Table of Contents Introduction
Theories of globalization
World system theory
The outcomes of the theories
Globalization and sociological theory
Introduction Globalization has attracted many different explanations and definitions across different countries and cultures; however, it simply entails consolidation of people together through communication, trade, and transportation.
These factors resulting into globalization positively encourage economic growth of many countries in the world hence reducing dependency of some countries on others. The development of trade encourages investments hence propel wide movement of people, goods, ideas and capital leading to economic growth and development.
Globalization aims at developing a world whereby people live freely without limitations of borderlines between states with citizens enjoying the privilege of sharing skills, goods, services, and cultures.
Globalization has also led to the acquisition of new technology thus increasing the speed of delivery of goods and services to the citizens. In addition, globalization means an enlarged market resulting to high business profit accruing from investments.
Thus, globalization results into creation of wealth thereby alleviating poverty in many countries of the world. Individual countries’ infrastructure and policies can limit the interaction and integration of the citizen with others from outside.
Therefore, these factors can greatly influence economic growth either positively or negatively. On the other hand, scholars use theories to explain globalization not only on political and economic points of view but also on cultural and social dimensions.
Theories of globalization Theories put forward to explicate globalization differ in the point of view each focuses on and the conclusions drawn. These theories include the world culture theory and the world system theory. The focus of the world culture theories is on the constriction of the world and increases the knowledge that depicts the world as a whole. According to Roland (1991), “… in thought and action, it makes the world a single place” (p. 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This affirms the intention of the theory to consolidate or pull together the world’s system to become a single place. This means that, different societies and cultures live together integrated in a single place in this case the world and therefore people share cultures, social activities and many other humankind activities.
In reference to the world culture theory, globalization stems from the creation and establishment of the international communication and transport networks that has increased good relationship among societal and social boundaries.
Critics of this theory argue that, globalization through compression and consolidation of the world to a single place aims at creating a single world order (Tomadj 1993, p. 21). According to the critics, a single world order develops towards single domination of organizations and presentation of human interests as a whole.
These encounters can lead to cultural conflicts in a globalized community or society. The world culture theory retains its focus and knowledge of developing a single place for all people to live together harmoniously. In this case, globalization propels the dissolution of autonomy cultures and advocates for creation of a single world culture.
This poses the problem of cultural conflicts among different cultures in the globalized society or community as each community pushes for distinction of its culture as they take part in the global world. On the other hand, this calls for emulation, sharing and imitation of cultures from the others as they coexist in the single world created.
World system theory The theory of world systems focuses on the economic sphere and division of labor in the world’s countries with social systems operating in distinct rules. Wolf (2004) notes, “A world system is an historical social system of interdependent parts that form a bounded structure and operates according to distinct rules” (p. 34).
A unit in these systems comprise of multiple cultures with a single division of labor. The linking factor between these units is economic growth and development.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalization Opportunities and Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This theory emphasizes on the nations other than states and as a result, it forms three categories of the nations dependent on the labor division and the economic development level. The wealthy and economically advanced nations are the core nations and the less economically developed nations being the periphery nation.
Those nations in the transition between the core and the periphery nations make the semi periphery category. A major limitation to this theory is that it assumes that all cultures have a similar trend of economic development in all countries. Other cultural factors also do retard or favor economic development.
The nations contain social and ethnic groups, which provide cheap labor to the production of merchandize used in the economic sector. Wallerstein (1995) views that, the core nations dominate the production industries and have strong government systems (p. 16).
The core nations in addition, buy raw materials from the periphery nation at much less price than what they ask for, for their exported goods. The state of dominance of the core nation over the others allots some benefits to the core nation.
These benefits include access to large volumes of raw materials, cheap labor, expanded market, and influx of professionals from other noncore nations. This phenomenon leads to capitalist economy whereby a class of private organizations controls the economy in production and market command.
Due to the intensified quest for economic development, acquisition of new technology and modern systems of trade eroded the traditional methods of trade business transactions, which were slower as compared to the current systems.
Similarities Although these two theories differ in many areas especially on the point and issues of focus, they do have some unique similarities.
On both theories, the need of centralizing people together on activities related to trade and economic growth remain identical. Warwick (2006) observes that, “Modern communication has spread awareness of differences between countries necessitating the immigration to other richer countries” (p.541).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization Opportunities and Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This implies that communication helps in the sharing of opportunities and ideas, which leads to sound decision-making where people decide to migrate to other countries, with better economic prowess than their countries.
Borderless countries or creation of a single place as proposed by the world culture theory encourages the free movement of people.
On both cases, infrastructure places a major role in facilitating the development and maintenance of globalized society. Free flow of people, goods, information, and technology ease the establishment of global world where people can access goods and services easily and exchange ideas with others swiftly.
In the world culture theory, creation of single place depends on the availability of infrastructure such as good communication and transport systems facilitating the transfer of information, skills, ideas, and services. It further facilitates sharing of cultures among different regions in the world.
To the surprise of Jurgen (2005), “Globalization sets up opportunities and challenges in sharing goods, services, ideas, knowledge, and culture” (p.112).
The opportunities created in both theories concern opportunities related to economic growth and expansion where integration of people, nations and cultures create rich markets for goods and services produced by the nations in the globalized societies.
The challenges faced concern the differences in social and cultural backgrounds of the units involved in the globalization systems. There exist concerns on language differences in interactions and communication as well. These challenges cut across in both theories.
In both theories, there is levitation of poverty from the society through intensification of trade and economic growth. Globalization leads to job creation through investment of the high profits realized from the trade.
Thus, members of the globalized society enjoy liberalized job markets and can get employment from any country. This in turn results into wealth creation. Increased wealth leads to ease access to health facilities, good sanitation, clean water, and food thus prolonging life expectancy.
As is the case with technology, sharing of technological skills has drastically improved the rate of service delivery in both theories leading to the attainment of each theory’s objectives or aims.
As Jurgen (2005) further observes, “Improved technology has dramatically reduced costs and prices changing the way world communicates, learns and treats illness” (p.211). Technology acquisition among the members of a globalized society improves their communication, learning skills thus eradicating illiteracy from their countries.
Education empowers the citizens of these countries to become self-reliable and self-sustenance, an achievement that reduces individual’s reliance on aid from elsewhere.
In addition, in both theories there is international movement of people, which in other words denotes recognition, and appreciation of diversity of cultures.
In this context, there is respect for cultural identities and improvement in cultural democracies in the globalized society giving way to accessibility of the human rights by all members of the global society. When people or citizens enjoy their democratic rights then their participation to the economic, social, and political growth is almost possible.
Differences Though the globalization theories share over whelming similarities they also do have some major outstanding differences, which include among others the areas of their focus in the pursuit of expounding what globalization entails.
The two theories bear distinct points of focus with the world culture theory focusing on creating a single place for all people regardless of economic status, culture, or religion to enjoy living together, trading and market expansion allowing economic development to all participating states.
On the other hand, world system theory emphasizes on the economic part only and focuses on the nations as units of division of labor. According to Amartya (1999), “World culture theory focuses on the way all the participants in the process become conscious of and give meaning to living the world as a single place” (p.112). Therefore, this affirms the focus of the world culture theory.
With the world systems theory, the nations are not equal in power and control of production and marketing. There is grouping of nations dependent on economic growth of the nations.
Manfred (2002) observes that, “Far from being separate societies or world, the world economy manifests a tripartite division of labor with core, semi core and periphery zones” (p.134). On the other hand, the world culture theory stresses on equality of all participants.
The outcomes of the theories In reference to the world system theory, the consequences of globalization include the suppression of cultures as emphasis here is on the nations. Dominant cultural values and norms get lost with time because of integration of the world’s cultures through people’s interaction during trade.
International trade opens up markets on the outside world causing liberalization of markets and free flow of professionals and experts.
In flux of external work force leads to competition in the job markets. International movements erode morals of the community and encourage integration and initiation of other cultures, which could lead to moral decay of a society.
World culture theory concludes that, mixing and consolidation of different cultures leads to health interaction and appreciation of the diversity of cultural practices and thus respect to identity cultures.
The free integration of people across the globe poses the risk of spread of diseases including HIV and AIDS reducing life expectancy of many people in the world. In addition, countries, which refused to adopt the globalization scheme, continue to drop economically staring at the threat of economic crises.
Economic development calls for industrialization, which sets in another problem on the environment due to emission of gases and other effluents. These substances pollute the environment. Agriculture and mining also cause environmental damage as they seek to exploit the environment looking for raw materials to support the growing industries.
Globalization and sociological theory Globalization sets in different views over social studies and in the pursuit of understanding the society better in a globalized society, application of new framework becomes inevitable.
Cultures and social activities, beliefs, lifestyles and norms change with globalization simply because of integration of different cultures leading to subsequent loss of some cultural elements and adoption of other cultural elements.
Technology changes cultures and lifestyles of many people across the world posing the need to have a different framework in sociological theory.
Conclusion Globalization seeks to concentrate people, goods, cultures, and social practices together and create a commonplace without boundary limitation for free intermingling of all the participants.
Globalization causes both generation of opportunities and challenges as exemplified by the theories put forward to unveil the dilemma of globalization.
A part from the evident economic growth seen in globalized societies there is also political and social growth experienced by the countries in the globalization process. The opportunities accruing from the processes of globalization outmatch the challenges.
Reference List Amartya, S., 1999. Development as freedom. New York: Oxford university press.
Jurgen, O., 2005. Globalization. New Jersey: Princeton university press.
Manfred, S., 2002. Globalization: The new market ideology. Maryland: Littlefied Publishers.
Roland, R., 1991. The globalization: Thinking globally. Greenwich: JAI press.
Tomadj, B.D., 1993. The challenges of globalization. Sweden: Uppsala university press.
Wallerstein, L., 1995. After liberalization. New York: The new press.
Warwick, M.E., 2006. Geographies of globalization. New York: Routledge.
Wolf, M., 2004. Why globalization works. New Havens: Yale university press.
Qualitative Research: Rigour Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Definition of research rigour depends on the frame a particular research is based on. While undertaking case of critical research, researchers should maintain their focus on the objectives of the research being carried out. Rigorous research is excellent compared to other types of study; however, it is important to establish the motive behind each study.
Rigour is mostly constructed between a person carrying out research and another one reading it. In simple terms, it means that a rigorous research is one that suits the reader. In such cases, it is the readers who ascertain the criteria for classifying research works. This paper looks into different types of rigour, including theoretical, methodological, procedural, interpretative and evaluative rigours and explains how they can be achieved.
Theoretical rigour refers to congruence surrounded by epistemological and theoretical frameworks, and the methods used to conduct various researches. To achieve rigour, it is important that a researcher establishes a theoretical position in the management of a project. It is inappropriate to apply interpretative content to the objectivity or epistemology when conducting research.
To achieve harmony in research, various aspects of the study should harmonize with each other. To achieve the desired theoretical rigour, it is important that the theoretical framework, also referred to as the phenomenology, is drawn from a touch of symbolic interaction and hermeneutics perceptions of research. To achieve a good sense of rigour, the research should follow traditional chains of epistemology methods.
Methodological rigour is a combination of various methods. When several types of rigour are combined, a methodological triangulation is formed. Methodological rigour mostly depends on personal choice, which acts as a guide for scholars as they undertake research.
In order to achieve a method that best suits research conditions, a semi-structured method of viewing research methods should be employed. Methodological rigour utilizes explicit samples and employs an inclusion methodological approach to the sampling procedures. In qualitative research, sampling should be systematic, purposive and conclusive; it should be conducted in a manner that comprehensively covers all the research topics.
Interpretative rigour describes the reliability of research and represents interpreters’ comments concerning a particular study. This form of rigour is mostly associated with credibility. Interpretative research does not aim at making a credible account of the phenomena used; instead, it focuses on the interpretations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Triangulation is one way of creating interpretive rigour; it helps improve personal interpretation of the research. For researchers to ensure their research is reliable, they should analyze data and employ triangulation in their interpretations and conclusions. Interpretational rigour can also be attained using different sources to support all the interpretations that are made.
Triangulation of interpretations also improves interpretative rigour in research. Interpretative rigour compares information obtained from interview notes, journals and reflections, to that given by informants. Contradicting information is also important as it provides supplementary information to researcher and forms a basis for further research.
Evaluative rigour attempts to identify and name some of the challenges expected in research. Ethically challenging situations, in research, are some of the prime indicators of evaluative rigour. This implies that evaluation rigour can be attained through evaluation of the procedures, to be used to deal with individual challenges in a study. Evaluative rigour informs participants on the steps and strategies to be followed to come up with competent research procedures.
In conclusion, it is evident that all elements of research are intertwined. Similarly, all types of rigour are related to each another; when one of them fails, then the whole research process gets compromised. It is not easy to differentiate theoretical rigour from methodological rigour, since their elements are interconnected. Evaluative and interpretative rigours are technically related, in that they measure the efficiency of research.
Wal-Mart Learning and Growth Perspective Essay best essay help
Importance of learning and growth The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used by businesses, governments, and others organizations to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. It can be discussed under the following;
Mission – A manager is expected to know how well their product is running, and whether the organization’s products and services meet the customers demand. The mission of any organization has to be designed by those who understand the process well and have ideas since a mission should be a unique one which cannot be easily copied by the outsiders.
For any organization to achieve its missions, it must align the organizational functions with its objectives by centering on the staff and their roles in attaining the company’s objectives (Gumbus
Statistics for the Behavioral cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Parental involvement in their children education Introduction
Researchers have carried out various researches regarding parental involvement in education of their children, with many reports implying that increased levels of parental participation in the child’s education can improve the student’s academic achievements.
Generally, children are mainly educated by their parents and teachers throughout their lives. Parents play a very important role in education, by partnering with teachers and students to enhance running of the education systems effectively. In order to assist the parents to become aware of the effectiveness of their partnering in education, teachers should involve dialogue with the parents early enough to discuss about the parents’ hopes and aspirations for their child.
Their understanding of the child needs and their suggestions about the ways that the teachers can help allow the teachers to be able to highlight their limitations and invite parents to participate in their child’s education in definite ways (Nieto, 1996). For the child to perform well academically, it requires substantial support from parents.
Parents involvement in education of a child takes several ways including “good parenting, provision of a secure and stable environment, intellectual stimulation, parent-child discussion, good models of constructive social and educational values and high aspiration relating to personal fulfillment and participation in the school events, work and governance” (Desforges
Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Lack of written explanations
Omission of artists’ names
Quality of works
Presentation of different cultures
Introduction An gallery refers to a collection of artistic works that have been compiled for various reasons. Most of the works that are contained in an art gallery is done by bare hands.
However, modern work galleries contain artistic works that are done through computerized and other mechanized techniques. This paper looks at one collection with an aim of appraising its strong points and criticizing its weak points.
Lack of written explanations There is a common saying that a single picture speaks a thousand words. This means that the message that is sent through a picture is valuable than many words. However, it is note worth that that understanding of people is not equal.
This is due to the differences that occur in the personalities. Some people will need a little words so as to understand the picture. The picture that are collected in the gallery have very little explanations which locks out a portion of people who could have benefited from the information that is contained in the picture(s).
More over, lack of explanations leaves the pictures with a lot of ambiguity. To explain this I state that different symbols and pictures are used differently at different contexts. The symbol of sun is used by some persons to denote life while other use it to denote sunrise.
Though both of the above mentioned usages are connected and interrelated, they mean a totally different thing. The collections leave the audience and prospect users wit open interpretations some of which may be misguiding.
Omission of artists’ names It is common for any artistic work to have the name of the artist written either at t5he footnote or at a visible position. However, the names of the artists in the gallery are not omitted for most of the pictures. This scenario brings about lack of recognition of the copyright of the artist towards his or her work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, it is common to have various pieces of art quoted in scholarly articles. In quoting such an item, the person quoting it is required to mention the name of the artist so ads not to contravene the laws of copyright.
Where such is not available, the users can use the data contained without being mat by sustaining evidence against such law bending should it occur.
Presentation There are different ways of presenting the artistic work. In choosing the mode of presentation to use the owner or the person in possession of the artistic work is faced by various reasons. One is the availability of the storage and presentation media.
Also considered is the ability of retrieving sections of that data directly without having to pass through other unwanted works. Apart from this cost of that presentation mode is another factor of consideration.
The mode of data presentation that has been used to present data in the above gallery can be faulted. The method is comparable to adobe and PowerPoint presentations which are more flexible.
In the above two modes of presentation, the user of data contained in a gallery is obliged to scroll through unwanted materials if he or she has targeted a certain data.
Timeliness Judging from the themes that are presented by the pieces of works in the gallery, the works can withstand various time based changes. These changes can only have a new meaning on the pictures.
We will write a custom Essay on Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though leaving of writings is condemned in other sections of this paper, they work towards the benefits of the gallery to beat the challenge of time. The feature of timeliness is further enhanced by the fact that the galley is available in soft copy. This implies that the information can be stored and used by later generations.
Quality of works One of the commendable things about the gallery is the quality of the pieces of art collected. The selection of colors that have been used in any of ten works and also the pictures that are presented in works are spectacular. This explains the experience and time consumed in coming up with such collections.
The other feature that stands out in the gallery is message presentation. Not withstanding the point that is raised in other sections of this paper, the massage that is presented by each picture can be explained by even an uninterested observer. This is with the exception of the group mentioned which needs words so as top understand the pictures.
Moreover, the arrangement of the pieces of art is well chosen. Most of the pictures that follow one another have relating themes. This brings about smooth flow and integration. Even though the last picture and the first picture present themes which are so different, the motion that is created from one picture to another makes it hard for the audience to realize.
Presentation of different cultures This is another area that gives credit to the gallery. In mist of other collections, most of the works can be directly linked to a certain tradition or even religion and in some instances both.
However, the pictures that are presented in this gallery are mostly multi cultured in nature. Even those which can be traced to a certain tradition they are not over reliant on the tradition but rather contain spots of other traditions.
Conclusion The gallery presents commendable works in general. The weak points that are mentioned in this paper are minimal compared to the merits that are accredited to the gallery. The gallery is that recommended for use by persons of many cultural backgrounds and by persons with different disciplines.
Recommendation It is recommended that the pieces of works that are presented in this gallery be accompanied by some wordings for explanations. This will work for the benefit of persons who have been mentioned in the paper as possessing low understanding capacity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Also, it is recommended that the gallery be presented in more retrieval flexible means. As mentioned in this paper, PowerPoint presentation as well as adobe storage is more flexible.
How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? Essay best essay help
Introduction The telecommunication industry in Australia is experiencing a massive and rapid economic boom with various reports showing a great value of performance orientation by its respondents in the industry. The industry is mainly made up of businesses that provide telecommunication services to the public either by cable, wire or radio.
The major activities of the telecommunication industry in Australia include internet services, operation of radio relay stations, telephone services, operation of television relay stations, teleprinter and telex services, network communication services, cable and communication channel services, and satellite communication services.
The industry is fundamentally event driven with diminutive execution of planning in areas other than finance or marketing.
The lack of planning is evident in contemporary Future Orientation with the conveyed desire for future orientation, but the introduction of intensive competition has recently promoted more product planning and the general business planning in the market.
However, elements such as size, novelty, and politics of the present-day industry environment has contributed in depicting planning less effective than otherwise expected.
The interference by such factors in the telecommunication industry has protected the free-to-air TV networks, and at the same time contributed to Australia’s holdup in rolling out high-speed internet access through the National Broadband Network initiative.
The ever changing market and technology has brought in a real forecast in the capitalization and elevation of Future Orientation, and this brings in the likelihood of Australia following the paradigm of America and other European countries in developing strategic mechanisms of capturing the market’s vast potential.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The growth and immense potential in this industry saw the planned roll out of the National Broadband Network (NBN) project, which is meant to take advantage of the existing economic and social opportunities in the digital sector.
While delivering an affordable, high-speed broadband to every corner of the Australian society, the project is projected to drive the country’s economy for decades to come by migrating from copper to the fibre optic network
When the Australian government went ahead with the privatization of Telstra, which is the country’s largest telecommunications company, there were major concerns on the contradictory role of the government as regulator and owner of the telecommunication giant.
Major concerns also remain in Telstra’s potential capability of abusing its monopoly power to impediment regulatory outcomes through belligerent use of its litigation. Delaying in making a satisfactory public bid for access to its network and inflating the prices of its wholesale services such as fixed and mobile network are some of Telstra’s alleged abuses.
In order to level the competitive telecommunication field, the Australian government instructed Telstra to separate its retail and wholesale arms for the NBN project. Telstra vehemently opposed this idea and the draft legislation that would separate its structures within its telecommunication network.
Regulatory and judicial proceedings still mar Telstra with numerous disputes with its competitors over access to its network rights. Despite this, various stakeholders have since entered the scene with ardent interest.
The NBN initiative is projected to create a network that will handle an assortment of data that is increasingly complicated, therefore amalgamating the media and the information technology industries with telecommunications.
We will write a custom Essay on How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Media The media and communications industries has undergone through changes in its general corporate organization with mounting competition between media segments on the maximum gain and use of content being produced (Stuart Cunningham, Graeme Turner 4).
This means taking advantage of the capability to present and modify the same content on numerous platforms of delivery and distribution. By restricting concentration of ownership in broadcasting sectors, the ownership and control of media is regulated across the media.
Foxtel which has a substantial majority in the pay-TV market is half-owned by Telstra and the roll-out of the NBN project is seen to have rules and regulations that limit the number of providers, while shielding the incumbents against entry by neglecting diversity In Australia, all free-to-air television Programmes have a strict domestic content requirements through the Australian Broadcasting Services Amendment Act that require 10 percent of programme budgeting on new Australian drama programs (Ron Kirk 27).
Although traditional media has occasionally been warned on the radical changes they face with the development in the digital media arena, they have basically been absent from the debate surrounding the NBN project.
However, the National Broadband Network will generate new changes and options that will see media players taking leadership roles in search of trans-sector opportunities the NBN has to offer. They can possibly copy their archaic models onto the NBN brand via the wholesale services of a telco since they have a strong brand with millions of users.
Although it is not defined, foreign nationals seeking proposals that relates to portfolio shareholdings into the media industry are subjected to a ‘national interest test’ since foreign investment in the mass media is limited (Chang and Thorson 16).
Media stakeholders should therefore gear up to with mechanisms that will help them profit from their audiences with the convergence of media and internet-based technologies through high-speed broadband even as they continue to enjoy protection from outside competition. (Butcher 127).
Despite this projection, most media companies are still looking and grounded on their core competencies rather than stirring towards media innovation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advantages of Public owned Telecommunications towards NBN Rollout.
The NBN initiative will produce and promote a prevalent network that is competent in handling both broadband and narrowband requirements with equal adept in managing interactive and broadcasting services.
One feature of this project is that it involves and embraces the elaboration of neo-liberal views and ideas of economic regulation.
In this view, public ownership of telecommunication infrastructure and services is seen as a central point for national pride and sovereignty with a common feeling of owning a piece of a vital national infrastructure (Fairbrother 52).
Public views and ideas would initially be ‘measured at heart’ for the NBN project and this would douse any thought of manipulation by ‘outside’ parties, and also bring public calm with general accountability to the project.
Public ownership would not cultivate into the current climate of crisis brought about by the free market that would dictate the wages and conditions of each and every Australian. Public ownership of the NBN roll-out would basically promote a unified and coherent platform for the whole initiative.
Disadvantages of Public owned Telecommunications towards NBN Roll-out.
Since there is never a conclusive concept from the general public, such ownership would only promulgate indecisions and slothfulness into the implementation and completion of the NBN initiative.
According to the 2010 report by the Business Council of Australia, ‘’ the public ownership of the NBN initiative would elevate investor uncertainty with various companies rescheduling or withholding investments, and would only impede new technologies from getting into the market with the country’s general output falling behind ( 4) ‘’.
Such a scenario would only create ambiguity over NBN’s future operations.
Advantages of Private owned Telecommunication Infrastructures towards NBN Rollout.
International communication through telecommunications is rapidly becoming the backbone of trade, productivity, and the general business activities which are the linchpins of a growing, healthy economy (Mody, Bauer and Straubhaar 53).
Privatization in the telecommunication industry is seen as a catalyst to development with a significant input. In this view, the streamlining of the telecommunications industry in Australia has made it impossible to find public-owned telecommunication carriers due to the concept of deregulation and privatization.
This model is highly important because it will redefine the NBN initiative into from the typical public good, to a more global-oriented project that is competitive both domestically and internationally with a customer-driven service.
The Telecommunications industry is quite complex in technology and operations, and the only way that consumers can be better served is if more providers are included in the field. Consumers will be offered more competing products, prices, and services in order to meet the ever more diverse demands.
Such private owned companies are also capable of responding quite better to consumer demands than the public-owned corporations that may not act imperatively (Cunningham 151).
Sometimes such projects do halt due to lack of funds that can be brought about by underestimation or even the changing tides in commodity prices, and the telecommunication companies which are private-owned can quickly accumulate for these funds.
This means that the NBN initiative will flourish under long-term macroeconomic relief, and also can carry on and meet deadlines rather than wait for the tedious process associated with the public owned companies.
Generally through private ownership, the NBN project will see a proficient financing and management with the inclusion of professionals who bring real sustainable efficiencies to the whole project.
Privatization is therefore the more efficient solution to the sorry nature of most state-owned of telecommunication infrastructures with its limit on resources and the changing technological know-how.
Disadvantages of Private owned Telecommunication Infrastructures towards NBN Roll-out.
Private ownership of telecommunication systems in Australia will only bring distrust to the fore since it’s a product of an intrinsic capitalistic motive, and will also spread the adage that any control of information leads to the control of both political and economic procedures and the NBN project has not fallen short of such perception.
Since telecommunications is an important industry that connects every sector of the Australian society, it might be used by a single entity or group of companies to create an oligarchy of economical information which can snatch power from the government.
Such a scenario would reduce the government to a mere puppet, while these private entities continue to violate their power in the NBN initiative and act in their own interest neglecting Australian’s welfare (Chhokar, Brodbeck and House 320-331). This will greatly hinder the roll-out of the NBN project since Australia is a society which has a fair history of distrust in private ownership of infrastructure.
Private ownership of the NBN roll-out would not put public interest into consideration and the individual private companies would only be interested in generating shareholder’s profits at customer’s expense.
Privatization would also encourage manipulation and cover-ups of various inconsistencies associated with the NBN initiative since such organizational setups detest public scrutiny.
Privatization will allow foreign competitors enter the telecommunication market indiscriminately and would endeavor to servicing only wealthy businesses and individuals who can afford their expensive services.
In this event, the NBN initiative would therefore leave its core policy of universal service unsettled. It’s hypothetical for privatization to take place without liberalization since such profit-driven enterprises do operate as a monopoly in its selfish achievements that can prove untenable for the government to contain(Leahy and Michael O’Brien 2-5).
Analysis Australia is tremendously relying on the NBN initiative to face out its obsolete copper telecommunications network. The pendulum of opinions surrounding the NBN roll-out is due to its importance for the country’s economy, future development, and international competitiveness.
The apparent stratification in the Australian telecommunication industry is quite higher than desirable and is derivative of the existing socio-political level of attitudes.
The rapid restructuring in the industry is significantly affecting collectivism and power expanses, especially with the differing view between those who do not have the slightest clue of the impending changes and those that are knowledgeable of what is to come with the changes.
Although there are calls for either private or public investment in the telecommunications industry, it’s unfortunate that the processes have represented a vicious circle of events that is detrimental to both the economic and political systems.
Conclusion The emerging picture from the NBN initiative and the general Australian telecommunications industry is the consistent socio-political values that underpin the economical importance of this project to the country at large.
If telecommunication laws are well designed implemented, it would reduce the general fear and uncertainty that accompany the dreary investment in the telecommunication sector. At the same time, Telstra and its competitors should learn in ways they can corporate and be diplomatic about their differences rather than the self-sacrificing we are now witnessing.
Even as the telecommunications industry undergoes through the intense process of change that seems endless, there is no doubt of the massive and infinite benefits that the NBN initiative will bring for generations to come.
Works Cited Butcher, John. Australia under Construction: Nation-building Past, Present and Future. Canberra: ANU E Press, 2008. Print.
Chang and Andrew, Thorson. A Legal Guide to Doing Business in Asia-Pacific. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2011. Print.
Chhokar, Brodbeck and Robert House. Culture and leadership, across the world: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Cunningham and Graeme Turner. The Media and Communications in Australia. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen
What is the Family? Definition Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the human perspective, a family is a group of persons connected by kinship, compassion, or sharing of residence. In a number of societies, the family is the basic unit for the socialization of children. A basic family unit is made up of a father, mother, and children, and is known as a nuclear family, however, this unit can be extended to include other relations to be known as an extended family.
The concept of the family has undergone a transformation and in today’s society, many people define the family structure as an arbitrary cultural set-up, a statement could be partially true. In ancient times, the family was a closely-knit, patriarchal clan consisting of a man, his wife or wives, and several children!
This has changed to include a monogamous parent taking care of the children. Besides, certain concepts of the family have broken with tradition within specific communities while some have been implanted through migration to thrive or else disappear in the new communities and societies.
Current debates and interest concerning the family have forced individuals to reassess themselves in a society driven by change and uncertainty. Because of its intricate nature, sociologists have not succeeded in coming with a universal definition of what family is and how is constructed. Rather, the definition is subject to individual interpretation and depends on the value a person attaches to being a member of a communal social group.
Objective The aim of the paper is to give a concise definition of family, and the context of family structures such as the traditional family; single parent family, blended family and cohabiting relationship families. The paper also examines the influences that have progressively shaped the concept of family from the past to the present day.
Critical Analysis A family is generally defined as a group of individuals who are linked by kinship or adoption, and who have a common residence. (Germov and Poole, 2011, 132). Kinship ties are connections or associations that link individuals through genealogy lines or marriage.
However, a few writers disagree with this concept. For instance, George Murdock, an American anthropologist, defines family as a social group that lives together, support each other economically, and raise children (Germov and Poole, 2011, 128).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the mid 20th century, sociologists defined family as a man living together with his wife and children, joined by blood, marriage or adoption. The couple had sex, procreated, and cared for the children jointly, besides bringing resources such as money and food together. The family members also guarded and supported each other.
Again, some writers have given a different perspective. Some asserted that previous definitions of the concept of the family should be altered as they are founded on ‘monolithic’ models that exhibit partiality towards a specific kind of family typified by gender discrimination and legal attachment, instead of gender fairness and patterns of care or emotional response.
Besides, modern reproductive methods have changed family associations and the definition of terms such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ gas considerably changed. For instance, women past their menopausal age can now have children through surrogate mothers. Consequently, an increasing number of studies are focusing on what really defines a family. This perspective overlooks the gender inclination of the couple and the legitimacy of the relationship, and centers rather on the patterns of caring and affection.
The concept of the family has been conventionally related to the traditional family setup, which can be defined as a relationship in the children live with both the biological parents with the father often at work while the mother stays at home (Germov
Classics of Moral and Political Theory Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Immanuel Kant’s Ideas: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
Introduction The foremost thrust of morality erudition over the precedent years has exposed a propensity to an astonishing extent, to shift towards a distinct path. The superseding intention of philosophy has been to convey the sphere of ethics under the control of the coherent self.
Founded on philosophers’ notion of the individual as a self-directed representative and a freethinking conventional viewpoint, philosophers assert that every individual exist single-handedly as the maker of his or her principles and rationale.
It naturally follows that every person is prima facie gratis to consider his or her own reasoning with any measure of worth or disvalue he or she perceives fit. Such a cogent ethics, which people may conceivably easily label self-teleology, is apprehensive mostly to the prescribed necessities of truth telling and promise keeping (Roger and Colleen 138).
In this moral system, the prime depressing responsibility towards others is to abstain from intruding to their freedom whereas the critical constructive responsibility is to respect deals that have been liberally settled.
In ethics, this advancement interprets the rapport among individuals in contractual expressions and in performance, centers on a harmful program of avoidance of immoral infringement by some people upon other’s sovereignty.
This essay examines ethical significance of truth telling or promise keeping by focusing on the ideas of three thinkers. It compares the bases of their reasoning and reviews their knowledge in an attempt to identify whether they can apply in the contemporary society. Truth telling and promise keeping is something intrinsic in an individual. It is also through socialization that people acquire knowledge needed in promise keeping and truth telling.
Immanuel Kant’s Ideas: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals Kant’s ideas are breaking point in the modern metaphysics. He was aiming at appreciating science, review the role of metaphysics as well to place morality within the precincts of science. He developed the theory referred to as moral theory, which over time has been influencing the western philosophers in their works.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theory examines the difficulties of science, philosophy, ethics and religion in the contemporary world. Immanuel Kant suggested that moral laws and their important variations from each realistic cognition in an empirical subject rest entirely on its pure part. The laws give human beings a priori rule because they are rational beings.
The laws have the capacity of acquiring the power of judgment that is tailored by practices. Different people apply the laws differently as these laws are capable of influencing human behavior. He therefore suggested that metaphysics of morals are unavoidable by individuals because thrives of speculation pertaining to the origin of practical values are in charge of shaping our behaviors and not only motives but morals that are responsible for each kind of corruption.
What is perceived to be ethically correct conforms to moral law, but is never enough since it must be performed for the sake of ethical law. Orthodoxy is simply incredibly reliant and vague since the non-moral argument may perhaps now and then fabricate events that are inconsistent with the law. The ethical law in its transparency and authenticity can be sought nowhere except in a wholesome attitude.
Kant argues that there is an odd thing in the suggestion of the total worth of a simple will in which no report is taken of some valuable outcome. In the face of the entire accords acknowledged even from normal rationale, there must augment the notion that such thoughts may perhaps have its concealed root that is purely a number of pretentious beliefs and that individuals may have misinterpreted the rationale behind the principle of temperament in conveying to reason the prevalence of the will.
He further argues that in the ordinary establishment of structured being, no organ is to be initiated for some end except if it is the most fit and the best tailored for that end. The theorist established that the more an educated rationale dedicates itself to the endeavor of benefiting from life and contentment, the further do individuals move away from accurate gratification (Morgan 400). This is particularly so in the case of those who are the highly qualified in the utilization of rationale because after scheming for all rewards they draw from, they hitherto discover that they have in reality just obtained additional dilemmas to their skulls than they have added to cheerfulness.
Consequently, they appear to resent, rather than loathe the more general run of individuals who are nearer to the leadership of simple ordinary intuition and who do not permit their rationale much pressure on their conduct (Morgan 402). By this argument, Kant’s ideas suggest that truth telling is a duty, just like any other responsibility in life.
Mill: Utilitarianism This theorist starts by claiming that it is feasible for persons to turn out to be unresponsive to their own records and projections particularly when one had no ethical or human concern in societal things whereby persons only search for satisfaction of interest.
We will write a custom Essay on Classics of Moral and Political Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no basis for the environment of things such as a sum of rational traditions adequate to offer an intelligent curiosity in things such as consideration should not be intrinsic to anyone natured in an enlightened realm. However, there is less natural requisite that some human beings should be egotistical, devoid of each sentiment or concern but those which hub in depressed personality.
Legitimate clandestine friendliness and a truthful attention in the public excellence are achievable. In a globe that there is so much curiosity and enjoyment, everybody who has reasonable quantity of moral and intellectual rudiments is competent enough to co-exist. This may be described as imaginable. Unless such an individual through terrible laws or subjection to the will of others is deprived of the right to exercise the resource of happiness within his reaches, he will not survive (Morgan 1002).
Mill further argues that it is in a defective condition of the world’s provision that any person can superlatively serve the happiness of others by complete forfeit of his own. As long as the earth is in that defective position, the willingness to build such surrender is the uppermost asset that can be established in individuals.
Not everything except perception can elevate an individual beyond the likelihood of existence by making him believe and allow fate and fortune do their nastiest. They have no influence to control an individual who when once experienced, is liberated from intemperance of nervousness pertaining to the tribulations of life. The contentment that generates utilitarian customary of what is true in behavior is not the representative’s own cheerfulness but that of everyone apprehensive. As between his or her pleasure and that of others, utilitarianism calls for an individual to be as sternly objective as a neutral and compassionate outsider.
Friedrich Nietzsche The real origin of the notion good is sought and set in the mistaken position by the theory. Good does not originate from those whom integrity is given but rather from the superior such as the dignified, influential, senior level and high-minded people. Wrong is related to all bottom, short psyches, widespread and offensive.
Individuals first took for themselves the freedom to generate ideals, to invent names for standards and not at all mind anything for convenience. The perspective of efficacy is as overseas and unfortunate as likely particularly in connection to a so hot and an outburst of maximum level arrangement and grade distinctive worth verdicts. From this, the word good does not automatically connect itself to un-egoistic measures, as is the fallacy of those genealogists of ethics (Morgan 1147).
Conclusion From the three theorists, it can be concluded that the morality of telling the truth and keeping promises is not homogenous. The scholars do not uniformly underscore it. While Kant seem to be arguing that truth and promise-keeping is a duty that should be faithfully observed, Mill views it as s functional unit of the society.
Mill observes that people should learn to be telling truth and always keep promises if they are to be good citizens. Nietzsche on his part postulated that truth and keeping promises is not an easy thing in the society. He observes that the whole problem lies with people’s perceptions. The majority views it as being foreign and can only function well in places that were crafted.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Classics of Moral and Political Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Morgan, Michael. Classics of Moral and Political Theory, 4 Ed. Indianaplis: Hacket Publishing Company, 2005.
Roger, Sider and Colleen Clements. Patients’ ethical obligation for their health, Journal of medical ethics, 10, 1984: 138-142
SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In strategic management and planning examination of the internal and external factors is very important. These factors are categories in the SWOT analysis, which involves the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
The strengths and the weaknesses are the internal factors while the opportunities and threats from the internal factors. Through SWOT analysis a strategy can be developed and used in the marketing of the firm (Bohm 2). It can also be used in avoiding any weaknesses thus enabling it benefit from any opportunities in the future regardless of expected threats.
According to Boham (2) SWOT analysis is responsible for the offering of vital information that enables evaluation of the capabilities and resources of a firm against competitive background it operates from. This is used in strategy formulation as well as enhancing competition in the market. The paper gives a SWOT analysis of Wal-Mart stores, one of the leading retail stores in the world.
Background Wal-Mart is the leading retail store in the United States of America. It has several stores in the North America region that it solely owns and operates. It has its headquarters in Bentonville; Arkansas becoming the largest company that privately employs people (Blair 262).
It has 8,500 stores in 15 different countries. It operates under fifty five different store names although in the USA it operates on its own. In Mexico it operates as Walmex, in India as best price, in UK as ASDA, under its name in Puerto Rico, and as Seiyu in Japan. In Brazil, Argentina, Canada, UK and Puerto Rico it fully owns the operations.
Outside North America the investments had mixed results (Blair 262). It pulled out from Germany when its operations were rendered unsuccessful while in china the operations have been successful. During the 2010 financial year the company recorded $258 billion that translates to total sales of 63.8%. The competitors of Wal-Mart stores are many in the respective countries where it has the different stores
SWOT Analysis According to Kneer (2) when the Wal-Mart stores was founded in 1962 by Sam Walton the core values of the company were “respect for individual, service to the customers and striving for excellence”. All these core values have the objective of satisfying customers and believing that customers are important to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the years the company has been operation with profits even in times of economic crisis because of its belief in customer satisfaction. The following is the SWOT analysis of the Wal-Mart stores where each are broken down and discussed in detail. They comprise the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are the internal and external factors respectively.
Strengths These forms the resources of a company as well as capabilities applied in the market so as to develop the market competitive advantage. Wal-Mart stores phenomenal success has been as a result of the following strengths. It has dominated the American retail market (Kneer 2) because of its brand that is powerful.
The sale of huge merchandise in US and a “market share of more than 30% of health and beauty aids” demonstrate dominance of Wal-Mart (Pahl and Richter 21). It provides a variety of goods under one store making it convenient to many American families (Pahl and Richter 21).
The services offered by the company are worth the value of the money the consumers pay. The branding which is strong is based on a pricing strategy where prices are low with the aim of attracting and retaining a huge customer base. Kneer (2) observes that through the use of advanced technology the company is able to offer low prices because it has the strength to reduce operational cost.
Through the automated distribution links the chain store is able to control its expenses ensuring that low price offer is maintained. Deliveries in the Wal-Mart stores are faster because the technological system is interlinked thus ensuring time saving and efficiency (Kneer 2).The technological advancement and embracement has enable the company regulate the procurement and logistics department reducing any form of goods theft.
This is because the system can observe and monitor the movement of goods in and outside the stores. This has reduced the expenses of unnecessary losses. Over the years the company has over grown experiencing global expansion (Pahl and Richter 21). For example it has stores in the UK, Brazil, Argentina, and Puerto Rico as well as in china. Wal-Mart believes in human management and their development. This can be explained by the training it offers to its employees and having faith in them. This has boosted the performance of the employees making it a world class retail store.
Weaknesses These are viewed as the company’s problems that are internally manifested. Being the largest retail store in the world and in several countries it is faced with the weakness of controlling all the chains and branches. This is because technology has failures and cannot be 100% effective.
We will write a custom Research Paper on SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The IT might not be always efficient and because its management is technologically driven and controlled, the slightest failure may cause problems in service provision. Wal-Mart sells variety of products under one roof making is likeable, but it may lack flexibility that some of the competitors operate using (Pahl and Richter 22).
Lack of focus can be seen as a weakness that is embraced by the Wal-Mart chain stores. Although Wal-Mart has stores in many countries it is not globally recognized. According to Kneer (3) competitors of the Wal-Mart may take the advantage of globalization and go internationally thus giving the company a global challenge. Its presence in few countries is the biggest weakness the company has.
Wal-Mart has the capacity of manufacturing goods, of which this can be seen as strength. However when the huge manufacturing investment hinders quick response to changes availed by environmental strategy can be seen as a weakness. This is because competitors can use this to their advantage affecting the Wal-Mart operations in the short run. Pahl and Richter (24) note that Wal-Mart dominance has negative effects in its operations.
For example, the supercenters that are to be opened will be closely located, this would allow internal completion that it impossible for some to gain enough balance costs. The issue of lowering prices to chase competitors saw a failure of 25% of the Wal-Mart stores in delivering the core values to its consumers (Pahl and Richter 22).
Opportunities These are the environmental external factors that a company may experience allowing them to grow as they make profits. According to Kneer (2) Wal-Mart has the opportunity of forming strategic alliances through merges with global retailers.
For example it can focus on the ready markets of Europe, India and china which have not been fully utilized (Pahl and Richter 22). Other than forming mergers or alliances there is possibility of opening stores in the emerging world economies like India and china which have large population hence large consumer base. These are opportunities that can see Wal-Mart expand its capital base as well as profits and growth.
This can exploit new markets through diversification by opening super centers, and malls. Opening of new stores gives Wal-Mart the opportunity to create employment thus reducing inflation because dependence ration is reduced. This changes the lives of many citizens who may not be necessarily Americans.
With the embrace of technology, Wal-Mart can take advantage of internet shopping that can reach a large populations clientele. Pahl and Richter (22) note that Wal-Mart has the potential of retaining its customers through low pricing. This creates customers loyalty which is important in development of a retail store like Wal-Mart.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats These are caused by the unexpected or foreseen change in the external environmental factors which are threatening to the firms operations and productivity. Wal-Mart is the number one retail store meaning that it is seen as the target by competitors (Kneer, 2), who can be globally or locally.
Competition reduces the market share and any slightest mistake in customer satisfaction may be the start of a downfall. The retail store also faces the threat of price competition from other operators in the retail industry. This is because all the retail may decide to operate under a low price that the Wal-Mart’s and according to factors that determine demand price is one.
When the prices are low the demand increases and vice versa. The retail store faces the threat of being targeted by political enemies. This is being a globally recognized store political problems exposure are high (Pahl and Richter 24). The political woes and economic inflation and tax wars are huge threat to Wal-Mart.
This may affect the operations of the store hence failing in some countries. In low regions outsourcing is applied this reduces the cost of production. This according to Kneer (3) has led to price competition causing price deflation which is a threat to the operations of Wal-Mart.
It faces threat of innovation that other retailers may adopt before it does. Currently strategic planning and management are based on the idea of globalization and technological prowess. However Wal-Mart still operates under the old and outdated strategies that are not applicable in the 21st century.
This is a huge threat to the operations and future expansions of Wal-Mart. Pahl and Richter (24) note that Wal-Mart lack transitional strategy which makes it hard to adapt in locally based markets, have economies of scale, improve knowledge flow and locate its operations in locations that optimal. It faces the challenge of growing and establishing stores in foreign countries (Pahl and Richter 24). This was what led to fall of its stores in Germany.
Conclusion SWOT analysis deals with the external and internal environmental factors responsible for strategic planning. They also help in marketing and knowing the competiveness and capability of a company. The SWOT analysis of Wal-Mart stores is well explained in depth where different environment factors both internal and external have been examined. Although it has great and much strength the weaknesses and threats are also great.
Works Cited Böhm, Anja. The Swot Analysis. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Print
Blair, John D. Strategic Thinking and Entrepreneurial Action in the Health Care Industry. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI, 2007. Print.
Kneer, Christian. The Wal-Mart Success Story. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Print
Pahl, Nadine, and Anne Richter. Swot Analysis – Idea, Methodology and a Practical Approach. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Internet resource.
Technological Generations of Mobile Communications Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The distinct life of the mobile communications has taken different phases. This can be traced from the 1G to the most rest 4G. G, 2G, 3G and 4G are a wireless phone or a cellular phone standard way of classification based on generations/ cellular phone evolution. This paper is a critical comparison of all these technological generations with an aim of tracking the trend that is followed in the developments.
Grandpa and Grandma 1G Grandpa and Grandma 1G was the very first generation of wireless technology that originated around 1980’s. The cellular phones of this time were big in size (handbag phones) and used a high power voltage. Communication in the first generation cellular phones was enhanced by use of analog radio waves/ signals; use of radio antennas (a radio transmitter on one end and receiver on the other end.
Analogue technology could only accommodate voice communication the passing of analogue signals. While this was the best technological developments at the time, it had a couple of limitations. The first generation wireless technology covered a relatively small area. Communication was only possible between parties of the same nation/within a nation’s boundary’s/ within the grounds of a particular nation (Fendelman).
This first generation wireless technology supports only one way communication at a time. For instance the intended recipient has to be calm till the sender finishes talking then he/she can begin answering incase he/she speaks before then, his/her message won’t be delivered.
All the above services are possible through a technology that interprets voice calls called circuit switching -Circuit switching is easily distorted by a simple physical noise thus destroying the quality of a conversation. All these limitations lead the players in the industry to look for more advanced technology which could fill the loopholes in communication (News from Rohde and Schwarz, 2002).
2G – The second generation of the wireless digital technology 1G was later thrown out/replaced by 2G that came with greater and better technological benefits like the additional data services. At this level people could send text messages on top of the voice communication they initially had.
The radio signals were digital and the conversations digitally encrypted unlike the initial analog. This therefore allowed the mobile phone services to be passed over a wider area (great service penetration levels).The wireless digital network use brings more voice clarity to the conversation being carried out.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enhanced intercontinental communications, more privacy in communication as well as storage of communication. The messages sent through this technology could easily be referred to later.
The second generation phones are however, costly compared to the first generation wireless cellular phones. Unlike the first wireless technology where communications were only possible within a nation, 2G ventures into a wide area in terms of service coverage area due to the additional roaming facility.
3G – The third wireless telephone / cellular phone generation The second generation is however overthrown by this third cellular phone evolution which uses a wide band width. This big band width in turn came with a more clear voice communication that is almost perfect (very minimal distractions and cases of eavesdropping- a situation where the signals sent are lost to the surrounding environment).
Communication in this case is possible through a technology packet switching; a situation where data is addressed like the IP addressing then sent over and on reaching its destination, its again recollects in the order sent then decoded/ interconnected to have the conversation (News from Rohde and Schwarz, 2002)..
3G wireless services are widely spread and now almost in all parts of the world. 3G has an added advantage of the global roaming facility which allows communication across the world. One can send text messages, video conference, and chat, download 3dimentional games, and talk to any one and anywhere in this world without distractions like they are having real conversation (News from Rohde and Schwarz , 2002).
3G uses a higher band width also a wide band voice channel compared to the 1G and 2G generations which greatly attributes to high voice clarity and people can talk without any disturbance or with very minimal distractions.
There is an additional multimedia facility brought about by this third generation cellular phones like very fast communication (conversations and text messaging), video conferencing (hold video meetings with people in different locations), internet (surfing/browsing/online chatting), mobile television (watch television’s favorite programs on phone), video calls (like Skye), multi media messaging service (MMS) (sharing of photos and music), etc are now available on 3G phones (Arshad, Farooq, Shah, 2010)
We will write a custom Essay on Technological Generations of Mobile Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The 3G phones are costly compared to the first and second wireless cellular phone generation. Currently 3G is widely in use. Almost everyone is moving or has moved to 3G technology for its interesting features and high speed wireless service.
Despite the numerous advantages to using this kind of phone and very interesting features, 3G wireless telephones however have short battery life compared to the second and first generation phones. Thus the use of this technology is dependent on the proximity to power supply. In remote areas thus, persons are forced to use less advanced technologies to avoid frustrations.
However, some wireless technology users use both technologies concurrently (Arshad, Farooq, Shah, 2010). 3G technology is usually common for users who depend on the wireless communication in internetworking. Most of the service providers carry out promotional advertisements encouraging users to use the technology based on its speed and coverage.
4G – The fourth generation wireless telephones / cellular phone service also known as a complete 3G replacement. 4G operates more like 3G much as it is a step up from 3G. It appears to operate in a hopeful state, like providing its clients with very speedy wireless services. Being the new born baby this fourth generation wireless technology is availed in limited places/areas.
It’s not widely spread and only in use in very few regions like Japan. 4G is anticipated and designed to deliver very high speed internet and generally high wireless services. Also a high network capacity-allowing more people to operate/ access its resources simultaneously (Fendelman,).
They too have the multimedia added feature but with very clear voice and video output compared to the initial generations just like the normal television. The fourth generation cellular phones are damn expensive (high cost) compared to the previous generations. The costs mentioned here are the installation costs. However, the technological requires less maintenance costs.
Similarities All the above mentioned technologies are wireless technologies. They all are able to pass/enhance analog communication. They all can pass voice communications. The first and Second generation covers a relatively small area in terms of geographical boundaries. Each of the technological development has come with increased area coverage than the preceding development.
Both the first and Second generation use a narrow band width, while the third and fourth generation uses wide band width. Both 1G and 2G deal/ are good in voice calls and in the process need to utilize the maximum bandwidth provided (Ashiho, 2003)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological Generations of Mobile Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The technological development in the wireless communication has grown from one phase to another. As each phase is introduced, it leads to changes in other industries that depend on this technology for communication and other purposes. It is paramount to note that each of the above technologies has its own specifications.
Thus, there is always a need for any firm to have a technician who shall introduce the members of the institutions on how to operate the different technological developments. The ability of a firm to use the most modern technology is for its advantage as this leads to less maintenance costs. The only additional costs in the generational growth are the initial installation costs (Ashiho, 2003).
The developments that have been discussed in this paper have been enhanced by various firms and individuals. The need for the improvements has always rendered the players in the wireless communication busy with efforts of improving each of the development.
While the current technology is viewed by many as perfect, it is expected that a need will arise for the provision of services that it does not offer. Thus, it is arguable to conclude that the development in the wireless communication cannot be optimum.
References Arshad, j., Farooq, A., Shah, A., (2010) Evolution and Development Towards 4th Generation (4G) Mobile Communication Systems. Web.
Ashiho, L. S. (2003). Mobile Technology: Evolution from 1G to 4G. Web.
Fendelman, A. (n.d). Cell Phone Glossary: What is 1G vs. 2G vs. 2.5G vs. 3G vs. 4G? Web.
News from Rohde and Schwarz (2002). Measuring the Acoustic Characteristics of 3G Mobile Phones. Web.
Peter, K. (n.d). Analysis and Comparison of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G Telecom Services. Web.
The Great Wall of China Descriptive Essay custom essay help
Introduction The Great Wall of China is a long continuous wall which was erected with the sole intention of securing the Chinese border in the northern border against intruders (Man 103). The Great Wall consists of several walls which were built over a lengthy period of time.
The construction is claimed to have began during the dynasty of Emperor Qin Shi Huangi who ruled the country in the early 200 BC to the 16th century during the Ming dynasty.
The essay will take the form of an informative speech whose intention is to further shed light on who built the Great Wall of China, when it was built, the reason behind building it and how wide and long the wall is as well as how it has been built.
The Chinese were among the first countries to experience civilization in the world. During the civilization period, they acquired the art of building houses and other structures and this helped greatly during the construction of the Great Wall.
As early as 8th century BC, various states such as Wei, Qin, Yan, Qi, and Zhao constructed extensive walls in an attempt to defend their territorial borders from their warring neighbors (Yamashita and Lindesay 53).
However, all these efforts were better noticed during the reign of the Qin dynasty that after conquering the states which had been opposing him, he embarked on the building of the great wall so as to connect and enclose all the states that now belonged to him and protect them from external intruders.
During the Ming Dynasty, after the Oirats had defeated the Ming army in 1449 (in what was famously referred to as the Battle of Tumu), the Great Wall idea was revived.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Great Wall proved quite useful to the Ming Dynasty, especially towards the end of its reign because it ensured that the empire remained protected against possible invasion by the Manchu (this was around 1600).
At this time, the wall had a total length of 5,000 kilometers, starting at the Gansu Province in Linyao all the way to the Liaoning Province (Man 105). As we talk today, the great wall is estimated to stretch 4,163 miles (about 6,700 kilometers).
It starts in the Gansu Province at the Jiayuguan Pass and stretches all the way to the Hebei Province in the Shanhaiguan Pass. The wall runs through the large plains in the northern border of the country. Although people have come up with several discussions as to how the wall came to be, it is widely believed that it was the efforts emperor Qin that the wall was extensively built.
The construction formation of the Great Wall also differed at different historical periods. For example during the Qin dynasty the pass gates were not constructed using stone and the wall lacked any fortresses.
However, during the construction of the Han Greta Waal that passes through the Gobi Region, the main fortification was moats (Roland and Jan 67). A beacon tower was also constructed at intervals of 1.25 kilometers along these moats. The beacon towers were used during the time of war.
When one column was lit, this was a sign that the advancing troops were less than 500.When two columns were lit, it meant that the advancing troops were less than 3,000. By using the columns of smoke, the defenders were always aware on the magnitude of what to expect.
Laborers who took part in the construction of the wall included the common people, soldiers, and criminals (Waldron 18). Different construction materials found use during the constructions process of the wall, over the centuries. Compacted earth was used in the construction of the original Great Wall.
We will write a custom Essay on The Great Wall of China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Local stones were then used to surround the compacted earth. In a bid to ensure that the construction costs of the wall remained down, there was extensive use of local construction materials. In the later years, bricks were used to construct the Ming wall.
Where the Great Wall passed through the Rocky Mountains, builders made use of the stones found on these mountains. However, they were forced to use rammed earth in the planes, while juniper tamarisk and sanded reeds found use in the desert.
Scientists have now revealed that the remaining section of the Great Wall in the Gansu Province, consist of several layers of rammed earth (Waldron 18).
Between 202 BC and 220AD, during the Han Dynasty period, the most popular construction materials were crude stones and earth while between 1368 and 1644, during the Ming Dynasty, bricks had substituted stone and earth as the construction material of choice, thanks to their light weight and size; it was easier to make and carry them.
From statistical records, it is estimated that some 500,000 common people and 300,000 soldiers took part in the construction process of the initial Great Wall during the reign of Emperor Qin. Over 1,000 individuals are believed to have lost their lives in the process of constructing the Great Wall during the Din Dynasty.
The construction of another section of the great wall under the Northern Qi Dynasty took place in 555 A. D., and the entire section consisted of 450-kilometre. It started from Nankou, all the way to Shanxi, passing through Datong and Beijing.
During this time, the labor force is estimated to have been approximately 1.8 million people (Roland and Jan 71). The construction and living conditions were also extremely poor during this time and as a result, high number of workers lost their lives.
Works Cited Man, John. The Great Wall. London: Bantam Press, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Wall of China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Roland, Michaud and Jan, Michel. The Great Wall of China. New York: Abbeville Press, 2001. Print.
Waldron, Arthur. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.
Yamashita, Michael and Lindesay, William. The Great Wall – From Beginning to End.
New York: Sterling, 2007. Print.
Critical Issues in Philippine Relations Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The 1896 to 1898 revolutions in the Philippines
Filipinos’ fight for independence
Introduction Negretos, Filipinos, who settled in Philippines approximately thirty thousand years ago, are the contemporary inhabitants of the land. Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, led the first Europeans who were in Spanish expedition to visit the Philippines in 1951(Bellwood 91).
Their visit to the Philippines opened the door for more Europeans, mainly Spanish, to go to there. The Spanish were the first Europeans to settle in the Philippines. However, the colonization of the Filipinos by the Spanish did not start until1564 when an expedition led by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi arrived at the Philippines.
It was the settlement and colonization of the Spanish in the land of the Filipinos that led them to interact with other nations on different basis until the Filipinos attained their independence on 5 July 1945.
While awaiting trial for treason, Jose P. Laurel said, “All of us were collaborationists, none of us were traitors” (Ileto
Applying Problem Solving Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Students get to solve various problems in class, which range from Mathematics to social issues. These problems help students to develop and apply problem solving techniques, which are essential in promoting their critical analysis of their environment along with its complexities.
Problem solving abilities are therefore very important in developing intellectuals for enrichment of the society. It transforms student learning techniques into participative rather than passive recipients when it comes to creation of understanding.
Students develop capacity to Apply problem solving skills whenever faced with unexpected occurrences or situations in a timely manner. Real world problems are usually different from class problems, this call on students to recollect and transform their problem solving skills into solution for real world problems.
This paper will explore two real world problems and provide persuasive as well as scientific thinking solutions to them (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Problem solving techniques are those skills used to solve life problems. They refer to an individual’s ability to reason both inductively and deductively, as well as be able to apply logic which can help that individual to infer problems, analyze and think critically.
These problems may require solutions arising from different elements such as persuasive thinking as well as scientific thinking, among others. Most problem solving processes involve the following stages; problem identification, analysis, generation of potential solutions, testing of solutions and evaluating the outcome.
In order to ensure that these methods are well applied, one needs to critically analyze the problem encountered. The following is an illustration of problems and their solutions (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem 1 Real world problems are numerous and people face them each day as they require instant solutions. In this part, we shall study a problem whose solution is based on persuasive thinking. For instance, environmental pollution has been an issue that demands solution.
Every green movement tries to make known to us the need for saving our environmental. This is a problem we encounter in every part of the world, with people disposing wastes anyhow. It is believed that human activities contribute more environmental pollution than other causes such as animal and plant wastes, among others.
These agents of pollution are many, ranging from fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases, which have been faulted for the depletion of the ozone layer.
Other agents include pollution of lake and rivers, deforestation, and charcoal burning, among others. It is also estimated by the Natural Resources defense council that global warming is set to increase by over 1o Celsius even before the completion of 21st century.
This problem poses threat to our lives and the lives of our children. It therefor requires solution and an immediate one to help reduce its risks (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Solution: Persuasive Thinking
In the situation above, the world is faced by an imminent disaster in global warming, because of increased environmental pollution. For persuasive thinking, one aspect that has to be defined is the problem, its causes, possible solutions, advantages and disadvantages as well as the choice or path taken.
The problem in this case is pollution of the environment; environment is continually getting worse with great effects already felt all over the world. The effects include unpredictable weather, Global warming, shortened life expectancy, famine, drought and increased spread of diseases, among others.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Applying Problem Solving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its advantages include, making work easier for man in terms of transport, Machinery, and many more. When these effects are compared, we find that, the disadvantages are numerous and adverse to the survival of life, which includes the human race on earth. In essence, it has to be mitigated.
The next step is finding possible solutions, which include stopping the release of greenhouse gases, afforestation and conservation of our environment. Since human activities cannot stop as their lives also depend on it, the other possible solutions include investing on alternative energy sources.
Therefore solution to this problem out of persuasive thinking would be to conserve our environment. It starts with us and without action our survival is threatened (Poole, 2006, p. 1).
Problem 2 This part will study a problem whose solution is based on scientific thinking. For instance, a young couple that do not want children and yet they also never want to use protection.
Their reason for not wanting children is that they are still young and unstable financially to support one, however, in the future when they are stable they’ll need. So the problem is preventing unwanted pregnancy in a couple, and they require a scientific thinking to solve it (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Solution: Scientific Thinking
In the problem above, the issues are identified as ways of preventing unwanted pregnancies within a marriage setting. The first step involves understanding the problem and then gathering information and research on the same. For instance, a research from, women on waves, provides several researched solution to this problem.
These include, Total abstinence (100% protection), which is impossible for married couple, and use of contraceptives. The latter option is contraceptives, in which there are several methods with different rates of protection.
These include use of diaphragm-80% (type and estimated percentage effectiveness), Emergency contraceptives-75%, surgical sterilization-99%, Intrauterine device-99%, implant-99%, injection-99%, oral contraceptives-95%, female condom-79% and male condom-86%.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Applying Problem Solving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These are methods that have been researched and proved medically, using scientific techniques. Since they need a child in the future, sterilization is out of question, they can then use oral contraceptives, implant or injection. And since oral contraceptives have been proved to have some side effects, then implant would be wise for the couple (Women on Waves, 2011, p. 1).
Summary Problem solving techniques or skills are very essential in aiding individuals to provide quick solutions to their everyday needs. These need critical thinking, inference and analysis which can only be mastered by intellectuals and critical think-tanks, Persuasive thinking involves the use of critical thinking to bring out logic on a problem.
The logic inferred should be used to persuade others to follow that idea. It also involves persistence, and this convinces people that you have faith and knowledge of the idea. Individuals pursuing persuasive thinking must provide the advantages and disadvantages of their solutions before deciding on it.
It is also imperative for that individual to provide concise and conclusive evidences on the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the chosen idea (Poole, 2006, p. 1).
In scientific thinking, we must have a thorough knowledge of the problem, study it, gather information related to it, analyze, explore possible solutions, and use credible sources along with researched ideas to decide on the best solution.
Since the couple do not want to use condoms, and they also require children in the future, implant would be their best option as it will be removed when they are ready (Women on Waves, 2011, p. 1).
Conclusion Every problem needs a solution, people face different problems in the world, and in most cases this requires transformation of learned skills into applicable problem solving skills. Most employers are after graduates who can solve real problems as fast as possible, and this can only happen with critical thinkers.
The two methods of problem solving are different although persuasive thinking may sometimes borrow ideas from scientific thinking to prove ideas (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Reference List Harris, R. (2002). Problem Solving techniques. Virtual Salt. Retrieved from: https://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook4.htm