# Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis Report Essay Help

The analysis carried out by the Goldman Sachs

Analysis of the results

References

Introduction A number of studies have carried out on the economic impact of international sporting events. The Goldman Sachs recently carried out a study to evaluate the economic impact of the Olympics. The researchers attempted to develop the relationship between economics, markets and the games.

This relationship was aimed at coming up with a prediction of the medals table. In their research, they found out that the host nations gain a lot by hosting the games.

The results of the researchers established that the host nations gain in the areas of political stability, human capital, technology, and both micro and macro economic environment. The stock market of such countries also gains significantly (The Goldman Sachs, 2012).

This works attempts to carry out similar regression analysis in order to validate the results of the Goldman Sachs. A lot of emphasis will be put on developing a regression equation that will be used to predict the medals table.

The analysis carried out by the Goldman Sachs As mentioned above, the Goldman Sachs came up with a model to predict the results of the Olympics. The researchers used the concept of panel regression to come up with an equation that can predict the Olympic results for the various nations that attended the games.

Panel data regression is carried out on data collected on the same individual over different time periods (Greene, 2003).

The explanatory variables used in the analysis were; the population of various countries, a host dummy, medal attainment, and GDP (measured by the growth environment scores).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the same variables in exclusion of a host dummy will be used in the estimation of the regression line. Besides, a linear regression line will be generated from the sample of 50 countries. The table presented below shows the results of the regression carried out.

Coefficients Intercept -24.9956 Change in medals 0.784612 GES score 6.529764 Population (measures in millions) 0.046876 From the results of regression analysis presented above, the regression line will take the form Y = -24.9956 0.784612X1 6.529764X2 0.046876X3. The linear regression model above can be used to estimate the number of medals that a nation will earn during an Olympics game.

Further, all the 50 nations that were used in the Goldman Sachs research were used in this analysis. None of the nation was omitted.

Analysis of the results The results of the regression show that countries with high GES score will earn more medals than countries with low medals. This result is shown by the positive relationship between the GES score and the number of medals earned by the country.

The graph presented below shows the scatter diagram that displays the relationship between the number of gold attained by the various countries and the GES score.

Based on the scatter diagram above, there exists a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This gives an indication that nations that are economically endowed are likely to earn more medals than countries with less economic resources.

Secondly, the results show that countries that host the games earn a higher number of medals than the other countries. This was the case observed in China.

We will write a custom Report on Goldman Sachs Quantitative Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In summary, the results show that a large number of medals will go to countries that have a high GDP and a great potential for growth. Further, the model estimated in this paper is not consistent with the model predicted by the Goldman Sachs. They yield different results.

References Greene, W. (2003). Econometric analysis. Harlow: Prentice–Hall.

The Goldman Sachs. (2012). The olympics and economics 2012. Web.

[supanova_question]

## Operations and Supply Chain Management Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction The aim of the paper is to understand supply chain management (SCM) and operations management (OM) as strategies to gain sustainable competitive advantage. A brief review of the two is conducted ton SCM and OM literature.

Then, two case studies – 1) supply chain strategy of Wal-Mart and 2) operations strategy of Toyota are presented in the paper.

The last part presents a theoretical understanding, with examples, and shows how supply chain and operations strategies can become competitive advantage for companies. The paper also presents the difference between SCM and OM.

Literature Review Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management is the sequence in which different stages of a process, to fulfill customer need of a product, is satisfied. Metzner, DeWitt, Keebler, Min, Nix, Smith and Zacharia defined supply chain as “a set of three or more entities (organizations or individuals) directly involved in the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and/or information from a source to a customer.”

The supply chain process is divided into five stages: supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and customer. In essence, the process of placing an order by the customer and the various stages that occur to deliver that product is exhibited in the supply chain.

This helps in streamlining the process of supply of the product from manufacturing to the customer and enhances distribution performance. Chopra and Meindl showed two basic types of supply chain based on the way processes are formed – cycle view and push/pull view.

The cycle view of the supply chain points out that the five different stages of the supply chain operate in a cyclical manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The push/pull view the supply chain with the pull process execution of the supply chain is initiated with the customer order while in case of the push process it is initiated in anticipation of the customer order .

The main advantage of an integrated system where the supply and the demand side are integrated to form a seamless process helps in monitoring and planning the operational process.

This is mutually beneficial for all the stakeholders as the risks and benefits are mutually shared. It enhances coordination among the supply chain members and increases transparency of the distribution process.

A proper supply chain management helps businesses to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantages are the needs of the customers, relative to its competitors, that an organization aims to provide through its product and/or service offerings.

Organizations can gain strategic fit between their SCM strategy and competitive strategy by three methods –

understanding their SCM risks and their customers,

ascertaining the SCM competencies,

realizing strategic fit.

Power conducted a literature review to understand the SCM practices from a strategic viewpoint. The study demonstrated that it is important to undertake a holistic view of the participation and interaction of the participants of the supply chain.

Operations Management

Operations management is the process of designing and planning the products, processes, and supply chain. It entails undertaking proper planning to acquire, design, and plan resources to carry out a function.

We will write a custom Report on Operations and Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Operations management (OM) is “a set of activities that create value in form goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs” . Leseure pointed out that operations management is essential for the performance of an organization.

Traditionally, the internal performance of an organization’s operations ahs been designed under cost, quality, delivery, speed, and flexibility. The literature on OM is replete with the debate over the importance of operations as a strategy to gain sustainable competitive advantage for a firm.

Bettley, Mayle and Tantoush points out that many researchers (like Michael Porter) have pointed out that an operations strategy is not enough to attain sustainable competitive advantage as operations can be emulated.

Researchers and practitioners have put stress on resource-based approach and they believe only a few “good” companies can sustain competitive advantage using operations strategy . Hayes and Upton emphasizes that the role of operations is much larger than just formulation of strategy.

Further, it helps the companies to position their product. The main question asked by customers while purchasing a product is ‘why should I buy it’.

Operations strategy helps the companies formulate a position for the product based on which the company streamlines the whole of its functioning. Thus, a positioning strategy helps the company identify how it would like to be differentiated in its chosen market from its competitors.

Therefore, by positioning the product better than the competitors and in accordance to the needs of the consumers a company can gain competitive advantage in a market.

Another method of gaining competitive advantage for a company is by executing the existing strategies better than their competitors implement.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations and Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More For instance, shifting the place of production to a low-cost location may be a good decision in the short-run but to make it a sustainable advantage companies have to be very efficient to continue the strategy sustainable for long-term.

For instance, as a retaliation to Wal-Mart’s strategy to computerize its product procurement and inventory control system, Kmart failed to realize that sampling emulating the act will solve its problems. Soon Kmart realized that their employees were not trained to operate the systems.

Difference between SCM and OM Often SCM and OM are confused and used interchangeably.

However, both are completely different. SCM is the process of sharing resource information and planning logistic right from the point of procurement of raw material, to manufacturing, and then distributing it, until the product reaches the consumers.

On the other hand, OM is the process of planning and managing the resources required for the production and delivery of the product to the consumers.

In a way, SCM is a subset of OM for the latter is concerned with the production process apart from the delivery and distribution. More importantly, the difference between the two can be further delineated as follows:

SCM aims to reduce inefficiencies in the complete chain of processes from supply of raw material to delivery to the customer. On the other hand, OM has a broader range of activities in monitoring and planning the wider set of operations regarding the manufacturing of the product.

SCM deals with monitoring the raw material required for the production and ensuring that the right material is being delivered for production. OM deal with all that is necessary for the actual production process.

SCM is based on activities irrespective of the nature of the business while OM is concerned with the business the operations are being conducted.

More broadly, SCM is mostly concerned with the activities that occur outside the organization’s premises such as shipping, warehouses, distribution, while OM is concerned with the activities occurring inside the premises.

Though both are different, both are essential in maintaining a sustainable business strategy. Overall, it can be pointed out that SCM is a part of the OM. SCM looks into the operational logistics while OM looks into the overall picture of the manufacturing of the product.

Cases Supply Chain Strategy of Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart has used supply chain strategy to gain competitive advantage for long time.

The following case study of Wal-Mart’s supply chain will demonstrate that a successful supply chain can reduce cost of product considerably and enable companies to provide product at highly competitive pricing. Wal-Mart is the world’s largest retailer with highest sales per square foot.

Wal-Mart’s success from a regional discount retailer to an international discount retailer has been mostly due to their efficient supply chain management.

Wal-Mart has assumed a successful leadership position in the global retail market mostly due to efficient management of its supply chain.

The supply chain strategy of Wal-Mart is based on four factors: vendor management, distribution channel management, technology, and integration all the processes.

Wal-Mart’s strategy has been to procure their products at lowest possible cost. Figure 1 below shows the supply chain strategy of Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart sources its products from different vendors worldwide and procures the products at cheapest possible cost.

This helps them to sell their products at the lowest possible prices. These products are then sent to the different warehouses at different places, and since then all the products are sent to the retail outlets according to the demand of each retail store.

Wal-Mart follows a push, supply chain strategy wherein the products are first sourced based on an anticipated demand from the customers. In case of Wal-Mart the main issue is sources the large quantity demand and at different places. Further,

Figure 1: Supply Chain Strategy of Wal-Mart

Procurement

The first section to consider in Wal-Mart’s supply chain is their suppliers or vendors. For instance, Wal-Mart had problems with P

[supanova_question]

## Digital Marketing and Social Media Strategy Report (Assessment) essay help online free

Digital Marketing The internet offers a wide range of communication tools that ride on the social dimension of the online experience.

The communicative power of the internet has essentially replaced many of the traditional tools particularly in the world of traditional advertising in print and broadcast media (Cone 2011).

Marketing a product via a website requires different strategies ensuring that clients get products within reasonable satisfaction level.

Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management facilitate the success and sustainability in online marketing since it operates within stipulated business laws (Cheverton 2004).

In order to increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the current channels often encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and lifetime relationships between a business and its clients as seen in the platform of Amazon online marketing giants.

The new development elements that will be incorporated in the tour website include trust, reliability, distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience (Blythe 2006).

This paper explores the ideal modifications on the tour website to improve on online marketing of tours services in the Spain. The online marketing initiative aims at increasing the number of Europeans using the tourism products in Spain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Objectives and Goals

The main objective and goal of this digital marketing plan is to attract the European market through the tourism website and sell tour packages to tourists who have plans of visiting the islands in Mallorca, Spain.

The package promises a guide to the best entertainment, cultural and social activities besides showing the actual position and themes of the parks in Spain.

The tour website has an existing market distribution channel in the tourism industry of Italy. Apparently, this segment forms the largest bracket of tourism travels to Spain.

Through branding and increasing website visibility, this market segment is projected to increase their use of the touring website.

Since the target market is specific, the success variable for the market share expansion strategy will be measured through an increase in sales of its current output (Dagnino

[supanova_question]

## Affirmative Action be Continued but with Changes Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Initiated in the 1960s, the affirmative action is a collection of steps that defines the federal agenda developed to counteract the historic discrimination against certain minority groups such as women and ethic groups in the United States (Dye, 2005).

The government, pressurized by the impact of mass opinions against discriminations of the minority groups, sought to make affirmative action a national agenda under legislations.

In 1964, the congress passed the historic Civil Rights Act with an aim of eliminating discrimination against the minority groups. It created equal opportunity for these groups to participate in the national, state and local levels.

In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson, issued the Executive Order 11246, which sought to cement the goals and objectives of the affirmative action agenda. According to various authors, this order is the foundation of the affirmative action programs in the modern times.

However, affirmative action has become a highly controversial issue, especially due to its long-term effects (Dye, 2005).

For instance, the long-term outcomes of the initiatives are analyzed by looking at the difference between the people who benefited from the program in 1970s and 1980s and their colleagues from the majority groups.

In essence, there are several issues demonstrating that affirmative action has yielded better results. For example, it has reduced the degree of discrimination by providing the minorities with equal opportunities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, the initiative has equally produced negative results, affecting both the beneficiaries and the majority groups (Wu, 2010). Moreover, the modern and future context of discrimination has changed significantly, with other minority groups emerging.

The groups considered as minorities in 1960s have slowly but progressively become more of majorities than minorities. Therefore, it is necessary that the programs be maintained but undergoes various changes to fit the modern context of minority groups and discrimination.

First, one needs to determine the benefits of the affirmative action programs in the last four decades. Consider, for instance, the positive outcomes of the programs only a few years after the initiation of affirmative action plans.

According to Wu (2010), the blacks, women and other minorities felt that they had achieved at least some freedom from discrimination within ten years of affirmative action. Public opinion has also shown that the minorities are able to enjoy their rights, thanks to the impact of affirmative action.

For example, a 1999 study by Newsweek reported that both whites and blacks say that affirmative action has improved the lives and conditions of the black people (Sander

[supanova_question]

## Safety officer Essay college essay help near me

The Incident Safety Officer (ISO) is a senior member of the “Command Team”. This person works directly under and with the incident commander (IC) to help manage the risks that our members take at emergencies. A timeless truth is that we must keep our members safe in order to effectively deliver customer service (i.e.: patient care, rescue efforts, fire suppression, etc.)

The notion of a command team indicates that there is a shared responsibility for the proper and safe performance of our troops. The fact is that one of the roles that the ISO needs to play is that of challenging and confirming the incident commander’s actions. This article will address this concept as well as describe just what a safety officer must do to be successful at this most critical role.

Discuss the role and responsibilities of an incident scene safety officer. Can anyone become the incident safety officer on scene?

[supanova_question]

## Lush Company Report college admissions essay help

Key differentiation/positioning for Lush Company

Why the differentiation/positioning has been successful

Marketing theory applied in the discussion

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

Reference List

Introduction Lush Company is a retail store that is based in the United Kingdom. The company was started in 1994 by a husband and his wife whose names were Mark Constantine and Mo Constantine respectively.

Its first store was named Cosmetic House and was opened in Poole. The company sells beauty products such as gels, soaps, shampoos, and hair conditioners.

The company has positioned itself in the market such that it has been able to take a strategic competitive position. Lush has adopted a competitive strategy theory that highly favours it.

This article will analyse the strategy used by the company, its positioning, as well as its market segmentation.

Key differentiation/positioning for Lush Company Differentiation is a strategy that has the ability to give business organizations a competitive advantage ahead of their rivals. It helps an organization position itself well over others in terms of competition (Jobber, 2012).

Lush Company has been able to position itself ahead of its rivals due to its differentiation strategy. The company produces all its beauty products using vegetation and fruits. Lush uses honey, flowers, synthetic oils, essential oils, as well as bee wax in its production.

It does not use animal fats, neither does it perform animal testing unless in the case of volunteers. This method of production defines its differentiation. Most beauty products, especially gels and oils, are produced using animal fats. There are people who do not like products made from animal fats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, production using animal fats is relatively expensive compared to vegetarian recipes.

The difference is because at times an animal has to be slaughtered for the fat to be accessed, meaning that the company has to buy the animals that are quite expensive compared to plants. This helps in profit maximization by lowering the cost of production.

Differentiation is all about doing things in a different way from others (Heacox, 2009). Lush Company produces its products using different ingredients from most of its competitors.

The world is turning to herbal products, thus any company producing herbal products is better positioned for the current and future market competition. The positioning of Lush Company has been excellent. The company has been able to open over 800 store outlets across 51 countries.

This has helped the company to expand its consumer base and boost its competitive position. Further, the company is well positioned to face the future marketing challenges by producing products whose demand is likely to increase significantly in the future.

The company has offered exceptional services to the beauty industry to an extent that it was awarded The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the year 2010.

This is an award given by the Queen to an individual or an organization that has exhibited exceptional services that are seen to bring a positive influence or change in the society. The award further strengthened the company’s positioning in the market.

We will write a custom Report on Lush Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why the differentiation/positioning has been successful It is possible for a company to produce differentiated goods or services, yet fail to achieve much success (Wormeli, 2007). However, the differentiation in the case of Lush Company has been effective to the extent that it has given the company great success in its marketing.

One of the major reasons why this differentiation has been successful is its use of herbs in its production processes. As mentioned earlier, many people prefer herbal products. This has been an advantage to Lush Company. Lush is an advocate of animal rights.

This has further helped it strengthen its position. The company has been involved in campaigns that advocate for animal rights and fund groups that are engaged in such campaigns.

Another factor that has strengthened its position is the many outlets that it has opened across nations. This helps the company expand its consumer base, increase its sales, and increase its profitability.

Marketing theory applied in the discussion The marketing theory that is applicable in Lush Company’s analysis is the Porter’s generic strategy. This is the strategy that entails differentiation, cost leadership, and focus. The company’s success has been mostly due to its differentiation strategy.

Lush has been able to produce its beauty products in a different way from most of its rivals. Production using vegetarian recipe has been vital to its differentiation strategy (Eldring, 2009).

It is important to note that herbal products are said to be of more value in terms of nutrition compared to animal products. This is a factor that has led to many people preferring the products produced by Lush Company.

Most of the herbal products have a medicinal value, thus they usually affect the skin positively. The products help in addressing some of the skin problems. They also have a better impact on hair growth compared to animal products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lush Company by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More On cost leadership, the Lush Company’s products are well positioned compared to most competing products because plant ingredients are cheaper compared to animal ingredients (Kossowski, 2007).

This lowers the cost of production for the company and the price charged to consumers for the products. Consumers are always willing to pay less and get quality products. Lush fulfils this consumer want and increases their satisfaction in terms of cost.

Finally, focus strategy is also applicable in the marketing of products made by Lush Company. Most cosmetic products are targeted to the ladies. The company, therefore, focuses on females for the sale of its products.

Females buy cosmetics more compared to men, giving the company a competitive advantage. In addition, Lush products can be sold to people with high income, middle income, as well as low income earners.

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Lush Company sells its products mostly to the ladies. It has segmented its market depending on gender and income level. The company has products that are affordable to all income level earners. In addition, it has products for both men and women.

Therefore, market segmentation for Lush Company is based on the level of income for customers, on top of gender. The company targets women mostly since they are the majority buyers of cosmetic products.

Therefore, its major target market is ladies, although it also has products for men in addition to those of women.

Finally, the positioning of the company in the market has been excellent. It is imperative to note that the beauty industry has many players in the market, thus it is highly competitive.

It is, therefore, important for the Lush Company to ensure that it positions itself strategically to win the competition battle. The company has been able to establish a strong position in the market based on its differentiation strategy and its cost leadership (West, Ford,

[supanova_question]

## Iran and Politics – Article Analysis a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Case Study

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Islamic republic of Iran is not a theocracy. Majority of the country’s population is Islam. For a long period, since the Islamic revolution the country was under the rule of Islam fundamentalists.

However, it was during this period that the country experienced the worst political and civil problems. The Islamic majority imposed a theocratic constitution on the secular Iranians, the mild Muslims, and others.

It is also true that at any one time, a fundamentalist Muslim will be at the helm of the political life in Iran owing to their huge demographic numbers. Majority of them will be Islamic leaders leading based on pure principles of Islam including mujahedeen teachings.

The majority may tailor the constitution to theocratic ways. However, these things do not reflect on the entire population of Iran. This paper will use the case study to lay bare more facts that support the view that Iran is not theocratic.

Case Study Chehabi (78) discuses politics and religion of Iran in a journal article published in 1991. He brings about historical facts that constantly paint religion and politics of Iran as the same thing. In most cases, religion takes precedence over politics and affects the political life of Iran.

Although Iran as a nation has historically been led by clerics, the author constantly features historical junctures at which religion clashes with politics leading to rife and unrests.

Since 1906 when Iran faced a constitutional revolution, there had been attempts to impose church to the Iranians. The battle was won in 1906 by secularism. Until 1940’s dictatorship that had no any connection to the church.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The leader of the dictatorship was captured and probably killed before Iran crawled back to self-rule. However, as Chehabi notes, the church, and active involvement in politics had been banned.

The constitution had been designed in such a way that active participation in both religion and politics was not possible. However, this did not stop many clerics from actively participating in the politics of the day.

The author paints a picture of a situation where the clerics may have wanted to participate actively in politics but could not owing to the previously mentioned rules that sought clear demarcations between church and politics.

Shah was the leader of the political outfit of that time. His political domination stretched to the 1960’s. By this time, shah had liberalized and relaxed most of these rules. The author paints a picture of a leader whose soundness of leadership had deteriorated.

Hence, he allowed formation of opposition mainly a controversial concoction of Islamic fundamentalists whom he had subdued for a long time. Islam had been subdued for quite some time. This had led to pent up anger and resentment at the government.

The long stay in power of forces other than church fundamentalists led to establishment of structures that were in favor of all. Although not entirely popular, the regimes had done a good job establishing an operational Iranian society.

Khomeini had become popular with the clear majority Islam fundamentalists. This led to his installation as a leader of politics in Iran in the late 1979. The author brings about the rise of Khomeini quite well.

We will write a custom Essay on Iran and Politics – Article Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a journey filled with a sustained belief that the clergy should play a critical and leading role in the day’s politics. He runs away to stay in Iraq where he continues his doctrine of championing for clergymen to lead the Iranian society and politics. He publishes controversial lectures.

The author notes that this was the highest point of what had become Khomeini’s modus operandi since 1940. His message had reached crescendo and finally Iranians, at least a huge number of them, were listening. This formed the basis for the removal of Shah’s monarchy in 1979.

Dubbed the Islamic revolution, this was the beginning of a sustained attempt to install a theocratic society and leadership in Iran. Everything, from constitution to all cabinet positions was painted in clergy colors. However, as the author details, this was the last time that Iran enjoyed peace.

It was during the reign of Khomeini that catastrophic diplomatic errors were made. For example, the Iraq Iran war dragged on for close to three years following Iraq’s attempts to bring some political sanity in Iran. In the same regime, the US embassy was ambushed and its occupants held hostage.

This was a Khomeini’s reaction to any world installation, be it government, nongovernmental organization, or human rights groups. Locally, any voice that tried to sing the doctrine of separating religion from politics was punished.

Khomeini installed a constitution that recognized Islamic religion and its leadership as the only leadership. Effectively, all government departments fell in the hands of clergy. Non-Muslims fled Iran. Secular Muslims converted to Islam in droves.

The society was quickly becoming an Islamic nation. Schoolchildren were learning many Islamic teachings. The fact secular Islam and non-Islam were not united exacerbated the entrenchment of an Islamic society in Iran. The Khomeini era started facing trouble after internal wrangles.

The post Khomeini era saw a brand new clerisy take over. This group claimed to represent Islam although they did contrary to their teachings. Well, not entirely contrary but they did not conform to the fundamental core of the structures Khomeini had left behind (Chehabi 80).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Iran and Politics – Article Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Conclusion The case study paints a picture where installation of a pure church cum political outfit has faced opposition at every turn.

When they finally took the helm of the government, these clergy installed controversial structures that permeated all government levels, including schools, to instill Islam in society. This was the highest theocracy went in Iran.

It was during the controversial clergy leader’s reign in power- Khomeini. Although Iran has close to 90% of its citizens confessing the Islam religion, part of this huge following could be attributed to structures Khomeini put in place during his era. Of the 90%, not all are fundamental Muslims.

The society may in many occasions elect leaders that are leaning too much toward Islamic fundamentalism. However, this does not make it a theocracy.

Theocracies are purely made of religious outfits. We cannot also say that a country where 90% are Christians, and whose leaders are always Christians, is theocratic. Theocracies have extreme association to teachings of the religion and the fixation sometimes reaches catastrophic levels.

In the case of Iran, the highest theocratic level was registered during Khomeini’s reign.

Subsequent leadership claims to be Islamic and even teaches Islam in schools but a blanket conclusion based on these simple facts that the society is theocratic is erratic. In conclusion, the Islamic Republic of Iran, in my opinion, is not a theocracy.

Works Cited Chehabi, Henry. “Religion and Politics in Iran: How Theocratic is the Islamic Republic?” Religion and Politics 120.3 (1991): 69-91. Print.

[supanova_question]

## The Bible among the Myths Essay (Book Review) best essay help

Introduction The Bible among Myths by John N. Oswalt is among the best apologetics of the recent times. The book seeks to debunk the ideas, which secular scholars have been propagating in the recent years, that the Old Testament chapters of the bible are part of the Ancient Near East Mythology.

In essence, what Oswalt does in this book is to show that any arguments linking the Old Testament with the Ancient Near East Mythology are misguided. In so doing, Oswalt endeavors to make it plain to readers that literature from such scholars is misleading.

In a bid to achieve this goal, Oswalt chooses to approach the book from a polemical viewpoint to convey his point.

His introductory argument anchors on the assertion that in the last five decades much has not changed insofar as the content of the Old Testament is concerned, yet the perception of scholars has radically changed in the same duration (Oswalt 2009, 11-12).

Currently, most scholars have lost esteem for the Old Testament, and to them, it is just another Ancient Near East myth. Some scholars consider the Old Testament as ‘remarkably similar’ to Ancient Near East mythical literature associated with other Semitic religions that originated from the Ancient Near East.

Oswalt dispels this assumption by going to great depths to explain what a myth is in a bid to exclude the Old Testament from such definitions.

Oswalt accomplishes this task in the first section of the book, viz. the first five chapters, which explore the Old Testament alongside the Ancient Near Eastern myths to bring out the contrast between the two.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second section of the book analyses the Old Testament from a historical perspective and eventually concludes that the bible is a historical account to a certain extent.

Chapter 1 The first chapter opens with an assertion that the bible is a key contributor to the Western world’s perception of reality.

The importance attached to the Bible’s contribution in this sense stems from the fact that it greatly influenced ancient Greek philosophy and it continues to influence the perception of the world to date. The influence of the Greek thought on contemporary world perception is explored.

The most illustrious aspects of ancient Greek thought that are inherent in the manner in which we perceive the world today are, according to Oswalt, the notion that human beings live in a universe and not a polyverse (Oswalt 2009, 21).

Oswalt endeavors to show how the Greek pattern of thinking fits in with the biblical perspective of the same. Therefore, he explores the Hebrew perspective of the same issue.

He notes that the Hebrew descendants were monotheists whose principal belief was that there is only one supreme God, who doubles as the creator of the universe.

God revealed himself and his will to humankind, and thus humanity is expected to obey the will and be rewarded or defy it and face punishment.

We will write a custom Book Review on The Bible among the Myths specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The notion of the integration of the Greek philosophy and biblical principles in today’s worldview manifests in the fact that the Greeks believe in the law of non-contradiction, which fits in well with the Jewish idea that God set himself apart from his creation (Oswalt 2009, 25-26).

Oswalt thus notes that logic or rational thinking, which the Greek are credited with as the originators, only came to be after humanity’s acknowledgement of God as the sole creator of the universe.

Oswalt refutes the emerging belief that logic and science can prosper without religion by arguing that the only thing that the two can deliver to humanity is destruction.

He notes that Hiroshima and the Buchenwald concentration camps are the best humanity can achieve through logic and science alone.

Chapter 2 In the second chapter of the book, Oswalt embarks on a mission to set the bible apart from myths by presenting different scholars’ definition of the term and trying to find the definition that suits the bible most.

He starts by pointing out the reductionist viewpoint, which has been assumed by scholars towards the bible since the 1960s. In an attempt to prove that the bible is unique and cannot be equated to Ancient Near Eastern myths, Oswalt examines different definitions of the term ‘myth’.

He carefully examines three definitions of the term and proceeds to show why the bible does not fit with each of the definitions. Specifically, the first definition claims that the most outstanding feature of a myth is the falsity of the narrated occurrence or deity in the narrative (Oswalt 2009, 33).

The distinctive feature of the second definition is that it notes that truth in a myth is relative so that if many people think the myth is true then it is truer than otherwise. In the third definition, events in myths are neither right nor wrong (Oswalt 2009, 38).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bible among the Myths by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More All the three perspectives of a myth espouse the idea of continuity, which claims that all matter in the universe is the same thing. The example employed in the book to explain this idea is that of a man and a tree being the same thing both physically and spiritually.

The fact that the underlying principle is the idea of continuity behind the myths leads Oswalt to define myth in his own way as ‘continuity’.

Oswalt thus notes, “Myth exists to actualize continuity” (Oswalt 2009, 45). From such a position, he is in a position to explicitly outline the intrinsic characteristics of the Christian and pagan perspectives of the world later in the book.

Chapter 3 The third chapter is dedicated to explaining the philosophy of continuity deeply to give clear concept of its assertions as well as Oswalt’s beliefs insofar as the idea is concerned.

All myths have, at their heart, the concept of continuity in which humanity, nature, and the divine are all part of one another.

There is an interconnectedness, which links the physical, the spiritual, and the divine such that their existence is a circular continuum. Continuity is thus a worldview whose essence is mythical thinking.

Oswalt analyses continuity with the intent of articulating its aspects in relation to religious thought. He notes that continuity, if approached from the perspective of a worldview, has numerous effects.

Chief among the effects is the idea of associating some natural signs with certain phenomena (Oswalt 2009, 50-56) that if a certain sign manifests in nature, it symbolizes the arrival or departure of some phenomena.

As an example, he tries to point the link between floods, plagues, and weather patterns among others with reality. Another good example that shows the effect of continuity is given by the use of magic to manipulate the universe in one way or another.

Oswalt gives several other effects of continuity, and in essence, his argument is that myth is nothing, but a way of looking at reality. He proceeds to delineate definitive features of myths. Among them, all, but a few myths, share the idea that there are numerous gods.

Chapter 4 In this chapter, attention shifts from examining the features of myths to examining the features of the bible. In essence, Oswalt moves from the continuity worldview to give a biblical worldview, which he calls transcendence.

The main idea behind transcendence is that God exists apart from the universe and there is no continuity between the physical and spiritual planes.

According to Oswalt, transcendence manifests in everything that the bible highlights about reality and he explains the distinctive features of the Old Testament such as monotheism, iconoclasm, and the value attached to humankind coupled with the origin of acceptable ethical standards (Oswalt 2009, 64).

A key feature of the bible that emerges from the description is that apart from the bible religion, viz. Christianity, all other religions are polytheistic except Judaism and Islam whose origin is accounted for in the bible.

Thus, the key feature of the Old Testament in this respect is that Yahweh is the one and only God. This feature also applies to the rest of the bible. A different key feature of the bible is that before the universe came to be, God already existed.

Thus, God created anything that exists in the universe out of nothing, which is a distinguishing feature of the bible. Another distinguishing feature of the bible in chapter four is that humanity is held in high esteem unlike in myth where humans are lowly creatures.

This assertion by Oswalt fits in with the idea that man was created in the image of God and he was given authority over all creation. Several other features of the bible are described, but all of them point to the idea that transcendence underpins every distinguishing feature of the bible.

Chapter 5 Oswalt proceeds with his argument on why the bible is not a myth. This pursuit compels him to explore the ethical standards demanded of humanity in an attempt to show that the Ancient Near East and other secular world perceptions.

Therefore, he expounds the concept of ethics from the perspective of the Ancient Near East and other secular worldviews. Oswalt notes that these worldviews held two distinct standards of ethics. Of these two, the first standard delineates how humankind should interact with its own.

Concisely, it defines what is expected of every individual insofar as relating with one another is concerned. The other standard of non-biblical ethics explained how humankind was supposed to relate with numerous gods, which myths claim to exist.

Every god had a particular way in which humanity was supposed to approach him/her and carry out his/her instructions. This aspect sets the bible apart from myth completely because in the bible, God set a single standard of ethics for humanity.

The standards that were expected of humankind when Christianity began are the same standards expected of humanity today because the God of today is the same God that existed even before he created anything (Oswalt 2009, 85-87).

The idea of same ethical standards for all humanity leads Oswalt to compare the similarities that exist between Israelites and non-Israelites.

He outlines a number of areas, which exhibit similarities between the two groups, but he is quick to point out that such similarities are a matter of coincidence.

He does not believe that such similarities were intended to exist between the two groups. His main point as he closes the first section is that the bible’s perspective is unique and distinct from other perspectives and thus it is not a myth.

Chapter 6 The second section of the book begins with this chapter. The gist of Oswalt’s argument in this section is the historicity of the Old Testament. He is keen to note that the widely accepted historical ideology came from the bible.

In a bid to prove this argument, he begins by examining the definition of history. Though there are several definitions, he examines them and coins his own, which he believes is the best.

The theme of his definition is that for a text qualifies as history, it has to focus on human activity in “time and space, exist for the purpose of human self-knowledge, attempt to be an accurate account, and include an attempt to evaluate” (Oswalt 2009, 113).

With this definition in place, he proceeds to examine other ancient pieces of writing. His intention is to point out that the writing may be insightful in giving an idea about ancient culture and other aspects of life, but clearly, they meet the criteria for qualification as history.

The different ancient forms of writing are listed and the purpose for each of them outlined, but all of them are found to fall short of qualifying as history because they distort the true account of events or they unnecessarily focus on particular individuals at the expense of many among other reasons.

Oswalt then proceeds to point out how the bible is different from other forms of ancient writing.

He endeavors to prove that the bible fits into the definition of history he coins because the bible, unlike other forms of ancient writings, depicts humans as fallible characters who have notable flaws inherent in the human nature (Oswalt 2009, 124-127).

He uses the outstanding example of King David who is hailed as the greatest king in the bible, but he committed adultery and murder of a woman’s husband.

Chapter 7 In this section, since the author has already concluded that the bible is history, he sets out to dispel the arguments leveled against the historical nature of the bible.

He notes that some of the issues that have cast doubt on the bible’s historicity include revelations and supernatural events, which were associated with the Israelites. Oswalt proceeds to note that God was keen on ensuring that Israelites recorded true accounts of their experiences.

The main point that comes out here is that the bible points out clearly that God has made everything that is known to humans known via human-historical experience. Oswalt is keen to point out to the reader that the bible is an accurate account of the past.

The idea of accuracy and history features in his definition of history earlier in the book. According to him, accuracy is one of the key yardsticks for determining what is historical and what is not.

Thus, in the case of the bible, God preternaturally manifested his being to the Jews to make sure that whatever they chronicled was a true record of what they had seen and heard.

This aspect, according to Oswalt, qualifies the bible as historical despite the criticisms leveled against it. He is also careful not to touch on biblical passages, which would discredit his argument on the historicity of the bible.

Chapter 8 In chapter eight, Oswalt continues to argue his case about the accuracy of the bible, which makes it historical.

Therefore, chapter seven and chapter eight are somewhat like a single section for they address the problems associated with history in an effort to distance the bible from such problems and prove beyond doubt that it is indeed historical.

Like in the previous chapter, his energy is directed towards proving that the bible is a historically accurate document. With this knowledge, he urges the reader to note that the entire bible is historical because books included therein give accounts of real people and their patterns of life.

An important element of the accounts is that it does not attempt to hide their flaws, which typically picture them as ordinary humans. Oswalt goes a little bit deeper to bring out what the term history really means.

In so doing, he uses the German and Norwegian versions of the term Geschichte and Historie respectively. He shows how the translation of the term into different languages could distort the underlying meaning.

He notes that the German version refers to a narrative while the Norwegian version refers to an actual event (Oswalt 2009, 157).

In concluding this section, Oswalt notes that the bible is historical and that its historical nature cannot be isolated from theology because the essence of theology is history and to crown all these arguments, he quotes Apostle Paul who wrote that faith could not exist if people do not believe in Jesus Christ’s resurrection, which is a historical event.

Chapter 9 This section is the penultimate chapter of the book. Oswalt thus begins to lay the ground for his conclusion. He does this identifying a few scholars who have given alternative viewpoints on the bible.

Among those he identifies are “John Van Seters, Frank Moore Cross, William Dever, and Mark Smith” (Oswalt 2009, 172). What Oswalt does at this point is to debunk the viewpoints of all these scholars by identifying a key idea in their work and pointing out how it is misguided and thus false.

He begins by critiquing Van Seters’ claim that Jewish priests tampered with the bible after the Babylonian exile so that according to this scholar, the bible is not in its originally intended form (Oswalt 2009, 172).

Oswalt refutes this assertion and points out that it is false. He also refutes Cross’ claim that the bible was an epic poem before being changed to what it is today (Oswalt 2009, 175).

In the two instances, Oswalt position is that the bible has never undergone any alteration or changes save for translation into different languages.

Oswalt proceeds to debunk other viewpoints from scholars such as William Dever who firmly believes that the Judaic belief system was similar to the Canaanite belief system, yet the similarities were ignored by scholars thus pitching the Israelite belief system as unique when it actually was not.

Oswalt rejects this perspective as misguided and false, as to him, this kind of literature misleads its readers. Oswalt also rejects Mark Smith’s argument, which claims that the Israelite system of belief traces its roots to the Canaanite polytheistic belief system (Oswalt 2009, 181).

This argument undermines the accounts of the bible, which it records that only one God existed before creation and he created everything that exists in the universe. In essence, it undermines the concept of transcendence as elaborated by Oswalt in chapter four. Thus, it cannot hold as true.

Chapter 10 This chapter is the concluding section of the book whereby Oswalt sums up all his key arguments, which allows him to take a strong stand that the bible is a unique and special writing and is thus not a myth.

The major ideas he conveys are the disparity between the biblical worldview or biblical perception of reality and the secular or non-biblical perceptions of the world.

He is keen to point out that the biblical perspective finds its essence in the concept of transcendence while the non-biblical perspective has its essence in the concept of continuity.

In a bid to make his point on the superiority of the bible over Ancient Near East literature and other non-biblical writings, he points out that the Western world has embraced the worldview of continuity, hence the downturn in morality that is witnessed in its societies.

Here, he further propagates the idea that nothing good can come out of humanity if the influence of God is missing. Therefore, the bible cannot fall within the precepts of the definition of a myth.

Reference Oswalt, John. 2009. The Bible among the myths: Unique revelation or just ancient literature? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

[supanova_question]

## Cloud computing Summary Case Study essay help: essay help

Cloud computing has been gaining popularity for the last few decades. In fact, small as well as large organizations have realized the potential of cloud in saving costs of procurement, installation and maintaining data storage systems.

Synchronized sectors, including banking, have realized such benefits in utilizing cloud computing. It is imperative for organizations to make rational decisions before transferring data and information to the cloud.

Despite the variety of advantages, the concept has presented to the end-users, there is also a range of risks associated with data and information security and privacy. However, limited research has been conducted, considering that the concept is relatively new.

This study explores the confidentiality, information integrity, data theft, information loss, data location, data deletion, malicious insiders and account hijacking as well as data segregation.

By utilizing this literature, the researcher aims to propose ways in which privacy and security of data can be guaranteed.

Cloud computing can be regarded as the transfer and storage of data in shared networks. Contemporarily, customers loose personal data and information to malicious individuals.

Thus, this study has been motivated by the increasing use of cloud services that expose data to potential mishandling and disclosure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research hence seeks to make appropriate mitigation recommendations against data security and privacy on clouds. In clarifying this study, the risks involved with clouding require further research.

That is, there is a variety of gaps in previous works, as they have not sufficiently addressed data security and privacy. In order to accomplish this, the research method utilized in this research require existing literature on cloud computing.

The researcher’s knowledge of cloud computing was also imperative. Limited knowledge by stakeholders necessitated the analysis of cloud computing unit.

According to literature review, the client organization risks the information and data being exposed by the host’s staff. Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) has addressed such concerns. Cloud computing involves storing data and information on shared networks.

Hence, research questions included whether the concept has been previously threatened. The methodology utilized sought to consider whether existing literature has sufficient information on data security and privacy on clouds or not.

The research found three main cloud-computing platforms namely Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).

The information security concerns that organizations require to address before engaging a cloud-computing provider include confidentiality, information integrity, data theft, information loss, data location, data deletion, malicious insiders, account hijacking and data segregation.

We will write a custom Case Study on Cloud computing Summary specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This research argues that the priority of the customer in utilizing cloud service converts from that of installing and maintaining the equipment to service accessibility, the degree of performance of the cloud, data privacy, information security and data control to save costs.

In view of this, the research recommends that the first step towards ensuring confidentiality, security and privacy of data and information stored in cloud is to ensure that agreements of service include these provisions.

The agreements should also stipulate circumstances that may make the provider to disclose part or full information to third parties, including government authorities as information and data has been disclosed to unauthorized individuals in the past.

The study also argues that cloud hosts have mishandled client information in the past, including Facebook and Google. It then recommends auditing in closing the gaps.

The research is essential theoretically in the sense that it creates a platform for further research. Inherently, it makes practical contributions that should be considered to moderate against data or information privacy and security.

The research concludes that there is dire need for further research into privacy and security issues with regard to cloud computing.

[supanova_question]

## Epistemological Nature of the Knowledge and Skills Needed for Real Estate Management Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Real estate management involves the operational control and responsibility bestowed in an organization or an individual person over some given assets.

A real estate manager needs to apply science, pseudoscience and ideology of the day to day operations so as to achieve their desired goals.

Successful real estate managers require epistemological knowledge relevant to the estate in order to execute their mandate as well as responsibilities successfully. Epistemology is concerned with the nature, sources and limits of knowledge about a particular field.

The managers need to understand the link between empirical, rhetoric and social constructivism in order to be successful. Pseudoscience is usually the rhetorical part of management where the managers depend on their guts to make decisions.

The nature of pseudoscience is untested and is a limited way of gaging things, although it is very important in real estate valuation and development and also when buying new estates on the market (Kvanvig 2008).

Social constructionism applies ideologies that are as a result of the society. It requires the real estate manager to jointly adhere to the social setting of a given society in order to achieve effective communication.

Thus, it implies that one will not communicate elaborately with a given group of people without prior knowledge of their social environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ideology also relates to the laws of the state the real estate manager intends to have their property, the manager should at all times ensure they understand the state and county laws that directly affect the real estate business.

Real estate managers apply the concept of ideology to deal directly with tenants who belong to a certain social class and before entering into managerial contracts, real estate managers are required to understand the social setting of the location of the property to be managed. This will adequately prepare the managers on the kind of clients to expect.

Prior knowledge of expected tenants will subsequently help the real estate managers prepare on the best communication methodology to employ in dealing with the same tenants.

Thus, it is important for real estate managers to carry out a thorough scrutiny and assessment of the social setting before finally agreeing to take over as managers of the property in discussion.

Managers who plunge into estate management without prior knowledge end up in constant wrangles with tenants. Sometimes the worst scenario may occur; no tenants at all.

Science is often considered a recipe for finding the ‘truth’ about some the issue of real estate management is a business venture and subsequently involves a huge capital investment.

A real estate developer takes over a dilapidated building and renovates it back to life before finally leasing it out to tenants. All these activities require a critical asset valuation and budget allocation to avoid non-profitable involvements as well as good background knowledge of real estate law.

We will write a custom Essay on Epistemological Nature of the Knowledge and Skills Needed for Real Estate Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scientific knowledge will help the manager formulate hypotheses and work on them to ascertain the viability of the contract.

For instance, real estate managers dealing with buildings require scientific knowledge on the lifespan of such buildings as well as susceptibility to natural catastrophes like flooding and lightning strikes.

Science knowledge thus helps estate managers to ascertain their willingness to enter certain contracts (Shermer

[supanova_question]

## Is Bottled Water Ethical? Report essay help online

Why People Have Embraced Bottled Water

Impact of Bottled Water on the Environment

Ethical Issues Regarding Bottled Water

Organizational Social Responsibility

How to Promote Recycling

Benefits of Recycling

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The bottled water industry is one that has grown tremendously in the contemporary society, with multinational corporations such as Pepsi, Coke and Nestle earning billions of dollars in the form of returns annually from the sale of water.

Bottled water is simply clean water produced either by reverse osmosis, distillation or de-ionization of regular or tap water. It can be sparkling water, which is basically carbonated water, or glacial water, which is water obtained directly from a glacier.

Natural water on the other hand is obtained from a specific and recommended underground source which is not from the municipal water supply system. Mineral and spring water is from an underground source which contains relatively high amounts of dissolved mineral salts.

There is also artesian water, which is water from a well that bears an underground layer of sand or preferably rocks.

Bottled water has been a source of major debates and research on why citizens would prefer to spend a lot of money in purchasing something that is available for free in the society.

One side of the debaters believes that the selling of bottled water is a practice that is unethical as water is freely available in the environment, and again it leads to unnecessary use of resources in packaging and distributing such water, when it can be easily fetched from the tap.

A study conducted in the United States revealed that citizens of the United States consumed up to 8.45 gallons of water that has been bottled in 2009, an aspect that saw them spend \$10.6 billion on the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interesting part was that the citizens paid 1000 more times for bottled water in comparison to the tap water cost, when most the same bottled water had been drawn from the municipal tap water.

It is thus an issue of concern that the public would prefer to embrace a practice that leads to wastage of resources and imposes on them high economic costs, when they can easily obtain the commodity naturally from the environment (Gallagher 2011).

Why People Have Embraced Bottled Water The major drive behind the high consumption of bottled water is the appeal that is created by the packaging used (Gleick 2010). Bottled water companies have embraced various advanced marketing strategies, with the major one being the use of the packaging to attract their consumers.

The bottles used in packaging bottled water to always make the water to appear cooler and healthier than the tap water. However, it is evident that tap water is as safe as bottled water for consumption.

Using blind taste tests, a study was conducted with the aim of differentiating between tap water and bottled water. It was identified from the study that the participants were not able to differentiate between tap water and bottled water through taste.

The study reveals that there is no much difference between these two categories of water. In any case, bottle water is only but a purified version of tap water.

This does not mean that tap water is not clean; the filters are only used to further clean the tap water that is already clean enough for consumption.

We will write a custom Report on Is Bottled Water Ethical? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The incorporation of beautiful images such as those of springs and mountains on the water bottles and further adding of terms such as pure on the pack creates an impression of the extra purity of the bottled water as compared to tap water.

As a result, they are pushed towards preferring bottled water (Bartol et al. 2011, p. 2).

Other forms of impression such as images of pregnant women consuming bottled water have also been developed in the marketing of bottled water, thus further building a perception of the water being healthier among the consumers (Natural Resources Defence Council 2013).

The bottled water companies also develop terms on the packaging which define the origin of water as a place full of purity.

For instance, water may be displayed as originating from the Andes, and an image of a stream emanating from the mountain is added in the package just to emphasize the purity of the water.

This kind of display and the use of special terms to define the origin of water create a healthy impression of the water.

Other companies also develop beautiful advertisements that are used to capture the attention of the consumers and thus to facilitate purchases of bottled water (Saylor, Prokopy

[supanova_question]

## Scouts Canada Membership Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help

Organizational Culture

Change of Management Team

Strategic Management

Case Analysis Since its inception, Scouts Canada enjoyed massive membership as well as support from various institutions. It was among the first organizations to advise people on importance of conserving the environment. It was a vibrant organization which attracted many people especially the youth.

This was depicted by the high number of members who joined throughout the country. Moreover, the organization bragged of having high ethical values which were passed on from generation to generation.

However, the organization dwelled so much on the old methods of operation and was left behind when the wave of change was sweeping through the world. As a result, the membership of the organization started dwindling.

Many people who joined the organization as its members at a young age lost interest mid way and pulled out. Arguably, this was due to programs that were not in the interest of members. Volunteer support which is crucial for the progress of the organization also declined.

The worst scenario occurred when its leaders were accused of sexual abuse. This meant that the organization that was once respected for upholding high discipline among its members lost its glory.

Consequently, to recapture its position in the society and increase its members, Scouts Canada needed to strategize its actions. Some steps had to be taken to salvage the pride of the organization.

Organizational Culture Among the issues that Scouts Canada considered necessary to change was its organizational culture. It should be noted that success of any organization highly depends on the corporate culture of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organizational culture sends a message to the outside world about the organization’s commitment to achieving its vision. For an organization to succeed, all members of the organization must have a common vision which should also be the vision of the organization.

Consequently, all members of the organization should work towards achieving organizational goals and ideas. Similarly, moral as well as ethical code of conduct must be implemented to regulate behavior of the members.

Realizing that organizational culture is important, Scouts Canada decided to make its core visions, values and ideas part of its organizational culture. Each and every member needed to internalize the values of the organization and work towards achieving them.

It should be noted that this approach has several advantages to the organization. To begin with, the organization had been faced with moral issues that tainted its image. Changing organizational culture meant coming up with new moral code of conduct that the members should adhere to.

This will send a message to the public that the organization has changed thus enhancing its public image.

On the same note, the organization had been using the same method of operation over the years. However, needs of the organization were not the same as they had been right after its foundation.

The change in the needs and purposes meant that the visions and ideas of the organization had also changed. This required a change in the organizational culture to achieve them. Most importantly, the environment in which the organization was operating has changed drastically.

We will write a custom Case Study on Scouts Canada Membership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Probably, sticking to the old organizational culture in the face of many new changes in the society was the reason why many members withdrew from the organization. As a result, changing the organizational culture was inevitable.

Nevertheless, changing the organizational culture has its own disadvantages for any organization. Firstly, there is a possibility of resistance from some members who do not want changes, especially the old members.

These members have been used to the old mode of operation and they view any change as a threat to their status quo. As a result, they are bound to reject the changes thus distracting smooth running of the organization.

Similarly, it is also possible that the change of organizational culture may send wrong information to the public about the organization being unstable. Instead of the organization enhancing its activities, the change may lead to the opposite effects.

Change of Management Team It has been depicted that management of Scouts Canada had been for a long time left for the old people. On the same note, management of the organization was involved in a very shameful scandal of sexual abuse.

This negatively portrayed Scouts Canada as far as ethical and moral codes of conduct were concerned. Many people might have advised their children not to join the organization thinking that they would have been taught bad behaviors.

Moreover, since people may consider the management of the organization as a characteristic of its other members’ behavior, there is a high possibility that many people would assume the sexual abuse claims against the management to reflect the behavior of the whole organization.

Change of management was, therefore, an unavoidable step to save the face of the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Scouts Canada Membership by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More It should be noted that this step is beneficial in any organization. To begin with, the fact that young people joined the organization and lost interest in it as they grew up sent a message of incompetence among the management team.

There had to be something that the youth did not like in the organization. Additionally, there is no way that the organization will purport to have changed if all the members of management team retain their positions.

Moreover, for an organization that mostly deals with youths, it is important to have young people in management positions. It is important to note that young people are more vibrant and can help in developing new ideas that can propel an organization.

Moreover, since the organization wants to come up with new strategies for its operations in the future, the best idea is to change the management team hiring young energetic people.

Similarly, technological advancements have necessitated the inclusion of young people in management due to their creativity.

Nevertheless, changing the management team may have several drawbacks.

Firstly, there is a possibility of opposition from other managers on whether some of them should be replaced by young employees.

On the same note, there is a possibility of disagreements between the old members and the young members of management. These frictions may affect and even deter some operations of the organization.

Additionally, change in management can reduce the output of the organization because employees may take time to adjust to the new management system. This is due to the fact that new management members may come up with new strategies taking time to be absorbed.

Arguably, change in management should not be regular as this will make members more concerned with the issues of management changes thus reducing their productivity.

Strategic Management Any change in the external environment should be addressed quickly to avoid negative impacts. Scouts Canada was for a long time stagnant as it could not come up with the decision on the change of their strategic plans. Their operating strategies became obsolete and nothing was done about it.

Consequently, the organization was left behind when other organizations were changing. Its marketing strategies had become redundant with time. As a result, achieving the vision of the organization had become a problem.

Implementing strategic management is crucial because it helps in aligning organizational goals to marketing strategies of a firm. Unless marketing strategies are enhanced, the achievement of organizational goals is a daunting task.

Moreover, strategic management is very crucial in enhancing organizational culture. On the same note, strategic management is crucial in ensuring that an organization responds positively to changes in society which are essential for success of any organization.

However, coming up with new strategies does not guarantee success of a firm. While it is expected that new strategies implemented will be effective, there are still chances that the implemented strategy will fail to work. Moreover, it is not obvious how future events will turn out.

As a result, a strategy designed to be in place for two or three years might be redundant in a year or less. On the same note, implementing strategic changes might be expensive for Scouts Canada. This is due to the fact that it is a non-profit making organization.

Additionally, strategic management processes do not usually give results as quickly as people may want them to. As a result, Scouts Canada may take some time before the benefits of implementing strategic management are realized.

Arguably, members of the organization must support the changes being implemented if they want the process of change to be smooth. Nonetheless, every organization has members who do not accept changes and they may hinder the transformation.

[supanova_question]

## P custom essay help

Management differs from one organization to another due to the differences in size and income. Multinationals, SMEs, and global organizations have different styles of management since they deal with different cultures, employees, and clients in various areas of investment.

At the global and multinational level, an organization has to adjust to international management standards in order to be successful in business.

Organizations like McDonalds, KFC, and P

[supanova_question]

## The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help

Introduction Economic environment is a study area of economic and has a major focus is environmental issues. The central part of economic environment is market failure. Therefore, for effective economic environment, the management of an organization must focus on market success. For instance, marketing strategies must be employed to have effective environmental economics.

An international company has its market spread across countries in the world. Therefore, their market strategies and to the extent environmental economics are not confined in country of origin. This paper analyzes market strategies and environmental economics for Haier Company; an international company dealing with consumer electronics and a number of home appliances.

Background Economic environment of any business largely depends on the kind of strategies that are used in managing competition. Most importantly, these are the strategies that are used by a company to move goods and services closer to the targeted consumers. Therefore, most of the economic environments are usually shaped by marketing strategies that have been put in place.

Additionally, use of well enhanced technologies and carrying out situational researches has been perceived to be viable means of understanding how well to invest productively. For an international organization such as Haier Company, all of the economic environments and marketing strategies must fit within the international demand for goods and services.

Therefore, in analyzing the best forms of marketing strategies, management of competition must be put into consideration. In other words, there can be no successes if companies do not have sufficient competitive niches in the market. In the case of a company such as Haier which has a major focus on electronics, its competitive niche would mainly dwell on large volume of sales compared to its rivals.

The structure of any company must also reflect modernity, and must be strategically instituted to control competition in the marketplace. Haier Company has a hierarchical form of management or organizational structure. At face value, hierarchical form of structure is equated to bureaucratic form of management. As a matter of fact, there are some negative attributes of this kind of management.

However, this company has utilized the latter management style to emerge strong especially during turbulent economic times. For example, the company had an easy way of coming out of the global financial crisis of 2009 which saw a number of companies halt their operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, this company uses this kind of management structure to control its human resource management, accounting and other factors necessary for effective marketing. Since it is based in China, this company has used the Chinese culture of management of organization, but tries as much to customize its products in targeted markets.

There are several strategies that this company utilizes. Among them, customization of products, brand positioning and positioning of its exports are very critical.

For example, the company studies any new market in the world before moving in. if the company is to open a branch in a country such as America; the first thing is to understand the cultures of people in this part of the world for the purposes of customization. As well, the company cares about its image. For good internationalization, the company has to first come up with an image for each region targeted.

According to Rickets (2003, p. 379), economic environment is vital towards sustenance of a company in any competitive market. It is not always that various factors of economic environment add up to profitability. Some are risks and should be handled with due care.

Therefore, it is important for a company to evaluate its programs on a regular basis and devise factors to be used in developing it (Kayne, 2005, p. 231). This paper discusses important concepts in economic environment using Haier Company as the case study.

Haier Company This is a multinational company dealing with consumer electronics as well as general home appliances. Its history dates back in 1920 although it was formally incepted long before the aforementioned year. Its initial economic activities were supplying refrigerators to the Chinese market where it was based.

It is located in China, Qingdao and some of its products include mobile phones, air conditioners, washing machines, computers, micro ovens, televisions and refrigerators.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has had a good run since its inception. For example, in 2010, the company was rated to have one of the huge market shares with a 6.1% acceptance in white goods. The company has been turned into government owned by People’s Republic of China.

Company Structure The company has a hierarchical type of organizational structure which has been noted to have brought in high competitive advantages. Most importantly, this company has managed to survive even during the most turbulent environments. According to Yonggui and Hing-Po (2002, pp. 38-50), a hierarchical mode of governance can help to great lengths in managing a company during tough economic times.

The present forms of environmental turbulence require advanced form of management structures, especially the structures that can initiate control mechanism. Hierarchical forms of management are most bureaucratic. However, it is the middle management that is tasked with managing the market matters.

These are like the competitiveness of the company. According to Conklin (2006, p. 310), the hierarchical type of structure is not favored because it is most anti-social.

This company has a simple yet hierarchical structure. The board of directors in this company forms the topmost administrative posts in this company. Then, the company has some sectors that help in giving the company a more administrative impact.

For example, immediately after the board of directors is the business sectors dealing with the washing machines, a business sector dealing with water heaters and a business sector dealing with integrated channels. The company has a world wide spread image. Each of the branches in the world has structures similar to the one at the headquarters and has some administrative independence.

The management is decentralized; however, each of the branches of the company has hierarchical administration that ensures that there are effective control mechanisms. This has helped the company emerge strong in the competitive market, and mostly, in managing some of the turbulent times such as the financial crisis of 2009.

The following represent a typical diagram that suits the organizational structure of the company:

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Sull and Wang (2005, p. 107) note that this company has a top down kind of management prioritization. This is where the top management has total control of what is to be done in an organization. Even though it is not compulsory that the management controls everything that happens in the company, there must be information to be relayed to the management.

For example, the middle level administrative officers may come up with an idea. Before it is implemented, the top managers must be informed. It is an effective way to make sure that everything is under tight controls and there are minimal chances of misuse. For example, a company may have problems with its accounting simply because there is democracy in the company.

If the middle level managers are allowed to make decisions haphazardly, it is possible that the company can collapse. On the other hand, putting so much of controls may be counterproductive. Writing about this, Zastrow (2009, p. 84) notes that hierarchical kind of management structure can be equated to bad bureaucracy.

The top most management position filled by board of directors recognizes the critical roles that are played by various sectors in the company. Also the board recognizes that all of the corporate practices have to be sound and efficient operations. Failure to do this would force the company to undertake immediate and stringent measures to sustain it.

The board is the overall manager and makes sure that all parts are well managed. This is most hierarchical and bureaucratic form of control. Zhou (2004, p. 9) notes that most of Chinese companies adopt this kind of structure, and such forms of management in various companies have made the industries not suffer from turbulent times in the world.

Being a Chinese company with its presence in the whole world, it has to adapt to structures used by most companies.

The top management of this company is assisted by various groups and committees. For example, there is the audit committee, the nomination committee, the company’s secretary office and Principal bankers, the stakeholders, independent non executive directors, the non executive directors, and remuneration committee among others. All of these are very important in this company as they help in streamlining management.

For example, the audit committee oversees all forms of transactions especially on irregularities while the remuneration committee looks at the welfare of the employees. There are groups of individuals in the company who are tasked with analyzing the welfare of current and probable customers.

Market construction for Haier Company Market construction is part of strategic management analysis of a company. For Haier Company, strategic management analysis aims at reducing the costs operation and increasing effectiveness of the market. This company uses situational researches to explore on new markets and breaking barriers present in markets.

It has surveillance personnel who detect anything unusual about a particular market and possibilities of success in a new market for advising the top management. The company starts from simple concepts especially on production to large volumes depending on the nature of target markets. However, this company also has a focus on its local markets. Domestically, the company has agents such as specialty shops and inn in inn.

Market concentration for Haier Company This is an economics term which also goes with terms such as seller concentration and industry concentration. Generally, it refers to distributions of goods and services or production within the industry. This is opposed distributions of company production in the market. Haier Company has achieved a lot of market concentration especially with its washing machines.

During inflations and major global crisis, its products continued to exert force in the industry simply because of good management issues. The company utilizes local raw materials to lower its production costs.

Production differentiation and Haier Company Product differentiation refers to process and means of distinguishing an offering or a product from the others. Haier Company offers unique services that are different from other companies. For example, this company has what it calls a three-in-one framework of operation and this is complete with a localization design.

The company uses local employees and financing strategies in creating a global image/brand. The products which carry this brand are unique. However, the greatest uniqueness is in the way it engages and entering of market.

Barriers of entrance and exit for Haier Company Being in the market mean that the image of the company is taken as it is presented. However, entering of the market and establishing the company is a hard thing. This is also the case with exiting the company. This company had to use varying strategies to enter the market, and has had problems exiting.

For example, when this company was establishing its e-business strategy, there were external barriers. They included poor technical infrastructure in China market and unwillingness from targeted customers. At times, this company finds itself in bad situations and wishes to exit but hasn’t been successful due to the image it has already established.

Marketing strategies As noted earlier, marketing strategies are part of the economic environment of any company. According to Paley (2006, p. 324), effective marketing strategies can make a company win a sizeable share of the market competition. In essence, any company in the world, and especially the multinational companies such as Haier Company aim at gaining or going deeper into the market.

Any company should invest a lot in finding out the new means of approaching the market and eventually winning the competition. However, important in this is to understand the existing and possible incomers. For a company such as Haier Company, the managers should look at ways of improving the field of electronics.

Especially, this field of marketing is improving by day, and therefore should make sure that each new strategy employed in the competitive market is known for the purposes of countering competition. The company should also look at ways of managing global issues in regard to marketing.

There are seven major marketing techniques or strategies that have been analyzed to win in the competitive market. Kaynak (1993, p.32) analyzes them as; creation of a selling point, using testimonials, lowering of prices, painting pretty the benefits, creation of some means of attention in getting to the paper headlines, and provision of offers that customers may not resist.

Even though Haier Company cannot use all of them, there are some key strategies in these that have to be applied to remain relevant in the competitive world market. Among others, management of prices, understanding of the customers and clear advertising forms has to be used. However, the company should not use of the strategies blindly.

There should always a proper mechanism to move into the market, especially the new markets. Important in this is carrying out of informative researches that will give the company a benchmark to initiate various marketing strategies.

No particular company can ignore the critical role played by economic environment. Gerber (2007, p.34) defines economic environment as the factors that have direct impacts and effects on the management and marketing of a company.

Such factors and measures include the policies, the systems in the company, the trade cycles, the levels of income in the company, the economic resources, and the wealth of the company and distributions channels (Gerber, 2007, p. 34). There are five major points of economic environments.

These are the economic conditions, the economic legislations, the international economic environment, the economic policies and the economic systems. All of these work towards guiding any company towards sound management plus strategic management of marketing.

Before moving into the market, a company should always invest in understanding various components of economic environment. Among others, the company must understand the Politics, Environment, Society and Technological advancements in the competitive world.

Most importantly, any economic environment must include management of people. People must be integrated in all policies that have to be implemented in the company. This is because all forms of management are done by people and assisted by other factors such as the technology.

The company must also evaluate itself before moving in to the market. According to Wan (2004, p. 293), failure to put in investments for researches before marketing may mean the company may fail to capture key issues in economic environment.

Haier Company and Marketing Strategies As noted in the discussion, Haier Company is one of the companies in the world which have made successes in marketing and in its economic environments. The approach to its marketing is aligned to the definition of the market as an effective plan or arrangement meant to bring two important players in the arrangement namely the seller and the buyer for the purposes of understanding each other.

However, just as it is the case with any other seller, Haier Company seeks to have value for its goods and hoping that the customers would get value of their money from the goods and services.

This company operates under the guise of perfect competition. Firms in such kind of an arrangement or situation checks their prices, improves their technological use and invests a lot in human resource. This company has made to do all of this in one stride; that is, there is high innovation in the company, human resource is well compensated and their prices are fair.

This company has also had strong strategies meant for survival. Companies which do not have survival tactics are caught in between their successes and turbulent times. According to Swanson (2004, p. 33), marketing strategies that are concerned with survival is the name of the game especially in companies in developed nation. 2009 was a year which all companies were faced with turbulent times in terms of finances.

The companies which were not prepared for such problems went down a great deal. However, for companies such as Haier which already had survival strategies management through those turbulent times.

Haier Company and survival strategies: Strategic internationalization In China, the market became competitive, and therefore the profitability of this company went down. It was time to make the company up again in profitability. One strategy to do this was to spread the wings of the company. There was high need to internalize the goods and services. However, the company could not have moved to international market having not thought about it strategically.

What was needed was strategic internationalization or policies that would help the company move out of its base in an effective manner. One way of doing this was to think in global terms but acting locally.

That is, employing the terms of Chinese market but placing them strategically in international markets. The stages the company used to do this was; first to be a defender of its policies, second to be a contender in the international market, and third to use orthodox methods such as dodging.

Positioning in exports The company has placed its goods and services strategically in the international market. This has had positive impacts over the years. The strategy in positioning of its goods has been customizing the goods and services it provides. For example, any kind of innovation in its electronic goods is based on situational research.

The company must first understand what the customers in various positions wants. If customers in East Africa want computers which have power supplies which can accommodate high temperatures, the company would come up with such a measure and try to put the goods in such a market.

Management of market competition

This company is an example of companies which have managed their competition in the market well. As noted earlier, this company engages a market strategically and must follow situation researches before getting into a particular form of competition.

One way of doing this is by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of a company. According to Rogers (2001, p. 22), any marketing strategy must have analysis of its competition, and this includes looking at the strengths, the weaknesses, opportunities and threats that a company have.

Haier Company and brand image Any company wishing to manage its affairs well in the market must focus on building a strong image for itself. According to Sengupta (2005, p. 75), brand positioning in the market is a good marketing strategy and should never be ignored. In its course of researching for new markets, this company utilizes the marketing personnel to analyze how best the image can fit in the company.

For example, being a Chinese company, it is possible that some markets may not welcome it well. However, this company has a strategy of positioning its brand in any form of markets.

The first thing is to know the likes of the particular customers and then customize the services and goods into that particular market. For example, if Chinese culture is not welcome in America, the first thing is to make a change in culture in the kind of branch to be opened therefore.

Monopoly in production of electronic and home appliances This company has had to wade its way in a concentrated market. However, it managed through some effective strategies. This industry has had monopolies. For example, Indian companies have been known to concentrate in production of electronics and home appliances. The companies control the market, and therefore companies such as Haier have to either employ a tactic to win the competition or else two the line of Indian companies.

Conclusions Economic environment of a company encompasses several elements. Most importantly, the marketing strategies and how to place goods and services in a market is indeed crucial. In order to achieve this, there have to be myriad of strategies in place such as good positioning of goods and services and proper exporting if the company is an international one.

Haier Company is an electronic company which has its base and corporate culture from China. However, this company has managed to penetrate new markets using proper marketing strategies.

The company has managed severally to emerge victorious even during turbulent times such as financial crisis of 2009. This is because it has good management of all factors of production and marketing. The company has a hierarchical structure of management; however, it is successful in all aspects.

References Conklin, D. W. 2006. Cases in the environment of business: International perspectives. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Gerber, K. 2007. Economic environment. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Kaynak, E. 1993. The global business: Four key marketing strategies. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.

Kayne, S. B. 2005. Pharmacy business management. London: Pharmaceutical Press.

Paley, N. 2006. The manager’s guide to competitive marketing strategies (3rd ed.). London: Thorogood publishers.

Rickets, M. J. 2003. The economics of business enterprise: An introduction to economic organization and the theory of the firm. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Rogers, S. C. 2001. Marketing strategies, tactics, and techniques: A handbook for practitioners. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Sengupta, S. 2005. Brand positioning: Strategies for competitive advantage. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Sull, D. N

[supanova_question]

## Training programs for semiliterate and illiterate populations in Swaziland Qualitative Research Essay essay help: essay help

Health Communication: Training Programs for Semiliterate and Illiterate Populations – Swaziland Case Study Health communication focuses on the solution of health issues through the dissemination of selected messages to communities. Most organisations apply various means to spread health messages including the use of social media and personal interactions with target audiences.

Although communication plays a central role in th the study of health communication as an independent principle, this branch of communication intertwines with other fields of study including strategic planning, sociology, politics, and economics. This paper explores some of the essential elements involved in health communication.

The paper involves the creation of a training program for a group with limited literacy levels by using the Kingdom of Swaziland, in Africa, as a case study. The program centres on the HIV/ AIDS pandemic, which has created a health problem for in Swaziland, thus causing significant effects in the economic and social spheres of the country’s structural arrangements.

Planning a Training Program When planning the execution and successful implementation of a training program for health communication, medical practitioners have to consider several crucial aspects including conducting research, establishing essentials for the program, identifying the participants, and planning the overall management of the program.

Conducting Research When conducting a research, one has to consider the target population for the program to establish the setting of the program, viz. whether formal or informal. It also helps in establishing whether there is a need to apply a multi-faceted approach to the method of dissemination of information.

For instance, one may choose to use social and print media for a large population or seminars at a central location for smaller populations. Swaziland has a population of over a million people and social or print media would thus be appropriate in comparison to seminars.

The culture of the people that make up the target population is also important as it informs the researcher on what language to use and habits that comprise the appropriate mode of interaction with the audience. It also allows the audience to connect with the researcher regarding feedback on the issue of discussion, which in this case is HIV/AIDS (4). For instance, in Swaziland, men possess an air of superiority to women; thus, it would be easier if a male researcher engaged the male audience than a female (4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the two most common languages in the country are siSwazi and English. Therefore incorporating the use of such languages in the program using translators or people familiar with the languages ensures a wide coverage and proper transmission of the right messages to the population. Consideration of culture also earns the researcher respect and increases the possibility of success for the training program.

The researcher also has to acquaint him/herself with the local laws especially those concerning topics relevant to the program. Laws of health care management, business transactions, and social interactions are relevant in establishing the right form of communication as they affect the mode of transmission of health messages.

For instance, laws on association and assembly govern modes of communication that require people to gather at a central location while laws on freedom of the media govern social media information outlets. For this specific training program, it is also important to assess the type and number of health facilities available for use by the population. Such institutions form an integral part of the program with regard to the practical application of principles taught at the training centres and information spread through media outlets.

The economic state of the country affects the conduct of the program in several ways, and thus it is worth researching on the same. First, the status of the economy determines the level of funding that the program is likely to obtain from the local government and the need to source for capital from outside sources. Secondly, it determines the approach through which to address various issues regarding the program.

For instance, the unemployment rate in Swaziland is significantly high due to low standards of education and high-income disparity between the rich minority and the poor majority in the country.

Therefore, the use of a mode of transmission of information that enables some of the locals to earn an income would be a welcome affair. An example of such a mode of transmission of information is through door-to-door campaigns using local residents for a specific fee a day depending on the number of people who sign up as volunteers or attend seminars.

Establishing Essentials for the Program Training Methods Useful to the Group

There are three basic essentials to running the training program, viz. theoretical training, practical training, and fieldwork and administration of the program. The theoretical training aspect mainly involves the exploration of the issue with the participants at an interpersonal level through seminars, campaign rallies, social media discussions, and counselling sessions for individuals (2).

We will write a custom Essay on Training programs for semiliterate and illiterate populations in Swaziland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theoretical training forms the most essential part of the training as it aids in demystifying some myths that surround the topic of HIV/AIDS for the country. For instance, one of the most common myths in some African nations is that having intercourse with virgins cures HIV/AIDS. Another similar myth that might help to explain the spread of the affliction in Swaziland is that HIV/AIDS infections only occur to people who practice ‘immoral sexual behaviour’ such as sex outside marriage.

Therefore, people in marriages shun the use of contraception such as condoms despite the polygamous nature of their relationships. Theoretical training also allows the target audience to voice their concerns regarding the issue, thus enabling trainers to understand the mindset of the audience and the provision of appropriate solutions.

An example of some of the concerns that may arise during theoretical training is the type of diet that a person infected with HIV/AIDS needs in order to remain healthy and reduce his or her vulnerability to other infections. Most people in Swaziland practice subsistence farming, and thus they may want to know the right types of foods to grow depending on their health status.

The practical training aspect involves the application of specific skills and knowledge taught in the theoretical training forums in addressing various issues regarding the subject matter. The audience puts to action information regarding interactions with infected individuals, hygiene measures, and consumption of medication.

Although a large portion of the population in Swaziland suffers from HIV/AIDS infection, stigma remains a major problem, thus hindering access to important information, medication, and help regarding matters relating to the infection. Some people prefer to keep their status a secret for fear of stigmatisation, which results in potential accidental infections especially for individuals in polygamous marriages and unborn children.

Considering that the majority of people, which form the target audience, is semiliterate and others illiterate, it is vital to apply methods with which most of them can associate (1). One such method is provision of demonstrations, using the local language whenever possible. Such demonstrations would entail methods of maintaining proper hygiene, interaction exercises, and consumption of anti-retroviral medication (ARVs).

The program management may also apply overseas assignments and exchange programs in addition to in country training in order to enhance exposure of the trainees to methods other countries use to combat the pandemic. Choosing a few local trainees for such assignments and incorporating them into an in-country training program, as mentors and counsellors, would help the rest of the population to understand that the problem they face is not limited to their territorial boundaries.

The importance of having the population understand the international perspective is that it would reduce the level of stigma with which they treat people with HIV/ AIDS, thus making it possible for such people to seek medical intervention without fear of societal perceptions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Training programs for semiliterate and illiterate populations in Swaziland by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More The administration segment of the program involves organisational matters such as recruitment of employees and volunteers, management of finances, formulation of strategies to suit specific situations, and establishment of relevant information for dissemination. Managerial expertise is utterly valuable for the successful execution of all administrative tasks for the department.

Therefore, it might be important to set up an office where all the administrative tasks for the program take place in addition to information distribution points such as lecture halls and testing centres. Central management of the training program is important in ensuring proper coordination of all activities taking place throughout the country regarding the program, especially when such activities occur simultaneously.

Centrality of management also eases division of tasks among the program’s staff. Consideration of adoption of a collaborative style of management is also crucial to the timeframe through which the program accomplishes its goals and the overall success of the program. Collaborative management is a form of management that fosters interaction between the management staff and other parties outside the program mainly to obtain vital information that may add value to the program.

For instance, incorporation of assistance from Swaziland’s ministry of health or health centres across the country would make collection of background information about the spread of the pandemic within the population easier and provide more accuracy than reading about the same in media archives. Consultations with local organisations with similar programs also help in the determination of an effective structure for dissemination of information to the masses.

Program Participants

It is important for the training program’s management to consider the participants that the program involves in order to generate modes of communication that are relevant to each set of participants. This specific program involves healthcare professionals, counsellors, and individuals of different ages living with HIV/AIDS, as well as those who are infection free. Although some messages may work effectively for the entire set of participants, some messages need to target specific sets of participants for greater impact and efficacy.

For instance, messages advocating for abstinence and use of contraception would work well for the entire population as a means of reducing infections within the society. On the other hand, messages concerning the proper consumption of ARVs would fade in relevance for individuals who are infection free. Therefore, setting up separate training sessions and support groups for people living with the infection would work better in spreading the intended message.

Further, communication methods that work with adults would not necessarily be appropriate for teenagers and youths. Adults have more experience with sexual matters as compared to children, and thus they understand issues regarding contraception and safe sexual behaviour better. Children require a sensitive approach when discussing matters of a sexual nature such as sexual abuse and avoidance of sexual situations. Messages targeting such a set of participants need to appeal to their level of cognitive abilities.

The role of health practitioners in the program is to assist in spreading appropriate health messages regarding the subject matter to their patients as they attend to them in various health institutions all over the country. They serve as ambassadors for the program, who spread messages of healthy habits that mitigate the spread of the pandemic.

Counsellors work on a face-to-face basis with most people who seek their services and are thus in a better position to address individuals according to their specific needs. Such participants are assets to the program in terms of data collection on the spread of the pandemic, issues of concern for most of the population, and formulation of effective messages to relay to the public.

They also contribute to the program by spreading health messages on HIV/AIDS to their clients, which are specific to the type of client and his or her needs.

Program Review

Constant review of the program’s success is crucial in establishing elements that do not work and improvement methods of message dissemination and collection of data. Evaluation of personal feedback from participants, financial costs, and achievement of objectives enables the program to stay on track and achieve its goals within the timeline within which the management hopes to run the program.

Reviewing the program also helps the management in dealing with challenges as they arise throughout the duration of the program. Some of the challenges that the program is likely to face is compliance with local culture, language barrier, recruitment of training staff from the local community, and obtaining government funding. It would take some time during the initial stages of the program for the training personnel to deal with these challenges while keeping up with other unforeseeable challenges as the program settles.

Preparatory Research Applicable Research Methods

Ethics describe a particular code of conduct that suits specific circumstances. Research ethics dictate how individuals should behave in the conduct of their research in order to prevent the performance of activities that may result in potential infringement of the rights that other individuals possess under the law. One of the basic rights prone to infringement by research activities is the right to privacy. Every individual has a right to keep certain information about him/herself without the threat of someone else prying, obtaining, and using it for personal gain.

Research involves the publication of information that the researcher obtains and thus publication of information concerning individuals that they consider private would go against the code of ethics and cause reason for legal action. For instance, publication of personal information an interviewee volunteers during an interview would go against research ethics, possibly causing complications that may lead to the nullification of the entire research project.

The preparatory research method of choice for this program is ethnographic in nature, as it involves several modes of data collection in a bid to ensure objectivity and diversity of perspectives. Ethnographic research appeals to the cultural aspect of the target population, personal opinions that different individuals hold regarding HIV/ AIDS, and the diversity of age brackets that people involved in the research fall in. Some of the methods applicable in ethnographic research include interviews, observation, and literature review.

Interviews cover the part of the research that requires personal one-on-one discussions with various individuals in order to collect data relevant to the formulation of the program’s strategic plans.

Interviews are essential in collecting information that the population would not reveal through behavioural observation such as reasons why individuals with HIV/AIDS choose not to seek medical intervention openly. Application of observation in data collection allows the researcher to learn the behavioural patterns of people in their natural environment without interference.

Observation is one of the easiest ways through which training staff new to the region can learn what the community expects them in terms of compliance with culture. Literature review provides an informative study of the background of the problem as well as the community’s methods of addressing the issue in years preceding the establishment of the training program. During the application of the various methods in the conduct of the research, it is critical that the researchers observe research ethics.

Research ethics ensure that researchers do not go beyond their mandate in the expression of their freedoms through acts such as expression of opinions that mount to incitement. This rule mainly applies in interview scenarios where the interviewer and interviewee usually engage in face-to-face conversations. Research code of conduct ensures that the interviewer protects the interviewee’s private information by filtering information that s/he collects before the same is available for public access.

The existence of research ethics assures an individual giving information that his or her private information remains private. The importance of this requirement for the research is that it makes the research process possible by ensuring the availability of valuable information for the enhancement of knowledge of important issues affecting society.

Main Aspects of the Research

Conducting proper research is one of the essential steps that a health practitioner needs to take when creating a training program. Research for the training program requires consideration of several variables for objectivity purposes. The first variable that requires such consideration is the population of the area of focus.

The area of focus in this case is the Kingdom of Swaziland, which is a small state located in southern Africa. Swaziland is a landlocked state capped between the Republic of South Africa and Mozambique. The country’s population matches its size. According to the country’s census statistics in 2020, the population at the time comprises approximately 1.1 million people living within a total area of approximately 17,300 square kilometres (5).

The population determines the type of research that one chooses to apply as well as the right channel through which to send health massages to the population. Both methods have to be effective, efficient, and affordable for the health practitioner conducting the program and the population, which forms the target audience. The second variable in research is the culture of the target population. Culture is an element that displays the uniqueness of different societies.

It connotes the distinctive ways in which people live, represents their experiences, and displays the changes that different environments can have to people’s behavioural patterns. Some of the elements that constitute culture include language, traditions, religion, leadership, technology, and cuisine. Scholars explain that when people live together for a substantial length of time, they develop habits that help in defining who they are. Culture is a versatile concept that changes depending on its interaction with external elements.

The changes usually take the direction of convenience for the existing population as part of the adaptation process that most people experience when there are changes in environment and other factors. When formulating a plan for a training program, it is especially important to award due consideration to the language that most people in the population understand, as it ensures the delivery of the intended message devoid of distortion and ambiguity.

The application of the right language also ensures that the target audience understands the health issue that the message addresses as well as the changes that the health practitioners suggest for adoption. Choosing the right language also fosters easier interaction between the health practitioners developing the program and the population.

Swaziland uses two main languages for communication throughout the population. As most of the country’s inhabitants are native Swazis, the most common language of communication is siSwati. International relations between the country and other nations globally have also necessitated the adoption of a language with a wider global acceptance, thus resulting in the adoption of English as the second major language of communication in the state (5).

The behavioural interaction of the people in the population also plays a vital part in the establishment of a mode of communication that best suits the purpose of the training program. For instance, the stratification of the Swazi society in terms of gender and age results in a division of power into a system whereby men hold a lot of power. The resultant effect is the creation of a chain of command through which people interact and communicate.

Another element of culture that affects the creation of a training program is marriage. Marriage dictates the manner in which men and women interact in most societies and subsequently it affects the spread of HIV/AIDS. Marriages also present various moral, religious, and legal responsibilities. It governs gender roles and establishes status especially in the Swazi society. One of the responsibilities marriages bestow upon individuals in society is reproduction.

The Swazi culture supports women bearing many children as a sign of fertility and as a means of preservation for the population. The cultural support of reproduction has a logical reason bearing in mind that the country has the highest rate for HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world, as the move ensures preservation of the community’s legacy. However, such cultural support for reproduction increases the chances of sexually active individuals contracting sexually transmitted infections and diseases.

Additionally, the society insists on the role of men in reproduction, thus encouraging infidelity even in polygamous relationships. The Swazi believe that the role of men is to impregnate as many women as possible without consideration of raising the children that come from such activities.

As a result, Swaziland struggles with the problem of raising thousands of orphans. In most societies across the world, marriage elevates the social status of individuals by turning them into role models for the younger generations, which is one of the main reasons most individuals feel the pressure to engage in marriage at a young age, in order to earn the respect of the entire community.

Although marriage is a social concept, it also bears legal implications for the individuals in the union. For most societies, such obligations include attendance to debt and providing suitable provisions for children that result from such unions. Further, most societies prescribe to a form of marriage that comprises the union of one man and one woman, an aspect that makes it easy for society to identify individuals that deserve due respect as married couples as well s identification of individuals responsible for the welfare of the children in society.

Swaziland’s culture presents some complications regarding the legal aspect as most of the society engages in polygamy, making it difficult to track family debts and for fathers to take care of their children, hence the orphan situation.

The incorporation of marriages that allow the union of male adults and teenage females further complicates the issue, as it is hard to distinguish children and wives in the female teenage population. It therefore becomes difficult for the society’s institutions of law to intervene where situations require such intervention for the protection of the teenager in question.

Early marriages are a common occurrence in some societies especially in Africa and thus it comes as no surprise that Swaziland also subscribes to the practice. Ordinarily, early marriages occur between two teenagers. However, in some cases they do occur between adults and teenagers.

Swaziland serves as a good example of a country whose traditions foster the latter form of marriages. There are various reasons why teenage females choose to engage in early marriages, the most common of them being pregnancy. In Swaziland, teenage pregnancy is a concept that the society treats with a lot of stigma, resulting in the preference for marriage by teenagers to adult males as a strategy to save face.

Culture forms yet another reason why teenagers resort to marriage at such tender ages. For instance, Swaziland’s culture favours polygamy and detests family planning, hence the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Most women in the society consider marriage a privilege, as most men prefer polygamous affairs. Therefore, females in their teenage jump at the opportunity to marry older men just to attain the status of married women.

Men also perceive female teenagers as an avenue to avoid the pandemic as most of them lack sexual experience. As a result, the risk factor for contracting HIV for female teens is higher than it is for males in the same age bracket. The third reason why teenagers choose early marriage is for security, both personal and financial. Personal security refers to the need of the teenagers to have better companionship and prevent harassment from other male members of society.

Demand for teenage brides by adult males for marriages commonly known as ‘Kwendizisa’ has resulted in a culture that supports the occurrence of early marriages by teenage girls. The economic hardships most families face increase attraction of teenagers to marriages as they seek alternative lifestyles in a bid to obtain better lives. However, this is not always the case due to high rates of polygamy as part of the local traditions.

Thirdly, the type and level of education in the country is an important variable as it affects the level of understanding of basic issues concerning the population and the way the population perceives its surrounding environment, within and outside the territorial borders. Most scholars attribute the level of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Swaziland to poor quality education and lack of accessibility to advanced education. The education system covers three levels, viz. the primary level, secondary level, and tertiary level.

The primary level comprises seven individual stages (grades one to seven) in which the first two are government-sponsored, and thus free for every child. Most children join Grade 1 at six years of age while others join later depending on personal cognitive abilities and the families’ financial ability. Although most children get through the basic primary education, only about twenty percent of children get access to secondary education and the number falls below the percentage at the tertiary level.

Most parents prefer to hold their children back to attend to farms. Additionally, most families live on an income of less than two dollars a day, and thus they can only afford to send a single child at a time to school at that level. The government does make an effort to ensure children of school-going age that successfully complete the secondary level obtain tertiary education through government sponsorships.

However, such students only account for a small fraction of the population. Therefore, it is important to consider a means of communication that appeal to the semi-literate population that forms the majority of the population in Swaziland. Use of methods that the community can relate to such as using storytelling to demystify myths about HIV/AIDS has a greater impact than using formal lectures.

The economy of the country is another important aspect for consideration in the preparation of the plan for the training program. The reason for the importance of the economy is that it etches on the practicability of the program rather than the theory. It is important to consider the long-term success of the program in addition to the short-term. The economic situation in the area of operation should be viable enough to achieve the goals the training program sets for achievement.

Most training programs concerning HIV/AIDS explore issues such as the prevention of the spread of infection, outreach campaigns to demystify myths about HIV/AIDS, mitigation measures for infected individuals, and addressing stigma in the society. These elements require different forms of support, some moral, but mostly financial. Swaziland struggles with a slow economy and many important issues in need of government support such as education and creation of employment opportunities.

Therefore, it is important to explore all possible options including foreign sponsorship. Lastly, consideration of the laws applicable on the subject of concern enables the operation of a program without breaking local laws in the process. Such consideration is important as it allows the health practitioner to conduct the training program without interference from law enforcement or hostility from the community.

Research on relevant laws such as laws on marriage, basic rights, and freedoms and the economy aid medical practitioners to avoid giving misguided advice to the population (3). For instance, in Swaziland, the law does not support sexual activities involving teenagers.

In the past, the practice was rampant and tolerable to the community to the point that it became a norm in the society. The government of Swaziland banned such sexual activity by terming the same as an offence, except in the union of marriage. However, in 2012, the Swazi government enacted the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, which makes any sexual activity involving teenagers regardless of their marital status illegal (6).

The move was part of the government’s efforts to protect children from undue exploitation from adults as well as an avenue to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS within the society. It is also important to consider healthcare laws, especially the government’s strategic plan to curb the menace. This aspect ensures that the training program and the government’s goals run in tandem for the achievement of a common objective, viz. prevention and eradication of HIV/AIDS in the country.

Conclusion The formulation of a training program that takes into account the literacy levels of the population is Swaziland requires careful consideration of several other essential factors including the culture of the region, the size of the population, the economic status of the country, relevant laws, and the education and healthcare systems in the region.

Proper research on these aspects informs the type, amount, and the mode of training that the program will focus on and allow for a review of the program for the successful achievement of the program’s objectives. Incorporation of local residents in the program as part of the training staff and seeking help from healthcare institutions within the area ensures the programs efficacy and compliance with the set timeframe for the accomplishment of proper training.

References Alzougool B, Chang S, Gray M. The nature and constitution of informal careers’ information needs: what you don’t know you need is as important as what you want to know. Information Research. 2013;18(1).

Gold J, Pedrana AE, Stoove MA, et al. Developing health promotion interventions on social networking sites: recommendations from the FaceSpace project. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2012;14(1):e30.

Green J, Tones K, Cross R, Woodall J. Health promotion: planning and strategies. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2015. 640 p.

Mak J, Mayhew SH, von Maercke A, et al. Men’s use of sexual health and HIV services in Swaziland: a mixed methods study. Sexual Health. 2016;13:265-274.

Swaziland population 2020 [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [2019 May 12] [cited 2020 Feb 11]

United Nations. Convention on the rights of the child [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [2019 Jul 8] [cited 2020 Feb 11]:[about 25 screens].

[supanova_question]

## The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company Report (Assessment) custom essay help

Introduction Economic environment is a study area of economic and has a major focus is environmental issues. The central part of economic environment is market failure. Therefore, for effective economic environment, the management of an organization must focus on market success. For instance, marketing strategies must be employed to have effective environmental economics.

An international company has its market spread across countries in the world. Therefore, their market strategies and to the extent environmental economics are not confined in country of origin. This paper analyzes market strategies and environmental economics for Haier Company; an international company dealing with consumer electronics and a number of home appliances.

Background Economic environment of any business largely depends on the kind of strategies that are used in managing competition. Most importantly, these are the strategies that are used by a company to move goods and services closer to the targeted consumers. Therefore, most of the economic environments are usually shaped by marketing strategies that have been put in place.

Additionally, use of well enhanced technologies and carrying out situational researches has been perceived to be viable means of understanding how well to invest productively. For an international organization such as Haier Company, all of the economic environments and marketing strategies must fit within the international demand for goods and services.

Therefore, in analyzing the best forms of marketing strategies, management of competition must be put into consideration. In other words, there can be no successes if companies do not have sufficient competitive niches in the market. In the case of a company such as Haier which has a major focus on electronics, its competitive niche would mainly dwell on large volume of sales compared to its rivals.

The structure of any company must also reflect modernity, and must be strategically instituted to control competition in the marketplace. Haier Company has a hierarchical form of management or organizational structure. At face value, hierarchical form of structure is equated to bureaucratic form of management. As a matter of fact, there are some negative attributes of this kind of management.

However, this company has utilized the latter management style to emerge strong especially during turbulent economic times. For example, the company had an easy way of coming out of the global financial crisis of 2009 which saw a number of companies halt their operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, this company uses this kind of management structure to control its human resource management, accounting and other factors necessary for effective marketing. Since it is based in China, this company has used the Chinese culture of management of organization, but tries as much to customize its products in targeted markets.

There are several strategies that this company utilizes. Among them, customization of products, brand positioning and positioning of its exports are very critical.

For example, the company studies any new market in the world before moving in. if the company is to open a branch in a country such as America; the first thing is to understand the cultures of people in this part of the world for the purposes of customization. As well, the company cares about its image. For good internationalization, the company has to first come up with an image for each region targeted.

According to Rickets (2003, p. 379), economic environment is vital towards sustenance of a company in any competitive market. It is not always that various factors of economic environment add up to profitability. Some are risks and should be handled with due care.

Therefore, it is important for a company to evaluate its programs on a regular basis and devise factors to be used in developing it (Kayne, 2005, p. 231). This paper discusses important concepts in economic environment using Haier Company as the case study.

Haier Company This is a multinational company dealing with consumer electronics as well as general home appliances. Its history dates back in 1920 although it was formally incepted long before the aforementioned year. Its initial economic activities were supplying refrigerators to the Chinese market where it was based.

It is located in China, Qingdao and some of its products include mobile phones, air conditioners, washing machines, computers, micro ovens, televisions and refrigerators.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has had a good run since its inception. For example, in 2010, the company was rated to have one of the huge market shares with a 6.1% acceptance in white goods. The company has been turned into government owned by People’s Republic of China.

Company Structure The company has a hierarchical type of organizational structure which has been noted to have brought in high competitive advantages. Most importantly, this company has managed to survive even during the most turbulent environments. According to Yonggui and Hing-Po (2002, pp. 38-50), a hierarchical mode of governance can help to great lengths in managing a company during tough economic times.

The present forms of environmental turbulence require advanced form of management structures, especially the structures that can initiate control mechanism. Hierarchical forms of management are most bureaucratic. However, it is the middle management that is tasked with managing the market matters.

These are like the competitiveness of the company. According to Conklin (2006, p. 310), the hierarchical type of structure is not favored because it is most anti-social.

This company has a simple yet hierarchical structure. The board of directors in this company forms the topmost administrative posts in this company. Then, the company has some sectors that help in giving the company a more administrative impact.

For example, immediately after the board of directors is the business sectors dealing with the washing machines, a business sector dealing with water heaters and a business sector dealing with integrated channels. The company has a world wide spread image. Each of the branches in the world has structures similar to the one at the headquarters and has some administrative independence.

The management is decentralized; however, each of the branches of the company has hierarchical administration that ensures that there are effective control mechanisms. This has helped the company emerge strong in the competitive market, and mostly, in managing some of the turbulent times such as the financial crisis of 2009.

The following represent a typical diagram that suits the organizational structure of the company:

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Environment of Business – Haier Company by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Sull and Wang (2005, p. 107) note that this company has a top down kind of management prioritization. This is where the top management has total control of what is to be done in an organization. Even though it is not compulsory that the management controls everything that happens in the company, there must be information to be relayed to the management.

For example, the middle level administrative officers may come up with an idea. Before it is implemented, the top managers must be informed. It is an effective way to make sure that everything is under tight controls and there are minimal chances of misuse. For example, a company may have problems with its accounting simply because there is democracy in the company.

If the middle level managers are allowed to make decisions haphazardly, it is possible that the company can collapse. On the other hand, putting so much of controls may be counterproductive. Writing about this, Zastrow (2009, p. 84) notes that hierarchical kind of management structure can be equated to bad bureaucracy.

The top most management position filled by board of directors recognizes the critical roles that are played by various sectors in the company. Also the board recognizes that all of the corporate practices have to be sound and efficient operations. Failure to do this would force the company to undertake immediate and stringent measures to sustain it.

The board is the overall manager and makes sure that all parts are well managed. This is most hierarchical and bureaucratic form of control. Zhou (2004, p. 9) notes that most of Chinese companies adopt this kind of structure, and such forms of management in various companies have made the industries not suffer from turbulent times in the world.

Being a Chinese company with its presence in the whole world, it has to adapt to structures used by most companies.

The top management of this company is assisted by various groups and committees. For example, there is the audit committee, the nomination committee, the company’s secretary office and Principal bankers, the stakeholders, independent non executive directors, the non executive directors, and remuneration committee among others. All of these are very important in this company as they help in streamlining management.

For example, the audit committee oversees all forms of transactions especially on irregularities while the remuneration committee looks at the welfare of the employees. There are groups of individuals in the company who are tasked with analyzing the welfare of current and probable customers.

Market construction for Haier Company Market construction is part of strategic management analysis of a company. For Haier Company, strategic management analysis aims at reducing the costs operation and increasing effectiveness of the market. This company uses situational researches to explore on new markets and breaking barriers present in markets.

It has surveillance personnel who detect anything unusual about a particular market and possibilities of success in a new market for advising the top management. The company starts from simple concepts especially on production to large volumes depending on the nature of target markets. However, this company also has a focus on its local markets. Domestically, the company has agents such as specialty shops and inn in inn.

Market concentration for Haier Company This is an economics term which also goes with terms such as seller concentration and industry concentration. Generally, it refers to distributions of goods and services or production within the industry. This is opposed distributions of company production in the market. Haier Company has achieved a lot of market concentration especially with its washing machines.

During inflations and major global crisis, its products continued to exert force in the industry simply because of good management issues. The company utilizes local raw materials to lower its production costs.

Production differentiation and Haier Company Product differentiation refers to process and means of distinguishing an offering or a product from the others. Haier Company offers unique services that are different from other companies. For example, this company has what it calls a three-in-one framework of operation and this is complete with a localization design.

The company uses local employees and financing strategies in creating a global image/brand. The products which carry this brand are unique. However, the greatest uniqueness is in the way it engages and entering of market.

Barriers of entrance and exit for Haier Company Being in the market mean that the image of the company is taken as it is presented. However, entering of the market and establishing the company is a hard thing. This is also the case with exiting the company. This company had to use varying strategies to enter the market, and has had problems exiting.

For example, when this company was establishing its e-business strategy, there were external barriers. They included poor technical infrastructure in China market and unwillingness from targeted customers. At times, this company finds itself in bad situations and wishes to exit but hasn’t been successful due to the image it has already established.

Marketing strategies As noted earlier, marketing strategies are part of the economic environment of any company. According to Paley (2006, p. 324), effective marketing strategies can make a company win a sizeable share of the market competition. In essence, any company in the world, and especially the multinational companies such as Haier Company aim at gaining or going deeper into the market.

Any company should invest a lot in finding out the new means of approaching the market and eventually winning the competition. However, important in this is to understand the existing and possible incomers. For a company such as Haier Company, the managers should look at ways of improving the field of electronics.

Especially, this field of marketing is improving by day, and therefore should make sure that each new strategy employed in the competitive market is known for the purposes of countering competition. The company should also look at ways of managing global issues in regard to marketing.

There are seven major marketing techniques or strategies that have been analyzed to win in the competitive market. Kaynak (1993, p.32) analyzes them as; creation of a selling point, using testimonials, lowering of prices, painting pretty the benefits, creation of some means of attention in getting to the paper headlines, and provision of offers that customers may not resist.

Even though Haier Company cannot use all of them, there are some key strategies in these that have to be applied to remain relevant in the competitive world market. Among others, management of prices, understanding of the customers and clear advertising forms has to be used. However, the company should not use of the strategies blindly.

There should always a proper mechanism to move into the market, especially the new markets. Important in this is carrying out of informative researches that will give the company a benchmark to initiate various marketing strategies.

No particular company can ignore the critical role played by economic environment. Gerber (2007, p.34) defines economic environment as the factors that have direct impacts and effects on the management and marketing of a company.

Such factors and measures include the policies, the systems in the company, the trade cycles, the levels of income in the company, the economic resources, and the wealth of the company and distributions channels (Gerber, 2007, p. 34). There are five major points of economic environments.

These are the economic conditions, the economic legislations, the international economic environment, the economic policies and the economic systems. All of these work towards guiding any company towards sound management plus strategic management of marketing.

Before moving into the market, a company should always invest in understanding various components of economic environment. Among others, the company must understand the Politics, Environment, Society and Technological advancements in the competitive world.

Most importantly, any economic environment must include management of people. People must be integrated in all policies that have to be implemented in the company. This is because all forms of management are done by people and assisted by other factors such as the technology.

The company must also evaluate itself before moving in to the market. According to Wan (2004, p. 293), failure to put in investments for researches before marketing may mean the company may fail to capture key issues in economic environment.

Haier Company and Marketing Strategies As noted in the discussion, Haier Company is one of the companies in the world which have made successes in marketing and in its economic environments. The approach to its marketing is aligned to the definition of the market as an effective plan or arrangement meant to bring two important players in the arrangement namely the seller and the buyer for the purposes of understanding each other.

However, just as it is the case with any other seller, Haier Company seeks to have value for its goods and hoping that the customers would get value of their money from the goods and services.

This company operates under the guise of perfect competition. Firms in such kind of an arrangement or situation checks their prices, improves their technological use and invests a lot in human resource. This company has made to do all of this in one stride; that is, there is high innovation in the company, human resource is well compensated and their prices are fair.

This company has also had strong strategies meant for survival. Companies which do not have survival tactics are caught in between their successes and turbulent times. According to Swanson (2004, p. 33), marketing strategies that are concerned with survival is the name of the game especially in companies in developed nation. 2009 was a year which all companies were faced with turbulent times in terms of finances.

The companies which were not prepared for such problems went down a great deal. However, for companies such as Haier which already had survival strategies management through those turbulent times.

Haier Company and survival strategies: Strategic internationalization In China, the market became competitive, and therefore the profitability of this company went down. It was time to make the company up again in profitability. One strategy to do this was to spread the wings of the company. There was high need to internalize the goods and services. However, the company could not have moved to international market having not thought about it strategically.

What was needed was strategic internationalization or policies that would help the company move out of its base in an effective manner. One way of doing this was to think in global terms but acting locally.

That is, employing the terms of Chinese market but placing them strategically in international markets. The stages the company used to do this was; first to be a defender of its policies, second to be a contender in the international market, and third to use orthodox methods such as dodging.

Positioning in exports The company has placed its goods and services strategically in the international market. This has had positive impacts over the years. The strategy in positioning of its goods has been customizing the goods and services it provides. For example, any kind of innovation in its electronic goods is based on situational research.

The company must first understand what the customers in various positions wants. If customers in East Africa want computers which have power supplies which can accommodate high temperatures, the company would come up with such a measure and try to put the goods in such a market.

Management of market competition

This company is an example of companies which have managed their competition in the market well. As noted earlier, this company engages a market strategically and must follow situation researches before getting into a particular form of competition.

One way of doing this is by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of a company. According to Rogers (2001, p. 22), any marketing strategy must have analysis of its competition, and this includes looking at the strengths, the weaknesses, opportunities and threats that a company have.

Haier Company and brand image Any company wishing to manage its affairs well in the market must focus on building a strong image for itself. According to Sengupta (2005, p. 75), brand positioning in the market is a good marketing strategy and should never be ignored. In its course of researching for new markets, this company utilizes the marketing personnel to analyze how best the image can fit in the company.

For example, being a Chinese company, it is possible that some markets may not welcome it well. However, this company has a strategy of positioning its brand in any form of markets.

The first thing is to know the likes of the particular customers and then customize the services and goods into that particular market. For example, if Chinese culture is not welcome in America, the first thing is to make a change in culture in the kind of branch to be opened therefore.

Monopoly in production of electronic and home appliances This company has had to wade its way in a concentrated market. However, it managed through some effective strategies. This industry has had monopolies. For example, Indian companies have been known to concentrate in production of electronics and home appliances. The companies control the market, and therefore companies such as Haier have to either employ a tactic to win the competition or else two the line of Indian companies.

Conclusions Economic environment of a company encompasses several elements. Most importantly, the marketing strategies and how to place goods and services in a market is indeed crucial. In order to achieve this, there have to be myriad of strategies in place such as good positioning of goods and services and proper exporting if the company is an international one.

Haier Company is an electronic company which has its base and corporate culture from China. However, this company has managed to penetrate new markets using proper marketing strategies.

The company has managed severally to emerge victorious even during turbulent times such as financial crisis of 2009. This is because it has good management of all factors of production and marketing. The company has a hierarchical structure of management; however, it is successful in all aspects.

References Conklin, D. W. 2006. Cases in the environment of business: International perspectives. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Gerber, K. 2007. Economic environment. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Kaynak, E. 1993. The global business: Four key marketing strategies. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.

Kayne, S. B. 2005. Pharmacy business management. London: Pharmaceutical Press.

Paley, N. 2006. The manager’s guide to competitive marketing strategies (3rd ed.). London: Thorogood publishers.

Rickets, M. J. 2003. The economics of business enterprise: An introduction to economic organization and the theory of the firm. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Rogers, S. C. 2001. Marketing strategies, tactics, and techniques: A handbook for practitioners. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Sengupta, S. 2005. Brand positioning: Strategies for competitive advantage. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Sull, D. N

[supanova_question]

## Analysis of Hamden Fire Department’s Budget Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

The Budgetary Process: A Brief Overview

Operating with Capital Budgets

Operating with Capital Expenses

Sources of Revenue and Budgetary Allocations

Shortcomings of the Budget Making Process

Recommendations

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Hamden is a county situated in the state of Connecticut (Hamden Economic and Community Development 1). Just like any other county in the United States of America, it has in place several programs that are targeted at providing social and other services to the inhabitants.

The local authority in Hamden is in charge of the provision of a number of services. They include health services, security and other emergency services like fire response.

The author of this paper takes a critical look at the budgetary procedures in the county. In this paper, the author restricts their discussion to the Fire Department in the City of Hamden.

The Fire Department in the city of Hamden has a long history that dates way back to the 1800s (Hamden Fire Department History 1). The organization was founded by the community members in a bid to protect their homes and businesses among other properties.

The community members were interested in protecting their property in the event of a fire. So rudimentary was the formation of the fire department that the community relied on simple materials like buckets.

According to information obtained from Hamden Fire Department’s website, the structure of the entity is fairly complex. As far as organizational structure, the entity is headed by a Fire Chief (Hamden Fire Department Organization Chart 1).

The Fire Chief has one deputy in charge of four other departments. In addition, it is easy to establish, from the organizational structure chart provided, that the department has a total of five fire stations. From the chart, it is clear that organization is a multi-faceted entity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given this multi-faceted nature of the organization, it is clear that a detailed budget should be put in place to ensure its proper functioning. In this paper, the author looks at one such budget and makes a detailed analysis focusing on several aspects of that document.

More importantly, the budgetary review carried out in this paper looks at the shortcomings of the document and makes recommendations for future improvements.

The Budgetary Process: A Brief Overview Every society, be it a city, state, or a federal government, has a list of items it intends to fulfill as far as provision of services is concerned.

Aronson and Schwartz (23) are of the opinion that every level of governance requires a budget to enable it estimate the spending to be incurred during a given period of time. In other words, budget is more or less a form of financial approximation for a given period of time.

According to the two authors, the budgetary process is the mandate of the office of the leader of a local authority. In this case, the entire process of formulating the budget approximations falls squarely in the office of the Mayor of the city of Hamden.

Consequently, the mayor is expected to factor in all the departments that fall under his jurisdiction in their respective local authority.

In the opinion of Kemp (49), cities should take into account the revenue they collect and the funding they expect from the national government as they prepare their budgets.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Analysis of Hamden Fire Department’s Budget specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the leadership in such cities should factor in the demand of the various services they offer so as to achieve equitable allocation of resources.

In the case of the city of Hamden, the mayor is expected to take into consideration 35 different categories of departmental structures in their expenditure approximations every year.

The Heads of the various departments in a local authority are expected to hand in estimates of their revenue and expenditure to the person designated to head the finance docket (Kemp 58). Members of the public are also invited to participate in the budget making process (Kemp 58).

Their input is considered after the professional heads of departments have made their recommendations to the mayor. Thereafter, the head of finance is expected to compile the said estimates and hand them over to the mayor.

After receiving the estimates, the mayor is expected to submit them to the legislative arm of the local authority for approval. The budget is expected to run for one fiscal year (Aronson and Schwartz 55). In the case of the city of Hamden, the fiscal year runs from July to June of consecutive years.

Operating with Capital Budgets Aronson and Schwartz (6) argue that a budget per se is a detailed account of the financial plan of an organization. In this case, the organization in reference is the city of Hamden. More specifically, the review focuses on the city’s Fire Department.

The financial plan for such an organization is expected to be subdivided into two categories. The two are the operating and the capital plans (Fulton 1).

The first category of budget is one that takes into account the daily functioning of a particular organization over a period of one year. According to Fulton (1), the person heading such an organization is tasked with the responsibility of reviewing the said plan.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Hamden Fire Department’s Budget by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More The person in charge of the budgetary allocation is to ensure that those authorized to incur expenditure do not divert from the norm.

On their part, capital budgets address the issue of investment. They account for any investment that a given organization intends to make internally (Fulton 1). In the case of the budget discussed in this paper, the Hamden Fire Department may have several investments it seeks to actualize.

As such, the department is required to have an internal way of realizing its goals and objectives. As such, the department will allocate itself a given period of time over which the said investment is to be realized.

The amount of money spent over that period for the said investment is referred to as the capital budget.

Kemp (17) opines that different local authorities have specific periods over which their investments are to be achieved. Further, the author argues that capital budgets run between 5 to 10 years.

Operating with Capital Expenses According to Kennon (1), every organization has a set of expenses which it must incur to meet its diverse objectives. As a result, analysts argue that the funds spent by an organization to enable it fulfill its nominal operations constitute the entity’s operating expenses.

In this regard, one would argue that the operating expenses for Hamden Fired Department include wage bill for the staff and the funds set aside for the maintenance of the various machines that the organization operates.

Many organizations are expected to perform efficiently by ensuring that they keep their operating expenses at an all time low. The organizations can achieve this by cutting back on unnecessary expenses.

Capital expenses are those that an organization is expected to incur over a given period of time (Gruttadaro 1). Organizations like the Hamden Fire Department incur capital expenses due to the acquisitions of such assets as machinery and buildings.

The acquisition of such assets is crucial to the operations of the organization. It is noted that there is a difference between capital and current expenditure. However, Gruttadaro (1) is of the view that, at times, ambiguity prevails as far as the differences are concerned.

For instance, when the said fire department conducts repairs over an extended period of time, the undertakings are referred to as operating expenses. In the event that such repairs are carried out all at once, the same is referred to as operating expenses.

Sources of Revenue and Budgetary Allocations Aronson and Schwartz (23) are of the opinion that local authorities require a source of revenue so as to fund their operations. Such jurisdictions as cities and states are mandated by law to collect different forms of taxes.

The said taxes constitute the revenue upon which the particular jurisdiction relies to fund its operations. The state of Connecticut, for example, is mandated by law to collect revenue in form of taxes. In addition, the state receives a specified portion of revenue from the federal government.

The latter is meant to supplement the revenues that a state collects through taxes and other such sources.

A look at Connecticut’s State Revenue reveals some of the said sources of revenue. Personal income tax, sales and use tax, as well as corporation tax are some of the most significant sources of revenue as far as taxes are concerned.

Motor vehicle licenses and business registration licenses form the second tier of revenue sources. Transfers from the federal government form the third tier of source of revenue for the state. Such cities as Hamden have similar sources of revenue.

Shortcomings of the Budget Making Process In this paper, the author has established that a budget is a systematic mechanism through which an organization allocates its various resources for effective delivery of services. The resources in reference here range from the financial to the human investments in the city (Kemp 31).

The said resources are organized in such a way that during a given fiscal year, the operations of an organization like Hamden Fire Department run smoothly.

The budget prepared by Hamden Fire Department has various shortcomings. One of the shortcomings is the fact that the organization puts more emphasis on recurrent expenditure as opposed to allocating funds to such investments as radio communication.

The shortcoming stems from the fact that the drafters of the budget may have lacked the ‘foresight’ of the department in mind. Capital expenditures are usually the best way through which an organization can become sustainable.

In the case of Hamden Fire Department, there is not a single capital budget set aside for the purchase of modern firefighting equipment.

It is noted that changing trends in tackling fires require such organizations as Hamden Fire Department to upgrade and provide firefighters with new and modernized machinery.

The process of developing any given budget, as already indicated, ought to be all inclusive (Kemp 100). To achieve this, members of the public should be given a longer period of time to make their contributions towards the budget making process.

The input of the community members should be taken seriously by those drafting the budget. Local authority budgets are made for the benefit of the people who reside within the said localities. For that reason, the people ought to be given more time to contribute towards the making of the budget.

The drafters need to spur public participation through various strategies, including engaging in civic education. In addition, the department needs to set money aside to educate members of the public on matters to do with fire prevention.

Recommendations Several recommendations are made in this report to improve the budget making process. The benefits of these recommendations are not restricted to the Hamden Fire Department.

On the contrary, they apply to other similar organizations operating within Hamden City and beyond. The following recommendations are made:

Members of the public should be involved actively in the budget making process. The Hamden Fire Department should hold quarterly open days to identify the demand for emergency services in the city.

A budget requires the input of professionals. In the case of Hamden Fire Department, there is minimal input from fire and emergency experts, hence the minimal allocations towards education. The Fire Chief and the Mayor should consult with professionals in disaster management to get advise on the procurement of the necessary equipment. Such a process will reduce recurrent expenditure.

The Hamden Fire Department should open its operations for interrogation by the public and auditors to avoid mismanagement of funds.

To avoid wastage of funds, the Fire Chief should work with the Mayor to legislate on spending ceilings. The same will prevent the urge to increase expenditure unnecessarily.

Conclusion Budgets are more beneficial to the organization if they respect public-private partnerships and if they are properly audited.

For instance, if the mayor of Hamden City wants the budget to meet the objectives of the various departments in the city, there is a need to thoroughly vet the financial approximations before new ones are passed.

Audits will highlight several items like recurrent expenditure and how funds can be redistributed to other areas that deserve higher allocations.

In addition, local authorities need to have their budgets audited to avoid instances where money is misappropriated. Ultimately, a budget should ensure that the objectives of the organization are met.

Works Cited Aronson, Richard, and E. Schwartz. Management Policies in Local Government Finance. Washington DC: International City/County Management Association, 2013. Print.

Fulton, Jeff 2013, Operating vs. Capital Budgets. Web.

Gruttadaro, Daniel 2013, What is Capital Expense? Web.

Hamden Fire Department 2013, History. Web.

Hamden Fire Department 2013, Organization Chart. Web.

Hamden Economic and Community Development 2013, Hamden at a Glance. Web.

Kemp, Roger. The Municipal Budget Crunch: A Handbook of Professionals, North Carolina: McFarland, 2012. Print.

Kennon, Joshua 2013. Operating Expense on the Income Statement. Web.

[supanova_question]

## Importance of Gifted Education Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Gifted education has helped educators to improve learning in their schools, especially among the gifted students. Students in regular classes have also benefited from gifted education. The success of gifted education is attributed to the use of modern teaching methods that have been developed in the last few years.

Some of the teaching methods used in gifted education programs include project work, providing meaningful choices for students, self-directed learning, literature-based reading, and problem-based curriculum. A well-prepared environment is essential for excellent performance among gifted students.

It is against this backdrop that Montessori education emphasizes the importance of preparing the learning environment. In this regard, a well-prepared learning environment should enable students to acquire knowledge by exploring and engaging in different learning experiences. This paper reviews the existing literature on gifted education.

Sternberg (1995, p. 18) examined the use of the triarchic approach to identify gifted children. This approach is essentially an assessment process that involves conducting nine multiple-choice subtests. These subtests include analytic-verbal, analytic-quantitative, analytic-figural, practical-verbal, practical-quantitative, practical-figural, creative-verbal, creative-quantitative and creative-figural.

In analytic-verbal test, students are required to identify a novel word in a text and to deduce its meaning from the given context. Analytic-quantitative test involves predicting the next figure that should be included in a series of numbers. A figural matrix is used to conduct the analytical-figural subtest.

In this case, the teacher eliminates the lower right entry of the matrix so that students can identify the entry that fits it from a variety of choices. In practical-verbal subtests, students are expected to find solutions to typical problems that adolescents encounter in their everyday lives. For example, the teacher can ask the students to give suggestions on how to help a person with substance abuse problem.

The practical-quantitative subtest involves finding solutions to math problems, which explain everyday life scenarios such as buying tickets for a ballgame. In practical-figural subtest, a map of a specific area such as an entertainment park enables teachers to test the students’ navigation skills. Teachers use analogies in conjunction with counterfactual premises to conduct the creative-verbal subtest (Sternberg, 1995, p. 18).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, the students are required to solve the analogies in the context of the presented counterfactual premises. In creative-quantitative subtest, the students are expected to use specific novel number operations to find solutions to different math problems.

Finally, the creative-figural test involves completing a novel series. A figural series with one or more transformations is first presented to the students. Thus, the pupils apply the rules of this series to a different figure in order to create a new series.

Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 3) examined the development of cognitive skills, as well as, the importance of recognizing and nurturing talents in gifted children. They assert that children who are living in poverty are less likely than their counterparts from affluent backgrounds to be identified as gifted. This is likely to happen when the definition of giftedness emphasizes precocious development.

Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 3) used different assessments to study the concept of school readiness. In their study, standardized readiness tests were used to identify gifted children. They also examined the fundamental aspects of learning, which include the importance of teachers’ beliefs and practices that are associated with giftedness, as well as, students’ achievements and potential in diverse groups.

According to Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 4), the teaching practices that are used in primary schools are often framed in terms of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP), as well as, their effectiveness in enhancing learning among gifted students and diverse populations of learners.

In a longitudinal study of early development of language and literacy skills among gifted children, Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 4), found that the mean age at which the children spoke the first meaningful word was 9.1 months. This result was obtained from a sample of 52 children whose IQs were equal to or greater than 160.

Children whose IQs exceeded 148 were able to speak in complete sentences at the age of 16 months. In a quantitative study of eleven gifted pre-school children, parents reported that their children spoke the first word when they were between 9 and 12 months old. Furthermore, the children were able to speak in complete sentences at the age of 18 months.

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Gifted Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Acquisition of reading skills at an early age is one of the main characteristics of gifted children. Empirical studies indicate that gifted children are able to recognize a large number of familiar and unfamiliar printed words at the age of three years. At this age, precocious readers are able to decode and comprehend different levels of text.

Gifted children below the age of 2 years have a high interest in words, symbols, and complex stories. Additionally, most gifted children have the ability to read before joining school. Similar studies have shown that gifted children have advanced numeracy skills.

Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 6) also examined the emotional and social consequences that gifted children are likely to face if their talents are not recognized or are undervalued during their early school years. Their findings reveal that students begin to mask their abilities as soon as they join pre-school in order to be at par with their peers and to meet the expectations of their teachers.

For instance, children who normally read text-laden books at home can select picture books in the classroom in order to mask their reading skills. Similarly, they can mask their linguistic sophistication by developing different ‘codes’ of speaking in the classroom and at home. Gifted children are more sensitive to early messages than their attempts to express boredom or to identify different approaches to a problem.

Early school entrance or participation in differentiated programs in pre-school and primary classrooms is common among gifted children. Consequently, teachers must be able to develop responsive and challenging learning opportunities in order to nurture the talents of gifted students. The teachers should also help the students to develop positive attitudes towards learning.

According to Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 6), most gifted children fail to demonstrate language precocity in adulthood. Additionally, not all children who acquire language skills at an early age are able to sustain this gain over their peers through the school years. Even though early language development enhances giftedness, it is not a necessary precondition for gifted performance in mature students.

The association between precocious development and later gifted performance can be sullied by the effects of socio-economic status on children’s early development. Consequently, Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 8) assert that it is the responsibility of the adults who are working with the children to broaden the conceptions of giftedness.

They further assert that teachers and parents should address the academic and social needs of young children. In this regard, the focus should be on the development of language, reading and logical reasoning skills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Gifted Education by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Even though descriptions enhance our understanding of group needs, they can also diminish the salience of diversity in the profiles of giftedness. Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 9) describe gifted children as precocious readers, writers, and mathematicians whose appetite for schoolwork is insatiable.

The narrow academic achievement conceptions of giftedness are likely to ignore students whose talents lie outside the domain of analytical intelligence. Gifted children who are living in poverty often face several barriers that hinder their early development. Consequently, they are likely to be ignored by the skill-based definitions of giftedness.

According to Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 14) these definitions are also likely to exclude minority students with gifted potential in communities that are associated with a significant overlap between low socio-economic status and minority ethnic status. Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 14) identified the following best practices concerning the identification of giftedness:

Giftedness is manifested in multiple ways

Identification procedures are effective when data is collected over time

Program and identification procedures should include students from diverse backgrounds

collaborative models that incorporate the inputs from teachers, parents, specialist and students should be used

Consistency is critical in the identification process and the services delivered by the program

The role of teacher expectation in the examination of students’ ability is integral in the identification process. Less-educated primary school teachers often base their academic expectations on the non-cognitive factors such as behavior, dressing and speech patterns. Teachers’ judgments are also likely to be influenced when they compare giftedness with high academic achievement and compliant behavior.

This premise is not likely to favor students with emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is because “developmentally appropriate practices and gifted students’ learning go hand-in-hand”. Since development occurs in stages, educators can predict it using a child’s age. This assumption tends to be inconsistent with the developmental characteristics of most young children.

Thus, age-based approaches are not appropriate for assessing the suitability of teaching practices. In this regard, Brighton, Moon, Jarvis and Hockett (2007, p. 19) recommend the use of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development as an alternative model of cognitive progress.

In this model, students develop by practicing skills and finding solutions to problems that they are able to complete through cognitive scaffolding in order to attain independent mastery. Within this framework, instructions are tailored to meet the students’ actual, rather than expected developmental capabilities. Thus, the teacher has to differentiate the curriculum in order to meet the needs of all students.

Cooperative learning refers to “a set of instructional strategies which employs small teams of pupils to promote peer interaction and cooperation for studying academic subjects”. Students must collaborate in order to attain a common objective in the learning process. According to Robinson (1991, p. 15), cooperative learning has positive effects in cross-ethnic relationships.

Despite its importance in the study of cooperative learning, Robinson’s research had definitional and sampling problems. Concisely, most of her findings were not obtained in the context of gifted or high ability students. In some cases, there was inadequate information about the students’ past achievements. Tests were used to identify high ability students.

These tests were administered by the teachers. For example, students who were able to score more than the median mark in math test were considered to have high ability. High ability as defined by “single achievement measures of basic skills, teacher constructed placement tests, or teacher judgment should not be used interchangeably with giftedness”.

According to Robinson (1991, p. 17), the success of group work depends on the availability of a student who understands the material that is being studied and is able to explain it to others. Even though the students who explain the learning materials to others enhance their understanding through this experience, too much repetition of the explanations can cause constant reviews.

Teachers must organize cooperative learning groups in a manner that reduces the ‘free rider’ effect. Consequently, the responsibility of explaining the learning materials or giving instructions will be shared among the group members. Talented students consider disproportionate sharing of responsibilities, and the failure of team members to contribute in heterogeneous groups to be unfair and frustrating.

In this regard, the following recommendations should be considered in order to facilitate cooperative learning. First, schools should not introduce cooperative learning as an alternative for the dedicated programs, which benefit the gifted students in a diverse class. Second, schools that are devoted to cooperative learning must use approaches that enable gifted students to access advanced learning materials.

Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Jigsaw limit the ability of gifted students to access advanced curriculum since they depend on prepared grade-level materials. Finally, schools that are committed to cooperative learning should use models that are flexible.

Westberg and Archambault (1995, p. 2) examined the strategies that are used by teachers to differentiate instructions for high ability students. Differentiation refers to the approaches that educators employ to accommodate students’ academic differences by determining what students will learn, how they will learn it, and how they will demonstrate it.

The findings of this study indicated that most teachers were aware of the students’ academic differences. The teachers considered their students to be individuals with different skills, interests, styles, and talents. Moreover, they were aware of the students’ strengths and weaknesses.

According to Sternberg, Grigorenko and Ferrari (2004, p. 2), measuring intelligence and success require expertise. It requires “meta-components of thinking, which include recognition of problems, definition of problems, formulation of strategies, representation of information, allocation of resources, as well as, monitoring and evaluation of solutions to various problems”.

In this regard, Sternberg, Grigorenko and Ferrari (2004, p. 2) attribute the development of these skills to gene-environment, co-variation, and interaction. Conventional tests of intelligence and related abilities measure past achievements. These tests include vocabulary, oral analogies, conceptual reasoning, and solving mathematical problems.

The problem that is associated with the conventional model is that it proposes a causal relationship in which the tests reflect a construct that seems to be a causal of, rather than a mere temporary antecedent of later success. Most human characteristics reveal the co-variation and the association between genetic and contextual factors.

However, conducting an explicit measure of the influence of genes on the development of intelligence is not possible. Consequently, we can only measure a portion of the expressed intelligence. This includes the expressions of developing expertise, as well as, the type of expertise that can possibly facilitate reflection among practitioners. In this regard, there should be a relationship between intelligence measures and later success.

The facets of intelligence include analytical, creative, and practical domain. The attainment of expertise in a given creative domain or in a particular practical domain is associated with the achievement of expertise in similar domains. Psychometric research suggests “more domain generality for the analytical domain” (Sternberg, Grigorenko,

[supanova_question]

## Gender Politics in Early Modern Russia Exploratory Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Much has been written about Europe’s political past, however a reader would be surprised to note that there is little literature coverage of women’s political roles during the period. This situation can be attributed to the cultures of this period.

During this time, women were used to being ignored in political roles. Women never held any office, sat in political meetings, nor served as judges. They were reduced to serving as sextons, house cleaners, and churchwardens.

By the start of the early modern Europe, estimated to be early 1500s, Russia was remarkably diverse with respect to its communal and cultural patterns. However, it was not until the 18th century that the country experienced heady models of gender relations.

Notably, the country did not enjoy the economic prosperity enjoyed by other neighbouring countries like Poland during the early modern times. As such, gender politics in early modern Russia were less diverse compared with that of Poland (Clements 2012, P.12).

In the 16th and 17th centuries, gender relations in Russia were influenced by the communal and financial strategies of the Muscovite state. This paper focuses on gender politics in early modern Russia.

Early 16th century Muscovite politics dominated much of the early modern Russia. During this time, honour and leadership was centred on male authority. Men who protected the chastity and reputations of their women were honoured in the society.

The most powerful politicians in this regime were referred to as boyars (Kollmann 1987, p.1). A number of these politicians constituted a council of advisors. They were supposed to administer justice, led military campaigns, represented the state in foreign matters, and advised Tsar.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These positions were filled with men from different clans. It should be noted that during the start 16th century women were exempted from political positions. Even the privileged and royal women did not enjoy political opportunities as the Polish women did.

Despite this, some historians such as Isolde Thyrêt assert that 16th century Russian women were an important facet of Muscovite politics. Thyrêt substantiates her claims using the stories about Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich, his wife, and sisters.

Through this, she illustrates that women were required to pray for the leaders, give advice to the leaders, and act as their leaders’ mediators.

Although the Old Belief and the Church were quiet about the political roles played by women in the early modern Russia, there were female leaders who became very influential and achieved a lot compared to their male counterparts from 17th century onwards.

How influential were the women in the 17th century Russia? In the 17th century, influential women in Muscovite emerged. These women included Boyarina Feodosii Morozova, Elena Khrushchev, Evpraksiia Nashchokin, and Evdokiia Petrovna Naryshki. Both females and males valued these women.

A majority of them had thousands of male servants who respected and obeyed them. It is alleged that male leaders respected them because of their influence on the convents. These women did not only come from the Muscovite boyar clans, but also from varied social classes.

According to these historians, the most influential female leader in Muscovite history was Morozova. This woman is renowned because she was the only woman in the 17th century who became the subject of an old believer referred to as Vita (Michels 1995, p. 431).

We will write a custom Essay on Gender Politics in Early Modern Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morozova used to communicate with another leader known as Avvakum through letters. In the letters, the woman appears to be larger than life saint with great religious conviction. These letters indicate that Morozova used to live in a palace in Moscow.

In the year 1662, when her husband died, the woman inherited one of the largest properties in the state. Through this property, she received control over a large territory with thousands of servants.

Unlike other widows who were defeated to manage their husbands’ properties, Morozova managed her property with exceptional leadership skills.

For instance, she ordered the parish priest to apprehend parishioners failing to attend church services. Those who went against her directives, were held, questioned, and disciplined.

In years to come, she maintained her power over her husband’s vast lands despite some efforts by a few individuals who tried to strip her of the property. Between the years 1666 and 1667, a number of church officials who had been exiled by other believers found refuge in the woman’s palace.

In the palace, the woman informed the refugees that she was their sole leader and one word from her could destroy their lives.

After the death of Morozova’s son, her life took a dramatic change. She gave up on earthly things and dedicated her life to the church. She later prayed and fasted for the rest of her life.

Another influential female leader in the history of the Russian Old Belief was Elena Khrushchev. The woman belonged to unpopular boyar clan. Despites the clan’s unpopularity in politics, the men from the clan were renowned for their cruelty towards their women.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Politics in Early Modern Russia by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Khrushchev managed to be a nun after divorcing her clan. Thereafter, she became one of the most dreaded and respected woman in the early modern Russia. The woman was very determined and had desired leadership skills.

Under the reign of Patriarch Nikon, the woman was chosen as a manager of rituals in Vosnesenskii monastery. By mid 1660, the woman had become very powerful. During the year 1664, she planned the removal of Nikon from the throne.

In the subsequent years, the woman got into more troubles. Soon after becoming Nikon’s enemy, she got into a disagreement with the abbess of her convent. Khrushchev argued that the abbess was illiterate and that he was not fit for being a leader.

Later, the abbess proved her wrong when she provided evidence before tsar that he was literate. Because of her ill motives, Khrushchev was later fired and her position replaced by a male official. After losing her position, the woman was forced into exile in Kaluga.

Other religious women leaders who became very popular and influential in the early modern Russia include Evpraksiia Nashchokin and Evdokiia Petrovna Naryshki.

As a substitute of admitting isolation, the above women decided to venture into the male dominated fields and became important personalities.

Without a doubt, most of them were so influential that whole convents and their servants abided by their religious teachings. As indicated above, others saved some religious rebels from being persecuted by hosting them as refugees.

These women have inspired several feminists across Europe. Their power and influence continues to amaze historians because they triumphed in an male dominated era.

In the late 17th century, Muscovites economic, social, and political policies began to change. These changes were attributed to the rise of Italian Renaissance virtues (Meade

[supanova_question]

## NBA: Competing on Global Delivery with Akamai OS Streaming Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Using Porter’s competitive forces model, analyse the NBA’s market situation. How does the use of Akamai help the NBA compete in this market?

To analyse the NBA’s market situation, it is necessary to refer to Porter’s competitive forces model and to examine the position in relation to such criteria as the industry rivalry, buyer power, suppliers’ power, threat of substitutes, and threat of mobility.

Referring to the industry rivalry force, the National Basketball Association should state its position within the industry and compete with the other North American sports leagues such as the Major League Baseball, the National Hockey League, and the National Football League along with a range of the other professional leagues around the world.

According to the criterion of the buyer power, the NBA depends on the audience’s interest in the league’s activities and provide media content.

The influence of the suppliers’ power on the NBA is rather low. The NBA is not dependent on the potential substitutes because of the tremendous competitive advantage. Focusing on the threat of mobility, it is possible to state that it is rather low, but any problems with the access to the NBA media content because of the website’s drawbacks can lead to decreasing the number of the potential audience.

Thus, the use of Akamai helps the NBA compete within this market because the company’s services are used to guarantee the provision of the high-quality content around the globe of regardless the location of the user.

That is why the high-quality content reaches the global audience easily, contributing to the NBA competitive advantage. The necessary NBA content can be accessed by users more comfortable and quicker in comparison with using the services operated by the other leagues because Akamai relies on multiple distribution channels.

Using Porter’s generic strategies model, what do you think is the NBA’s overall strategy or strategies?

Following Porter’s generic strategies model, it is possible to state that the NBA’s overall strategy is the differentiation strategy. Having analysed the target scope, it is essential to note that the NBA is oriented to broadcast the important information about the league as well as all the associated media content widely, focusing on the global audience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The NBA avoids possible differences in relation to the audience’s access to the media content and uses the Akamai services in order to add to the leading company’s strategies according to which the advertising and promotion are realised in all the regions globally, and the company’s success depends on the effective self-provision.

Furthermore, the chosen advantage is the product uniqueness that is why the Akamai services are discussed as efficient to contribute to the aspect of the product uniqueness.

Why is it important that all fans in the world have the same experience?

Following the NBA mission and goals, it is necessary to state that all the fans around the globe should have the same experience while sharing the NBA media content. This fact is important because the league orients to the global audience, and it is important to avoid and overcome any discrimination associated with the possibilities of users from different countries to access the video, games, or interviews broadcasted widely.

The NBA works to increase the number of the target audience globally; that is why it is significant to provide the media content to all the world regions in order to give the users equal opportunities. As a result, to increase traffic levels and visits to the NBA’s website, it is necessary to use the Akamai efficient services dependent on the developed technologies.

Why is it important that individual franchise owners can build, manage, and distribute on the NBA platform their content?

The services provided by Akamai enable the individual franchise owners to manage and distribute their content on the NBA platform more actively and efficiently, contributing to the increased competitive advantage and owners’ potential. The NBA provides the individual franchise owners to distribute the independent content in order to strengthen them and to attract more people as the target audience.

Thus, the business model, which is used by the NBA and improved with references to the use of the Akamai services is useful to provide more advantages for the individual franchise owners to develop their activities.

The individual franchise owners rely on the developed business strategies and the promotion of the business activities with the help of the NBA platform and the Akamai services can be discussed as the necessary condition to speak about the overall success of the NBA as the leading league within the industry.

We will write a custom Case Study on NBA: Competing on Global Delivery with Akamai OS Streaming specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The word ‘partnership’ appears several times in the video. Who are the NBA’s partners? How does the concept of a strategic ecosystem apply to the NBA’s partnership strategies?

The increased competitive advantage of the NBA directly depends on the league’s effective partnership with the Akamai computing platform and server to distribute different types of content globally. From this point, Akamai is one of the NBA’s partners.

The advantages of such partnership are in providing the NBA with the opportunities to respond to the increased demand for the league’s media content and to provide the high-speed and high-quality channels for the users worldwide to receive the access to the necessary material without references to the region, but depending on Akamai servers located globally.

The other NBA’s partners are the companies and suppliers which support the NBA’s activities, advertising, and promotion. In this case, the NBA can build the effective partnership relations with suppliers and distributors to support the worldwide spreading of the NBA’s media content and with different companies which operate in the sphere of the technological support as Akamai does.

As a result, while developing the effective and developed partnership relations with different companies operating in various associated industries, the NBA creates the specific strategic ecosystem which is successful to contribute to the progress of all the companies working within the ecosystem.

From this point, referring to the example of the relations with Akamai, it is possible to note that the NBA relies on the developed strategic ecosystem as the source of the necessary support. For instance, the Akamai services guarantee the effective management of a variety of media assets. The distribution of the content is equally efficient in different countries around the globe.

That is why the NBA intends to develop the partnership relations with Akamai in order to contribute to the NBA website’s development and to the further attraction of the global audience. The Akamai services are efficient, reliable, and based on innovative technologies. That is why, such relations with the Akamai services can be discussed as advantageous for the NBA.

[supanova_question]

## The Humankind and Its Laws through the Eyes of a Child Critical Essay argumentative essay help

There is hardly anything more difficult for a child than trying to adjust to the specifics of an adult world. Ruled by what seems from a child’s perspective shockingly insane principles, the universe of the grown-up people is far too absurd to embrace and far too exciting to stay away from.

Touching upon the problem of children trying to comply with the rules set by adults and for adults, as well as addressing the problem of growing pains, Mun-Yol Yi in his Our Twisted Hero, as well as Mo Yan in his Pow!, considers the chances of a child to survive in the world of adults.

Although the two authors create completely different universes, with colorful and unique characters and different plotlines, there is still a tangible similarity in which children portray adult world and consider moral and ethical dilemmas that they encounter on their way.

Whenever both authors start taking about the childhood experiences of their characters, they would always mention the obstacles that these characters were forced to fight in order to become a part of the adult society.

In many cases, the lead characters will have to face injustice; interpreting it as a part of growing up, the authors make their leads accept the fact that they will have to fight their way to the top.

Another peculiar issue regarding the lessons that both leading characters learn about the adult world concerns morality in the community.

As the reader sees the adult world through the lens of a small child, all the threats of this new and potentially dangerous environment come out in full blue, literally making the reader shudder.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, by far the most cringe inducing element of the adult world reality appears to be the lack of justice, which the leading characters in both novels often become witnesses for and even victims of: “Suddenly, my nose began to sting and tears rolled around my eyes. It wasn’t completely clear to me then, but I suppose I was tasting the sorrow of the ostracized, the bitter loneliness that goes with alienation”1.

Among the most graphic examples of Han facing injustice, the moment at which he realizes that he actually has enemies, whom he did nothing to and who are nevertheless hate him, Eom being one of those people.

Even though in the end, the two characters finally reconcile, it is still clear that the thought of having a person who nurtures hatred against him comes as a huge and unpleasant revelation to Han.

While in Our Twisted Hero, the ethical issues seem rather obvious, in Pow!, the conflict between the moral code of the protagonist and the principles and values that the society is trying to foist on him, is described in a much more subtle manner.

By creating a realm of hallucinatory realism, Mo Yan blurs the line between dreams and reality, therefore, questioning the very essence of being.

Thus, the ethical issues come as more subtle, yet nonetheless demanding answers. Mo Yan poses such questions as where the line between the socially acceptable and the socially inacceptable must be drawn.

Of all the details that prevent the readers to relate the characters from one book to the characters from another one, the difference in pacing should be mentioned first.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Humankind and Its Laws through the Eyes of a Child specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is remarkable that Yi immediately sets the stage for the young character to explore the world and cognize reality; even though the idea of starting a novel in a flashback does seem a little weird, the payoff, which the readers experience as they watch the reader’s universe collide with the harsh adult reality, is well worth the risks that the author takes with his well-trodden approach.

Yan, on the contrary, decides to set his novel in the realm of the present-day world, and reveals the fact that his protagonist is mostly going to be shown as a child throughout the entire novel only a while after the readers start relate to the Monk, Yan’s lead character.

While the given differences do not affect the way in which the readers relate to the protagonist, it does change the audience’s vision of the leads as children.

Yan’s Monk is capable of evaluating the childhood experience of his vis-a-vis in a calm and reserved manner, which reduces the shock value for the reader as the latter finds out about the negligence that the leading character experienced in his relationships with his father: “He had forgotten I ever existed”2.

Yi, on the contrary, throws the reader into the realm of a little kid, the realm, which is about to collide with the world of adults and suffer severe damage in the process.

At the end of the day, the lessons that the audience learns from both novels, are quite obvious.

However, these lessons have still been introduced in a very clever way; both authors could have simply gone into creating a dram displaying the faults of society as they are seen through the eyes of children.

Instead, both authors manage to provide a rather fair account of the rights and wrongs of the society, with the adult versions of their leading characters summarizing the key points that both authors make.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Humankind and Its Laws through the Eyes of a Child by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More Han defeating Eom at the end of Our Twisted Hero serves as a cautionary tale about being irresponsible about one’s power, while the ending of the Pow! seems quite random, much like the novel itself.

As for the Pow!, its lessons seem to have stuck in the thicket of magical realism, and the ending of the novel literally dissolves in the final chapter.

Regardless of the complexity of the plot, however, Pow! Still offers an important lesson to consider – it shows the perils of escapism, which children usually resort to when bumping into the harshness of the real world.

While in Pow!, the lesson might be too on the nose, it is still admirable that the author spends so much time on making his character three-dimensional, and his childhood experience relatable for the readers.

Though the universes created in each of the novels differ strikingly from each other in terms of the time, setting, characters and plot, they still have the same conflict of children facing the disturbingly unpleasant reality of the adult world.

Both novels shed the light on how lonely it is to be a child, and what effort it takes to come out of one’s shell in order to explore the world and only get disappointed in the process.

Showing that children actually need parental guidance in order to cognize the world around them and be able to retain their optimistic attitude without turning into cynics, both authors make it clear that for a child thrown into the adult world and left completely on his or her own, life becomes a fight for survival.

Very few people come out of this fight safe; for the most part, the lessons learned in the process leave the battle scars that will not go away any time soon.

Bibliography Yan, Mo. Pow! New York, NY: Seagull Publications. 2012.

Yi, Mun-Yol. Our Twisted Hero. New York City, NY: Hyperion East. 2001.

Footnotes Mun-Yol Yi, Our Twisted Hero, (New York City, NY: Hyperion East. 2001), 511..

Mo Yan, Pow!, (New York, NY: Seagull Publications. 2012), 17.

[supanova_question]