Abstract The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib, is the central worship place for the Sikhs. It is located in Amritsar, Northern Punjab in India. The building is one of the oldest structures in the country, but one whose architectural design still amazes the current architects.
The building of the temple was started in 1574 and was completed in 1604. However, the temple suffered attacks twice and in the two attacks, the building was destroyed. It was later restructured to what it is today. The building consumed many materials, but remains one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the country. Official data from the government shows that many tourists visit the site every year. It is considered the most attractive tourist site in the country.
The Golden Temple The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib, is the central Gurdwara (worship place) located in Amritsar, Northern Punjab, India. The building is one of the oldest structures in the country, but its architectural design still amazes the current architects. From a far, the building resembles any ordinary temple in the city. However, as one moves closer to the building, he or she realizes the strangeness of the building.
The shape of the temple, materials used in its construction, and the color, show a work done out of skill. It is believed that this building has a strong symbolic function in the country. This is because of the historical factors that are related to it. All Sikhs consider this temple holy. The temple was built purposely to act as a worship center to all people in this land and even visitors, irrespective of their gender, race, age, and religion. The figure below shows the Golden Temple at Amritsar in India.
This research is focused on analyzing the Golden Temple based on its location, cultural ties, the designs used in its construction, and the labor force used.
Location of the Building As was stated above, this temple is located in the city of Amritsar, Northern Punjab, India. The building of this holy place can be traditionally traced back in 1574 when Akbar, the monarch of Mughal, gave Bibi Bhani the site as a present when she was marring Jetha. Jetha became the fourth Guru Raam Das and immediately started developing the site.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1588, Guru Arjun Dev oversaw the laying of the temple’s foundation. He finally completed the construction of the temple and declared it an official worshiping center. He selected Sikh Baba Budha as the warden of the shrine. The decision to make this a central temple for worshiping in this kingdom was largely motivated by its location. The temple was located strategically in the middle of society. It was easily accessible to various communities that lived in the kingdom. All main trade routes were also passing near the temple.
Culture and Society The Golden Temple in Amritsar in India had many cultural connotations to people who lived around the place and to the entire country. This temple, suitably known as Harmandir meaning Temple of God, was considered a central worshiping place for all people in the region. It was meant for both men and women of all religions and from any part of the world.
During this time, the Gurus had come to the realization that this society was strategically located for trade. This was because of the Indian Ocean, which was a route for many ships that were travelling to various markets around the world. The Gurus had realized that given the location of this country, many visitors would come to the country and religion was a main factor. The temple was therefore considered a general place, which was holy and could accommodate any religious grouping in society.
This temple was also a sign of defiance to external rulers who had issued a decree that buildings in this land should not go beyond three feet above the ground. Leaders of this society built a twelve feet temple to defy this decree and this has remained a clear fact among people living in this society. According to Arshi (56), this temple was a clear sign of the accommodative culture of Indians. During this time, there was a tight battle amongst various religious groupings.
Each religious group was fighting for supremacy and it was rare to see individuals from another religion trusting the other with issues related to religion. Over the world, there were cases of massacre against religious groupings, which was perpetuated by the group in power. In this country, however, the temple was a sign of unity. In the temple, people would feel that there is a sign of unity.
The temple is also a sign of the tough battle that the Indians fought against the invaders from the Middle East. All over the world, traders who used the Indian Ocean had known that the temple was a sign of unity and strength of this country. It became a target of inversion by world powers that were planning to rule this land.
This is what happened Jahan Khan, a general of Afghani army, invaded this land. The temple was massively destroyed by this army, but due to the spirited fight that was put up the local army led by Baba Deep Singh, they were repulsed from the temple, and therefore, this worshiping place was not completely brought down. The temple was restricted with the sponsorship from Maharaj Sign who sponsored marble inlay, gilding the temple and gold painting.
We will write a custom Essay on Golden Temple (Amritsar, India) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps the most memorable event about this temple was the dark history known as The Operation Blue Star of 1984, which was commissioned by Indira Gandhi. The operation led to a fight between the government soldiers led by General Kuldip Brar and the Sikhs.
This battle resulted in massive destruction of the temple, and many of the Sikhs lost their lives. Some of the soldiers also lost their lives in the battle. The soldiers did humiliating things within the temple, including smoking and destruction of the holy shrine. The Sikhs who died in the operations were given disgracing mass cremation by the government soldiers.
This temple was later restructured in 1990s. This incident has however, remained clear in the minds of the Indians. It has remained a controversial topic in this country, but it remains a fact that the incident made this temple very famous. It is still regarded by the entire nation as a center for worship, while the Sikhs still commemorate the massacre of their fellow tribesmen who were brutally murdered at this place. Besides the locals, this temple has been attracting the attention of international tourists, spiritual leaders, and designers among other professionals who always want to learn a number of issues related to the temple.
Construction of the Building The construction of this building can be analyzed from various fronts. It is worth noting that there has been massive changes done to this building ever since it was built that one may argue that the original design is lost. The initial construction of this building begun reflected the modern housing design of the 18th century. Although the building has been renovated several times by modern architectures, it is clear that in the initial structure, erection of the building to higher heights was done using scaffolding.
The strength of the wall was ensured with the help of steel girders. This gave the walls strength and ability to withstand various forces of nature. During the construction, girders and other construction materials were lifted using a pulley system. By this time, sophisticated machines such as the cranes were not available, but construction technology was progressing and people were looking for better ways of making the construction process easier and faster.
The workforce of this building worked under a pressure to deliver quality work. They had to embrace both speed and quality of production. The frame of the Golden Temple was steel bars. This would be mixed with concrete to give the wall the strength needed for the height that was expected.
At this time, the idea of skyscrapers was not common and therefore, the workforce had to employ a lot of intelligence in order to come up with what was expected. The architectures were given the hard task of ensuring that this building would go against the forces of nature and tower high into the sky.
This had to be done having in mind that the construction workers and the final users of the temple would be safe. The building, despite its height and size, had to withstand forces of nature and be able to stand the test of time. The finishing was done using gold and gold coating in some parts of the building. It was therefore, imperative to go for the materials that would meet the expected standards.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Golden Temple (Amritsar, India) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 2
Materials According to Kapur (112), it may be a little challenging to state precisely the number of materials that were used to construct this building. As was stated previously, this building was attacked twice, first by Afghani generals and secondly by Operation Blue Star. Each of the attacks had devastating effects on the building and each time there was an attempt to make the building better than it initially was.
However, an average audit of the materials used in this building indicates that the building consumed many materials during its construction. It is estimated that the walls of this temple consumed about 37,981 tons of steel and 7,942,271 bricks. On these walls were 484 windows 28 doors (Arshi 82). The roofing consumed 743,214 tiles and 762,123 rivets.
There were about 250 flights of stairs in the entire building and half a mile of aluminum railing. The pipes used were about 40 miles in length and about 20-mile brass stripe in the floor. The electric wire used was about 920 miles, with about 15,000 bulbs. The painting was about 4,387,000 square feet and about 117,475 troy ounce of gold.
The above figures are estimation of what this temple could have consumed following the two destructive attacks. Kapur (121) says that it may be difficult to determine the exact value because when the temple was attacked for the first time, the extent of the destruction was not valued. The same was the case in the second destruction. However, basing the estimation on what exists today, the stated values are the approximation of what made the Golden Temple.
Exterior Design The figure given below shows the exterior design of this building and its location and most of the important external component of the temple.
It is clear from the diagram above that the exterior design of this temple shows that motivation for the architectures came from the architectural development that was taking place in the Roman Empire.
There had been architectural developments in these earlier times from the Egyptian pyramids, the Chinese houses, and finally the modern Roman housing structure. One fact that demonstrates this is the golden color of the building. Gold was a precious commodity in society at this time and it was used as a sign of class. Houses that used gold in their exterior and interior parts were considered of higher value. Moreover, they belonged to the most powerful individuals in society.
The exterior part of this building closely resembles the palace and the temples that were common in the Roman Empire. The dome shaped towers and the flag emphasize the religion of the locals. The finishing of this house was done so perfectly that it is nearly impossible to see the bricks and steel used in construction.
It is worth noting that this fine finishing was done during its most recent renovation. The large dome-shaped windows are meant to allow light into the temple at daytime and to illuminate beautiful golden light from the internal bulbs at night. Its location in the middle of waters makes it one of the most attractive tourist attraction sites in the country.
This location also shows that this building was not only meant for worshiping, but also a place where people would come for the purpose of recreation. The design of the roofing, the windows, the doors, and the general external shape of the temple leaves no doubt that this is a place for worship
Interior Design The interior design of this temple shows the exotic nature of this building and a clear representation of what it is. The diagram below shows a section of the interior of this temple.
The temple is ornamented using gold and golden cups, jugs seats among other ornaments. The interior of this building was garlanded using expensive garments and special type of wood. The decoration also includes flowers and special colored lights. The architectural design of the interior part of this temple shows a great expertise, especially in designing the curvatures on the ceiling.
The lighting of this temple is designed to give a golden light that is just bright enough for the worshipers. The interior wall is designed to give an impression that it is made of wood. The upper part of the wall is carpeted with various materials from gold to a special type of mahogany wood and black, blue, white, and golden garments. The room is well ventilated to help maintain a clean environment for the large population that throngs the place.
Labor Force Labor used in this project came from different fields. There were carpenters, plumbers, electricians, masons, drivers among others. The effort of building this temple took several years. In the initial construction of the temple, which ended in 1604, the locals did the work. The architects, who were involved in designing this temple, had experience in building and construction, following the Roman modern housing designs.
The masons, plumbers and other workforce that were involved in the construction were local experts. It was during this time that most construction activities were completed. According to Mohinder (119), it is worth appreciating the fact that during its construction, no serious casualties or deaths, despite the heavy activities that were involved, were witnessed.
Guru Arjan Dev is celebrated as the person who came out strongly to sponsor this project from the onset. His predecessor had only laid the foundation for this building. Guru Dev, therefore, had to hire experts who were able to construct the temple to meet the expectations of society.
Although it took several years to complete this project, there were so many employees working on this project at any one moment. Most construction materials had to be transported to the site of construction from various locations within this country. After the invasion by the Afghani generals, the temple was destroyed and had to be put under renovation.
This demanded for a labor force that would be in a position to fix the temple properly, despite the destruction. In 1984’s Operation Blue Star, the Indian soldiers destroyed the temple largely. The temple was once again put under renovation to what it is currently. This also demanded a labor force with deep understanding of how renovation would be done to retain the initial design, while still embracing some elements of modernism.
If It Were Built Today It is a fact that it has taken several hundreds of years since the Golden Temple was first erected in Amritsar in Northern Punjab, India. Most of the architectural designs that were used in the construction of this building have also changed. When this building was to be built today, a number of changes may be made on the Temple, but most of structural designs would remain intact. The exterior part of the temple may remain unchanged because even the current temples are following this design in the contemporary world.
The interior design of this temple may need a little change. For instance, the expensive exotic ornaments that were designed to be part of the interior would be reduced or even be eliminated. The expenses used in decorating the temple with gold would be directed to other areas of need. The temple, if it were to be built today, would have taken much less time than it took for its initial construction.
This is because when it was being constructed, the level of technology was not as sophisticated as it is today. The workers at the site would have used large cranes to move heavy objects from the ground to higher heights instead of human using labor. Human labor is unreliable and ineffective because the output is always low. Machines and modern technology would speed up the construction of the building.
Works Cited Arshi, Pardeep. The Golden Temple: History, Art, and Architecture. New Delhi: Harman Publishers, 1989. Print.
Kapur, Singh. The Golden Temple: It is Theo-Political Status. Patiala: Academy of Sikh Religion
Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) Essay essay help online free
Introduction Understanding of the ecology of animals is very interesting. According to Humphreys (1997, p. 121), many of wildlife habitat encroachment has been reported worldwide. This has mainly happened due to the general increase in population. Increased population leads to high demand for food and other resources that led many to convert the animal habitats into poaching grounds and agricultural areas to feed the hungry population.
Panther Leo or Lion species is predominantly found in Africa where they have faced tremendous interferences from poachers who have different interests (Firouz 2005, p. 91). Some hunt the animal for skin while others do it for revenge reasons when they attack humans. Lion belongs to the genus Panther with other animals like the Tiger, Jaguar and leopard also. Lions are referred as a ‘king of beasts’ in the wilderness. This research focuses on the analyzing the life of a lion.
Geographic Distribution of the Species Triefeldt (2008, p. 56) noted that lions are largely found in Africa and in some parts of Asia. The species is reported to be endangered in these areas. Some of the remnants are known to reside in Indian National park, the Gil forest.
From the historic perspective, some of the lion species are believed to have moved away from south west of Asia and North Africa. Until the recent past, lion was the most widespread mammal seconding humans. In India, the habitat of lions is in both the forests of dry savanna and the dry forests of deciduous scrub. In Africa, the lion species is found in grasslands of savanna where there are acacia trees. In the 480BC, lions were believed to be common in Greece.
They attacked a Persian king during his reign and were reported to be rare by 300BC. Most of the lions were eradicated on the arrival of firearms during the 18th century. Later in the 19th and 20th century, lions started becoming extinct in Southwest of Asia and North Africa. In most parts like India, lions have become extinct. Generally, lions are known to live mostly in the shrubby and forested areas. The picture below shows a lion in its habitat
Pattern of distribution of the species within its geographic range According to Lions (1996, p. 58), different lion species are found in different environments depending on the geographical region. However, Africa is commonly known to harbor many lion species, their distribution pattern vary from one location to another within the continent.
In some parts of Africa, for example the Eastern part has a considerably high number of lion species compared to the number of the same species in other parts of Africa. In the Asian region, the most commonly found species is the P.L persica. In Africa, researches show that there are five different sub-species found within different geographical regions. These lion species include, the Panther a Leo senegalensis that is found in the parts of Western Africa and P.I.azandica found in the Northern East of Congo.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Followed by the P.I.bleyenberghi, a species that is found in Angola and southern parts of Congo, and the Panther a Leo krugeri also known as P.I. verneyi that include the lion species from Kalahari and P.I krugeri, which is found in southern Africa. In the Eastern Africa, there are the P.I nubica, the lion species that are categorized into Masai, Somali, Serengeti, and Congo lions.
Individual distribution Lions are well organized. Based on their sexes, there is division of roles or duties. The animals due to their form of organization rarely live in isolation. Female lions giving birth at the same time have a shared responsibility of bringing up the cubs (Riley 2008, p. 79). A part from hunting for these cubs, lioness would breastfeed them irrespective of the specific cub mothers.
The male lions’ big responsibility is to protect the female lions and the young ones. Lions therefore live in groups or prides. A pride on average can comprise 13 lions, both males and females. They also do the hunting in a group and in very rare occasion, a lion will go hunting individually.
Major habitats that the species occupies Hunter (2005, p. 46) says that the lion’s habitation varies. Their habitats include plains, forests, and grasslands. Quite a good population of lion species is known to reside even in the semi-arid and at high altitude areas except within the tropical rainforests and extremely desert areas. In fact, a lion species is known to live in Ethiopian Bale mountains that are 4,240 m. African lions are commonly found in savanna habitations or in plains.
These areas are believed to have a high prey base. Lions in Asia found in Gir forest India. The lion prides which constitute both sexes range from two to 40. Within the pride, male lions are usually more than their female counterparts are. In most instances, lions are found in groups, an adaptation that helps in increasing their efficiency when hunting and in guarding their territorial boundaries against other animals.
Important habitat components According to Humphreys (1997, p. 127), lions inhibit a wide range of habitats. Mostly they prefer inhibiting in areas that are forestry and shrubby. As seen earlier, these animals like hunting in the darkness in order to hide from the prey. They also like a habitat with some kind valleys to make the hunting easier for them since such areas help them hide from the prey aimed.
As discussed earlier, lions live not in isolation but in groups. The female do most of the hunting especially hunting the light prey like gazelles and wild beasts. On the hand, male like hunting huge animals like zebras and buffalos. Both male and female lions have different preferences for prey hunted.
We will write a custom Essay on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of this species as seen from the discussion above, in Africa they are mostly found in Kalahari. This place is full of scattered acacia trees. They like such a place because they shelter under these trees during sunny seasons. Female lions also give birth under trees or under shade.
Foods eaten According to DeGraaf (2000, p. 28) lions are predatory and carnivorous animals. The lion’s prey range from the small sized to the large sized animals. Their diet is mainly comprised of birds, rodents, buffalos Zebras and many other small and big animals. The lion as said earlier has the dominion over almost all other animals in the wilderness.
Lion, the king of the Jungle, is able to straggle and kill animals like Rhinos, Antelopes, Zebra, and many others to obtain food. The animal is very cunning .After killing other animals; lions ensure that they do not share their kills and do chasing away other predators. The figure below shows a lion carrying away its prey.
McGuire (1989, 40) says that in most of the occasions, the female lions do the hunting. Hunting activity is usually individually and in prides also. The prides just like female and male lions, differ in food preference. Female lions prefer hunting preys like antelopes while their male counterparts prefer large animals like buffalos (Mitra 2005, p.125).
The hunting is normally done in groups and at night. Lions are much slower compared to the speed of most of their prey. Although they can also run fast, most of the preys they hunt are faster hence, hunting at night helps them in concealing their presence against the animals they hunt.
Timing and pattern of reproduction Marshall (2010, p. 114) observes that lions are polygamous in their breeding. The gestation period of lions is around 110 days. Their breeding is throughout the year. By the age of four years, most lionesses are ready for reproduction. Mating takes place at specific times of the year among the lion, which can take several days (Mitra 2005, p.35).
A female lion, when on heat can mate with several different males. When giving birth, the female lion isolates to a sheltered place away from the rest of the pride. Some researches show that lions breed well in protected area such as game parks. A lioness on average can give birth from two four cubs per each attempt. After birth the female does not immediately mate again, it takes some time, usually about two years. The cubs are usually blind at birth. Their eyes open roughly after a week. The diagram below shows lions mating.
Olney (1994, p. 89) says that the mother lioness hunts for its young ones and protects them from predation until they are able to support themselves. In a situation where many lionesses have given birth at the same time, they share the responsibility of rising as well as feeding the young ones. Cubs’ mother isolates from the rest of the pride for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Weaning of the young lions can start from the seventh month.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Normally, at the age of 3 years, a male lion riches maturity and at the age of 5 years, they are in a position to defend other pride members. The female lions mature so fast and from the age of 4 years, they are ready for procreation. The male lions rule the prides and always fight for their chances to take over the ruling position in a pride (Feldhamer 2003, p. 56). There is therefore a continuous competition between female lions and males over their social structure.
Conservation or Pest Status According to Skinner and Chimimba (2005, p. 118) most lion species live in Southern and Eastern Africa. It is reported that despite the breeding ability of lions, their number is decreasing each day. Estimations indicates that about 23,500 lions are in African protected areas against the 100,000 lions present a century before (Olney 1994, p. 119). The main pest affecting the lion species are the humans. Poaching of lions and human encroaching the lion’s habitats, has been on rise.
There increased cases of human-wildlife conflicts, a factor that is facilitated by loss of habitats for these animals hence migrating to human habitations. Due to habitats loss and poaching, the population of the remaining lion species lives in isolation, a factor that encourages inbreeding leading to decrease in genetic diversity. Interference of the lions habitats buy humans as posed a serious impact on species conservation (United Nations Environment Programme 2008, p. 113).
There is need to create awareness to the public on the importance and need for conserving lions and wildlife in general. A part from humans, lions also face predation from other animals. Although lions are serious carnivores, they are predated upon by animals such as cheetahs, hyenas and leopards which are commonly known in killing the lion young ones and the aged lions.
Population Management According to Fleagle (1999, p. 81), after the realization that the population of lion species is decreasing every day, a number of coordinated measures has been put in place to manage the remaining population. This plan was started in 1982 for those lions in Asia, but since the lions in this region were discovered impure genetically, the plan was suspended (DeGraaf 2000, p. 78).
The plan of lion population management in Africa started a year later focusing mainly on the subspecies in the southern Africa. This plan has been faced by a series of challenges. Most of the captive lions are from an unknown origin and diversity, a factor that makes population management based on their genetic diversity difficult. Amongst the pride, lions have a way in which they manage their population.
Lions after giving birth always like staying with their young ones in the same pride so that they can continually watch over them. This process continues up to around 40 lions, which is the maximum number for a pride. After acquiring the maximum number, that a pride can support, the incoming extra lions split and shift to a different region for easy management and foraging. This avoids competition over resources like food, water, and shelter.
List of References DeGraaf, R 2000, New England wildlife: Habitat, natural history, and distribution, University Press of New England, Hanover.
Feldhamer, G 2003, Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and conservation, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Firouz, E 2005, The complete fauna of Iran, Tauris, London.
Fleagle, J 1999, Primate adaptation and evolution, Academic Press, San Diego.
Humphreys, P 1997, The lion and the gazelle: The mammals and birds of Iran, I.B. Tauris, London.
Hunter, L 2005, Cats of Africa: Behaviour, ecology, and conservation, Struik, Cape Town.
Lions, J 1996, Lions’ commentary on Unix 6th edition: With source code, Peer-to-Peer Communications, San Jose.
Marshall, C 2010, Mammal anatomy: An illustrated guide, Marshall Cavendish, New York.
McGuire, L 1989, Lions, Aladdin Books, New York.
Mitra, S. (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion. New Delhi: Indus.
Olney, P 1994, Creative conservation: Interactive management of wild and captive animals, Chapman
The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract The aim of this paper was to report on the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE (Gherkin) in London and how a similar skyscraper would be constructed in modern times. The Gherkin was designed by the Foster and Partners and constructed by the Skanska group from 2001-2003.
The building occupies the former site of the Baltic exchange that was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion. The Gherkin is one of the environmental friendly skyscrapers of the 21st century. However, the construction of a similar skyscraper today would entail more modification such as the use of recycled glass.
Introduction The built environment has undergone tremendous changes in the twenty first century. A number of appealing contributions have been made to the built environment. For instance, modern cities around the world have constructed modern structures such canals, subway systems, bridges, and skyscrapers by the use of modern technology. The advancement in the built environment is attributed to superior cultures and civilizations, which have emerged over the years.
In the twenty first century the Western culture and civilization has greatly influenced the type of buildings constructed in Europe, United States of America and other parts of the world. For instance, the city of London boasts of having one of the magnificent skyscrapers known as the 30 St. Mary AXE or the Gherkin. The 30 St. Mary AXE is “located in London’s financial district and stands on the site formally occupied by the Baltic Exchange, which was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion” (Yudelson 46).
The architects of the 30 St. Mary AXE were Norman Foster and Partners while the main constructor of the skyscraper was Skanska. The building was constructed from 2001-2003 after which it was commercialized in 2004. The 30 St. Mary AXE has 40 floors and a height of 591ft. This paper explores how the Gherkin was constructed, the civilization and culture prevalent during its construction, as well as, how a similar skyscraper could be constructed today.
Place, Period, and Size of the 30 St. Mary AXE The destruction of the Baltic Exchange in 1992 by an explosion led to the need to reconstruct the site that the Baltic Exchange had occupied. The government of the United Kingdom had hoped to reconstruct the site because “the Exchange hall was a celebrated fixture of the ship trading company” (Yudelson 46).
However, this dream was never to be realized following the extensive damage that the 1992 explosion had caused to the Baltic Exchange. As a result, in 1995 the Baltic Exchange sold the site to the Trafalgar House, which proposed the construction of the Millennium Tower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the plan to construct the Millennium Tower was “dropped because it was totally out of scale with the city of London and the building would also disrupt flight paths for both the City and Heathrow airports” (Wells 30-31). Therefore, in 1997 the Swiss Re managed to acquire the Baltic Exchange site after which the Swiss Re sought the service of Foster and Partners to design a building that would maintain the traditional streetscape of London City (Wells 30).
After the authorization of the Foster and Partners design, the Skanska embarked on the construction of the building in 2001 at the Baltic Exchange site. The construction of 30 St. Mary AXE took a period of three years. The Gherkin was opened the following year on 28 April 2004 with the Swiss Re as the primary occupant (Yudelson 46). The building has forty floors and a height of 180 meters (591ft).
The Gherkin consumes less energy as compared to other skyscrapers of similar size. The lower floors of the building are broader whereas from the sixteenth floor the sizes of the upper floors gradually reduce. The unique design of the Gherkin makes it to have a slender outlook as compared to skyscrapers of similar size. Additionally, the design of the 30 St. Mary AXE makes it more suitable to its location.
The lower floors of the building mainly function as offices while the top most floors act as private dining rooms, restaurant, and a bar that serves the tenants and guests. The top most floors enable guests and tenants to have a full view of the city of London. Similarly, the building is “visible over long distances, for instance, the building is visible from M11 Motorway and from the statue of George III in Windsor Great Park” (Wells 32).
Due to its enormous size the building has twenty three lifts, which are categorized as follows: “sixteen passenger lifts (6 high rise, 5 mid rise and 5 low rise), two lifts for goods, two fire fighters lifts, two shuttle lifts for top floor, and one car park lift” (Wells 34). The lifts are very efficient because they can carry more than 300 people at a particular time.
However, “the main lift for the building reaches the 34th floor while the push-from-below lift provide service to users up to the 39th floor hence creating a room for a bar at the 40th floor” (Wells 35).
The Prevalent Civilization and Culture during the Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE Civilization refers to “the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor” (Solomon 128). However, the term civilization has been viewed as controversial because it can be used to refer to superiority or inferiority. Similarly, the term civilization may also refer to culture of a particular group of people.
We will write a custom Essay on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of factors such as transportation systems, political structures, urbanization, and architecture indicate the level of civilization of a particular society. The Western culture and civilization has remained dominant in the 21st century. A number of architectural structures in the 21st century have resulted from innovations brought about by Western civilization and culture. Therefore, Western civilization and culture was prevalent during the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE.
Western civilization is a term, which “broadly refers to a heritage of social norms, ethnical values, traditional customs, beliefs systems, political systems, and technologies that originated from Europe” (Solomon 130).
Due to globalization Western culture and civilization has spread to different parts of the world, thereby influencing socio-economic, political, and technologies in various parts of the world. For instance, in most cities around the world architectural structures depict elements of Western culture and civilization such as straight lines, simple, and undecorated planes (Solomon 156-157).
One of the structures that clearly emphasize the characteristics of Western architecture is the skyscraper such as the 30 St. Mary AXE in London. A skyscraper refers to “any building that protrudes beyond its built environment and changes the overall skyline” (Richards 79-81). However, over the years the heights of skyscrapers have greatly increased due to modern techniques of construction.
A good number of cities of the twenty first century are characterized by skyscrapers of similar size as the Gherkin, which distinguish them and define the cities’ identities. In most cities around the world, skyscrapers are constructed because they are economical in terms of space, thereby ensuring optimum use of space within city centers where there is limited land.
The need to conserve space influenced the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE building, which is one of the magnificent pieces of Western architecture. Fazlur Rahman Khan, who is a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer, is credited to have developed an engineering principle known as tubular design, which has influenced the construction of skyscrapers (Wells 17-19).
Since 2000, several cities such as Chicago, New York, London, Shanghai, and Dubai have registered increase in the number of skyscrapers. This has been made possible due to the tubular design technique. The principle of tubular design is both economical and efficient because it reduces the quantity of construction materials used, as well as, enabling buildings to have several floors.
The construction of skyscrapers should ensure safety of occupants against calamities such as earthquakes, wind, and fire (Yudelson 18). Skyscrapers ought to be accessible and fitted with facilities that enable occupants to operate with a lot of ease.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The construction of most skyscrapers entail the use of “steel frameworks from which curtain walls are suspended rather than load bearing walls used in conventional construction” (Richards 137). The steel frameworks help in the construction of tall buildings with windows of large surface areas.
The use of steel frames in construction emerged during the industrial revolution, which begun in the 19th century in Europe. Therefore, the concept of skyscrapers like the 30 St. Mary AXE emerged because of Western civilization characterized by industrialization in various fields. As a result, Western civilization and culture led to the invention of more efficient and effective building techniques and construction materials, which have enabled the construction of buildings such as the skyscrapers.
Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE that depicts elements of Western architecture made a significant contribution to the built environment. The unique design of the building makes it to stand out from the surrounding buildings. The innovation of the design team has proved that with the new technologies and techniques of building, a number of structures can be constructed without interfering with a city’s layout, thereby positively contributing to the built environment.
The Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE The 1992 explosion that destroyed the Baltic Exchange center created a need for reconstruction of a similar building in order to maintain London’s cultural heritage of shipping technology.
However, the reconstruction of the Baltic Exchange proved futile after the United Kingdom government authorities realized that the destruction caused by the explosion was massive. Therefore, attempts were made to design a building that would suit the former location of the Baltic Exchange. Consequently, the Swiss Reinsurance Company commissioned Foster and Partners to design a suitable building for the site.
Fortunately, the government endorsed the design created by Foster and Partners due to its unique and spectacular design. In 2001, the Skanska constructors embarked on the construction process. Being a skyscraper of the 21st century, its construction entailed new technologies and techniques of construction. Additionally, the materials used were sophisticated and modern.
The 30 St. Mary AXE was constructed using steel frames joined together at triangular nodes in order to provide support for the weight of outer part of the structure. In order to ensure the success of using the steel nodes in the construction of the building, the designers conducted a number of tests through mock-up structures and computation (Wells 35).
The design allowed for continuity of the interior parts of the building while connecting the floors in a manner that would ensure maximum ventilation in the entire building. Similarly, the egg shape design of the building enables it to reduce wind intensity at the lower floors while at the same time ensuring that there is adequate air circulation in the building. The designers also provided for gaps in every floor to provide natural ventilation of the building.
The gaps left in every floor create shafts, which allow cool air to be drawn inside the building, as well as, warming the building through fitted passive solar gain (Richards 113). “Blinds located within the cavity of the ventilated double skin façade intercept solar gain before it enters the office environment after which the intercepted heat is reclaimed or rejected depending on the requirement for heating or cooling” (Yudelson 46).
Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE ensured that the building would have maximum natural ventilation that saves energy use by approximately 50% lower than buildings of similar size. The various systems within the building use gas as the major source of energy and supplemented by electricity.
The construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE also entails a double wall system whereby the outer walls of the building consist of several glass windows of triangular shapes whereas the inner walls have sliding glass doors. The building’s façade is composed of a column casing of aluminum, glass screen, which is operable and a façade frame made of extruded aluminum.
Floors that mainly serve as offices have a double-glazed outer layer whereas the inner layer has a single glazed screen. On the other hand, the space between the layers has a central ventilation system that regulates the amount of heat and coldness in the building depending on the season.
The cladding system of the building majorly consists of non-curved glass despite the building’s egg shape. The glasses used in cladding are arranged in diamond triangular panes. The all-glass cladding system enables occupants of the building to benefit from maximum sunlight exposure necessary for their operations, thereby enabling the occupants to save energy (Richards 145-148). The building was also fitted with an effective and efficient plumbing system.
The building has an electric heat tracing system that ensures circulation of hot water throughout the building. The electric heat tracing system is advantageous in several ways. For example, the system helps in conservation of energy and maintenance cost as compared to conventional plumbing systems that uses re-circulation.
Due to the several floors that the building has, the construction consumed much glass, steel, concrete, and energy. For instance, in order for the constructors to lift the building materials to the upper floors much energy was required. Similarly, the construction process entailed skilled labor force that ensured the construction was a success. As compared to the earlier centuries, the construction of the Gherkin benefited from the upsurge of skilled labor force in the architectural field.
For example, the architects were experts who created the unique design of the building by exploiting new technologies and methodologies that have emerged in the architectural field over the years. Therefore, the labor force that participated in the construction of the building was not only skilled but also creative. Consequently, the labor force ensured that the building stood out as a splendid piece of architecture from the buildings that surround it.
However, despite the skilled work force that led to the realization of the project a number of shortcomings have been recorded about the building, which may have resulted from the construction process.
For example, a year later (2005) after the opening of the building for public use, “the press reported that a glass panel had fallen to the plaza beneath the building” (Solomon 197-199). Fortunately, there were no serious injuries reported because of the glass panel that had fallen off. Consequently, the incident led to the closure of the plaza and several other windows as the investigations over the incident went on.
Reports made concerning the incident shows that one of the window’s opening device had worn out. Additionally, a number of critics have considered the design of the Gherkin uneconomical in terms of space due to the various facilities fitted in the building such as the light wells and the central lift.
The critics also argue that the floor design of the Gherkin does not favor confidentiality especially in businesses that entail discussions with clients. As a result, some tenants have partitioned their offices in order to enhance their confidentiality, thereby hindering natural air circulation and lighting. Similarly, the light wells encourage transfer of sound between the floors.
Despite some of the shortcomings associated with the construction of the Gherkin, the building has attracted numerous tourists and defined London’s skyline. The construction of the Gherkin has inspired the construction of environmentally friendly buildings not only in London but also in other parts of the world where attempts have been made to construct similar skyscrapers. The sleek design of the building has also provided a plaza for public use, as well as, reducing wind deflection.
Based on some of the shortcomings of the construction of the Gherkin, a number of changes and improvements can be made if a similar structure was constructed today. However, this does not dispute the fact that the Gherkin is a magnificent piece of architecture of the 21st century.
Due to advancements in technology in construction today, a similar building as the Gherkin would use recycled glass panels in order to promote environmental conservation. Additionally, a similar skyscraper would have several roof gardens fitted for the purpose of environmental conservation. In order to enhance space and confidentiality the floors would have opaque demarcated offices and the natural lighting enhanced by artificial lighting powered by solar panels especially during summer.
This would help to enhance conservation of energy and help to reduce air pollution because solar energy is environmental friendly. The construction of a similar building as the Gherkin today, would entail a water recycling system that promote conservation of water. Additionally, the building would have a swimming pool fitted in the 39th or the 40th floor, as well as, gym facilities, which would provide the tenants and their guests with a variety of recreational facilities apart from the bar.
Since the main aim of constructing skyscrapers is to maximize the use of space within the building, a similar skyscraper as the Gherkin in modern time would have a sky lobby to enhance movements between the floors. A sky lobby refers to “an intermediate interchange floor, which enables the users of an elevator system to change from an express elevator that only stops at the sky lobby to a local elevator that stops at every floor within a segment of the building” (Richards 87).
The sky lobby would have a number of facilities that serve the tenants. For instance, the sky lobby would have dry cleaner services for the tenants, mailboxes for companies operating in the building, library facilities, a relaxing zone, and a polling center where the tenants can vote during elections.
These facilities are crucial because they enable the tenants to save time because they will have access to a number of services within the same building. Construction of the Gherkin in modern times would also entail facilities such as a double-deck elevator that allows users to use the elevator simultaneously, thereby reducing traffic caused by lifts that stop at every floor.
Conclusion The advancement of construction methodologies and technology in the architectural field has led to the construction of various skyscrapers around the world. The Gherkin is one of the magnificent skyscrapers in London. The unique design of the building has made it a tourist attraction, as well as, an inspiration for other nations to design similar buildings that would protect the environment.
The design of the Gherkin enables it to maximize the use of natural lighting and clean gas energy. Despite the shortcomings associated with the building, the Gherkin still standout as one of the significant pieces of architecture of the 21st century. Therefore, cities around the world should shift their attention towards construction of skyscrapers that promote environmental conservation. Architects of modern skyscrapers should utilize modern technologies in order to promote green building trends.
Works Cited Richards, Brent. New Glass Architecture. London: Lawrence King Publishing, 2006. Print.
Solomon, Nancy. Architecture: Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future. New York: Visual Reference Publications, 2008. Print.
Wells, Mathew. Skyscrapers: Structure and Design. London: Lawrance King Publishing, 2005. Print.
Yudelson, Jerry. Green Building Trends: Europe. London: Island Press, 2009. Print.
Adjustment in Psychology: Stress Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction Many are the times when people have complained about feeling stressed. In this day and age, there are various pressures that are exerted on individuals as they go on with their day-to-day activities, for instance, work related issues as well as family issues (Singh, 2009).
When one experiences stress, they are experiencing their body’s response to some form of demand (Lloyd, Dunn
Coca Cola: History of the Company and Its Changes Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company
Major Changes in the Company
The Impact of the Changes Made
The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company Coca Cola is one of the most famous companies worldwide. It has been a symbol of the American life for decades. The company has managed to produce and promote its products all over the world. It is estimated that over one billion servings of Coca Cola are drunk a day (Ferrell, Fraedrich
Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America Report college application essay help: college application essay help
When Christopher Columbus discovered America towards the end of the 15th century, the historical significance of this discovery could not be established immediately. However, historians postulate that the 1492 discovery left behind significant trails of historical impacts in America. As a matter of fact, the history of America was greatly shaped after the exploration by Columbus. This essay offers a brief account of how the American history has been modeled by the discovery.
To begin with, it is profound to note the contemporary civilization being experienced in America was mainly triggered by the Columbus’ discovery of 1492. While some historians may argue that the American civilization was bound to take place even in the absence of Columbus’ discovery, it is definite that the discovery of America gave a major impetus to the rate of growth in civilization that the continent has enjoyed up to date.
The history of American civilization since the classical era was a product of the Columbus’ discovery. Some of the major areas of civilization included politics, social life and economic empowerment. It should be understood that America (especially North America) was opened up to the rest of the world. Therefore, it created an open platform through which other explorers could visit America and spread their influence.
The geographical knowledge of America was also expanded as a result of the Columbus’ discovery. Initially, American land was a secluded continent that the rest of the world did not understand. The fact that the disciplines of history and geography are closely interrelated; the geography of America has been an integral part of its historical past.
For instance, the colonization of North America was made possible by its geographical knowledge. Moreover, the presence of trains, valleys, mountains and landmark water bodies in the American continent are significant when exploring the history of this continent. Historians are also quite categorical that solutions related to challenges of geography in America were obtained as a result of the discovery of the continent.
When America was known to the rest of the world, it facilitated the growth and development of commerce. Traders from distant lands travelled to America in search for markets for their products. On the same note, the colonial powers scrambled for raw materials and markets for their industrial products.
Some of the products included phonograph, telephone, electric generation, electric lighting, telegraph, metallurgy, steel mills, printing press, road building, canals, sewing machine, cotton gin, textile mills, locomotive, steam boat, and steam engines. Such activities culminated into massive entrepreneurial spirit that is still being used in America today. The emergence of the early American urban centers was also witnessed during the same era.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the positive impacts of the 1492 discovery by Christopher Columbus, it is also worth to appreciate that some native tribes suffered immensely on the hands of the foreigners. A case in point was the Indians.
Historians believe that their small population in North America was occasioned by oppression and myriads of infections from foreigners after America was discovered. Europeans brought major infections in America when they came to colonize the region. Some of the maladies included whooping cough, pneumonia, small pox, measles, malaria, and yellow fever.
The Europeans were already immune to most of these diseases. However, the infections turned out to be major pandemics to Indians. The same Indians were sold as slaves. In any case, slave trade started when Columbus forcefully took some slaves to Spain. The history of slave trade is indeed a broad subject of the American past. The practice of buying and selling slaves was widespread during the pre-independence era of America and as such, it cannot be erased from the face of this continent.
The spread of the European culture and goods took place after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. There is a significant cultural mix between that of the Europeans and Americans. This was occasioned by the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. Some of the foreign crops that were introduced in America by foreigners include rubber, sugar and tobacco.
The current system of agriculture that is practiced in America is believed to have been largely borrowed from the visiting foreigners. America was not the only beneficiary in this process. Some of the dominant North American crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, beans, cocoa, cayenne, and corn were exported to other continents such as Europe and Asia.
A section of historians still contend that death, exploitation and conquest were the major attributes of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus contrary to the popular belief that there was great accomplishment on the part of America. Nonetheless, it is profound to note that the American history borrows a lot from the history of Christopher Columbus. The cultural identity of the Native Americans before the 1492 discovery changed almost completely due to the influence brought about by the foreigners.
In some instances, the Americans were compelled to conform to the European standards especially when the process of colonization was in full force. It is believed that thousands of Americans suffered as a result of colonization. It is against this backdrop that the American and European powers became foes to each other even after the dark ages. This was also manifested during the First and Second World Wars as well as during the Cold War era.
We will write a custom Report on Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Fiske, John. The Discovery of America, Volume 1. New York: The Echo Library, 2009.
Hume, Robert. Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992.
Footnotes John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 9.
Robert Hume, Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. (Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992), 49
John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 54.
Social Factors that Motivate People to Travel (in Tourism Industry) Essay essay help free
Introduction Tourism is used as a revenue generator in many countries. With an increased world population, tourist population has grown accordingly. People travel because of different reasons, some of which are personal, while others are job oriented. Beard and Ragheb identify the various push and pull reasons that people base their decisions on for traveling.
The push and pull reasons are usually personal, and they vary depending upon a person. He also adds that the push factors usually stimulate a person to travel, while the pull factors are the ones that contribute to the choice of the destination. Further, they identify other factors that influence people’s choice to travel, namely, the reason to meet friends and family’s members, tourism experience and, in general, aesthetic satisfaction (Beard,
“A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty Essay online essay help: online essay help
“A Worn Path” written by Eudora Welty is a short story which is full of symbolism. It is possible to find a variety of symbols concerning most important issues. This is a story about love and devotion, about aging and illnesses, and it is a story about racial discrimination in the USA in the 1930s. Each of the topics highlighted are worth volumes. In this paper, I will focus on racial discrimination in the US society of 1930s.
It is possible to find a variety of symbols which stand for racial discrimination. Some of these symbols are the path itself, the absence of support and the hunter. Admittedly, these are only a few symbols. For instance, the name of the main character is also a suggestive symbol of hope. However, the symbols mentioned above are more comprehensive as I believe each of these symbols represents a facet of African Americans’ life in the USA.
One of the first symbols to be discussed is, of course, the “worn path” (Welty n.p.). The path African Americans had to walk was a really “long way” which was also very difficult (Welty n.p.).
The path was full of dangers and “trials” like thorns which were doing their “appointed work” and “never” wanted “to let folk pass” (Welty n.p.). Of course, the ‘thorny bushes’ were all over African Americans’ way. The word ‘worn’ is also very suggestive. Thousands and millions of African Americans had to make the same journey and endure the same ‘worn’ obstacles.
To make the matters worse, the woman is all alone on the dangerous road, just like African Americans did not have anyone to support them. Thus, the old woman falls and she is unable to stand up, she sees someone and reaches her hands but “nothing reached down and gave her a pull” (Welty n.p.).
Likewise, African Americans had to face lots of constraints and there were few people who were ready to help. In the 1930s, African Americans were discriminated in all spheres of their lives and it was uncommon for a white person to help an African American. Notably, even those attempts made were rather ineffective, as any advance or help was followed by even more horrible conditions. Thus, the fact that the woman has the hallucination stands for the futility of some attempts to help African Americans in the 1930s.
Finally, the conversation between the woman and the hunter is also very symbolic. The man helps the old woman stand up, but, at the same time, he is rather disrespectful and he teases the woman with his gun. In a single phrase, the woman reveals the sufferings of slaves, “I seen plenty go off closer by, in my day, and for less than what I done” (Welty n.p.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slaves were treated like undeserving creatures and were punished even without a reason. Unfortunately, little changed in the 1930s and African Americans were tortured and humiliated. The entire conversation is the symbolic representation of the roles available for whites and African Americans in 1930s. The whites were still ‘patronizing’ African Americans who were regarded as inferior.
On balance, it is possible to state that the short story is a symbolic representation of the life of African Americans in the 1930s. The old woman’s path stands for the long journey African Americans had to endure to have the life they had in the 1930s. Such symbols as the path, the woman’s hallucinations and the conversation between the man and the old woman reveal the inequality in the USA in the 1930s.
Works Cited Welty, Eudora. A Worn Path. 2001. Web. .
Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems Term Paper essay help
The variety of the educational systems in the world depends on the number of countries and cultures round the globe. The educational systems of different countries are developed to respond to the needs of the definite society and state.
Nevertheless, the globalization process makes people pay more attention to the comparison of the educational systems in different countries in relation to their effectiveness to provide the well-educated young people with the strong knowledge and developed skills and abilities. Modern young people use the education as the effective start for their further career. The problem is in the fact that there is the significant difference in opportunities provided for the students in developed and developing countries.
The comparison of the educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium presents the evidence to state that the educational system of Belgium is more developed, and it provides young people with the opportunities to use the received knowledge during their further career when the educational system of Vietnam is based on the outdated curriculum and traditional approaches of teaching.
The Educational System in Vietnam Education is an important element in the social and economic development of a country. The formal education includes basic education. The whole period of the basic education is twelve years. During this period, the majority of the school age children are enrolled in school. Despite the efforts made by the Vietnamese government regarding the full enrollment of children in schools, there are issues and challenges associated with the country’s education system.
The main problem of the public schools is the lack of the governmental funding. The economy of the country is not developed, and this fact influences the social development (London). Many children who are in their school age do not attend schools because of the poor conditions of their families.
The overall quality of education in the country is low in comparison with the other Asian and European countries. The governmental educational standards are not correlated with those ones required in the developed countries. The outdated curricula are used in schools and in the sphere of the higher education.
The school curriculum of the secondary level is rather compulsory, and it includes a wide range of disciplines such as literature, mathematics, and technology. Vocational education provides courses that should develop students’ practical skills. 1-3 and 2-3 year vocational programs that train individuals in technical education with the quality being monitored by the government are implemented (London).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, students do not receive the necessary knowledge on the modern communication technologies, and no technologies are used in teaching. Teachers are oriented to use the outdated approaches and methods of lectures to conduct a lesson. As a result, students do not develop the necessary skills, and the education process in schools and institutes is not connected with the professional practice.
To improve the quality of education, the Vietnamese government focused on teacher training. Definite programs are developed to establish learning institutions that can contribute to promoting the academic achievement along with focusing on the emotional, physical and psychological development of students because many students feel uncomfortable within the learning environments. The specific of teacher-student and student-student relations is based on the principles of Confucianism (Cargo).
Education in Belgium The educational system of Belgium is developed in relation to the needs of the Flemish, French, and German speaking communities. The basic principles of these communities’ school systems are similar. In Belgium, the start of the pre-school education is associated with the age of three years. It is not compulsory for persons to take a child to pre-school institutions. Children start to attend the primary school at the age of 6, following the next six years of basic education.
Reading, writing and arithmetic classes are typical for the primary school. The secondary education is divided into four sections that are the humanities, technical disciplines, arts, and professional disciplines. The secondary education has an objective to prepare students for the university education with the professional section allowing students to choose the profession they would like to pursue in their life (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
All the financial questions associated with the education are regulated by the local communities. The country spends 6.3% of the GDP on education. The level of enrollment in tertiary education is 27% of the population while enrollment in secondary level education is about 88% (Capron).
The local communities pay much attention to the development of the educational systems in order to educate the highly-qualified human resources who can compete within the developing human resources market. From this point, the equality of access to education is important as well as the quality of the education provided.
The educational system of Belgium can be discussed with references to Functionalism theory because the accents are made on the practical significance of the received knowledge. Students are expected to use the knowledge and received skills in their everyday work practice in order to contribute to the community’s welfare. Much attention is paid to the technical education because this sphere of knowledge responds to the global demands.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The curricula according to which the educational systems work are developed in relation to the interests of the communities. The concept of ‘digital divide’ is relevant to discuss the educational system of Belgium. Innovative communication technologies are used in schools and universities in order to create the necessary conditions for the students’ effective study (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
Similarities and Differences in the Educational Systems of Two Countries It is necessary to determine several factors according to which it is possible to compare the educational systems in Vietnam and Belgium. The first factor is equality of access to education. In Belgium, education is available for all children and young people because the government guarantees that every child is able to attend school regardless the financial state or belonging to the minority group.
The situation is different in Vietnam where poor children cannot afford attending schools, and moreover, many public schools are also not funded appropriately.
The next aspect is the practical importance of education. The secondary education in Belgium prepares students for university education as well as career life, and it is divided into four sections that address these concerns (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
The professional aspect deals with the ability of students to identify their careers early in life, and it is closely linked to the technical aspect of Belgium’s education. However, the secondary education in Vietnam is not oriented to the same purpose. Students begin developing their skills only in institutes. Therefore, the education system in Belgium produces more skilled employees in comparison with the education system in Vietnam.
Students in Vietnam and Belgium overcome the similar socialization processes and face similar risks while being enrolled in the new school environment. However, the principles of Confucianism help teachers in Vietnam regulate these processes (Cargo).
All the modern technological communications are available for students in Belgium when students in Vietnam can not have the access to the necessary books and learning materials.
Education in Belgium is characterized by setting clear goals, the adequate funding, using quality academic programs, developed parent involvement. Moreover, the accents are made on high expectations from students and adequate school facilities along with productive school climate when the situation in Vietnam is quite different (Ballantine and Hammack).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Impact of Differences on Students and Educators The negative consequences of differences discussed earlier are associated with the educational system in Vietnam. Thus, students do not receive the necessary education for developing their career, and the rate of unemployment in the country increases because young people have no developed practical skills to start working.
The next negative consequence for students is the obscure chance to compete effectively within the global human resources market. Today, the Vietnamese government develops the alternations for the educational system in order to focus on teaching the English language in the country as the first step to meet the international requirements.
Moreover, Confucianism as the social philosophy used in the education practice prevents a lot of Vietnamese students from taking the independent decisions and from participation in the debates. As a result, the Vietnamese students are passive in relation to their career and further life.
The processes of socialization in the Vietnamese schools are based on the behavioral patterns according to which students can interact with each other and teachers. The social control limits the independence of the students’ thinking, but it contributes to increasing the role of the teacher’s authority.
In Belgium, teachers cooperate with students, and the process of teaching is the student-centered one. As a result, students develop their skills and abilities in relation to the career path which can be chosen by them even in the early school age. In spite of the usage of the more democratic style of communication within the classroom, the quality of the education in Belgium is higher than in Vietnam, and students have more opportunities to receive their higher education and develop career in the future.
The governmental control and funding in Vietnam also do not provide the opportunities for teachers to perform effectively. They suffer from the lack of financing, and they are responsible for teaching according the outdated curricula with the lack of the necessary education materials.
The educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium have a lot of differences and few similarities, and this fact can be explained with references to the culture of the countries, the situation in societies, and economic development of the countries. Referring to the example of Belgium, it is possible to conclude that the economic development and the well-organized structure of the educational system can guarantee the higher quality of education and its practical importance for the young people’s further career.
The current state of the educational system of Vietnam does not provide opportunities for the social and economic development of the country because these processes are interdependent. The educational system in Vietnam requires significant reforms to modernize it according to the global standards and with references to the cultural heritage.
Works Cited A Report on Belgian Education. 2006. PDF file. Web.
Ballantine, Jeanne, and Floyd Hammack. The Sociology of Education. USA: Pearson, 2011. Print.
Capron, Henry. The National Innovation System of Belgium. USA: Springer, 2004. Print.
Cargo, Duncan. Rethinking Vietnam. USA: Routledge, 2004. Print.
London, Jonathan. Education in Vietnam. USA: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. Print.