Executive Summary Mother Teresa spent countless days and a better part of her life taking care of the lives of the less fortunate regardless of where they came from, gender, religion, and or race. She sought to see their faces full of joy, just as it is for the few wealthy and privileged people around the world. She did this passion-driven service until she met her death.
Despite the fact that she stood out as a figure that showed the need to take care of the less privileged, it is surprising that very few have taken over from her. Millions and millions of people are dying every minute because of lack of food, medical services, and or attention.
In fact, extreme poverty, increased preventable deaths, and lack of accessibility to education by children are becoming out-of-hand challenges in some cities in the US. Mississippi is one of the poorest states in the US. A good number of the poor is women, majority of who have children. The poor conditions have hiked the level of illiteracy among the children in Mississippi, as they cannot afford quality education because of their poor parents.
Again, such women have been exposed to risky sexual behaviors as they toil hard to make ends meet. They also have low self-esteem because of their status. Therefore, there is a need for a program that empowers these women psychologically and economically, an effort that will also boost literacy in the city and the entire US. Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is an organization that is concerned about this category of population.
The organization is a non-governmental organization that was established to create awareness through advocacy campaigns to educate Mississippi people living in abject poverty and any other pathetic conditions. Children in Mississippi live with no hopes of seeing tomorrow. They live as if they are in their own world though this is not the case. The US government is aware of these people. However, it has no plans to improve their status.
There is lack of planning and policies with the formulated ones not caring about the welfare of these people. After a survey carried out in the regions hardly hit by poverty in the US, Mississippi was selected for the advocacy campaign. The advocacy campaign is dubbed, “Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy.” It is aimed at compelling the US government to adopt policies and plans that are intended to save the extremely poor Mississippi people.
The states in which these people live are not appealing. The region was selected because of its high rate of poverty despite having good natural resources to enable it improve the livelihood of its people. Because Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is not profit-oriented, it does not have funds to carry out the program. Funds to facilitate the campaign are in the form of grants from the International Fund.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization’s positive results in other areas like New Jersey have demonstrated the benefits of advocacy campaigns. The campaign is expected to take duration of five years after which it is expected that the rate and prevalence of poverty in Mississippi would have reduced to minimal levels because amicable plans and policies would have been instituted to trigger change.
The expected outcome after the campaign is to reduce the number of poor people in Mississippi besides heightening literacy levels in the region and the US at large. The rate of deaths from preventable diseases is expected to reduce with the number of children attending schools being expected to rise. This will be determined through evaluations that will be conducted after six months for the five years.
Organization Information Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative Mission and Goals
Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is a group of people around the US who are involved in advocacy campaigns aimed at holding the US’ leaders accountable for their policies and commitments. The organization’s mission statement is to heighten literacy levels by fighting extreme poverty and preventable diseases in the US.
This mission statement clearly defines the goals of the organization in ensuring that the US government is held accountable besides being motivated to be committed in the fight against extreme poverty and the need for quality education for all. Therefore, the campaign requires the US’ leaders to adopt effective policies to implement in a bid to change the situation in the Mississippi.
Background and History
Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is an international advocacy group working in various states in America. It targets poor or developing cities where the rate of poverty and preventable diseases is high with low educational standards of the young people.
The initiative believes that these problems are preventable if only the US government implements its policies on the same. Therefore, the organization raises public awareness, as well as pressuring political leaders to come up with smart and effective policies and programs that can help save many children and people’s lives who die due to lack of enough food and or of preventive diseases.
It campaigns for equal chances of securing jobs by providing quality and reliable education to all despite the differences in household backgrounds. The organization collaborates with like-minded organizations across the world at the grassroots level to press the government to implement affable policies that can solve these problems that affect the lives of many children. Currently, its membership is around three million.
We will write a custom Proposal on Grant Proposal/Application Topic: Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To become a member, there is nothing that the member is charged. What is required is a commitment of the members to voice the concerns of the population to the US government to take actions that are aimed at ensuring that policies are put in place to ensure that lives are sustained.
The large turnout of people to trigger the US government’s actions clearly demonstrates that the organization is influencing many people’s lives across the world. Therefore, Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is a force to trigger change in the US.
The organization’s head office is in the United States 1400 Eye Street, Suite 600, Washington, DC 2005.
The organization serves the general population across the US. It targets poor people and those who cannot access quality education in Mississippi. The organization works with activists and people who are concerned with the status of the poor in the society. It reaches the US’ leaders through advocacy campaigns to compel them to come up with working policies.
Currently, the organization has rolled out its campaigns in different states around the US to reach leaders.
The organization has been recognized as one of the forces behind improved leadership in most of the states in the US. It has teamed up with other like-minded local organizations besides helping to trigger positive change in the leadership of states like New Jersey whose rate of poverty has reduced to significant levels besides improving accessibility of medical services.
For any organization to grow and achieve its objectives, human resources are essential. The management board, which comprises finance advisor, communication manager, media officer, program manager, and monitoring and evaluation specialist, controls the organization, which provides leadership on the programs and strategies to use in ensuring that a positive change is attained in the cities faced with high rates of poverty like Mississippi.
The members are the staff that is used to voice the concerns of the poor to the authorities. Therefore, membership is voluntary. It draws people who are in accord and who are concerned with the plight and status of the poor in the Mississippi.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Grant Proposal/Application Topic: Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Problem Statement
Poverty is one of the problems that many states in America are grappling with now and then. Mississippi is one of the poorest states in America. There are various reasons that best explain why the prevalence of poverty is higher here compared to other states. One of them is the lack of fundamental principles to eradicate poverty.
The region has poor policies that can assist it from breaking through this yoke of poverty and poor education. Secondly, the leadership is corrupt: it is mindful of its self-interest instead of addressing the challenges faced by the state. Other reasons include poor accessibility to education because of low social-economic status of most of the parents, especially single mothers. Bad weather, unfavorable climate, and other reasons also cause poverty.
For instance, “Mississippi and New Mexico had the highest poverty rates with more than one out of every five people in each state living in poverty” (Associated Press, 2011, Para. 1). It implies that, if inadequate measures are not adopted to reverse the trend, these people are geared to experience hunger. Many of them will not be able to buy food because of the limited amount of money they have.
This is an alarming finding, which should be looked into to establish why there is a high rate of poverty in Mississippi. Among the causes are poor institutional and the colonial system policies that were imposed to the people. Even though structural changes have been instituted to reverse the situation, large numbers of people here are still languishing in poverty.
They lack education. The educated ones cannot get employment because of poor institutional policies. In this region, most investment plans and government policies tend to favor the rich leaving out the poor who mostly live in the in slum-like houses. Furthermore, other social challenges such as HIV/AIDs have continued to affect most people living in this region. Many of them are highly affected and infected by the HIV/AIDs.
This has further added burden to the poor people in the region. They cannot access good medication due to lack of money. Research indicates, “In 2011, Mississippi reported 5816 cases of gonorrhea” (Fact Sheet, 2011, Para. 2: Kaiser, 2009, Para. 2). The finding reveals the high prevalent cases of HIV/AIDs to the poor.
The society is faced with acute problems that hinder it from living a decent life. Due to these social challenges, it becomes difficult for such people to take their children to schools. Most extremely poor people struggle to get food. They do not have enough money to take care of their children. Therefore, children are denied an opportunity to go to school. This further worsens the situation as the rate of poor people continues to expand.
Poor planning and poor policies cause most of the challenges. Government leaders and other leaders have the potential to eradicate poverty to ensure that society is able to access fundamental amenities without strain. These problems limit the potential of a state to attain its economic achievements.
Therefore, this is the reason why this advocacy is important since it will enable the US’ leaders to come up with the best strategies to tackle the problems relating to poverty in Mississippi since they threaten to explode in the near future if urgent measures are not taken.
Literature Review Poverty is one of the social problems and challenges that wrestle many developing countries. Millions of people are lingering in abject poverty. Statistics on the number of people in extreme poverty is disturbing. For instance, according to Hansen (2012), “poor people in Mississippi still have health problems, even if they have Medicaid or health insurance, even if there are clinics in their communities, even if they get home health services.
They do not get better, and the diseases born of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care” (Para. 2). According to the World Bank, poverty is equivalent to hunger. It is characterized by the absence of shelter, lack of access to medical attention, schools, and jobs.
The list is endless. Therefore, poverty is all about the negatives and those factors that hinder individuals from living happily. Poverty is also equated to lack of freedom and being powerlessness. Therefore, this implies that people faced with abject poverty can be treated in any manner. Those in power can abuse them especially during election periods. The powerful people capitalize on these weaknesses to garner support.
Hopeful citizens vote for such leaders in office who forget about their needs after being elected. After their terms elapse, the cycle recurs. This trend has contributed greatly to increased number of people remaining poor. In fact, leaders would always wish that such slums and poor people continue to increase to enable them achieve their ambitions.
To know the appropriate ways of eradicating poverty, what can work and or what cannot, and what changes over time, it is imperative to measure poverty besides defining and studying it in details. This will help to find answers and amicable solutions that can help in alleviating the prevalence of poverty.
According to the World Bank, the most common and the best measure of poverty is the level of income. A person is considered poor if the level of income falls under the threshold set by a government. Minimum level of income is called poverty levels. Different countries have set their poverty levels depending on factors such as time, place, level of development, societal norms, and values among other factors. For instance, in Britain, the government has three levels under which it uses to define poverty.
These include relative poverty, absolute poverty, and social exclusion. Absolute poverty is the situation where an individual lacks resources for his/her own upkeep. According to the US Census Bureau (2012), “Relative poverty is defined in terms of the average income or resources that an individual has where all people under this category cannot fully participate in the day-to-day activities due to the absence of material needs” (Para. 3).
On the other hand, social exclusion is a new term that explains the consequences that are likely to happen in situations where there is no access to employment or where people have low incomes, poor skills, high crime environments, poor housing, family breakdown, and bad health. Mississippi is the hardest hit by extreme cases of poverty (p. 692).
The number of poor people grew from 217 million in 1987 to more than 300 million in the year 1998 (US Census Bureau, 2012, Para. 4: Magubane, 2008, p.692), which is a high percentage of increase in poverty. Drawing from this finding, one gets a clear picture of the pathetic state of children in Mississippi.
It is terrifying to see children cry of hunger, die of diseases, or lack parental care due to causes that are beyond their control. Living has become hard for them as they are not given an opportunity to go to school. It is not the wish of parents, but the lack of resources to take them to school. Children become breadwinners at a tender age.
Many children in Mississippi also die from preventable diseases. Furthermore, many children in the region are underweight due to poor nutrition. They also suffer from diseases such as measles. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, “A child in Mississippi is born in poverty after every 46 minutes… is abused or neglected every 2 hours…dies before his/her first birthday every 20 hours” (2007, Para. 1).
These findings make it clear that poverty is such a killer condition. Once it strikes, it deprives parents of their attention to children since they cannot get any means (funds) to offer food, good shelter, or even health to their helpless children. Abandoning them (the children) remains their only option and hence the many early death cases in Mississippi.
These are settlements where the level of income is limited hence hindering people from accessing fundamental basic needs. Most people in informal settlements in Mississippi are employed as manual laborers. Therefore, their salary cannot sustain them. Therefore, they prefer living in such environments to meet their most important needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. It is not the wish of an individual to live in such environments.
Rather, the situation forces this to be the only solution. The US government has a role of ensuring that it provides better policies that can enable people to look for opportunities to lead a positive life. Poor leadership in this state has contributed to most of the extreme poverty cases. Leaders whom people elect are not focused.
They lack vision. They only seek to amass wealth to satisfy their self-interests. It astonishes that, at some point in the1960s, states that are performing well in their economy were once at the same level with Mississippi. However, decades have passed with no solid developments in Mississippi, which is a good illustration of how ignorant the US government has been. Furthermore, leaders, not only in the US, are hungry for power.
This has contributed to negative effects as wars have erupted causing losses of many lives and property destruction. This case has worsened the situation besides contributing to the collapse of the economy. Therefore, for the US to reduce poverty in Mississippi and other affected regions, there is a lot of work it needs to do to be successful.
Otherwise, the situation may come out of hand. Therefore, to ease this work by the government, the program will partner with organizations whose aims and objectives match its goal of curbing poverty in Mississippi. These partners are proficient when it comes to handling the issue at hand because they have been doing it for long in many other areas.
For instance, the program will partner with ‘The action Aid’, which is an international non-governmental organization that is well placed to know the issues and changes that children from a poor background go through. It aims at ensuring that children are taken good care of and are taken to school to pursue their academics to achieve their goals.
This organization sponsors children from poor backgrounds. Therefore, information from this organization will be of great assistance in enabling the staffs and members of the organization to be abreast with facts about the prevalence on rate of poverty.
Therefore, in this Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative campaign, ‘The Action Aid’ will come in handy in ensuring that the program succeeds. ‘Wake up Youths’ is yet another group that the organization will collaborate with to ensure that it achieves its objectives and goals.
It consists of like-minded youths in the slum areas. The focus of the group is to stimulate economic growth among youths in the areas. These youths have been raised up in these slums. Therefore, they understand the challenges that people in slums go through as they try to make ends meet.
Therefore, they understand the difficulties of slum dwellers. This knowledge will be of great importance to the advocacy initiative. The group will be used to present its policies and demands to the leaders for a remedial action. Therefore, it will participate besides presenting itself to the US’ leaders to explain its problems and need to compel the government to take appropriate actions to ensure that people in the poverty-hit Mississippi are also assisted by the government to enable them become self-sustainable.
The Activists Group in the US is also very essential in the campaign initiative. Activists are very vocal as they aspire to ensure that human rights and freedom of the people are respected. The constitution of the US is clear on the government’s initiative to ensure that nobody suffers from poverty, dies of preventable diseases, or fails to go to school.
Therefore, this group comes up with programs that are aimed at empowering such vulnerable population to engage in an economic venture to enable Mississippi people sustain their families, as well as themselves. This organization is also ensuring that adequate measures are put in place to fight with preventable disease such as malaria and typhoid in Mississippi.
To do this, it educates the members of the communities and poor families on the need to ensure cleanliness every time. These awareness programs will help Mississippi people to change their behaviors in terms of ensuring high levels of hygiene in every thing they do. Therefore, this organization is a very important partner because it will help in providing evidence and statistics on the level of poverty and the rate at which people from these areas succumb to death due to the failure to access good medical care.
Therefore, the activists together with employees will compel the US government to formulate policies that are aimed at promoting good governance by voicing these issues. The issues that Mississippi faces at the grassroots levels will be voiced to the concerned leaders for an immediate solution to be instituted to remedy the solutions.
Program Objectives and Expected Outcomes
Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is purposed to reach the US leaders with a goal of stressing the need for accountability for the lives that are lost in regions such as Mississippi because of ignorance from leaders.
The increasing rates of deaths due to poverty and preventable diseases should be brought to an end. It is astonishing how these countries have enough resources at their disposal. Yet, they fail to utilize them to their advantage. Poor policies and lack of appropriate machinery to implement policies are the key contributors of the problems facing poor people in Mississippi.
The objectives of the program include:
To reach the US government through advocacy campaigns to petition for adoption of good policies that will uplift the lives of poor people in Mississippi
To ensure that policies are implemented to ensure that children from poor families are educated and trained in Mississippi
To ensure that all target groups in Mississippi (women, children, and young people) are empowered and are able to access good medical care
To ensure that the US leaders who fail to address issues pertaining to poverty alleviation are pressurized to do so
This very intensive campaign is expected to bring changes to the lives of people in Mississippi. Many people in Mississippi are living below the poverty line. They cannot access good medical services and food. Despite the fact that Mississippi has fertile arable land, people here continue to depend on sponsors and donations.
This trend has made most of them lose hope in the US government. This constitutes one of the things that this program seeks to end. The US leaders will be required to be proactive working hard to uplift the lives of the suffering Mississippi people. Adequate resources available in this region will be put to full utilization to improve farming and productivity. Furthermore, this campaign will ensure that the number of children enrolling to schools increases.
In the current world, education is the pillar and foundation of a nation. Countries that do not invest in education are planning to fail because illiterate people cannot manage them. Therefore, the advocacy campaign will also focus on this important issue to ensure that fundamental plans are put in place to ensure that children in Mississippi access good schools and education. Most poor parents cannot get good medical attentions.
This affects their growth and life in the future. Preventive diseases are another area that many people in Mississippi face. Many people die from these preventable diseases such as malaria and typhoid among others due to poverty and lack of money to seek good medical treatment.
Therefore, his campaign seeks to solve the issue. If the US leaders can only get their calculations right, there is nothing that can hinder them from achieving and realizing their dreams of a poverty-free Mississippi. This is expected to trigger positive change in the general lives of people in Mississippi.
Program Design and Methodology
The program is expected to take duration of five years, which is enough time to ensure that prominent US leaders meet with the advocacy groups to negotiate on various issues that pertain to the challenges that Mississippi people face in a bid to provide affable solutions. In the design, officers will carry out a survey to determine the US regions that are highly affected by high rates of preventive deaths, poverty, and high school dropouts.
In the initial stage, the survey will be carried out in all the American states to choose the regions that have higher rates of people living in extreme poverty. Even though most of them may be facing these problems, the rate of prevalence may not be similar. Furthermore, this survey will factor in various issues, which may include the forms of government, the availability of resources, and fundamental infrastructure to drive the economy forward.
In the survey, government data and statistics on population and the rate of poverty will be analyzed, reviewed, and compared with other regions. Furthermore, research will be carried out since data will be collected from various locations including areas such as slums, as well as from those middle class populations.
These reviews will be of great importance as views of the population concerning their plights will be analyzed and incorporated in the campaign strategy. After the survey, the US state that will have very high rates of poverty prevalence will be given priority. The team will have to make a decision whether to roll out the campaign in all the hardly-hit states or in the one that has high rates of poverty.
This decision will also be arrived at by considering the availability of resources and the number of members in the states to make it a reality. Due to limitation in the resources at the disposal, the only region that will be given attention is the one with high prevalence rates of poverty. Therefore, the campaign will be done in Mississippi region only. After identification of the focus region, machinery will be put in place to kick-start the campaigns.
The timetable will be clearly set with the course of actions that will require to be followed to ensure that the program achieves the best results. The personnel in charge of the various locations within the selected region will be trained on various aspects to enable them perform better to produce excellent results.
Human capital is one of the fundamental components in ensuring that a program succeeds or fails. The program members will run it in the relevant countries. A team leader will be recruited to ensure that all the programs and activities in the respective countries are going on well.
The team leaders will be the ones to compile reports and submit them to the head office to evaluate on the milestone made. The other members will be trained on public relations skills to acquaint them with how they need to interact with their leaders. The training will be done through the internet.
Members will be directed to websites where they will be given the login details- password and username to gain entry to the learning resources. This is aimed at reducing the costs of carrying out training besides saving on time since the members are literate. Those who have the skills will direct the few that may not be having knowledge in computer.
The members will work or roll out their campaigns from the grassroots levels whereby they will engage with the leaders of various institutions to help them with ideas on how they can resolve problems that they face. The campaigns will be rolled out to the national levels bringing into perspective national leaders who, in most states, are the ones who provide decisions on which projects to initiate.
These staff members will volunteer their services. Therefore, they will not be entitled to salary but rather a small token to motivate them to continue with the initiative. Few other employees will also be recruited to ensure that the program is well rolled out to achieve its objectives. They will be entitled to salary.
They will sign a contract with the organization to ensure that they achieve their objectives. Those who will not manage to satisfy or adhere to the terms of the contracts will not be tolerated. They will be summoned for the first time. However, in the second sermon, their contract will be terminated. The organization expects that the employees will be people of high skills and knowledge in matters of relations and advocacy to ensure that they engage in the exercise in a professional manner.
The results should be evident at the end of the five years. They should have shown that indeed they have performed and influenced the leaders to change their policies to adopt others that can stimulate investments to uplift the poor Mississippi people besides ensuring that children from poverty-stricken areas like Mississippi attend schools and or access good medical treatment.
To ensure that the project succeeds, Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative will enter partnership with various organizations that operate in America as briefly hinted above. The organizations that Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative will partner with include the Action Aid, Wake up Youths, Poverty eradication in America, and the Activists Groups.
The reasons for this partnership are to ensure that Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative reaches many US leaders and people to influence them to adapt appropriate strategies. Furthermore, these partners are formed to perform duties that relate to what the group would like to offer.
They are like-minded groups that agitate for the rights of the people. Further, they are concerned with the welfare of the poor people in the society. Therefore, they understand the problems that people in poor regions go through better. They are better placed to provide good recommendation on the best policies that can help improve the living standards of people in these Mississippi states besides making them access schools and medical services.
These partners will be notified through an official letter from the organization. The letter would request them to collaborate with the organization in ensuring that they bring to the attention the poverty situations in Mississippi and the best ways to formulate policies that can alleviate such problems better.
In the letter, they will be informed on various duties that the organization does, the theme of the advocacy campaign, and the concealment date among other important information of why the program is important in ensuring that the lives of the people are uplifted.
Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is scheduled to take five years. The program is scheduled to kick-start when the notice of a grant award is served. It is expected to end with the first evaluation of the program. Upon notice of grant award, the chief executive officer of the company will communicate to his fellow board members to inform them of the release of the money.
The organization will write to the International Funds to acknowledge and send appreciation for the grant. This letter will acknowledge the receipt of funds by the organization’s accounts. Members will come together in round-the-table talks to arrange and budget for the funds. Duties will be assigned to managers to execute the tasks.
Furthermore, all the program partners will receive calls and updates on arrangements such as the date when the program commences and other relevant details. Furthermore, a meeting will be scheduled to assist in coordination of activities of different organizations. Public announcement and media release of the program will be prepared and disseminated in various organizations.
In the first to the third month, the initial stages of program implementation will take place. During this period, the training of members and other employees will take place. The members will be assigned their areas of jurisdiction and the rules that they will work with. After the campaign is rolled out, the evaluation will take place after six months to determine the milestones that would have been made for the few months.
Team leaders will have to file their reports on the achievements they have made so far. These evaluations will be done after every five years. The last evaluation will be done in the fifth year to ascertain the milestone that will have been made. The program will come into conclusion after some noticeable achievements made. Plans will be taken on how the project will be sustained for the coming years.
Program Monitoring Process and Evaluation Plan
For the program to fair on smoothly, monitoring and evaluation are imperative. Monitoring and evaluation specialists will scrutinize and assess the program on a daily basis on its outcomes. A supervisor will be assigned the role of ensuring that the program performs as expected.
The supervisor will work in all the sub-regions of Mississippi. He or she will have to transverse across the regions to find out the performance of the project. Evaluation is a process of checking and assessing an action plan after some time to determine whether the program is fairing on as required.
It is also aimed at determining the area that needs urgent correction to institute urgent measures. Evaluation is also important in a project because it allows improvement of the service provided in the program. In this case, the managers will carry out evaluations after every six months.
The evaluations will be aimed at checking whether the company is making positive progress or not. In the first six months after the program is rolled out, a survey will be carried out to determine the magnitude the program has affected the US prominent leaders. A sample of leaders, as well as campaign lobbyists, will be given questionnaires while others will be interviewed to find out how they find the program in the six months.
This information is important in this process of project implementation because it will help the organization to come up with viable strategies to change the effects of the current situations. Furthermore, evaluation will also measure other central objectives related to the program such as any positive intervention and decrease in cost of life among many others.
For instance, when the number of children who are not sent away from school to collect school fees does not increase, it will demonstrate that the government has not done enough measures to control poverty prevalence. However, because this is a very short period, the number is expected to be low.
This evaluation will also enable the organization- Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative to continue strengthening its relationships with other groups to help it achieve its missions. This relationship will enable the target audience to provide information without fear. It will also participate in various important issues concerning the elimination of poverty in the poverty-stricken areas.
The organization is well prepared to ensure that this campaign becomes successful. The company’s online training program is aimed at equipping the members and workers with relevant skills on how they should conduct the campaign. The training is high-class intending to prepare members by equipping them with skills to allow them perform their tasks with ease. The venture is not that easy since it requires frequent meetings with members of the public.
Therefore, public relation and etiquette skills are paramount to ensure that this becomes a success. This training is provided by the organization itself. Furthermore, the partners the organization has incorporated are very important in ensuring that this process becomes a success. These partners have enough relevant information and expertise that the organization will adopt to ensure that the program succeeds.
For instance, Action Aid as highlighted earlier has been serving different countries for a long period. Therefore, many people are familiar with the organization. This will help boost our image towards the public. There are various success stories that are associated with the organization. The organization is attributed to have successfully carried out advocacy campaigns in different countries in its neighborhood.
Therefore, this is a reason enough to demonstrate the capacity of the organization to carry out successful campaign strategies. Many children did not attend schools. Many died of preventive diseases. However, when the program was rolled out, it helped many people to change their ways of life by uplifting and even liberating them from the menace of poverty.
The government began to adopt and implement policies that ensured that the poor and the vulnerable are reached with measures put in place to improve their lives. The success that was made from this program was worth. Still, the government is committed to ensuring that its population can access essential services and amenities.
Program sustainability is an important aspect to ensure that the project is able to add value to society. However, this requires that appropriate considerations be adhered to sustain the program. Even as its timeline concludes, the program is expected to remain in the operation to enable the members of the society to continue demanding their rights if no actions would not have been taken at the time of its conclusion.
The activists groups in the regions will be required to continue with the efforts of pressing the government to provide good services to its people. An agreement will be sealed between the two to ensure that this is not breached by setting a sub branch of the organization in every sub-region, which will work under the umbrella of the activist movement. This unit’s mandate will be to ensure that the campaign is alive.
The government will be compelled to provide these services to its members without relenting. The important thing is to ensure that, in all programs and policies, government policies are in tandem with the objective of eradicating poverty besides ensuring that all Mississippi people in extreme poverty are attended well. The mouthpiece of the group will be the activists who will continue demanding the support of the extremely poor from the government.
They will also be voicing the demands and other needs of the people. Furthermore, the organization will develop a strategic plan that will be implemented and administered by the units that will be left in the sub-regions of Mississippi to ensure that cases of extreme poverty are eradicated. In the strategic plan, members will be in the sub-regions to ensure that the US implements policies appropriately to meet any challenges that may result in the course of the advocacy campaigns.
In addition, to be sustainable, there is the need for the provision of financial aids to ensure that the activities of the organization go on smoothly.
The people carrying out this agenda require funds for their own sustainability as well as the sustainability of the program. A budget plan will be drafted to cover for some years that the organization will operate in Mississippi. Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative is a non-profit organization whose grants will be apportioned to cover the financial expenses that will come after the duration expires.
Those organizations or individuals who may have the same vision may also donate funds for the organization to help it in furthering its objectives and goals. These funds will be channeled in a special account aimed at sustaining the program. The funds will only be used for the purposes of sustaining the program. No person will be entitled to withdraw money from the account without the authority of the management.
A specialist group in budget drafting will be required to come up with a budget that will cover all the expenses that the organization will incur in its operations in the five Mississippi sub-regions. Because most of the members of the organization are substantial, and thus not entitled to salary, this will play a great deal in helping the organization save on its expenditures.
They will only be given a small token as an appreciation and encouragement for them to work hard to ensure that these changes are effected in the organization. The trainers, team managers, and supervisor will require salaries to enable them execute their duties. This will be included in the budget.
Furthermore, expenses to be incurred in traveling will be factored in the budget to ensure that the activities of the organization run smoothly. The management will come together to debate on the required budget. The whole budget for ensuring that the campaign runs on smoothly until the end is expected to cost 1177700 US dollars.
The funds will be used appropriately to ensure that the campaign succeeds. The amount of money that will be channeled to each of the five sub-regions of Mississippi will be 235540USD. This budget is divided into equal measures because populations affected by abject poverty are equal.
The detailed budget is as below
Activity Budget Total Securing work stations in 5 sub-regions in Mississippi 8000*5USD 40000USD Purchasing of working instruments (Vehicles and Computers) 120000USD 120000USD Paying rent for each for 5 years 1500*5*5USD 37500USD Baseline Evaluation of the program 552000USD 552000USD End line Evaluation of the program 552000USD 552000USD Training 8000USD 8000USD Salary for 5 years 225000USD 225000USD Working station support for continued campaign after the 5thyear 60000USD 60000USD Miscellaneous 80000USD 80000USD Total 1177700USD Reference List Associated Press. (2011). Nearly one in four People in Mississippi living below Poverty line as Rates Rise in Almost every state. Web.
Fact Sheet. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Fact Sheet 2011 Mississippi. Web.
Hansen, S. (2012). What Can Mississippi Learn from Iran? Web.
Kaiser, H. (2009). Mississippi has eighth Highest HIV Rate among Young Adults in Nation. Web.
Magubane, Z. (2008). The American Construction of the Poor White Problem. South Atlantic Quarterly, 107(4), 691-713.
United States Department of Agriculture. (2007). Poverty in Mississippi. Web.
US Census Bureau. (2012). Mississippi Has Highest Poverty and Lowest Income. Web.
Appendix I Poverty-Free Mississippi Certification
Preference will be given to any initiative/organization/business that has poverty-fighting programs. In accordance with section 25(2)(a) of Mississippi statutes, any two or more competitive appeals made to the state for procurement of goods or contractual services can be strongly attractive in terms of cost, value, and services.
Therefore, any application received from a business/initiative that manifests that it has implemented any poverty-free plan successfully shall be chosen as the most preferred for the award of carrying out the task. However, to have a poverty-free Mississippi initiative, an organization shall:
Engage all the US media platforms (TVs, Radios, and Print) for a three-week awareness campaign on the need for the US government to save the poverty-stricken Mississippi people
Inform the US government on the need to have all illiterate children in Mississippi taken to schools free of charge to improve literacy levels of Mississippi state
Impose a stern fine to any parent denying his/her child(ren) the free education specified in II
Make a tireless effort, assisted by the US government, to uplift the standards of Mississippi state by establishing appropriate laws and regulations that will help make the Mississippi dream a reality
Appendix II Fight Poverty, Fight Illiteracy in Mississippi Initiative Chart
History of the Telescope Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Telescope is an instrument used to observe minute objects. It has the capability of collecting and analyzing radiations from objects that are at a distance. It has an electromagnetic spectrum that helps to magnify the size of an image when taking a photograph.
Information is also collected/ gathered through image sensor. There are various types of telescopes that are operational but the most common one is called optical telescope (Dupre 2008, p. 250).
This category of telescope has mirrors / lens that are used to magnify objects that are at distance or help to increase the brightness of objects that are faint.
Furthermore, optical telescopes are classified under three categories. One of them is called refractors. This kind of telescopes use lenses to magnify objects also called dioptics.
The second is called reflectors and use mirrors for magnification also called catoptrics. The third category is known as catadioptric. This uses both mirrors and lenses to magnify objects.
Background information The history of telescope dates back from 1608 when the first refracting optical telescope was invented. The telescope recorded for the first time in Netherlands. The invention is credited to Lippershey Hans and Janseen Zacharias in Middelburg, who used to make spectacles.
Another important contributor who was also a manufacturer of instruments as well as optician was Metius Jacob came from Alkmaar. Later on, Galileo improved these inventions. He was later accredited as the first person to use his telescope in astronomy. In his telescope, he adopted the designs that were used by Hans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hans’ design had used a concave eye lens and convex objective lens, which he adopted. His new telescope therefore was an improvement to that of Hans and it was popularly known as the Galilean telescope. This was not to be end of the journey in terms of improvement of the telescope.
Kepler Johannes came with a proposal that sort to improve on the Galileo telescope. His new design was to be made using convex eyepiece. The telescope was also named after the founder – Keplerian telescope.
The invention of achromatic during 18th century brought about great development as refractors were used in the telescopes (Consolmagno
The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations Essay online essay help
Introduction The implementation of the labor laws and regulations in an organization is imperative as it leads to increased productivity. This ensures that there is low employee turnover due to worker satisfaction as well as motivation.
The work environment should foster productivity through dealing with issues that affects workers motivation and productivity. The employment policies affect the organization’s profitability all the time.
The essay is about the regulations as well as the implications on the company policies in relation to employee harassment.
The discussion is about the Occupational Safety and Health Act as well as how the organization will align its policies with the United States of America Labor laws.
The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations Harassment of workers is a major issue where the senior employees act in a manner that emotionally or physically hurts other workers. This affects new workers who may do things that are unethical because they are not yet used to the new environment and the existing workers do not accept them.
It also involves discrimination of workers based on the race, gender or religion. According to the United States labor laws, it is illegal to discriminate workers due to their gender, age, race or religion.
This organization therefore will not discriminate anyone based on gender, race or religion. All the workers will receive fair treatment where compensation will be based on merit according to the agreed terms and conditions (Norman, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Harassment also includes actions that harm the other person sexually. This form of harassment may be either verbal or physical. In most cases, it involves doing something to an individual in order engage in sex against his or her will.
The organization should not tolerate individuals found guilty of such actions. The other major form of harassment is institutional harassment where a given institution harasses the employees through legal procedures or policies intended to coerce the employees to act in a certain manner.
In most cases such policies involves threats, termination of employment and overworking policies that are not according to the compensation given to the workers.
In addition, it involves bureaucratic processes, which restrict employees from communicating with the superiors. The organization can foster productivity by eliminating institutional harassment of workers and provide motivating environment (Simon, 2008).
When complying with the United States labor laws, the organization must include the wages and salaries as part of the labor policy in the organization. The wages set by the organization should be according to the minimum wages set by the government of the United States of America.
However, different states have their own minimum wages that they have set. When determining the wages, the company should have a good structure on how different employees at different levels should be compensated. The payment policies govern the employees’ terms of employment whether casual, contractual or permanent.
This ensures that there will be resources due to the growth of the company and creation of appropriate time when the employees are supposed to report for work.
We will write a custom Essay on The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company should also know how and when the employees would receive payment to avoid inconvenience as well as motivate them to be productive. The policies should also state the amount of money to be paid for the outsourced laborers (Honeyball, 2008).
The other regulation when creating the resources of the company relates to the formulation of Occupational Safety and Health where the company must have measures of protecting workers in the workplace.
The occupational health and workplace policies should explain the safety measures, procedures and compensation put in place by the company. It should have an incident action plan to enhance safety and outline the measures as well as policies for compensating the workers who are injured.
The compensation should adhere to the compensation outlined by the states rules and regulation on Compensation Act. The other issue relating to the occupational safety is that the company should conduct policies of development in the country (Norman, 2008).
The policies that will govern international employees are significant and should be considered by the management. These policies ensure that international employees receive compensation without discrimination and provide their ideas to the managers of the company.
In many instances, most of the international employees are harassed due to inability to have their issues addressed quickly because of the long distance from where the company is located. The company should create employment policies that favor the international employees to take care of their needs.
The international employees should not be discriminated in terms of wages but compensated equally like the local employees (Gillian, 2005).
Conclusion The management of the organization should ensure that appropriate policies are provided for the employees. They should have policies, which ensure that the working conditions are favorable and motivating to the employees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The policies should create an environment that promotes cohesion and motivation among the employees. When the organization has proper policies, it is likely to experience innovation, employee loyalty and high level of productivity.
References Gillian, M. (2005). Labor law. New York: Hart Publishing.
Honeyball, S. (2008). Honeyball and bowers’ textbook on employment law. New York: Oxford University Press
Norman, S. (2008). Selwyn’s law of employment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Music and Dancing
Introduction The entry of Irish immigrant in Cape Breton began after the discovery of the island by John Cabot in 1497, this also saw the influx of other communities such as Scottish, French and English in the island.
Since then, these communities and others who came afterwards have remained on the island to date. Various historical authors have given the factors why Irish immigrated to Cape Breton. The potato famine, which occurred 1840s in Ireland, is thought to be the driving factor behind their immigration.
However, other historians cite that Ireland is a country that has been made up of tenants, laborers and farmers with its economic lifeline dependent on Britain. Hence, these economic struggles and challenges with prospects of land ownership in North America motivated them to emigrate.
The Irish people carried along their culture to new lands during their emigration; hence, this became a part of their community daily life. In Cape Breton, where they settled between 1700s, they continued to practice their culture besides adopting other cultures among other communities they interacted with.
This paper discusses the Irish culture in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The writer indicates that the Irish people have continued to preserve their culture over the ages, hence, this is reflected in their music and dancing, symbolism, language, religion among others.
Music and Dancing Music and dancing are important elements for a human soul. Music inspires and relaxes the soul, thus bringing about happiness. Similarly, dancing is captivating and is also critical for a person’s mental and physical well-being.
Thus, Irish community in Cape Breton has maintained this culture close to their heart. McGee illustrates that Irish people still embrace their traditional music on the island to date (60). Hence, common musical varieties on the island include
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anglo-Irish folk songs, Gaelic, pipe and fiddle music among others. Also, McGee (83) indicates that Irish music is a popular among other communities on the island because it is lively and fosters passion.
On a similar note, Irish dancing styles are astonishing. The Irish people have continued to uphold “Step Dancing”, a style of dancing, on the island (Hedican 319). Step dancing is where a dancer swings his/her loose ankle swiftly causing the sole of the shoe to make comical sounds.
Similarly, an Irish dancer uses rigid torso and a free leg while dancing to the music rhythm. The uniqueness of Irish Music culture in the island has attracted many young people from other communities. Hence, most of them have emulated the music and dancing styles through learning and practicing.
Besides, music and dancing culture has encouraged young people to participate in Irish competition such as Feis (Hedican 317). Feli, a form of dancing has been replicated by other cultures, such as Acadian and Scottish living in Nova Scotia.
Also, the Irish communities have set aside a period where youngsters are taught about storytelling, local history and community customs. They view these aspects as a part of Irish community living culture.
Thus, activities such as “Kitchen Party” or Ceilidh (a visit) are famous within the community. They provide an opportunity for sharing language, story, song, tracing family roots, and music (McGee, 94).
Symbolism For ages, Irish people have revered symbols in their daily lives. They view them as a reminiscence of some phenomenon or certain important events in life. Elliott (140) points out that the most widely recognized symbol in the Irish community is the Celtic cross.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a symbol which was used by Irish Catholic communities in 1800s. Hedican (129) cites that the cross was significant to Irish community because it was used to decorate tombstones and jewelry among others during the celebration of Celtic culture.
Presently, Houston and William (89) note that this symbol helps Irish people remember significant events in Irish-Canadian history.
Also, the names also contain symbolism, which forms a significant part of Irish culture in Cape Breton. According to Houston and William (123), Irish names are unique compared to others in different cultures, thus, it is easy to differentiate them.
For instance, Hedican illustrates that a person with a surname starting with O’ is always perceived as a person who has an Irish origin (319).
Elliott demonstrates that another significant symbol among Irish in Cape Breton is St. Patrick (136). Irish people recognize St. Patrick as the Patron Saint of Ireland, and the onset of Christianity in Ireland, hence, this day is important for Catholics and Anglicans in residing in Cape Breton.
The Irish people celebrate this day by consuming Irish bacon, cabbage and drinks. The Irish people use this day to recall their motherland and bond with their countrymen.
Religion Despite some Irish joining with other religions, majority of them is largely Catholics. They follow Catholicism to connect with their native land, which is predominantly Catholics. They have also borrowed architectural styles of building churches from their native country, most catholic churches in Cape Breton bear resemblance.
Akenson (102) illustrates that this architectural designs show their strong connection with their motherland. Besides believing in Jesus Christ and Mary, they also embrace Saints.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They view saints as a link or intermediaries between them and Jesus Christ, hence, the church has set aside specific days for commemorating their feasts (Houston
The Miami Beach Descriptive Essay essay help site:edu
One of nature’s most captivating sights is the beach. A sandy landform lying along the shoreline of the ocean, the beach is filled with splendor and it inspires feelings of tranquility and bliss to the person who happens to be on it.
The Miami Beach is one of the most beautiful beaches in the world and observing it can be a moving experience. Walking along the Miami Beach barefooted on an early morning is a memorable experience.
The grainy sands feel soft and comforting and one cannot help but drag their feet to prolong the experience. One might chance to come across crabs lazily crawling along the beach as it seeks out their prey or a sea turtle munching on plant debris at the shorelines.
Watching the sunrise over Miami Beach is one of the most delightful treats nature has to offer. The sun seems to emerge from the endless ocean and as it shows it appears from the horizon, it paints the ocean in bold bright colors.
The clouds also begin to be filed with deep hues of crimson and rose as the sun rises behind them. As the sun slowly makes it way upwards, one cannot help but rest their gaze, if only for a moment, on the brilliant, silvery waters.
For the moment, one can afford to ignore the huge multi-storied buildings that lie a few blocks behind and get lost in the intoxicating appeal of nature.
The keen, fresh ocean-air gently caresses the visitors face. As the sun moves upwards, it heats the ocean air and its warmth can be felt in the gentle breeze that fans the person’s face. The morning air is lovely and one gets a giddy feeling from inhaling the salt filled air.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rhythmic rise and fall of the waves adds to the splendor which is only equaled by the comforting sound of the waves as they crash gently on the shore.
Every now and then, the crushing waves bring with them a seashell or a piece of wood that might have travelled for hundreds of miles before landing on this beach.
The Atlantic Ocean stretches out endlessly into the distance and one cannot help but feel awed by its vastness. In the distance, dolphins can be seen diving up gracefully for a moment, only to return to their watery world.
In addition to the sea creatures, the ocean is punctuated by sailing boats which cut their way merrily towards the docks with the gently sea breeze nicely swelling their sails. A peaceful calm lies over the beach, and, with a contented, graceful motion, the sailing boats rise and fall on the gently lapping waves.
The melodic chirping of the birds in the early morning provides the background music for the experience. Together with the rustling palm trees nearby, they form a natural symphony that makes it easy for one to lose track of time and reality.
Eventually, one has to say goodbye to the beach and venture back into the city that has concrete streets and noisy traffic. For many people, this is the gloomy part of the beach experience and if they had their way, they would postpone the moment indefinitely.
However, the allure of the beach and the serenity it creates continue to linger long after the person has physically left the magical beach.
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Ancient Greek Democracy that Still Makes People Strive for Perfection Essay college essay help
Ancient Greece is often referred to as a cradle of the Western World. This is not just a smart metaphor, but a certain fact that can hardly be refuted.
Thus, Greek dreams of a perfect society where everyone (or at least the majority) is happy resulted in the creation of the first democracy in the world. This invention of humanity has had a great impact on the development of the human society.
First, Greek cities were governed as any other kingdom in the ancient world. However, a number of uprisings made Ancient Greeks work out a unique political system. Thus, in the 6th century B.C. Greeks created the first democratic society.
It is possible to understand the major principles of Ancient Greek democracy when considering the meaning of the very word democratic. Thus, the word consists of two composites: demos and kratos. The first composite is translated as “the people” and kratos is translated as “power”, which gives us the following meaning: “the power of the people” (qtd. in Ober 3).
Therefore, there was no single ruler in the country and there was no risk of tyranny. Basically, people discussed the problems and worked out specific solutions to the problems. Admittedly, it can be a bit naïve to think that the majority always benefitted as there were always elite groups that pursued their specific objectives.
Nonetheless, needs of many people were taken into account and many people could enjoy basic rights. It is possible to state that the creation of such a democratic society was revolutionary. Of course, it had an enormous impact on the development of humanity.
Notably, many societies are based on the principles of Greek democracy. Many European countries followed the example of Ancient Greece to create new better societies. Thus, French Republic was based on major principles developed by ancient Greeks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The USA can be regarded as one of the brightest examples of democratic societies. Undoubtedly, Americans used experience of French people and used the principles outlined in Ancient Greece. Apart from such significant political implications, democratic principles of Ancient Greece have become certain part of people’s consciousness.
As far as I am concerned, I am also affected by the democratic principles. I think Ancient Greeks managed to outline major principles of a perfect and just society. More so, I think I have specific views on society due to the influence of Ancient Greece.
I have heard of justice and equality from my childhood. Of course, these views date back to the ancient world. Now I think that people should take a stand whenever they may need. I think that people can find solutions if they start a proper discussion when they listen to each other.
I also think that these principles have affected my life. For instance, I believe discussion is the most important thing in any human interaction. Thus, I always discuss issues and I never jump to conclusions. I try to consider all possible factors and take into account all opinions.
Of course, some time ago I thought I developed such principles as I was so smart and just. However, I think I did not work out these ideas. I only adopted them.
These ideas are in the air and people cannot but adopt them (or try to oppose to them). Most importantly, no one remains distant as these ideas are integrated in our universe.
Works Cited Ober, Josiah. “The Original Meaning of “Democracy”: Capacity to Do Things, not Majority Rule.” Constellations 15.1 (2008): 3-9. Print.
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Why is it an Enjoyable Story? Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
In literature, stories are very common. Since the time of William Shakespeare, many authors have delved into writing romantic stories. This is because most of works of William Shakespeare were considered very successful and were romantic.
However, the biggest question that most literature students, as well as other professionals would have is when a piece of writing is to be considered enjoyable. For instance, an individual would ask whether to consider a piece of writing enjoyable if it discusses characters only.
These questions could only be answered by looking at some of the factors that would make a piece of writing exciting. This essay is meant to look at the factors that would make a piece of writing enjoyable.
An enjoyable piece of writing is that which has a clear logical flow that is easy to follow. A story would be enjoyable if it follows the basic rule mentioned above. There should be a sequence of events.
For instance, in the morning, an individual would wake up, take a bath, take breakfast, and leave for work or school. It would not be logical to start a story by explaining how an individual took breakfast before waking up because this would not make sense.
It is also important that a story create a picture in the mind of the reader. Take for instance the story ‘The Use of Force’ by William Carlos Williams. The author creates a clear setting of the room in which the patient is.
The mood in the house including the facial expression of parents, the agony that the patient is going through, and her fear of medical instruments are clearly brought out in the narration. One reading this story would have a clear picture of the environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An enjoyable piece of writing should have a mix narration and dialogue. It would be very boring to read or listen to a story that does not have any form of dialogue. Writing a story as if it were a report would make it very boring to readers.
In the story stated above, there is dialogue between the mother and the doctor. This makes the story lively and more realistic. Good stories should also include such literary devices as symbolism (simile and metaphors), personification, flashback, and rhetoric.
These devices are very important because apart from giving the story a sense of humor, they also help in bringing out some features that would otherwise been left out. However, the stylistic devices should not be overused. Misuse of the stylistic devices would spoil the tone of the story.
A good story should have a form of conflict. The conflict keeps a given story going. The conflict should be logical and it should be comprehended easily. It would be illogical for an author to create a conflict that is too complex to be understood by the target audience.
A story written from a third party perspective would be considered good if it is capable of capturing other characters in the play, including thoughts. This way, it would be possible to capture all-important factors. A good story is not just a romantic story.
It should be the one, which has the above core elements. Listeners would be bored if the story does not contain various stylistic devices such as similes and metaphors. Apart from stylistic devices, the author must incorporate simple, compound, and complex sentences into the story.
Absenteeism amongst employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank Research Paper college admissions essay help
Background of the Study Employee absenteeism is considered one of the most detrimental occurrences facing employers. Personnel from different organizations across industries report different patterns of absence behavior. There’s need for managers to understand the relationship existing between job satisfaction and rate of absenteeism. This is since the consequences of this aspect affects organizations negatively leading to great financial losses.
Most organisations agree on the fact that employee absenteeism is one of the factors affecting productivity. However, research reveals that one of the causes of absenteeism is the level of job satisfaction. There are three types of absence; ‘sick absence’ where the employee misses work due to health issues, ‘authorised absence’ where the employee acquires permission and ‘unexcused absence’ where employees absent themselves for unrecognized reasons.
The understanding of the relationships provides good platform for designing effective policies capable of providing conducive work environment to the employees. Studies reveal that workers who are less satisfied with their work shows frequent rate of absenteeism compared to those experiencing job satisfaction.
Absence is a function of an individual and situation hence can either be described as “voluntary or involuntary”, where voluntary is based on conscious decision by the employee while involuntary absence incorporates situations that are beyond immediate control of the worker such as sickness.
This study focuses on the National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD) which was founded in the year 1968 and is considered to be amongst the top performing banks in the United Arab Emirates. The bank has extensive network within UAE operating 120 branches within Abu Dhabi and 50 branches across four continents of the world.
Global Finance magazine ranks NBAD’s as one of the safest banks in the world and specifically in the Middle East. The bank offers various services ranging from retail, investment and also provides Islamic banking services. At the same time the bank appears in the Abu Dhabi Exchange (ADX) listings.
Employers like NBDA bank face some of the common challenges at work place one of which is absenteeism. The bank operates its working system under the country’s labor Law which requires employees to report any form of illness within a period of two days before being granted leave.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees are required to produce medical records and evidences of illness covering absence within consecutive days. In dealing with absenteeism, NBDA adopted and enforced the use of medical certificate policy.
All employees are entitled to a leave of 90 calendar days annually with pay as prescribed by the bank’s policies which denies any payment to employee on sick leave if the illness resulted from the employee’s misconduct. Any absenteeism from work without reasonable cause is countered by disciplinary sanctions. The employee is not paid any salary for the day of absence; the fines vary depending on the frequency of the offense.
Statement of the Problem Absenteeism is associated with no clear cause since the concept is influenced by a host of interrelated factors. This makes the concept very expensive for organizations as well as individual employees. In most cases, studies have focused on employee attitude as major cause of absenteeism.
However, managers and employees tend to view absenteeism from different perspectives. Managers focus on absence as a category of behavior while to employees, the concept comes as a result of perception, feelings and social phenomenon. Research reveals that persistent absenteeism has negative impact on overall productivity as well as morale.
Most researchers argue that job dissatisfaction is directly proportional to the number of days absent therefore necessitates the need for the employee to feel rewarded. Studies also show that absenteeism can be brought about by personal characteristics for example marital status with the unmarried reporting more absenteeism predominantly married females. It is in this respect that this research seeks to evaluate and address the concept of absenteeism within institutions such as NBDA.
Aims and objectives Aims
To place rules and policies to manage absenteeism among employees at ABU DHABI National Bank
To establish the major causes of absenteeism among the employees of ABU DHABI National Bank
To propose a model which can be utilized in testing the proposition that personal characteristics, situational factors and satisfaction are key causes of absenteeism
To develop a strategy that is beneficial to both the employer and employee in order to improve productivity
To examine the relationship between individual characteristics, situations, job satisfaction levels and absenteeism for employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank in Dubai
To investigate the relationship between personal characteristics of age, gender, marital status, education and source of income and rates of absenteeism
To establish a programme that will help manage and control absenteeism at Abu Dhabi National Bank.
To establish a reward system that will help deal with absenteeism at Abu Dhabi National Bank
Scope of the project
The study seeks to discuss absenteeism amongst employees focusing on causal mechanisms and reasons as to why employees absent themselves from work. Also knowing the relationship between job satisfactions, personal characteristics i.e. age, marital status, income level and absenteeism.
This study also seeks to establish the effects of absenteeism to the bank’s productivity and profitability levels which in the long-run affects the country’s economy. The research also gives insight to the management of the bank concerning necessary prescriptions capable of handling absenteeism.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Absenteeism amongst employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This study also tries to establish whether the management is capable of adopting modern systems used in regulating the number of sick days. There is also discussion on the existing relationship between reward, punishment and absenteeism.
Focus of the Study
The study focuses on establishing the major causes of absenteeism and consequent effects on productivity within organizations such as NBDA. The focus is on the nature of working environment offered and individual reactions towards work in general. This paper emphasizes on personal characteristics relationship to absenteeism and also relations between job satisfaction and absenteeism.
The paper also analyses the various types of absenteeism and seeks to analyse several models which have been proposed for the purposes of establishing and testing levels of job satisfaction. This has generally resulted in different results and findings of which this paper seeks to explain such differences.
Significance of the Study
Frequent employee contributions represent some of the important aspects within an organization. The level of effectiveness with which absenteeism is managed within organizations determines organization’s performance in the long-run.
Whether ‘voluntary’ or ‘involuntary’, absenteeism should be managed using appropriate policies aligned to defined labor laws of specified regions. Work should not be viewed by employees as form of punishment but as a means of fulfilling one’s purpose in life, hence should be performed based on company’s underlined policies, principles, vision and mission statements.
The History of Rice in Japan Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Among all the cultivated cereals, rice and wheat are among the most important as the leading food sources for humankind. However, rice is consumed by a higher percentage of people across the globe-almost half of the world’s population. Rice is cultivated in over 100 countries in the world.
However, the about 95% of the cultivated crop is not only grown but also consumed in the Asian countries. Research has shown that rice provides for 60% of the food intake in South-East Asia. In the Eastern and Southern parts of Asia, it accounts for 35% of the food intake.
The countries that have recorded the highest levels of per capita consumption of rice include Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Laos and Burma. Other parts of the world that have embraced the rice culture include Africa and South America. As far as trade is concerned, rice is one of the most traded basic foodstuffs in the world. Since the introduction of rice in Japan, the Japanese have shown a significant attachment to the cereal in many aspects which it has protected up to date.
The origin of rice in Asia The cultivation of rice is a potent symbol of civilisation for many of the Asian nations. According to the preliminary findings by a team of Chinese and Japanese archeologists, the practice of rice cultivation may have first occurred along the middle Yangtze River in central China.
A detailed study carried out by an environmental archeologist, Syuichi Toyama, at Japan’s Kogakukan University helped in the clarification of the findings. He surveyed both the published and the unpublished radiocarbon data on 125 samples of rice grains, plant remains as well as impressions of rice grains in pottery for more than a hundred sites along 5400 KM of the Yangtze River (Normile 309).
His findings showed that the oldest samples (with a median age of 11, 000 years) are clustered along the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan provinces. This provides evidence that rice cultivation originated from the middle Yangtze River from where it spread to the rest of the Asian countries.
In Japan, rice seems to have been cultivated first in the southern island of Kyushu about 2,400 years ago (400BC), presumably having been introduced from the Yangtze region and gradually spread northwards (Latham 2; Jintong 108). The expansion of rice cultivation across the Asian continent continued even in the 20th century.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although rice had been in Korea for almost 2000 years, it was not the staple food since they depended among other grains and foods. As late as the 1920s, only a third of the cultivated fields were under wet rice-the economy depended on dry rice and field crops like millet and soybean. When the Japanese colonial government carried out a programme to increase rice production in the Korean Peninsula, rice culture reached its fullest development in Korea.
The earliest forms of cultivated forms of rice are thought to have been indicas that developed from wild ancestors in the Northern and Eastern India, Northern and South-East Asia and Southern China. Both kinds of rice continued to be grown in China where they were noted in the earliest Chinese dictionary of AD 100 (Totman 96).
The colonial powers in Asia had long maintained agricultural research stations. In the 1870s, the Japanese too established agricultural research stations as part of their thrust for modernisation and development. It was that in the 1920s when they found the rice in their colony of Taiwan not to their taste, they encouraged the local farmers to adopt high yielding species-japonicas.
In the South and South-East Asia, irrigation facilities were greatly extended in the colonial period with the British, Dutch and French heavily investing in irrigation. In India, the great grain-growing region of the Punjab was developed towards the end of the 18th century with irrigation facilities.
There were many other irrigation schemes in other parts. There was also great expansion of the irrigated rice land in the East Asia. Most of the rice growing lands in Japan were irrigated in 1868 and by the outbreak of the Second World War so were two thirds of rice lands in their colonies in Taiwan and Korea.
Rice yields were running at an average of 2.5 metric tons per hectare even though modern fertilizers were not used. A similar situation existed in the major rice growing regions of South China. However, there was less of the rice growing flood plains of South and South-East Asia where even by the end of the Second World War irrigation provision had barely started.
The spread of rice in Asia through Trade Trade in rice dates back to the ancient times. As early as AD 900-1000, there was long distance trade in rice in China along the Yangzi and other major rivers in South Asia; availability of water transport and hence cheap freight costs being crucial. Research has shown that by 1200 AD, ocean-going junks were carrying rice to Indochina. In the course of time, Exports gave way to imports and by 1720, rice was being imported to the Yangtze delta not only from the central Yangtze region but also from Taiwan (Latham 28).
We will write a custom Essay on The History of Rice in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International rice trade was attained towards the end of the 18th century, which continued to the 19th century. During that time, Bengal, under British control, was a major exporter of rice particularly to Sri Lanka, which was also under the British rule. Burma (Myanmar) emerged as a major exporter of rice in the region with much of her rice going to Britain and other European countries (Sabillon 301).
Some of the rice going to the Britain was re-exported to the Caribbean countries, America, continental Europe and the Mediterranean. As the population grew in Bengal, more of the annual crop was consumed there and less left for export so Burma’s export expanded to other countries e.g. Ceylon.
Demand for Burma rice was also growing in Malaya where there was an increasing number of Indian laborers employed in the rice plantations up-country. Consequently, Burma emerged as one of the World’s great rice exporters. The rice production in Burma (in the Irrawaddy delta) was paralleled in two of the other great delta regions in Asia i.e. the Chao Phraya delta in Thailand and the Mekong delta in the French Indo-China (Vietnam).
Rice form the latter regions was preferred by the Chinese migrants who established themselves all over South-East Asia. Some of the rice in Bangkok and Saigon regions of China was exported to Singapore. Some of the rice received in Singapore was trans-shipped to Indonesia.
The two main rice distribution centers were Hong Kong and Singapore, which played a pivotal role in the shipping of rice to Japan, Hawaii, California and Philippines. This pattern of trade continued in the early years of the twentieth century, through to the 1920s.
The depression had a devastating impact on the rice market. There was continued expansion of the area under rice in the three great exporting countries, but the prices began to fall in 1926. Nonetheless, the year 1920 saw excellent crops. High yields in rice continued until 1933.
This coincided with a series of good wheat harvest. During the same year, the prices of both grains fell drastically as world grain markets were glutted. With the collapse of the rice prices, the depression came into Asia. Major rice-trading companies failed and so did the agricultural banks.
The various governments tried to isolate themselves from the depression opting out of the world market. They resorted to import controls as well as import substitution. The freedom of the world rice market was the major casualty. As early as 1921, the Japanese government in response to rice shortage of 119-1921 had tried to stimulate domestic production while keeping prices down. In 1933, they imposed duties to keep out the cheap foreign rice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Rice in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They began a policy of government purchasing to raise prices and increase domestic production. However, it did not take long before they were faced by warehousing problems. Towards the end of the 1930s, the government took control of the rice markets and licensed all the brokers as well as rice dealers.
In the American colony of the Philippines rice control was introduced in 1936. The government corporation bought paddy, milled it and distributed it. By doing so, they excluded the Chinese brokers and millers an aspect that helped in the control of the prices for not only the farmers but also for the consumers.
A similar policy was formulated in Siam where the government by-passed the Chinese distributers by buying direct from the farmers. Siam used the profits to set colonies of Thai farmers free from debt to Chinese rice merchants. In China, import duties were raised to prevent imports. In French and Indochina, export duties were put in place to prevent exports. With the import and export controls operating simultaneously, the international rice trade came virtually to a halt.
The Asian governments, both colonial and non-colonial sought to achieve self-sufficiency as a response to the shock of the depression. After the Second World War, governments continued control over rice. Initially, Burma, Indochina and Thailand resumed their roles as major rice exporters.
However, when Burma became independent the government held prices to such a low level that incentive for farmers to produce rice was reduced. Consequently, Burma gradually faded of the international market and moved towards economic isolation. Exports plunged in 1966 and remained low for many years. In Indochina, the chaos in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia turned this major exporting region into a major importer.
Only Thailand remained a leading exporter, and its government remained in control. The most significant circumstance in the rice trade in the post war world was the emergence of the United States as a major exporter. Vietnam was a major beneficiary of the United States’ exports.
Rice in other parts of the world Rice is also believed to be ancient staple food for communities in West Africa. It was grown along the Gambia River , the Upper Guinea Coast as well as the Senegal River in 16th century. The domestication of rice in West Africa was not widely known until the 20th century.
Owing to this, descriptions of rice before the 20th century assumed all rice to be sativa– rice of Asian origin. Certain characteristics of African rice distinguish it from sativa. One is the red color of the African rice, glaberrima, bran. It shifts between purple and black hues in different varieties. Although some sativa types are also red, they occur over a limited geographical area in Asia.
During the colonial period in America, the African rice was introduced to America-Carolina through a slave shipment solicited by Thomas Jefferson in 1790. He hoped to reverse the Carolina emphasis on tidal rice to upland cultivation. He believed wet rice to be crop of mixed value since the whole country needed to be laid under water annually an aspect that caused pestilential fevers to many inhabitants. Jefferson initiated rain-fed rice cultivation in America.
He did so by the adoption of the red glaberrima rice of the upland-inland farming system cultivated in the Southern portion of the West African rice region. Jefferson called the rain-fed rice Oryza mutica due to the apparent shortness of the plant. One of the challenges that the Americans faced with the African rice was the milling process, which was rather hard.
Despite the Linnaean classification of rice as of Asian origin, Jefferson believed mutica to be a species much harder to mill than other types. Jefferson believed that the greatest service, which can be rendered to any country, is the addition of a useful plant to its culture. He used this statement in reference to rice.
From Carolina, the African rice spread to other states e.g. Georgia through trade. Historical sources from Brazil dating to the period prior to the 18th century provide numerous references to rice including a red type (Oryza mutica)grown along the food plains of the Amazon river and in low lying swamps. Some colonial authorities promoted the cultivation of this rice. The glaberrina/ Oryza mutica spread in various locales of the 18th century Americas.
Red rice emerges in the commentaries from the second half of the 18th century when Portugal attempted to establish a rice plantation system in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil. Slaves imported from Africa provided the labor in the plantations. The year 1767 witnessed the first exports of the milled rice to Portugal (Judith 151).
The cultivation of red rice aroused repeated official concern. In a 1772 decree, the Portuguese colonial administration mandated a year’s jail sentence for the whites who planted the red rice and two years of imprisonment for the slaves and Indians who did so. Portugal was trying to build a rice plantation economy that would reduce the metropole’s dependence on imports from South Carolina. The red rice also spread to many regions of the world through trade.
The original rice farmers grew their rice in swamps. Subsequently, rice has been grown in tropical rainfall areas or close to rivers, which seasonally overflow their banks. It is clear that irrigation provides the most effective system for growing rice. Irrigation means not only supplying water but also draining water when necessary. The supply and control of water is necessary if high yields are to be achieved.
In Malaya, the British introduced the irrigation schemes. In Java, the British and Dutch were also active in the provision of irrigation schemes for rice both in the 19th and early 20th century. There was also great expansion of irrigated rice land in East Asia.
Most of the rice growing areas in Japan were irrigated by 1868, and by the outbreak of the Second World War so were two-thirds of the rice lands in their colonies of Taiwan and Korea. As opposed to the sativa species, the red rice (mutica) species is a dry land species and can do in areas with some climatic hardships. However, under optimum conditions the sativa species produces high yields.
The history of rice in Japan From the ancient times, rice has been one of the most esteemed cereal in Japan. In Japanese language, gohan refers to cooked rice. The actual meaning of the word is ‘honorable food’ indicating the value that the Japanese attached to the cereal. Research has shown that although rice was not the primary element in the Japanese diet in the ancient times, the people used it as a form of money.
The value of rice in the Japanese community continued for many years that “even after money had entered the Japanese economy, samurai warriors were paid not in gold, silver or copper but in fixed amounts of rice” (Hayami 125). In 1993, there was an acute shortage of the crop in Japan.
Consequently, the government was compelled to import rice from other nations (Shogenji 210). The consumers’ reaction was a clear indication that they were not prepared to do without their favorite brand (Japanese) as long as they could access a limited amount. In addition, during that period reports that some mice were found in the shipment created a lot of dissatisfaction about the consumption of imported rice.
Most of the Japanese had heard the rumor that foreign farmers made heavy, indiscriminate use of insecticides and that shipments were treated with strong chemicals to prevent the deterioration of the product. This also played an important role in lowering the Japanese demand of foreign rice. Knecht says that “for many Japanese, rice is not nay rice and rice is not mere food” (6).
For a very long time in Japan, not all people even the small scale farmers who produced the grain would afford to eat enough of rice. This is considered the root of the Japanese tradition of eating even the last grain of rice served to them since according to them, it is ill mannered to leave rice in their plate (Francks et al. 120). However, during the Edo era, which lasted from 1603 to 1868, the scarcity of rice to the majority of the population decreased.
Although not all the villages in Japan are actively involved in the production of rice, everyone has a constant supply of the cereal in the country. For instance, amid the steep mountains of Shikoku, people do not have rice plantations but they rice is still there staple food. The land consists of patches of cleared mountain forest that were made into dry fields.
The availability of rice to such areas was attributed to the food rationing policy of the Japanese government (Estudillo 83). It had been existence until sometime during the Second World War. According to Knecht, being in a position to eat rice or not is not necessarily a consequence of the environment where one lives; it can simply be the result of government policy i.e. an act of authority (16).
The Staple Food Control Act of 1942enabled was the most significant factor that ensured that every household in Japan ate rice regularly. The government issued the policy during the time when Japan’s war effort was about to reach its peak i.e. the Second World War (Tokoyama et al. 180; Suzuki 28).
The primary role of the act was to ensure that there was sufficient supply of rice to the fighting soldiers. Additionally, it was to provide an equal distribution of the rice to the noncombatant citizens to keep them healthy. In the Japanese culture during that time, health meant more than the physical well-being of the society-it also meant social stability.
Therefore, the purpose of the act was to keep the power base of the government as well as the political system intact and undisturbed. In other words, the Staple Food Act of 1942 served to ensure that Japan became a ‘culture of rice’ in the sense that the government delivered rice to everyone in the country thus controlling the country.
The attachment of Japan to rice As far as foreign products are concerned, the Japanese have a strong affection for most of the products but they feel differently when it comes to rice.. Their attachment to the domestic rice can be attributed to several factors.
During the feudal era, the size of the territory of a feudal lord, daimyo, was stated in terms of annual yield or rice in his land. Additionally, during that time land taxes were determined by the number of kokus of rice (the koku was the economic measurement of rice). Therefore, rice was the fundamental economic product. Research has shown that most of the people in Japan are still family farmers. This greatly affected the liberalisation of the rice market.
Group orientation of the rice farmers
As aforementioned, rice farming means more than just food and the opportunity to earn a living in the Japanese community. It is one of the most important aspects in the Japanese tradition of group activity. During its growth period, rice farming requires a relatively large amount of water for irrigation. In the ancient times, water could not be controlled without the cooperation of the entire village. To become not only successful but also efficient rice producers, the members of a given community and/or village had to think and act together.
Religious value of rice in Japan
Though it might be difficult for difficult for individuals to understand its importance, rice farming is a significant factor in the Japanese community as far as religion is concerned. The religious attachment of the Japanese to rice has evolved through centuries of history and tradition.
Rice is an important cereal in most of the Japanese religious celebrations. It is the main offering during Shinto and Buddhist rituals. It is noteworthy that rice products including sake are the most sacred of offerings in the Shinto religion. Additionally, the Japanese Emperor plants rice in his palace garden on an annual basis as one of the most important royal ceremonies.
Despite the erosion of most of the Japanese traditional lifestyle aspects by westernisation, they still have a strong feeling that cooked rice is their staple food and that rice and the Japanese are inseparable. Therefore, religion made rice an integral part of the Japanese community or rather culture.
Government created tradition
In Japanese schools, domestic rice forms the major part of the lunch menu. The justification for the incorporation of domestic rice in schools stems from a government created tradition. Although Japan has always had shortages in grain products, it has always had an over-supply of rice.
To ensure efficient disposal of rice, the Japanese government introduced rice into school lunch programmes in the 1970s. To ensure the adoption of the effort in all schools, the government stressed that eating domestic grown rice would enhance their understanding of the country’s agricultural tradition.
The political significance of rice
Rice farmers have been the target of most politicians for many years. The strength of rice farming in Japan has been demonstrated by its ability to bring together the strongest of opponents in politics-the Liberal democrats and the Social Democrats. It is particularly significant to the Liberal Democrats since they rely heavily on the votes of the rice farmers.
Owing to this, they have been in the frontline as far as the opposition of rice imports is concerned. Over the last few decades, it has become increasingly clear that opening Japan’s rice market would be helpful in enhancing the success of the nation’s agriculture as well as its economy. However, many of the politicians are very reluctant to let go of the political power they have had for years.
Rice is not only an important component of the Japanese religion and culture but it is also a symbol of the nation’s independence. Japan imports most its foods such as meat, fruits and fish. It is noteworthy that Japan is only 30% self sufficient in its cereal products. The Japanese government considers it crucial or rather necessary to maintain this level in its staple capacity.
Health standards, taste and image
The Japanese community appreciates quality standards in all dimensions, which includes that quality of their staple food-rice. In 1992, the Japan Times conducted a street poll in Tokyo to assess the Japanese preference for rice. The results showed that they considered taste and purity as the two most important parameters as a far as the quality of rice is concerned. The price and brand name came in the third and fourth position respectively.
Additionally, the Japanese consumers are concerned about the type and levels of the chemicals used during the production as well as the processing and preservation of rice. They are also concerned about the health hazards that the commodity may have.
For instance, when rumors were spread that imported rice was inferior in quality, had high levels of pesticide residues besides having dead rats, they understandably preferred to pay more for the domestic rice than the imported rice. This explains why despite GATT being able to introduce foreign rice to Japan, foreign rice is still not popular among Japanese consumers.
Threats to Japanese rice culture
The rice market across Asia became competitive after most of the nations began exporting their rice products causing economic hardships to all the rice-producing nations. It was a painful experience for the rice farmers. This called for the efforts of the nations to protect domestic rice producers from cheap foreign competition.
Japan’s government increased the price of rice to more than eight times the world market’s price in the 1980s. This significantly affected most of the other aspects of the Japanese economy such as land process, labor, foreign trade and rural investments. It has had an impact to the international community. For instance, the closed border for rice in the country exacerbated tensions within the United States, which is one of the countries that have a surplus in rice besides its deficit with Japan (Timmer 149).
If the rice cultivation were eradicated from the Japanese agricultural system, it would be accompanied by a wide-ranging disappearance of Japan’s traditional culture. It is the major reason as to why the Japanese government has never allowed the liberalisation of rice imports in the country (Dey et al. 119).
There has been a lot of economic friction about the role of rice in the Japanese economy as well as in the international scale. The 1993 rice failure was caused by the worst weather that the Japanese had ever experienced in 40 years (Yim-Yu 49). Rice prices increased to levels of nearly 2.5 times normal.
Accordingly, the Japanese government made an historic decision on 30 September 1993 to import rice on an emergency basis. Study has shown that this was the fourth time that Japan had imported rice from the U.S since World War II. In 1997, there was an argument between the Japanese government, the bureaucrats and farmers cooperatives against the United States.
They were saying that rice is one of the major national security parameters of the Japanese government or that the nation was self sufficient in rice. Lu asserts that “the course that Japan must adopt is to declare that rice cultivation belongs to Japan’s consecrated ground and it cannot be placed as an object of economic friction” (Lu 599). After the 1993 crop failure, rice farming has been strongly protected by import restriction as well as other domestic policies (Takahashi 680).
Measure(s) taken by Japan to protect its rice culture Rice as a major source of trade disputes between Japan and the US
Except for 1995, Japan’s trade surplus exhibited an increasing trend. During the same period, although the US merchandise and service exports of Japan had some significant increase, the trade deficit with Japan continued to increase. The U.S deficit caused an increase of the accusations against Japan’s trade barriers. The barriers include tariffs, subsidising of its local production of rice, quotas as well as dumping practice.
Although the Japanese protected markets have for a long time been a major problem for the global trade, there have been some developments as far as the rice market is concerned. Originally, one of the most protected Japanese markets, the rice market was among the first to be opened to the rest of the world. However, it continues to present serious problems for the international market managers.
Due to Japan’s large consumption of rice, its rice-based product markets have been of major interest to other rice producing countries including the U.S. For instance, in the 1990s, the average price of foreign rice in Japan was $1.52 lb, which was 1.47 times the price in the U.S (Yim-Yu 47).
Foreign interest in the Japanese rice market has been so strong that some of the major bodies in the U.S seem willing to forego the US government subsidies if the government can somehow open up Japan’s rice market. Some of the bodies include the Rice Growers Association of California, the California Rice Promotion Board as well as the California Rice Industry.
The protection of agricultural products especially rice is not an exclusive phenomenon to Japan. Research has shown that the European Union and U.S have more quantitative restrictions on agricultural imports than Japan.
During the Second World War, Japan imported a significant quantity of rice mainly from China to supplement its domestic supply. After the enactment of the 1942 Staple Food Act, there has been no buying or selling of rice in the private sector. In 1962, Japan announced that it would be fully self-sufficient in rice.
By the end of the 1960s, Japan seemed to have achieved this goal. In the beginning of the following decade i.e. the 1970s, the Japanese government illegalised the private import and export of rice as well as its private distribution. Although the government broadened the Staple Food Control Act in 1988, Japanese consumers believed that the act still limited competition very much besides discouraging cost cutting efforts similar to those implemented in other countries.
Factors that led to the liberalisation of the Japanese Rice Market
In 1994, rice production accounted for over 30% of the nation’s agricultural production. Other than the 1993 historical failure of rice in Japan, other factors brought the Japanese rice market to its climax. Firstly, the Japanese government sought to protect the free trade system under GATT.
GATT regulations made Japan to adopt strict regulatory measures as far as the rice market is concerned. Towards the end of 1993, GATT’s Chief Peter Sutherland took advantage of Japan’s crop failure and urged it to convert quotas and other restrictions entirely into tariffs including Japan’s ban on rice imports (Yim-Yu 50).
In response, the Japanese government denied and stated that the opening of the market was a correction of its protectionist stance. It was rather in the spirit of the cooperation with GATT’s international free trade objective.
The Japanese had a more liberal attitude towards trade. The small farms as well as the soaring price of arable land made it clear that the reforms in the Agricultural system were overdue. The process was also aided by the influence of the politicians. Many of the politicians began to support market liberalisation in order to lure voter support.
Prior to the 1993 crop failure, the Japanese foreign minister and agricultural administration had developed policies (in 1992) in preparation for the liberalisation of the nation’s agricultural sector. In a number of different opinion polls conducted prior to 1993, an increasing number of farmers as well as Japanese consumers had expressed their views in favor for the liberalisation of the rice market. Furthermore, one of the influential public figures, Prime Minister Hosokawa, supported the liberalisation of the rice market.
Under the 1942 Staple Food Control Act, the government was given the mandate to supervise the distribution as well as the sale of rice. Research has shown that during the five decades that followed the adoption of the Act, the central government’s practice of selling rice grew ineffective (Hareau 6). Additionally, the multi-layered state-affiliated distribution system became very costly to the consumers. For instance, the Japanese consumers paid nearly six times the world price for rice.
This resulted in a major black market in rice that accounts for approximately 16% of rice production. Another 33% is attributed to direct selling by farmers to wholesalers in contravention of the government policy. To cope with direct selling as well as the black market, the Japanese government had been relaxing its monopoly control of rice marketing and permitting higher quality branded rice products. This approach is deemed to enhance market liberalisation.
In 1992, there was a growing concern in the Japanese government that a change in U.S Policy would have a direct impact on the Japanese rice market. The concern was fostered by the election of William Clinton as president since he was the former governor of the largest rice-producing state in America-Arkansas.
The U.S focus on Japanese rice market intensified towards the end of 1992 following the resolution of the dispute between the U.S and the European Community over agricultural subsidies. The opening of the Japanese rice market would be interpreted as giving in or rather bowing to the United States’ pressure.
Rice in the 21st century
In the 21st century, rice still remains the most important source of calories for more than 3 billion inhabitants in the world. Research has shown that it supplies 21% of the calories for the world population. In Asia where more than 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed, at least 30% of the daily caloric intake is from rice.
A significant proportion of rice consumers are the 250 million small-scale farmers who grow rice in Asia and consume half of their own production. Planted in 250 million hectares of land every year, rice remains the second most cultivated crop (in area) after wheat but the first in terms of food production.
In Asia, China is the largest rice producer harvesting 190 million metric tons in 2000. It is followed by India, which produced 132 million metric tons, and Indonesia with 52 metric tons during the same year. Unlike in the 18th century, most of the irrigated rice is grown on bounded fields that guarantee the continuing water supply to the rice crop from either rainfall or irrigation during both dry and rainy seasons.
Conclusion Rice is one of the most important cereals not only in the Asian economy but also to the rest of the world. Research has shown that it originated from the Yangtze River in China from where it spread to the rest of the Asian region as well as the world. Trade played a pivotal role in the spread of the cereal throughout Asia.
West Africa is also recognised has the origin of the red rice. In Japan, rice has been an important component of the people’s culture with quality and brand as the most important parameters of the cereal. From 1965 to 1994, Japanese rice consumption averaged approximately 11 billion tons per year. Besides being a source of food, the traditional cultivation of rice has played a pivotal role in the shaping of the landscape.
The maintenance of the paddy fields is a vital contribution to the ecology. In addition, rice is the symbol of not only self but also nation, purity and force of life. Since it is an important part of the Japanese culture, the Japanese government has always sought to protect its rice market. In the 21st century, rice has remained the most consumed agricultural product in the world with China being not only the leading producer of rice but also the country that has the highest consumption of rice per capita.
Works Cited Dey, Mark, et al. Rice Research in Asia: Progress and Priorities. Manila, Philippines: CAB International, 1996. Print.
Estudillo, Quisimbing, et al. “Income Distribution in Rice Growing Villages During the Post-Green Revolution Periods: The Philippine Case.” Agricultural Economics 25.1 (2010): 71-84. Print.
Francks, Penelope, Johanna Hyop Boestel,
The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Columbia River has been providing the surrounding human beings with salmon for a long period. In the beginning, a remarkably healthy relationship between this natural feature, and the people surrounding it was very healthy and productive.
The people used to treat all natural features with respect, as thy also benefited from them. It was the responsibility of everyone to protect rivers and other features. On the other hand, natural features used to provide enough sustainability to humankind.
Everyone would wish this mutual relationship to last forever. Before the arrival of non-Indians, the land and water bodies were rich and very productive.
The people who lived around this basin relied on salmon, as part of their religion and culture. The society had a culture of honoring salmon, as they served them with plenty food, and surplus to trade with in other regions (Roe 117).
The above chart shows the positioning of Columbia River in Washington Oregon, and Idaho (Columbiariver.com).
The culture of the people around the river connected Columbia River both spiritually and physically. This was made possible through salmon providing humankind with the necessary energy to move on with life.
On the other hand, Native Americans made efforts to experience and learn more about the great river. The cultures of these people taught them that salmon as part of smolts they used to go to pacific for some food and a chance to grow (Cox 307).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the changes in temperature and other forces in the pacific, failed to favor the life of salmon, making them go back to their streambeds for reproduction and death. According to the beliefs of the Native Americans, salmon were coming back through spiritual forces, as they were less expected back.
When salmon got back in Columbia River, it turned as a great joy to these people, as they considered this as their harvesting season. They took this issue as a gift, as they were never involved in either planting or growth of salmon. Their work was only harvesting.
The history of the area provides evidence that Coyote used to advise the Indians on how to cook salmon properly. Coyote also shaped the big rocks at the falls, so that people would use them to catch fish.
According to one historian named Richard White the technologies that were initiated by indigenous humans as one of natural technologies of the Columbia (Cox 118). It was the culture of these people for men to work hard in hunting the fish, and women to preserve them.
The major method, which was used to preserve these fishes were by smoking, to make them available during the fluctuations.
This region also provided humans with enough sun energy that would dry those fishes. Most Indians proffered drying their fish with sun energy, unlike the Native Americans who used to smoke.
Nevertheless, the relationship of Columbia River and the people surrounding it started changing slowly. For the last 150 years, several wasteful and disrespectful practices affected the river, and other natural features around the area.
We will write a custom Report on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These activities marked the onset of conflict among the people who solely depended on these natural resources. The natural resources were destroyed, due to lack of adhering to the treaty that was made in 1855 (Hall 23).
Lack of good human management of the Columbia River and ocean resulted to destruction of the natural resources. The people around the region discovered that things are getting out of their hands, when they realized some species are disappearing.
Several attempts of fighting back for the productivity of Columbia River were made by these people. It was evident that, salmons have been the sole source of sustenance of people within the locality. Some people used salmon when offering religion gifts, as well as played as a great part of their culture.
Geology of Columbia River The formation of Columbia River is estimated to have started approximately between 12 and 17 million years ago. This period is dated back to the Miocene. Approximately between 700000 and 2million years ago, is when the Columbia River started taking its current shape (Roe 98).
Geologists date this period with Pleistocene, when the activities of forming cascades ranges were ongoing. In addition, the formation activities of cascades ranges resulted to the mechanical movement of Columbia rivers delta, towards the north side of its current position.
The above figure shows the Columbia River flood basalts leaving organic rocks exposed (geology.com).
For a period, the Columbia River slowly eroded the surrounding land. Geologists considered some of those activities as minor, while others were significant to be noted.
For instance, there was a great impact of the river towards the end of the final ice age. During this period, the river flooded, the steeps were destroyed, leading to strong walls that exist today along the river (Cox 312).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Severally, the Columbia River caused strange and strong floods, some going as high as Crown Point. To some extent, the flooding resulted to quick soil erosions to the nearby land, leaving large layers of rocks exposed.
Fresh water The Columbia River is a fresh water system, surrounded with green trees such as big leaf maple and vine maple. The various precipitation within this area results to different types of ecosystems.
The major feature that contributes to increment of fresh water in this river is the availability of temperate rainforest wit average annual rain of 1900mm. Other important natural resources that contribute to the existence of fresh waters are the waterfalls.
The area has more than 90 waterfalls, with some as high as 190m high. Much of the Columbia water flows into Pacific Ocean. It is considered as the most dominant water system in that region. It has been estimated that approximately 15million people rely on the presence of fresh water from this river (Roe 106).
People’s several activities like transportation, fishing and industrial water rely on the Columbia fresh water. Globally, this is the highly utilized river in hydro electrification generation. The hydropower is generated from this river through the establishment of more than 400 dams.
The Columbia ice fields are the relied source of water for Columbia River. Among all economic activities supported by the river fresh water, the most crucial for people surrounding it is fishing.
The above figure shows the flow of Columbia River fresh water flow (geology.com).
There was a time, when people around the basin decided to look for a permanent solution, to save their natural resource. These people could not let the natural provision of fresh water to be destroyed.
They searched for ways of saving salmon and its entire species, as a way of sustaining themselves and boosting the economy in the area. The plan was meant to be their solution, to safeguard the future of their grandchildren, and many generations to come (Cox 216).
The efforts of humankind to save the productivity of Columbia River received some religion support from “catholic bishops of Columbia river watershed”. The religion forum suggested that the values that these people will express, the objectives that they will raise, and their insights would dictate the direction of solving the issue.
The main theme of restoring and solving the complex issues of Columbia River was that it entailed the spiritual, social, and cultural lives of the people around the basin.
Works Cited Cox, Ross. The columbia River: Adventures during a residence of six years. New York: Biblio Bazaar, 2010.
Hall, Stewart. The columbia River. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 2007.
Roe, JoAnn. The Columbia River: A historical travel guide. Michigan: Fulcrum Pub, 2004.
The Runners World Marketing Strategy Report essay help
The Runners World primary business was to sell shoes and provide advice to people in the booming jogging business as identified in the case study.
The Runners world have shown commitment to marketing concepts evident in the problem recognition process based on the facts that a market can only exist when there are unsatisfied needs, the desire to address the needs, the ability to communicate between involved parties, and that there is something to exchange to satisfy the needs.
In this case, the problem recognition included the need to satisfy people in the jogging exercises.
The marketing concepts was also evident in adding value for the customers because of the quality of the products offered by Runners World, which emphasized on Nike shoes and attempts to establish good customer relationships reflected in the aggressive marketing campaigns and the positive image developed.
The underlying concepts included creating, delivering, and communicating value to the customers.
Runners World ensures customer satisfaction based on the underlying desire to establish and identify their needs by collecting information about customer needs, and then using the gathered information to address the needs.
That is evidently reflected in the search for information such as customer interest in style shoes, and the economic side that influences buyer decision making to purchase the product. In addition to that, Runners World has added differently priced shoes to address the economic demographic needs of the customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Providing specialized shoes for different categories of sports provided additional sources for customer satisfaction. The case study shows evidence of the desire to develop the right combination of product, price, place, and promotion that are key issues in satisfying consumer needs.
The Runner’s World distribution channels include the Nike line and other retail outlets. In summary, Runners World has a store from which to distribute their shoes in the supply chain that starts from the manufacturing to the store supply chain.
In addition to that, the business could employ department stores, use discount stores, and use of regular stores which point to the competition the current business is facing, justifying the conclusion that the Runners World had a similar supply chain.
The primary target for the Runners World were the jogging group that provided a significant rise in the sales and a boom in the business. The secondary market included walking people as evident in the walking shoes that were later addressed as a need in the market.
That was in addition to the secondary market that included the aerobic exercises market, the basketball market, the cross trainers market, and the tennis players.
Additional secondary market included people not involved in serious exercises such as buyers of casual shoes. The market could target both men and women.
The underlying motivation impelled customers to buy the above stated products is based on the right mix that addresses customer needs unique to their income levels and demographically diverse environment.
We will write a custom Report on The Runners World Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products address customer value, lead to customer satisfaction, and the information provided in marketing of the products.
The business registered a decrease in performance in profits and sales because of a rise in completion from other manufacturers and stores, especially the supply of low priced products that many consumers opted to buy.
That is in addition to changes in the products the Runners World is offering the customers because of the changing trend in consumer behavior.
The overall Runners World marketing strategy is to promote and enhance the marketing position of the current store and product line to address current diverse product needs of the customer to increase sales and generate more profits.
The promotions used include increased choices of products that could address the varied customer needs. The other approach is to retrain the current marketing staff to conduct qualified product marketing to improve on public relations to convince people about the need to buy.
In addition, the use of fashion oriented people could improve the promotional marketing aspect.
The pricing strategy was to provide products priced according to the economic incomes of the target markets.
Products with similar features, but with different price ranges and quality, but same purpose and varied quality are provided to satisfy the customer needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Runners World Marketing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The competitors include Wal-Mart, which has introduced products with rock bottom prices with an assortment of lower quality products at lower prices.
In addition, there are other retail chains that include Lady Foot Locker who have targeted specific market segments.
The market position enjoyed by Runners World has significantly dropped compared with other competitors because of declining sales and the fact that the entry of the new players cut a significant share of the market.
In addition to that, the entry of the new players was based on lower prices and lower quality products that could address the lower income market segment while providing the same services and needs to the customers.
There is every possibility that the Runners have to formulate a new marketing strategy to address the rising competition and position the organization strategically to gain a competitive position.
The changes have adversely affected the sales volumes of the Runners World, the products the organization is offering, reduced the profits, and significantly impacted negatively on the market position of the firm.
There will be a need for the Runners to refocus the type of products on offer to address the changes in the needs because of the changing demographics.
The greatest strengths include provision of quality products and the provision of a variety of products.
The greatest weaknesses include highly priced products and poor marketing mix.
Recommendations The Runners World need to refocus on redefining a new marketing strategy and formulate a new marketing mix to address the competitive edge competitors have already driven Runners World to. These include a focus on the marketing strategy embedded in the organization’s vision.
One critical problem with the case is the Runners World never conducted a continuous assessment of their competitors and the changing market environment to gather information to help in continuously formulating a new marketing strategy.
There is need to come up with new strategies to identify the changing market needs, to identify the most appropriate products to address the needs, and analyze the competitors to establish approaches of revising their strategies to position Runners World and attain a better position.
That is because the firm failed in realizing new marketing trends, failed to identify the threats due to new entrants, failed to revise their pricing strategies, and their product promotion approaches.
There is further need to assess the pricing, product, promotion, and place concepts and integrate them into the new strategy suing market intelligence information.
Music Industry: Michael Jackson and 50 Cent Careers Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The career of Michael Jackson
50 Cent and his rise to prominence
Introduction It is often believed that the career of a performer depends only on his/her talent. However, one should not disregard that the outcome greatly depends on the managerial skills of the artist and the promotion of his/her works.
Moreover, one should not disregard the cultural environment in which this person lives. This paper is aimed at discussing the careers of two successful performers, namely Michael Jackson and 50 Cent.
They represent dramatically different styles; in particular, pop-dance and hip-hop, but their careers have some common traits.
Certainly, these artists may differ in term of musical genre, style, and influence on other musicians; yet, by looking at their progress, one can see that the success of a performer can be attributed to talent, hard work, and the knowledge of the music industry.
Moreover, without managerial skills it may be difficult for them to rise to prominence. These are the main issues that one can identify.
The career of Michael Jackson Michael Jackson began his career in the early sixties when he was a member of the Jackson 5. This band was managed by Michael’s father, Joseph who attempted to promote the band.
One should point out that his musical career began at the time of the civil rights movement was very strong in the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, one cannot say that his success can be attributed only to the social changes in the country; however, they removed various barriers that prevented many black artists from reaching the popular concert halls or signing contracts with recording studios.
The influence of social environment cannot be disregarded. Additionally, Michael Jackson grew up at the time when Black Arts Movement was extremely popular, and it was aimed at showing that African-American could invent their distinct culture and art.
In his turn, Michael Jackson strived to create his own original style that did not exist before and this style is one of his major achievements. Thus, social and cultural environment affected this artist.
He achieved recognition in the eighties when he became the symbol of an emerging musical style, called dance-pop. This style has such attributes as constant tempo, emphasis on grooves or beats, and catchy lyrics that is more likely to be remembered by listeners (Warner 2003, p. 15).
In the eighties, the name of Michael Jackson was associated with many successful songs and albums. In particular one can mention his studio album Thriller that still remains the best-selling album in the United States and all over the world (Hombach 2001, p. 97).
This album contains many successful songs; among them one can distinguish Billie Jean; this song was written and composed by Jackson. This song is blend of such styles as rhythm and blues (R
Plato’s dialogue Crito Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Is it necessary for people to listen to the opinion of the majority because they live in the society? Is the majority’s vision of the problem always right? Plato’s dialogue Crito is based on the discussion of such issues as justice and injustice with references to the notion of the majority’s opinion.
Crito insists that a person must listen to the opinion of the majority, and Socrates argues that it is impossible to pay attention to the opinions of all the people because it is important to concentrate only on the wise men’s ideas and examine it in relation to his specific situation and his vision of it.
In spite of the fact the opinion of a single person can be discussed as irrelevant in comparison with the opinion of many people, Socrates’ focus on the value of the opinion helps determine the main aspects of the issue and find the most appropriate variants to resolve it.
Socrates’ argument based on the principles of value, expertise, and justice is more convincing than the opinion of Crito which depends on the notion of reputation in its association with cowardice and tangibles.
Discussing the situation of Socrates’ being in prison, Crito provides his vision of the problem’s resolution with references to his values and ideals. Crito claims that it is possible to save Socrates from execution giving some money to the guard.
His decision is based on the idea that it is a kind of injustice to have money and not to use them to save the friend. It is the problem of reputation, and according to Crito’s arguments, it is possible to conclude that reputation is the social notion which depends on the opinion of the majority.
Crito draws Socrates’ attention to the fact that there can be “no worse reputation than to be thought to value money more highly than one’s friends, for the majority will not believe that you yourself were not willing to leave prison while we were eager for you to do so” (Plato 44e).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crito supports his argument about the necessity to concentrate on the majority’s opinion, emphasizing that “the majority can inflict not the least but pretty well the greatest evils if one is slandered among them” (Plato 44d).
One the one hand, Crito’s arguments can be discussed as relevant if the majority is the group of people who can be discussed as wise.
On the other hand, the majority is the group of different people, and their opinion can be based on the principles of justice as well as injustice. That is why, Socrates disagrees with Crito’s position.
Socrates’ argument sounds more convincing because it is organized consequentially, and the principles on which it is based are correlated with the ideas of virtues. Thus, according to Socrates, the opinion can be discussed as valuable when it is expressed by wise persons who are experts in their spheres.
It is impossible to rely on the opinion of any person because of the lack of knowledge. Moreover, Socrates states that “the most reasonable people, to whom one should pay more attention, will believe that things were done as they were done” (Plato 44e).
From this point, it is also necessary to pay attention to the personal reflection on the problem and on the opinion.
Socrates emphasizes that “we must therefore examine whether we should act in this way or not, as not only now but at all times I am the kind of man who listens only to the argument than on reflection seems best to me” (Plato 46c).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Plato’s dialogue Crito specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basing on the reasonable opinion of wise persons and connecting its importance with the notion of justice, Socrates concentrates on the fact that unjust actions can lead only to injustice.
However, Crito develops the argument in the discussion with Socrates, stating “I do not think that what you are doing is just, to give up your life when you can save it” (Plato 45d). Nevertheless, if Crito pays attention to the life of a concrete person, Socrates discusses the issue with references to the larger context.
Injustice can lead to injustice and this chain can be endless. It is impossible to resolve the problematic issues with the help of definite unjust actions because of their consequences.
The discussion of Crito and Socrates is based on the opposition of the basic principles which they operate, developing their arguments. Socrates determines the notion of value paying attention to the idea of justice.
Thus, unjust actions which are not based on the reasonable opinions of the experts and which are harmful for the people’s body and soul can corrupt the person. Furthermore, when the person’s soul is corrupted it is worse than the corruption of a body.
From this point, unjust actions based on the wrong values cannot be discussed as the way to justice. Socrates’ argument helps understand that Crito’s ideas depend on the wrong values which are reputation as the reflection of the majority’s opinion and money which can be used for supporting unjust actions.
Socrates’ arguments lead to Crito’s agreeing with the philosopher’s position. Thus, Socrates presents his main argument stating that “we should not then think so much of what the majority will say about us, but what he will say who understands justice and injustice, the one, that is, and the truth itself” (Plato 48a).
It is possible to rely on the opinion of a person who knows the truth about the issue because of taking the expert’s position. Furthermore, relating to the situation of Socrates’ imprisoning, it is necessary to rely on something which is credible according to this definite situation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato’s dialogue Crito by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That is why, Socrates bases his argument on the discussion of the Laws as the main source of the truth for resolving his situation. It is important to analyze the fact of Socrates’ imprisoning from the perspective of justice which comes from the city’s Laws.
Socrates proposes to examine the situation from the point of the Laws, saying “if what we say is true, you are not treating us rightly by planning to do what you are planning. We have given you birth, nurtured you, educated you; we have given you and all other citizens a share of all the good things we could” (Plato 51d).
From this point, a person cannot decide what to do without references to the Laws. In spite of the fact the Laws can be interpreted as unjust in relation to Socrates’ situation, it is his duty to rely on them as the source of the truth.
Having presented the basic ideas which reflect his vision of the problem of justice and injustice, Socrates concentrates on persuading Crito. Socrates uses questions, answering which Crito begins to agree with the philosopher’s position.
The discussion of the idea that it is relevant or not to focus on the opinion of the majority develops with references to such concepts as reputation, expertise, and values.
Thus, according to Socrates different people can have different values, and such values and money and reputation which is based on the other people’s opinion are the values used by not wise men. Moreover, wise men rely on their knowledge of the subject and their values are related to the notion of justice.
In this case, the possibility of Socrates’ escape from prison can be discussed as logical according the majority’s opinion, but it is unjust with references to the ideals of justice based on the Laws. Therefore, according to Socrates, the Laws can speak the truth and support the idea of justice.
Socrates’ point of view and position can be considered as more reasonable because he develops his argument basing on the ideals of justice. Socrates examines the issue from several perspectives and concludes that people should rely on the opinions of the wise people, but not all the persons are wise.
That is why, the majority’ opinion is not always good or reasonable. Thus, Crito’s claim can be discussed as less convincing in comparison with Socrates’ one because those values which are accentuated by Crito cannot be considered as relevant due to their unjust nature.
Furthermore, Socrates emphasizes that the person’s decision should be based on those opinions which are not only reasonable but also reflect the personal understanding of truth.
Work Cited Plato. “Crito”. Classics of Western Philosophy. Ed. Steven M. Cahn. USA: Hackett, 2002. 42-48. Print.
How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? Research Paper college essay help
Depression is one of the most widespread psychological problems adolescents face now. It has been acknowledged that a number of factors contribute to development of adolescent depression.
Notably, peer pressure is one of the most significant factors that cause development of depressive symptoms. At this period of their lives, adolescents need to feel a part of their peer communities, they want to be respected or even admired by their peers.
At the same time, disapproval and rejection on the part of peers lead to development of depression. Therefore, it is possible to note that peer pressure is one of the most significant factors contributing to the development of adolescent depression.
Many researchers agree that depression is a common psychological issue among adolescents. At this stage of human development, individuals are vulnerable to depression. Thus, Klykylo and Kay (2012) provide a detailed analysis of psychological constraints children and adolescents may experience.
The researchers pay special attention to adolescent depression. The researchers claim that peer pressure is one of the major factors contributing to development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Klykylo and Kay (2012) note that both male and female adolescents develop depression due to peer pressure.
However, the authors also note that different types of peer pressure affect males and females differently. Thus, body image is very important for adolescent females and inability to fit a specific pattern becomes one of the reasons for development of depressive symptoms.
At the same time, toughness and popularity among peers is more important for adolescent males than females. The authors depict a number of strategies that can be used by practitioners to help adolescent patients cope with their problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As has been mentioned above, adolescent females are especially vulnerable to particular types of peer pressure. Some researchers focus on these specific factors. Thus, Strauman et al. (2011) provide an in-depth analysis of common factors contributing to development of depression in adolescent females.
The researchers depict specific cases that show the correlation between peer pressure and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. Notably, self-image and popularity can be regarded as the most influential factors. Adolescent females try to fit a specific pattern that prevails in their peer community.
Popularity among girls is closely connected with appearance. More so, it is possible to note that popularity can be seen as a certain indicators of the right and ‘suitable’ appearance.
The authors also note that many girls find it difficult to fit the accepted image pattern and develop severe depression.
Admittedly, self-image and weight control behaviors are also closely connected with popularity as well as with development of depressive symptoms in girls. Mackey and Greca (2008) implemented a survey that included 263 adolescent females.
The researchers found a strong correlation between peer pressure, self-image, weight control behaviors and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. It has been verified that girls tend to strive for peer appreciation and certain kind of fitness to a particular image pattern which is regarded as appropriate in certain groups.
Importantly, media create certain image which is regarded as exemplary, but it is peer pressure that makes adolescent females adhere to the image created. Inability to fit the image makes adolescent females feel frustrated and develop depressive symptoms.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to add that self-image and popularity are closely connected with peer pressure, which is also one of the most significant factors contributing to adolescent depression development.
Girls who do not fit a specific patter are often victims are neglected which are two common forms of peer pressure.
Interestingly, such factor can also be traced in adolescent males. As has been mentioned above, popularity can be regarded as a factor that influences both male and female adolescents. According to the research implemented by Teunissen et al. (2011), popularity among peers is very important for adolescents of both genders.
Thus, 600 participants were involved in the research that showed a strong correlation between lack of popularity among peers and development of depressive symptoms. The researchers note that girls are more vulnerable as they need peers’ appreciation while adolescent males are more independent, in this respect.
However, popularity among adolescent males differs greatly from female popularity concept. Thus, adolescent males try to gain an image of a tough guy without paying much attention to appearance (though appearance can also be important for adolescent males).
It is also necessary to note that a number of factors are associated with development of depression in adolescent males. Thus, Chhabra and Sodhi (2011) note that socio-economic factors contribute greatly to the development of depressive symptoms in adolescent males.
For instance, economic status of the family often makes adolescent males feel outsiders as peers tend to take into account financial well-being of peers. Again, this has a lot to do with popularity among peers. Being unpopular often leads to victimization.
Peer pressure is manifested in the creation of a specific fitness patterns. Thus, to be a part of a group, one should fit economically. If peers think an individual does not fit, they do not accepts the individual or create a specific atmosphere to make the individual leave.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, adolescent males often develop depressive symptoms as they feel disapproval or neglect of their peers.
Apart from, socio-economic factors bullying can be regarded as one of the factors which contribute to development of depression in adolescent males. Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) claim that bullying does not only contribute to development of depressive symptoms in victimized adolescent, but it also affects those who bully others.
Notably, bullying and victimization have often been considered as some of the factors contributing to adolescent depression, but it has hardly been studied from the perspective of bullies. Obviously, bullying has dual effects on adolescents and it can also be the cause as well as an effect of adolescent depression.
Moreover, it has been acknowledged that bullying contributes to development of depressive symptoms. Admittedly, this topic needs more attention and further research as it is unclear what exactly makes adolescent males bully others and how exactly it affects psychological state of bullies.
It is also important to state that though there is quite a lot of information on major factors contributing to development of adolescent depression, further research is necessary.
Thus, it has been acknowledged that peer pressure is one of major factors, but it is still quite unclear why adolescents pay so much attention to their peers’ opinion. It is also important to understand to what extent peer pressure affects adolescents and development of adolescent depression.
This will help develop specific intervention strategies aimed at neutralizing effects of peer pressure. These strategies should help adolescents cope with their psychological problems.
Reference List Chhabra, G.S., Sodhi, M.K. (2011). Factors contributing to psycho-social ill-health in male adolescents. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 10(3), 1-4.
Kaltiala-Heino, R., Fröjd, S. (2011). Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 2, 37-44. doi: https://www.dovepress.com/correlation-between-bullying-and-clinical-depression-in-adolescent-pat-peer-reviewed-article-AHMT.
Klykylo, W.M., Kay, J. (Eds.). (2012). Clinical child psychiatry. New York, NY: John Wiley
Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible Proposal best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of the Study
Significance of the Study
Reference List from Main Paper
Introduction Religious positions on social issues encapsulate a wide variety of instances such as gay marriage, stem cell research, the death penalty, divorce and other such issues that have ethical and moral underpinnings.
It is usually the case that religious positions on such issues often result in positive or negative effects depending on the inherent intent of the religious group involved.
In justifying their position on such issues, religious groups utilize the supposed inerrancy and infallibility of the bible, as stated by their respective religious doctrines, in order to show that their position on particular social issues is based off of the word of God (Durland, 2007).
Importance of the Study What you have to understand is that the bible being inerrant does not mean that the interpretations of the bible that manifest itself through religious doctrine are sufficiently inerrant themselves.
On the other hand, the premise of the infallibility of the bible is based on the fact that it was created as a direct action of divine intervention wherein the Holy Spirit inspired the original writers of the text to create the scriptures that we know of in the present.
It must be noted though that various biblical scholars have indicated that the bible was originally meant as a guide for social interaction and not as a means of dictating how people should live. Not only that, it was not meant to encompass issues related to overpopulation, medicine and the spread of AIDS.
As such, this study sheds light on the current problem in utilizing the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility of the bible and will attempt to argue against its continued usage by religious groups who reinterpret the bible and use biblical scripture out of context in order to justify their own agendas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance of the Study The significance of this study is related to its use in enlightening individuals that religious positions on social issues based on the inerrant and infallible nature of the bible are inherently fallacious.
It was seen in the work of Grass (2007) that interpretations of the certain text within the bible is selective in that different religious groups had diverging methods of interpreting particular types of scripture (Grass, 2007).
For example, one religious group in particular, the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, actually interprets biblical text in such a way that they indicate that all women should be subservient to men and that only men should have leadership roles both in households and at work.
On the other hand, the religious group “Christians for Biblical Equality” interprets the bible under the context of men and women being equals and possessing the ability to have the same rights and roles.
It is due to these diverging methods of interpretation of biblical scripture that the justification of church groups regarding their position on certain social issues based on the inerrancy of the bible must be called into question.
For something to be considered inerrant it should not have multiple interpretations. It should have a single all encompassing interpretation that is not subject to the whims and agendas of third parties.
If such a text is subject to interpretation, then it cannot be considered completely inerrant and as such should not be utilized as a means of justifying particular social positions based on its supposed inerrancy.
We will write a custom Proposal on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Durland, Stanley. “The Structure of Biblical Inspiration.” Journal Of Spirituality
Films About Africa and Africans Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
General view of Africa and Africans
Ways in which non-Africans are presented
Introduction Africa is characterized by political instability as experienced in many countries. Political situations have remained unstable in most countries since one-party systems and military regimes replaced the multiparty democracy in those regions.
Since the implementation and acceptance of the borders created by the Europeans in the 1880s, one-party system was seen as a potential solution to conflicts between various ethnic groups.
The films portray African leaders as those primarily focused on their personal gain as well as retention of power which leads to inter-cultural conflicts (BBC, 2008).
A good example of such movies is Hotel Rwanda which is based on a true story concerning the responsibility actions of Paul Rusesabagina, a Hutu working as a manager in Belgium five Star Hotel in Kigali.
Rusesabagina together with his Tutsi wife managed to save over one thousand lives (Adhikari, 2007). The scriptwriter and director of the film Terry George’s aim, as he claimed, was to show people a love story of an individual in the midst of the conflict and make the audience to feel it.
However, a lot can be withdrawn from the contractedness of the film in relation to genocide as true experience. The central theme in this film is the possibility of a change from the traditional social set-up of the black liberation struggles and the current violent struggle for egocentricity.
Hotel Rwanda portrays the good versus the bad guy stereotypes within the African context. The movie features how some Hutu extremist exterminated Tutsi, and at the same time, powerful Hutu provided assistance to their fellow powerful Tutsi friends (George, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the same context, some Tutsi killed Hutu in the process of defending themselves and their families (George, 2004). The black screen violence could be traced back to what is referred to as Hollywood’s Blaxploitation period.
Despite African blacks presented as heroic icons within these films, their political significance is referred to as “popcorn” violence leading to destruction of peaceful democracy (Melvern, 2005).
Hotel Rwanda clearly shows the aspect of racism arising based on biological traits. The film shows the extent to which such traits are treated in African countries, particularly to a point where identities are demonized leading to the ugly reality of neighbors turning against each other (Lu, 2004).
The African continent is also characterized by military conflicts amongst the ethnic divides within same countries. The films portray Africa as one of the most affected continent by wars as compared to other regions of the world (Global Security, 2007).
The frequent conflicts show African leaders within the continent as those unable to implement efficient methods capable of bringing solutions. The arising conflicts are at times based on economic reasons as revealed by growth and structure of income within most countries populations.
Such situations have led to the destruction of infrastructure and educational facilities as well as killing good percentage of working population. This makes successful economic performance impossible since economic goals are rarely achieved.
Taking into account the movies about Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya, the violence and its consequences are clearly presented to the audience there (Anderson, 2003). Such films include Simba, Safari and Something of Value (Anderson, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Films About Africa and Africans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The horror of slavery amongst the Africans is revealed through frequent hangings and bizarre mutilations of human rights by their white counterparts. The confrontations that took place as well as the random conflicts made it possible to recognize the individuals who were at the frontlines.
At the same time, those films feature material relations that surrounded human day to day livelihoods during such times. The Africans are shown as people who are deprived of common good.
Hence, they always seem to feel uneasy and troubled as compared to their white counterparts who in contrary are depicted as peaceable and enjoying their lives. This leads to stereotyping which gives some ground of legitimacy to racial ideologies.
The Mau Mau films show how the stereotyping led to complications in the lives of African perpetrators as well as the victims of regime.
This reveals the level of widespread of color-blindness within the African society, based on the confusion about the true political views and significance of race (Anderson, 2003).
General view of Africa and Africans From the perspective of the films, Africa is portrayed as a continent under siege. Africans are presented as a race which is described through the use of many daunting ironies based on unsettled paradigm shifts.
More than forty years have passed after majority of the countries gained independence from the Whites. However, Africans are portrayed as ill-educated people belonging to prisons since, according to some stereotypes, struggle surpasses public education to them.
They are viewed as those who have little influence on conditions that are structurally determined; hence Africans appear at the bottom of economic and social gap. Those people are associated with ghetto streets where they are supposed to live.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Films About Africa and Africans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Africans are marred with fear of each other, their ethnic background, thus the region seems to have a different enemy to fight. The feeling of unity amongst individuals and countries does not exist making it impossible to work on defined common principles together.
The ever increasing differences cannot allow for the formation of some kind of African Union. This is further complicated by the existence of 2000 different languages increasing the possibility of conflicts of interests (BBC, 2008).
Ways in which non-Africans are presented The history of ethnicity as portrayed in Hollywood films is a clear reflection of ethnic inequalities within the African society. The non-Africans have been presented in these films as superior race.
Whites, in contrast, turn out to lead a lifestyle worth following and have a superior status, which is as well worthy to be achieved. They are shown to belong to the race united by achieving its main objectives.
The films have a lot of racism aspects, such as African men are linked to persistent violence and women are seen to have sexual promiscuity as the main characteristics of their identity.
Based on the colonial era, the foundation of USA was depicted as that which called for a war against the British forces for liberation purposes.
Despite the US case viewed as similar to Africa during the similar period, the thirteen states within America were portrayed as having fought cooperatively not divisively as it happened in Africa.
Hence according to the film makers, the whites understood the aspect of shared identity amongst people from different states with different backgrounds (Denzin, 2002).
Conclusion Such films on Africa and Africans complicate the issues on societal relations within African countries. Revelation on identities through films portrays the racial and ethnic wars as well as murderers and their victim, hence fueling political discriminations.
The gender sensitivity portrayed in the film also promotes discrimination in the role of an African woman in the society.
References Adhikari, M. (2007). “Hotel Rwanda: Too Much Heroism, Too Little History — or Horror?”. In V. Bickford-Smith and R. Mendelsohn (Eds.) Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen. (pp. 279-99). Athens: Ohio UP.
Anderson, D. M. (2003). “Mau Mau at the Movies: Contemporary Representations of an Anti-Colonial War.” South African Historical Journal, 48 (1), 71-89
BBC. (2008). The Story of Africa. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/
Denzin, N. K. (2002). Reading race: Hollywood and the cinema of racial violence. California, CA: Thousand Oaks.
George, T. (Executive Producer). (2004). Hotel Rwanda. [DVD]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment.
Global Security. (2007). The World at War. Retrieved from https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/
Lu, M. (2004).Movie reviews: Hotel Rwanda. Web.
Melvern, L.(2005). A People Betrayed. The role of the west in Rwanda genocide. New York, NY: Zed publishers.
The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Report essay help free: essay help free
One of the greatest events which had a notable effect on shaping of Chinese history was the China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) also known as the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”.
It may be regarded as the political event of the century, taking into account the far reaching effect it had on the China’s politics, economy and culture. The architect and creator of it all was the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Mao Zedong.
According to Joseph, “The Cultural Revolution can be traced to the mid–1950s when Mao first became seriously concerned about the path that China’s socialist transition had taken in the years since the CCP had come to power in 1949” (par. 2).
Mao believed that a privileged class of professionals, who had emerged since 1949, following China’s progress, was acquiring too much power at his expense. Mao understood the fact that new elite was unaware of the common and widely-accepted lifestyle of an ordinary citizen in China.
The revolution seemed to be aimed at purging the CCP of anyone, who did not fully support Mao. Mao Zedong’s desire was to create a country with a classless society where all the peasants, workers and educated people would be working together for the common good of China (Trueman par. 4).
This decade-long event can be divided into three main phases. The mass phase (1966–1969) was described by the activities of a vicious ‘army’ of school and college students, also known as ‘The Red Guards’, who responded to Mao’s call to “raise a revolution”. This phase saw most of Mao’s rivals in the top leadership deposed, including the China’s president, Liu Shaoki (Joseph par. 4).
The military phase (1969-1971) was mainly dominated by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) who Mao had called upon to suppress the anarchy of the ‘Red Guards’ (Joseph par. 7). Mao saw the need to suppress the ‘Red Guards’ after the activities of the ‘Red Guards’ had gone out of hand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some areas, they fought against themselves and even turned their aggression against the foreigners. The British Embassy was completely burnt down as a result. (Trueman par. 6)
The military phase ended in September 1971 with an attempted coup by the defense minister Lin Biao. Biao was one of Mao’s main allies in launching the China’s Cultural Revolution. His attempt, however, had failed, and he later died in a plane crash while on his way to the Soviet Union.
The succession phase (1972-1976) mainly concerned who would succeed Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, both of whom were in deteriorating health.
After the death of Mao Zedong in September 1976, his key allies, also known as ‘The Gang of Four’ which also included his widow, Jiang Qing, were arrested. This marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
The China’s Cultural Revolution is generally regarded as the most depressing moment in the country’s recent history. As Joseph puts it,
The movement’s ideals were betrayed at every turn by its destructive impulses. Hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of officials and intellectuals were physically and mentally persecuted.
The much–vaunted initiatives that were to transform the nation often had disastrous consequences for China’s education and cultural life (par. 8)
We will write a custom Report on The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The decade-long event remains a landmark in the Chinese history making which will be remembered as the one which had a great effect on shaping of China.
Works Cited Joseph, William. China’s Cultural Revolution: A Brief Overview, 4 Aug 2003. Web.
Trueman, Chris. The Cultural Revolution. 2000. Web.
Japanese Immigrants to the US Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Process of Entering the US
Americans Attitude to Japanese
Japanese’s Values and Beliefs
Current Conditions in Japan
Opinion on Their Journey
Japanese are among the different ethnic groups that immigrated to the United States between 1870s and 1880s. At that time, the Japanese economy was in the transition stage slowly transforming into the economy that it has today, and this led to numerous economic hardships, like unemployment and crime.
Bankruptcies were wide spread in the economy and civil disorders were common. Such economic hardships forced most Japanese people to immigrate to the US and particularly to Hawaii (Schaefer, 2011).
During the time, the sugar industry in Hawaii was booming, which attracted the Japanese, who were mostly laborers. A decade from 1885, almost 30,000 Japanese have moved to Hawaii seeking jobs and hoping to return home.
When America took over the Island of Hawaii in 1900, the sugar plantation owners anticipated the legislation of American laws against the contract labors (Johnson, 2010).
To beat the ban, they imported about 26,000 laborers from Japan in 1899; this was the single largest group of Japanese to leave for America in one year. Finally, the law annulled the contract labor permitting all the Japanese to migrate freely to the mainland USA.
Process of Entering the US For many years, Hawaii was densely populated by the Japanese people, as opposed to other regions in the USA, and it was due to racial discrimination in the country.
Racial discrimination was not significant in Hawaii as it was in the mainland US this had become known to the Japanese government, and it stopped issuing passports to citizens wishing to travel to the mainland US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, many of those who received permission to travel to Hawaii found their way to mainland US (Johnson, 2010).
Americans Attitude to Japanese The initial relationship between the Japanese and the American people were similar to those of Chinese and American relationships, as Chinese had also immigrated as laborers to Hawaii.
The Chinese in Hawaii and mainland had ventured into small business and were successful, and this led to resentment and rejection from the Americans because of their hard work.
The Japanese had followed the same pattern, initially like a substitute to Chinese labor, but soon there was a growing dislike for Japanese.
These attitudes were more severe in the mainland as opposed to Hawaii and regulations were put in place that limited their progress and activities. In Hawaii, the laws limited the movement of the Japanese to more skilled jobs, and in the mainland they were not allowed to own land.
The theory of racial profiling can be used to describe the experiences of the Japanese Americans, and it became even worse during the Second World War (Schaefer, 2011).
Japanese’s Values and Beliefs Japanese society does not believe in one God like most Americans who believe in God who controls everything and determines the fate of people. The Japanese believe in a number of virtues that affect the character and the destiny of the individuals.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japanese have all along been a collective society as compared to the American way of life where emphasis is made more on group values rather than on individual ones. These social groups play a significant role in helping other members in the community; this could explain their relative success of the Japanese.
The Americans are individualistic society, where individuals look on to themselves and the members of the immediate family (Onozawa, 2003).
The Japanese have an exceptionally strong filial piety, where all members of the society respect the elderly and take care of them. They value them as an excellent source of oral traditions that are passed to future generation.
Current Conditions in Japan Since the first immigrants moved to the US, the economic conditions in Japan have changed drastically (Schaefer, 2011). Since 1950, Japan has been among the strongest and the fastest growing economies in the world and by 1995 it had caught up with the American economy.
It is now one of the most highly industrialized and developed nations in the world and occupies the third position after the United States and China (Onozawa, 2003).
When the first immigrants were heading to the US, the country was primarily agricultural, but now it has turned into an industrialized nation with sectors such as manufacturing, service and trade, playing a vital role in the economy (Onozawa, 2003).
According to IMF, Japan has one of the highest per capita incomes, and the unemployment level is extremely low. The country is a member of G8, meaning that it has a powerful influence on the world’s politics and economics.
Japan currently ranks as the top most innovative country in the world, as seen in the number of patents registered. From 1968, Japan was the second largest economy until 2010 when China dislodged it to third position.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Almost 70 out of the 500 fortune companies are Japanese, and despite the effects of the Second World War, they emerged with resilience, and its economic growth is almost unbelievable (Schaefer, 2011).
Opinion on Their Journey Given the experiences of the Japanese immigrants in the USA, especially during and after the Second World War, the journey did not benefit them; instead they lost all they acquired (Johnson, 2010).
When the Pearl Harbor was attacked, it marked a turning point and ushered in the most traumatic experiences of the Japanese immigrants. As a result, many Japanese were murdered and even more were taken to custody and they lost all their investments and jobs.
Their assets were liquidated by the state, and after the war Japanese were mostly laborers, while those in professional jobs dropped significantly (Johnson, 2010). I would not have made the same decision of moving to the US, in my opinion I would have remained in Japan.
Reference List Johnson, R. (2010). Be Good Americans: The Message of the Japanese-American Courier. The Great Depression in Washington State. Web.
Onozawa, N. (2003). Immigration from Japan to the U.S.A., Historical Trends and Background. Web.
Schaefer, R. (2011). Racial and Ethnic Groups. (13th ed.). Washington, DC: Pearson.
The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment Essay scholarship essay help
The Potential Role of Vitamin D for Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases This study investigates the use of vitamin D for the deterrence and cure of tuberculosis and other contagious infections. Deficiency of vitamin D is a global problem which results in higher occurrences of the immune system ailments.
Its deficiency also augments the proliferation of communicable diseases. Vitamin D is a vital micronutrient for healthy bones and prevention (or treatment) of many chronic ailments because of its intricate activity on the immune system.
Dini and Bianchi (2012) cite that deficiency of vitamin D leads to an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). This study explains the use of vitamin D as a drug before the invention of antibiotics.
The unearthing of vitamin D as a therapeutic agent begins with the detection of rickets as a childhood malady and the subsequent association of rickets to lack of exposure to sunshine.
Cod liver oil, which contains vitamin D, is then used as a cure for rickets and tuberculosis.
Studies show that vitamin D production increases in the body when special receptors (Toll-like receptors or TLR) sense the presence of the tuberculosis bacteria. This vitamin is in the form of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
Its synthesis encourages “VDR-mediated transactivation of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis” (Dini and Bianchi, 2012, p. 319).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cathelicidin has antiviral and antibacterial results. TLR instigation also yields defensin-2, another peptide with antibiotic properties.
This study hopes to find out how cathelicidins control immune reactions. This knowledge aids the creation of complexes containing the normal chemotherapy, antimicrobial proteins, and dietary shortage rectification components. Such complexes symbolize a significant advancement in TB therapies.
Pharmaceutical Aerosols for the Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis This study investigates the ability to offer TB treatment in a unique form by deviating from the traditional tablets and injections. It aims to improve the competence of TB treatment in terms of cost-effectiveness and efficiency.
Hanif and Garcia-Contreras propose the use of powdered aerosols to mitigate the hindrances posed by liquid drug formulations (2012). Pharmaceutical aerosols provide the advantage of effective drug distribution and cost effectiveness.
Tuberculosis remains a key community health hazard worldwide although it can be treated and precluded. Hanif and Garcia-Contreras cite that a significant number of people who contract the TB bacteria develop the disease and die.
Treatment of obtrusive airway ailments always involves aerosols. However, the recent inventions see this treatment extend to cure lung diseases related to cystic fibrosis. An individual acquires tuberculosis by breathing in aerosol drops containing the infectious bacteria from the infected person.
The basis of this research is that since tuberculosis mainly upsets lungs, then the lungs are a substitute means of administering TB drugs.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this method requires precise drug formulations and administrative procedures for effectiveness. Pharmaceutical companies can utilize numerous techniques to produce the fine particles suitable for inhalation.
An earlier therapy approach, the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS), requires direct monitoring of TB patients as they take their medicine.
This is extremely involving as Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB) are among the most stubborn human pathogens due to their ability to multiply remarkably fast intracellularly and outside the living cells (2012).
This study uses small animal models to test the efficacy of the powdered aerosols and hopes to extend the same tests to bigger models. It also hopes to improve the available inhalers for the administration of large dosages essential in TB treatment.
The Value of Systematic Physical Training in the Prevention and Cure of Pulmonary Tuberculosis This study examines the benefits of physical exercise in the mitigation and cure of tuberculosis and other chest infections. Doctors notice “long, narrow, flat-chested” people have a high risk of contracting tuberculosis and low chances of healing (Ingals, 1898, p.40).
Physical exercises improve the wellbeing of the respiratory system. According to Ingals, pathological studies show shrunken air-cells provide the most suitable environment for multiplication of the tuberculosis bacteria (1898).
He attributes this to anemia which reduces the ability of the air-cells to fight infections. Prevalence reports estimate 80% of the human populace has the Koch’s bacillus (1898).
Ingals explains that the Koch’s bacillus is not detrimental, and ample body resistance is sufficient to avoid the real illness.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This study aims at educating the public “to strengthen the resisting power of all the body tissues, but more especially those of the lungs, because they afford the most favorable conditions for the spread of the disease” (Ingals, 1898, p.41).
It suggests that large heights above the sea level offer the most excellent circumstances for preclusion of pulmonary tuberculosis. The high attitudes also aid in healing the disease in its initial phases. A patient’s attempt to take in more air expands the air cells thereby strengthening the lungs.
The study suggests that patients ought to learn how to inhale deeply and methodically inflate the lungs several times daily. Ingals further demonstrates the actual steps to follow when breathing to meet the desired effects. He asserts that continuous physical exercise may improve a narrow-chested individual’s ability to fight tuberculosis.
References Dini, C.
The Epic of Gilgamesh Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The theme of Love
The theme of Power
Love in the Mesopotamian society
Power in the Mesopotamian society
Love and power in present day society
Abstract Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, was a tyrant and a leader who greatly oppressed his charges. He considered himself to be God which led to the fact that he perceived himself much superior to others.
Enkidu, another man who is also depicted in the Epic of Gilgamesh as having a power in terms of how he treated his companions, meets King Gilgamesh in some of the scenes in the epic ensuing their unrivalled friendship later. The theme of love can be traced in the behavior of these two friends as well.
As a sign of platonic love for his new-found friend, Gilgamesh offers Enkidu a portion of his treasures and shares his power with him. These two themes become very evident and obvious when Enkidu dies.
On realizing that he can never have again his great friend by his side, the king cries in grief and embarks on a journey to achieve his immortality.
The ancient Mesopotamian societies depicted love and power in many areas. Most recorded stories have shown that people in power proclaimed themselves as deities in an attempt to show superiority to others. Another notable attribute of the male rulers is their oppression of women.
Women were usually given the role of doing house chores and making sure that their husbands are attended to. This form of male chauvinism shows similar traits among the rulers of the present day society and those in the Mesopotamian society.
Introduction The Epic of Gilgamesh is perhaps one of the oldest epic poems that were ever recorded. It tells the story of Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, who ruled the empire between 2750 and 2500 BCE.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The epic portrays how Gilgamesh, an arrogant and oppressive leader, met and made friends with a savage called Enkidu who had in turn a tremendous impact on his life.
This paper seeks to discuss how the themes of love and power permeate the poem. It also makes parallels between the Mesopotamian society and the modern one in terms of both themes under discussion.
The theme of Love Love is seen as a major theme in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This theme motivates changes within the characters. An example of such a change is evident in Enkidu who was believed to be an introvert formed from clay and siliva by Aruru.
At first, Enkidu is portrayed as a very wild man who was brought up by animals. He knows very little about other human beings and their way of life. Later on in the poem, he interacts with human beings and starts to get used to the new environment.
There occurs a turning point in Enkudu’s life. He drew closer to civilization by interacting with human beings and this climaxed in wrestling match with Gilgamesh.
This friendship with Gilgamesh makes Enkidu shun his wild character and embrace a nobler demeanor (Damrosch
Foreigners and Foreign Ideas Research Paper essay help online
Introduction In the early centuries, China was ruled by dynasties. The last dynasty that ruled China was the Qing Dynasty between 1644 to 1912. In the 19th century, the dynasty underwent reforms and modernisation as Chinese leaders embraced foreign ideas and foreigners.
There was the need to interact and learn new ways of life because of the ever-changing world. The paper delineates on the significance of foreigner and foreign ideas, their views, and the role of the views during the reformation period and modernisation of China between 1860s and 1890s.
Significance of foreigners and foreign ideas during the Qing Dynasty Reforms and Modernisation Reforms and modernisation caused a paradigm shift in the away Chinese people viewed and perceived the ideas of foreigner. One of the personalities that were credited for these changes in perception was Feng.
Feng was an intellectual that recognised that the world was changing and that the Chinese nation was required to open up and appreciate other worldviews. This could enable the Chinese to be part of the wider world (Feng 1964, p. 51).
Foreigners and foreign ideas had great significance in China especially during the Qing Dynasty reformation and modernisation between 1860-1890s. These ideas led to the appreciation of western sciences in China as central or necessary sources of knowledge.
Most of the western education areas such as mathematics, science and geography became pertinent in China. The subjects were incorporated in some of the academies, and were taught in China.
For instance, the introduction of western subjects led to the established of Kuang fang- yen kuan academy at Shanghai that taught western sciences and languages (Feng 1964, p. 51). Foreigners in China were perceived negatively. Most Chinese believed that all foreigners were bad people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, they could not be trusted or believed in whatever way. Chinese people were suspicious and jealous about all kinds of barbarians and that they had a negative attitude towards them. However, this reformation and modernisation brought a turning point in their perceptions.
The view of the Chinese was changed. They realised that foreigners required good treatment and respect. This contributed to the adoption of different cultures and worldviews that helped to establish positive relationships between the Chinese and foreigners (Rozman 2002, p. 217).
Foreign ideas were also of importance during this period of reformation because they helped the Chinese people to acquire relevant skills in various industries that later empowered china as a nation.
China’s relationship with foreigners helped it to acquire various skills in manufacturing of machines and weapons besides helping to acquire military skills and training (Feng 1964, p. 53).
Even though this was done in disguise, China aimed at getting skills and knowledge that could empower and strengthen it to be self-reliant in various areas. Furthermore, foreigners and foreign ideas acted as a waking up call for the people of China during the Qing Dynasty reforms and modernisation.
They made the Chinese people think on the ways that they could liberate themselves to depend on their own.
The ideas they received from the western countries and other developed countries made China change its mindset to prepare itself sufficiently in terms of military, weapons, ships, and other areas that made it strong to compete with the rest of the countries such as western and countries such as France and England.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreigners or foreign ideas also influenced the administration and governance issues of China. The Chinese people appreciated the way western nations governed themselves. Therefore, China entrenched some of its values in its system of governance.
For instance, it became opened minded and sought to have a government that respected the rule of law through the establishment of efficient legal systems. It believed that a visionary government was important in ensuring the success of the countries in different areas.
Another importance of the foreigners and their ideas is that they made the Chinese to set up schools to train its people on various issues of diplomatic (Rivlin 2009, p. 45).
This was intended to stir innovation to greater heights to enable the people of China widen their scope of knowledge to ensure that they benefited from the ways other countries lived and prospered.
Chinese views on foreigners and/or foreign ideas Chinese people viewed foreigners as uncouth. This therefore made many of the Chinese people have a negative perception about the foreigners. However, in the reformation and modernisation era, this mindset changed as they began to appreciate the ideas of foreigners.
They even adopted such ideas in their own culture to aid in achieving their goals and objectives. They viewed foreigners in good faith, appreciated them, and even gave them their due respect.
Chinese people had a feeling that the ideas of foreigners surpassed theirs. The foreigners had high skills in sciences and general knowledge that surpassed theirs. For instance, they believed that they could supplement their skills and knowledge with those of other countries to ensure prosperity of strength.
Their Confucian teachings and ethics could serve as a foundation to attaining the level of prosperity they required to attain (Reed 2007, p. 291). They also viewed themselves as inferior compared to the Americans, Russian, French, and the English people, yet they had the largest territory.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, they were inferior in terms of using their soils correctly, maintaining a close relationship between the leaders/rulers and the common people, and their deeds to the foreigners. This inferiority was believed to be innate. It was their own mandate to control or ensure that they worked hard to end this inferiority to become equals.
They also felt that they were not sufficiently armed and that they needed assistance from the westerns in areas of military and arms. They also viewed foreigners especially from west as being intelligent when it came to making weapons.
They used mathematical concepts in their references and always modified or altered their army often according to various circumstances. They believed that they were at par when it came to military and civil systems but not in firearms.
On the revision of treaty, the Chinese view was to promote positive relations with foreign countries especially in their dealings. They endeavoured to show determination in all their undertakings. For instance, they resolved that they could not be forced to do things that they could not manage.
Therefore, they opposed such instances. On the other hand, they showed generosity and broad mindedness in order to achieve their objectives. Therefore, their view to the foreigners and foreign ideas was that they needed to be generous and supportive to their initiatives towards the end.
They were not to be swayed or involved in cunning arguments with the foreigners (Hung 1964, p. 58). Furthermore, they viewed foreigners as friends and people that required to be given respect all the time to ensure that peace was maintained and good relationships established.
For instance, they believed in Confucius, which claimed that, if people were able to rule their own country, no one would dare insult them (p. 64). Therefore, they believed that, in their unity, strictness, soberness, they could not be offended by or insulted by any foreigners.
They would have to live in harmony to avoid any anxiety in life (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). They also believed that the foreigners/ barbarians were very difficult to manage because of their nature (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). Therefore, to cope with the situation, they abided by the four principles, which were part of the Confucius’ teachings.
These included hsin, tu, Chung, and ching (Li 2010, p. 336). The Chinese words meant sincerity, earnestness, faithfulness, and respectfulness. They believed that, if they abided by these values, they would coexist well with the foreigners (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64).
Roles of the views in shaping China during and after this period Chinese people had different views about the foreigners and foreign ideas. These views helped China during the transformation and modernisation period and even in the later development of China. During the period, they helped China to accept and change their perceptions about the foreigners.
They helped China to open its doors to foreigners to have a worldwide view about life. China had constricted and secluded itself from the western and other countries.
This made it have limitation in its scope of thinking and knowledge because it lacked the wide spectrum of life that was going outside the country (Xuezhao 2010, p. 56). One of the changes that this worldview changed is it made China to begin appreciating other countries.
For instance, China began reading books from their cultures, which helped it broaden its scope of knowledge. Furthermore, it helped to transform the Chinese’ linguistic acquisition.
Many Chinese enrolled in schools and studied foreign languages such as English that helped them participate in issues that were beyond their borders (Chan
Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue Essay writing essay help
In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle provides a definition of virtue which has been discussed and disputed by many thinkers.
In particular, he writes that virtue is “a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference to which the prudent person would define it” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).
This paper is aimed at discussing this interpretation in more detail because Aristotle highlights very important aspects of ethics.
First of all, Aristotle emphasizes the point that virtue is a temporary state of mind, and it is not an inherent quality of an individual. This definition may imply that vice and virtue may be characteristics of every human being.
Secondly, the philosopher sets stress on the idea of the mean or balance. This is probably the most crucial part of his argument because Aristotle extremism is not appropriate for ethical judgment.
Provided that this section had been absent, this definition might have led to the belief that there is a sharp distinction between ethical and unethical judgments or decisions. This section highlights the necessity of moderation and ability to avoid intolerance.
Furthermore, in the Nichomachean Ethics Aristotle adds the phrase “relative to us” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This part of the definition should not be disregarded, because it implies that there is not universal standard of virtue since ethical norms are set by different individuals and communities and they may not be the same.
This is one of the key issues that should be taken into consideration by people who speak about ethics.
Apart from that, Aristotle adds two important components to his definition of virtue. In particular he mentions that virtue always refers to reason. Although this argument seems self-evident, for many people ethics is based on emotions, rather than rationality.
This is why the philosopher chose to include this point in the definition. Finally, it is important to mention that Aristotle refers to such a concept as prudence.
In this case, the word prudence means the ability to understand ones interests and goals. Again in this way, Aristotle shows the strong connection between the rationality of a human being and virtue.
Overall, by defining virtue in this way, Aristotle strived to explain how people should think about ethics, moral norms. He emphasizes such aspects as rationality, prudence, and absence of universal standards. These are the main points to which the philosopher attracts the readers’ attention in his works.
Works Cited Cahn, Steven. Classics of Western Philosophy, New York: Hackett, 2002. Print.
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Integrated Marketing Communication Plan (Billabong Company) Report essay help online: essay help online
Executive Summary This Plan details the promotion and marketing strategies to be used by Billabong Company which is a market leader in the sale of garments to surfers. Despite its immense success, the company sales have been declining due to increased competition and the perception that the company’s products are old and un-fashionable.
In light of these predicaments, the company intends to launch a new campaign that will increase sales and change the consumer’s perceptions. The main target market includes surfers and the beachgoers. The target market age group ranges from sixteen to mid twenties.
This campaign intends to increase the company sales, change the consumer perceptions about their products, expand the target market to include beachgoers, increase the market share by 30%, enable the company become the leading brand among surfers and to increase traffic in the company’s website.
The promotion and advertising tactics include SLSA Design Competition, runway show, re-launch of the company’s website and 12 months summer competition. The campaign events will be advertised through posters, online advertising, sending direct mail to participants, public relations activities and through radio advertising.
A three stage process will be used to evaluate the performance of the campaign, these include, the pre-test evaluation, post-test evaluation and measuring the effectiveness of the campaign. The bottom up method will be used to determine the campaign budget.
Campaign Evaluation Billabong advertising and promotion strategies will be evaluated through the following methods.
Screening of advertising and promotional messages
All advertising and promotions messages will be checked and re-read several times by the whole group. Errors and ambiguity will be corrected. The language used will also be evaluated to determine its complexity, meanings and impact (Waller 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interview with target audience
Interviews with the target audience will be carried out. During these interviews, the audience will be asked to interpret what different images and messages portray to them. Based on their response, corrections to advertisements and promotional pictures will be done.
A focus group comprising of the target audience, billabong management team and the marketing team will be formed. The members will be asked questions regarding their perceptions, attitudes and opinions towards the different campaign images, posters and messages. Based on their response, the messages will be corrected and rephrased.
After conducting the campaign, a number of evaluations will be carried to ascertain the customers change in perceptions. The principle aim will be to determine the perception shift so that the company is viewed as setting new fashion trends in the industry. The following strategies will be used.
Checking the customer feedback
The feedback and discussions on the company’s website and the social media will be used to determine the perception that customers have after promotions and campaigns.
Focus groups comprising of a group of 30 people drawn from target market will be interviewed. Pertinent questions to test customer’s perceptions and attitudes will be asked and their responses will determine the successfulness of their campaigns (Belch
Developing HRMS by Raymond Wesley Report essay help online free
Introduction Human resource management system (HRMS) involves the process that merges and intersects the functions of HR with information technology (IT).This implies that HRMS takes the place of manual personnel HR systems so that paperwork is maintained at minimal levels.
Their central concern is to ensure that processing of HR-related data is both automated coupled with providing avenues for enhancing integrity of such data. Consequently, “HRMS allows an agency immediate access to employees’ records and enhanced reporting functionality thus providing managers with timely information to make essential human resource decisions” (Agarwala 2003, p.178: Laursen
Ocean Fisheries Sustainability Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Fishing activities around the world have a big impact on sustainable growth and reproduction of species which live in the ocean. Large scale fishing activities that use advanced processes endanger the wellbeing of fish and other species which live in the ocean.
It is necessary for fishing industries to use better fishing methods in the ocean to ensure that their activities do not endanger the ecological balance. This paper will discuss ways ocean fishing can be made more sustainable.
Ocean fishing has increased at a very fast rate. The international waters are governed by international treaties whose enforcement is weak. Large scale industrial fishing is mainly responsible for the dwindling numbers of fish in the ocean. Trawlers that use large nets with small holes scoop big quantities of fish.
These nets trap fish species that are still breeding which stifles their growth. Fish species do not get the chance to replenish and this severely limits the quantities of fish in the ocean.
Large seine trawlers are responsible for this destructive practice which threatens to make some species to become extinct (National Research Council 116). To reverse this trend, there is a need to use pole and line fishing methods instead of purse seining which destroys marine ecology.
Marine life is vital for ecological balance on planet earth. The total quantity of fish caught from the world’s oceans has increased which has led to over-exploitation. It is estimated that on average, 100 million metric tons of fish are caught annually in the world’s oceans since 2000. Marine resources are getting exploited and there is a growing danger of some marine fish and species becoming extinct.
The fishing procedures have become more advanced yet fish supplies in major oceans have continued to dwindle. Fish industries need to share information with their governments to understand the average sustainable fish yields to be caught from oceans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Danson and D’Orso argue that breeding grounds such as continental shelves and coastal fringes need to be protected (67). Ocean zones that are close to the shoreline are most vulnerable to over fishing yet they are the most suitable for plankton growth; the main food for many fish species.
The use of the logistic growth curve has failed to conserve fisheries. The logistic curve approach does not take into account the age, the quantity and the reproductive capacity of the fish being caught. The approach does not propose means through which people involved in the fishing industry can be managed.
Ocean ecosystems are interconnected and complex and as such, the logistic growth curve is not a suitable tool for managing ocean fisheries (Helfman 290). The ecological environment in which fish breed and survive has become unpredictable because of the rapid increase in fishing activities. Countries have not agreed on a common way through which restrictions that are imposed on large scale fishing activities are to be observed.
The fourth option of assigning each fisherman a quota is more sustainable. It is necessary to control the manner in which the quotas are transferred. The allocation of quotas should only be done after the equipment to be used for catching fish is assessed and certified to be appropriate (Morissey and Sumich156).
Fishing zones need to be divided to ensure that fishing in vulnerable breeding areas is prohibited. Marine sanctuaries need to be established to protect the biodiversity of the world’s oceans from destruction. Marine sanctuaries offer rare ocean species the chance to breed and replenish their quantities.
Works Cited Danson, Ted, and Michael D’Orso. Oceana: Our Endangered Oceans and What We Can Do to Save Them. London: Rodale, 2011. Print.
Helfman, Gene S. Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fisheries Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2007. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Ocean Fisheries Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morrissey, John, and James Sumich. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. London: Jones and Bartlett, 2011. Print.
National Research Council. Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999. Print.
Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The island of Cape Breton is located along the coast of northern America. It is a constituent of the province of Nova Scotia in Canada (Dronet 12). The island has four counties namely: Inverness, Richmond, Victoria and cape Breton. In the recent past, this island has experienced a sharp reduction in population.
However, the most remarkable thing is the eternal presence of the Acadian way of life. The Acadian culture is predominantly visible in Cape Breton (Dronet 13). The cultural practices in the Acadian culture have managed to stand the test of time.
It is common for ancient cultures to fade away with time. However, the people of Cape Breton have managed to retain various aspects of the Acadian culture. This is evident in their music, dance, art, farming, cuisine, and other cultural practices.
Discussion The Acadian culture has an impressive array of inherent components that define it. These components have specific characteristics that make them unique. They clearly set the Acadian culture apart from other cultures (Dronet 17).
Of importance to historians and researchers is the fact that these aspects of the Acadian culture have managed to remain relevant to the contemporary world. This fact makes the Acadian culture unique because majority of traditional cultures have been diluted by western values that are anchored on modern civilization (Szivos 22).
One aspect of the Acadian culture that has remained relevant is music. It is arguably the most relevant and vibrant aspect of the Acadian culture. Before the dawn of the internet revolution, musical instruments were an integral part of Acadian households. Acadian musical instruments include guitar, fiddle, and organ (Szivos 24).
Over the years, Acadian people have propagated their music by ensuring that it passes on to emerging generations through oral instruction and active participation (Szivos 25). The Acadian music is rich in poetry, knowledge, and philosophy. Besides, their music is humorous and spiritual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Acadian music is usually simple and based on topical issues that are rich in cultural heritage (Szivos 27). Mostly, their music is used to pass and communicate vital cultural information to young generations.
Acadian music is composed depending on the mood of the occasion (Salzman 14). There are songs that are composed for different occasions such as: sleeping time, showing love and affection, narrating historical events, giving counsel to the young and keeping people happy and motivated while working.
The Acadian music constitutes various styles. They include: reels, waltz dance, two-step dance, and the quadrille dance (Salzman 16). These types of music are known to inspire people into taking dancing seriously. It is important to note that in Acadian culture, music goes together with dance.
In fact, Acadians use dance as a way to express their rich musical heritage. Dance has become one of the most accepted and common avenues for expressing the rich Acadian cultural identity. Most of these songs were formulated by the early occupants of medieval Acadia (Salzman 20).
Another important and defining aspect of Acadian culture is their food. Food is at the centre of Acadian heritage. Over the last centuries, Acadian culture has been displayed and propagated through traditional cuisine. There are three most popular Acadian traditional dishes. They are: chicken fricot, rapure and meat pie (Griffiths 12). Chicken fricot is the most favoured dish in Acadia.
Chicken is its key ingredient. This dish is mostly cooked during festivities and merry-making. This dish is usually popular when there is a huge gathering of people, mostly for celebration or while conducting one of many traditional ceremonies that are a common feature in Acadian cultural heritage. Apart from chicken, Acadians use wild rabbit in the preparation of fricot.
Rapure is another popular Acadian dish. This dish is mostly favoured for occasions when there are special guests in the community of Acadians (Griffiths 16). In most contexts, this dish is cooked from pork. However, this varies depending on those who are preparing the dish. The other traditional Acadian dish is traditional meat pie. This dish is found all over the Acadian society.
We will write a custom Essay on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This dish mostly prepared during the Christmas festive season. In Acadian culture, Christmas cannot be considered complete in the absence of traditional meat pie (Griffiths 23). It is cooked with fresh swine meat. Chicken is also added as part of the ingredients. The pie is mostly eaten without mixing with any other dish.
Another aspect of Acadian culture is their literature. In fact, the Acadian culture has been kept alive by its rich and comprehensive heritage in literature. There are numerous literary publications that are particularly concerned with propagation and preservation of the Acadian culture. Through such literature, the Acadian culture has remained alive through generations (Griffiths 24).
The culture is transmitted through short stories, riddles and fables. In most cases, these fall under the category of oral literature. This practice has ensured that the Acadian cultural heritage is passed on to other generations. Some observers have constantly argued that the Acadian culture is a self-preserving culture (Griffiths 30).
This means that the culture has internal mechanisms that provide avenues for continuity. The most important aspect of cultural literature is that it gives a clear picture of how certain aspects and affairs of a culture have been carried out over time. This ensures continuity of culture and its inherent factors. The Acadians have many pieces of literature that contain their rich cultural heritage.
Another important aspect of the Acadian culture is their farming practices. Acadians were especially known for their ability to transform and reclaim marshy land and making it sufficiently arable (Gough 15). The Acadians were solely acclaimed for their farming practices.
This practice was acquired through their interaction with Frenchmen. The Acadians became particularly known for their ability to transform poor land into a state of agricultural viability (Gough 18). They were too good in reclaiming land, to the extent that their migration patterns were greatly influenced by the presence of poor farming land.
Works Cited Dronet, Curney. A Century of Acadian Culture: The Development of a Cajun Community. Newyork: Pelican Publishing, 2001. Print.
Gough, Barry. Historical Dictionary of Canada. Newyork: Scarecrow Press, 2011. Print
Not sure if you can write a paper on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Griffiths, Naomi. The contexts of Acadian history, 1686-1784. Newyork: McGill- Queens, 1992. Print.
Salzman, Jack. American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography 1984-1988. London: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.
Szivos, John. Talking Acadian: Communication, Work, and Culture. Toronto: John Chetro-Szivos, 2006. Print.
Respond for the movie “Killer of sheep” related with neo-realism style and blue anaestetic Essay (Movie Review) essay help
Blue anesthetic meets with Neo-Realism in the movie Killer of Sheep (1977). The writer brings a blues aesthetic to a style of filmmaking in his work (Kapsis 49). The films deal with what is termed as the “ravages of fascism”. This fascism causes the decay of communities and leaves rifts in national identity.
The films clearly shows Italians “Oppressed and suffering”. Their oppression could not however, be completely blamed on the Black Shirts and the Nazis” (Kapsis 52). There is also a representation of resistance by providing a “continuing critique of the conditions, institutions, and individual predilections that cause poverty, violence, spiritual distress and isolation” (Kapsis 32). This depicts the use of Neo-Realism more clearly.
Burnett makes use of the neorealist aesthetic even more powerfully because of the addition of the blues. Long before the beginning of the cinema, the blues was able to generate cultural self-reflection in the very initial stages by embracing humanity.
The blues is a type of music which was in existence much earlier than the European literary movements of the early 20th Century in naturalism and realism that can be traced forward to neo-realism in the cinema (Murray 69). Much earlier in the years like 1550, English lexicographers have found records with the phrase “to look blue” meaning “to suffer fear, anxiety, low spirits and discomfort” (Murray 63).
In this movie, Killer of Sheep, there is an unusual innovation made by the soundtracks course throughout the entire film as more than the accompaniment, but as a character. The presence of the character imbues the movie with an overall feel of blues. This clearly underscores the poetic modes of the movie’s visual story.
This effect results into a blues nuance that dominates the entire film. The soundtrack blends with R
How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Water hyacinth is a perennial aquatic plant which freely floats in tropical as well as sub-tropical waters. Water hyacinth is native in South America but has since been introduced to many regions. This plant has glossy, broad, ovate and thick leaves and rises up to 1 meter above the water surface.
Water hyacinth is among is among the fastest growing plants ever known and reproduces through stolons or runners that form daughter plants. There has been raging debate on the overall significance of water hyacinth on human society. Despite that the plant has some economic and ecological benefits; its adverse effects are overwhelming.
The presence of Waterhyacith has been associated with numerous economic and ecological damages. Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth degrades water quality and affects habitats for aquatic life. This research paper will explore, discuss and analyze how water hyacinth harms the local ecosystem.
Identification of Waterhyacith Water hyacinth has been ranked as one of the worst invasive species. The reputation of water hyacinth has been doomed due to its ecological and economic effects. Being a native plant in South America, water hyacinth has spread to other regions of the world. Water hyacinth produces beautiful flowers, though its problems are higher. Water hyacinth can be easily identified since it freely floats on water surface.
This plant has dark green, shiny and glossy leaves. The leaves are elliptical and round in shape. The leaves of water hyacinth are approximately 6 inches wide alongside being waterproof. Another key feature of water hyacinth is that it rises over 3 feet above the water surface.
The roots of water hyacinth are distinctive and hang below water surface, whereby they have a feathery appearance. Despite the harmful effects of water hyacinth on ecosystems, the plant has very attractive flowers (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Fig 1. Water hyacinth Flowers
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of Waterhyacith on local ecosystems Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystem and affects aquatic life and water quality. This plant blocks photosynthesis thus degrading water quality. The reduction of water quality through deprivation of oxygen has a cascading effect on aquatic life. Fish, plants and other sea life are adversely affected by this phenomenon. The biological diversity is greatly degraded by water hyacinth.
This is because water hyacinth has a negative effect on submersed plants. Water hyacinth also interferes with immersed plant communities through crushing and pushing them. By so doing, the general ecosystem is impacted. Animal communities are negatively affected through the elimination of plants as well as blocking the access of water which the animals rely on for nesting and shelter (Mariana et al, 2006).
The effects of water hyacinth are enormous on the ecosystem. This can be attributed to the fast growing nature of the plant. Water hyacinth grows very dense to the point that a single acre of the weed weighs over 200 tons. This is a great catastrophe to the ecosystem in the sense that it blocks oxygen in the waters thus inhibiting aquatic life.
The thick and dense mats formed by water hyacinth overwhelm lakes and rivers thus inhibiting biological and economic process. The life of other plants and animals is jeopardized by the rapid growth of water hyacinth. The enormous growth and concentration of the plant decreases water flow as well as leads to oxygen depletion.
As a result, a good environment for mosquito breeding is developed. Native plant species are overwhelmed by the plant thus leading to their elimination. Based on these changes, water hyacinth alters the entire ecosystems which animals and plants rely on (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Degradation of water quality Water hyacinth has a distinctive effect on water quality. Past research has shown that the dense mats formed by the plant have adverse effects on water quality. The plant forms dense and interlocking mats which affect the oxygen flow in the water. As a result of the dense and interlocking mats formed by the weed, the dissolved oxygen concentrations declines, hence degrading water quality.
A low level of phytoplankton productivity also takes place which in turn dooms water quality. The higher levels of sedimentation resulting from the dense mats as well as the complex root structure of water hyacinth also affect water quality.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Water hyacinth leads to high levels of evapo-transpiration rates due to the dense leaves of the plant. This is in comparison with the evaporation rates hence leading to heavy sedimentation (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
The levels of temperatures and PH in waters are also affected by the plant. Water hyacinth destabilizes temperatures and PH levels in the lagoons. This scenario prevents stratification thus increasing mixing in water levels. This phenomenon affects water quality since oxygen levels are degraded. The rates and levels of photosynthesis are also greatly inhibited by water hyacinth.
Water hyacinth does not produce oxygen as compared to other submerged vegetation and phytoplankton. This leads to low levels of dissolved oxygen concentration thus negatively affecting water quality.
The capacity of the plant mats determines the level of oxygen concentrations. High concentrations of water hyacinth mats lead to low penetration levels of light into water columns thus inhibiting photosynthesis (Mariana et al, 2006).
Decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations
Water hyacinth has been associated with the degradation of oxygen in water. This is in comparison with other aquatic invasive species like Sagittaria lancifolia and Hydrilla verticillata. Research has shown that water hyacinth greatly reduces oxygen concentration.
Water hyacinth has been categorized as the only plant leading to a massive decline in average levels of oxygen concentrations. An inverse relationship between water hyacinth and dissolved oxygen concentration has been identified. a significant decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen beneath water hyacinth mats in relation to that of open water has also been established.
This offers a clear picture of the negative effects of the plant in decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
A point of concern is that the rate of decreasing oxygen concentration is not constant. The size of a water hyacinth mat that can cause a significant decrease in oxygen varies from one region to another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over 25% of cover in 0.05ha can decrease oxygen concentration to levels which threaten aquatic life mostly fish survival. Nevertheless, a negative relationship exists between dissolved oxygen and water hyacinth concentration (Streever, 1999).
In the case of dissolved oxygen, areas infested with water hyacinth usually demonstrate lower ranges as compared to waterhyacith free waters. Shorelines without the plants or with lower concentrations have high levels of dissolved oxygen. This is in comparison with water hyacinth free regions.
The absence or decline of dissolved oxygen has adverse effects on the ecosystem. Low levels of dissolved oxygen inhibit plant growth and survival of aquatic life. The low concentration of dissolved oxygen is a result of blockage by the water hyacinth mats.
The metabolic activities of aquatic life are jeopardized thus leading to extinction of some of the animals, plants and insects. This leads to loss of biodiversity, which is in this case a great harm to the ecosystem (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Absorption of heavy metals
Alongside the decrease of oxygen concentration, water hyacinth absorbs heavy metals. Water hyacinth is dangerous in the sense that it absorbs large amounts of nutrients in the water column as well as heavy metals. This is a serious problem in relation to aquatic life.
The mercury concentrations of water hyacinth are very high. Research on water hyacinth in California indicated that water hyacinth leaves had same mercury levels as the sediments beneath. Poor disposal of the plant on the environment will definitely lead to contamination.
This will lead to ecological problems since animals and plants which depend on the contaminated environment will be affected. Nevertheless, the ability of water hyacinth to absorb large amounts of nutrients justifies its use as a tertiary or secondary biological alternative for waste water treatment (Streever, 1999).
Water hyacinth has a higher capacity of holding heavy solids as compared to shorelines without the plant. Water hyacinth waters have a higher turbidity as compared to clear waters. The levels of suspended solids in infested waters are alarming.
Water hyacinth traps phytoplankton and detritus which in turn affect water quality. Water which would have otherwise been fit for domestic use is rendered useless. High level of suspended solids inhibits zooplankton organisms hence decreasing energy transfer. The safety of human transport and other recreational activities in infested waters is jeopardized (Mariana et al, 2006).
Alteration of water PH levels
Water hyacinth affects pH levels and free carbon dioxide. PH levels are greatly decreased by the presence of water hyacinth. On the other hand, a high level of free carbon dioxide exists in areas infested with water hyacinth. In comparison with water hyacinth free shorelines, areas infested with the plant have a higher free carbon dioxide.
These high carbon dioxide levels are as a result of respiration, decay and the decomposition process of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth mats which are dense and large in size also prevents free entry of oxygen. This phenomenon is very harmful to aquatic and human life.
Oxygen demand for aquatic life is doomed, hence leading to death of some species. This leads to decline of biodiversity, thus illustrating the harm of the plant on the local ecosystem (Richard et al, 2011).
The high absorption rate of water hyacinth on nutrients is harmful to the environment. This is because it destabilizes PH level of the waters as well as the surrounding environment. The high absorption rate of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate can not only cause ecological harm but also affect aquatic and human life.
Despite that the high intake capacity is useful in reducing nutrient concentrations; it may lead to environmental contamination. Land on which the plant is disposed will be affected by the chemicals. This will have adverse effects on plants, animals and humans (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Depletion of Nutrients
Water hyacinth has a great impact on the ecosystem since it affects the overall nutrient composition. This may lead to the disappearance of some of the plant species or animal species which depend on them. Existence of water hyacinth leads to a high decrease in phosphorous and nitrogen. This calls for continuous control of the plant so as to counter its negative effects on the ecosystem.
Despite that waterhyacith provides phytoremediation, it leads to significant nutrient loss. This however depends on the concentration of water hyacinth. In light with this scenario, the decrease in nutrients affects the biological process of the plants and animals. Plant and animal loss will definitely occur thus demonstrating the effects of water hyacinth on the ecosystem and biodiversity (Streever, 1999).
The levels of nitrate concentration as a result of water hyacinth are lower compared to shorelines without water hyacinth. The average of nitrate concentration in water affected by water hyacinth is significantly lower as compared to that of shorelines free from the plant.
This is associated with absorption of nitrates by water hyacinth. The high capacity of nitrate absorption by water hyacinth is hazardous since it affects the overall concentrations of nitrates in the waters. This has great negative impacts on PH levels and also on the aquatic life (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Increase in Water temperatures
Water temperatures in water hyacinth infested areas are slightly above average. Research shows that the average temperatures of water in areas infested with water hyacinth is higher compared to the shoreline temperatures. The difference in water temperature would not occur without the water hyacinth. This clearly shows the effects of water hyacinth in influencing water temperatures.
Higher water temperatures are attributed to the dense mats of the plant, which in turn hinders transfer of heat. Decay of organic matter resulting from the water hyacinth also leads to heat generation hence leading to temperature rise.
Temperature fluctuations in areas infested with water hyacinth is hereby a common phenomenon. Breeding of insects like mosquitoes is hereby likely as a result of the temperature changes (Richard et al, 2011).
Breeding of harmful insects
From another perspective, water hyacinth offers favorable conditions and environment for the breeding of mosquitoes and other animals and insects. The breeding of these insects like mosquitoes will definitely threaten human life since it leads to diseases.
Snails also get a prime habitat as a result of the water hyacinth. A good example of the snail species is the parasitic flatworm. This is a dangerous species of snails which causes schistosomiasis (Mariana et al, 2006).
Water hyacinth forms good breeding places for mosquitoes and other insects. The prolific and high growth of water hyacinth leads to excellent breeding areas for harmful insects like mosquitoes. Incidents of malaria, skin rash, encephalitis, cough; gastrointestinal disorders, bilharzias and schistosomiasis are very rampant in areas infested by water hyacinth.
Water hyacinth is harmful to aquatic life since it reduces the concentration of oxygen by de-oxygenating the water. Nutrients for young fish are also reduced. This is due to the high absorption rates of nutrients by water hyacinth.
The effects of water hyacinth are diverse and a catastrophe for aquatic life. The large and dense mats of water hyacinth block water supply and thus, affecting local subsidence fishing. This is an ecological disaster which calls for urgent measures in addressing the problem (Streever, 1999).
Inhibits fishing and transport
Water hyacinth has been blamed for starving subsistence farmers and will become a major problem if not controlled. This is associated with the diseases it enhances through the breeding of snails and mosquitoes which threaten humans.
The blocking or covering of waters by water hyacinth also inhibits fishing. Invasion of water hyacinth into waters associated with human activities can easily unbalance natural lifecycles. Aquatic life can hereby suffer a fatal blow as a result of the waterhyacith. This in turn contributes to loss of biodiversity (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Fig 2. Water Hyacinth
Lack of controlling and managing water hyacinth will lead to total coverage of ponds and lakes. This can have unprecedented effects on the local ecosystems. Covering of water deprive the native aquatic plants light and oxygen thus killing them.
Fish and other aquatic life will also be harmed since their food which consists of aquatic plants is no more. Death of aquatic plants and animals translates to loss of biodiversity (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Water hyacinth has a serious impact on local ecosystems in the sense that it inhibits free movement of aquatic life and humans. It has become common knowledge that water hyacinth inhibits water activities. For instance, boating, fishing and other human expeditions are also obstructed by water hyacinth.
The robust growth of water hyacinth outstrips other aquatic life. This leads to unnecessary competition for survival thus leading to near eradication of some of the species (Tacio, 2009).
The effects of water hyacinth on fishing and transportation are immediate. This is due to the thick mats and covering of the waters by the plant. Access to the beaches is hindered by waterhyacinth. This is due to the dense mats of the plant which hinder human transport. The dense mats formed by waterhyacinth hinter fishing. The movement of fish and other aquatic life is adversely affected by the water hyacinth.
This is an ecological problem in the sense that free movement of the aquatic life is hindered. On the other hand, water hyacinth inhibits irrigation, water treatment and water supply. These are natural and human processes which ought to be facilitated for sustainable coexistence.
Without proper water treatment and supply, biological and environmental catastrophes can emerge. For instance, the contaminated water is both harmful to humans and aquatic life. This is a clear manifestation of the hazardous nature of water hyacinth on the (Richard et al, 2011).
Reduction in biodiversity
Water hyacinth is an ecological disaster due to its prolific growth. This has resulted to its categorization as an ecological nuisance. The fast rate of growth of water hyacinth leads to covering of water surface thus affecting the growth and survival of other aquatic life. The fast proliferation of water hyacinth threatens the survival and development of aquatic species.
The effects of water hyacinth on water temperatures, photosynthesis, PH and nutrients are a serious threat to the survival of other aquatic life. For instance, the effects of water hyacinth in preventing penetration of light are unacceptable. Based on this phenomenon, the adverse effects of water hyacinth on the ecology are demonstrated (Mariana et al, 2006).
Water hyacinth has a serious effect on biological diversity. The prolific growth and spread of the plant has negative impacts on native submersed plants. Immersed plant communities are also altered by the growth of water hyacinth. This is because water hyacinth has fast growth and as a result pushes and crushes the native plants. Animal communities and other aquatic life are also altered by water hyacinth.
This is because the plant affects the local environments by altering temperatures, oxygen, PH and inhibiting penetration of light. By eliminating some of the plants, the animal communities are also affected. This is because the animals depend on the plants and vice verse.
Fish and other aquatic life usually disappear due to the changed environments in aspects of temperatures and PH. A serious human problem resulting from water hyacinth is that it results in the breeding of dangerous animals and insects.
For instance, areas infested with water hyacinth have higher chances of snakes and crocodiles. This ecological problem is a not only a threat to the human species but also to the entire biodiversity (Tacio, 2009).
Control of Waterhyacith Due to the adverse effects and harm of water hyacinth on the environment, there is the need for prevention and control. Research has established different ways in which the weed can be eliminated or managed. At present, there are different control approaches for controlling the rapid spread of water hyacinth. The harmful effects of water hyacinth on the ecology and economical prospects have called for its control.
Chemical, biological and physical control mechanisms have been established. Despite that each control mechanism has its benefits; they have also reported diverse weaknesses and drawbacks. Chemical through the use of herbicides affects communities and environment, thus the need to abandon it.
In addressing the problem of water hyacinth, there is a need to identify and administer the best control mechanism. Mechanical approaches of controlling water hyacinth have been widely used. In this approach, dredgers, mowers and other manual extraction methods are used. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and is not possible in large areas.
On the contrary, mechanical approaches for eradicating water hyacinth also offers only short-term solutions. Biological approach to eradication of water hyacinth is most favored due to its long-term and short-term effects. This is not only a sustainable but also an economical approach to controlling the weed (Tacio, 2009).
Manual or mechanical control
Physical control is mostly applied in short-term basis and in small scale. Mechanical methods are the best approach in providing short-term solutions. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and requires both machinery and human labor (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Early control using physical means targets concentrated areas. Physical methods remove the weed from their mats and dump them on land to die. Manual removal of the weed has proved successful in small scale as especially in farm drains and dams. However, the high rate of growth of water hyacinth makes it hard to attain total eradication. This approach is only successful when the rate of removal is higher than the plant’s rate of re-growth. From another perspective, physical of manual removal is not successful in large scale. This is widely due to the higher costs and labor (Denise et al, 2007).
Research has shown that mechanical control of water hyacinth is at times effective. Large infestations of the weed have been manually eradicated though at a higher cost. The time and cost of eradicating water hyacinth through manual means is high. It order to attain success, the removal should be done before flowing and seed set of the water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Fig 2. Dredging of waterhyacinth
The use of herbicides in the removal of water hyacinth has been overwhelming in recent days. Chemical removal of water hyacinth has proved successful, whereby it has been applied for years in different regions. The success rate of using chemical methods is higher as compared to manual methods.
Nevertheless, there has been high concern for the health of communities as well as the environment in relation to chemical removal. In areas where people wash and collect drinking water as well as fishing, chemical application can turn hazardous. A number of herbicides have been registered which help in the control of water hyacinth. High volume spraying is the most used approach in the application of herbicides.
Handgun power sprays from the banks or on a boat can be adopted in applying the herbicides. Aerial spraying of herbicides can also be considered for large infestations. Herbicides should be considered in growing season mostly in Spring so as to enhance effectiveness.
Spraying recklessly can result in environmental and human catastrophes. Spraying on heavy infestation leads to sinking of the mats, which eventually rot. This can result into ecological disasters through de-oxygenation of water hence potentially killing aquatic life like fish.
In this case, spraying should be consciously undertaken by spraying only portions like a third of the area at a time. Physical or manual removal of some of the weeds before spraying is also advantageous and sustainable (Denise et al, 2007).
Biological methods of removing water hyacinth have been the most recommended due to their sustainability and ecological friendliness. Biological researchers have identified insects which can be effectively used to combat the spread of water hyacinth.
Two weevil species including neochetna bruchi, neochetina eichhomiae and moth species, Xubida infusellus, and niphograpta albiguttalis have been discovered to help control water hyacinth. These insects have proved to be successful in destroying the spread of water hyacinth.
The insects which feed on leaves by creating small scars have great effect in controlling water hyacinth. The laying of eggs by the insects on the water hyacinth leads to infection by fungi and bacteria thus causing the plant to be waterlogged and ideas.
Nevertheless, the inactivity of these insects during winter makes it hard for them to be relied on. Neochetina bruchi on the other hand has proved to be reliable during winter hence complements the inactivity of the other insects (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
It is however notable that biological control can not be solely applied in control of the weed. Biological control only reduces the prolific growth of water hyacinth but does not lead to total eradication. Biological control ensures substantial reduction in growth rates and flowering thus countering the proliferation of water hyacinth.
The damages on the plants lead to sinking of the mats thus reducing their effects. Since chemical and mechanical control techniques are quite expensive and inefficient, biological removals offer the only suitable approach in controlling water hyacinth.
Researchers have confidence that biological methods are more resilient and effective as compared to the use of herbicides and mechanical control. This is the most sustainable approach to combating invasive water hyacinth, hence reducing their ecological damages (Denise et al, 2007).
Other control mechanisms to water hyacinth include cultural control, mulching, windrowing, and managing flood-stranded infestations. In the case of cultural control, nutrients run to infested areas should be limited. Reduction of water levels in dams and drains can significantly reduce water hyacinth.
Introduction of salty water into infested waterways can also help in combating the spread of water hyacinth. Flood-stranded infestations should be managed by using Earthmoving equipments to remove water hyacinth. This is applicable to verges and roads, which helps in breaking down the water hyacinth.
Windrowing water hyacinth with tractor-mounted blade is an effective approach to removing water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Conclusion The study has clearly demonstrated the harm of water hyacinth on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth has greatly impacted on the physico-chemical environments thus affecting the ecosystems. Based on the research, water hyacinth affects local water temperatures, PH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, photosynthesis and nutrients in the water.
These influences have great harm on the local ecosystems by altering the normal environments for biological, cultural and economic activities. Aquatic life is adversely affected by the changes in the water environments thus leading to eradication of some species. Water hyacinth has led to significant reduction in biodiversity in infested areas due to the alteration of favorable conditions for survival aquatic plants and animals.
Based on these problems, effective water hyacinth control measures should be adopted. Chemical, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods should be considered. Cultural and biological methods of water hyacinth control are most sustainable hence the need for their prioritization.
References Denise, B. et al. (2007). Undesirable Side-Effects of Water Hyacinth Control in Shallow Tropical Reservoir. Freshwater Biology. Vol 52 (6), p1120-1133.
Mariana, M. et al. (2006). An Experimental Study of Habitat Choice by Daphnia: Plants Signal Danger More than Refuge in Subtropical Lakes. Fresh Water Biology. Vol 51 (7), p1320-1330.
NSW Department of Primary Industries (2010). Water Hyacinth- Weed of National Significance. Web.
Richard, M. et al. (2011). Invasive Plants as Catalysts for the Spread of Human Parasites. Neobiota. 9.1156.
Streever, W. (1999). An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. London: Routledge.
Tacio, H. (2009). Water Hyacinth Ecological Value, Environmental Impacts. Web.
Villamagna, M. Murphy, R. (2010). Ecological and Socio-economic Impacts of Invasive Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes): A Review. Freshwater Biology. Vol 55 (2), p282-298.
Weijden, W. and Bol, L. (2007). Biological Globalization: Bio-Invasions and Their Impacts on Nature- The Economy and Public Health. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.
The Melanin Theory Essay college admission essay help
Melanin theorists purport that black people are more superior to the whites (Cashmore and Jennings 181) because they have greater quantities of melanin. They attribute whites’ alleged “inhumanity” and “inferiority” to lack of melanin. Melanin theorists also maintain that melanin bestows upon people of color some superhuman abilities.
The theorists are unanimous that melanin is both a superconductor and a semiconductor. They contend that melanin can absorb electromagnetic radiation and is capable of converting light and magnetic fields to sound. To these theorists, “melanin can process information without reporting to the brain because it is the chemical basis of the soul” (Barnes 88).
The presence of neuromelanin in a human brain’s substantia nigra aids in transmission of neuronal impulses. The proponents of the melanin theory also advance that “higher levels of melanin in the skin enable nerve synapses to fire more quickly and efficiently” (Barnes 90). This element underscores the black men’s athleticism.
These theorists also believe, “The lower incidence of Parkinson’s diseases among the Blacks is due to the high hypodermic melanin levels in their skin, which acts as a preventative against development of the diseases” (Irving 315). However, the melanin theory is a stereotype for it has no scientific backing to prove its claims as expounded in this paper.
The architects of this theory believe that white people are mutants and that whiter skin is a form of albinism with the likes of Wade Nobles opining that “Blacks are fully human because of their higher levels of skin melanin” (Cashmore and Jennings 116).
In addition, Nobles holds that the “central nervous system and the essential melanic system make one a full human” (Cashmore and Jennings 116). Therefore, to be human is to be black.
Frances Welsing coined the idea of hue-man instead of human to “illuminate the existing inherent and behavioral differences between black and white people” (Welsing The Isis Papers 200).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barnes, another Melanin theorist, states that melanin “is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness, and that is why the whites behave in a barbaric manner” (81).
He further adduces that melanin’s ability to absorb frequencies enhances the black man’s ability to feel his surroundings. In the eyes of the people of color, whites are rigid, cold, unfeeling, and calculating because their skins have lower levels of melanin.
In addition, some theorists relate the pigment melanin with intelligence and creativity. Europeans being the “ice-people” are therefore born cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian. Frances Welsing also purports, “The prevalence of high blood pressure among African Americans is due to the fact that melanin picks up energy vibrations from people who are stressed up” (Welsing Blacks hypertension 65).
Dark skinned people therefore absorb stress in others hence stand higher chances of experiencing high blood pressure. Barnes also purported that white scientists created drugs like cocaine among others, which chemically bind with melanin by the mere fact that they are both alkaloids, hence the high likelihood of black people getting addicted faster or even stay addicted for longer.
Barnes argues, “The blacks can test positive for Cocaine even after a year has elapsed courtesy of cocaine’s ability to co-polymerize into melanin” (18).
Some of the arguments advanced by Melanin Theorists like Barnes that the whites deliberately created drugs like cocaine, which have high affinity for melanin, to make the black people get addicted faster and for longer cannot be factual. No one disputes that “melanin binds with cocaine; however, skin melanin cannot be linked to the mechanism of addiction” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 6).
An argument to the effect that in circumstances when hair has been used to test drug use, “people with darker hair are more likely to test positive for cocaine use because cocaine has high affinity for melanin, is not true because even the whites with dark hair can test positive for the same” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 8).
We will write a custom Essay on The Melanin Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Barnes’ accusation of the white scientists has no element of absolutism because so far, there is no evidence that points to white conspiracy to compound addictive substances that target the blacks.
However, people should not forget that there exists an established link between an aspect of melanin-related biology and substance addiction, especially the melanin found in the brain. Drug addiction is facilitated by complex neuronal processes that converge on the shell of nucleus accumbens that receive inputs from the lateral hypothalamus. Melanin concentrating hormone is produced from the lateral hypothalamus.
Regardless of the fact that the mechanism for nicotine addiction has not been fully understood, “melanin has a biochemical affinity for nicotine and that the greater the amount of melanin an individual may be having the harder it can be for him or her to quit smoking” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 11).
People who become dark skinned due to sun tanning, irrespective of whether they are black or white, are at risk of developing nicotine addiction. Welsing’s claim that “dark skinned people absorb the stress in others resulting in high blood pressure” (Blacks hypertension 65) cannot entirely be true if scientific studies that have been conducted in this field are anything to go by.
Science has for sure linked blacks to norepinephrine. The bodies of human beings produce this substance when subjected to certain levels of stress. This substance constricts blood vessels, but whites and blacks exhibit elevated blood pressure when subjected to pressure.
Melanin theorists stir fallacious thinking, as some of the reasons they advance are full of logical fallacies and accepting them in totality leads to error in thinking hence fictitious characterization of science.
While trying to support the truth of their opinions, melanin theorists seemingly resign to their views. They think that their entitlement is indispensable for the truth of the argument. They never seem to realize that “their entitlement to their opinions has no consequence for scientific truth neither does it validate the views they express” (White and Billing 191). Their entitlement is not backed with evidence.
The theorists’ assertion that possession of greater quantities of melanin makes black people superior and that its lack is a pointer as to why the whites are inhuman and inferior is not backed with any evidence to that effect. Some of their arguments are indeed a distortion of scientific facts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Melanin Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The theory therefore has no credibility in mainstream science. Human rights and entitlements cannot be used to support a view, as the focus will shift from scientific evidence to human rights.
Being entitled to a given opinion in scientific discourses can only be equated to being wrong especially when there are no facts, evidences, and reason to support such opinions. Only data and evidence can make an opinion correct. Evidences adduced should be independent of one’s view.
The proponents of this pseudoscientific theory have committed the fallacy of argument to ignorance. Apparently, they have a belief that things have to be true because they have not been proved otherwise. They are oblivious of the fact that inability to prove a claim “does not necessarily mean that the claim is true” (White and Billing 181).
Look at it this way, an individual can claim that s/he is capable of running 100m sprint in less than 3 seconds. However, if s/he refuses to be tested in a race, “people’s inability to falsify the claim does not make the claim true by default; moreover, the fact that no scientific study has associated melanin to creativity and intelligence does not give melanin theorists license to posit that melanin is the source of intelligence and creativity” (White and Billing 181).
Moreover, this does not qualify them to assert that “ice-people” are cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian because they were born melanin-deficient.
Carol Barnes also commits the fallacy of argument to ignorance by asserting, “Melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness” (Barnes 81). In fact, no scientific study has illuminated this; however, the absence of any evidence cannot make such sentiments true.
Melanin theorists also commit the fallacy of generalization by suggesting that black people are proficient in athletics because they have higher amounts of melanin in their skin. Across the world, many athletes are successful, but they are not black.
It is also wrong to think that melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. In the contemporary world, there exist many uncivilized and unrighteous blacks in spite of having elevated melanin levels in their skins. Barnes, one of the ardent Melanin theorists, asserts that melanin “gives human beings the ability to feel because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy” (81).
Barnes advances that white people are perceived by people of color as being rigid, heartless, and cold because they have least amounts of melanin. The burden of truth lies with Barnes with regard to proving her assertions. She never tells why she thinks that black skinned people can never be rigid, heartless, and cold. Her sentiments are mere assertions, as she never uses science to support her position with positive evidence.
In conclusion, melanin theorists propagate the misconception that Blacks are superior to Whites because the former have higher melanin levels in their skin than the latter. Apparently, according to these theorists, the presence of high melanin levels in Blacks underscores their athleticism and resistance to the Parkinson’s disease.
Moreover, Blacks are purportedly more human by the virtue of having high melanin levels; actually, to be human is to be black according to melanin theorists. In a twist of argument, melanin theorists explain that Blacks are prone to hypertension and high stress levels because their melanin absorbs stress from their surroundings.
Moreover, Blacks are prone to drug addiction because melanin has high affinity for drugs like cocaine. However, these arguments are full of assumptions and fallacies for lack of scientific proof. Therefore, these theorists commit the fallacy of argument to ignorance, fallacy of generalization, and fallacy of appeal to authority.
For instance, they commit the fallacy of appeal to spite by portraying the whites as an inferior race. By substituting attack on ethnicity and racism, the theorists are oblivious of fallacy of circumstantial Ad Hominem in their arguments.
Works Cited Barnes, Carol. Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness. New York: Lushena Books, 2001. Print.
Cashmore, Ernest, and James Jennings. Racism: essential readings. New York: Sage, 2001. Print.
Irving, Kessler. “Epidemiologic Studies of Parkinson’s Disease: II. A Hospital-based Survey.” American Journal of Epidemiology 95.16 (1972): 308-318. Print.
Mieczkowski, Tom, and Michael Kruger. “Interpreting the color effect of melanin on Cocaine and benzoylecgonine assays for hair analysis: Brown and black samples compared.” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14.1 (2007): 7–15. Print.
Welsing, Frances. “Blacks, hypertension, and the active skin melanocyte”. Urban Health 4.3 (1975): 64–72. Print.
Welsing, Frances. The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors. New York: Third World Press, 1990. Print.
White, Fred, and Simone Billing. The Well Crafted Argument. New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.