Guide To Article Critique (Organizational Behavior) Research Paper Argumentative Essay Help

The article review presents a summary ad critical review of the article Perceived Organizational Support: Reducing the Negative Influence of Coworker Withdrawal Behavior by Paul Eder and Robert Eisenberger published in the Journal of Management in 2008. The article discusses the withdrawal from work behavior of employees at the workplace.

This behavior is costly to the organizations that look for ways and means to reduce such behaviors. The symptoms of such behavior evident in workplaces are absenteeism, taking long breaks, coming to work late, etc.

The article by Eder and Eisenberger conducts two studies to understand the relationship between a high degree of perceived organization support (POS) by the employees to workgroup relation and individual tardiness, and effect of POS in reducing the relation between working teams and withdrawal behavior of an individual employee.

The introduction of the article discusses and develops the argument for POS of employees and its positive effect on employee behavior. The researchers’ points out that employee usually has a general belief regarding the value that the organizations give them for their work and contribution.

They, with reference to previous research, indicate that employees with a high level of POS have a more favorable outlook towards their job and are more dedicated to work. They use the support of the organizational support theory that posits that the employees develop POS to meet their socioemotional needs. According to this theory, there is a positive relation between employees’ organizational outcomes.

Therefore, when POS is high employees are believed to increase attendance of employees, punctuality, and positive output. The introduction also discussed previous works on negative relationship between POS and withdrawal behavior. Given this background of the POS and its positive relation with employment outcome and negative impact on employee withdrawal behavior, the researchers stated the purpose of the paper.

The aim of the paper is clearly stated to “investigate the possibility that POS may have an especially strong influence when employees are members of workgroups that engage in high levels of withdrawal behavior, allowing the individual employee’s own high level of withdrawal behavior to go unnoticed”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main reason for such withdrawal behavior is thought to be social loafing. In other words, they argue that whatever the reason for withdrawal, employees engaged in a group tends to withdraw from work when they observe other group members withdrawing from work.

Then the research article subdivides into two subcategories – effect of working groups on individual employee withdrawal behavior and the effect of POS on withdrawal behavior of employees. These two sections provide the literature review related to the respective subjects and posits the hypothesis for the study.

The first section of the literature review presented previous researches dealing with the effect of workgroups on employees’ withdrawal behavior. The review of the literature presented reports of earlier researches and the conclusions that had been drawn from them. The researcher uses 10 to 12 scholarly researches on working behavior withdrawal studies in employees from a period from 1950 to 2004.

Most of the literature reviewed belonged to the 1990s and 2000s. The articles review presents the methodology and aim of the previous researches and their outcomes.

The review of the literature shows that previous literature does point out at the strong influence of workgroup on individual employee behavior and her withdrawal behavior. However, previous research also shows that even due to prevalent influence of the workgroup on employee behavior, some employees resist the temptation of withdrawal behavior and work loafing.

Given the literature review, the researchers suggest, “resistance may be due in part to employees’ reciprocal exchange relationships with their organization” . In other words, individuals will consider their relation and rewards gained from the organization in deciding upon their work withdrawal behavior when in a workgroup.

The next section of the literature review is based on POS and workgroup influence. The researchers believe that even for employees with high POS may show negative behavior when in presence of a workgroup. POS indicates the positive impact of the organization’s behavior towards its employees. This is considered to be a “valued resource” as it affects the employees’ perception of her work, work environment, and organization.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Guide to article critique (Organizational Behavior) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the authors utilize the “reciprocity norm” that makes the employees return the same kind of behavior towards the organization, which is done using 4 references ranging from 1982 to 2001.

From a previous, study of Eisenberg et al. (2001, cited in Eder and Eisenberger 57) the researchers point out the following: “meeting the obligations to one’s organization incurred by the norm of reciprocity serves three functions: (a) one maintains positive self-image, (b) one avoids violating the reciprocity norm, and (c) one continues to benefit from favorable organizational treatment.” (57)

This indicates that when the organization shows a positive response towards the employees for their work, the employees in return should reciprocate with a positive response. From this arguemnt the researchers drew the hypothesis of their study. They drew threee hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1: The withdrawal behavior of other members of employees’ workgroups will be positively related to employees’ own levels of withdrawal behavior.

Hypothesis 2: POS will be negatively related to employee withdrawal behavior.

Hypothesis 3: The positive relation between the withdrawal behavior of other workgroup members and employees’ own withdrawal behavior will be lessened by perceived organizational support.

The first hypothesis is drawn from the work group’s influence on individual employees’ withdrawal behavior, which is assumed to have a positive influence on the latter. The second hypothesis is drawn from the POS literature that hypothesizes that POS will have a negative relation with withdrawal behavior. In other words, higher POS will have a low withdrawal behavior and vice versa. The third hypothesis is that the withdrawal behavior shown by the employees due to the withdrawal behavior of the employees dampens or reduces due to POS.

Once this hypothesis is taken, the researchers move on to describe the methodology they adopted to conduct the research. They present a brief description of the research design in the next paragraph. They conduct two studies – one in a manufacturing company and the other in a retail chain for electronic appliances stores.

The study 1 is designed to examine “the influence of POS on the relation between workgroup tardiness and individual employees’ tardiness”. Therefore, the first study aimed at understanding the effect POS had on the tardiness of a working group and that of the individual employees.

The second study aimed at understanding “the influence of POS on the association of several workgroup withdrawal behaviors (taking undeserved work breaks, spending time in idle conversation, and neglecting one’s job—rated by the supervisor) with individuals’ withdrawal behaviors.”

In the second study, the researchers wanted to understand the effect POS has on the withdrawal of workgroups and consequently on that of the individual’s withdrawal behavior. The methodology also described the way the calculation for the two studies has been done.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Guide to article critique (Organizational Behavior) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, they calculated the withdrawal behavior of the workgroup by taking the aggregate of the each employee’s withdrawal behavior within the workgroup following a previous study that had used this method. The researchers have cited the previous research on employee withdrawal behavior in the paper.

The study 1 is then described in detail in the article. They conducted a survey on 219 employees of a manufacturing plant in the US. They received 85 percent completed response to the survey sent across to the employees. These employees voluntarily undertook the survey after issuance of confidentiality letter to them by the researchers.

From these 187 employees who sent completed surveys, 25 were omitted as information regarding one or more employees in their workgroup was unavailable. The final sample for study 1 done by the researchers was “162 employees, 67% were machine operators, 17% were warehouse employees, 11% were office staff, and 6% were maintenance/quality assurance workers”.

These employees worked in the organizations for an average period of 8.5 years and of them 60 percent were men. The sample had 23 workgroups with average number of 7 employees in each group with least being 3 and maximum being 18.

After this, the researchers described the different variables used for the study and how they were measured. POS was studied using the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support tool used in previous researches. They used six items from SPOS for the study. The responses were taken in 7-point Likert scale.

The paper provided a sample of the question that had been used to exemplify the nature and tone of the questions used in the survey. The scale used was tested for reliability. Tardiness was calculated from the company records on the employees where the measure set by the company for tardiness was used.

The research justified its use of company records for employee attendance due to the finding of previous meta-analysis that employees with lower tenure tend to come to office late. The employees for the research were located in two different plants. The researchers provided details of the working system of the plants giving details regarding their employee rotation system and schedules.

The next section of the paper discussed the results of the study. In order to assess the workgroup tardiness’ effect on individual’s tardiness, the researchers calculated the average of each member of the workgroups’ tardiness over the period, not including the tardiness of the employee.

They then used regression to see the effect of work group’s tardiness on individual tardiness, POS, and interaction between the first two. The analysis takes the assumption that there is difference of tardiness on group level. Therefore, they run the test for analysis of variance (ANOVA) in order to understand the difference in the tardiness of the different work groups.

ANOVA is used to understand the difference in group-level behavior. For this, the researchers cited two previous researches one from 1998 and the other from 2004. The researchers also calculated intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) in order to understand the “proportion of variation accounted for by workgroup” . The researchers next presented the results of the ANOVA:

The results of the ANOVA indicated that there were significant between-group differences for tardiness, F(22, 139) = 2.39, p <.01, suggesting systematic differences in work group tardiness. In addition, ICC(1) =.06, suggesting that 6% of the variance in tardiness occurs between workgroups.

The researchers used hierarchical regression analysis to understand the effect of POS on individual tardiness and workgroup tardiness. The results of the analysis demonstrated in a table.

The explanation of the analysis was presented in the article that demonstrated the procedure through which the analysis was done as well as the results achieved. In order to reduce collinearity effect in the results, all the component variables were converted to Z-scores. They presented a detailed description of the steps taken before the analysis:

Employees’ tenure with the organization, plant location, average workgroup tardiness, and POS were entered in the first step of the analysis. Consistent with Hypothesis 1 and previous findings… there was a positive relationship between group and individual tardiness. (59)

Then they went on to explain the results of the research. The research findings showed that there was a negative relation between POS and tardiness, however, the relation was not found to be significant. In step 2 of the analysis the researchers “added the multiplicative composite of POS and average workgroup tardiness” (59) to understand the correlation between the two variables.

There was a significant effect that POS had on tardiness that supported hypothesis 2. However, this significant effect of POS on tardiness was contingent to a significant correlation between POS and workgroup tardiness. Therefore, this analysis provided support to hypothesis 3, “this interaction suggests that the positive relationship between group and individual tardiness was reduced with high POS.” (59)

In order to understand this relation better, the researchers plotted regression lines connoting average group tardiness and individual tardiness with low and high levels of POS. the understanding through the regression graph analysis ahs been presented as follows:

Simple slope analyses showed that, as predicted, for employees with low POS, there was a significant positive relationship between group tardiness and individual tardiness, β =.40, t(156) = 4.16, p <.05. In contrast, among employees with high POS, there was a non-significant relationship between group tardiness and individual tardiness, β =.04, t(156) = 0.35, p = ns.

Therefore, the pattern of the results demonstrated that hypothesis 3 taken by the researchers i.e. the influence of the workgroup tardiness on individual tardiness reduces as the employees demonstrates higher degree of POS. Their analysis showed that there was a strong effect of POS on the interaction between work group tardiness and individual tardiness.

In employees with low level of POS, there was a greater increase in individual tardiness with higher group tardiness. On the other hand, individual employees with a high level of POS showed lower increase in tardiness with a high level of group tardiness. Therefore, study 1 concluded that high POS had a dampening effect on the individual tardiness even when group tardiness was high.

The second study was conducted in a retail setting that aimed at understanding if the findings of study 1 could be generalized as the researchers believed “A replication of the results of Study 1 in a different work environment with a different means of assessing withdrawal would provide additional support for our hypotheses” .

First, the researchers presented the research design for study 2, which essentially was a replication of study 1 in terms of procedure and process, with just an alteration in the organizational setting. Study 2, therefore, was designed to “examine the effects of workgroup withdrawal behavior on individual withdrawal behavior in a very different work environment (a retail organization) using a measure of an array of withdrawal behaviors” (60).

In this study, instead of company records for individual tardiness, supervisory evaluation of taking breaks as measures of tardiness was used. The measures included “undeserved work breaks, spending time in idle conversation, and neglecting one’s job” (60).

Then the researchers demonstrated the sample taken for the study and the measures taken. The study 2 was sent to 714 employees who voluntarily completed the survey during regular scheduled work hours.

Then the researchers obtained the name of direct supervisor of the employee from company records and the supervisors’ rating for each employee in terms of withdrawal. 94 supervisors provided the ratings. The final sample for the research showed the following:

45% were hourly salespeople, 34% were hourly paid sales support employees (e.g., cashiers, stockers), 15% were salaried support employees, and 6% were salaried salespeople. The mean tenure of these employees was 3.9 years (SD = 4.0), and 73% were men.

Then the researchers described the measures for the study that were taken in form of POS, tardiness, and withdrawal behavior. They used 10 items for POS evaluation in the second study.

They derived reliability of the scale from previous studies. Withdrawal behavior was measured using 3 items based on intra and extra-role performance – “taking undeserved work breaks, spending time in idle conversation, and neglecting aspects of the job one is obligated to perform”.

The supervisors rated the employees individually based on a 5-point Likert scale. The researchers mentions that the reliability of the scale was not high, but it was taken as the scale for the study due to its “objective nature and conceptual importance” (62). The covariate i.e., organizational tenure of the employees was derived from company records.

Then the researchers went on to describe the findings or results of the study. The researchers first described the process of analysis of the second study. The researchers used supervisor rated scale to derive the measure of average workgroup withdrawal.

In order to do so, the researchers a “value was assigned to each employee that reflected an average of the withdrawal levels reported by the supervisor for all employees in his or her workgroup, excluding the employee’s own level of withdrawal”.

They followed a same process as followed in study 1 of doing an ANOVA analysis on the data. They also calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient in order to understand the proportion of the variation between the workgroups. Then they presented the results of the ANOVA:

The results of the ANOVA indicated that there were significant between-group differences for withdrawal, F(93, 545) = 4.90, p <.001, justifying its aggregation in the current study. In addition, ICC(1) =.04, indicating that 4% of the variance in withdrawal existed between groups. (63)

They conducted a hierarchical regression analysis following the procedure in study 1 in order to understand if POS dampened the effect of workgroup withdrawal on individual withdrawal. The results of this analysis are as follows:

To reduce potential collinearity between the interaction terms and their component variables, all component scales were converted to Z-scores prior to the calculation of the interaction term. Tenure with the organization, average group withdrawal, and POS were entered in the first step of the hierarchical regression analysis. Consistent with past research and Hypotheses 1 and 2, both average group withdrawal and POS showed significant relationships with individual withdrawal in the predicted directions.

The second step of the research was to add the multiplicative composite of POS and the average of workgroup withdrawal. Their study found an interactive effect of the two on individual withdrawal.

The relationship established between the interaction of the two was found to be positive: “The interaction suggested that the positive relationship between workgroup withdrawal and individual withdrawal was reduced among individuals with high POS.” (63) in order to examine the relation to a greater degree the researchers plotted the regression lines between average group of withdrawal with individual withdrawal with high and low levels of POS. the results thus shown was:

Simple slope analyses showed that for employees with low POS, there was a significant positive relationship between group withdrawal and individual withdrawal, β =.58, t(634) = 16.61, p <.001. Among individuals with high POS, there was still a significant relationship between group withdrawal and individual withdrawal, β =.43, t(634) = 12.40, p <.001. However, the relationship was significantly weaker among individuals with high POS than those with low POS, t(634) = –2.38, p <.05.

The study then presented a general discussion of the patterns of the results, which was found to be consistent with the third hypothesis taken. The comparison between the two was identified to be the result of the research.

The results showed that there was a definitively strong effect of POS on individual withdrawal and that group withdrawal had effect on individual withdrawal, but the degree of the effected on high or low level; of POS, wherein, a high level indicated lower tendency to withdrawal and vice versa.

Therefore, a combination of the findings of studies 1 and 2 indicated that “employees are less likely to withdraw from work activities in the presence of coworkers who withdraw if such behavior violates their positive exchange relationship with their organization”.

A general discussion of the findings done by the researchers demonstrated the relation and significance of their findings through the two studies. They mention in this discussion that in both the studies POS dampened the relationship between workgroup and individual withdrawal behavior. The discussion exemplified this finding:

When POS was low, the work group’s tardiness was strongly associated with the individual employee’s tardiness (Study 1); the work group’s combination of undeserved work breaks, spending time in idle conversation, and neglecting standard job responsibilities was strongly associated with similar neglect by the individual employee (Study 2).

In the first study, with high POS, the positive association between group tardiness and individual tardiness was eliminated. In the second study, weaker but nonetheless reliable effects were obtained.

The general discussion actually presented the relevance of the study towards organizational behavior literature. The consistency of the study’s findings with that of previous researches in the area confirms that the reciprocity theory also holds true, as “POS would lead employees to feel an obligation to repay favorable treatment” (64).

The result was consistent with the previous organizational theory that POS acts as a deterrent to the individual withdrawal behavior even during the presence of significant influence of group withdrawal behavior. Therefore with high POS, the research suggests, that withdrawal will decline and so would detection of it, which would consequently decrease punishment due to tardiness.

POS is the factor that increases a sense of responsibility among individual employees that makes them aware of the responsibilities they have towards the organization and they stop taking advantage of situations. A previous study has been cited that demonstrated the effect of the POS on employee absenteeism that was found to be strongest when employees believed in a reciprocal relation with their organization.

The research findings of both the studies supported previous findings; however, the pattern suggested through the graphical analysis is different. While studying tardiness, POS was found to dampen the relation between individual and group tardiness, but it did not reduce the strong relation between the group and individual behavior:

However, in Study 2, the relation between group and individual withdrawal was only reduced. This difference could be due to a number of factors. The kinds of employment (manufacturing vs. retail) differed, as did the measure of withdrawal behavior.

Finally, tardiness was assessed objectively in the first study, whereas supervisors rated withdrawal behavior in the second study. Although the locus of the difference is unclear, the effect’s occurrence with different employees and different measures of withdrawal behavior suggest the generality of the findings.

The article then discussed the limitations of the research conducted by Eder and Eisenberger. The data being cross-section provided a generalized understanding of the POS and its effect on individual withdrawal, by extending the reciprocity theory, however, not being able to to provide any casualty of results.

The study, therefore, extends more in understanding that the “individual employee withdrawal might lead to the individual’s workgroup members withdrawing more frequently” (66) that would be based on the degree of social influence of the individual on the group. Further the results found in the study confirm to the longitudinal studies conducted previous, however, the researchers agree that the “longitudinal research, specifically invoking POS, would provide stronger evidence of the effects demonstrated in the current studies” (66).

The present study presented little variation in the outcome. The value of R2 is found to be very small. This is a limitation of the study, which the researches defended as being common in organizational behavior studies and also state that a small value of R2 does not indicate the findings are “unimportant”.

The researchers also present venues for further research on POS and withdrawal behavior of the employees – “In addition to tardiness, wasting time, and neglecting job responsibilities, the influence of POS on increasing resistance to other withdrawal behaviors might be examined.” (66)

Further they also state that POS may also help in reducing “the relationship between group and individual performance of active counterproductive behaviors that harm the organization, such as employee theft of organization property” (66). The discussion further provides support or the findings in previous research findings.

The researchers now go on to state that “POS is one of a number of psychological factors that might influence the relationship between workgroup and individual withdrawal behavior.” (66)

Using previous studies that have established a relation between workgroup and individual antisocial behavior and workgroup influence on self-reported absence, demonstrates that “positive attitudes toward the organization (e.g., POS, satisfaction) actually may inhibit the development of withdrawal norms in cohesive groups.” (66) the researcher goes on to state the present research supports the previous researches’ assertion that “antisocial groups encourage antisocial individual behavior” (66).

Further the article also provides ways how POS can be increased in organizations citing previous research: “Prior research suggests that POS is enhanced by fair treatment, supervisor support, and favorable rewards and job conditions” (66).

The research concludes with the note the an overall positive relationship between individual employees and organizations and through means of “favorable exchange” between employees and employer can decrease the negative influence of workgroups. Therefore, the study suggests that when employees feel that are well treated by the organization, their withdrawal behaviors are less affected by workgroup withdrawal, and vice versa.

The article is written in scholarly style with proper description being given of the previous literature reviewed, methodology, research design, and finings. The study presented the findings with great detail, with step by step explanation of the procedure followed for the analysis of the data collected through the survey. The article clearly explained the variables and the measures taken for measurement of the variables.

The limitation and areas of further research are also discussed in the final section of the paper. After the results of the two studies are presented, the study provides explanation and analysis of the results intuitively, through the section with the subheading general analysis.

The findings are discussed in relation with previous research and the similarity and dissimilarity with previous research on POS are also discussed. Then the article presented means of extending the result to understand other issues related to employee negative behavior and how it can be countered using POS.

The findings of the research are very important for organizations based in the UAE and in general for organizational behavior. Employee withdrawal is a huge problem for organizations today, costing a lot of money due to this. Companies try hard to keep their employees happy.

However, when organizations feel that they are not really valued by the organization for what they are doing, they become unhappy and tend to be more influenced by the negative behavior of the workgroups. This research presents understanding as to why employees withdraw from work, even when working in workgroups, and others may not.

Thus, the way to prevent withdrawal among employees is to increase POS. organization in context of UAE, as employee absenteeism is a recurring problem, and work loafing costing UAE companies a lot of money, it is important to understand that companies must try and increase POS of employees, that can prevent the negative effect of workgroups in committing negative behavior at workplace.

The article is moderately easy to understand, and is explained in such a manner that the research procedure is made very simple. The article is of importance to scholars as there are certain limitations to the study and certain areas untouched, which can be dealt with for further research. Further, for the practitioners, the article is a storehouse to manage employee behavior in organizations through increasing POS.

Works Cited Eder, Paul and Robert Eisenberger. “Perceived Organizational Support: Reducing the Negative Influence of Coworker Withdrawal Behavior.” Journal of Management, 34(1) (2008): 55-68. Print.

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Organisational Management Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Functional Organisational Structure The structure is designed on hierarchies such that positions as well as functions of each individual within the company are clearly stated. The organisation is segmented into key functional departments where each department encompasses all the activities related to it and all the departments within the organisation work towards achieving the common goal of the organisation.

Organisations which mostly apply functional structure usually deal in one product or service just like Barclays Bank which offers financial services to customers. In Barclays Bank for example, there is the human resource, sales and marketing, accounts and finance, security, wealth management, mortgage, banking and insurance departments. Under these departments are other sub departments (Barclays 2011).

Functional structure offers Barclays various advantages in its management and business processes. Since the structure ensures that Barclays has a well structured hierarchy as well as functions for each department and individuals, executing projects and providing instructions to employees in particular departments is easier (Miles

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Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Trends in the Global Beer Market

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan

The Next Foreign Market

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev

Diversification

Conclusion

References

Introduction Foreign market entry refers to the process through which companies join overseas markets in order to expand their operations. Businesses expand in order to increase their market share and competitiveness in the market.

Diversification refers to the process through which companies invest in different industries in order to improve their growth and stability. This paper focuses on the application of the concept of foreign market entry and diversification in the context of Modelo and the beer market.

Trends in the Global Beer Market The global beer market is characterized by the following trends. First, the companies that operate in the industry are focusing on market consolidation. This has been done through international expansion and acquisitions. In 2008 the top ten firms in the industry accounted for 59% of the market. Second, the sales volume in the developed Western economies is steady.

However, in a few developed economies the sales are slowly declining. The sales in the emerging economies in Asia and Eastern Europe are growing rapidly. Third, the rise in sales in the market is attributed to high quality of beer products, rise in disposable income and effective marketing and sales campaigns. Besides, local spirits are being substituted by beer due to “increased responsiveness to brands and marketing”.

The rate of consumption in the developed economies depends on the level of product differentiation. Finally, most markets are divided into two levels. The lower end of the market features discounted brands while the higher end of the markets features premium and imported brands.

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan Modelo’s rapid expansion in the global beer market is attributed to strategic partnerships with experienced distributors. The company implemented this strategy in two ways. First, the company formed strategic alliances with other brewers and soft dinks manufacturers. Under these alliances the company distributes the products of its partners in various markets (Modelo 2011).

Second, the company has formed joint ventures with independent distributors in various parts of the world (Modelo 2011). The distributors are responsible for selling the five brands that are exported by the firm. The company has established offices in all markets where its products are sold.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The offices are responsible for coordinating and supervising the activities of its distributors in order to ensure that sales targets are achieved (Modelo 2011). The joint ventures have enabled the firm to serve the global market without necessarily establishing production plants in every market.

The Next Foreign Market Modelo should join the East African market using the joint venture strategy due to the following reasons. First, there is low competition since there is only one main brewer in the region, EABL. Second, the emerging breweries in the region lack the capital to expand. Thus Modelo can partner with them in order to introduce its products in the region.

Third, the East African region is currently encouraging foreign investors to join the region in order to achieve rapid growth. This means that foreign investors enjoy incentives such as low taxations in return for their presence in the region. Finally, several independent distributors have emerged in the region due to the steady economic growth and availability of infrastructure.

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev InBev is one of the main competitors of Modelo since it controls a better part of the global beer market. Modelo finds it difficult to compete with InBev due to the limited number of brands that it offers. While Modelo has only 13 brands, InBev has 200 brands (Modelo 2011). This gives InBev a greater competitive advantage as compared to Modelo since the customers of the former have a wider range of brands to choose from.

In response to this challenge, Modelo has formed alliances with other brewers in order to expand its brand portfolio. InBev also controls the distribution channel in the major markets since most of the well established distributors have partnered with it. This makes it difficult for Modelo to expand by partnering with distributors.

Modelo can respond to these challenges by focusing on product differentiation and cost leadership strategies. This will enable it to position its products as the best in the market. Besides, it will be able to increase its market share by selling its products at low prices.

Diversification Modelo should diversify its business by investing in two industries namely, the soft drink and shipping and logistics industry. This proposal is informed by the following reasons. First, the high threat of substitute products in the beer market is attributed to the goods that are produced in the soft drink industry.

We will write a custom Essay on Foreign Market Entry and Diversification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus investing in the soft drink industry will enable the company to cushion its investments from the threat of substitute products (soft drinks). Second, the company will be able to use its subsidiary in the shipping industry to import and export its products in time and at low costs. Besides, the firms in the shipping industry are likely to be profitable since the industry is very stable.

Conclusion The above analysis indicates that the global beer industry is yet to reach its maturity stage. This means that firms can increase their profits by expanding their operations in the market. Modelo has achieved its expansion objectives by partnering with experienced distributors (Modelo 2011).

The firm can use the same strategy to join the East African market that is associated with low competition. The company should also diversify its business by joining other industries such as shipping and soft drink industry.

References Modelo. (2011). Annual reports: 2010.

Wade, J. (2010). Heady days for beer. Business Wire, vol. 23 (1) , 67-101.

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Teachings of Hebrew Wisdom Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Bible covers all aspects of human life. Christians always refer to the teachings in the Bible when coming up with their decisions. The book of Proverbs covers the teachings of Hebrew wisdom on contemporary issues such as relationships, marriage, wealth, family, and self-control (Hindson, 2003).

Solomon, the author of the book, associates diligence with terms such as riches, abundance, busy, power, and wisdom (Yates

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Yayi jia Essay online essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

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Yayi jia Essay college essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

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Bonus Banking: Case of UBS Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Background

Employees of financial institutions have been considered for quite some times as being among the top earners in the country. Indeed, financial service organizations have defended their compensation and bonus structure, claiming that it helps them attract, recruit and retain the best talent. In addition, these organizations have previously claimed that their employee are remunerated based on their performance.

Therefore, employees will be motivated to work hard and in return create long-term value to all the organizations’ stakeholders. On the other hand, it would be expected that when an organization underperforms, the employee will similarly be affected and hence their bonus reduced (Pert

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Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics?

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win?

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Different literatures have postulated how the process of Europeanization has been perceived with great enthusiasm by some people, while others have perceived it with intense skepticism (Smits p.1).

Since the advent of the call and much effort exhibited to the European integration process, both Europhiles and Eurosceptics in almost equal measure have argued their case that some time have motivated vigorous debates about the very nature of this European project (Smits p.1). What needs to be known is the fact that both the Euroscepticism and Europhilia base and pursue their different particular views of how largely citizens interests should be represented.

According to many citizens of the countries that have formed the European Union, views and positions taken by leading advocates of Europhiles and Eurosceptics have influenced the positions taken by the citizens of the different countries of European Union. Within the European Union jurisdiction the key issues that have led to existence of these two schools of view revolves largely around the economy, politics, legal, financial system, identity, culture, and sometimes language.

The point of note here is that European integration process has largely been perceived and regarded to be possible after integration of the above highlighted key aspects. Subsequently, the above highlighted key aspects constitute the very aspects that have divided citizens of EU into Europhiles and Eurosceptics, which each group arguing its case decisively for or against Europeanization.

Therefore, the essence of this research paper is to explore in detail ‘Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics’ within the perspective of the above-outlined aspects. Further issues of national identity will also be explored and how it has further influenced Europhilia and Euroscepticism ideas and dreams.

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics? Definition of these two terms has been varied and multiple. For example, Euroscepticism has no one single usage where in some cases, the term has been used to refer to the lack of enthusiasm over the increasing powers of the European Union that exists, especially within the British public debate (Harmsen and Spiering p.15).

Other people have adopted a more broad definition, which decompounds and perceive Euroscepticism to constitute negative view of the process of Europeanization. The kind of position taken by this later group is one that has criticized EU policies and their position has been to oppose vehemently the EU enlargement where they express fears that with European integration then pursuit of social justice will be endangered (Smits p.2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another group has defined Euroscepticism as “states’ fear of losing sovereignty and the subsequent consequences this has for the legitimacy of decisions that directly touch upon the rights and obligations of citizens” (Smits p.2). In other words, Eurosceptics express worry and fear about the diminution of national autonomy and the leaking away of the national parliaments’ power as democratic law-making institutions.

The general fear for Eurosceptics is that of the EU turning and evolving into a bureaucratic super-state that has powers to decide upon the numerous issues that affect its citizens in an undemocratic way (Smits p.2).

Overall, Eurosceptics are characterized by their tendency of: being against EU integration, defense of the national state sovereignty, oppose EU federation, oppose globalization, oppose foreign immigrants, and are against multicultural for the national cultural identity, and lastly, many of them have become emphatic xenophobia and Islam-phobia (Arato and Kaniok p.46).

On the other hand, Europhiles constitute a group of European citizens who have expressed unequivocal support and confidence in the European Union integration (Arato and Kaniok p.41). The position taken by Europhiles is that EU integration has more benefits to European citizens as compared to individual national sovereignty, which has tended to block developments in the regions (Hoogmoed p.1).

Europhiles point numerous reasons within the economy, political, information, trade, financial, governance, climate and environmental management, and many more others as key aspects that are likely to benefit the people of European upon integration. The argument of this group is that national cultures and identities should not play as barrier to the integration of the EU countries.

Europhiles counter the position of Eurosceptics by observing some of the notable positive impacts of EU integration. For instance, Europhiles content that, with integration of EU, there will be a strong economy, which in turn will lead to alleviation of poverty among member countries (Hoogmoed p.1). At the same time, Europhiles are confident that with Integration of EU there will be removal of trade and legal barriers.

As a result, there will be more free movement of people between the nations without having to fulfill many strenuous legal requirements. Further, EU integration for Europhiles will enable integration of individual country military forces, a situation that will lead to availability of more and enough funds to modernize the military to perform to their extreme capacities (Hoogmoed p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More EU integration further is seen to important in making global citizens within the EU jurisdiction with elimination of national, cultural, and even religious differences. Crime issue is an aspect that is drawing attention in most parts of the world, and the issue is further aggravated by the advent of increasing and sophisticated terrorism.

As a way of countering and responding to these crime threats, Europhiles are convinced that integration of EU countries will results into establishment of a well trained and equipped police force that has the capacity to respond well to challenges of crime and other illegal activities (Hoogmoed p.1).

Cross-border and growth of a diverse human resource manpower is another element that characterize Europhilia where the belief is that with EU integration, there will be more highly trained human resource manpower who will be able to contribute to the economy growth of the EU countries.

Lastly, on overall Europhiles are confident that with EU integration there will be enhanced industrial development, there will be increased potential, new global business, the living standards of the people will increase, and there will be increased and improved human rights aspects (Hoogmoed p.1).

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges The end of the Second World War had far-reaching impacts on the European countries where efforts were started to integrate majority of European countries with hope that such an initiative would results into prevention of future conflicts since the old rivalries would be diminished (Castano p.40).

This grand and ambitious process was in the leadership hands of the elites who at the same time owned the whole process and drew inspiration from the neo-functionalist approach (Castano p.40).

One key principle that was incorporated in the entire integration process rested on the idea that all citizens of EU member countries would in gradual process but inevitably “shift their loyalties away from their national government toward the European institutions, which were going to provide greater material benefits” (Castano p.40).

By the signing of the Maastricht treaty, Eurobarometer data indicated that Europeans had a positive perception that European integration process was a good thing (Castano p.40). Despite this positive perception, observation made is that it has not translated into national citizens of various European countries abandoning their national loyalty to embrace a common European identity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It can be deduced that the call for European identity was untimely and very fast and was done before the existing constraints had been resolved, especially with regard to institutions (Castano p.40). The same data collected by Eurobarometer indicated that European institutions have experienced a slow but steady increase in their popular support though the acceptance level of the institutions is still low.

Integration process for EU has become standstill and there has been a constant call for improvement in the legitimacy of the EU, a situation that calls and requires fostering sense of belonging among the citizens of the national member states (Castano p.42). The common and wide misconception has been that with improved economic policies then this integration will be possible to be achieved, a notion that is not true at all.

Economic integration is perceived and even proving to be insufficient to instill a sense of belonging at the European level and some people have further argued that fostering European identity through formation of a single European cultural identity again is likely to fail.

Paramount reason given by these people is that it is actually diversity, which is needed for European integration and not homogeneity (Castano p.43). In order to realize some genuine integration for EU countries, more people and suggestions have been leveled against the need to establish itself as a possible self-representation at the collective level for its citizens.

In a 2006 opinion poll among the European citizens it became evident that majority of the citizens were satisfied with the economic developments that had taken place although pessimism remains over political integration (Aulich p.1).

The findings of the poll showed that the living standards in the major country members of EU was extraordinarily high, much higher that other regions of the globe, a situation that had led to expression of satisfaction among the member countries.

For instance, statistical data of the poll showed that 90 percent of Europeans perceived themselves to be happy in their current family life and 84 percent expressed satisfaction in their current occupation (Aulich p.1). Further, 90 percent expressed their confidence in the sovereignty of their countries, although some slight differences were noted among different member states (Aulich p.1).

According to these data and overall conviction among the European citizens, the EU has succeeded and achieved economic integration for the member states, and which to them is enough as far as the basis foundation of the EU is concerned. On overall, European citizens in their individual countries considers themselves to have achieved success, happiness, fulfillment, and satisfaction, and generally enjoy social and economic status hence no nudging need to preoccupy with needs of integration (Aulich p.1).

French and Dutch constitute two countries of EU, which rejected the Euro-constitution that advocated for political integration. The position and conviction of majority of citizens in these two countries was that their level of economic advancement has gone up and therefore do not see likelihood of any tangible benefits arising from EU integration to them (Aulich p.1).

Further, the conviction of the two countries was that with the growth and advancement of their economies any likelihood of integration especially with less developed countries had ability to lead to retardation in economic advancement as there will be need to sacrifice their current economic status and overall standards of living in order to compensate and uplift the benefits of the poorer nations (Aulich p.1).

In other words, political and legal integration of EU member states has been hampered by perception economic of member states will disintegrate instead of growing and it is an aspect that has largely influenced the voting behavior of citizens in the member countries.

Different reasons have been given as to why EU integration process has appeared to be a tall order and difficult. For a start, EU as an entity is seen to receive less attention as compared to individual nations in the media (Castano p.43). This particular aspect of featuring less in the media is an aspect that has relegated EU to sidelines as more citizens of EU pay more attention to their national identity.

The media at the same time, is seen to reinforce more national identity than European identity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that when EU receive media attention it is largely because of internal disputes between the representatives of its member states or the inability to reach a common position in international arena.

As it can seen the attention of the media to these aspects are not basically aimed at reinforcing European identity, in fact the aim is to portray the dysfunctional of EU hence making integration impossible in the minds of the citizens (Castano p.43).

Another reason that continues to undermine efforts of the EU at integrating has to with entitativity of the EU in international context, which has largely been undermined by the direct actions of individual governments.

For instance, these governments have engaged in actions that can be described and viewed to be circumventing and sometimes contradicting the position of EU, a situation that generally embarrass the European citizens (Castano p.43).

Lastly, the EU integration process is seen to get hindrance from a lack of geographical boundaries. This particular aspect has largely weakened the efforts of the EU to evolve and establish itself as a real entity. In sum, EU aspect is yet to become a psychological existence in the minds of its citizens, a situation that continue to weaken and play against the European identification.

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win? Debate over the integration of the EU is likely not to disappear from the political elite and media any time soon and opposing sides are likely to be sustained. Nevertheless, many opinion polls across European citizens still portray a divided citizen group over the issue of integration.

There is no yet consensus as to how integration process should proceed or be facilitated, and members are much divided as to what should constitute the integration content.

As some members express confidence that political and legal integration can be achieved, other members are of the view that the basis of integration was to be realized through economy, which in turn has been achieved or fulfilled; hence, members should not be burdened by increased responsibility of working out a political and legal integration.

However, it should be noted that integration of political and legal structures and system of the EU chances appear to be scarce or just bleak due to existing numerous reasons. For example, national identity and national cultures have proved to be the strongest factors contributing to the un-realization of EU integration.

The national identity has superseded that of EU and member countries together with their citizens seem not to be ready to relinquish their paramount sovereignty to EU. Cultural differences have become evident as hindrance to EU integration process success as evidenced in the case of Turkey application for admission (Anonymous p.1).

Cultural differences manifests in different attitudes the citizens of different countries have over the EU, the different languages, where some citizens are opposed to the idea of creation of one language to unite member countries of EU (Anonymous p.1).

In addition, cultural differences in manifested in religious affiliations of different communities in different countries, existence of different interests that members see may not be addressed by the macro and mega institutions of the EU, existences of different laws that sometimes are designed on the cultural aspects of each country hence largely unique in nature.

Regulations regimes and systems among the EU member countries are totally different an aspect that might prove to be difficult to harmonize given that some countries have strong regulation mechanisms while others have largely weak mechanism (Anonymous p.1). Poverty levels among countries are another issue that poses danger to the integration of EU countries.

Different countries have manifested different levels of poverty and even some countries have come out to oppose integration on the basis that it will lead to their economies declining and standards of living ion their respective countries going down. Way of life, customs, and different political and administrative structures constitute another class of factors that continue to limit chances of EU integration.

Consideration of these factors it becomes clear that each country manifest different forms of ways of lives, societal and national norms and totally different political and administrative structures which cannot be merged into one structure bringing together the citizens of the countries.

Economic differences again constitute a set of factors that are perceived may block the likelihood of EU integration process from succeeding.

This economic difference are manifested in areas such as: different economic structures; different tax systems; labor costs; worker’s rights; different levels of wages, different social security contributions; welfare systems that are different; safety standards that are totally different; different environmental regulation mechanisms (Anonymous p.1).

Other notable differences in this category include different professional training schemes; different levels of economic standards, and lastly, the nature of state interference in economic activities also differ (Anonymous p.1). Last set of factors that hinder integration originate from geographical differences, whereby distance, climates, sizes of states, and landscape are seen to negatively contribute to the integration of EU member countries (Anonymous p.1).

Conclusion Formation and calls for formation of European Union were met with greater enthusiasm, as members held broad vision of how such integration would benefit the county members. Nevertheless, after its establishment, many views have erupted as to whether the EU has the ability to tackle key issues facing its member countries.

This situation has led to emergence of two groups of people Europhiles and the Eurosceptics where each group has presented its case for or against intention to integrate the EU. Seen and the way it has been identified in the paper, integration of EU is likely no to be achieved very soon as more national identities and cultures are reinforced among member states.

Works Cited Anonymous. European Integration: Reasons, Problems, and Criticism. Web.

Arato, Krisztina and Kaniok, Petr. Euroscepticism and European Integration. Zagreb: Political Science Research Centre.

Aulich, Sebastian. “United State of Europe?” European Courier. Web.

Castano, Emanuele. ‘European Identity: A Social-Psychological Perspective’, in Richard K. Herrmann, Thomas Risse and Marilynn B. Brewer (eds.), Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Oxford: Rowman

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Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction Conflict is part of human existence. Theories expounded by scholars and theorists state that conflicts are the result of human needs not being met, or as a result of competition. When these needs are addressed to, conflicts lose significance. There are a number of theories discussed in this essay and most delve on the interconnectivity of society and the individual members.

Paramount is the study of Lewis Coser which states that conflicts have a positive effect on society. Historical events relate that social groups are strengthened by conflict. Conflict and social upheaval are common in history. Oppression characterizes historical events. If there was no conflict, it would have been very difficult to write history because history is filled with conflicts of tribes and peoples, kings and their dominions, and nation states against nation states.

People and organizations deal with conflict day in and day out. Human nature is complicated; it is filled with emotions and feelings which can be the cause of conflicts. In an organization, there are complexities, errors, and successes, because organizations are manned by humans. We are not governed by theories but we formulate these theories out of our experiences and continued socialization. In the course of time, these theories seem to rule over our behavior and activities.

In our socializing activities, we commit errors which are a part of our behavior in making judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and beliefs about our social world, the people within it, and our place in it.

This essay will try to delve on the many aspects of conflict, but most especially on the theories of conflict, and on the why and the how of conflicts encountered by man.

The Theories Human Needs Theory – John Burton (1990)

The theory states that conflicts are caused by human needs that are not met. These needs can be psychological, social, economic, political, etc. The needs and problems of the people involved in conflicts have to be understood and addressed so that the issues that preoccupy the groups and people lose significance and therefore conflict can be resolved.

Another argument by Burton and Dukes (1990 as cited in Anyanwu, 2009, p. 58) states that satisfying human needs seems to be present in all conflicts although there are many kinds of conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common to the Human Needs theory are self-actualization and self-determination. Human needs are strong motivating factors which influence the way people behave and act in society. (Webster, 2006, p. 84)

The theory also asserts that people have urges relative to the three needs which are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power (Firth, 2002, p. 86; Kopelman et al., 2006, p. 233). The need theory is focused on the acquired needs that people learn in the process of acquiring new life experiences over their lifetime. (Armstrong, 1998)

Justice was a human need for people during the time of Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement. Justice should have been addressed to for the African Americans who sensed injustice. When this was met after years of demonstrations and rebellion by the coloured population, conflict seemed to die down.

According to Abraham Maslow (1943), our needs are arranged like a pyramid or ladder.

The physiological needs can be found at the bottom of the pyramid. This includes food, water, oxygen and sex. As one set is met, the need moves up the ladder to the next. Belongingness and love needs come next which include the need for recognition, acceptance and approval of others. Self-esteem needs include how we value ourselves and our love and respect for ourselves and for others. We also have the desire to know and understand. (Firth, 2002, p. 85)

It is the motivations that people have for certain attitudes towards their work and their relations with their employers. Affiliation is the need that people try to satisfy in the work place. Organizations must provide their employees with favorable conditions for professional and personal development in the work place and encourage growth and career advancement.

Realistic-group-conflict Theory (The Robbers Cave Experiment) – The Sherifs (Carolyn and Musafer Sherif)

This theory involves conflicts between groups which can be nations, tribes, ethnic groups, etc. Competition between different groups is a continuous phenomenon. The causes that the groups compete for may range from power and prestige to wealth or property. There is heightened animosity toward each other.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Muzafer Sherif (1961, as cited in Goldstein, 1994, p. 98) and his research team conducted studies on the causes of intergroup competition. The research was known as the summer camp studies. They recruited 24 12-year-old boys who came from middle-class families. The boys were not informed of the experiment; instead they were told that it was just a summer camp. The Researchers planned the experiment to be in three stages including group formation, conflict between the groups, and reduction of the conflict.

The first stage involved transporting the boys into two separate groups and classifying them according to their psychological and physical characteristics, and separating those who were friends. Inside the camp, the two groups were separated from each other in two distant locations, avoiding possible contact with each other. Activities for the boys involved athletics, hiking, camping, swimming, and developing group structure.

Toward the end of the first week, the two groups realized that they were sharing the same facilities and were beginning to exhibit a different kind of behaviour against the rival group. The two groups were now aiming for competition. The Researchers staged the games of baseball, tug-of-war and other contests, increasing the tension among the boys, until it escalated into verbal insults and other hostilities.

Throughout the period, the attitudes of the two groups became more hostile but were cohesive towards their own team. More activities or experiments, disguised as games, were conducted by the Researchers, and each time the boys showed bias toward their own group.

When they were asked to indicate their best friends, they chose their co-members of the group when in reality their best friends before they were brought to the camp were those from the opposite group.

The experimenters created instances where the two groups could cooperate with each other and this was when they had to pool their money for a movie that they all wanted to see. Another was for all to help in rescuing the water truck when it got stuck. All other activities involved interdependency for the two groups. The result was that there was a reduction in hostility. (Goldstein, 1994, pp. 98-9)

Team development is designed to improve the effectiveness of team members with interdependent jobs, where effectiveness refers to managing problems and accomplishing group goals. The experiment proved that behaviour of groups could escalate conflict and how easily hostilities can form. The experimenters designed tasks wherein the two groups had no other recourse except to help each other.

Functionalism – Emily Durkheim and Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)

This is sometimes known as ‘the society perspective’ or the ‘social-system perspective’. The original work of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim links this theory to the existing system at the time, but it was provided further study by the American sociologist Talcott Parsons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This theory was dominant in the United States during the period 1940s to the 1960s. It gained wide prominence but soon waned down although insights for this theory are linked to the existing social issues. According to this theory, human nature is irrational and self-centred. (Willis, 1996, p. 117)

Society has a great influence to the order of things and can prevent the escalation of conflict and war.

Willis (1996, p. 117) describes the tension between society and the individual members:

‘… the civilizing influence of society keeps irrationality in check, and individuals do not actively create social lives but are products of the external society. Individuals can be free and happy only within the confines set up by society.’

In this theory, society has a great influence on the individual members. It can be said that society comes first and the interest of the majority is ahead of the interest of the individual members.

The studies of Frederick Taylor are somehow linked to the society-individual interaction in the functionalism theory. He defined work in terms of the specified tasks designed for the workers to follow, and with no chance of freedom or judgment left on the part of the workers. There is no motivation during those early years of industrialization, which is the basis of Taylor’s theory. (Luecke

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Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Essay essay help online: essay help online

Abstract This paper takes a critical look at market efficiency as well as the efficient market hypothesis (EMH). The three forms of market efficiency are defined and illustrated while a correlation of the three forms of market efficiency proportionate to analysis is also identified and discussed.

Effective market hypothesis is further discussed and illustrated and academic evidence regarding the different stands and viewpoints on market efficiency is examined. In addition, different financial analyst’s explanation in relation to the role and impact of an investor in the financial market is examined and discussed.

The prices of shares are also discussed together with the elements in the market that greatly influence the prices of shares and securities in general. The stability of various stock indices is also looked at and relevant factors that contribute to the alteration of the indices either through speculation or economics are discussed from different analytical perspectives.

Finally, examples of market inconsistencies are discussed in order to identify instances where the share prices of particular firms have deviated greatly from the standard equilibrium. The paper goes ahead and further identifies and discusses the prevailing circumstances that led to the abnormal deviation of share prices and the subsequent corrective measures taken.

Introduction In order to be in a position to discuss the three forms of market efficiency, it is very important to comprehend the fundamental nature of market efficiency which is usually a major component of capital market efficiency. By definition, market efficiency is the level at which the present value of a given asset correctly replicates the existing information of the asset in the market place (Taleb, 2008).

Market efficiency necessitates a well organized capital market given that it is in such a market that new information on an asset is rapidly and accurately reflected in share prices and the current price is an objective estimate of its accurate economic value based on the revealed data.

Efficient Market Hypothesis on the other hand requires that all relevant information is in total and instantaneously mirrored in an asset’s market price, therefore presupposing that an investor will acquire an equilibrium rate of return (Shiller, 2003). An investor should therefore anticipate generating a standard return through the application of both technical analysis and fundamental analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three forms of market efficiency Three forms of efficiency have been identified and grouped according to the nature of information which is replicated in prices.

Weak-form efficiency This efficiency means the information contained in historic price action of a share can be recognized in the current share prices though analyzing the historic prices has no predictive effect on the future prices since different information will be released in the future.

A number of varieties of fundamental analysis techniques are apt to offer surplus returns in Weak-form efficiency, whereas most technical analysis systems will fail in this form of efficiency or intermittently produce surplus returns (Keynes, 1936).

This is largely owing to the fact that the historical share prices in addition to other historical data cannot be utilized for an extended period of time in investment strategies to make surplus returns. Share prices have no price patterns that can assist in the assessment of current prices and hence lack serial dependencies.

Future price movements are for that reason determined entirely by the information disclosed at that particular time which is not currently enclosed in the price series (Fama, 1998). The history of share prices can therefore not be studied so as to forecast the future in any unusually gainful approach. Serial correlation in daily stock returns is close to zero as shown in the table below

Table 1. Serial Correlation of Daily Returns on Eight Stock Markets

USA 0.03 Germany 0.08 France -0.01 Holland -0.02 UK 0.08 Belgium -0.02 Italy -0.02 Switzerland 0.01 Source: Solnik, B. A Note on the Validity of the Random Walk for European Stock Prices. Journal of Finance (December, 1973).

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Semi-strong-form efficiency Entails that share prices fully and rapidly mirror all the major publicly available information in a neutral manner thus investors cannot earn excess returns through the trading on that information (Fama

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Managing Diversity at Workplace Report argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Outline

Introduction

Why Diversity Management?

Different Dimensions

Benefits of Workplace Diversity

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy

The link between workplace diversity and good management

Conclusion

References

Outline Workforce diversity should be treated as a business initiative and not a human resource or personnel department function. There is a strong business case for diversity in the workplace. The 21st century enterprises have a felt need to value, and leverage diversity. It is top agenda item for successful CEOs. It is commonly accepted business reality that heterogeneous groups outperform homogenous groups.

Heterogeneous groups are better at problem solving, effective at decision making, and they are particularly well equipped in generating creative ideas. The advantage comes from the fact that the diversity of the workforce background itself imparts a fertile launch pad for creativity to work at its best. Two brains are better than one is a truism aptly applicable to business situations.

The power of brainstorming to create a dramatic impact in finding creative solutions to business problems is enormous. Modern work teams can do wonders in workplace. Productivity, and work quality significantly go up when employees have, or perceive they have, a full opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way.

3M typifies such philosophy abundantly. There is a sense of job ownership, project ownership, ownership of the outcome. Even the most die-hard critic of workforce diversity will be unable to refute the obvious benefits of diversity.

Introduction We live in a society that is known for its differences. Diversity in terms of multiculturalism, gender politics, affirmative action, preferences, and mandates have become part of our existence. We are today more actively dividing ourselves by race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, cultural norms, physical ability, and socioeconomic status, than in the past (George, 1961).

Though diversity is in existence since long, it is only recently that it has attracted greater attention from the corporate mandarins. Managing diversity is nothing but changing the organisational culture or its standard operating procedures. The fostered culture should enable employees to closely examine their values and beliefs and question themselves as to why others look different for them.

Diversity management must essentially create an environment that works naturally for the total diversity mixture. Keeping this in view the present paper attempts to clarify some of the real life business challenges in an environment characterised by diversity in workforce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Diversity Management? Human beings tend to see through their own views and interpret the views by what is accustomed to them. There is an addiction to seek the aggregation of those makes a lot of agnate to them for the acquisition and assurance in similarities. It is difficult for humans to conceive power, and history shows that it is rarely done voluntarily. They abide by the external changes and always strive for an accompaniment of homeostasis.

This amusing absoluteness makes an atmosphere appropriate for diversity, which includes anybody; adolescent, old, abandoned and affluent, Hindu or Muslim or Christian. Assortment calls for anniversary being advancing to agreement with his or her attitudes, beliefs, and expectations about others and accepting abundance with the differences.

To achieve from the affluence of talents and perspectives that can alone appear from accepting an advanced array of humans in adjustment of authoritative roles, managements accept to alternation advisers to accept the differences that abide aural cultures and as well amount the similarities that abide amid capricious cultures.

Even to absorb humans with altered backgrounds and characteristics who are able with appropriate skills, organisations accept to ensure that such advisers are not appropriate for their different claimed and cultural ancestry as the amount of inclined behaviour in the organisation; they may acquire their own way to other firms who wish them on their own terms.

Different organisations are viewing diversity’ in different ways. By diversity, we commonly mean differences based on ethnicity, gender, age, religion, disability, national origin and sexual orientation.

But technically speaking, “diversity goes beyond these visibilities and encompasses an infinite range of individuals’ unique characteristics and experiences including communication styles, physical characteristics such as height and weight, speed of learning and comprehension, socioeconomics, and education” (Anthony, 2005, p. 1).

The diversities associated with education, socioeconomic and work experience are, of course, considered more critical for organisational success today. In this context, diversity has become a resource for organisations.

We will write a custom Report on Managing Diversity at Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the workplace, diversity, if properly managed, optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to the organisational success by encouraging each employee to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been brought into the system for the benefit of both the individual and the organisation.

Today, flourishing companies are taking action to appeal people who are blessed with talents, adventures and perspectives, socioeconomic accomplishments and again to alone and aggregately empower them to accord aggregate they accept in adjustment to attain business objectives.

The ambition of assortment is not to calculate humans by category, but to account from the best mix of humans of such a category. It is the organisations that could instil variety into the organisation in tune with their eyes and cardinal objectives accept reaped added benefits.

Different Dimensions People exhibit abundant differences in how they recognize changes in the organisation based on claimed characteristics. Of course, there is a hypothesis in psychology, which says that behaviour of an individual is an action of the being interacting with his or her environment. For example, an annoyed worker gets balked while alive for a close that requires approval of place from abounding levels.

That is how assortment in the workforce fosters mixed responses, ideas, and outputs in the organisation. Researchers observe particularly seven major differences: Humans alter in productivity; humans alter in adeptness and talent; humans differ in their ability for accomplishing top superior results; humans alter in how abundant they wish to be empowered and involved; humans alter in the appearance of administration they adopt and need; humans alter in their charge for acquaintance with added people; and humans alter in their bulk of charge and adherence to the firm.

Personality differences are another source of diversity. The personality factors such as sociability, affecting stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, artlessness to experience, self-monitoring of behaviour and affecting intelligence make an impact on employee’s achievement at work places. It determines how an employee gathers and evaluates information.

Sensation displays individuals’ ability to accept and orderliness in their job action area as employees’ admiration to accept an all-embracing viewpoint and as well adore analytic new problems. Feeling blazon humans are about conformists and by all agency try to abstain disagreement. Contrarily, cerebration blazon individuals await added on their ability rather than affect to break problems.

It is believed that a diverse work force is always superior to a homogenous group. A heterogeneous group is proved to be capable of producing higher-quality ideas and is likely to take quality decisions for greater the diversity, greater will be the innovation in the organisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Diversity at Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A company’s mere willingness to employ diverse workforce such as people from different races, genders, cultural backgrounds, the disabled, etc., may make it a darling of the market and thus give a boost to its market cap and sales volumes (Gregory, 1980).

Organisation image: The image of an organisation follows same connotations and meanings as that carried by an individual in real life. The organisations also exhibit same traits and behaviour as exhibited by individuals.

So organisations must create a culture that values diversity; practices policies that foster mutual respect, a sense of belonging for all, and the acceptance of differences, promote a culture where diversity is valued; and corporate wide diversity training serves to promote this image.

Concern for equality: In their practices, organisations must demonstrate equal respect for minority and majority group members. To achieve this, companies must develop performance expectations and reward systems that are unbiased. Often, minority-group members feel that they work harder than majority group members, but still are not compensated equally (Orlando, 2000).

Career development: Companies that want to create a climate where diversity is valued must promote minority group members with the opportunity for development and promotion. Most important, they must provide minorities an access to top-level management positions. Minorities who hold high-level positions can send a message to those in the lower ranks that this is a company that values diversity.

Hiring practices: Organisations must work hard to recruit and hire multicultural employees. At the same time companies must provide those prospective workers with an opportunity to be hired into well-paying positions, equal to the opportunities extended to majority groups. Companies can benefit from setting goals and guidelines for minority hiring.

Unfortunately, some organisations seek to build a diverse work group by hiring many minority group workers into low-paying, unskilled positions. Rather than creating an image of a positive multicultural environment, however, this crowding of minorities at lower positions fosters negative feelings. Minority members sense that they must do the “dirty work” and feel they are being used by the organisation (John, 1982).

Benefits of Workplace Diversity In the global economy, lack of cross-cultural understanding among the business people may lead to delays in getting the job done right, poor performance, decreased revenues and lost opportunities. Similarly, the need for adaptability is found to be quite essential for success in the globalised economy and diversity enhances adaptability.

It is only by employing a wide assortment of people; richness of talents and perspectives can be brought into organisations. There are thus more than one reason why companies deliberately take initiatives to build diversity among its employees, of course, in tune with its stated vision and mission statements.

Organisations that manage their diverse workers can increase their productivity substantially through many ways, one of which is increased problem-solving ability. Such productivity may result from increase in creativity that has been hypothesised to be related to heterogeneity. For example, bilingualism and biculturalism have been found to be related to divergent thinking, which in turn has been hypothesised to be associated with creativity (John, 1995).

Recently, it has been demonstrated that ethnic heterogeneity in small groups is associated with increased quality of ideas generated for solving problems. Increased heterogeneity also brings in another benefit the prevention of group think phenomenon that occurs only in cohesive groups.

Such factors however depend on how factors such as amount of diversity, ease of discussing differences, cultural awareness training, and background information on group members affect the quality of idea generation.

With the advent of digital economy one of the greatest challenges facing the organisations is the increasing diversity of workforce. It has become an essential business concern. There is a talent war raging among companies to retain their best talent in a bid to retain their competitive advantage. Diversity management and change management go hand in hand.

They mutually support each other (Anton, 1970). Organisations that adapt themselves to change are more likely to be comfortable with managing diversity better. Likewise, organisations are comfortable with diversity and are more likely to be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the globalised business environment.

They will be nimble footed to react instantaneously to the situational demands. It is known that organisations that are ready to accept changes can be stronger inherently as it would benefit them in terms of achieving adaptability to manage complexity, contradictions, and paradoxes.

Office technology has felt the revolutionary nature of change the most. The technological sophistication is a natural enabler to the manage diversity in a planned and systematic manner. Technology offers a level playing field to each individual regardless of gender, race, age, and so on. It is a great equaliser (Bertallanfy, 1968).

It eliminates the human bias. Electronic meeting is case to point as an example. It is a way of exchange ideas for free. Everyone has an active participative role shot. An electronic meeting paves the way for a secured atmosphere in which ideas and suggestions can be shared and proposed easily.

As a marketing strategy in today’s global economy it makes eminent sense to make the workforce represented by people from all walks of life covering a broad spectrum like different ethnicities, races, ages, abilities, genders.

To ensure that their articles and casework are advised to address to this assorted chump base, advancing companies are hiring people, from those walks of activity for their specialised insights and knowledge.

Similarly, companies having direct interface with the clientele are finding increasingly important to match the profile of the workforce with the profile of their customer base. Homogeneous workforce always result in less external interaction and communication and companies that retain such a workforce would not be effective in framing policies and programmes in consultation with people of different tastes and preferences.

To stay competitive the workforce diversity helps the companies as a capacity-building strategy. They need to sprint in order to stay where they are. The dynamics of change is no more evolutionary in nature rather it is revolutionary.

Companies that advance accept the accommodation to actually break problems, bound acclimate to new situations, readily analyse new opportunities and capitalise on them instantaneously. The scope of talent, experience, knowledge, insight, and acuteness accessible in their workforces can go a continued way in architecture the accommodation for the enterprise.

Whatever may be reasons that prompt companies, it is an obvious fact that companies that diversify their workforces will have a distinct advantage over those that don’t. The huge allowances of workforce diversity will be experienced, not by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans in animosity of their differences, but by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans because of them.

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy The acceptation of workforce diversity has been a cause for worry in contemporary years. Not continued ago, diversity referred to a person’s gender or indigenous group.

Diversity today encompasses differences in age, administration in an organisation, educational background, human acclimatisation or preference, concrete abilities or qualities and amusing status, bread-and-butter status, lifestyle, religion, ethnicity, and genders a part of abounding added characteristics (James, 2001).

Also the abstract suggests that diversity administration refers to efforts to animate a amalgamate workforce to accomplish up to its abounding abeyant in an candid plan ambiance area no one accumulation has advantage or disadvantage. Its focus is on alone differences rather than ability differentials. The main arguments identified in these definitions can be summarised by defining diversity as:

Diversity is an authoritative behaviour, which acknowledges and ethics differences and similarities a part of humans and how the differences can plan to advance the organisation. It as well agency compassionates the authoritative environments with an acknowledgment for gender, culture, and indigenous lifestyles.

Developing and maintaining programs that foster diversity have proven difficult for companies in which embracing diversity amounts to a cultural change. Because, company cultures are deeply rooted and the resulting beliefs are widely held, and culture is difficult to change.

Many organisations have attempted to find quick fixes for diversity enhancements, but sooner or later those firms have learned that there is no such thing as a quick fix. Fostering and managing diversity requires a comprehensive and carefully planned approach.

Given below is a diversity management model that the authors have developed through extensive literature review and issues raised by researchers and scholars in the field. The differences in ethnicity, culture, gender, age, and lifestyle impart variety of perspectives to the workplace.

All perspectives are not only essential but should be actively sought. The spirit of alternate regard, cooperation and investment through acquainted accomplishment to advance development of agents leads to synergy the action in which alive calm yields after-effects greater than the sum of alone efforts.

Proactively create and sustain an internal climate of equal opportunity for all through work force development initiatives such as job growth opportunities, through mentoring, job shadowing and training, tuition reimbursement, employee recognition, and improved communication on relevant issues and activities.

The link between workplace diversity and good management The organisations are also waking up to the fact that managing workplace diversity is imperative. Though organisations acknowledge the importance of maintaining a diverse workforce, efforts are not in tandem with the prominence given to the issue.

Workforce diversity is throwing up complexities no doubt, but looking at the broader picture, we see that there has been a movement from simple to complex in all realms of the workplace.

System thinking has replaced a simplistic cause- effect relationship. Managements are trying to integrate and benefit from a diverse workforce by coming up with options like flexi time benefits. Gender diversity training programs aimed at highlighting the politically correct work practices and individual behaviours are gaining popularity worldwide (Christopher, 2000).

The flip side is that some managers feel that increased workforce diversity may cause management problems. Diversity brings with it the need for more flexibility, which makes management more complicated (e.g., scheduling, compensation plans, interpersonal communication, ethnic differences) (Philip, 1974).

The crux of the issue lies in the fact that women in workforce is a reality and the aim of organisations must be to think of how best to harness this vast pool of talent and not glorify the issues as complications.

The boards of companies, which expressed faith and backed their women employees, have been rewarded handsomely. Management research is now focusing on a feminine style of management that highlights the success of adopting a feminine or a softer approach to managing people. Many studies have shown that women in fact can make better managers.

Workforce diversity can be managed only through a change in the mindset. Integrating the people working in an organisation successfully should be a product of the organisational culture and not a stand-alone training program. The day the women in organisations are accepted as being indispensable, just as in a family, that will be the day the term gender diversity with its negative connotations will cease to exist.

Efforts to build a diverse climate and creation of multicultural opportunities will not by themselves create an organisation that values diversity unless management practices reflect this commitment (Robert, 2001). If diversity is to be optimised, top managers must recognise the capabilities of all employees, take their ideas seriously, and support both minority and majority-group employees.

Managers must communicate effectively and accept employees who do not speak the local language. Finally, managers must respect the cultural beliefs and needs of employees and truly value the diversity of the workforce. Strategies that can lead to diversity include diversity-awareness training and the hiring of managers and top executives who reflect variety in gender, race, and ethnicity.

The role administration practices plays in acknowledging assortment highlights the charge to appoint and advance top-level agents associates who are acute to the apropos of multicultural employees. The management can do this by incorporating this in their hiring practices to hire people who are sensitive and can relate to multicultural workforce.

Conclusion Diversity among workforce becomes an asset business. It enables organisations to have a command over choice. Diversity brings to organisations unique perspectives. Understanding the demographic differences among the workforce can help organisations capitalise on diversity and avoid negative stereotyping.

If managed properly, diversity optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to organisational success besides, encouraging each to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been made available by diverse workforce. Diversity, if managed badly, can become a liability.

References Anthony, Ferner, Phil Almond and Trevor Colling (2005), Institutional Theory and the Cross-National Transfer of Employment Policy: The Case of ‘Workforce Diversity’ in US Multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 36, pp 1- 86.

Anton, C. Zijderveld (1970), The Abstract Society-A Cultural Analysis of Our Time, Penguin Books, Middlesex, England.

Bertallanfy, Von Ludwig (1968), General System Theory: Foundations, Development and Applications, George Braziller, New York.

Christopher, Earley P. and Elaine Mosakowski (2000), Creating Hybrid Team Cultures: An Empirical Test of Transnational Team Functioning, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No1, pp-26-49.

Gregory, Bateson (1980), Steps to an Ecology of the Mind (chapter on Double Bind Theory of Schizophrenia), Ballantine Books, New York.

George, H. Sabine (1961), A History of Political Theory (Chapter Hegel: Dialectic and Nationalism’pp-620-668), George G Harrap

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The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities Coursework argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory and Art Introduction

Importance of the issue

Appreciating pieces of art is a great pleasure as it gives us time for imagining the personalized meaning of those objects through our own personal mirrors of our egos and minds. Sometimes, we try to find the meaning of what we see or hear with the help of our instinct or intuitive feeling beyond the logic and strict reasoning to understand the pictures or sculptures.

The same can be claimed about psychology and different theories that are aimed at explaining human desires and unconscious intentions. The perception of art objects can be understood with the help of applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to objects depicted and the way people usually understand those.

As psychological interpretation of contemporary art suggests abundant sources for comprehending our experience on art, it is possoble to use Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to understand the essential aspects of postmodern artworks in terms of the concept of desire. The relation between the concept of desire according to Jacques Lacan’s theory and such aspects as what is shown, what is seen, and the way of perception in the objects of art are of the main focus of the current paper.

Aim and scope

The current paper is aimed at showing the number of different explanations that can be evoked by implementation of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory while observing and discussing the objects of art such as mixed media sculptures created in contemporary conditions with the help of modern materials, techniques and methods including postmodern tendencies.

In particular, reviewing the works designed by Louise Bourgeois including Arch of Hysteria (1993) and Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) (1989-1993) and Yayoi Kusama’s Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field (1965) and Narcissus Garden (1966) can demonstrate the most prominent features of Lacanian theory in these art objects regarding desire in postmodernities.

The art objects mentioned above will be analysed in the current paper in accordance with the Lacanian psychoanalysis theory that includes such aspects as concept of mirror, phallocentrism, femininity, and mirror with regard to desire and psycho-sexual tendencies.

Theoretical Background

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory

Lacanian psychoanalytic theory’s main purpose is to evoke hidden side of human mind, the unconscious, so that people could explain things that seem ambiguous or, on the contrary, obvious. The number of explanations of the unconscious desire can vary due to the background of every person involved in the process of discussion. For instance, certain events, either negative or positive, in the life of a person influence his/her perception of self and individual desire in different ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Lacanian theory of mirror stage in terms of personality development, the aspect of Narcissism is the shared feature of personal human desire. “The mirror stage is also closely related to narcissism”1 as the Greek myth dwells on the beauty of a young man who fell in love with his own reflection in the water.

“Lacan develops Freud’s concept by linking it more explicitly with its namesake, the myth of Narcissus”2. The mirror image in early childhood serves to mould a self-image that is not actually a self-image, but an ideal one of what we want to be, and, consequently, it serves to set a psychological drive toward self-definition based on a imaginary structure forced by the identification with external social order.

In this respect, Lacan’s theory does not focus only on biological aspect of mirror stage of psycho-sexual development; the mirror stage is suggested as the primary stage in the perception of a person that helps to conceive the real image from the self and from others. The scope of ideas on the concept of mirrors can be presented in a multivolume work whereas the main ideas can be found in the theory of psychoanalysis established by Jacques Lacan.

Though Lacan’s theory has proven to be one of the most insightful interpretations of our time, some critics found explanation and analysis of certain concepts gender-oriented and discriminating. For example, French feminists Julia Kristeva and Helen Cixous have argued about the objectivity of presentation of concepts of phallocentrism made by prominent theorists, philosophers, and psychologists Jacques Lacan and the person influenced by Lacan’s ideas, Jacques Derrida.

Female writers criticized Lacanian theory because it suggested lack of self in women making them penis-less creatures deprived of the ego and associated more as a part of the male essence. In this respect, Helene Cixous’s essay ‘The laugh of the medusa’ is aimed at discussing the influence of gender aspects on cultural life of people, art objects, and language in particular.

The author dwells on the difference between cultural concepts and gender aspects that, as the author claims, should not be mixed with one another and with biological peculiarities of life.3 The more we try to tie the aspect of gender to other areas of human life, the less appropriate these concepts may become.

Different problems with the perception of this or that idea or object of art can be the main reason for treating the phallocentric concepts as those discriminating femininity as a feature of the gender. Julia Kristeva suggests the idea of “drives [that] involve pre-Oedipal semiotic functions”4; this statement can be considered one of the most appropriate ideas for discussion with regard to desire and drives in the process of analysing the objects of art.

We will write a custom Coursework on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phallocentrism is defined here as irrelevant panegyric on make sexual organ and behaviour of male representatives associated with their attitude to this organ as well. In this respect, the desire related to the objects of art can be found in the issue of glorification of the male sexual organ.

The more theories try to approach the concept of the mirror, the more ideas appear in the process of analysis even on the simplest phenomena that did not suggest that many explanations of a specific term before. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasise that Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is aimed at provoking human thoughts on different subjects as a person who knows about the suggested concepts would use those ideas while analysing the objects of art.

For instance, Jacques Lacan introduced a concept of mirror and explanation of the function of the unit I as suggested in psychoanalytic practice. His work “Mirror stage as formative of the function of the I as revealed in psychoanalytic experience” demonstrates the inner stage that is suggested to analyse as the initial condition or a ‘mirror’ as the inner reflection of all actions performed by a person.

This mirror is treated as a specific place or an object used for analysis of actions, behaviour, and deeds by a person; such a self-analysis and counter-analysis are used for signification and counter-signification of the self.5

This concept was not critically perceived by female writers Cixous and Kristeva because it was not treated as the one that is posted against the femininity, female concepts, and feminine gender in general though the concept of mirrors helps to assess the role of desire in the analysis of the self.

Desire in Postmodernities

Postmodernism is a movement in art and architecture that can be considered one of the most influential trends in twentieth century due to its simplicity and complicatedness at the same time. Though different styles in art can be claimed to have found their application in culture, postmodern movement had a prominent impact on the architecture and art objects.

As suggested by Tobin Siebers in his book Heterotopia: postmodern utopia and the body politic, the postmodernities can be compared to desire that cannot be explained and understood completely.6 On the other hand, it is necessary to trace the real meaning of postmodern art objects that can be insightfully explained using psychological analysis theories aimed at explaining human desires, fears, and intentions.

The analysis of the self can be performed through the use of mirrors that represent the relations between what a person wants to show and others want to see or are able to see. Besides, as suggested by Jacques Lacan, the desire can be clearly understood after analysis of the body: Fragmented body is analysed in terms of the desires and fears and the hidden intentions behind the reflection of different parts of the human body.7

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most postmodernists are sceptical of the concept, ‘certainty’ or ‘authentic truth’ because the function, meaning, and symbolic value are varied in the context or situation; the same can be traced in psychoanalysis where every detail is thoroughly examined to trace the connection between the desire and images usually reflected in the inner mirror.

Though every object of art can be analysed in a different way, there is a number of traits that can be traced in most of them with regard to the gender of the author, the inner reflection of the actions, and attitude to the self, and other concepts that can be easily found in psychoanalytic theory established by Jacques Lacan.

So, the objects of art created with regard to the tendencies and concepts established for postmodernities can be easily analysed with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory designed merely at the same time as the postmodern movement.

In this respect, it is possible to apply the concepts of psychoanalysis such as self-criticism by Freud8 to the objects of art designed by contemporary authors due to the background of authors and their reflection of the self in those art objects.

Position of Theory to the Art Object

Louise Bourgeois, Arch of Hysteria, 1993

The first object of art that should be analysed with regard to the concept of desire in postmodernities and the basic concepts revealed in Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is the one designed by Louise Bourgeois. This piece of art was created in 1993; the Arch of Hysteria can be considered one of the most feminine and delicate works created by this author.9

At the same time, it is powerful demonstration of the human body. And the name of the sculpture created using polished patina on the hanging piece made of bronze talks for itself. The attack of hysteria makes people change the positions of their bodies.

The same can be traced when a person experiences some strong emotions or feelings and is not able to control the movements, gestures, and emotions expressed on his/her face. Every attack of hysteria can be depicted in another way because every individual has his/her own reflection of the self and is able to analyse the self using the inner mirror.

The discussion of femininity is related to the ideas the author of this object of art found relevant due to the feminism movements and active involvement in those.10 The author manages to create her works without being too gender-discriminating toward the representatives of the opposite sex. Moreover, her work Arch of Hysteria (1993) can be considered the one that makes the male body the core concept of the overall image created.

In this respect, the idea of phallocentrism vigorously criticised by Cixous and Kristeva can be easily traced in this particular object. Moreover, the body hanging in the air can be analysed using the concept of fragmented body with regard to the wholeness of the subject, totalization and autonomous self. In other words, the concept of desire in postmodernities can be explained with the help of this sculpture that seems to be aimed at dethroning the power of the male body by making it more feminine with the help of hysteria that was considered a female disease.

Every person has certain secrets whereas all hidden desires and intentions can be revealed with the help of the psychoanalysis suggested by Lacan who based his theory on the concepts explained and analysed by Sigmund Freud.

The main idea of the current object of art can be considered the real human emotion captured in the earthly body while every gesture and movement made by the person helps to reveal this emotion and explain the reasons for experiencing it.

In the same way, every person can be read as a book with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory when every image, dream, or idea is the result of some events and situations that took place in the life of this person; the same events and situations can be treated as the reasons or causes of other events.

The concept of desire can be considered the core idea of every piece of art because every author has certain desires and intentions and can use those as inspiration while designing the object of art. Moreover, the sexual desire can be traced in every art object that is aimed at reflecting the author’s intentions through the presentation of the human body.

Louise Bourgeois, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), 1989-1993

The next object of art is designed by the same author. This creation is represented through the cell which contains specific eyes and mirrors. In this respect, it is necessary to trace the meaning transferred with the help of those objects to the meaning of the whole piece of art.11 The more different objects we introduce to the piece of art, the more complicated it becomes.

The complicatedness of the object can be traced through the number of meanings attributed to every object it contains. In other words, the meaning of this Cell (Eyes and Mirrors)12 should be analysed with regard to the meaning of cell, eyes as parts of the human body, and mirrors and the concept of desire in postmodernities.

It is possible to analyse every concept in turn and, after that, try to explain the meaning of the whole object of art bearing in mind the meaning of each separate object that is included in the structure. For instance, the work of art Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 can be analysed as a set of objects each having its own meaning and contributing to the meaning of the entire object.

As every object can have meanings with regard to the context, it is necessary to analyse the possibility for occurrence of meanings and the number of meanings that can depend on different factors. In other words, the background knowledge and situations that occurred in the life of a person prior to observation of a concrete object of art should influence his/her perception of this work.

So, cell can be considered as the limitation or restriction imposed on a person by his/her parents, friends, or supervisors. Besides, certain prohibition can be treated as the reason for author to use such an object in the overall construction. If a person had no negative experience related to the image of a cell, this work of art would not evoke any negative emotions.

The concept of eyes in combination with mirrors represents the reflection of the ideas with the help of mirrors. In addition, this combination can be treated as the desire of the author to show the audience something hidden in her inner self which can be seen only through the eyes. Thus, the eyes reflected in mirrors suggest a hidden desire of the author to reveal her hidden feelings or something she cannot say aloud.

Another idea that comes to mind while looking at this object of art created by a woman is the female aspect of this work. In this respect, it is necessary to remember about the concern of all women about their look. As they often look in the mirror, they can see something that cannot be seen without a mirror.

In other words, the mirror can be used as an instrument to show and see something mysterious or at least something that cannot be seen without this magical device. The desire to say something can be treated as the core concept of this work because mirrors and reflections can often say something a person is afraid to reveal to him/herself or is confused about the consequences of such information transferred to a stranger.

Masks and disguise contribute greatly to the overall image of the object of art called Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 because it is a feature of most women to have many identities and play many roles while only a mirror can reflect the real image of a woman.

Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field, 1965

It is necessary to mention that the object of art designed by Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field created in 196513 can be considered one of the most original objects of art designed under the influence of postmodern trends and technologies. This work can be easily analysed applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to practice because mirrors play the core role in this work.

The more a person reflects on his/her self image in the mirror, the more he/she is likely to change in the inner world to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. On the other hand, it is possible that a person changes the inner world to have it as a shelter from the oppression and all negative factors that exist in the outer world.

In this respect, it is possible to treat the mirrors as an instrument for initiating self-analysis. As suggested in the work by Peter Gay who analyses Freudian theory of psychoanalysis, “The physician should be opaque to the patient and, like a mirror, show nothing but what is shown to him.”14

For Lacan, however, mirror image has some deceiving aspects that alienate human from the real self by representing the Narcissistic illusion of self-autonomy. In this regard, the mirror in the Kusama’s work is the place for searching human identity on the dialectical relationship between ‘seeing and to be seen’.

Lacan’s key concept regarding the mirror stage is for challenging the integrated identity that reflects human’s narcissistic desire for wholeness, totalitarian or self-autonomy which we should overcome to be mature.

In addition, he thought integrated identity to be illusion of synthesis which is not really existent in the real world. For Lacan, human is in fragmented body in the real world and the fragmented body refers not only to images of the physical body but also to any sense of fragmentation and disunity.

The life in society can be considered another influential feature in creation of this object of art due to postmodernities with regard to desire and values typical of times and cultures; many identities are reflected in the mirror and it is up to a person to see or not to see them.

The objects on the floor of the mirror room can be treated as obstacles for analysis because the roles we play in the everyday life can differ greatly from what we are and who we are because of the necessity to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. Besides, the society that we live in often imposes the roles on its members in order to protect itself from misunderstandings.

This aspect can be regarded as a great obstacle for analysis of a person, his/her real desires, fears, intentions, and beliefs. In addition, the efforts of a person to take away those obstacles can be considered unavailing because the mirror room is closed whereas all objects are inside it and there is no way out except the door.

It is possible that the only way to walk through the door is to recognise the reflection in the mirror and confront the uneasiness of the fragmented body in the number of identities assigned by contemporary life.

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 1966

The next object of art for analysis is the mixed media Narcissus Garden created by Yayoi Kusama in 1966.15 The author managed to use the reflection received while looking in the water. This object consists of a pond and silver balls in the water. These balls are light enough not to drown while their reflection in the water can be treated as the reflection of each person in the mirror in the previous work of art.

As suggested by Sigmund Freud in his study ‘On Dreams’, every dream has specific content16 that can be analysed. Moreover, every object depicted in the dream has a specific meaning with regard to the situation in which it appears. In this case, the balls that can be seen on the water surface can reflect the desire of a person to swim opposed to the possibility of drowning.

Every object that can be analysed can be influential in terms of hidden desires or fears that can be revealed in the process of analysing those dreams. Though some dreams may seem strange, it has some points to try to analyse each of them in order to see the real nature of the soul.

The pond with silver balls can be associated with a desire to see the number of identities. If a person reflects the pond with silver balls in the object of art, she may have some problems with self-identification. In other words, a person that experiences difficulties with analysis of the self can try to reflect those problems in this way.

For instance, the number of balls can correspond to the number of identities or roles a person has in everyday life and uses those while communicating with colleagues, building relationships in the family, and other situations.

However, the surface of the water shows everything that is reflected while some reasons can be found for this. In this case, the balls are reflected in the outer world while an inner mirror is situated in the inner world. In this respect, the number of identities will be reflected in the water every time.

Every identity has its own reflection in the outer world as well as every person can find his/her reflection in the mirror being a parent, a friend, or performing some other roles. In this respect, an inner mirror of the ego should show our Narcissistic desire towards independent entity.

Every concept of life can be reflected in the inner world whereas it depends upon a person whether to let certain concepts into the inner world or leave those outside. As the personal life of every individual is full of certain events, all those events can influence successive events and the condition of the inner worlds.

Thus, a reflection in the inner mirror can distorted due to the impact of all events that take place in the life of a person. The pond with silver balls can also be treated as the outer world with all its imperfectness and obstacles that appear on the way of a person when he/she wants to look at the Narcissistic reflection on self but can only see the numerous identities. Every identity can be reflected in the mirror of the outer world though it is up to a person whether to let those identities into the inner world to be reflected in the inner mirror.

Conclusion The concept of self, reflection in the mirror, the number of identities and roles assigned to every person, feminism and male sexual organs can be traced in the objects of art. As the theory of Lacan is mainly based on the theory established by Sigmund Freud, it is necessary to mention the significance of his study for analysis of sexuality and gender differences.

The Arch of Hysteria reflects the power of human body whereas it can be treated in a different way when applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to it. In this respect, a human body can be considered the symbolic representation of human desires reflected with the help of postmodernism trends.

Female critics of Jacques Lacan’s theory do not blindly criticise his theory; they try to see the discrimination of identity of woman in the analysis through rejection of the phallocentrism as a core aspect of most psychological analyses. In other words, Helene Cixous and Julia Kristeva apply Lacan’s psychoanalysis as the assessment of sexual features, desires (often sexual), and fears related to the gendered self.

Lacan’s theory of the mirror stage demonstrates that our self-identification is based on an illusion of an idealistic image of completeness that does not actually exist in the real. And the imaginary identity created by the co-operation between Narcissistic desire and external forces is subject to the fragmentation of identity in reality.

Thus, the ideal-I acts in similar way as Sigmund Freud’s ego in that it prevents this fragmentation from emerging to the surface. The main aspect that can be traced in the objects of art such as Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) by Louise Bourgeois and Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field and Narcissus Garden designed by Yayoi Kusama is the mirror and reflection of the self including the further analysis of the self.

Works Cited Bourgeois, Louise, Arch of Hysteria (1993). Web.

Bourgeois, Louise, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), (1989-1993). Web

Cixous, Helene, ‘The laugh of the medusa’, in Peter Simon (ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (London: W. W. Norton

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Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back Term Paper college essay help near me

To begin with, upon seeing the title, I immediately thought of the Star Wars movie. The content is very far from the movie though. In general the book is a very helpful and clearly articulated accumulation of the main issues and problems in post-colonial scholarship. Although some scholars call it outdated and too academic, I think it has its historical value and will be used to teach postcolonial literatures for a long time.

In this paper I was trying to concentrate on the issues of revision. The notion of revision and the term “reversionary” have been discussed widely, although not theorized, by many feminists and postcolonial critics over the past few years. Harold Bloom is a pioneering critic who has theorized the nature of revisionism by describing it as anxiety, an “anxious expectation” in the Freudian sense (Agon Viii).

Revision in the Blooomian model suggests a mediated vision whose agonistic spirit “[contests] for supremacy, with other spirits, with anteriority, and finally with every earlier vision of itself” (Agon ViiI). However the agonistic fighting that Bloom proposes represents more of “a loving conflict” with previous works than one with the world. Bloom stresses agonistic revisions of texts, not of contexts.

Revision is given a pivotal emphasis in the influential work of Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back, in which they remark that the “ ‘revisioning’ of received tropes and modes…and the rereading of ‘canonical’ texts possess a powerfully subversive textuality, which emerges as the major post-colonial discursive practice” (Empire 194).

They argue that revision in a periodic modality has become the preeminent genre for writers of the colonial arena. Allusions to the Western classics and the borrowing of the Western model are not accidental. Those who grow up in colonial cultures are encouraged to imitate their Western fathers (Key 139).

Admittedly, the notion of mimicry, in the form of imitation, is effectively combined with the notion of revision of colonial terms. As Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin note, “When colonial discourse encourages the colonized subject to ‘mimic’ the colonizer, by adopting the colonizer’s cultural habits, assumptions, institutions and values, the result is never a simple reproduction of those traits” (Key 139).

The result, rather than a mere copy or mockery, is the “blurred copy”, ambivalent and menacing. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin argue that mimicry is the overt goal of the postcolonial projects. They take V.S. Naipaul’s novel The Mimic Man as an example to illustrate that mimicry is implicit in postcolonial conditions (Empire 88).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, literary revisions as mimic texts that stylistically and generically imitate Western classics disable the imperial center and spread disorder on the margins of empire. In mimicry, the dominant discourse constructs Otherness by a continual process of “repetition and displacement” to maintain control over the other. Mimicry serves as a partial representation that disturbs and mocks the narcissistic desire of colonial authority (Empire 115; Key 139-142).

Ashcroft et al. point out the disabling effect of colonial mimicry as it constructs an “otherness”, menacing the imperial discourse. Bhabha stresses the double vision of mimicry, its resemblance and menace evolving from the process of representation. These criticisms, although laudatory, have overlooked gender differences. I believe that colonial mimicry should be discussed and racial and sexual differences should be examined.

Due to my thesis topic I am very interested in the matters of postcolonial hybridization. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin in their seminal study note that various postcolonial cultures produce a form of hybridization.

They argue that postcolonial literatures are intrinsically hybrid because they reveal inherently contradictory elements of different discourses that result from the translation and imposition of European thinking, grounded in ancestry, history, and time, onto a colonial space. The history of the dominant culture is exported to different colonies, but the amputated timeline makes the colonial history replete with internal competing voices (Empire 33-7).

Another point that drew my attention is the matter of language importance. Language has been regarded as an important medium by which colonial hierarchy is perpetuated and imperial domination is reified (Empire 7). The metropolitan assumptions of truth, order, and civilization are maintained and reinforced by an imperial language education that “installs a ‘standard version’…as the norm, and marginalizes all ‘variants’ as impurities (Empire 7).

Language is given a capacity to territorize. In the formation of imperialism, the King’s language, the center, with its Eurocentric standards of judgment, is the privileged form; the marginal or peripheral is denied or excluded.

A dispensation standard was instated at the crux of the development of English studies as a cut-out for the defiance of the value of the subsidiary uncolonized literature. The standardization became central to the civilizing enterprise by the colonists who sought to hue their subjects with their norms and practices in order to vanquish and subdue their cultures so that they can have an overt dominance over them in all spheres of their collective lives.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, when the indigenous sought to disentangle themselves from the spooling supremacy their tactical move threatened the restricted claims of the centre (George 112-116). Consequently, they were subtly integrated this through the process of conscious affliction arranged under the semblance mimicry purposely to be both accepted and adopted.

This stir notably propelled those who were suspending at the periphery to It plunge themselves into the imported culture, consequently, denying their origins and as (Harris 133) puts it they attempted to become ‘more English than English essentially, English stands out as a sacrosanct tenet positioning its dominance over the other cultures, its unquestioned nature exerted its potency in cultural formation and in ideological schooling institutions (Memi, 28).

Nonetheless, with the advanced growth and development of the post colonial literatures, scholars have sought to establish why English garnered such dominance in the educational realms exerting its rule in the literal cycles.

After a keen scrutiny at the literature written after the upsetting colonial era, I established that the work produced immediately after the wallowing colonial eon went through various stages of development. At first, it was written and aligned with the colonial objective, neither did it display the ingenuous sentiment of the native writers, nor did it stand out as an original English text (Memi 76).

It couldn’t be deemed as a blend of the local with the colonial, it was a mimicry which lacked basis and an underpinning dangled in a balance where it could not assert its stand for it was a copy of the original. The paranoia and the dread of the colonial masters suppressed the native writers from lettering what they candidly believed; their creative work had to be forfeited and shelved because they lived under the shadow of colonial ascendancy.

The original work was tackled and handled in accord with the colonial master hence it had to be attuned to match up their interests and proclivity. Most of the original indigenous work was translated by the colonial masters, logically they molded it to fit their interests and convey the message they intended to convey to the world.

During the second stage of the literature development, the writers sought to blend what they believed to be true as they had learned and construed from their cultures yet they had to tone it down because they viewed the world through the lens of the colonialists (Memi, 31).

As Ashcroft et al focuses on; the conflict elicited by variation in the context and content in regard to background orientations they assert that the thinking and creativity of the invaded culture had been shaped through the educational program which was systematically programmed by the imperialists to sway their thinking to favor colonial rule at their own exepense.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their minds had been colonized and brainwashed adjusted to think in favor of the colonial ruler so their written text was still tainted with the spots of the imperialism. The breed thus spawned out of the colonial influence could not be termed as English neither could it be termed as indigenous it became a hybrid, tethered by the colonial influence (Griffiths 178-180). The stages in literature development are evidently paired with the phases of both national and the regional consciousness in the plagued societies.

It’s against this back drop that a new breed of freethinking literature intellects sort to revisit and revise the already published post colonial literature in order to give it and edge to stand out free from the colonial manipulate.

Whilst the invaded civilizations sought to equivocate and purge the imperial influence in their literal work, they were ensnared by the very fact that the imperialists gave them the communication language through which they could spawn ideas and reach an extensive audience. The regal rule was the platform through which they could aver their work; in essence they were made from a replication of the fellow colonists but they could not match up the imperialist (Memi 76).

The imperial domination over the local cultures spawned forth intrinsic challenges which garnered problems seeking resolution. In an inimitable way the domination is inexorably entrenched in the dominated cultures. I realized that there were various tensions which could not be disentangled in the post colonial literature.

There two world orders being enmeshed despite their divergent attributions, there was a clash between the old cultural aboriginal ways of life with the incoming dominating settler culture (Ngugi 86). In my view the settler culture sought to assuage the old style indigenous culture by imposing its values and provenance and this of course was broached with dissent from the dominated culture.

According to the book the new culture brought in by the settler was incongruous with the old native culture; there was resistance because the native populace was deeply entrenched in its own systems which were by far very different from the settler culture (Memi, 49). There was the ever nagging clash of the language, the newly imported language from the settler did not match with the new locality, and hence the settler had to impose his language on the native people in order to have a universal accord with his subjects.

I realized according to the literature that the colonial influence from the indigenous literature was nearly impossible, because the essence of the literature being revised was etched in the colonial insignia. Colonialism had given it subsistence; colonialism frog spawned the post colonial literature myriad facets of its content were interwoven having their root in colonialism.

Whilst language served as the media through which the colonialists exerted their rule over the subjects its still the same media through which the work written by the indigenous writers garnered pre-eminence due to its universal nature having exerted its rule in the world.

I realized that irrespective of the relentless exertion by indigenously bred writers from the colonialzed countries to curve out a niche in their texts to illumine their intrinsic cultures, values and attributions the hybridization of their mores by the colonial rule perverted their literature so that it does not come out as either aboriginal or imperial.

There is an inevitably effort to assert a variation between the local culture and the imposing centre of the colonialists (Ashcroff 63). Notably, in all the literature written immediately after the colonial period, there is an allege to remain objective in the matters being discussed yet after a deeper analysis it becomes clear that there is a deliberate effort to conceal the colonial discourse within which the literature was created (Ashcroff et al 94)

Here the hurdle is on the budding writers, the by products of the colonial governance and dominance, how can they evade their models, in what way are they able to sort and understand the imposition of new trends and values? The new information and knowledge they derived from the colonialists has to be matched with their cultures and intrinsically attained attitudes.

I found out that writers sought to identify any extensions of what they already knew in order to develop their texts from their own stand point yet the looming imperial influence chiefly altered their innovation blending their prior knowledge with the imposing colonial attributions and values.

The colonization occurrence and the myriad hurdles spawned by the experience garnered a new breed of writers in English language. The diverse and potent body of literature created unambiguous post-colonial writing in the various cultures affected by the colonial dominance which both defied the customary canon and overriding ideas of literature and culture.

The instant literature produced from the invaded countries identifies with the colonizing powers because the initial text is produced through coordinated activity of the colonized and the colonizers (Memi, 22). In my opinion such literature cannot in any way form a foundation for the indigenous cultures because its production is marred with the colonial intrusion.

Colonial rule essentially dominated and subjugated the indigenous culture, reeling under the austere rule of the imperial power; the writers spawned from the native culture had to adhere to the modalities of the colonial rule (George 52). The literate too has been aligned to match up the interests of the colonizers, the values and beliefs in the native cultures are subdued under the prevailing colonial dominance.

The number one strategy that the European settlers, the former colonies used to subdue and rule the indigenous civilization is by imposing their language on their dominated cultures.

This way they stamped a symbol of their supremacy over the culture reeling under their authority. Moreover, other facets of the colonizers civilization like education and moral codes were imported and vehemently instilled into the dominated cultures. Consequently, the indigenous cultures were overwhelmed and subdued under the colonial callous rule.

The settlers had a goal of imbibing into the resources and facilities of the native cultures, in order to exert their rule over such people they had to pacify and suppress them deeming their cultural elements as both uncouth and invalid (Ashcroff 45). This kind of approach was geared towards swaying the mode of thinking amongst the natives so that they venerated the foreign cultures at the expense of their own.

As the dominated cultures gradually attained their independence they could not phase out some tenets from the imperialists which had been inherently entrenched in their culture by the settlers. Such tenets included language and educational systems so the non indigenous language filtered its way in to the native culture and was easily utilized in the post colonial literature.

There was sense of displacement as the indigenous people held on to the imported language deeming it as an adequate media through which they could express their views. I noticed that the colonizers did not delve into enlightening the native cultures on the richness of their own language; this meant that the local language lacked rank and they feared that once they utilized it in their literature it would bring ruin since it was popularized by the colonial powers.

This was logical because even the education they had attained was conveyed through the imported settler language. Critics have subsequently come out to question the appropriateness of utilizing imported language in native cultures. Harris asserts the view that such brain wash was ensconced through the education system where the native civilization was debased in comparison to the imported culture which was given prominent extol.

The colonial rule dominates the native culture, as the imperialists stealthily crept into their culture and imposed their values on the indigenous people the old culture is progressively undone as guns and new language filter amongst the locals. The words and the diversity of culture from imperialists is aped and gradually etched in the minds of the native cultures as they follow blindly into dominating circular ways of the imperialists which swallow their ways from within.

As time elapses whether it’s in Canada, Africa or India, myriad revisions to the literature written immediately after colonial rule has to be taken through a rigorous revision in order to ape the intrinsic indigenous culture. The now elite and unconventional generation seeks to unshackle the previous literature from the dominating forced lens of the colonialists through which the work was spawned. Ironically, the revision is done in the same colonial language; Kafka uses German while Chinua Achebe uses English.

A major attribution exuded by the dominated literatures is the foreseeable tendency towards insurrection and a keen analysis of the tactics employed by the dominating rulers in their effort to pacify and rule over their subjects. The studies carried by the dominated scholars to illuminates the strategies of subjugation bring into light all the configurations of supremacy of the dominant cultures.

Conversely they also pay attention to the ingenious and imaginative responses exerted by the dominated cultures to this condition openly and obliquely. Thus empires writes back to gear to the imperial axis through nationalist contention asserting its centrality exuding its overt determination to seek answers on European metaphysics challenging the world view that can polarize centre and margins in the first place (Harris 67).

Works Cited Ashcroft, Bill T. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. New York and London: Routledge, 1998.

Ashcroff, Bill T. Post colonial futures: Transforming the imperial culture. London: Routledge, 2001.

Ashcroft Bill, Griffiths Gareth and Tiffin Helen. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York and London: Routledge, 1989.

George, Lamming G. The pleasures drawn from exile. London: Alison and Busby Publishers, 1960.

Griffiths, Gareth G. Double exile: African and West Indian writing Boyars Marion. NY: Kniff, 1978.

Harris, Willy C. On History Myth and Fable. Chicago: Calaloux publications. 1970.

Harold, Bloom T. Agony: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Memi, Waltz A. Understanding the colonizer and the colonized. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965.

Ngugi, WA T. Mind Decolonizing: Language use in African literature. London: Macmillan press, 1981.

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