullo (1998), public relations play an important role in helping an organisation and its public in adapting mutually to each other. Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company has used public relations in increasing its sales.
The company uses this method by creating a good image in the eyes of the public through media hence encouraging positive commentary from them. This significantly contributes in promoting the company products in a certain market.
One advantage of this method is that is possible to reach a large number of customers (Tutor2, 2011). This reduces the average costs of marketing the product. The message sent through public relations seems more credible as they are viewed as coming from different parties (Tutor2, 2011). This improves on the effectiveness in enticing consumers to buy the product.
Public relations tools like magazines and newspapers have been of great importance to Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company while venturing in markets all over the world where the company is not widely known. In such areas, the company uses the local media in building its credibility.
This method suffers from the fact that the company may lose control. For instance, Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company cannot convince all the people what to say or write about them.
Importance of promotion as a policy mix In every organisation, promotion is a very important practice in determining the success of an organisation. This is because the level of sales which a company makes is determined by the effectiveness of its promotional process. Therefore, it is necessary for organizations to invest in promotional activities.
In the current business world, many consumers have developed a culture of looking for the promotions before purchasing (Anonymous, 1999). Therefore, it is important to conduct promotion in order to attract such kinds of consumers in an organisation.
Another importance of promotion to the organisation is provision an extra incentive to purchase. For instance, by providing promotions to the consumers, it gives them a chance to realize the quality of the product. This can significantly help in attracting potential customers to start consuming the product.
Another importance of promotion to Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company is that the process has led to an increase in impulse buying.
When the company engages in promotional activities, some customers are enticed to buy even without the plans to do so. In the process, the organisation manages to increase the level of its sales significantly. The promotional practices also create excitement among the employees. This further provides an incentive to buy more of the company’s products.
Promotion as one of the marketing mix plays a very important role every organisation. In the current business world, the market has become very competitive than any other time. Consumer expectations have also significantly changed. This situation has increased the need to have a clear promotion strategy. To Gloria Jeans Coffee’s, promotion has contributed to the success of the organisation in various ways.
For instance, the company’s growth is expected to be about 20 per cent as a result of the extended promotional strategy. Through promotional activities, the company has reduced any confusion to the consumer in the oversaturated market where the communities are very common to each other.
According to Gersowky, the word of mouth has significantly promoted the company’s products through the promotion activities. This has contributed in building the brand which promotes the level of sales.
In its effort to venture into new markets, the company is forced to launch its new products. In this process, the company has to create awareness of the different product offerings so that the customer can be informed about the products while purchasing.
Some limitations of promotion to the organisation Despite these achievements related to the promotional activities at Gloria Jean’s Coffees, the company has faced several limitations from these activities.
One of the main reverse effects of promotion activities is that some consumers may just sit back and wait for the incentives. In such cases, the organisation fails to realize the desired aims of promotional activities. This implies that the company does not compensate for the funds spent in providing incentives to such consumers.
In executing promotion as a marketing mix, the company incurs some costs. This has significantly reduced the profit margins of the company. Again, customers may tend to stock up during the promotion process which reduces the level of sales significantly. In this case, the promotional activities bring about reverse effects. When this happens, the promotional exercise fails as it will lead to losses.
Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that promotion has played a pivotal role at Gloria Jean’s Coffees Company. Promotion is significant as it has helped the organisation in selling its products to its potential customers. Without promotion, very few people will be aware of a particular product which is provided by an organisation in the market.
In other words, promotion has helped the company in informing its potential customers on the presence of its product in the market. As we have already seen, Gloria Jean’s Coffees company has managed to spread its stores across the world through its ability to spread its promotional activities, a factor which has led to high level of sales.
Promotion practices have also helped the organisation in enticing the customers to purchase its products. This is more so in the current market world which is characterized by a very high level of competition.
The major concern of any business is to maximize its profits. The main way through which a business can increase its profits is by maximizing its level of sales. If an organisation cannot manage to sell what it produces, then it cannot be able to make maximum sales.
As already seen, the best way through which an organisation can do this is through promotion. Therefore, promotion as a marketing mix tool has significantly contributed in improving the profitability of Gloria Jean’s Coffees.
Reference List Anonymous. 1999. The Marketing Mix (The 4 P’s of Marketing). Web.
Becatti, F. 2007. Marketing Mix: Strategic Marketing Insight. Vol 25 Issue No. 7/8 I 2007 I R25. Web.
Gloria Jean’s Coffees. 2011. Immersed Marketing. Web.
Lamb, C. 2009. Marketing. Canada, Cengage Learning.
Pezzullo, M. 1998. Marketing financial services. U.S.A.: Kogan Page Publishers.
Rao, R. 2010. Coffee – Other brands. Web.
Trehan, M. and Trehan, R. 2009. Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: FK Publications.
Tuto2. 2011. Promotion – introduction to the promotional mix. Web.
Trident Support Company Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Strategic Management Concepts
Five Forces Analysis
Introduction David Chamber (who was a determined entrepreneur), started working with a small company in California in order to cater for his family. This company was involved in landscaping the gardens of rich people located in his home area.
Years later, he was invited by one of the clients in Abu Dhabi where he was to work in the client’s company together with another worker called Sheik. It is in this company that David started the whole idea of building flagpoles after he was asked to make one by Sheik. This made him to start a company called Trident Support Company.
Strategic Management Concepts Trident Support Company had some goals which marked their first segment of strategic management concepts. Their goals were to be the leading producers of poles in order to meet the high demand and to expand their market by selling their products throughout the world. According to Menon, (1999) management strategies have major impact on an industry’s well-being in the market.
After having these goals, the company had a developed business strategy, which included actions and plans that would help achieve these goals. The company decided that, in order to sell more poles, it would subsequently increase the length of the poles by one metre. Another plan was to come up with tall cranes, which would assist in raising the flags as the poles increased in height.
According to Lamb, (1984) evaluating is an important aspect in that; it considers whether the strategies applied were done as required or not. In its evaluation, the company trained a team on how to raise flags, repair and lower them. The training of the team imparted expertise on how to use the crane. The company also manufactured steel in Dubai and shipped it to the manufacturing points.
SWOT Analysis The strength of Trident Support Company was that, it had capability of building the tallest flagpoles in the world. The company created a flagpole with a height of 165 metres for Dushanbe city which was the capital of Tajikistan. The company was monopolistic, which enabled it to control the market. This was confessed by members of Guinness World Record ltd.
One of the company’s weaknesses is that it didn’t have a defined pricing strategy. This is evident in that it had standard price for the poles it made for different clients. The company was small. This meant that it had few workers and infrastructure. This made the company spend more time in completing one pole, despite the high demand in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Trident Company had numerous opportunities. Ambitious nations hired the company to build flagpoles for them, which would get them on top of the record.
The company’s order book was bulging. Its entries included: a flagpole in South Africa before the world cup with a height of 60 metres, one at Yas Marina circuit with a height of 38 metres and a flag measuring 35 metres by 70 metre for Azerbaijan to coincide with the country’s national day.
Threats facing the company included heavy winds in Baku which made the flags to be changed after every three days. The increasing height of the flagpoles called for larger cranes needed to erect them. This caused complications at Dushanbe and Tajikistan making them use helicopters.
PESTEL Analysis Trident company faced a changing political environment just like any other company. Since the company was going global, governments competed for holding the record. The government of Azerbaijani ordered one to break a record held by Aqaba that would measure 492 feet.
The economic status of different countries affected the company’s pricing as the raw materials became expensive. The poles cost millions of dollars, but countries rich in oil deposits barely had a problem with the cost. A pole in Baku cost $4 million and that was not a problem to the country.
Social factors also affected the company in its operations. The company did a research and hired the right people who had a positive attitude towards work. These composed of fifteen employees and subcontractors. The company admired working in the United States in order for workers to move back home to their families.
Technological factors such as having taller cranes than the ones they were using affected the height of flagpoles that the company built. The company believed that it could build a pole of up to 220 metres provided the large cranes were in place. Lack of large cranes made the company use helicopters which required experienced people to operate.
We will write a custom Essay on Trident Support Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the flagpoles increased in height the altitude change brought different weather conditions. The company made flags from nylon and polyester and as the altitude increased, the flags were subjected to strong winds which tore them. This called for regular repairs. The heavy winds in Baku destroyed the flag in only three days while in other places it could last for some weeks.
Legal factors had impacted on Trident Support Company. These factors included rules that acted as guidelines. The company had employees and Subcontractors. The Company therefore had obligations to meet in terms of honouring contracts and employment terms.
Five Forces Analysis Trident company had a less competition. The only competition came from U.S. Flag
Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA Research Paper college admission essay help
Description of Oysters and Clams Oyster is a type of seafood with high nutritional value both to marine life and human beings. Experts note that the plant is normally high in fat, protein, Iron and Vitamin D (Judy, 2010). However, oysters are not only part of marine and human nutritional delicacies; they are also an integral part of the sea environment. In the US Gulf coast, oysters are located near the shores (Freeman, 2010).
Due to the close proximity to dry land, oysters and clams play a vital role in the prevention of shoreline and wetland erosion because they act as a natural barrier to slow down tidal waves (which cause wetland erosion).
Due to this reason (and several subsequent factors), oysters and clams contribute significantly to the environment because besides purifying seawater, Oysters and Clams are aquatic plants that provide shelter to other marine life (Freeman, 2010, p. 1). In the purification of seawater, oysters prevent the occurrence of algal bloom.
This is the major reason why oysters and clams are usually perceived to be the backbone of marine life since they are at the centre of the food chain, providing food to other aquatic life.
Despite the integral role oysters and clams play in the sea ecosystem, sea pollution (like the recent BP oil disaster) significantly affects sea eco-balance and subsequently, the sustainability of seafood for humans. This study analyses the impact of the BP oil disaster on the Gulf Coast of Mexico.
Immediate Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams Though it is scientifically proved that adult oysters can potentially reduce the harmful impact of toxic petrochemicals, it is also a well-known fact that these petrochemicals can significantly kill oyster larvae (Freeman, 2010, p. 1).
This effect is only felt in the short-term because in the long-term, it is feared that the chemical dispersants which were used to break the oil cover may have a long-lasting impact on the oysters. The method used to eliminate the oil spill (through fresh water release) was also disastrous to the beds of oysters and clams because it killed all growing oysters in the region (Freeman, 2010, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Freeman (2010) affirms that “…..importantly, this freshwater release killed the oysters growing on the interior of the estuaries, an area protected from the oil and chemicals that were washing up on the intertidal oyster beds along the coast” (p. 1).
There were more concerns registered from environmental officials analyzing the impact of the oil spill because it was feared that the chemicals used were killing the oysters and clams too.
It was also reported that the oil spill also negatively affected the reproduction of oysters because they normally produce sperms and eggs in the water to fuse and grow into oysters, but the oil spill caused them to close their shells and eventually suffocate the oyster larvae (Weise, 2010).
Current Impact of the Oil Spill’s on Oysters and Clams The real impact of the BP oil disaster on the oysters and clams cannot be easily quantified because it is feared that small sea animals may have consumed the petrochemicals from the oil spill (plus the chemicals used to curb the oil spill). These small sea animals will consequently be eaten by larger fish and finally by humans, to affect comprehensively the general eco-balance of sea life.
Already, oyster growth and numbers have been severely affected by the oil spill and it is still difficult to quantify the damage caused by their death on sea life. Moreover, scientists have observed that it is sometimes difficult to quantify the real impact of the oil spill because the effect of the oil impact is interlinked with other disasters waiting to happen (Judy, 2010, p. 3).
However, it is assumed that some adult oysters may not have been severely affected by the oil spill because they have the capability of reducing the negative effect of the toxins. However, the small oyster larvae may have died in large numbers.
The reason, why it is said that mature oysters may potentially survive the oil spill is because when mature oysters taste oil, they close as a result. Though they may not increase in number (because of the curtailing effect of the oil spill), it is assumed that the plants will generally survive (Judy, 2010, p. 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Long-term Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams The long- term impact of the oil spill on the oysters and clams is not easy to determine because the larvae are said to die from the effects of the oil spill but the mature oysters are said to survive the oil spill (Freeman, 2010, p. 2). However, it should be noted that the oil spill significantly affected the oyster beds and this may have a long-term impact on the number of oysters in the sea.
Consequently, this means that the number of oysters and clams will potentially reduce, but the situation will normalize once the reproduction process of the oysters start again.
Nonetheless, as a result of the reduction in oyster numbers, the marine ecosystem maybe affected because the eco-balance will be destabilized. The situation is expected to normalize after a year because the oil disaster struck at the reproduction period and it may take another year for the situation to normalize again.
Impact of the Oil Spill on the Louisiana Economy Impact on Economy during the Spill
Effect on Fishing Industry
The BP oil disaster was identified to have significantly affected the operation of the Louisiana economy because Louisiana is known to supply about 40% of America’s seafood (Weise, 2010). Because of health reasons, some of the oyster beds along the Louisiana coastline were closed.
This closure was bound to affect the supply of seafood in America and consequently the economy of Louisiana because for example, about 23% of all red-snapper fish caught in the US came from the state of Louisiana.
Moreover, since fish can swim away from the zone of oil spillage, it is feared that subsequent harvests are bound to be affected by the fish migration. Consequently, Louisiana fishers are bound to be significantly affected, in terms of low fish production.
Effect on Oil Industry
The oil spill had a significant impact on the economy of Louisiana and the surrounding marine life, but in the same manner, there was also a significant impact on the oil industry.
Not to mention the volumes of oil lost in the spillage, one significant impact of the oil disaster was the financial damages brought about by law suits and cost directed towards clearing the oil spill. In total, BP lost millions of dollars in financial damages and costs that went into restoring the company’s image and reputation in the eyes of the public.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effect on Restaurants and Tourism
The hospitality industry also suffered great losses as a result of the oil spill because restaurants suffered insufficient supply of seafood because of the death of sea animals and the ensuing health risks posed by the oil spill on seafood.
Tourism was equally affected because the sea was polluted with petrochemicals from the oil spill and in the same manner; the sea was also polluted by chemicals meant to clear the oil spill. Hotels and resorts were therefore significantly affected because leisure activities at the shores were prohibited, consequently leading to a low turnout of visitors.
Current Impact on the Louisiana Economy
Currently, the fishing industry is slowly recovering from the impact of the oil spill after it was cleared. However, the industry is still wiling under the long-term effects of the oil spill because the population of oysters reduced as a result of the oil spill and consequently, fishers have to deal with competition from other seafood suppliers who have invaded its primary market to supplement its shortfall.
After the oil spill, the oil industry is still suffering from the effects of negative publicity as a result of the extensive damage the oil spill did on the environment and people’s livelihoods. It may probably take a long time before public confidence is restored.
Restaurants and Tourism
Restaurants and the tourism sectors also have to contend with waning public confidence about the impact of the oil spill on their services. For instance, many customers are now shunning seafoods in restaurants because of the fear that it may be unsafe to consume seafood because of the negative impact of the oil spill on aquatic life. Tourism is also suffering in the same regard because many visitors are still not confident to use the sea.
Cleaning After the Spill
After the oil spill cleanup, the sea situation has not come back to normal because scientists are still grappling with the problem of transferring oyster larvae from healthy sources into the affected areas.
After this process is completed, it may take a long time before the situation goes back to normal. In concurrence to these efforts, environmental bodies have also sued BP for the environmental damages it has caused. Most of these cases are yet to be finalized (Mcgill, 2011).
Conclusion The BP oil spill has caused extensive damages not only to the environment but people’s livelihoods as well. It is difficult to undo such a disaster in a couple of weeks or months and therefore the impact of the oil spill is yet to be completely eliminated.
More so, its impact on the growth of oysters and clams may have a long-term impact on the marine ecosystem and therefore the comprehensive damage of the oil spill cannot be accurately determined. Nonetheless, it is no doubt that the effect of the oil spill is very extensive.
References Freeman, M. (2010). The Oil Spill’s Impact on Gulf Coast Oysters. Web.
Judy, J. (2010). Oil Spill Threatens Gulf Oysters, May Impact Seafood Worldwide. Web.
Mcgill, K. (2011). Lingering Effects of BP Oil Spill Topic for Oyster Industry Leaders. Web.
Weise, E. (2010). Spill’s Effects Unlikely To Make Way to Grocery Aisles. Web.
Please read attached file Hide Assignment Information Turnitin® Turnitin® enabledThis assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®. Instructions Milestone Two: Environmental essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Please read attached file Hide Assignment Information Turnitin® Turnitin® enabledThis assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®. Instructions Milestone Two: Environmental and Industry Analysis Chapter 3 gives a good overview of Environmental issues, while the article located in the module reading and resources area will support your analysis. The Environmental Analysis consists of two major elements, 1) an analysis of the internal factors that effect a small business and 2) external factors that effect a small business. The internal analysis assesses the strengths and weaknesses of your company. It identifies what it is that your company can do well, as well as what it can do better. The external analysis assesses the opportunities and threats present at the time the business plan is written. Use the external analysis to identify trends and changes that are happening outside of a company’s control (at the local, national, and/or international levels) which may influence the future of the business. Such external categories as economic, competitive, legal, political, cultural, and technological can all affect your business and should be included in the external analysis. Also, you will do an industry analysis that will describe the industry within which your business will operate. In your analysis, include the size of the industry (amount of revenue generated) and whether the industry is growing, stable, or declining. Also, focus on specific industry trends. To complete this assignment, review the prompt and grading rubric in the Final Project Guidelines And Rubric document. When you have finished your work, submit the assignment here for grading and instructor feedback. **I approve of the Project Proposal for your Final Project: Business Plan Purpose – Startup/Restaurant, Business Name – Community Delicacies, Business Structure -??. For this assignment, I suggest you presume the grand opening for 6-12 months from now (March – August 2022). Now that I have approved of your business idea for the final project, Milestone 1 becomes the Company Overview section of the final version of the Business Plan. Milestone 1 may be written in 1st person; however, the Company Overview section of the final Business Plan and all remaining milestones (2-7) must be written in 3rd person.
Organizational Capabilities of Consulting Company Essay scholarship essay help
We are glad to receive your request for information. Our company works in the field of consulting for more than ten years. Over this period we have already gained trust of a large number of clients. This company specializes in the following areas: technology implementation, change management, strategy development, operational improvement, technology implementation, and employee training.
We have already assisted several companies that underwent mergers and acquisitions. Moreover, we have already worker with those organizations which needed to prepare, guide and assess the merging of networks. If you refer to them, they will tell you that our consulting firm gives the best price-quality ratio.
Executive Management This diagram presents the services our company and its structured development. It shows how various departments of our company interact with one another.
This are the services which we can offer to you. Our IT consultants, HR managers and financial accounts can assist you with implementation of this project.
Our team of consultants can address various aspects of your network mergers. The IT experts will determine the IT needs of the two companies. They will make sure that the two networks perform to their full capacity.
Their work will be based on continuous cooperation with your managers and administrators and they will take into account the opinion of different stakeholders. Moreover, our HR consultant will help your company to develop training for the personnel. These people have in-depth experience in this area and they will do their best help you with the network design.
Our consultants will evaluate various alternatives what your company can choose from and provide you with information about the possible costs entailed by this project. They will help you with selection of equipment and software solutions. Their assistance will allow you to minimize the costs at no expense for the quality of network design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the merger is completed, we will conduct follow-up assessment of the network design. We know that you as our prospective client value meticulous planning, attentiveness toward customer needs, integrity, and continuous improvement. Our consultants attach great importance to each of these things and you can expect them from us.
There are several things that our consulting company can offer to you. One of them is complete confidentiality; we ensure that the information provided to us by our clients is never transferred to any third-parties.
Secondly, our consulting company guarantees customization of our services; we never offer generic strategies to our clients. The recommendations, provided by our consultants are always based on in-depth research of the situation within the company, its managerial policies, organizational structure, or financial performance. Thirdly, accountability is another thing you can expect from us.
Our consultants provide regular reports about their progress. In addition to that, out consulting firm ensures that customers are directly involved into decision-making. Our consultants always inform the clients about the options available to them and explain their advantages and disadvantages. By using the services of our consulting firm, you will ensure that your best interests are strongly upheld.
Reference List Alred. G. Brusaw C. Oliu W. 2006 Handbook of technical writing. London: St. Martin’s Press.
Oppenheimer P. (2004). Top-down network design. NY: Cisco Press.
Consumer Behaviour: Effects of Taglines as a Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
To break even and maintain competitive advantage in the ever changing business environment of the 21st century, companies around the world are employing a broad range of advertising and marketing strategies specifically aimed at appealing to the consumers’ most intrinsic and latent motives regarding their purchasing or spending behaviour.
Company taglines, also known as slogans, are one such technique that has found wide usage within the marketing industry. This essay purposes to evaluate the outcomes companies hope to achieve by employing taglines and if the strategy is working in the broader marketing domain.
Jackson Hewitt, a tax preparation company operating in a number of countries, has a tagline “you get more in return”, while Pemco Insurance has a popular tagline asserting that “safe drivers get it.” Through the use of such slogans, companies, more than anything else, aim to convey information on the product or service on offer as well as to occupy prime consumers’ memory space.
The memory space is inarguably influenced by the appeal made by the tagline to their latent motives, especially when it comes to purchasing or buying behaviour. In this perspective, a tagline or slogan reinforce consumers’ brand awareness, brand identity, brand evaluations, and brand loyalty by serving as a memory aid (Rosengren
Wal-Mart and Tesco Incorporation Dissertation college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Wal-mart Analysis and Interpretation of Sales and Profit Figures
Wal-Mart and Tesco operate within the retail industry. Wal-Mart Stores Incorporation has a number of retail stores under different formats which are distributed around the world. In the United States, Wal-Mart operates three main formats which include Sam’s Club, International and Wal-Mart US. Since its inception, Wal-Mart has been committed towards saving the customers money (EBIT Financial Analysis Center. 2011, para. 4).
Over the past few years, Wal-Mart and Tesco have been successful as a result of effective management. On the other hand, Wal-Mart has incorporated a low pricing strategy which enables it to attract a large number of customers.
Besides, the store stocks a large assortment of goods to as to be able to have a constant market for the different products. However, as a result of the 2007 economic recession, the firms experienced a significant reduction in their sales level. The table below illustrates Wal-Mart’s growth in sales over the past five years.
Gross and Net Profit Margin
According to Booker (2006, p. 34), these ratios are used to indicate a firm’s profitability. Wal-Mart has experienced a rise in its profitability for the past five years. However, Wal-Mart’s profitability has been relatively high compared to Tesco’s. Its gross and net profit margins have been on an upward trend as illustrated in table 2.
According to Pinson (2008, p. 115), a high gross profit margin indicates the efficiency of the firm in paying for the goods. From the chart below, the rise in the firm’s gross profit margin indicates that Wal-Mart has been effective in paying for its goods.
Operating Profit Margin
This ratio describes the proportion of a company’s revenue that remains after the company has settled its cost variables. An efficient company should have a relatively high operating profit margin for it to be able to take care of its fixed expenses. Wal-Mart has been effective in improving its operating profit margin. On the other hand, its operating profit margin for the past five years has been fluctuating.
Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Ratios Return on Assets (ROA)
This ratio indicates a firm’s effectiveness in utilizing its assets to generate profits (Needles, Powers
Union Management: The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Term Paper essay help free
Introduction Nowadays, the role of unions in society is great indeed. People want to gather their opportunities and skills in order to create appropriate groups and promote their ideas to improve the quality of life. Each union is a kind of democratic organization the members of which support an idea of improving the working conditions by means of a number of voices which should have certain power.
It is hard to define why one particular union is powerful and another group of people is not able to organize the work accordingly. The point is that administrative changes which take place in unions, organizational activities, and impediments may be of different nature, and each union has to consider its own possibilities to overcome the challenges and create appropriate conditions for development.
In this paper, the conditions under which the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) union has to be developed will be evaluated. The chosen local union, IBEW-1250, serves South Dakota and some parts of Nebraska from 1941 (“Local # 1250”, n.d.) and has a number of positive and negative aspects.
Its strengths lie in the abilities to create good leadership, introduce appropriate financial practices, make use of growth strategies, and organize constructive membership meetings. However, there are also some weaknesses which show that company’s administration has a number of goals to strive for. They are as follows: involvement of members to union’s activities and promotion of the required union’s culture among its members.
The current administration of the International Brotherhood of Electric Workers 1250 shows how it is possible to improve the conditions under which the union may exist; still, the evident weaknesses prove that the union has a number of steps to be taken to achieve better results and create the atmosphere under which the impediments such as poor control of members’ involvement or wrong attitude to union’s culture may be overcome by means of proper placement of local resources as well as communication methods and meetings’ organization.
About the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
According to Clark (2009), union effectiveness is considered to be rather complex and highly dynamic concept by means of which three aspects of the union are evaluated: the possibility to organize new members, evaluate the outcomes of the collective efforts, and consider the effects of the union on society (p. 6). The IBEW is the union that strives for effectiveness and tries to attract the attention of society by a variety of means.
The peculiar feature of the union is that it is still considered to be one of the oldest electrical unions in the whole world those purpose is to make uses of the skills of each member in order to create better life for every citizen (“History of IBEW”, n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company takes into consideration a variety of spheres such as telecommunications, manufacturing, government, constructions, and even railroads to admit the problems and do everything possible to improve the situation. Taking into account the variety of purposes and attempts, it is not a surprise to observe some problems within the administration of the company.
However, it is not the reason to start thinking that the success of the company is under some doubts. What is actually required to be done is the evaluation of the administrative activities and introduction of the strategies which may be implemented by the company.
Strong Aspects of the Union
The IBEW is the union with strong financial practices: within a short period of time, the company tries to organize annual budget meetings and define the weaknesses of the system. The revision of previous budgets allows the union to identify the spheres in which the company is good enough.
According to Lund (2005), “every private or federal government sector labor union, as well as public employee local unions with one of more private sector union members, must file a financial report with the U.S. Department of Labor” (p. 9). This is why in regard to Lund’s management of finances, the union under analysis does right to promote the improvement of the system.
Talking about the communication system, Clark (2009) defines that each union is free to share information in a variety of ways. The IBEW 1250 chooses the following ideas to engage the citizens to their activities: newsletters aim at informing people about coming events, development of the local website where all the necessary contact information, service description, and helpful tips are offered.
Formal and information socialization is defined by Clark (2009) as the necessary orientation programs which are conducted by the members of the union in order to introduce new members. However, some challenges in the orientation programs still take place as not all members are able to participate in discussions and share their opinions.
In other words, members’ involvement is not as bright as the union wants it to be, this is why it seems to be useful to consider the ideas offered by Clark or other researchers and implement some of them on practice.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Union Management: The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The point is that the union should organize the orientation program earlier than the members will know about it. The quality of the program depends on how the members understand their rights and duties, and the union under consideration fails to organize the necessary preparatory steps beforehand.
The importance of the public image has to be also discussed in the chosen context. The point is that the IBEW tries to use different methods to promote the chosen image. First of all, it is the participation in different events by means of which people are free to know more about the activities developed by the union.
For example, the Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is the competition under the conditions of which some innovative eco-friendly designs are offered. Local 1250 finds it interesting to participate in such activities as students get a chance to learn more about the conditions under which the union is organized. The name of the union is mentioned on boars, T-shirts, and flyers.
Clark (2009) admits that the role of media is huge indeed for the company that tries to improve its public image. However, it is not always possible to use media and avoid some unpleasant situations.
This is why even too frequent usage of media does not prevent the union from the threat of lower rates of members’ involvement into union’s activities. Even promotion of union’s culture suffers from media involvement as the union is not able to create one particular image and meet the criteria set.
The grievance procedures inherent to the union are also crucial as they define the attitude of the union’s members to the conditions under which they have to cooperate and the outcomes which may be observed at the end of the process. The role of the grievance procedure is integral in case the necessity to change the circumstances or to understand the essence of unforeseen situations comes (Clark, 2009).
Not all people are ready to accept the reality as it is, this is why some people want to be sure that the union may organize the activities and solve misunderstandings which take place.
Such careful attitude to the conditions makes society believe that the union evaluates each point in its work, still, the evident inability to involve as many members as possible to the discussion is a serious weakness, and in this paper, the attempt to introduce various strategies and improvements for the chosen local union will be made.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Union Management: The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aspects to be improved
There are two main aspects which have to be improved in the union administration. First, certain attention should be paid to members’ involvement that remains to be poor in the union. Though it is not a disadvantage of the union, still, it is its evident weakness that has to be improved by the leadership, overall attitude to the problem, and possibilities which are available for the union.
The vast majority of the unite members truly believe that no changes are necessary for the system. People do not want to be involved into improvements which are required, this is why it could be too late to change something as the factor of human confidence in personal correctness is a serious aspect to be considered.
There is a burning need to explain the importance of changes in the union, and the leadership should think about the ways of how the members may be encouraged to participate in various activities of the union.
Another important problem of the union that has to be solved is based on weak promotion of the union’s culture. Clark (2009) informs that union culture becomes a very important issue in people’s attraction to the union. The fact is that people should have a chance to learn better about the local union, and union culture is an effective means to be used.
Unfortunately, the IBEW union does not find it necessary to focus on personal interests and promote their power within the frames of the union. What the union tries to create is the public image that will be interesting to society neglecting the demands of the current members. This is why it seems to be crucial to address this aspect and create strategies which will be effective.
Administrative changes to be adopted to enhance the organization’s future effectiveness
It is obvious that efficiency of union practices and activities is closely associated with the level and quality and frequency of participation of union members. In this regard, the major emphasis should be placed on union leaders who should be encouraged to increase the membership participation.
In fact, taking into account the union involvement in telecommunications, it is imperative to introduce specific types of participation, such as supportive, informal and unstructured. All these types of participation can contribute greatly to encouraging the union members to engage in disputes and discussions and provide viable solutions to existing problems.
While evaluating the types of participations, particular attention deserves union citizenship behaviors of OCB. Such kind of engagement is aimed to get a better idea of the approaches employees choose beyond their job obligations as well as informal behavior that contribute to the success of the organization.
In other words, each member of organization should be always informed about the major events happened within the union (Clark, 2009, p. 15).
With regard to the information presented above, it is necessary to introduce an advanced model for increasing the union participation that involves a number of stages to be implemented. In order to construct a successful model, it is necessary to understand the main individual and environmental issues that shape a union behavior.
While considering individual characteristics, it is necessary to evaluate knowledge, abilities, skills; believes and outlooks, and, finally, personally traits. Demographic factors should also be taken into deepest considerations and, therefore, such aspects as gender, age, and educational background are also of great importance (Clark, 2009, p. 16).
The consideration of individual preferences and interest are more important because they construct the common standards of the union behavior. Lack of interest in personality traits can worsen the union participation.
While considering the union’s culture, the major problem that comes to the forth is lack of efficient training programs and consistent education background because of inaccurate information presentation. Disrespect for history, traditions, and rituals can generate more ignorance and indifference to the role of the union in lives of employees (Clark, 2009, p. 213).
The problems of organization’s cultural myopia can be solved with the implementation more consistent cultural principles of communication that will be separated from the public images and media, but based more on personal interests, concerns, historical and cultural background.
The recognition of the organization’s uniqueness and “authenticity” can be achieved only when each event and extract of culture is known by each member of the community.
Second, the existence of subcultures should also be encouraged because they play a significant role in forming beliefs and ideals of the organizations. If organization’s culture is weak, the marginal cultures can compete with the general, or core culture, which negatively contribute to developing a strong cultural platform.
Impediments while implementing the changes
In order to re-construct the participation management system and the IBEW culture, it is possible to face certain challenges and constraints on the way to implementing the changes. First of all, lack of involvement is premised on lack of effective leadership and communicative strategies that are not that easy to implement in a timely manner.
Here the major problem lies in spreading common laws and regulation among the members to initiate them into the participation in specific activities, which unveils the drawbacks of leadership and motivations among the union members.
What is more problematic is that the process lacks consistent parliamentary rules and procedures that will make IBEW members be engaged in voting, motions, and other important meetings (Casey and Daniels, 2009, p. 23). In particular, there is no a clear structure of meeting arrangements as well as agendas that would discuss the most critical problems.
Second problem to building a consistent model of member participation and meeting management is closely associated with lack of members’ awareness of the existing adversities within the organization.
The organization’s leaders fail to inform people about the most challenging problems as well as the way they can threaten the employees’ welfare. As a result, such a situation creates even more grounds for ignorance and indifferent of the union members.
The changes that should be introduced to the union culture improvement are also under the threat of specific limitations. In particular, the IBEW culture can face significant problems while facing the idea of change itself. Being one of the oldest unions, its laws and regulations are not sufficiently adapted to the contemporary social, political, and economical settings.
Need for change, therefore, is not fully recognized by the union, which is the major obstacle for further development. In addition, just like policies and strategies are evolving outside the union, corresponding values and positions should also be taken into consideration by the union leaders.
Second hindrance for introducing changes to cultural policies is lack of understanding of existing marginal cultures that, in fact, significantly influence the overall cultural atmosphere within the organization.
Failure to understand diverse ideas and discuss them equally along with the majority opinion can prevent the organization from introducing democratic tendencies in conducting activities and involving more people in debating.
The case presented by Straus and Blum (2003) proves that the consequences of ignorance and reluctance to be involved in problem solving and decision-making for the union are significant and can lead to legal complications.
Strategies for the leadership to considered addressing the impediments
In order to meet the above-described challenges and threats, effective strategies should be implemented. Particular focus will be made on the analysis of communication and leadership strategies, discussion of legal and regulatory issues, ethical considerations, and implementing more focus on marginal groups within the union.
While considering communicational and leadership strategies, it is essential to pay attention to such aspects as transparency, clarity, identification of needs, and analysis of communicational models (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 40).
Effectiveness of involvement management will also largely depend on leaders and their attitude toward the necessity to implement more strategies into the development and enhancement of the IBEW local infrastructure. Beside website organization and electronic newsletters, the union’s administrative staff should take care of website design and options to attract more members of the organization.
Discussion of legal and regulatory issues should be prioritized within the union for the member to recognize their rights as well as benefits they may take advantage of. Abundance of choices and options can make IBEW employees think over their professional perspectives and engage them into the optimization of the working environment.
In such a manner, they will be more interested in participating in specific events and enriching the union with cultural and spiritual resources (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 66). Knowledge of laws can also invest in their welfare and the leaders’ task is to explain all that issues to the union members.
Ethical considerations and analysis of margin culture related problems should also be tackled more carefully. In particular, the union members should encourage practice and experience sharing activities to be aware of each other needs. Backgrounds and personal concerns will be, then, incorporated and analyzed to fill in the gaps of cultural changes (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 138).
More importantly, although cultural changes should be implemented, they should be more related to historical and traditional background of the organization to fit the best future employees’ needs and preferences.
Finally, margin culture itself should not be ignored and in order to cope with the problem of cultural diversity, the union should organize more meeting dedicated to discussion of individual problems. At the same time, there should a strategy allowing members to have wider opportunities for expressing their opinion.
According to Shelley and Calveley (2007), “union education… is more than an understanding of roles; instead, it has to do with coming to inhabit a certain socio-economic realm defined by a particular objective hierarchy…” (p. 138). In this respect, sensibilities are often developed within a social construct.
In this respect, social, moral, and ideological frames should be carefully considered while analyzing the role of marginal culture, and therefore, it should be taken into consideration what influence it has on the common cultural approaches within the union.
Conclusion In general, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers is the union that helps a number of people create better conditions for living. There are a number of strategies and changes which may be implemented into the system, however, there are also several steps which may be taken beforehand to improve the effectiveness of the union itself. In this paper, two aspects of the organization have been analyzed.
The point is that the union has good leadership, still, it is evident that some problems influence the development of the union in a variety of ways. This is why it is necessary to introduce the strategies and try to solve the impediments by means of properly chosen steps and ideas which will be announced to all members of a particular union.
Reference List Casey, L. and Daniels G. (2009). Parliamentary Procedure and Effective Union Meetings. Union Communication Services, Inc.
Clark, P. F. (2009). Building More Effective Unions. US: Cornell University Press.
History of IBEW (n.d.) Retrieved from .
Local # 1250 (n.d.). Smart Wire. Web.
Lund, J. (2005). Auditing Local Union Financial Records: A Guide for Local Union Trustees. US: Library of Congress.
Shelley, S., and Calveley, M. (2007). Learning with Trade Unions: A Contemporary Agenda in Employment Relations. US: Ashgate Publishing.
Straus, V., and Blum, K. (2003). Apathy and Secrecy Filled Teachers Union, Many Say. The Washington Post.
Feminism in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Mary Shelley is the second born daughter of a great feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft, who is perhaps the earliest proponent of the feminist wave. Mary Wollstonecraft expressly makes her stand known in advocating for the rights of the women in her novel, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, but her daughter is a bit reluctant to curve a niche about women in Frankenstein; The Modern Prometheus.
Did Mary Wollstonecraft have any influence on her daughter’s writing Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus? Does Mary Shelley have the same zeal as her mother regarding the rights of women in the novel? “Men, in general, seem to employ their reason to justify prejudices, (Wollstonecraft pp. 7)” Her mother’s advocacy of feminism is outright.
Feminism is regarded as women having equal rights and equating to men in social status, economic, financially, just to mention a few and shining attention to the thesis that Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus is not a feminist novel.
Female Characters in Frankenstein Practical analysis of the theme of feminism in the novel requires the study of the female characters and the role they play or how they are portrayed in the novel. We meet Victor Frankenstein’s mother, who died, and her death affected Frankenstein to the extent that Frankenstein sought to come up with a creation that would defy nature’s laws, for instance, death.
Justine is accused of the murder of William, and she accepts the accusations placed on her for William’s death, and this leads to her death. She does not prove that she did not kill William, and this portrays her to the reader as very weak. Elizabeth, on the other hand, is murdered by the monster, and she does not defend herself as she was waiting on victor to protect her from the monster.
More about This Topic Who Was the Youngest Alphonse Frankenstein’s Son? 5 45 What Is the Movie “Abbott
Disneyland Resort Paris Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors that influenced the location of Disneyland Paris Resort
Difficulties faced in the running of Disney Paris
Introduction The Disneyland Paris Resort is one of the many theme parks of Disney destinations situated in different parts of the world. As the name suggests Disneyland Resort Paris is located at the outcasts of Paris the capital city of France in a place called Marne-la-Vallee. Among the numerous Disneyland Resorts, the Disney Paris resort is attributed to be the most challenging resort.
In the year 2006, the Disneyland Paris had three parks that included; the Disney land Paris, the Disney Studio Park, and the Disney village. The Disney village incorporated restaurants and stores while the Disney Paris hosted the theme park itself and the Disney Studio Park was more centered on movie making concepts (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010).
Factors that influenced the location of Disneyland Paris Resort Prior to its current location of Marne-la-Vallee, at the outskirts of Paris the Disney Company had considered a number of promising and potential locations across Europe, which could be used to proposed Disney Park resort. The major countries that were under consideration were Germany, Britain, France, Spain, and Italy.
After considerations and discarding of some countries off the list of contenders, the two countries that remained were France and Spain. Spain chances were boosted by its climate, which resembled that of Florida, a state in which one of the Disney resort is located. However, France carried the day after careful consideration of various factors.
The availability of a suitable site that was strategically located on the outskirts of Paris was a crucial factor that was used to determine the Disney resort location.
The strategic location of the proposed site as a factor was boosted by the fact that millions of people could access the proposed Disney resort in a matter of hours regardless of if one is driving or taking a flight. This therefore presented a golden opportunity to the Disney Company of tapping the vast unexploited customer base.
The good infrastructure system that was coming in and going out of the proposed Disney resort site was also another crucial factor that weighed in deciding France to be the Disney resort destination of choice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More France was about to be connected with England by a channel tunnel that was due to be opened in 1994 thus offering an additional infrastructure route that was bound to increase the customer base. In addition to this, the site connection with the rest of Europe could be facilitated by the high-speed TGV network and the French autoroutes network (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010).
Paris, being one of the favorite tourist and vacation destinations in the world, was bound to rhyme with the idea of a Disney resort that related to a vacation destination in one way or the other (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010). The favorable tourist turnover in the region was a motivating factor to its location in Paris.
According to a research carried out, majority of citizens in France embraced the idea of a Disney park in France. In addition to this, both the national and local governments in France had gone a step further by offering financial incentives and even expropriation of land from its citizens all with an aim of facilitating smooth construction process of the Disney Park.
Difficulties faced in the running of Disney Paris Challenges that faced the Disney Paris were eminent and rocked the park even on its opening date. On the opening date, the smooth opening of the park was park commuter trains’ strikes and to make the matters worse a bomb had exploded on the night to the opening date.
The expected 500,000 people on the opening date were down sized to 50,000 people who attended. The protests from the neighboring villages on the noise arising from the park only added more woes to the just established Disney Paris.
In the early days of its operations, Disney Paris recorded a low number of visitors as opposed to their expectation. The anticipation of more French visitors as compared to the visitors from other countries turned out to be nightmare for the newly constructed Disney Park in France (McGuigan, 2004, p. 69).
The low attendance of guest was attributed to the protests that were conducted by the neighboring villages and the fear possess by the French citizens of losing their culture.
We will write a custom Report on Disneyland Resort Paris specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, a glass of wine was vital while eating according to the French visitors but unfortunately, the Disney Paris was an alcohol-free park. In addition to this, the hotel rooms at the park were expensive with prices ranging from 110 380 dollars per night (Anon, 2011).
The initial weeks of operations in the Disney Paris were filled with a huge number of employees’ resignations. Numerous reasons were stated regarding the resignations that were going on but majority of them were directed to the chaotic operations of the park (McGuigan, 2009, p. 45).
The situation was made worse late in the same year when Europe was hit by a recession thereby making property value to drop. This situation forced EuroDisney to experience financial crisis.
Reference List Anon. 2011. Case Study: The Not-So-Wonderful World of EuroDisney. Web.
McGuigan, J., 2009. Cultural Analysis. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
McGuigan, J., 2004. Rethinking cultural policy. NY: McGraw-Hill International.
Sehlinger, B. and Testa, L., 2010. Unofficial Guide to Disneyland Paris. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Quebec Bridge Collapse Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Problems Affecting Construction
Analysis of the Bridge Construction
The Role of Systems Engineering
When the federal authorities in Canada decided to expand the railway network in the country, the Quebec Bridge was a part of the plan. The initial plan for the bridge was drawn in the early 1900s. The bridge was built to provide a reliable passage across the Saint Lawrence River.
Prior the construction of the bridge, the only way to cross the river was by the use of a ferry. The river was a major barrier to transport due to its breadth. While there were no major flaws in the initial design of the bridge, changes to the initial plan resulted to the eventual collapse of the bridge (Manitoba 2).
The engineer who designed the bridge added some to length to it, and failed to account for the extra dimensions in the calculation of the stress limit for the bridge. The person in charge of the bridge construction ignored several warnings of faults developing in the bridge since the construction had gone too far to stop without dire financial consequences (Wilson 52).
When it became apparent that the bridge would be lost, the engineer in charge tried to contact his senior, and both engineers issued a warning message to stop the construction (Manitoba 4). However, the message from the engineers arrived at the construction site a while after the collapse of the bridge.
Problems Affecting Construction Construction of the bridge went on for three years from 1904 to 1907, when the engineers noticed that flaws were appearing in the girders supporting the bridge. At first, it did not occur to the chief engineer that the bridge structure was failing (Wilson 24). Consequently, he took action on the new development after the bridge’s situation had deteriorated beyond salvation.
Eventually, the bridge claimed the lives seventy-five of the eighty-six workers working on the bridge when it collapsed. An attempt to reconstruct the bridge was successful, but at a cost of another 13 lives of workers who were killed when the middle span fell into the river below while being hoisted into position.
Analysis of the Bridge Construction The construction of the bridge cost more that it had been planned due to the initial failures. By the time the bridge was commissioned, the total cost stood at 25 million Canadian dollars. In addition, the bridge cost 88 lives of the workers killed during the ill-fated construction missions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the bridge was fully constructed at more than twice the initial budget projection. Since engineering flaws were the cause of the collapse and the delayed completion of the bridge, little could have been done to ensure that the cost of the bridge fell within the budget.
The only thing that could have checked the cost of the construction was application of flawless engineering design and assessment. However, at the time of the construction of Quebec Bridge, architectural technology was not advanced to such a level to monitor the construction properly (Åkesson 54).
Apart from the inflated cost of the bridge, time was another setback for the construction of the bridge. The bridge, which was scheduled to be completed in 1907, was finally completed in 1917, ten years behind schedule. The collapse of the bridge in 1907 caused the major delay, while the second failure in1916 caused a minor delay.
In the overall assessment of the engineering project, it can be concluded that the performance of the engineers was poor (Holgate 12). While they were knowledgeable enough to steer the project in the right direction, they neglected clues and indications that the project was slowly developing into a major catastrophe.
This led to the first collapse of the bridge while it was almost complete. The initial plan for the construction of the bridge was changed and the engineers did not account for the additional weight and length of the bridge.
One of the major problems that affected this project was the lack of proper calculations to determine the final dead weight of the bridge (Holgate et al 18). The tension and compression forces on each of the girders had to be determined to assess whether the structure could hold its weight, and that of the people and vehicles using it.
The engineer overseeing the project did not review the new plan and design for the project carefully (Nava 3). This resulted in the oversight that saw the construction of a flawed bridge turn into a disaster.
We will write a custom Essay on Quebec Bridge Collapse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Role of Systems Engineering Systems engineering can be used to assess the physical viability of such a project. Using systems engineering, the construction can be analyzed to determine its ability to meet the requirements. The theoretical estimates of the capabilities and the limits of the bridge can be determined by a systems engineer (Sheard 40).
If the project had employed a systems engineer to design the bridge and determine the requirements that were necessary for construction of a robust and flawless structure, the disasters that followed could have been avoided. A systems engineer could have determined the fine mathematical details of the whole structure and made proper estimates for the construction of the bridge (Sheard 31).
Conclusion This project was one of the few of its kind at the time. The failure of the project proved that inadequate theoretical analysis of any engineering work of a significant scale could brew disaster. The importance of observing procedures and giving prompt response to emerging issues is also highlighted by the account of the Quebec Bridge construction.
Works Cited Åkesson, B.. Understanding bridge collapses. London: Taylor
Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Environmental context Racine, Wisconsin is a city that occupies an area of 18.7 square miles. Of the total area of the land the city comprises about 15.5 square miles. Water occupies about 16.76 percent of the area. As of the 2010 census report, it was established that Racine had about 78,860 people.
This figure comprised 33,887 households. The city has a balanced racial mix. For example, according to the same census report, the white population was 60.91 percent, the African American population took about 20.32 percent, the Native Americans took 0.61 percent, and Asia took 0.05 as the Pacific Islander comprised about 0.05 percent of the total population of the area.
The Racine Unified School District is a diverse community. With a student population of about 21,000 students the district comes out as one that takes education with a lot of interest. The students come from diverse backgrounds. Students come from urban, rural and even suburban regions.
All in all, the students come from a catchment area that is within 100 square miles. The urban district of Racine is located on the shores of Lake Michigan to the south western part of Wisconsin. In the district, there are 21 elementary schools with 3 magnet schools.
The SC. Johnson Elementary school is located on the south western part of Racine. The school occupies about 13.5 acres with 33 rooms. Majorly, the school has a kindergarten and first grades based in one wing while the other wing houses second through to fifth grades are housed in another wing. The school is replete with an outdoor learning center.
Contextual Classroom Factors At SC Johnson Elementary every student comes to class with distinct learning abilities based on experience and personality. It is important for teachers to design the learning environment in the classroom to be accustomed to every learner.
A classroom’s physical features include; information posted on the classroom walls and notice boards. This includes; parts of academic subjects’ content in short form descriptions of school’s vision, statement and mission and school rules. Such information if well arranged on the classroom walls acts as a reminder to the students of their purpose in the classroom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Students’ artworks and pictures especially the most outstanding also form part of classroom wall hangings. This acts as a motivation to the students as they feel recognized for their efforts in class. There are other physical features that have been installed in classroom, to help in the improvement and effectiveness of learning process.
A sink is installed in the classroom to use when doing art activities and science experiments. There are many outlets since there are many things to be plugged in. There are also projector connections, and sound proofs. Lockers and rest rooms should be close to the classroom. Counter tops, book shelves, and cabinets are many in the classroom for learners to place their books and files. Ventilation and widows are essential for air circulation, and improving the classroom environment.
Technology equipment and resources such as desk top computers and laptops serve as important teaching aids in class. These equipment and resources can be used for demonstration and research learning. Most learners are fascinated by the presence of computers in class. Presence of such facilities in class enhances their participation in the learning process. Proper rules and regulation should be put in place to ensure students don’t spent most of the time on computers at the expense of other subject areas.
There are amplification equipments installed in the classroom since the teacher’s voice has to be above the noise that might be coming from outside the classroom. When the voice of the teacher fades, the students can be able to hear even when they are sited at the back. It also improves the ratio of signal-to-noise.
These are the speakers which should be well installed and set to avoid learner’s interference. There are other essential interesting items that can be used to enhance good learning environment in a classroom. These include small refrigerators, a stereo system that has a CD player and a TV. This will allow the learners to access some entertainment which to a great extent contributes positively to learning.
There are visual presenter, digital projectors, and white boards that are electronic, which are used by the teacher to create versatile lessons and at the sometime engaging the students. There are also interactive aids of learning, net book computers, and other essential software that are academic. Education technology is utilized by teachers to make the learning environments to be teacher-centered. They use technology to make improvements in new lessons, visuals, ideas, and new levels activities.
Parental involvement in students’ learning process should be highly encouraged. Research indicates that parental involvement in their children’s education improves performance and quality of education. Concerned parents would for example ensure that their children attend school regular basis. They will also be involved in the evaluation and progress of their children both socially and academically.
We will write a custom Essay on Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Researchers have found that parental involvement in the learning process contributes to improvement in the child’s behavior, and affects positively the achievement of the child. Parents can achieve this by involvement at home-by, helping with homework, studying with their children, and discussing the events of the school. They should also attend functions organized in schools, and volunteering to be with children in classroom.
The institution should communicate with parents regularly, and incorporate them in the process of learning. The parents should also encourage the child, and appreciate them when they do well, discussing their progress with the teacher. Parents’ involvement helps to reduce the risk of failure of children, and prevents school dropout. The morale of the children and their attitude towards learning are improved.
The arrangement of a classroom shows style teaching of the educator. Tables or desks for group discussion should be arranged in a circular manner or in clusters. A u-shaped arrangement or circle is recommended for effective participation and contribution of every student in the group. Self-spaced individualized arrangement plan is also recommended. Plants used for in the study of sciences, arts, and other academic material should organized and accessible.
Good thoughts and planning are essential in selection of the type of child-centered environment in a classroom. This is because the features layout reflects positively to the success of the learners. The physical material in the class should be accessible to avoid confusion, disruption, and delay in the learning process. Desk arrangement is also very essential in a classroom, and the teacher is allowed to make changes at any time in the class. In a classroom of 30 desks, desks are arranged in rows of five or six to avoid confusion.
School rules and regulations guide the students on how to conduct themselves when they are within the school, and outside the school compound. The school rules help the institution to ensure that there is order in school. The rules and regulation of the school will normally define the rules and the penalty that an offender can face in case of breaching. The SC Johnson school’s rules and regulations book has guidelines on students dress code, grooming and conduct in school.
The school routine spells out the normal daily activities undertaken by students at various times. The routine schedule at SC Johnson School lists students’ names and activities assigned to them at various times. Students are guided by the routine to carry out manual work, which includes; cleaning the compound, washing classes and maintaining the lawn.
All these rules contribute positively to the learners’ progress, socially, morally, and academically. For the learner to excel academically they need to be disciplined and follow the school rules and regulations to the letter. Basic rules such as mode of dressing, language of communication, general respect, and punctuality are emphasized in this learning institution.
Parents are also conversant with the schools. When a leaner breaks one of the rules, he or she is imposed a punishment, and the parent or the guardian is notified. Records of indiscipline are also well recorded and filed for future references. This helps the institution to bring up all rounded students, who are presentable in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact of Students’ Contextual Factors on Design of Instruction and Assessment The gender issue has received a lot of focus in the design of instruction material form. Numerous complaints of gender discrimination emerge in various instruction materials and evaluation modes. It is important that when designing instruction materials and methods, gender sensitivity should be accorded utmost priority.
There is often the problem of male attitude where male teachers perceive female students as weak in particular areas and go ahead to make them feel they are weak. Teachers should take a leading role to encourage both female and male students to have an equal perception of the learning content.
Special needs students come to class with learning challenges that require special attention by teachers to effectively guide them in the learning process. Before designing an instruction and evaluation program, a teacher should examine the composition of the learners and identify students with learning difficulties caused by disabilities. They should then devise an effective way to include the needs of the special needs students in the classroom.
For example, the design of instructional material for a deaf student should be of a similar standard as to balance his/her needs with other classmates without special needs. This will be critical as it will make special needs student’s feel comfortable, adaptable, and have a fair access of the curriculum.
Also, the Include strategy should be used when designing instructional material for special needs students. On this, a student performance in school is based on the interaction with the instructional environment, thus, what happens in the classroom can either magnify or minimize the impact of special needs student on his/her learning, compelling adaptation.
Culture describes “a peoples’ way of life”, it affects the way people learn and perceive different aspects of life. Culture contributes largely to ones’ personality and experience. The aspect of cultural differences should be properly addressed in the process of designing instructional materials to ensure dominant and minority cultural aspects are captured.
Language which is one of the aspects of culture is a key component of learning and teaching process. Students’ consciousness of the differences in language can either promote or inhibit learning. Learning resources in school’s library should reflect the culture of different cultural practices for inclusivity. The learning process in class should be directed in a manner that values the diversity of language as well as cultural practices.
Skills level equally plays a big role in the design and evaluation of a learning process. Both instructional materials and assessment must reflect the level of the students’ comprehension. Higher order content beyond the students’ comprehension discourages them from participating in the learning process.
The design of the instructional materials should check/analyze student strength, in other words, what a student can do successfully. Success promotes a student motivation and self-image.The instructional materials should be able to address the social-emotional and academic areas; this will help in identifying a student’s skills and strengths and thus designing effective instructional materials.
SC Johnson Elementary school has been designed in a way that incorporates all the student’s needs and diversities. There are sinks in the classroom to be used by the learners in science experiment. High level learners are given opportunities in this school to engage in enterprises, and therefore, the school is designed in a way that allows extra rooms and spaces for these activities.
The students with partial impairments are also considered through the structures and design of this school. Painting and modeling special rooms have been well equipped to take care of those who have such interests and talents.
Influence of Prior Learning on Design of Learning Goals, Assessment and Instruction Students’ prior learning experience comprises of the skills and knowledge a student brings to class that is relevant to the content prepared for instruction. Teachers need to build on this experience to formulate instruction content that progress from known to unknown content. This section looks at the influence of students’ prior knowledge on formulation of learning goals, instruction and assessment. Learning goals point to what a learning process aims to achieve.
It should be understood that what the students knows about the subject content can either be constructive or destructive to learning. The teacher should therefore seek to understand the extent to which the learner understands the subject content to know the aid and effort they require to achieve the learning goal(s).
Students’ prior knowledge should be taken in consideration in the instruction process. It helps a teacher build learning content in a systematic and hierarchical manner. Quality learning can be achieved if content is developed from known and basic concepts of the subject to more complex ones. The instruction process should develop continuous links between what the students know, to what they do not know.
The main aim of an assessment is to establish the level of student comprehension of a given content area. Any meaningful assessment should haves specific goals and objectives. The SC elementary school teaching program is organized in a manner that teachers are provided an opportunity to carry out an initial testing on the students at the beginning of the term.
It is important to carry out a prior assessment on students in order to establish the learner’s prior knowledge before introducing new content.The success of the learners and their knowledge level will guide the teacher on which learning method is appropriate and efficient to apply.
School Demographics Survey Add the following data in percentage format:
School Ethnic Makeup: (as a %) White 25% Black 42% Hispanic 29% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 1% Other 3% Your class (es) Ethnic Makeup: (as a %) White 33% Black 56% Hispanic 11% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 0% Other 0% Teacher Diversity: (as a %) White 84% Black 7% Hispanic 9% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 0% Other 0% Male 15% Female 85% Using raw form, add the following data:
Number of students (school-wide) with an IEP (officially designated as Special Needs) 106 Number of students receiving Free Lunch (school-wide) 483 Number of English Language Learning Students School-Wide 93 Your Class 2 Gender of students (school wide) Male 291 Female 291 Other issues of diversity (i.e. religion) Economic Disadvantage 494
Understanding Public Policy. Social Impact of Policy. Coursework essay help
Policy analysis plays an important role for developing and implementing every initiative of the government. Its strategies can be more successful if they are based on the findings of social scientists, psychologists, or medical researchers. Overall, policy analysis is supposed to show what kind of actions will help to achieve a particular goal or solve a certain problem (Fox, Bayat,
Violence in Hockey Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Violence in Hockey
History of Violence in Hockey
Introduction Human beings and driven by emotions that originate from deep within them. Rage is one of the emotional responses that individuals have while responding to an incident or a situation (Andrews 21). In the process of expressing their rage, humans usually turn out to violence or violent like behaviors.
Violence from rage can arise in a number of situations. Violence experienced in homes, public places, recreation areas and even in sports. A number of incidences have been reported regarding to the eruption of violence in the course of a game. This is highly common in rugby, basketball, football, and soccer.
However, violence is a unique phenomenon in a sport. This sport is ice hockey. Ice hockey is one of the popular indoor games in the United States of America and Canada. The game attracts huge crowds of fans from these two nations as well as the rest of the world who follow the game.
Crowds enjoy the fast pace of the game and the skills and techniques that players use to score and win matches. In addition to this, fans also enjoy the eruption of violence between players who fight to settle down any differences that may have risen between them. Due to this, hockey has always been regarded as one of the aggressive sports in the where violence is condoned.
Violence in Hockey Violence has been an integral part of ice hockey. Due to its importance in the game and the impact that it has, violence has developed into a strong culture of the game that has been passed from one generation to the next. Violence in hockey commence during the first half of the 20th century (Andrews 32). According to Andrews (2003), 1904 saw the death of 4 players in hockey games as a result of the violence and brawls (71).
This was but just an introduction of violence and violent related acts into the game. In modern times, violence has erupted in the game under numerous occasions. The most common causes of violence in the game arise from brawls. Violence also erupts as a result from the end point of fans. In addition to this, fights also come about as a result of officials being physically abused and players deliberately injuring each other.
There are rules and regulations that have been developed to control the game of hockey. According to these rules, any form of violence is prohibited. Should violence occur, the individuals who are involved in the fight and to some extent, their clubs suffer penalties (Andrews 67).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may include fines and suspension from playing games. Thus, acts such as kicking opponents from behind or inappropriate swinging of sticks are prohibited. In addition to this, fisticuffs are also penalized. However, this is the most common form of violence in hockey. However, players and fans of the game consider this form of violence to be so exciting.
To some extent, some of these individuals feel that violence is part of the game. According to many people, fisticuffs is an effective means through which rival players of opposing teams can settle down any differences that might have been present between them.
Thus, to regulate the violence and other violent acts in the game, several rules and regulations have been developed. In course of the game, the referees usually implement these rules. Thus, a referee has the power to penalize players who are involved in violent acts in the course of the game.
The punishment that a referee chooses to take depends on the degree of violence. However, the power that referees have is limited. Off the game, the National Hockey League (NHL) controls the acts actions of player. This includes their involvement in violence. The NHL thus has the power to conduct investigation, charge or even convict players on the grounds of being involved in violence.
The NHL also has the power to fine, suspend and even expel players as a result of their violent behaviors. Usually, these decisions are arrived at after careful investigations and considerations have been put on the matter at hand. The picture below shows linemen separating players from a fight.
History of Violence in Hockey Even during its early days, hockey has been considered as a violent sport. During the early years of the sport, violence was a common phenomenon in the game. It was until after the death of two players that stiff measures were put in place to minimize the occurrence of violence and violent acts in the sport.
To show cause, the individuals who had been responsible for the murders were taken to trial. However, despite the efforts that were put to bring these people into justice, the accused were all acquitted of their crimes. Despite this decision however, setting up of stiff rules and regulation was considered a necessity as the game faced a risk of being banned. This would have put hockey on the levels of sports such as cockfighting.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Violence in Hockey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules and regulations that have been set by the NHL have greatly reduced the occurrence of violence in hockey games. However, there are incidences in which players and/or fans engage in fisticuffs and stick-swinging inflicting pain and injury to others. In such events, stiff punishments in the form of fines, suspensions have been arrived at after careful investigations have taken place.
Up to the present moment, only one individual has ever been banned for life from hockey. During a Stanley Cup game, Billy Coutu assaulted one referee and tackled another one (Andrews 133).
In addition to this, Coutu started off a bench clearing brawl. After an investigation of the issue, Coutu was banished for life by the president of the NHL in 1927. However, after consultations, the ban was lifted by the NHL two and a half years later although Coutu never played again. Several other incidences of this nature have been reported in recent times.
Violence in hockey does not only occur in the NHL alone. Fights also break out in lower leagues. A prime example is the fight that broke out on August 1st 2012 in Texas, USA (Moore 11). The fight erupted in an adult hockey game when a player hit his opponent with a hockey stick on the face.
Due to the severity of the injury, paramedics were called to the scene to save the life of the victim. Witnesses stated that the act was deliberate since the assailant swung the hockey stick straight into the victims face in a similar manner as one would swing a baseball bat. The case is still under investigation.
On the other hand, there are those people who support violence in hockey. The acquisition of John Scott by the Buffalo Sabres is a prime example (Palumbo 13). Being close of 7 feet tall and weighing over 270 pounds, Scott is regarded as one of the best fighters in the league. It has been speculated that the Sabres acquired Scott as an intimidation measure. The Sabres have been facing a lot of intimidation especially from their rivals, the Boston Bruins.
The Sabres have been facing a lot of criticism from the media and the public on the grounds of cowardice. The team has been criticized for failing to respond to concussions that have always been arising against them.
As a result, the onetime proud franchise has been struggling with humiliation especially during the last season. It is therefore believed that with a player like Scott, the team will respond to such situation. This will not only intimidate their opponents but it will also motivate and boost the morale of other players leading to increased victories and a shot at the national championship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Violence in Hockey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the present moment, the level of fighting during hockey games has greatly reduced. This might be as a result of the strict implementation of the rules and regulations against fighting. On the other hand, the number of concussions has greatly increased. However, unlike fights, concussions usually arise accidentally. However, investigations are already underway to establish the causes of concussions and means through which they can be regulated to improve on the quality of the game.
Conclusion Hockey has always been regarded as one of the most violent sports on the planet. As a result of these violent acts, a number of individuals have ended up with serious injuries while other have ended up dead. To intervene, the NHL has come up with rules, regulations, and different forms of punishments. This has tried to reduce the level of violence in the sport although violent incidences do arise occasionally.
Works Cited Andrews, Lamar. Violence: Not Part of Youth Hockey. New York: Sage Publications, 2003. Print
Moore, Marcus. “Violence ends North Texas Hockey.” KHOU 3.2 (2012): 9-14. Print
Palumbo, Lenny. “Fighting is Good for Hockey and Sabres.” The Sports Journal, 12.1 (2012): 13-15. Print
Mobile Money Transfer as an alternative product for Vodafone Group Plc Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The paper seeks to justify a Mobile Money Transfer (MMT) as an alternative product for Vodafone Group Plc. The company is multinational with headquarters in London. It is a leading telecommunications company based on 2011 annual revenue and subscriptions (439 million).
Vodafone offers information technology and mobile phone services to its customers in over sixty-five countries. In addition, Vodafone Group has 45 per cent shares in Verizon wireless. Verizon wireless is the leading mobile telecommunications company in the US.
Vodafone has been chosen to implement the MMT product because of its wide customer base and its ability to set a side enough resources to implement, test, launch and market the product. Its wider customer base is important because many people across the world will be able to enjoy the product and its benefits (Morawczynski, 2008).
MMT is an electronic product that helps the consumer to electronically send and receive money on a mobile phone. Consumers will register their simcards with Vodafone using their national IDs or pass ports. After registration, an MMT menu will be up dated on the customer’s phone.
Registered customers will be able to send and receive money, pay bills, loans, and utilities and also buy air time. Customers can also access their commercial bank accounts if they register their mobile numbers with their banks. To withdraw money from a mobile account, the customer approaches an agent and initiates the transaction through an agent code. The customer and the agent then receive a message that a specific amount of money has been withdrawn.
The agent then gives the customer the specified amount of money and the transaction is completed. To deposit the money in the mobile account, the customer approaches the agent with the amount of money they want to deposit, the agent deposits the money and both receive a confirmation message (Hughes
Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives Case Study essay help online free
An ethical dilemma is a situation that involves conflicts between moral principles in which obeying one ultimately results to transgression of the other. The utilitarian ethical perspective holds that a good course of action maximizes happiness for the parties involved, and therefore the moral worth of a certain action is determined by its outcome.
Libertarian ethical principles hold that individuals have the right to be respected and the only limit to an individual’s ability to enjoy these rights is the obligation to respect others’ basic rights.
Deontological theories are also referred to as duty-based ethics. In deontology, morality is judged through examining the nature of the actions and the will of the individuals to do the right thing. Drawing judgment from an individuals will and control of certain actions is based on the argument that the future is not controllable. Virtue ethics perspective emphasizes on the influence of character traits and moral virtues toward the resultant ethical behavior.1
For the utilitarian principle, completion of the project could give a team a satisfaction for its achievement. Melanie and other members of her team were putting in extra time to ensure that the project was completed and launched in a few weeks. Several individuals at Zagante were forced to put in extra working hours to complete their assignments related to the software code project.
Some dedicated members of the staff were forced to sleep in their cubicles because of the demands of their assignments. Melanies hard work was aimed at ensuring a successful launch of the product together with hopes for promotion to the project’s senior vice president.2
On the contrary, considering the deontological theory, Melanie and the team were working on TerraPix 2.0 map-making software meant for enhancing topographical view for the oil companies. Technology related companies in the region had suffered in the previous two years and Zagante was not exception.
Although the company survived through the hard time, it was affected financially thus forcing its management to freeze the hiring process. This meant that although the present employees were lucky to retain their jobs, they had to work extremely hard to ensure that the product was a success. In an effort to maintain their jobs, zagante staff was exploited through the requirement to put in extra time and effort at the minimal pay.3
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the process of carrying out evaluations for her team members, Melanies comparison between Tom’s and Jeremy’s profiles is a dilemma. This brings into focus the virtue ethics. Although both candidates displayed outstanding qualities, Tom’s profile was more striking professionally but Melanie leaned on Jeremy’s side because she considered him as a close friend.
On the contrary, considering libertarian principle, Melanie caught Jeremy programming a game instead of working on the running project, TerraPix. Later on, Jeremy admitted that he was working on a project he had picked from his brother-in-law’s company. His brother in laws company was pressured by the need to complete the programs before the commencement of a certain trade show.
According to Jeremy, the offer, that includes the payment was good such that he could not decline. Melanie confronted Jeremy for moonlighting, and inquested to know how he felt about it. According to Melanie, the team had their own project, which might not be as enticing but it was important for the company.4
On the utilitarian principle, Jeremy argued that he was fully engaged in the project and only took the side assignments because he felt that he could comfortably handle them off his working hours. According to Jeremy, his brother in law’s company was conversant with his tight schedule at work and were okay with it.5 Melanie was angered because he felt that the best programmer in the organization was on his exit from the company.
On the contrary, considering the deontological principles, Melanie continued to question Jeremy if he would take up the opportunity if they offered a full time position and whether he was happy in his current job. Jeremy took up the side job to have fun, break the monotony of doing the same thing day in day out, and he was interested in gaming from childhood.
In addition, he was learning new techniques which could be helpful to Zagante in the future. For example, he said that he was learning to use MAX 4 modelling tool, which at some point zagante had considered checking it out.6
According to Simons, straightforward ethical decisions are meant for enhancing both short-term and long-term benefits of the growth of the business.7
We will write a custom Case Study on Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethics are aimed at protecting and maintaining a good business and individual’s reputation. For example values like honesty, conscientiousness, and integrity create a connection between ethical principles and the expected business activities. Jeremy’s need for extra income to support his family brings in the deontological principle. Melanie demanded to know the precise reason as to why Jeremy decided to take up the extra work.
Was it because working at Zagante had become monotonous or for the need of the money. Jeremy made it clear that he was not sacrificing to be away from his family , especially the newborn for fun, but it was because life was becoming expensive day in day out. In addition the fact that his wife was not going to work for some time meant that he had to provide for the entire household solely.
In the interest of the company and Jeremy (utilitarian principle), Melanie requested Jeremy to focus on terrapix because they expected his entire devotion to enhance successful launching of the project. Melanie promised to keep the secret of Jeremys moonlighting so far as Jeremy would not do anything that would jeopardize the success of the project and his reputation.8
Appropriate ethical behavior acts as a guideline to what may be considered in a business organization as the right course of action. According to American Psychiatric Association, decisions made for proper business management are never ethical even in situations in which they seem to adhere to the required ethical principles.9 Ethical decisions are considered to be right when they in conflict with important business decisions.
The awareness of the existing conflict justifies the decision. In the process of safeguarding the interest of the company, deontological principle , Melanie carried out research in an effort to understand the consequences of moonlighting. Melanie found out about a case involving a supervisor from the city water department.
The supervisor operated an irrigation business besides his job and had used his employer’s resources to carry out his personal work. Melanie related this to Jeremy’s case whereby he was using Zagantes computers to carry out his personal tasks. In another case, a teacher moonlighted as a stripper in which although she enjoyed doing it, it was not beneficial to her toward her growth managerially. Jeremys case still bothered her.
This is because he moonlighted for a company which was not a competitor meaning that he had little to gain from the side job and he was using Zagantes resources (computer). But onto her fears, Melanie was not ready to fire Jeremy because the company could not afford to lose such a talent. Melanie considered that moonlighting could not earn Jeremy a promotion and after his search, there was no other case of an individual who had been promoted for moonlighting.10
In situations where an organization does not regulate a certain behavior, its activities can be regulated by external policies. For the virtue ethics, Melanie further inquested from the company’s human resource director, Jill Darby, if there were any policies on employees moonlighting. Melanie lied that there was no one involved in moonlighting, but she was only concerned because the issue came up with her team. Jill confirmed that the company did not have any policies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, according to Jill, the state has stipulated clear rules about it, in addition to the vacuum created by the incomplete agreement signed when one is hired. In business organizations, there should be a coincidence between the quest for personal interests and ethical behavior.11 Covering up of behavior is usually harmful to the business in the long run.
When Jill asked whether the company was facing a potential problem, Melanie covered up for Jeremy and lied that her team was a source of solutions and not problems. Melanie explained that her concern was fueled by frustration of her team members because of bare minimal pay rises in the entire year.
Melanie tried to explain that although employees understand the financial situation of the company, they could take up side jobs to meet their financial needs. To solve the employees financial strains, Jill referred Melanie to Aaron who could offer low interest rate loans to employees who were in a fix.12
Virtue Ethics Perspective The ethical dilemma presented by the case study can be solved using the virtue ethics principles. A behavior which is detrimental to the business in the short term but enhances growth of the business in the long term should be encouraged. According to Grace and Cohen, the ideas acquired from such practices can be used in redefining the business.13 Changing of the new ideas into a profession enables the business to benefit from the inventions.
As Melanie thought about Jeremy, she gathered that he was faithful to the company, he had worked there for five years, earned promotions and importantly enjoyed working for the company. She informed David and Marc that Frank Lloyd was fired for moonlighting.
According to David, that was a bad managerial decision that most probably his boss regretted for a long time. Melanie said that she was not going to fire Jeremy because moonlighting was kind of normal to programmers. David supported her idea by explaining that when he worked at way bridge associates, the architects had side businesses of designing houses that paid less. In these circumstances, virtue ethics principle allows Jeremy to carry out the side business as far as it does not affect his performance in the project.
Melanie asked whether these side businesses affected their jobs and David said that it had no effect because it was expected. In addition, moonlighting for the architects gave the firm a reason to pay the architects less than their worth. However, side jobs enabled the architects to learn new ideas and bring them into the project.14
In conclusion, Melanie called jeremy in her office and explained to him that the company could give low interest loans and thus he would not be required to take up side jobs. Jeremy declined the offer and Melanie was upset because the side job was not beneficial to the project. In addition, she was afraid of the implications of Jeremy’s moonlighting to the rest of the team. Jeremy did not care about the effect of his actions to the rest of the team.15
He considered them as grown ups who were obligated to perform their duties. In addition, Jeremy considered that so long as he performed his duties to meet the project’s expectations, it was not important to the team and the management on what he did with time out of the office.
Melanie was agitated by this statement and realized that it was time for her and the organization to fire Jeremy. In trying to offer Jeremy a solution to his financial constraints, Melanie did not consider other interests Jeremy derived from taking the side job and this made them to fall apart.16
Bibliography American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Pub. 1994.
Drumwright, Minette, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.
Grace, Damian and Cohen, Stephen. Business Ethics: Australian Problems and Cases. 2 Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Hinman, Lawrence. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.
Rachels, James. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
Robinson, Mary 2000, Business and Human Rights: A Progress Report. PDF File. 8 August 2012.
Sandel, Michael. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.
Savulescu, J et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): 666-670.
Simons, Paul. Be Interested in the People You Serve and Your Life Will Be Happy”, Fourth Annual Lecture. Sydney: St. James Ethics Centre. 1994.
Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
Footnotes 1 Savulescu, J. et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): p. 669.
2 Savulescu, J et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): 669.
3 James, Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. p. 226.
4 Minette, Drumwright, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.
5 Robinson, Mary 2000, Business and Human Rights: A Progress Report. PDF File. 8 August 2012.
6 Minette, Drumwright, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.
7 Simons, Paul. Be Interested in the People You Serve and Your Life Will Be Happy”, Fourth Annual Lecture. Sydney: St. James Ethics Centre. 1994. p.16.
8 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.
9 James, Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. p.56
10 Michael, Sandel. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.
11 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.p. 106.
12 Michael, Sandel. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.
13 Damian, Grace, and Stephen, Cohen. Business Ethics: Australian Problems and Cases. 2 Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998. p.2
14 Hinman, Lawrence. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994. P.211.
15 Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1993. p.183.
16 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994. p. 304
Jordan Events Company: Management Skills and Entrepreneurship Proposal college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Exectuive summary Jordan Events is an events management company that manages corporate, professional and personal events. The company will be located in Jordan and will organize, design, plan and manage events for companies, corporate organizations and weddings among others. It will offer high quality services at affordable prices and services will be structured to meet specific client needs.
The goals of the company will be to achieve customer satisfaction and exceptional quality of services, so as to lead in the events management market (ADAMS
How people react to pregnant women Essay essay help site:edu
Depending on the culture of the people different people react differently to pregnant Women. However, there is a perception that is common in most societies.
When people see a woman who is pregnant, most of them perceive her to be a mother, although this is just a thought, it is not exactly true because anything may happen to the child or mother between the time of conception and birth. People will first think of the child then later of the mother.
According to the western culture, motherhood is believed to be what defines and dignifies a woman, while those who are barren are considered to be highly disadvantaged and ill fated in the society.
Furthermore, those women who intentionally refuse to have children are perceived to be psychologically abnormal. In the industrialized society, pregnant women are viewed as those who possess an active maternal instinct. Besides, the community further puts up pressure on women through the mothering mandate to have children (Crawford 277).
How might these reactions contribute to women’s emotional responses to pregnancy? The character of humans is nurtured from the expectations and believes they are taught by their parents and the society around them during their childhood. This determines the character of the person, which may be portrayed by the person’s choices in life. Pregnant women make their choices with regards to their pregnancy either consciously or unconsciously depending on the values they were brought up with.
This might be seen by the choice of a woman getting married before getting a child, others getting children out of wedlock while still others decide to live a childless life. Positive emotional response is perceived by those women who choose to have children as the society expects, while those who are childless either intentionally or by choice may have negative emotions towards pregnancy (Crawford 278).
Hostile and benevolent sexism Sometimes, pregnant women may experience hostile sexism from their fellow women due to jealousy for not achieving similar results. This may be due to a failed relationship of the woman who is not pregnant, or the inability to have children due to barrenness or otherwise. In addition to that, they may face a hostile glance from most of the people when they take up roles meant for men while pregnant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise, they experience benevolent sexism from the husband family and friends, as well as the community especially if she is married. A woman may receive a special treatment by members of the public while shopping, and the whole family at home. This may be a show of gratitude from the society for taking up the mothering role.
The effects of pregnancy in regards to career To most women, pregnancy is a life changing experience that is filled with mixed feelings of confusion and contentment both at the same time. However, when women become pregnant while pursuing their career, some of them take it as simple but find it to be very complex.
This is due to the endless needs of the infant and increased roles due to the change from a career woman to a mother and a house wife. It becomes a real challenge for the woman before she can adapt to the point that some of the women see the child as a barrier to their career (Crawford 273).
Works Cited Crawford, Mary. Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill Publishers, 2012. Print.
Cloud computing in supply chain management Essay essay help online
Cloud computing is one of the advancements, which have significantly transformed the manner in which several companies manage and access information within and outside the firm. In general, this technology allows an organization to access its information technology services like, applications and infrastructure through the internet.
For this reason, companies adapt to ever-changing business environment and create better opportunities by opening up the market. Massive use of internet technologies is considered as one of the reasons why most firms find it easier to use cloud computing in supply chain management (Kefer 2012).
Additionally, companies prefer using cloud computing because it offers opportunities to market new products with a lot of ease. In fact, it is believed that most supply chains have been put under pressure because of the pace at which most products and services are being introduced.
It is important to underscore the fact that there are several ways through which cloud computing works in supply relationship management. These can be understood by focusing on how LyondellBasell has successfully incorporated the technology in its daily operations. The company specializes in plastics and chemicals, and sells its products in more than one hundred countries around the world (Kefer 2012).
LyondellBasell uses cloud computing to manage its supply management relationship because of the involvement of multiple organizations, which have to access unique information, depending on the products being channeled to consumers. In essence, this technology allows a firm to develop a platform, which promotes the company’s visibility and control of crucial elements. Consequently, LyondellBasell is able to oversee international logistics and has opened the tender process by attracting an array of partners.
The main reason why several companies are investing in cloud computing is based on the overall implications of the technology. It has been found out that “icloud” has a wide range of benefits in the management of a company and its suppliers. Firstly, it augments a company’s visibility within the market.
This is essential in cases where supply chain reliability and agility are needed due to expansion. In most cases, cloud computing ensures that there is a single source of trusted information needed by partners. It also gives updated information, regarding real-time delivery of products, to allow monitoring during their supply.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that delivery-delays are eliminated, thus improving customer service and loyalty, coupled with proper management of expectations. In addition, cloud computing allows effective marketing of new products and services in the market. This is made possible through instant access of information by independent organizations and partners, within the entire market. It also enhances large-scale transformation, since icloud-based supply chain solutions have the potential of promoting business competition (Reddy 2011, p. 7151).
Despite the fact that cloud computing has an array of advantages, there are several challenges faced by companies, which have adopted this technology. Like in most cases, massive use of the internet exposes products and the company’s data to cyber threats. Without proper protection, companies are likely to lose customers, data and products, which may have serious implications.
Based on these, companies are forced to invest in protective cloud infrastructure to promote the security of business transactions (Gold 2012, p. 24). With regard to supply chain, companies are faced with the challenge of remaining flexible and predictable in the business market. This is essential in promoting the relationship between the company and its suppliers.
Reference List Gold, J 2012, ‘Protection in the cloud: risk Management and insurance for Cloud computing’, Journal of Internet Law, vol. 15 no. 12, pp. 23-28.
Kefer, G 2012, Three Ways Cloud Computing Can Improve Supply Chain Operations for the Chemical Industry. Web.
Reddy, K 2011, ‘Security Architecture of Cloud Computing’, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 3 no. 9, pp. 7149-7155.
Cross-Cultural Communication Management: Copts in Egypt Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The Copts form part of the Egyptian population. They are the largest minority group within Egypt. A majority of this community inhabit the upper part of Egypt. Some are also scattered within larger cities. These bigger cities include Cairo and Alexandria. Generally, the Copts are well represented within the major social classes.
However, most of them are found within upper or middle class. This is because of their love for education. Most of the Copts pursue the doctrines of the “Coptic Orthodox Church” (Hasan 2003, pp. 34). This church was founded by Saint Mark. He is also believed to have brought Christianity into the land of Egypt. This paper analyses the interaction between the Copts in Egypt and the Muslim majority. Apart from this, it examines how the Copts are treated in Egypt.
The Interaction between the Copts in Egypt and the Muslim Majority There is no constructive relationship between the Copts and the Muslim community. Their religion differences have widely contributed to this soar relationship. Notably, the Copts are a potentially endangered minority group within Egypt. They have eminent differences with the majority Muslim community.
There are indications that their population is gradually dwindling. The two communities do not integrate effectively with one another. The Copt community has been largely compromised (Scott 2010, pp. 43). They have restricted access to equal leadership opportunities. They are exposed to persistent and subtle tensions from the majority Muslim group.
The differences between these two groups caused sharp divisions in the dispensation of vital services. This trend is notable within public institutions. Due to increased tensions between the two communities, most Copts have been exiled. Generally, there are several Copts residing in the Diaspora. This is relative to the number of their majority Muslim counterparts. They have been mostly noted within countries such as the U.S., Canada and the United Kingdom (Shatzmiller 2005, pp. 31).
The high rate of emigration of the Copts indicates the tension that exists between these two communities. Indicatively, some scholars have noted that the majority Muslim groups are gradually taking over Egypt. The disparity between these two groups can be noted within the country’s leadership structure. It is observed that very few Egyptian political and public leaders originate from the Coptic community.
Most people from the Coptic community are gradually transforming into Islam. However, it is vital to note that this transformation in religion is not out of their wish. They convert to Islam because they fear the likelihood of persecution. The majority Muslim society have frequently engaged in the prosecution of the Copts (Wiedl 2007, pp. 72). The faithful Copts in Egypt get marginalized through social oppression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observably, the Copts are gradually getting alienated and extinct in their native country. There are very minimal social interactions between these two communities. The few remaining Copts have their own institutions and residences. They also share very few intrinsic social values. Perhaps, this is largely attributed to their different religious beliefs.
These communities attend different churches and learning institutions. However, it is notable that there are also categories of the Copts that have converted to Muslim faith. Basically, this has been a survival mechanism (Watson 2002, pp. 24).
Although there are considerable efforts to unite these two communities, very minute steps have been achieved. There is a remarkable level of social segregation between these two communities. The supremacy of the Muslim community has overpowered the dominance of the Copts in Egypt.
How the Copts Are Treated Within Egypt The Muslim dominion in Egypt has caused severe oppression of the Copts. There is eminent discrimination within basic service delivery sectors. The Copts have limited access to essential services. These include education and property ownership rights. The Muslim majority have dominated these vital sectors.
Consequently, they practice segregation in the delivery of these services. The Copts face restrictions related to worship and practice of faith (Watson 2002, pp. 54). They have to seek permission in order to practice their faith. This is also observable during the worship times. The authorities offering these worship permits are majorly comprised of the oppressive majority Muslim community. These elements propagate the marginal treatment of the Coptic community within Egypt.
The government has made education free for both the Copts and Muslim communities. This is observable from the elementary levels up to the university. However, there are still obvious disparities in the education system. The Muslims enjoy certain advantages within the education system. The Copts are not included in some of the state funded university courses. An example of such courses is medicine (Wiedl 2007, pp. 91).
It is also observable that unlike the Muslim, the Coptic religious learning institutions remain excluded from government support. There are also notable disparities in scholarship opportunities. The Copts have severe restrictions concerning property ownership and real estate. The Muslim building designs and preferences are given more priority. There are bureaucratic processes in the certification of development processes for the Copts. Conclusively, it is evident that the Copts have been marginalized in their cradle land.
We will write a custom Assessment on Cross-Cultural Communication Management: Copts in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More List of References Hasan, S 2003, Christians versus Muslims in modern Egypt: the century-long struggle for Coptic equality, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Scott, M 2010, The challenge of political Islam non-Muslims and the Egyptian state, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Shatzmiller, M 2005, Nationalism and minority identities in Islamic societies, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal.
Watson, H 2002, Among the Copts, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, England.
Wiedl, N 2007, The role of the Copts in the national movement in Egypt until the 1919 revolution, GRIN Verlag, München.
Community Development: History, Themes and Issues Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What is community development?
Development and growth
Community development issues
The root of community development challenges
Change in community development
Conflict management among workers
Advantages and disadvantages of conflict management
Compromise in change management
Introduction Community development remains a major concept in the world today, being integrated in learning institutions and in several communities. This emphasis is immensely based on the role, which it continues to play in most countries around the world. Due to the changing needs of the society, community development has significantly advanced in order address several emerging issues, as it empowers the people.
Throughout history, community development has been faced with issues and challenges, which have been handled through a myriad of approaches. On the other hand, issues, which affect community development, have hampered the realization of some of the agenda driven by groups and organizations, with the aim of empowering the community (Ledwith 2011, p. 13).
This essay discusses change management in community development, with regard to how conflicts are handled and use of comprise to achieve desired results. In particular, the analysis will focus on examples of change for workers and communities, looking at the strengths and limitations that are involved. To achieve this target, up-to-date references will be used, to allow a comparison of views discussed by different authors and researchers, regarding the concept of community development.
What is community development? In understanding the concept of community development and some of the issues, which affect it, it is essential to appreciate that most of these activities take place in rural areas, under rural community development. Community experts define this as a process, which is usually carried out by the community, by helping its members to be fundamentally able to manage the expected change.
Importantly, major benefits of community development occur as a result of efforts injected by local people through mobilization of skills, change of attitude, different approaches in solving problems, improved networks and use of available assets through unique and new ways (Phillips, 2009, p. 3).
Even though community development aims at empowering the community economically, it is crucial to appreciate that it gears towards establishing a strong functioning community. The five capitals of a community, which are normally emphasized by rural communities, are: physical, environmental, social, human, and financial. Through the community, people are able to reconsider their stance on various problems and expand contacts and networks.
From a literal point of view, community development merges the idea of “community” with “development” through different ways. Based on the fact that a community is formed by people, who have a shared identity, community development solely depends on interactions between people and collective action, instead of emphasizing individual activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is commonly referred to as collective agency by some sociologists. In addition, development is widely viewed as a process, which is capable of increasing choices for members of the community. With increased choices, the community is further exposed to new options, diversification, analyzing of issues and anticipating change (Defilippis 2007, p. 9).
Development encompasses an array of issues, including but not limited to change, improvement and vitality, and the quality of life. Other analysts view it as the creation of wealth at a community level. In this case, wealth does not only refer to money, but also to other things, which are highly valued by the community. This further contributes to the net total of a community’s assets, thus avoiding the “zero sum-crisis.”
Based on this analogy, it suffices to mention that community development means that a community is involved in a process that is totally aimed at improving the environmental, social and economic situation of its members. In other words, the community can be viewed as the means and the end of community development, regardless of the path taken (Ferguson
Achieving Competitive Advantage through Talent Management in Etisalat Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction With a customer base of 135 million, the Emirates Telecommunications Corporation based in the U.A.E, better known as Etisalat, has grown to become one of largest telecommunications companies in the world spanning several continents with an assortment of products and services ranging from mobile networks to internet service provision.
The success of the company is in part due to its expansion into various global markets such as those in the Middle East, Africa, and various parts of the Asian continent.
As indicated by Quisenberry
Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
The foundation of intelligence testing The definition of intelligence is elusive. However, scholars relate intelligence to logical reasoning and adaptation to prevailing situations. Still, there is a challenge over objective testing of intelligence. In order to understand intelligence testing and its basis, we have to look at its origin and theories.
Binet and Simon developed the Binet-Simon test to aid in assigning French students to appropriate classes. Educators had not developed any method to identify learners’ difficulties, such as retardation, behavioral problems, or lack of prior education. These researchers identified that learners did not have the same course of intellectual growth, and learners’ mental capabilities developed at varied rates.
Binet and Simon referred it to mental age (an average level of age when learners can perform intelligence test) but not the chronological age of an individual. They used mental age to assign appropriate tests to learners based on individual’s capabilities. This was the first approach to psychometric testing. Binet cautioned on over reliance on the test and the dynamic nature of intelligence and errors associated with tests.
Lewis Terman developed Stanford-Binet test from Binet test. Terman coined “the term Intelligence Quotient (IQ)” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). This test related to American children and culture. IQ relied on dividing the “mental age by chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100 to give the IQ of an individual” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). Terman adapted IQ tests to reflect individuals’ test scores with the average scores of learners’ peers.
David Wechsler developed Wechsler-Bellevue test and scale of intelligence as a reaction to Stanford-Binet test. He introduced several specialized IQ tests for different groups. He developed scales for both verbal and non-verbal tests consisting 14 tests. He tested “verbal, performance and combined IQ scores of the tests” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).
This approach had advantages based on its performance scale and various tests for different age groups. The performance scale was independent of skills like reading, language and writing. Thus, it could test illiteracy, verbally challenged learners and non-communicative aspects.
Theories of Intelligence Testing Charles Spearman developed “the general intelligence known as g” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He believed that there was “a single and dominant factor of intelligence” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He derived this conclusion from observing positive correlations or associations among grades of various learners in unrelated subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Spearman believed that there was “an interaction between g and a specific factor of mental task, S (a person’s ability that was responsible for an individual’s skills in certain mental tasks)” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).
For instance, Spearman believed that people who possessed vocabulary skills had a better memory and could also show better skills in mathematics. However, this approach was not reliable. Instead, it attempted to provide explanations why tests scores of the same learner had relations in different subjects (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).
Howard Gardner introduced multiple intelligence theory as an attempt to explain intelligence testing. In his approach, Gardner introduced testing in multiple abilities, such as linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, visual, bodily, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Gardner argued that other approaches to test IQ were not conclusive.
In addition, Gardner also noted that such IQ tests could not predict or show outcomes and success in life or school. Gardner argued that individuals had different levels of intelligence. This explained why people had unique cognitive skills. Gardner’s argument provides a basis of intelligence as both cultural and biological.
Robert Sternberg also introduced Triarchic theory. According to him, intelligence has three elements, namely analytical, creative and practical. Analytical intelligence enables people to provide logical solutions to problems through breaking them down. The fundamental process of this approach is analysis. People with high-levels of analytical intelligence rely on their acquired knowledge in solving problems.
However, such individuals may lack creative abilities in terms of new knowledge or ideas. Sternberg’s creative intelligence entails synthetic thinking. Individuals with creative intelligence use knowledge and understanding for being able to formulate new knowledge in an intuitive manner.
Sternberg notes that people with the highest IQ are not the best in this method of thinking. According to Sternberg, individuals who possess high-levels of creative intelligence do not have sufficiently developed universal IQ tests for rating skills of creativity and problem solving. Practical intelligence involves the use of common senses. Individuals must use both their creative and analytical intelligence on daily encounters for problem solving (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that individuals with practical intelligence can succeed in most settings. They can apply both skills to achieve best outcomes. In addition, Sternberg notes that people can achieve excellence above these forms of three intelligences. Thus, some individuals may integrate all three forms of intelligences and demonstrate high standards of intelligence (Sternberg and Clinkenbeard, 1995).
Challenges to definitions of intelligence by Gardner, Spearman, and Sternberg In reference to multiple intelligences, education systems promote acquisitions of linguistics and mathematical skills. According to Gardner, this is unfair method of IQ testing. For instance, learners who have high-levels of intelligence in other areas may end up in special classes due to the lack of mathematical and linguistics skills. To Gardner and his supporters, educators should find relevant ways of assessing learners’ strengths and weaknesses accurately.
Learners do not learn in similar manners. Thus, uniform assessments are difficult. In this sense, educators should not create uniformity in assessing learners. Lazear argued that knowledge of how learners master skills enabled teachers to provide a reliable assessment (Lazear, 1992). Thus, it is useful for making informed decisions in learning processes.
This approach does not require learners to follow traditional test approaches that have predetermined answer such as multiple choices, essay, but it advocates for giving learners opportunities to respond in their ways through applications of multiple intelligences. However, this process is cumbersome as developing every possible profile of intelligence to match various abilities of learners is time-consuming.
Other critics also note that Gardner’s approach does not have empirical evidence to support it (Waterhouse, 2006; Klein, 1998). In addition, cognitive neuroscience studies did not support Gardner’s theory (Waterhouse, 2006). Other scholars related it to the g factor of Spearman (Visser, Ashton and Vernon, 2006).
Spearman’s idea of general intelligence gained prominent in the 20th century. However, its critics, such as Thorndike and Thurstone, argued that it was inappropriate to test an individual’s IQ using a single construct. However, people still viewed intelligence as a united concept (Deary, 2012).
Sternberg based his theory on meta-components that were responsible for planning and execution of solutions and feedback related to performance and gaining knowledge. Thus, meta-component processes were responsible for individual differences. According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of high-level components for problem solving but not a low-level component of gathering information that supports problem solving.
Critics like Brody and Gottfredson argue that Sternberg’s theory is a statement on manifestation of intelligence than an explanation of intelligence. Further, these scholars have shown “recent reviews of the theoretical and empirical support for the theory do not support the notion that creative or practical intelligences are as important as analytical intelligence (i.e. an approximation of general intelligence) in predicting life success” (Gottfredson, 2003; Brody, 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Theorists have grouped theories of intelligence into multiple intelligences and psychometric. Psychometric group involves theories of Wechsler, Spearman and proponents. On the other hand, multiple intelligences account for theories of Gardner, Sternberg and others.
The theory of general intelligence shows correlations on individuals’ abilities. Researchers have shown that problems that have high-levels of difficulty rely significantly on the g factor (Gottfredson, 1998). For instance, Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices relied on the g factor in developing its test. This suggests that there is a link between g and cognitive skills.
A number of scholars have also expanded the g factor by providing additional types of g, such as fluid (Gf), and crystallized (Gc). These classifications covered nonverbal and cultural-free aspects along with the skills and ideas individuals collect through acculturation.
General intelligence gained popularity due to empirical evidence from different tests scores that demonstrated correlations of cognitive tests among diverse individuals. The g factor has remained prominent in most psychometric test batteries, diverse individuals and analytic approaches to problem solving.
Scholars note that all forms of cognitive tests, both simple and complex, despite their informational aspects, have elements of general intelligence. We can not view g factor in terms of test materials, their contents or psychological aspects. This is because the g factor is in the brain.
The g factor in both simple and complex tests shows correlations of the tests with other non-psychometric elements. Brain cognitive systems have modular arrangements. However, the g factor shows consistent and positive correlations with every cognitive skill which also reflects differences among people (Jensen, 2000).
Proponents of multiple intelligence approaches argue that intelligence has a number of factors. These proponents believe that components of intelligence are multiple and interact with one another.
They work as combinations in order to solve problems. Gardner believes that the brain has different segments responsible for various skills (Gardner, 1998). He argues that damage to a specific area in the brain only affects a specific skill associated with that particular area. This is why Gardner concludes that there are multiple intelligences.
Most of the critics have argued that multiple intelligences lack supporting empirical evidence. This has made the approach unpopular among educators and researchers. Critics, who attribute multiple intelligences to the g factor, do so because of the Gc and Gf in assessments.
Gardner had argued that assessments of intelligences that focused only on mathematical and linguistics skills were unfair. This has been the trend in traditional standards and schools have encouraged such approaches. From this point, we can note that Gardner’s approach to IQ testing goes beyond mathematical and linguistics abilities and includes other areas of intelligence.
Gardner demonstrates uniqueness of different learners and that every learner has specific strengths and weaknesses. This observation may make proponents of multiple intelligences approaches argue that psychometric approaches are restrictive and apply to disadvantaged groups.
Jensen argues that the g factor also shows differences among people in processing information (Jensen, 1998). He observes that IQ scores may also reflect correlations among tests. Jensen acknowledges differences among tests and needed skills, but points out such correlations do not exist in the factor analysis.
Instead, they reflect the presence of the g factor in learners’ cognitive processes. Thus, Jensen may relate g factor to information processing skills among learners. He also relates the g factor to biological aspects in terms of brain contents and information processing. Researchers that have interests in brain studies have established associations between the brain’s gray matter and high IQ in certain parts of the brain, using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Haier et al, 2004).
Gardner also associates the brain with intelligence, especially in logical-mathematical and interpersonal skills. Haier and colleagues’ study seems to support the approach that differences in weaknesses and strengths among individuals of same IQ occur due to “variation in mental skills that influence information processing instead of interactions among various intelligences” (Haier et al, 2004).
Failures in models of intelligence tests have created issues that seek to establish relevancy of IQ testing. Critics of these models believe that such tests do not have bases because these models do not offer any kind of intervention that may help individuals classified as disabled (Benson, 2003). They also argue that the best approach is to observe an individual’s behavior both at school and home in order to gauge an individual’s ability rather than abstract IQ tests. This is the only way to get appropriate tests for learners.
In conclusion, we must acknowledge that a conclusive definition of intelligence does not exist. In fact, scholars in this field concur that the debate is ongoing through several theories that have emerged over the years. However, when we look at multiple intelligences and psychometric tests, we agree that they differ in manners each theory tries to explain intelligence testing.
However, both sets of theoretical approaches aid in understanding the concept of intelligence and testing. We must also understand the importance of emerging studies in fields of neuroscience and cognitive development. These studies also help people to comprehend intelligence. For instance, we can note the importance of such studies in understanding the g factor, individual differences and the process of problem solving.
On the other hand, multiple intelligence theories tend to demonstrate that intelligences also depend on other factors, such as experiences. In addition, these theories also show that individuals may express their intelligence in forms of behavioral aspects. The theory of multiple intelligences will gain power with emerging empirical evidence to support it. However, the future of this theory lies on evidence from other fields of study, such as neuroscience and genetic, but not on psychometric testing.
The trends of research in the field should prove Gardner’s idea that intelligence has many elements. This theory should also appeal to educators who see learners as unique individuals who have diverse talents and capabilities, weaknesses and strengths. Thus, the theory can support the idea behind learner-centered learning.
The definition of intelligence depends on several factors such as allocation of resources in the education sector. Thus, some of these IQ testing instruments may be biased depending on their origins and purposes. Most governments have advocated individual differences and most of their policies may support such approaches. We should see whether diverse or standard approaches to education IQ testing will yield positive results.
References Baltes, P. B. and Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122- 135.
Benson, E. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing: Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it. Monitor on Psychology, 34(2), 48.
Brody, N. (2003). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence, 31(4), 319-329.
Deary, I. (2012). Intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 453–482.
Gardner, H. (1998). A multiplicity of intelligences. Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence, 9(4), 19-23.
Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Discussion: On Sternberg’s ‘Reply to Gottfredson’. Intelligence, 31(4), 415-424.
Gottfredson, L. S. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific American, 1, 24- 34.
Haier, R., Jung, R., Yeo, R., Head, K. and Alkire, M. (2004). Structural brain variation and general intelligence. NeuroImage, 23 (1), 425-433.
Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor and the Design of Education. Intelligence, Instruction, and Assessment , 1, 1-2.
Jensen, A. R. (2000). The g factor: psychometrics and biology. Novartis Found Symp., 233, 37-47.
Klein, P. (1998). A response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, empirical evidence, and pedagogical usefulness in educational psychology. Canadian Journal of Education , 23(1), 103-112.
Lazear, D. (1992). Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation.
Sternberg, R. J. and Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1995). The triarchic model applied to identifying, teaching, and assessing gifted children. Roeper Review, 17(4), 255- 260.
Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J. (2002). Practical intelligence, g, and work psychology. Human Performance, 15(2), 143-160.
Visser, B., Ashton, M. and Vernon, P. (2006). “g and the measurement of Multiple Intelligences: A response to Gardner”. Intelligence 34 (5), 507–510.
Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories. Educational Psychologist , 41(4), 247-255.
E-warehousing (logistics a level english language essay help
The case is an illustration of two ways of taking orders by a hardware; type 1 and type 2. The following is a summary of how these ways of taking orders operate.
An order contains one or more products. The online line system identifies product through a unique key. The operator can see the available stock on hand that can be used to satisfy the order. If there is insufficient stock the operator has the opportunity to back order the goods if requested by the store. The operator can also see the expected delivery date for new stock which comes from hardware manufacturing companies.
The remote device ordering system is accepted via another system which stores the individual store orders. Every hour the online system interrogates the subsidiary system and transfers complete orders then the online system validates the details on the order. Products are validated for a correct unique key and a decision on back ordering is made depending on the customer preference to have goods out of stock back ordered.
New improvements It is a matter of fact that the warehouse needs to make new improvements to make it perform its function properly. The choices are few considering that the company does not have resources to finance expensive new warehouse system. In addition, the company is consumer centric and has no plan to expand the warehouse physical space. These are the main issues which should be considered while making the new improvements.
Any new improvements made should improve the quality of service the customer receives. The store people need to differentiate between frequently ordered goods from those that are not regularly ordered.
The warehouse could then ensure that the limited space at the warehouse is used majorly to store the frequently ordered goods. This would ensure that the consumer never fails to find such goods in the store. Goods which are not frequently ordered could be kept in manageable amounts so that whenever a customer makes large orders the ware house officials can negotiate for a back date.
In addition, the company could make arrangements with suppliers so that in case of urgent orders, the supplier should be willing to give the warehouse some special treatment like sending goods directly to consumer and then getting the real amount of the goods from the warehouse later after the goods are send to the consumer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This would demand a lot of trust between the ware house and the supplier accompanied with some documentation. This method is effective for both type 1 and 2 ordering methods and would ensure that the warehouse never fails to fulfil urgent orders.
Alternatively, the company could install a similar system of information communication technology with its main customers. Through this, the warehouse person can be able to frequently communicate with these customers and make inquiries about which goods could be needed in the near future and then make arrangements of acquiring them.
The warehouse could also consider making contacts with local suppliers so as to avoid shipments from international suppliers once every two months by sea freights which are costly and time consuming.
In conclusion, the efficiency of the warehouse relies on creating a good relationship with its local suppliers so that it can be able to quickly and adequately respond to urgent orders.
Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction According to Lalley and Gentile (2009), having very clear objectives is one of the important components of the learning process. In this regard, the teacher should have clear goals that serve as the guidelines for the learning process. The goals will help the teacher to be in a position to have an understanding of whether the learning process has been successful or not. It has been postulated that there are three components of the objectives namely- conditions, behavior and criterion.
Conditions refer to the material that the students will either be availed or not availed with when the objective will be assessed. Behavior refers to the activity that will be manifested by the students after the learning process.
Criterion is the standard that is used as a measure to determine whether or not the learning objectives have been accomplished in the learning process. These three components of the objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process, and ensuring that the students grasp the concepts that are taught (Lalley and Gentile, 2009).
Learning Goal 1 In the first goal, the students will be taught how to write the nouns in plural. In this regard, the students will be taught on how to use the suffixes –s and –ies.
The objectives of this learning goal will be to equip the learners with the skills that will enable them to recognize the plural forms. Moreover, the learners should also learn how to add the suffix –s to nouns in order to make them plural. At the end of the lesson, the learners should be in a position to read and form plurals that end with the suffix –es.
Additionally, the learners should be able to make a distinction between those nouns that require the use of suffix –s to make them plural, and those that require the use of the suffix –es. For this reason, the learners should know that the nouns that end with ss, x, ch, or sh should end with the suffis –es in their plural forms. On the other hand, those nouns that end in y must change the y to an i and add –es.
The standard that will be addressed in this session will be the WI DPI Standard (R6). This standard outlines the objectives of the learning process. It can be used as the benchmark against which the learning process is evaluated in order to find out whether the learning process had been successful or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This standard set it that the learners must demonstrate the ability to listen, read, view, and the most appropriate thinking strategies and techniques. This goal will be achieved since the students will be in a position to identify words that are in plural form and those that are in singular. This will have an impact in influencing the way that they read these words (Nemec and Bussema, 2010).
Analysis of the learning goals
In this lesson, the learning goal was to teach the students how to read and write nouns in plural. This is critical since it enables the students to communicate effectively. In this regard, the students can make a distinction between the words in plural form and those in singular. This will enable them to accurately communicate their ideas, which is one of the goals of this standard. In addition, this will enable them to distinguish those nouns that use the suffix –es and those that use suffix –s in their plural form.
Learning Goal 2 In the second goal, the learners will be taught how to develop, use, and adapt the language according to the context and purpose. For example, the learners will be in a position to use vocabulary in the right contexts. In this lesson the teacher will make use of flashcards to ensure that the learners gain an understanding of the various vocabularies. The teacher will start with the introduction of the concept of the multi-meaning words. As a result, the students will learn that homophones are words that sound similar but have different meanings.
The learners will be expected to show that they understand the use of words with multiple meanings. Additionally, the learners should learn how to define and identify homographs. In addition, the leaner will be equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them to develop, use, and adapt language in accordance to the context and purpose.
The standard addressed
The goal in this lesson is to enable the learners to select the most appropriate words to use in a variety of settings. This is in line with the standards as outlined in WI DPI Standard (E2). This standard has it that the learners should be equipped with the right skills to enable them to develop, use, and adapt language according to context and purpose. The goal of this learning activity is to ensure that the aims of this standard are achieved.
Analysis of the goal
This goal is very important since the learner will be equipped with the right skills that will enable him to communicate effectively. Failure to select the most appropriate words in a variety of settings will result to a scenario whereby the students might not be in a position to be understood by the recipients of their messages. The learners should be in a position to communicate effectively using the right words and phrases in a way that do not distort the intended meaning.
Learning goal 3 In this goal, the learners will be expected to develop their fluency when communicating using the English language. Consequently, the learners will be in a position to use the right diction, intonation and emphasis when communicating. To ensure that this goal is achieved, the teacher will be expected to facilitate a session whereby all the learners will be given an opportunity to read out aloud. In this case, the learners will be expected to manifest the appropriate intonation, phrasing, expression, and rate.
We will write a custom Essay on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectives
The first objective will be to ensure that the learners are fluent while communicating with others. In this regard, the learners should use the correct intonation, emphasis and diction that will help them to communicate effectively. The teacher should stress the importance of reading every word accurately or correctly. Consequently, when the student does not read a word in the right way, the teacher should encourage him to reread in order to clarify the meaning of that sentence. In so doing, the students will improve on their reading skills.
The standard addressed in this lesson is the WI DPI Standard (R6). The major objective of this standard is fluency. In this regard, the students should be in a position to select and apply the listening, reading, viewing, visual representation, and thinking strategies and techniques. This will enable the students to have the right diction, intonation and emphasis that are required to communicate effectively.
Analysis of the goal
Having the right diction, intonation and emphasis will have the effect of helping the students to communicate effectively. This is because failure to pronounce the words the right way could have the effect of distorting the meaning of the words, and by extension the message that is being communicated. By directing the students to reread the words that they may have mispronounced, the teacher will be impressing on the students to always read and pronounce the words in the right way.
Learning Goal 4 In this goal, the role of the teacher will be to equip the learner with the right skills to enable them to understand the context and the applicability of the text to the contemporary settings.
The students will be expected to be in a position to identify the characters in the story. In addition, the learners will be expected to understand the setting of the story. This will entail understanding the plot of the story, and where possible relate it to the events that are taking places in the current world.
The standard that are addressed
The standards that are addressed in this lesson are highlighted in WI DPI Standard (R4). The major goal of this standard is to promote the comprehension capabilities of the students.
For this reason, the students should be taught how to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and evaluate text objectives. This is because there is a very big difference between reading for pleasure and reading for understanding. By understanding, the learners will be in a position to retain much of the information that they come across while reading books (Jiang and Elen, 2011).
Analysis of the goals
Sometimes, the students read books for the purpose of enjoyment and not necessarily to understand the issues that are portrayed therein. However, this lesson will help the learners to have an appreciation of the role of literature in pointing out the issues that take place in the current world. When the student are taught ways of ensuring that they understand fiction, they will be in a position to relate the issues that are highlighted and those that reflect what happens in the contemporary world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To enhance the efficiency of the teaching method used, the teacher will explain the elements of fiction. Students are supposed to learn the themes and setting of the story. Moreover, they are expected to learn the plot and the point of view. By having a better grasp of those concepts, the students will be well equipped to understand the stories that they read, and identify the issues that are portrayed (Jiang and Elen, 2011).
Conclusion It has been postulated that the objectives are very important in the learning process. This is because they help the teacher in defining the learning outcomes. Additionally, objectives ensure that the teachers are focused in their teaching sessions to ensure that the students get the maximum benefits for the learning process.
Additionally, these learning objectives help in clarifying, organizing, and prioritizing the learning process (Jiang and Elen, 2011). The objectives are important in evaluating how well the students have understood the concepts as well as giving them a chance to learn on their own.
Reference List Jiang, L.,
International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism Essay essay help
Introduction Whether the nation state is of any more importance as compared to supranational organisations remains an intriguing question. Ralston Saul, the author of ‘The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World’, as well as Ronkainen Czinkota, Sutton-Brady, and Beal, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition’ come in handy to provide a clear-cut distinction between the two in terms of their importance. Examples of nation states include Japan, Portugal, and Iceland.
On the other hand, supranational organisations involve all the Non-Governmental Organisations, Inter-Governmental Organisations characterised by treaties signed by each member state, collective decision making, and a committee body elected by each member state (Demirpolat, 2009, p.98).
Examples of such organisations are the United Nations, World Bank, Common Wealth, African Union, European Union, and World Health Organisation amongst others. They, too, have their own pros and cons. Though the paper so far is silent in terms of the pertinence of the two, it argues out that the nation state is not as important as supranational organisations.
Why not go for the Nation State Loose of sovereignty
Sovereignty is “the quality of having supreme independent authority over a geographic area such as a territory” (Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). It is the power of a state to rule and make laws. Arguing against the nation state, Saul criticises the sovereign states like the US referring them to as “confused empires…suffering from negative nationalism” (2005, Chap. 25). The world is constantly changing daily. New forms of technology are being introduced each day in the markets.
This is posing a very great challenge to the nation state, as it has to change constantly with the other people outside its territory. This forces the nation states to join other states to form supranational organisations in order to conduct trade with them. In agreement with Saul, Mukherjee shows the importance of unity among the UN member states.
According to Mukherjee, all the 191 nations who are members of the United Nations had agreed “…to work together towards the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015” (Mukheerjee, 2010, p.593: Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). They also agreed to work together to fight the challenges faced in the individual states
A nation state can have two different communities in a territory as it is in Rwanda in Africa where there is Hutu and Tutsis communities. In relation to this, Saul relates the nation state to an “Oligarchic giant that squeezes out the less competent or wealthy countries from having an equal role on the world stage” (2005, Chap. 26). Some countries have “different religious groups with different beliefs and practices” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hepburn and McLoughlin, religious or ethno-national cleavage in Northern Ireland that has resulted in violent inter- ethnic conflicts (2011, p.384). Since such groups usually have different number of people, there are minority and majority groups. Majority groups often marginalise the minority culture groups, a situation known as internal friction that Saul addresses as ‘squeezing’.
This can cause conflicts among the people, which can result into internal war. A good example is the genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1991 leaving over half million people dead. According to the UN reports, the genocide in Rwanda happened when the Hutu started slaughtering the minority Tutsis leaving about 800,000 people dead.
Difficult in migration
In the nation state, the issue of globalism, as Saul says, “…has indeed failed thereby failing people as well” (2005, Chap.26). People in these states do not bother to follow them. Saul addresses this as lack of democracy in the nation state. He says this has “Weakened the nation-state through the idea of inevitable international forces” (Saul, 2005, Cha. 27). This in turn raises the number of illegal migrations, which in turn increases crimes like robbery, rape and drug abuse.
According to the article by Lomsky-Feder, global orientation is a process aiming at reducing migration costs and removing barriers among the states of the world (Lomsky, 2011, p. 593). He further argues that this can only be achieved through international unity. In other countries, to acquire migration documents is very expensive and many people in such countries cannot afford. Migration is discouraged barring “people from moving freely from one country to another” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).
Conflicts with the opposing groups
Nation states tend to get opposing challenges from the supranational organisations. Not all countries may have all the resources required by a state to live independently. Saul comes with the subject of “Public good” (2005, Cha. 25) as a key goal that the nation state do not uphold. Others need advice and other financial materials. Hence, they have to collaborate with other countries. This forces this state to join international organisations in order to do business and trade with other countries.
Lomsky asserts that ‘global citizen’ competes with more traditional prototype of the ‘national citizen’, which is primarily identified with the nation state system, but the ‘global citizen’ is winning (Lomsky, 2011, p.593). All the nation states are currently getting opposing conflicts from supranational organisations, and it may cause their distinction soon. Nationalism is currently being replaced by supranational organisations!
Soon and soon, each country will have to join the other countries in globalisation. Finally, the whole world will be like one small village maybe with one president. This, as Saul predicts, is the “Free-trade paradise where the inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth” (2005, Chap.28).
We will write a custom Essay on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vilification of globalism
Those for the idea of globalism have declared nation states as “heading toward irrelevance: that economics, not politics or arms, would determine the course of human events; that growth in international trade would foster prosperous markets that would, in turn abolish poverty and change dictatorships into democracies” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 29).
The world is currently changing. Every person living today will have no choice but to change with it. When one goes to Rome, he/she should behave like Romans. Currently new scientific methods and machines are being invented. Human beings have to adopt those methods for better living conditions. Burgess argues in his journal that European countries are currently accepting changes from nationalism to supranational organisational systems.
This has resulted to the creation of European Union (Burgess, 2011, p.9). He also argues that people “must therefore abandon the forms of the past and enter the path of transformation, both by creating common basic economic conditions and by setting up new authorities accepted by the sovereign nations” (Burgess, 2011, p.14).
Concurring with Saul, he argues that Europe should rediscover the leading role she used to play in the world, which she lost due to division of its states. Globalism and change go together. Globalism is like a policy that places the interests of the entire world above those of individual nations. Nationalism, Saul says, tends to vilify globalism hence making it infamous (2005, Chap. 25). It tends to malign the idea of globalisation.
Increased corruption cases
In the countries, which practice the nation state systems, there is a large number of corruption cases. In fact, Saul criticises the nation states based on their rampant cases of corruption involving money. “You can always tell you’re in deep trouble when people start thinking money’s real” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 23: Bekus, 2010, p.389).
This is the trouble faced by nation states. Having in mind that supranational organisations help to fight corruption, these countries lack pressures from such organisation as the United Nations, which help their members to fight corruption. Wilding argues that, presently, there is increased sense of the global nature of many problems, which can only be dealt by interacting with other states (2009, p.736). He also says that these problems cannot be solved by one nation.
Rather, they require action at higher, transnational or even global level. Problems as increased corruption cases have a negative impact on the lives of their citizens. The minorities live in very poor living conditions while government officials live like kings. Alexander asserts that leaders in nation states have raised the corruption rates while seeking for national dependency (2010, p.868).
Why supranational organisations are Important Economic Importance
Czinkota et al, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition, second Edition’ come in handy in favor of supranational organisations: the stance of the paper. Nations, which have joined hands with other nations to form supranational organisations, get economic benefits. These benefits include trade conducted by the member countries that Czinkota et al (2011, p.23) refers to as ‘international marketing’.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supranational organisations are international organisations formed by a conjunction of several states. The member countries form intergovernmental organisations, which set rules and regulations by which the trade within these countries should be carried. The cost of the importation of goods is reduced and this in turn boosts the trade between these countries. The international trade has reduced poverty in the member states.
Economic growth is the only result, as Czinkota et al points out based on the increase in the amount of goods and services which are produced by a country, a state, a nation or any economy (2011, p.28). The free trade pact policy in supranational organisations such the UN, the EU and the AU has boosted trade in its members.
Development of member states
Supranational organisations enhance international relations between their member states. In fact, Czinkota et al “focuses on Australian and New Zealand firms looking outwards, principally but not exclusively towards the Asia–Pacific region, as this is the major focus of their international business activities” (2011, p.45). Development can be in many forms. It can be inform of international relations or the physical developments.
Development is a significant event or occurrence that causes change, growth or advancement. It is evolution, progress or expansion in a country or the whole world. Physical development includes urban settings, infrastructure and technology while international relations include intergovernmental friendships or any other relations between two or more states (Hill, 2003, p.56). They also advance common interests of the member countries as well as the common good for the humanity.
They provide financial, technical and humanitarian assistance to the member countries (Czinkota et al, 2011, p.65). This in turn increases the rate of development in such countries. Countries borrow ideas from each other. Ideas of urban planning are passed from one country to another. This is why most urban cities in the world are identical.
These organisations cause development of infrastructure in their member countries. Infrastructure “helps determine the success of manufacturing and agricultural activities. Investments in water, sanitation, energy, housing and transport” (Jan, 2003, p.26), which are parts of infrastructure also improve lives and help to reduce poverty. Information and communication technology that is highly employed in supranational organisations, promote growth; improve delivery of health and other services.
In line with this claim, “European institutions, networks and lobbying organisations have provided an ‘opportunity structure’ for sub-state actors, and European integration has opened up new possibilities to pursue territorial interests that were once ‘closed’ by the expansion of the nation state” (Hepburn,
Organization in the America Red Cross Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction In every organization, the way in which people behave is determined by organizational culture, communication, authority and motivation and other work techniques. A favorable culture is that which makes people feel important. This type of culture should embrace good communication, motivation for workers and good work techniques.
The Culture Embraced At the America Red Cross Organization The culture of an organization can fall under pluralism, dualism or salad bowl. Everyone should be able to adopt their organization’s culture although sometimes it might be hard to assess and understand that culture. As employees interrelate with each other at their place of work every day, their various cultural demonstrations practically begin to disappear and they begin to adopt the organizational culture.
However, how employees behave in terms of workmate relations, enjoyment of work and performance in their duties is shaped by the organizational culture, as stated by Norgren
How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Throughout history, the world economy has been significantly influenced by financial institutions and rules in the international monetary system, in ensuring financial stability. In particular, these institutions have played major roles, during financial crises, witnessed in recent years.
Even though there are numerous financial institutions, it has been argued that the International Monetary Fund is one of the most influential organs, with immense impact on the world economy (Peet 2009, p. 56). This can be proved by the manner in which it responds during critical financial moments, like during the Global Financial Crisis and the current Euro zone stalemate.
Since its establishment in 1944, at a United Nations conference held in Bretton Woods, IMF has initiated a wide-range of reforms in the global financial market. Importantly, only forty-four governments were represented as they agreed to develop a framework, aimed at enhancing economic cooperation among members.
This move was mainly triggered by devaluation errors, which had resulted into the Great Depression that was witnessed in 1930s (Peet 2009, p. 71). In addition, IMF stepped-up organized exchange arrangement, which was essential in promoting stability among its members. This further sought to eliminate competitive exchange depression, which had dominated the world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Moreover, IMF wanted to eliminate restrictions within the international market, which would hamper expansion of trade around the world. To achieve this, members agreed on the establishment of a multilateral payment structure that streamlined transactions among member states.
It is worth noting that these reforms aimed at stabilizing the international monetary system, which remains crucial in shaping the world economy. These initiatives have also been applauded for promoting economic growth, reduction of poverty and improvement of people’s living standards around the world (Peet 2009, p. 67). Based on ever-changing financial challenges, IMF has considered reviewing its mandate in responding to global financial crises.
This essay focuses on how the role of the International Monetary Fund has changed since its establishment in mid 1940s. More importantly, the analysis will explore some of the factors, which have contributed to the restructuring of the institution, on the basis of the world financial issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this, the paper will also cover the body’s response to recent economic crises, which have had significant implications. Lastly, the essay will discuss the future of IMF, in terms of its functions as it enhances the stability of the international monetary system.
How the role of the IMF has changed since 1945 In understanding the role of the International Monetary Fund since its establishment, a lot of attention has always been put on how its role has continued to evolve. In fact, some people argue that what IMF does today, differs completely from what it used to do immediately after its formation. How has this evolution occurred?
Are there factors, which have contributed to the change of the body’s original roles? These are some of the questions addressed in this segment of the analysis. For better understanding, a chronological performance of the institution will be reviewed, in order to create a link between the past and the current status, of one of the most influential financial organs in the world today.
IMF after Bretton Woods According to the history of the International Monetary Fund, it is believed that Bretton Woods’ agreement, which was signed in the 1945, was abandoned in 1970s. This period was primarily characterized by floating exchange rates, which led to a sharp rise in the exchange rate volatility, leading to a disrupted global financial system (Underhill et al. 2010).
Additionally, the institution appeared to have survived its significance and was unable to contain the bouts of financial volatility which surged frequently. Volatility was highly unpleasant to the market even though it was not easy to realize stable rates.
In addition, there was a high likelihood of reduced pressure due to the high level of uncertainties, and looming inflation that was to escalate as a result of intense devaluations. In this regard, most of the member states were not prepared to cope with uncontrolled floating rates. Nevertheless, developed countries played a major role in coordinating exchange rate policies, even though it was done without involving the IMF and undeveloped countries.
Furthermore, this period saw the International Monetary Fund shift its attention from member states to developing countries. For instance, it terminated the financing of the payment imbalances of developed countries, as its financial support gradually shifted to developing countries (Underhill et al. 2010). To be more specific, the last programs to be financed by the IMF in developed countries were carried out in the United Kingdom and Italy in 1977. This was mainly after the general move by countries to float exchange rates.
We will write a custom Essay on How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unfortunately, the Fund’s shift to support developing countries did not have any impact on its overall view towards the causes and solutions for balance of payment crises, which had dominated the international monetary system. Even after the great crisis, which was witnessed in 1982, and left Mexico, Brazil and other developing countries Bankrupt, the IMF did not initiate any reforms, which would have helped the affected economies to recover easily (Kirshner 1995, p. 34).
The problem persisted until mid 1980s, when the Fund merged efforts with indebted countries to adopt structural reforms. Importantly, there is a new image that emerges by focusing on the adjustment programs, which were negotiated by the Fund in 1990s. In fact, the Fund’s help was mainly based on the structural reforms as opposed to the immediate measures of fiscal restraint.
This was clearly evident in 1997, when the IMF was authorized to take care of East Asian countries; fiscal restraint was temporarily terminated during the implementation of structural reforms (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134). This was the determining condition for the IMF to continue supporting the care-program. The following segment of this analysis discusses the role of the International Monetary Fund in the 90s.
The IMF in the 1990s Unlike the previous period, 1990s was characterized by stable exchange rates among most member states. Despite the fact that floating exchange rates played a major role in defining the relationship between powerful currencies in the world, most countries remained obedient to fixed rates as they struggled to stabilize their exchange rates (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134).
This group comprised of several developing countries, which targeted to use stable exchange rates at the moment to tame inflation or eliminate trade uncertainties that were common for export-oriented economies. This environment of fixed and semi-fixed exchange rates favored the thriving of the International Monetary Fund.
By this time, it was clear that the functions of the IMF had tremendously changed, including its original mission, which had served as a major driving force in early years of its establishment (Eichengreen 2008, p. 172). There was uneven flow of capital in countries, as private capital flows became more dominant compared to public and multilateral flows. Additionally, a conservative anti-government ideology found its way in most Western nations, resulting into massive deregulation of private transactions and numerous privatization initiatives.
Consequently, the views of the IMF with regard to capital controls were treated with a reversal shock. Moreover, the Fund got concerned with not only the efficiency of capital controls, but also their desirability. On the other hand, it paid more attention to the efficacy of domestic financial sectors as it dealt with high volume of resources (Eichengreen 2008, p. 210).
Similarly, the Fund embarked on championing the cause of financial freedom, in order to allow free circulation of capital around the world by eliminating controls and restrictions, which were in place. Additionally, the IMF got interested in improving the financial sector in most developing countries, by allowing them to have access to foreign banks. Furthermore, the Fund went on to interfere with domestic financial policies of its members, through direct support of changes in domestic policies (Dodge
Global Marketing Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help
Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou
Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).
In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.
The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.
Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.
It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.
In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott
Global Marketing Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou
Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free
Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).
In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.
The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.
Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.
It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.
In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott
Venus Inc. Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Problem Identification Venus Inc. is a company located in the United States that deals with medical supplies. Having operated in the United States for 12 years, it hopes to expand its operations across the world. The company has four major departments including sales, marketing, supplying and manufacturing all of which work together to enhance the performance of the organization.
The managing director, Kimberly Johnson, has been the manager of the company for the last seven years and has seen diminished growth of the company in terms of productivity and performance. Indeed, the company has recorded losses for the last three years. This has raised concerns for the stakeholders and Kimberly seeks to reverse the trend by enhancing a positive organizational behavior. Particularly, she has explored various reasons that could have led to the downtrend that the company experiences.
At the outset, she notes that the organization has four incoherent departments. The sales department head, Ryan Kiste has steered his department to growth notwithstanding the poor performance exhibited by other departments. Nonetheless, he has always been at loggerheads with other departmental heads owing to his ability to inspire performance within his department.
During management meeting with Kimberly, the differences among the managers remained apparent, as they have already created divisions among the employees. Kimberly realized that the problem is deep rooted in the organizational behavior of the company. She therefore seeks to see the solutions that the managers would present to respond to the diminishing performance.
It also comes to light that the employees’ motivation has decreased and Ryan pinpoints that lack of a remuneration strategy could have been the major cause of divisions among both employees and managers.
Organizational Level Analysis of Venus Inc Organization Culture
Organizational culture of an organization refers to the prevalent practices are common within departments of a company (McKenna 2000, p. 56). It distinguishes the organization from other organizations and makes it unique. Normally, organizations use their culture as a competitive edge over their rivals. It fosters common beliefs and practices within an organization and cultivates a sense of the belongingness among the employees.
According to McKenna (2000, p. 58), organizational culture is instrumental in ensuring that the practices and beliefs of people remain in line with the organization’s needs and ensures that a company is able to achieve its goals of maximizing on profits and revenues. To that end, all organizational practices and beliefs are synchronized in such a way that they reflect the organizations core values and vision (Black 2003, p. 71).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For Venus Inc., the organizational culture seems to be a major problem. Every department seems to have differentiated practices that have led to a fragmented organization. The beliefs possessed by employees working in Ryan’s department seem to be different from those of other departments.
Therefore, Venus Inc. faces challenges in coming with a uniform organizational culture that guides the employees and ensures that the identity of the organization is upheld. Further, the employees seem to be following the respective departments’ practices and have no shared beliefs, norms and practices that guide their code of conduct. Indeed, it is reasonably hard for Ryan to influence and motivate employees belonging to other departments to achieve their goals.
Hofstede organizational culture demands that all organization’s employees have a shared mentality and assumptions to guide the identity of the organization. This culture entails the ability of the managers to have a mind changing training in which all members get to understand the importance of the organizational culture as a source of belongingness and shared values and beliefs.
It is also noteworthy that informal sub cultures have emerged within the organization. McKenna (2000, p. 83) points out that the managers ought to be wary that subcultures that groups form may be detrimental if they deviate from the goals of the organization.
Barriers to Creativity and Innovation Essay essay help site:edu
Background of the study Some barriers to innovation and creativity can affect employees considerably. Notably, deprived creativity and inadequate innovation are influencing (negatively) the productivity and expansion of various institutions. Critically, gaining exemplary performance and competitive advantages in business operations requires a high level of innovation.
This is to advance product quality in order to satisfy customer needs adequately. Meeting customer needs entails intelligent understanding of their concerns and designing amicable procedures based on innovative ideals to satisfy the concerned preferences. Indeed, innovation and creativity are fundamental pillars that influence realization of set objectives in diverse institutions.
It is imperative to note that institutions, which perform exemplarily, are driven under innovative and creative ideals. This has contributed in elevating their product quality and service delivery.
Innovation entails the capacity of creating new ventures and production procedures. It sets unique systems of operation that has not been fully exploited to gain competitive advantages. Innovation is achievable through determination and consistent pursuit for knowledge that defines institution’s competitiveness.
As noted, no institution that can leverage its performance without innovation and advancement of products based on creative ideals. Ideally, institutions should develop strong innovative and creative department to drive product growth and eliminate barriers that may hinder commodity development. The department should be operated with determined, intelligent and passionate individuals with requisite capacity of learning new ideals of operation.
They should also be able to carry out detailed research on emerging issues based on quality and the opportunities that are presented by the environment. Organizations that perform better and hold global presence, for example, Toyota Company, develop its products under innovative ideals. The company recognizes that innovation is the key to survival in the current competitive environment.
The company’s management states that innovation is an element that seeks to add value to consumers by delivering products that hold unique but essential features conforming to their specifications. To achieve high standards of innovation, their must be superior communication, training, career development, technology advancement, and performance of research.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Variably, individuals must exhibit positive attitude, perception and eradicate the fear of failure that influences execution of credible concepts (Dhillon, 2009, P, 3). Innovative initiatives are developed through understanding of the current needs and future expectations in terms of product functionality.
Innovators are constantly in pursuit of how well a product can serve its purpose efficiently and effectively. This is guided with available capacity and the needs of consumers. It is clear that innovators are individuals who set realistic, measurable, attainable and specific goals that hold growth orientation.
They are first thinkers (innovators) always keen to provide solutions to complications/problems that might hinder execution of duties in various sectors. Developed nations, for example, US and Japan, are putting more emphasis on innovation as a performance measure. The authorities in the nations asserts that, evident barriers to innovation that includes poor research and lack of resources influences generation of new ideas.
Variably, brainpower, inferior ICT integration, negative attitude, perception and lack of superior communication channels, also hampers production of new commodities and the implementation of new ideas. Proper solution measures should be undertaken to mitigate the complications that hinder innovation.
The nations have developed superior policies with an aim of boosting innovation with the Japanese governing stressing on the kaizen system that presents credible capacities that foster creativity. This study evaluates the barriers that influence innovation and creativity that forms major performance elements in institutions with focus to Toyota and Samsung companies.
Purpose of to study This study strives to unveil how innovation and creativity form credible aspects of employee development. It also shows how some barriers can affect the innovation and creativity among employees. The study is conducted to provide essential and insightful information on the barriers that influence effective innovation and creativity in institutions. It is set to equip policymakers with the imperativeness of enhancing innovation and creativity in corporations.
The study also seeks to relay essential information on the barriers that affect innovation to aid formulation of relevant mitigating mechanism. This is set to ensure that individuals or institutions acquire full knowledge on the relevant steps necessary to improve growth and facilitate production of quality items that conforms to customer specifications.
We will write a custom Essay on Barriers to Creativity and Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rationally, managers should develop a strong performance mechanism that encourages innovation. They should provide pertinent incentives and emphasize on research to advance production of unique products (Griffin