Table of Contents Business-to-Business (B2B) Model
Advantages and disadvantages
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) Model
Ecommerce models are integral when creating ecommerce solutions for various types of business that rely on online portals. The following models can be used to classify ecommerce
Business – to – Consumer (B2C)
Consumer – to – Business (C2B)
Business – to – Business (B2B)
Consumer – to- Consumer (C2C)
However, this paper will explore three of these models by giving advantages and disadvantages of each using examples.
Business-to-Business (B2B) Model According to this model, administrative tasks, purchasing as well as ordering are carried out using electronic transactions. These activities take place between two houses (Alpár 2010, p.165). In this model, activities such as wholesale purchases, manufacturing, professional services, and business subscriptions are traded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are other instances when virtual companies may participate in business activities under the B2B model (Chun-yan, Kong-lai
Corporate Governance Characteristics and Firm Performance Report essay help: essay help
The process of good management in an organization is called corporate governance. Corporate governance is the live wire of an organization (Acemoglu 1995). With the growing pressure on a firm’s competence, the director’s quest for the right approach to governance involves transparency, organizational culture and an effective governance scheme.
To balance investment strategies, with the aspirations of the entire stakeholder’s of the organization, the rules, procedures and processes must be managed and controlled. The management of these processes and controls are called corporate governance.
Previous literatures examined the processes of business organizations and their objectiveness in running daily transactions. This report will focus on variables that enhance performance in the organization. The fundamental variables are the owners and managers. Owners of industries hire capable managers to conduct the affairs on their behalf.
Each theoretical framework of corporate governance provides a platform for measurement. The cost of management increases when the owners employ quality hands to manage their investments. Sometimes, a clash of interests reduces the growth of the organization (Adams 2002). When managers tailor a firm’s investment strategy to his or her interest, it will encourage friction between the owners and the managers.
However, corporate governance can reduce the friction in corporate organizations thus, monitoring the performance of the organization (Roche 2005). This report x-rays the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and the firm’s performance. The relationship can be shown with a diagram:
This report correlates the impact of good governance on the firm’s stock value and the cost of auditing and management. The sample size was reduced to 20 UK firms thus, removing firms not documented in UK, firms without valid annual reports and financial firms in the UK. 20 firms were selected from the FSTE100 between 2004 and 2008. The variables of analysis were divided into dependent and independent variables.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dependent variables include: Return of Equity (ROE), return on assets and the profit margin of the listed firms (Agrawal
Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Creating and Developing Opportunities
Behaving as an Entrepreneurial Organization
Starbucks holds an enviable position among innovative companies. The coffee chain has an insatiable appetite for innovation. The company is willing to suffer some losses in the near-term to develop superior products in the long-term via incremental innovation. However, the willingness to suffer losses is not what makes the company outstanding.
The company’s wish to pay a high price in pursuit of innovation is what reflects its remarkable feature. This paper uses management tools and frameworks to explore the role that management practices play to support innovation.
Specifically, the paper evaluates how Starbucks creates and develops opportunities and how it manages innovation. In addition, the paper explores how this company behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation.
Creating and Developing Opportunities A number of studies that explore the capacity of entrepreneurs to create and develop opportunities exist. Ardichvili, Cardozo and Ray (2003) contend that entrepreneurs do not create opportunities but rather recognize the presence and emergence of opportunities.
In this sense, the authors propose that the main issue to investigate when studying the dynamics of business opportunities is the entrepreneurial capacity to develop, recognize, and evaluate them. In recent times, sustainability has become a major issue in entrepreneurship because of the concerns associated with the deteriorating global environment.
Research shows that entrepreneurs who are aware of environmental issues tend to identify and pursue business opportunities in ways that promote sustainable operations. They do not just look at the financial rewards that the opportunity will bring, but also the sustainable features of the business opportunity.
The five main factors that drive the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities are “entrepreneurial alertness, information asymmetry and prior knowledge, social networks, personality traits, and the nature of the business opportunity”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Entrepreneurial alertness refers to the ability of an entrepreneur to maintain a high level of awareness in regard to emerging opportunities. If an entrepreneur lacks entrepreneurial alertness, it is difficult for him/her to identify emergent opportunities. Information asymmetry and prior knowledge refer to the knowledgebase of an entrepreneur.
At organizational level, this quality is the basis for the emergence of concept of learning organizations. Knowledge makes it possible for entrepreneurs to recognize opportunities when they are still undefined. In addition, it spurs the capacity of the entrepreneur to make the decisions needed to transform a business opportunity into a business venture.
Social networks play a vital role in the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities because entrepreneurs often need information and resources not currently under their control to pursue business opportunities. It is normal for entrepreneurs to identify opportunities that they cannot develop unless they get assistance from their social network.
The personality traits of entrepreneurs also determine how they pursue business opportunities. While all entrepreneurs are risk takers, they have different degrees of risk tolerance. Companies like Starbucks have a greater appetite for risk compared to most of their competitors. This comes from the personalities of the leaders of the firm.
One personality issue that may influence the way an entrepreneur handles business opportunities is whether the given entrepreneur is an introvert or an extrovert. In this case, an extroverted entrepreneur has a larger social network to draw support from while an introverted entrepreneur has a smaller list of trusted allies.
It could be estimated that Starbucks loves risk as the company believes in the rapid deployment of ideas followed by careful analysis and improvement of the original idea over time. Companies such as Apple ensure that they have fully developed a product before they release it to the market. In fact, Apple takes a lot of care to keep its product development processes secret, until the release of specific products.
Starbucks sustains entrepreneurial alertness by maintaining a data collection system that gathers information from its employees and customers. Employees are asked to write to the company’s executives each time they feel that a given decision goes against the mission of the company.
We will write a custom Report on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This also allows the company to attain information asymmetry because at any time, the company has more information regarding a specific issue affecting its business compared to its competitors. This enables the company to take advantage of the opportunities that arise in its favor.
Managing Innovation In the context of organisational innovation, the word that represents the activities of entrepreneurs is “intrapreneurship”. “Intrapreneurship” refers to the activities undertaken by individuals within organisations that promote innovation. These activities focus on internal opportunities or circumstances that demand changes in the operations of a given organization.
In this sense, innovation is not limited to the activities of individuals, but rather innovation can be the result of the activities of teams in an organisation. In cases where teams promote innovation, intrapreneurship refers to their collective activities that improve the services and products offered by the organisation. Innovation can take place at the “micro level, the meso level, and the macro level”.
At the micro level it refers to activities undertaken by the organisation internally to ensure that it improves its products and services. Innovation at the meso level refers to the industry specific elements of innovation covering the organisation’s supply chain and its immediate operating environment.
Macro level innovation results from opportunities that arise because of things that take place at a higher level, such as changes in legislative frameworks and the legal environment of the business.
Starbucks is adept at the management of innovation. The company has a strong culture of innovation, which is the backbone of its entrepreneurial model. Starbucks is using all available means to expand its footprint beyond the coffee sector. In fact, some people question whether coffee is just a Trojan horse in the Starbucks business model.
This question is valid, especially considering the portfolio of products that Starbucks is already offering, and the products that it is planning to launch. Starbucks is aware that innovation in the current business climate must go beyond the traditional aspects of innovation, which were quality control, cost cutting, and operational efficiency.
The first area of focus in the current paradigm of innovation is the reinvention of business processes. The second one is collaboration and integration within the firm, and the third one is the creation of new markets by meeting the emerging needs of customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The drivers of innovation at the macro level include the growth of e-commerce, and globalisation. One of the consequences of innovation using these new approaches is that companies find themselves with new competitors. When Starbucks started selling music, it found itself in direct competition with Apple. Apple, on the other hand, is not primarily a music retailer but a technology firm.
The Apple iTunes store was an innovative offshoot to support Apple’s iPod business. Starbucks, which is a coffee firm, finds itself in direct competition with Apple, which is a technology company, for a share of the music market.
Another illustration of the new philosophies of innovation at play in the Starbucks business model is the collaboration between Starbucks and PepsiCo to sell hot-on-demand coffee through vending machines. Starbucks specialises in selling different types of coffee products to its clients. On the other hand, PepsiCo has a large network of vending machines and has a lot of experience with vending technology.
Therefore, the innovative collaboration between these two firms led to the introduction of hot-on-demand coffee. PepsiCo owns the technology while Starbucks supplies the network with coffee. This way, the two companies are able to expand their footprint in the beverages market.
Behaving as an Entrepreneurial Organization Entrepreneurial organisations refer to firms that have an active philosophy, which encourages entrepreneurial behaviour in the firm. This dimension is very important in the current business climate because of the competitive nature of international trade. Organisational structures can be entrepreneurial or administrative. Entrepreneurial organisations are said to practice corporate entrepreneurship.
The difference between administrative and entrepreneurial organsations is the attitude of their top leadership to risk. Administrative organisations favour the pursuit of low risk opportunities for lower rewards. Entrepreneurial organisations, on the other hand, favour the pursuit of higher risk opportunities for higher rewards.
One of the key indicators of an entrepreneurial organisation is the ability to develop and deploy new products ahead of the competition. This calls for intense innovation and a solid risk philosophy. A company such as Apple thrives on the capacity to develop and release new products ahead of its competition.
It is very difficult to sustain this ability without having an entrepreneurial mindset across the organisation. In other words, a company that wants to use innovation as its source of competitive advantage must have an entrepreneurial culture.
An important aspect in the development of entrepreneurial organisations is that the top management of the firms must be entrepreneurial. It is impossible to develop an entrepreneurial organisation where the top managers are averse to risk, or have no entrepreneurial commitment.
At the same time, the organisation must be able to give middle level managers the ability to experiment with new systems, and to learn. Middle level managers represent the future of the organisation. If the entrepreneurial mindset exists only at the top, then the organisation cannot survive in the long-term.
Starbucks CEO, Howard Schultz is well known for his entrepreneurial traits. Schultz worked with Starbucks when it was a very small retail chain. He was on a visit to Italy where Italian coffee bars inspired him to develop a national coffee retail chain in America. When the management of Starbucks refused to buy into Schultz idea, he went on to open new coffee retail stores named “Il Giornale”, on his own.
Afterwards, Schultz entered into an agreement with Starbucks to buy the coffee company. He chose to retain the Starbucks as the name for his expanded company. This story illustrates that Starbucks has always been in the hands of a very entrepreneurial leader. As such, the company has retained its knack for creativity and innovation.
Starbucks behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation because it has a very innovative and risk tolerant CEO. The company is not always successful in all its endeavours. However, no effort goes to waste because the company usually builds on the lessons it learns from its entrepreneurial ventures.
The company is aggressive in seeking feedback. It seeks the opinion of its staff, and monitors the comments made online by its clients and competitors, which gives the company an advantage.
Risk Profile The activities of the company illustrate that it has a highly established entrepreneurial culture as well as a high level of risk tolerance. The organisation prefers to launch new products quickly before competitors can respond in contrast to many multinationals that prefer to refine new products before releasing them to the market.
In conclusion, Starbucks is adept at creating and developing business opportunities. It does this by maintaining a high appetite for risk. The company has developed a culture that tolerates its aggressive risk behavior and is also active in the pursuit of innovation in its operations.
Its model for managing innovation takes into account the modern approaches to innovation, which include collaboration with other businesses to create new markets. Finally, the organisation demonstrates tendencies of corporate entrepreneurship in its activities. The most compelling evidence of this is the personal profile of its CEO, Howard Schultz who supports corporate entrepreneurship as a serial innovator and entrepreneur.
Reference List Ardichvili, A, Cardozo, R
Training and Skills Development Programs vs. the Global Financial Crisis Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Unemployment is an occurrence witnessed when active individuals cannot find job opportunities. Conversely, prevalence of unemployment is accrued through poor economic development and high unskilled labour.
Unemployment is an acute problem especially during the recession periods when world economy collapsed however, there is a notable improvement through numerous interventions specifically, minimum wage laws, formation of personnel unions, and tax regimes. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the amount of income citizens of a country can amass in a financial year.
Economic growth is attributed to the increase and decline of gross domestic product. Expansion of the output of an economy influences economic growth under full employment of the population, which in return boosts employment rate.
Changes in business cycles cannot be used as determinants of economic growth. Business cycles, for instance, flourish and decline thus, does not determine the rate of economic growth rather, it affects aggregate demand (Schomburg and Ulrich 8).
The Level of education influences the rate of unemployment in an economy. Education bestows individuals with technical skills and expertise to engage in production activities. Employees are classified into skilled, non-skilled, and semi-skilled and one is remunerated according to experience and ability to produce goods and services with efficiency.
Employment categories are, for example, classical unemployment, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and frictional unemployment. Most unemployed individuals fall in frictional and involuntary unemployment section whereby low wages and economic frictions obstruct them from engaging in productive labour force (Schomburg and Ulrich 21).
Sourced from the Bureau of labour statistics, Current population survey The graph shows the relationship between employment rate and level of education attained by individuals ranging from less than a high diploma to Doctorate qualification. Most educated employees accrue higher wages compared to individuals less educated. Lucrative job opportunities favour high educated persons because of experience and skill they bestow in service delivery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Institutions of higher learning are prerequisite for the expansion of economy because high employment leads to reduction of poverty levels and dependence. The increase in gross domestic products is attributed to levels of education and employment.
Developed economies depend on educated individuals for invention and innovation in the economy. Education bestows individuals with skills and experience to manage and run businesses. Businesses are mainly geared towards profit maximization, therefore; education enables individuals adopt better ways of decision making.
Government relies on professionals in policy formulation that regulates economic growth, for instance, tax systems, labour remuneration, and equitable distribution of resources. In a stable economy, people with higher education have better paying jobs than those with poor education. Less than high school individuals have high levels of unemployment compared to individuals who studied above collage.
With high unemployment rates, gross domestic product declines due to high dependence on the economy. Most jobless people depend on the employed individuals to get basic human needs and this sacrifices the economic prosperity.
Government on the other hand, balance unemployment and economic growth through encouraging investment in the local economy and repatriating resources from the urban centers to rural areas to avoid rural-urban migrations that lead to an influx of idle population thus compromising security.
Chart 3 Unemployment rates of ages, by educational attainment level (2008- 2010)
Conclusion The chart in table 1-3 reveals the correlation in percentages between education, unemployment and economic growth. The analysis suggests a significant impact of educational attainment on the economic growth.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Training and Skills Development Programs vs. the Global Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The investment in the educational sector influences the increase in educational attainment, consequently, affects the GDP of a country. Thus, there is a significant impact between education, employment rate and economic growth of a country.
Works Cited Schomburg, Harald, and Ulrich Teichler. Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe: Results of Graduate Surveys from Twelve Countries. Dordretcht: Springer, 2006. Print.
Apple case: company’s performance Case Study college admissions essay help
iPhones Apple has been among the leading companies in the sale of iPhones and smartphones. The company recorded the highest income by hitting a historic high of $705 following the late entry of the Steve Jobs into Apple Inc. as the chief executive officer. Apple has been leading in terms of innovation and technological development.
However, the company has registered low incomes over the recent past, causing alarm to the shareholders due to the decrease in profit margins. The price per earnings ratio has decreased drastically, thus prompting the management to start strategizing new business options to increase profitability.
One of the strategies that the company is planning to adopt is the manufacture of low cost iPhones. Currently, the net sales per iPhone unit sold are about $644.
There is a possibility that most people are not likely to afford the device, considering the recent economic recession. It is important to note that most of the people who buy these products are the young people, most of who do not have a stable income. Therefore, lowering the cost of iPhones would be a good step toward reviving the company’s business. The target net sales for an iPhone should be set at around $400.
The target price for a 16GB iPhone 3G should be at around $400. This will be affordable to most people. The amount of units sold will increase and revenue is likely to increase. Manufacturing target cost should be about $200, and the target gross profit will be $200.
The iPhone will have made a good profit that can increase the price per earnings ratio after the deduction of other expenses. People are not likely to afford expensive products with the economic environment today. In this regard, producing lower cost iPhones will boost the company’s performance.
Wearable Computers The use of wearable computers has increased over the last couple of years. Very many people today use these devices for various reasons. The wearable computers have a number of purposes that they can be used for. This makes the demand for them even higher.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The computers are mainly used by the media personnel and organizations that deal with the collection of intelligence information. These devices are, therefore, used in information technology as well as in the development of the media.
Apple Inc. has not been in the business of wearable computers despite the increasing demand for these devices. The company’s main business has been iPhones and other smartphones. There is the need for Apple to explore any market that has the ability to increase the company’s income in a bid to counter its decreasing performance. Wearable computers present this opportunity.
In fact, wearable computers are seen as the likely long term replacement for iPhones. It is important to be price sensitive in manufacturing the wearable computers. The current price of wearable computers is in the range of about $1,700. This is a cost that not many people are likely to afford, thus sales from the device are likely to be down.
Therefore, Apple Inc. should target a price that is much lower, like $1000- $1300, when producing wearable computers. Despite the fact that this is still a high cost, it will be much cheaper compared to the prices in the market at the moment.
The manufacturing cost of the device will be targeted at about $600- $800. The gross profit will, therefore, be about $400- $500. It will be assumed that the market for wearable computers will increase in the foreseeable future. The total revenue will, therefore, grow significantly in the next 10 years.
Current products and Technology to Drive Sales and Profits Sales for Apple’s current products have decreased, thus profitability has gone down in a manner that is worrying to the company’s stakeholders. Competition has increased as several other companies have come up and are capable of producing similar products and sell them at a lower cost.
Therefore, it is high time for the company to notice that the current technology might not be relied upon to generate revenue in the future. There is a need for more innovations and advancement of the current technology in order for the company to regain its competitive advantage.
We will write a custom Case Study on Apple case: company’s performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, reducing the price for current products and sticking with the current technology can be effective in increasing the level of sales in the recent future. For instance, it has been estimated that the production cost for iPhone will be about $200. Assuming that the same number of units produced last year will be produced this year, the total manufacturing cost will be $25,009,200.
Similarly, the total profits will be $11,588,200 assuming that the total expenses for this year will be the same as those for last year (gross profits – total expenses). It is important to note that this strategy is likely to be effective in the short run only. In this regard, there is the need to come up with a strategy that can increase the company’s profits in the long run. Wearable computers can be a viable plan for long term profitability.
Standards, models, and quality: Management Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Hinkle (2006, p. 6) describes a standard as a set of guidelines and best practices that can be used as a reference point in business management. The set of guidelines may be voluntary or mandatory.
A model is a set of components that helps users and developers to understand, analyze, improve or replace a process in a system. Models are sometimes integrated in an organization’s operation. It makes models to function in the same way as standards.
There are consensus, de jure, and de facto standards. Tatsumoto, Ogawa
Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The fast food industry has continuously posted growth for long, despite the various challenges that have bogged the global economy. Part of the growth has seen the industry players expand their markets and establish themselves as multinational companies. One such company that has registered growth and significant expansion is the Kentucky Fried Chicken, also known as KFC.
The American fast food store chain is ranked as the second largest globally in the industry after its main competitor, McDonald’s. KFC established its presence in different countries of the world in seeking to sustain further growth, including China. The Chinese market is considered as one of the fastest growing markets in the world.
The Chinese market boasts of a significant market size given that China is the most populated country in the world. This paper seeks to discuss the internationalization of KFC in general and make direct comparisons with its entry into China.
The paper will elaborate on the actual timing of the internationalization, the entry mode used by the company, as well as an exclusive evaluation of the company’s performance in both the Chinese and other international markets.
The Timing of KFC’s Internationalization According to Krug (419), the first international branch of KFC was opened in 1969 in Japan. The year 1969 was mainly chosen because the company was still in its early stages of growth and expansion.
In general, the fast food industry was less developed and there was limited thinking beyond national borders. Most players in the industry were concentrating on expanding to cover all the states in America in order to enhance their domestic market leadership.
It is prudent to point out that KFC became the first fast food chain of restaurants to go international by venturing outside the American market at the time. Any date earlier than 1969 would have proven to be less viable for KFC to internationalize because the company was yet to fully expand and cover the local American market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was need for all the players, including KFC, to concentrate more on building a stronger customer base in the domestic market given that the industry was also immature at the time. Additionally, by 1969 the American market was beginning to fully mature.
Most of the leading industry players, including McDonald’s, had established their presence in virtually all the parts of the USA as domestic competition stiffened. Time was rife for the companies to begin thinking of alternative markets other than the domestic market that was maturing.
Thus, KFC had to make an internationalization move in 1969 in order to take advantage of the foreign market before its American rivals could make the same move. There is an advantage that comes with firms exploiting new markets before their competitors do the same. It was obvious that the next move that the firms could make would be exploiting the international market since the domestic American market was maturing.
KFC’s move, therefore, was to act fast and open branches in foreign markets in order to capture the markets and seal them from possible competition from their domestic rivals in case they made similar moves and established branches in the same markets.
Other foreign markets that KFC entered immediately after its initial internationalization include England, Mexico, Hong Kong, and Australia among other countries. In the case of Australia, the market was rife at the time KFC ventured although it was largely untapped (ADU para 7). Only small-scale players, particularly Chinese restaurants, existed in the country towards the end of the 1960s (ADU para 3).
Thus, KFC’s decision to move into the market was aimed at filling the void that existed at the time. The company was hoping to introduce a variety of menus to provide the market with a richer alternative that lacked at the time of its entry.
The timing was perfect for KFC as the firm needed to act with haste in order to limit the chances of its domestic competitors, mainly McDonald’s, from venturing and establishing itself into the Australian market. Today, Australia serves as one of KFC’s biggest and profitable international markets.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Mexican market, on the other hand, attracted KFC mainly because of its magnitude as well as the economic stance of the country. Mexico has a huge population that exceeds 90 million. This translates into a fairly lucrative market. Additionally, Mexico’s proximity to USA influenced the decision by the company to venture into the market and exploit its potential (Kelley para 30).
The Timing of KFC’s Entry into China KFC entered the Chinese market for the first time on November 12, 1987. KFC’s choice of 1987 as the appropriate date for entering China was influenced by the fact that China was undergoing political and economic reforms at the time. The Communist revolution began in China in the 1980s with the main objective of ensuring that the country created a convenient environment for economic growth.
China’s policy and system prior to the 1980’s did not allow for market competition, particularly from foreign firms. The economy was virtually closed and the government controlled a majority of companies and industries that existed then.
The communist revolution, however, succeeded to institute positive economic changes that have helped in putting China at its present position as one of the major economies in the world. The revolution came with the opening up of the economy to competition from outside. The Chinese government allowed privatization of most of the companies that it held and competition among various industries started showing.
The opening up of the economy to foreign firms saw some of the draconian rules that previously hindered foreign ownership of businesses being eliminated. The ruling political class promoted the idea of accessing overseas markets with the aim of borrowing technical know-how in order to spur growth.
Chinese authorities also allowed economic integration of their country, giving China a chance to seek membership in regional and global trade organizations.
Thus, the choice of 1987 by KFC to establish itself in the Chinese market was appropriate because it was at the opportune time when the reforms were taking place. There were hopes that it would eventually be possible for a foreign firm such as KFC to successfully operate in the market with the new reforms that were being undertaken.
The choice of the date was also most convenient for KFC because any delays would have seen its main competitors in the industry, particularly McDonald’s, take the opportunity to establish operations in the market ahead of KFC.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is critical to note that while the Chinese authorities were undertaking the economic and industrial reforms, most American and other foreign firms from the developed world were waiting with a lot of optimism to launch into the market. The earlier these firms established themselves in the market the better the chances they created for themselves to lock out their competitors.
It was more difficult for the company to venture into this market compared to KFC’s entry into other international markets. While KFC succeeded to enter into other international markets earlier in the late 1960s, it was impossible for the firm to do the same in China.
The closed economic system that was pursued by China prior to the communist revolution of the 1980s made it difficult for any foreign firm to venture into the market. Even with the revolution and the eventual venture by KFC into the market in 1987, it was still difficult for the company to run its business in China with little interference from the authorities.
The Initial International Market for KFC KFC first launched its international business in Japan. It followed up its global expansion by establishing operations in other countries, including England, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, as well as Australia and Mexico. These markets were specifically chosen because of various reasons as expounded below:
Sales Expansion Rapid growth in international tourism at the time of KFC’s expansion influenced the decision by the company to expand its operations and venture into international markets. Most countries had abolished trade and travel barriers and the global economy was flourishing at the time.
These conditions offered an opportunity for KFC to expand its operations into these countries. There was growing need for KFC to seek other markets in order to extend its business operations and growth as the domestic American market was maturing.
KFC’s main target as it expanded into the international arena was to serve the American citizens who either resided in these foreign countries or visited the countries for various reasons. Additionally, KFC was targeting the nationals of these countries to form a perfect market for its business.
These efforts were all aimed at expanding the company’s total sales. All these countries have stable economies that comprise of a significant middle class. KFC was targeting this growing middle class population because they are the leading consumers of fast foods (Yu 19).
Geographic Diversification KFC’s international expansion was to increase geographic diversification of the company (Yu 19). In particular, the choice of Japan, England, Australia, Mexico, and New Zealand, among the other countries was based on the economic upturn of these countries. This was strategically done to hedge the company against instances of economic downturn.
In other words, spreading its business in various countries helped KFC spread its investment risk and remain safer compared to a scenario where the company could have targeted a single country or two only. These countries offered KFC a better and safer business environment to sustain growth and expansion of the company with their steady economic stance.
Acquisition of Labor and Resource The American fast food industry, from where KFC originates, was much-advanced by the time the firm was executing its expansion program. In other words, the US fast food industry could not be compared to countries such as Japan, England, and Australia. Operations in the USA are relatively expensive because of its advanced status and high competition.
Operational costs such as wages, salaries, and rent rates for the fast food restaurants were higher in the US than in the other countries that KFC had identified for its expansion.
The internationalization move, thus, targeted to acquire cheaper labor as well as affordable resources in these countries (Yu 19). In turn, the reduced operation rates would enable KFC to improve its profit margin and enhance its competitive advantage over other rivals (Chu para 3).
Worldwide Brand Recognition There was need for KFC to internationalize in order to build a worldwide recognition of its brand (Yu 21). Firms were looking for opportunities to capture foreign markets in order to extend their dominance as competition intensified in the domestic American market.
In particular, countries such as Japan, England and Australia belong to the first world and are more likely to be visited by Americans and other people from across the world. Thus, these economies are critical in terms of launching global brand recognition.
China as the Choice of International Market The choice of China by KFC as the appropriate international market was because of various reasons, which include the following:
China has a lucrative market for fast foods owing to her large population size that currently exceeds the 1.34 billion mark. China is the world’s most populous country and its population size equally means that the market potential is lucrative. With a huge market, KFC’s main target of launching into the market was to make huge profits for the company and enabling the company to grow its global revenue base (Li-Yong 39).
China’s huge population also offers adequate cheap labor. There was cheap and readily available semi skilled labor in China that KFC was targeting to benefit from.
It is easier for the firm to make huge profits because its operation costs would significantly be reduced with the presence of cheap labor. Equally, this provides an opportunity for the company to enhance its competitive capabilities because it can afford to reduce its prices because of the low operation costs.
One evident feature about the Chinese market, and which mainly attracted the company to target its expansion towards the country, is the potential economic growth of the country (Li 1). It was only going to be a matter of time before China eventually stood out as one of the global economic superpowers with a massive market size and available labor.
KFC targeted to benefit from the anticipated economic boom that has seen a sharp increase in the country’s middle class society. It is prudent to point out that the middle class society has often turned out to be the greatest consumer of fast foods. Thus, as China continues to grow economically, its middle class population is also swelling in size. This phenomenon implies increasing demand for fast foods.
Western Culture Imitation
The Chinese people are notable for aping the western culture and the general way of life. This was among the main reasons that pushed KFC into developing interest in the Chinese market. KFC determined that it would be easier for the Chinese to adopt the practice because the young people in the western world find it fashionable to visit and dine in the fast food chain of restaurants.
KFC, therefore, focused its expansion program towards China knowing well that there would be little resistance on the part of the consumers. Often, food is a sensitive commodity to export internationally owing to variations in tastes and the general lifestyle of people. However, it was not going to be a challenge in the case of China to establish operations on the part of KFC because it would be an easy task to convert the consumers.
The country’s fast food market and industry was less developed at the time of KFC’s entrance into the Chinese market. Additionally, none of the leading American fast foods restaurants had established their operations in the country by 1987.
KFC, thus, targeted to utilize its experience and expertise in the industry to benefit from the market’s huge potential. The company was seeking to capitalize on the market such that it would be far ahead in the competition by the time its main competitors in the industry, mainly from the United States of America, thought of venturing into China.
The main reasons that attracted KFC into the Chinese market were the same common reasons that attracted the firm to other international markets. There are minimal differences between the main reasons for venturing into China and the reasons for venturing into England, Australia or Mexico.
International Market Entry Mode Japan
KFC launched its operations in Japan through a joint venture with Mitsuoishi Shoji Kaisha Ltd. Use of joint ventures was chosen in the case of the Japanese market because political considerations in the country only allowed such entry modes as the most feasible.
It was difficult for any foreign firms to get permission to operate in Japan if they attempted to enter the market on their own without collaborating with any local organization (Hill and Jones 269). It was, thus, only practicable for the company to adopt the joint venture mode of entry as it had no any other alternatives.
KFC used the franchising strategy to enter the English market. KFC issued up to 14 franchising licenses to launch its operations in the market. The choice of franchising in the case of England was influenced by the non-existent business barriers.
England created a free environment that allowed more investment from both local and foreign firms, unlike in the case of Japan where the government was limiting foreign firms from directly establishing their businesses. Franchising, in this case, became the best choice for KFC as it targeted to spread faster into the market.
It is also less costly to adopt a franchising mode of market entry because the company does not directly involve its capital in investing in assets, such as acquiring buildings for restaurants and hiring staff. Instead, the franchisees directly meet all the related costs (Alon and McKee 78).
KFC’s entry into the Hong Kong market took place in 1973 through a partnership deal. The partnership saw the firm open up 11 branches. However, business performance was poor and the company eventually closed shop in the market after two years (Phillips, Doole, and Lowe 263).
The choice of partnership as the appropriate market entry mode in Hong Kong was influenced by the social culture of the market. It was appropriate for KFC to use a local brand in Hong Kong to try to win the market effectively. A direct entry into the market by KFC would have most likely seen the market shun its services by considering it alien more than local food outlets.
KFC directly ventured into the market by building its own restaurants and managing them (Dixon 134). In essence, KFC established its wholly owned subsidiaries in Australia as opposed to using franchising or entering into joint ventures and partnerships.
This decision was chosen mainly because of the small cultural distance between Australia and the USA, which is KFC’s traditional home country. The fact that Australia did not have restrictive regulations against foreign business investments also influenced the choice of direct ownership over other alternatives.
KFC ventured into Mexico through direct ownership. This type of market entry mode was influenced by Mexico’s existing regulations at the time. The regulations did not protect patents, information, or technology that was transferred to franchises in Mexico. Additionally, Mexico did not allow royalties. This made it difficult for KFC to consider other alternatives of launching into the market.
China Entry Mode
KFC’s entry into the Chinese market was by way of joint ventures with local Chinese firms. The government of China chose its main joint partner in the initial instance of KFC’s entrance. KFC, therefore, entered China through a joint venture with the Government Poultry Department.
However, the joint venture faced challenges that eventually saw KFC adopt the Tourist Department as its main next partner in the venture. KFC also replicated the partnership with several other local firms to extend its grip on the local Chinese market.
The main reason for KFC’s choice of joint venture as the main entry mode into China was influenced by the strict government regulations that existed at the time.
The system that was in place required all foreign firms interested in operating in China to form joint ventures with the local firms before being allowed to operate in the market. In this regard, KFC’s choice of joint ventures was mandatory because the firm had no other alternatives from which to choose the entry mode.
Nonetheless, the ongoing economic reforms in China at the time eventually saw the government regulation requiring foreign firms to use joint ventures as an entry mode to the market removed. In the 1990s, it was no longer a mandatory requirement for foreign businesses to form joint ventures with local firms.
This prompted KFC to shift its entry mode. The firm bought out its partners and put to an end any further plans of entering into joint ventures. KFC settled on regular chain model as its perfect mode of entering China as it bought out the local partner firms.
This was mainly caused by the limited skills in management amongst the local population (Kogut 320). KFC also considered this option because it provided an avenue for the company to guard its secretive recipe closely.
The regular chain model was dropped in 1992 in favor of the franchise model. KFC had, however, to wait for about eight years before it could issue other franchising licenses. The initial franchising license failed to produce positive results and the company halted its franchising program until 2000 when it began issuing the licenses to franchisees.
Evaluation of the International Market Entry Modes Japan
The use of joint ventures to gain foothold of the Japanese market was the right option for KFC. A joint venture was the most appropriate entry mode to introduce KFC to the local market given the variations in cuisine types between the American and Japanese cultures.
Additionally, the existing government regulations would not have allowed for direct market entry for KFC. The initial joint venture plan eventually enabled KFC to gradually adopt the Japanese market and establish itself as one of the significant fast food chain of restaurants.
An alternative to the joint venture would have been the use of franchising. However, this would not have been very effective like the joint venture eventually turned out to be because it would have required the franchisees to adopt KFC’s standard menu.
This would have probably backfired given the difference in food tastes and choices between the Japanese and American cultures. Additionally, a franchise mode of market entry would have seen local Japanese restaurants rebrand into KFC colors. These colors would have been interpreted to mean foreign business.
The franchising mode of market entry that was applied in England was the most appropriate for this market. The American and English cultures are very close, including the language of use. Thus, franchising was the best model to apply in the case of England. It meant that there would be little resistance from the market in terms of viewing KFC restaurants as non-English and alien even as the franchisees adopted the KFC colors and logos.
A franchising mode of operation was the best choice for England because there were no regulatory restrictions in England barring foreign firms from exploring the domestic market as was the case in Japan. It allowed the firm to spread faster within the market by opening more branches. KFC gave out up to 14 franchise licenses in the initial instance, for example. This made KFC open 14 branches at a go.
A different entry mode, such as a joint venture, would not have been as effective as the use of franchising because it would not have necessarily allowed for the use of KFC brand and logo. The partner would probably have insisted on the continued use of the original brand colors and name. A joint venture would equally have been more expensive on the part of KFC compared to franchising.
Using a joint venture, depending on the agreement entered, would have forced KFC to make capital contributions towards its business operation in England. However, such costs are eliminated in the case of franchising because the franchisees take charge of some requirements, such as acquiring restaurant buildings, paying rents, as well as acquiring staff.
In other words, franchising mode of business enabled KFC to achieve faster results in the English market than would have been the case had the company opted for joint venture or direct market entry strategies. The main characteristics of the English market, including close cultural practices with America, and the lack of regulatory restrictions enhanced the overall performance of KFC in England further.
The strategy choice of using partnership as the entry mode for venturing into Hong Kong was the least appropriate option for KFC. It is worthy pointing out that the firm’s 11 branches that had opened up in the market for the first time in 1973 eventually shut down in 1975 after only two years in business. The companies failed to capture the Hong Kong market and continuously incurred losses, prompting the firm to shut down.
In particular, the use of partnership mainly failed to register the appropriate results because KFC never had the direct influence and decision power in the joint venture. Instead, the local partner took direct charge and controlled the joint venture. In other words, KFC did not have enough influence to determine the running of the business.
The best alternative that the company should have adopted in seeking to enter Hong Kong should have been use of franchising. This would have allowed the franchisees ample flexibility to adopt the KFC menu and other standard operations while integrating them with their own local practices and menu. A gradual introduction of KFC would have enabled the fast food chain of restaurants to establish itself strongly in the Hong Kong market.
This would have seen them promptly address any market challenges that could have arisen as a result of branding the KFC colors and logo because the franchising agreement allows the franchisees to run the business directly. Franchisees incur the overall loss in case the franchising venture collapses, and therefore they are more concerned about proper management as opposed to joint ventures.
The direct ownership entry mode that KFC applied as it launched into the Australian market was not the best choice. The best alternative should have involved franchising rather than direct investment given the minimal foreign investment restrictions on the part of the Australian authority.
With a franchising mode of entry, KFC would have spent less of its capital since it would not have required acquiring land and building up its own premises. Instead, the company would have relied on the input of its local franchisees to set up its market operations.
A direct venture also involves hiring workers and closely following on the management of the business to the ensure operations run accordingly. This is quite challenging given the business magnitude of KFC that straddles across all the continents in the world. A direct venture is also slower when it comes to expanding in order to cover the entire market. Australia is a large country that covers an expansive area of space.
It was impractical to expect the firm to cover a substantial area within a short time because direct investment involves spending a company’s own resources. However, using franchising would have seen the company establish more branches, thus covering a wider area of the market while spending less and requiring little time to achieve its objective.
The strategic choice of using direct business venture to launch into the Mexican market was the most appropriate for KFC. Mexico pursued a closed system of economy that basically did not offer protection to foreign firms at the time of KFC’s expansion into the country. There were no specific laws to protect royalties and such business agreements that would have made franchising or partnerships more viable.
Despite the fact that KFC’s only existing option for expanding into Mexico involved adopting the direct investment mode, this mode was less effective. This forced KFC to acquire its own assets, such as land, and build up its stores. KFC’s expansion into the market was definitely at a slow pace because of the expenses involved in buying land and setting up buildings.
The investment risks involved are also high given that the firm directly owns the assets it uses. The direct investment mode is also less appropriate because of the strong anti-Americanism sentiments that are largely common in Mexico (Kim 5). Most Mexicans do not feel attached to Americans, thus they are less likely to buy from KFC owned restaurants knowing very well that their revenues will go back to America.
Closely related to the anti-Americanism sentiments in Mexico is the fact that KFC owned restaurants stand a greater risk of being attacked by radical terror groups. This is a trend that has already been witnessed in the country, with an example being an incident in 1994 in which the radical anti-American groups attacked a McDonald’s restaurant (Kim 5).
Evaluation of the Entry Mode in China
The market entry mode of joint ventures was the most appropriate that KFC could use in its entry into the Chinese market. The Chinese feel proud about their local brands and do not easily embrace foreign brands. Thus, KFC was enjoying the advantage of integrating itself into the market by collaborating with a local firm (Chu para 4).
The joint venture was providing an appropriate cover to KFC, preventing it from being harshly received by the local market. Had KFC entered directly into the market, chances are that the market could have envisioned KFC as a purely foreign business and it could have easily been shunned in favor of the other local industry players.
The joint venture market entry mode was equally beneficial to KFC because it offered the right opportunity for KFC to study the market in advance. The local firms that entered into partnership with KFC had firsthand knowledge about the Chinese market and its characteristics. Their planning and operations were in line with what the local market preferred.
This was beneficial to KFC by virtue of the fact that the company would have been forced to spend significant resources and time studying the market and its characteristics had it entered directly into the market.
The joint ventures, therefore, helped KFC minimize its initial expenditure and, instead, use the funds in other important areas. KFC acquired strategic information and details about the main challenges of the market, the main competitors, and the general taste of the Chinese market when it comes to fast foods.
Joint ventures helped KFC deal with the aspect of hiring local employees with the right expertise to enable it launch its business successfully in the Chinese market. With the local partners that KFC collaborated with already having been players in the industry, KFC determined the appropriate labor force to employ in their business with ease.
These partners had already been existent in the business and they had a clear understanding of the right qualifications and skills that their workers needed before being employed. The local firm in the partnership already employed some of the workers. It was, therefore, easier to only convert them into becoming the employees of the venture.
It would not have been much easier for KFC being a foreign firm to easily acquire the right workers with the necessary expertise and experience had it ventured directly into the Chinese market. The aspect of language and culture would have posed the greatest challenge for KFC given that it is an American firm attempting to manage a Chinese workforce within the Chinese market.
The joint venture mode of entry into the Chinese market cushioned KFC against the high risk that comes with operating in a foreign market. Being a joint venture, both KFC and the local Chinese brand shared the business risk of their operations. In other words, KFC’s capital expenditure was halved, with its business partner meeting the other half.
Such an arrangement was less risky compared to one where KFC would have opted to launch its operations directly in the Chinese market. KFC would have been forced to acquire its own assets, such as strategically located buildings and renovating them to the needed standards of its restaurants. In some instances, it would have been forced to acquire land and put up its own business buildings that are more expensive and risky.
In the first instance when KFC initially entered into the Chinese market, it collaborated with the Government Poultry Department as its main partner in the local market. This was beneficial to KFC in terms of protecting the joint business from unfair regulations and business competition. It was more likely for foreign business firms to be treated unfairly by the government given the history of the Chinese government at the time.
The business conditions and environment that the foreign firms got into were not as favorable as was the case with the local firms. Joint ventures with local firms, therefore, allowed KFC to operate in a friendly business environment that provided the same conditions as other local businesses.
The joint operations involving KFC equally allowed the firm to make profits in the market because the government was interested in ensuring that the local firms became profitable.
Conclusion The Kentucky Fried Chicken, commonly referred to as KFC, first adopted internationalization of its business in 1969. The American fast food chain of restaurants launched its first international branch in Japan. It immediately followed the initial internationalization process by opening up other international branches in England, Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand, as well as South Africa and Mexico.
The gradual pace at which the domestic American market was maturing mainly influenced the internationalization decision by KFC. Different international markets offered varying challenges to KFC’s operations
. The firm was restricted to partnering with a local brand in order to form a joint venture in Japan. This was occasioned by the government regulations that did not allow foreign firms to directly operate in the country.
KFC launched its operations through franchising in England. The regulations in England did not bar any such foreign firms from operating in the country. KFC ventured into China in 1987 through joint venture. The Chinese government strictly followed a closed economic system that barred foreign business enterprises from operating directly in the domestic market.
This strategy was the best for KFC, however, as it provided full protection of its business interests in the country. The company was forced to enter into a partnership with a government agency. This move directly limited business risks for KFC.
Works Cited ADU. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Comes to Australia. 2013. Web.
Alon, Ilan and McKee David. “Towards a Macro Environmental Model of International Franchising.” Multinational Business Review, 7.1 (1999): 76-82. Print.
Chu, Frank. Case Analysis: Kentucky Fried Chicken and the Global Fast-Food. 2003, March 3. Web.
Dixon, Jane. The Changing Chicken: Chooks, Cooks and Culinary Culture. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd, 2002. Print.
Hill, Charles and Jones Gareth. Strategic Management – Theory: An Integrated Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Kelley, Keith. Kentucky Fried Chicken. n.d. Web.
Kogut, Bruce. “Joint Ventures: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives.” Strategic Management Journal, 9.4 (1998): 319-332. Print.
Li, Jonsson. Investing in China: The Emerging Venture Capital Industry. London: GMB Publishing, 2005. Print.
Li-Yong, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. London: GMB Publishing, 2005. Print.
Phillips, Chris, Doole Isobel and Lowe Robin. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development, and Implementation. Routledge. New York, NY. 1994. Print.
Yu, Lawrence. The International Hospitality Business: Management and Operations. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Hospitality Press, 1999. Print.
Analysis of experience: Clifford and Chance Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Motivation and organisational culture
Components of organizational culture
Employee motivation and its relation to culture
Introduction Organisations consist of different individuals that deal with disparate aspects that institutions require in order to increase profitability and ensure the smooth running of operations. In order to ensure there is order in the performance of every day tasks, most institutions set up an administrative hierarchy.
The essence of the hierarchy is to facilitate a concise flow of commands from the top management to the lowest ranking employees and accountability and responsibility by every individual. However, certain issues arise regarding the execution of commands and the effects they have on the organisation.
For instance, leaders have to ensure the fulfilment of a company’s goals through their actions at the work place and their formulae for decision-making and governance. Employees play their part in the productivity of a company by ensuring that their work is of high quality and that it is done in time and in accordance with the leaders’ instructions.
This essay looks at issues regarding organisational culture, motivation, and teamwork coupled with the importance that each of these aspects bears in an organisation in relation to success and fulfilment of company goals.
It explains some of the theories that contribute to these subjects and looks at the practical implications of these theories in relation to the every day operations of a company using Clifford Chance, a law firm based in London, as a case study.
Motivation and organisational culture According to Friedman (2002), it is the moral obligation of every business to make profits. Various individuals working at a company in their different capacities thus have to ensure that their roles contribute to the overall productivity of the company.
The task of ensuring that the company’s productivity remains high without compromising on the welfare of the employees and the organisation’s culture lies with the manager and at times this task may prove to be complex. One of the difficulties that the situation creates is the formulation of a form of balance between the three elements (Montana
Leadership and Political Behaviour in Organisations Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Integration of leadership within CCIF CPA Limited
Political behaviour in the organisation
Conclusion and recommendation
Introduction Organisational leadership is an essential component in the long term survival of firms. Leadership refers to the process of influencing other peoples’ behaviours (McColl-Kennedy
Concepts of Components Theory Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Conceptual components of theory
How the components are observed and measured in practice
How the theory has evolved based on the testing of the concepts
Introduction Concepts are important in any research study. They are utilized to develop nursing theories. In essence, nursing theories originate from concepts. To achieve theory development, concepts must be defined. Additionally, they must be refined to establish connection with the theory. This paper will explore conceptual components of theory.
Conceptual components of theory Components form the blocks for theory construction. Besides, concepts create hypothesis. Hypothesis is usually accepted through use of concepts. Any theory can only be understood if its concepts are clearly outlined or if those expected to understand it are well conversant with the concepts. In essence, there can be no theory without concepts. Concepts make the building blocks of nursing theories (Rushing, 2008, pp. 198-210).
How the components are observed and measured in practice Components of nursing theories can be observed and measured through research studies. Moreover, since most concepts are usually accepted, they are observed based on accepted rules for observation. They are also measured based on agreed procedures. In essence, assumptions are usually made on ways of observation and measurements.
Nursing theory has numerous concepts. Among which are four main ones namely health, patient, environment and nursing roles/goals and functions. Middle range theories such as Johnson’s theory of sensation have utilized a number of nursing concepts. This can be observed through the patient’s behavior, nursing goals, health and environment of nursing (Veo, 2010, pp.17-22).
For instance, the theory of sensation states that inconsistencies between what is experienced and expected in physical sensation usually result in distress. This can be observed through seeing, tasting, smelling and hearing. In essence, Johnson argues that when one is prepared to face surgery prior to the event, this reduces anxiety and thus increases his ability to cooperate fully throughout the procedure.
It is also necessary to note that concepts are usually defined by measuring operation utilized. For instance, health can be measured by body mass index. Secondly, nursing can be measured through functions or roles. It is necessary to note that some concepts can only be measured indirectly using indicators.
How the theory has evolved based on the testing of the concepts The theory of sensation has evolved over time. This has spanned through different theorists including psychologists. Scientific theories change whenever new findings come up. This usually happens when new findings faults old ideas. In the process, new interpretations are usually presented on old data. Sensation has evolved over time due to change in personality constructs/concepts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, interaction with the environment has also led to behavioral changes. Modernized technologies have also led to advanced ways of measuring sensation. This has led to significant changes in concepts of the theory of sensation. In essence, when methods of observation and measuring of concepts change, it is probable that concepts also change to give new interpretations.
Testing of concepts over time change with advent of new technologies and ideas. Validity of constructs is usually based on research and theory. Nursing theories are developed by defining and redefining concepts based on research. This evolves based on new constructs (Wills
International Monetary Fund Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The promotion of global monetary cooperation
Stability of the country’s financial standing
The increase in international trade
Advancing economic growth and high employment rate
Reduce the need and poverty around the world
Introduction The economies of most countries were affected badly and left in a struggling state after the World War II. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was initiated in the year 1944 and then formally established in the year 1945. Initially, the organization consisted of only 29 countries (De, 2011). The major objective of the IMF was to help in reconstructing the economies of the nations that were badly affected by the war.
Countries that had economic imbalances would borrow money from the fund and repay over an agreed period. It is normal that nations suffer in terms of economic, political, as well as social well-being after war. War is expensive to nations that participate in it.
A country that is not strong economically will suffer more compared to nations that are economically stable in the event of war. It becomes difficult for economically weak countries to finance their activities post-war due to the effects they suffer during war. To revive their economies, such nations depend on loans and grants from international organizations (De, 2011).
The International Monetary Fund not only assists countries that are affected by war, but it also gives loans to nations whose economic difficulties are as a result of any other reason. It is imperative to note that the number of member nations has grown from 29 in the year 1948 to about 188 countries today. All these member nations are also members of the United Nations, apart from the Republic of Kosovo.
The IMF has helped in increasing the stability of nations. The IMF has also been instrumental in the development of international trade. International trade has become of more importance since it facilitates globalization over the past couple of decades.
In addition, the IMF has helped in the reduction of poverty across the world, as well as reducing the rate of unemployment. This research paper will focus on the ways in which the International Monetary Fund helped in reviving the world economy following the 2nd World War.
The promotion of global monetary cooperation One of the reasons why the IMF was created was to promote the global monetary corporation. The IMF is an international body that helps nations that have trade imbalances. Promoting monetary cooperation with the IMF was to be done via an institution where countries would make consultation, as well as collaborations regarding the international monetary problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a forum where nations would bring their monetary problems to the set institutions. They would then explain the problems and later get advice on how to deal with them. Since the institutions were open to various countries who were members of the IMF, it provided the chance for countries to meet with other countries which they would collaborate with in order to find solutions to their problems (Lazarus, 2002).
It is important to note that there was no monetary cooperation between nations prior to the mid-20th century. In addition, there was no economic cooperation. This changed in the 1940s when the IMF was founded. When the organization was formed, it established a mechanism that would encourage cooperation between nations. The mechanism that it established was a permanent one.
The IMF believed that if nations worked in cooperation, they would increase their chances of succeeding both financially and economically. This was the philosophy behind the formation of these cooperation mechanisms. There were many restrictions that existed between countries before the organization was formed, thus making it difficult for them to trade among themselves and even cooperate in any economic activities.
Exchange of currencies was difficult, making it difficult for nations to make payments for goods and services within the required time. This was a barrier to economic development since it made trade difficult (Griesgraber, 2009). Encouraging cooperation between nations was effective in that it brought ‘economic miracles’ to nations. Member nations of the IMF were able to meet the problems that barred cooperation between them.
The developing nations and the developed nations were integrated into the global economy in order to help them deal with some of the problems that they were facing. For instance, when the nations were integrated into the global economy, they were able to deal with the debt crisis that existed in the 1980s. In addition, communist economies were encouraged and the economic crises in the 1990s were dealt with effectively.
This was one of the initiatives that led to the development of globalization. It is important to note that globalization started in the 20th century, around the same time when the IMF was formed and following the end of the 2nd World War.
It is, therefore, an indication that the efforts by the IMF to form cooperation mechanisms that eliminated barriers between nations was one factor that led to the development of globalization. Globalization is a major factor in the growth of the national economy in today’s economic world. Organizations such as multinationals are formed through globalization (Haynes, 2012).
We will write a custom Research Paper on International Monetary Fund specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are organizations that generate a lot of revenue to the economy and they are effective in the economic development of nations. It is due to globalization that most technologies have developed today.
Innovations have also increased, making trade to develop and become of much significance in the growth of national, as well as global economies. Therefore the IMF helped in reconstructing the economy of the globe after the World War II through the promotion of global monetary cooperation.
Stability of the country’s financial standing The IMF was also instrumental in promoting the financial standing of nations. There were countries that were facing difficulties in terms of finance in the early 20th century, while others were financially stable. This created imbalances in the world economy, a factor that IMF was determined to address. One of the ways in which IMF addressed this issue is that it collected money from the nations.
This is where nations would contribute through a quota system to a pool of money. Countries that contributed to this pool of money were mainly those nations that had some stability in their economies. Countries that were facing payment imbalances would then borrow from this fund and were expected to repay it over an agreed period of time.
When a country borrowed the money, it would meet most of its financial obligations and improve the payment imbalances to increase its financial stability. In addition, lending countries money would help them establish corrective measures that would help them avoid any abnormal changes on external imbalances (Fritz-Krockow, Ramlogan
International Business – McDonald’s Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Executive Summary The study explores international business although it specifically deals with expansion. In fact, the research report focuses on the entry strategies and the success of franchising in spite of the stiff global competition particularly in the fast-food industry. The report examines McDonald’s international expansion and the concept of franchising.
However, the mode of entry into the international market and growth by the company examined in this study disagree with the idea that the company’s expansion was due to saturation in the existing markets. The study reveals that the expansion of the company was largely due to the desire to increase profitability as well as the emergence of opportunities to expand its market.
The study examines the hurdles faced by the company when trying to internationalize its operations and the strategies used to overcome such hurdles. The study concludes with recommendations for the company to increase its market presence and profitability internationally.
Introduction Different bodies of literature explore the international businesses in the context of company expansion beyond the domestic borders. The subject of timing and style of entry have also been at the center of these discussions. Theories suggest that companies ought to follow constructive and worthy projects wherever and whenever they arise (Lafontaine
Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chances of Wal-Mart success in Asia
The state set of laws
Introduction Wal-Mart is the leading global retailer. It started its operations with nine nations in South America, Asia, and Europe. Currently, the company is conducting its global trade across 27 countries. In fact, its revenue was in excess of USD$400 billion for the fiscal 2012.
The expansion has prepared the company for entry into other new markets. However, globalization is continually attracting an array of investors into the retail market industry. Surprisingly, many renowned retailers have failed in particular global markets sighting varied reasons. Usually, the reasons include legal, regulatory, cultural and competition.
The company has been experiencing significant challenges in expanding its operations in Asia, specifically in China and India. This attributed to part of the many business and cultural challenges a global company can face when attempting to expand operations into a foreign country.
This study explores Wal-Mart global expansion and the challenges it faces in this endeavor. The research also examines whether the company is likely to succeed to penetrate the Asian market with the retail model it uses in the United States market.
Expansion Wal-Mart is the largest retail company in the United States. In fact, the financial endowment of the company is recognized globally. It is within the beliefs of the company that it will expand globally with revenues rising above that of the US market (Molin 2004, p.1). Armed with the belief, the company has been exploring different markets including the Asian retail market.
However, the company seems to have failed to appreciate that success in one country does not guarantee similar success in another. The reality forced the company to open the International Division within its organizational structure. The department was charged with managing the international growth opportunities.
Primarily, the division was founded to create a fallback position for the company in case the US market slowed down. The division has facilitated the global penetration by the company in the emerging and existing markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The division has ensured that the company acquires a share in prime markets such as China. The stores the company operates are not all newly established. Some are attained through joint ventures as well as acquisitions.
In Asia, the company opened its first store in China in 1996 by establishing Sam’s Club and a supercenter in Shenzhen (Spulber 2007, p.14). At this time, the company boasted that it had entered the hub of retail market referring to Shenzhen as “the forerunner of the country’s financial reform and top growing coastal metropolis.” The company has ever since expanded to other Asian cities.
The increase in the number of outlets in the Asian countries has been in the company’s strategic plan. The company top management has consistently informed the world on the importance of the company’s expansion plans in the international market.
They indicate that in the future, more than a third of the company’s growth shall originate from outside the saturating US market (Jones 1998, p.1). The international expansion by Wal-Mart is hence a long-term goal for developing the dominance in the global retail market.
Expansion Problems There are many challenges that face the company in the expansion effort ranging from government regulations to culture and competition. The company faces external as well as internal problems. The external problems are amplified in the company’s expansion efforts. Internal problems entail the company viewing itself as unbeatable via competition hence ignore smaller competitors as was the case with Wal-Mart in India.
The company ignored small traders operating roadside stores. The management later realized that gaining market share held by the small traders was a huge challenge. The small traders enjoy the support of the local community who detest western companies.
Chances of Wal-Mart success in Asia Wal-Mart uses the growth short cut of joint ventures as well as acquisition in Asia. The approach is employed since most government authorities are aware of the problems the company is likely to present when given express autonomy to operate in their countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has previously been accused of low wages, gender discrimination, being strict with suppliers, and destroying small local business due to its financial endowment. In this regard, countries such as India and South Korea ensure that they have strict regulations that discourage foreign investors such as Wal-Mart.
The perception regarding Wal-Mart is likely to affect its operations in Asia. The company is viewed as a representation of the western governments and ideologies seeking to modify the eastern culture. Unless the company reevaluates its international expansion strategy, it will not be easy for the company to succeed in the Asian market.
Cultural Differences The international business arena is always plagued by cultural difference challenges. This is one of Wal-Mart’s biggest hurdles in its attempt to globalize. In the Asian market, the local communities meet the company with resistance. To start with, the company is seen as encroaching and grabbing the business opportunities for the local smaller traders (Basker 2005a, p. 176).
In some cases, the local business communities pressurize the authorities to deny the company the permit to operate. The communities seek to protect their interests by dragging in the community. The difference in culture is also a factor that the company has to contend with when attempting to open new stores in the Asian retail market.
Wal-Mart’s International Division is responsible for conducting research in the prospective markets. It has been successful in this front. However, it has failed to establish the consumer preferences that are driven by culture in some markets such as a majority of the Asian countries.
The company has various conflicts with clients forcing it to approve amendments that will not see it shut down its stores. In the Asian context, Wal-Mart faced challenges upon its entry into China. Small-scale traders with the owner as the attendant typically sell retail items similar to those stocked by Wal-Mart. The locals are familiar with the owner and interact freely.
These stores are usually packed, noisy, and dirty. However, they are operating at low prices. When Wal-Mart attempted to introduce the concept of hypermarket, offering clean outlets, well spaced, and sales for the people to attend to the customers, the consumers felt uneasy.
They were accustomed to doing their shopping in absolute privacy where they only dealt with the owner one person at a time. Wal-Mart’s approach required the consumers to alter the shopping and purchasing habits and anticipations when buying goods from the stores.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In India, social relationships play a central role in financial deals (Padmanabhan 2012, p. 1). Even with globalization, this aspect still holds in the India communities. However, Wal-Mart has gradually changed the attitude of the community towards westernization. It has managed to capture a significant customer base. Amazingly, the small traditional shops that mark India’s waysides still exist (Kalhan 2007, p. 2065).
They continue to control the retail market. In fact, it has been suggested by researchers that these roadside stores will continue dominating and control 85 percent of the domestic market (The Economist 2008, p. 1). The roadside shops may be a little larger than a cabinet but the local consumers prefer them. It is suggested that this occurred due to the poverty that pushes the locals.
The locals establish personal relationships with the storeowners so that they may obtain goods on credit when they do not have cash. Since the disposable income levels may not grow in the near future, Hanna (2004) suggests that the large retail companies should abandon their contemporary strategies. The chains should target at becoming the neighborhood store (Hanna 2004, p. 1).
The state set of laws When conducting global trade, it becomes inevitable to take care of the state policies. In the US, Wal-Mart is a powerful investor. However, in other countries, it is just an overseas investor seeking to exploit the financial and human resources of the country. This challenge became apparent when the company entered China. The country is densely populated with a potentially large market with more than 170 metropolises.
The company sought to exploit the market (Jia 2008, p.1265). However, the stringent and restrictive regulations of the Communist government curtailed the company’s endeavors. The Chinese government boxed the company to certain counties to rein in competition. The company is yet to open an outlet in a thriving city (Groeber 2002, p.1).
The federal law of India prohibits global retailers from directly investing into the Indian economy. Wal-Mart has been a victim of the regulations forcing it to enter the huge market through joint ventures. The Indian government is relatively young in terms of policy infrastructure. The community norms are deeply embedded onto the society’s mindset.
The policymakers who are the investors possess substantial influence in the decision-making processes. They easily guide the creation of legislations. Since they are the owners of the small trade stores, they ensure that the perceived notion of encroachment on business by international companies seeps through the government structures.
Conclusion This study has explored the internationalization of business in the increasingly competitive global economy. In order to explore the success and challenges in the global business arena, this study has examined the operations of Wal-Mart in different countries to establish the challenges that companies are likely to face while going abroad.
It is apparent that companies willing to go global must be prepared to deal with governments in terms of regulations, as well as communities in terms of culture and other players such as competitors in the local business industry. Besides, it is evident that foreign countries aiming to invest in Asia face stiffer challenges than those faced by companies aiming to invest in other global locations.
References Basker, E 2005a, “Job creation or destruction? Labor market effects of Wal-Mart expansion”, Review of Economic Statistics, vol. 87 no. 1, pp. 174–183.
Groeber, J 2002, “A new frontier”, National Real Estate Investor, vol. 44 no. 11. Web.
Hanna, J 2004, Ground-floor opportunities for retail in India, Harvard Business School: Working Knowledge. Web.
Jia, P 2008, “What happens when Wal-Mart comes to town: an empirical analysis of the discount retailing industry”, Econometrica, vol.76 no.6, pp. 1263–1316.
Jones, Y 1998, “The biggest of the big”, Forbes 500s Annual Directory. Web.
Kalhan, A 2007, “Impact of malls on small shops and hawkers”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 42 no. 22, pp. 2063–2066.
Molin, D 2004, A bullish Wal-Mart: targeting new countries, smaller formats. Web.
Padmanabhan, M 2012, Wal-Mart’s struggles in India: how institutional contexts can limit foreign entry. Web.
Spulber, D 2007, Global competitive strategy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
The Economist 2008, Unshackling the chain stores. Web.
Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China Exploratory Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Nigeria
Management in the global scene is usually a challenge due to the various cultures that are found around the world. It is for this reason that managers of global organizations find it difficult to manage since they have to understand each of the various cultures, beliefs, and leadership styles.
It is important to note that cultural differences affect communication. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that an organization that has a poor communication system will always find it difficult to succeed.
Nigeria’s culture is different from that of America. In addition, the two countries have different cultures from that of China. As a result, the three nations have varying management and leadership styles. A manager of a multinational organization that has operations in any of the three nations is, therefore, supposed to have cross-national management knowledge and skills.
Hofstede explained that culture is a collective programming of the mind (Tang, 2012). Therefore, the programs of the mind affect the way people think, the way they feel, as well as the way they do things (Lijun, 2008). One is required to unlearn his or her programs before learning other cultures, a process that Hofstede says that it is more difficult than learning.
Hur, Strickland and Dragan (2010) opine that someone from a given culture will be required to unlearn their culture before learning a new culture.
In other words, a manager from Nigeria will be required to unlearn the Nigerian culture before learning the American culture or the Chinese culture to manage effectively in any of these two nations. It is the same case for an American manager or a Chinese manager aspiring to manage outside their mother country.
Nigeria Leaders of organizations have to work in an environment that is highly unpredictable in Nigeria. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that the economic environment in Nigeria is unpredictable. This is the same with political, as well as social environments. According to Bayode (2008), organizational leaders in Nigeria especially in the private sector face a lot of challenges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the challenges he has cited in his article are dilemmas, such as killings and unceremonious removal from office happening in various organizations. The market structure is said to be bad, just like the educational system is. The economic challenges make it difficult for parents to take their children to school.
These, among other challenges that the leaders of Nigerian organization face in their career, make it difficult for them to utilize their full potential (Epelle, 2011). Consequently, it makes it difficult for them to stir economic growth and development.
If people in a country are not well educated, then organizations might not have enough human resource that can help them in their development because human resource is one of the most important assets in an organization (George, Owoyemi and Onakala, 2012).
The most common factor that relates to the differences in leadership styles in America, Nigeria and China is cultural variations. For instance, Nigeria has a high score on power distance. Decision making is centralized and only the top managers have the authority to make decisions.
Orders are given by the top managers and executives, and the rest of the organization members are expected to follow. It is important to note that most of the African nations are said to have a high power distance, and Nigeria is not an exception (Ogbonna, 2010).
Considering the dimension of individualism and collectiveness, collectiveness is more accepted in Nigeria than individualism. The leader of an organization should view issues from a group perspective. According to Medugu, Majid and Choji (2008), interests of a group are prioritized in Nigeria, just like it is in China.
Further, Nigeria is considered to be a masculine society. People are expected to work and managers are expected to make assertive decisions. There is a lot of emphasis on equity as well as performance and competition in Nigeria.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Uncertainty avoidance is another factor that determines leadership in a country. Nigeria is a nation that has high uncertainty avoidance.
As Madichie, Nkamnebe and Idemobi (2008) say, Nigerians prefer to have stability and try as much as possible to avoid changes that are likely to have unknown effects on organizations or the economy. Finally, Nigeria scores high in terms of long term orientation, meaning that leadership is based on the national traditions (Ogbonna, 2010).
America Kolko, Neumark and Mejia (2013) indicate that the socio-economic environment in America is relatively stable compared to that of Nigeria. This makes it easier for a manager in an American organization since they do not face a lot of such challenges in their management. Most people in the US are educated since parents have money to take their children to school (Kolko, Neumark and Mejia, 2013).
This means that there is skilled human resource for organizations. In this regard, the potential of success for organizations is relatively high compared to the one in Nigeria (Elele and Fields, 2010). Therefore, leading organizations in the US is not as challenging as leading in Nigeria.
Considering power distance, American organizations have leadership that is more decentralized. Lijun (2008) indicates that power distance is low in that the distance between the employees and managers is small. Employees are given the chance to contribute in decision making. The level of equality between members of the organization is high. In addition, power is distributed equally among managers and the rest of the employees.
Another cultural factor that can be considered to have an effect on leadership in the three countries is individualism and collectivism. According to Lijun (2008), individualism is highly favoured in the United States. Despite the fact that team work is seen as important for the success of organizations, it is not considered to be very significant in the US organizations. Instead, individual interests are given priority.
A manager in the USA should be aware of masculinity and femininity differences in Nigeria and China in order to manage the subsidiaries effectively. As Usunier (2010) states, gender is not considered as a big issue in leadership in the United States. Ambitions and goals fostered by women are highly recognized in the US as opposed to China where it is hard to find a woman in a top position in an organization.
It is also important for a manager to consider long-term orientation of the nation in which they are managing. There are cultures whose investment focuses on long-term results, while others focus on short-term results. According to Dong and Liu (2010), America is considered to score highly on short-term orientation. This means that the US does not have a lot of value for traditions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, it is important for managers to consider the uncertainty avoidance of each of the countries in which their organization has subsidiaries. This will help the manager to make the right and relevant adjustments in order to manage effectively. America is one of those nations that have low uncertainty avoidance.
Dong and Liu (2010) opine that America is open to change and people do not worry much about the effects that change will have on them in the future. As a result, it is easier to manage change in America since people are least likely to oppose it. The culture in America is open to innovations and new ideas (Usunier, 2010). This has been a critical factor in the success of American organizations.
China China has an environment that is relatively predictable compared to Nigeria, despite being a third world country (Dong and Liu, 2010). Therefore, a manager of a Chinese organization operates in an economic environment that is stable and faces fewer challenges in management.
China is also an economically stable nation since it is one of the countries in the world that have the best economies. Leadership in this country is also not very challenging.
Considering the cultural dimensions by Hofstede, Chinese culture is different from that of the United States given that power distance is high in China. The distribution of power in Chinese organizations is not equal. Qin, Ramburuth and Wang (2008) indicate that the top level managers are viewed as the most powerful and they make most of the decisions.
The lower level managers and employees are not involved in the decision making process, or they make very little contribution. Managers give orders and employees are supposed to follow without questioning. In terms of individualism and collectiveness, China favours collectiveness to individualism. Workers in an organization are expected to work in a team. Wide consultation is highly appreciated.
It is not easy to find individual efforts being accepted and appreciated in Chinese organizations (Qin, Ramburuth and Wang, 2008). This is an issue that leaders and managers of Chinese organizations should appreciate in order to increase their chances of succeeding in the country. Group interests are prioritized ahead of individual interests.
Leadership style in China is also influenced by the issue of masculinity and femininity. Dong and Liu (2010) indicate that women are not considered for leadership positions in China, thus the gender gap difference is high. It is, therefore, difficult to find a woman manager in an organization. Moreover, China values long-term orientation. A leader should be aware of the traditions in the country.
Chinese people do not easily accept new things that are not within their traditions. China is regarded as a country that scores lowly on ‘uncertainty avoidance’. It is worth noting that the Chinese language itself is ambiguous and characterized by many signs that have uncertain meanings (Dong and Liu, 2010).
Ambiguity is, therefore, acceptable in China and uncertainty avoidance is also low. This has contributed to technological development in China.
From the above review, it is evident that managing in Nigeria, America and China would require unique set of skills and understanding of cultural dimensions due to the varying cultural orientations. The authors generally agree that Nigeria is a nation that has a hierarchical culture. It is the same case for China.
In these two nations, leaders are expected to make decisions without necessarily holding consultations before making their decisions. The review has also revealed that America is not a hierarchical nation, thus decision making is decentralized.
In this regard, the manager of an organization that has subsidiaries in any of these nations should be aware of the cultural differences in order to make the right changes and adjustments while managing in any of the three nations.
Reference List Bayode, B 2008, Analysis of organizational leadership: a phenomenological study of organizational leaders in the private sector in Nigeria, Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.
Private Labels Competing Against the FMCG Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Private labels are those goods that are by produced by the retailers such as supermarkets. There are several reasons why this marketing strategy has become very popular. First of all, at the time of economic recession, the purchasing power of many clients has declined. This is why they search for less expensive goods (Lincoln 25).
Therefore, the marketing of private labels can increase the profitability of many retailers that try to become less dependent on manufacturers. Furthermore, consumers notice that in many cases, private labels are not inferior to branded goods in terms of quality. This is one of the main aspects that can be identified. To a great extent, one can speak about a significant shift in public attitude toward such these products.
They are no longer associated with poor quality (Lincoln 25). This is why this marketing strategy has been successfully implemented by many firms. Additionally, it is vital to remember that modern businesses can operate on the Internet. Information technologies enable buyers to compare different products in terms of price and quality. In many cases, these people prefer to purchase private labels.
These are the main reasons that can explain the popularity of these products among retailers as well as consumers in Europe or the United States. At present, one cannot say whether the situation will change in the future, especially at the time when the purchasing power of people increases.
Nevertheless, it is quite possible that these labels will not lose their competitive position. Much will depend on the marketing strategies adopted by various producers. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
The manufacturers of branded fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) adopt various strategies in order to regain their competitive edge at the time when the economy recovers. First of all, they can launch their own stores (Kotler 128). In this way, they can increase the loyalty of consumers.
Furthermore, such an approach can distinguish a certain product among many private labels. This is one of the actions that can be taken. Nevertheless, such a policy has significant limitations because it is applicable only to companies that produce various brands. This is one of the main issues that should be considered by the managers of these companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, these businesses can carry out marketing campaigns that stress the quality of branded goods. This strategy is also helpful for attracting clients. However, the main issue is that many consumers have changed their attitudes toward private labels and FMCG.
Many clients are no longer convinced that branded FMCGs are superior to private labels (Lincoln 25). Therefore, the producers of FMCGs should introduce innovative products that can be distinguished in terms of functionality, design, reliability, or other criteria. So, they will need to create additional value for customers. This is one of the ways in which they can strengthen their position in the market.
Finally, these companies may decide to cooperate with retailers. It should be kept in mind that some producers provide goods to retailers and later these products are sold as private labels (Lincoln 25). Such a strategy can help these businesses improve their sustainability. These are some of the policies that FMCG managers can adopt in order to improve their long-term performance.
Works Cited Kotler, Phillip. A Framework for Marketing Management, New York: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
Lincoln, Keith. Private Label: Turning the Retail Brand Threat into Your Biggest Opportunity, New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2009. Print.
Security in the information communication technology Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Abstract Organizations must put control measures to protect their information systems from being accessed by unauthorized individuals. The top-level management of the organization must devise security mechanisms and policies.
This enhances the effectiveness of such policies since it enables the organization engrain such policies in the organizational culture. Organizations also use other security mechanisms, such as passwords, that are secretive and recognize single users only.
However, passwords are not fully effective in protecting systems from being hacked. Passwords can be guessed or tampered with to allow access by non-authorized persons. The best alternative for security is for organizations to adopt a combination of measures.
The measures include use of passwords and security questions to ascertain authenticity. Security measures must be revised constantly to provide full surety to the organization that its data is safe from any interference.
Introduction Information communication technology is increasingly becoming a critical aspect for integration in organizations and businesses. The technology increases reliability in performance and enhances the speed of communication within organizations. However, IT can turn out to be a big security risk for organizations.
Access of data and other sensitive information about the firm by unauthorized persons poses a great danger to the organization and the closely held business secrets and practices. Thus, the issue of security for IT is important for all organizations to take charge and responsibility. This paper seeks to discuss how firms can develop information systems security and the necessary resources for information security.
How to initiate information security policy Companies often employ a set of rules, practices, standards, as well as procedures to maintain security of their IT systems. This reflects an organization’s information security policy. An information system’s security policy requires proper drafting for it to be more credible. The development of a security policy on information acts as the initial step in preparing against internal and external attacks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Top-level management support is a critical factor in policy development. Administrators and users must receive education about the system to avoid bad judgments. An organization should incorporate its policy to be part of the organizational culture to get employees observe the information security policy.
There are two major issues for organizations to observe when developing their Enterprise Information System. These include adapting the users to the system and getting the involvement of users through soliciting their input on ways of advancing the system.
Developing employee awareness There is the risk of organizations losing their data and information to outside bodies. The first mechanism in averting such a crisis is by educating the workers1. Organizations can achieve this by using awareness-raising initiatives such as emails, mouse pads, pamphlets, discussion groups, and formal presentations. Employee awareness is the first step for organizations willing to secure their data.
Education of employees begins with information security training, as well as management support. Training increases security awareness and participation of the workers.
Employees who have enhanced understanding of likely consequences concerning security breaches will offer greater protection and understand clearly how to combat the breaches. The input of the top-level management is particularly important as it gives direction on the corporate decision.
Governing access control Employee access to information ought to be limited for security reasons. The process is undertaken by companies to only allow workers to gain access to information that is relevant to them. One mechanism used by companies to achieve this objective is referred to as Role Based Access Control (RBAC).
This system limits employees’ access by permissions, users, constraints, and roles. The organization arranges employees according to their roles and profiles in order to determine which employees can access specific information on the organization2.
We will write a custom Article on Security in the information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies must take the critical step of monitoring user access and detect any unauthorized access to data that is categorized as high risk. Security mechanisms should not only dwell on the IT system alone, but also extend to other physical aspects such as proximity.
Employees sitting arrangement, for instance, may provide an opportunity for workers to read data being worked on by a colleague whom they share the same office. Organizations can address this concern by organizing sitting arrangements such that any chances of unauthorized personnel peeping through such details are contained.
Getting support from the upper echelon management The top-level management’s role is to ensure that information system security remains engrained within the corporate culture. This is important because support from top management enhances the preventive efforts made. Globalization is increasing the threat of organizations losing critical information through theft.
Information security decisions must squarely lie with the top-level management to manage the IT department properly. The management must handle aspects such as methods of implementing a security policy, where awareness-training programs for employees should take place, and how such trainings should be done.
The corporate governance of the information security ought to begin from the top to increase the chances of efficiency. A conceptual model for Enterprise Information System security (EIS) needs to protect the four critical pillars of security policy, access control, security awareness, as well as the top-level management support (TLMS).
Enterprise Information System Security
Security Policy – Set rules for behavior. – Define consequences of violations. – Authorize the company to monitor and investigate.
Security Awareness – Continued education. – Collective and individual activities. – Formal classes, emails, discussion groups, etc. Access Control – Limit information. – Access linked to job function. – Restrict information not relevant to position.
TLMS – Transparent support for policies and procedures – Engrain information security into company culture.
Corporate Governance Source: Chaudhry, Chaudhri and Reese3
The decisions made by the management of the company come from the base of the whole system, enabling it to dictate its stability. The pillars that rest on the foundation also support the roof.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Security in the information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The four pillars represent the different processes that the management and other top decision-making organs of the organization choose from in order to implement and make the system secure. All the four pillars contribute towards making the enterprise information system more secure. Eliminating any of the columns is dangerous as it ends up affecting the security of the whole system4.
Information System Resources There are three major subsets of information systems resources, including information technology resources, abbreviated as ITR, relationship resources, abbreviated as RR, as well as IS infrastructure, which is abbreviated as IIS. The ITR reflect on the IS expertise that is possessed by the focal firm. Further, ITR has two distinct capability sets that include IT-business alignment capabilities, IBAC, and IT technical capabilities, ITTC5.
RR is the extent to which an information department establishes a sense of collaboration with various functional units, such as finance or production. It also refers to the extent of collaboration with business partners such as suppliers and customers. RR has two dimensions of internal and external relationship resources; that is, the INR and EXR.
IIS is the collection of assets that are based on IT on which different applications of business and services are developed. IIS is the management and technical architectures that support the focal organization development to offer information security.
Information Technology Resource (ITR) The IT department requires knowledge about different computer languages to apply them in order to develop systems that optimize the organization demands6. This offers the IT department greater capability to run the organization’s information systems effectively.
Systems are growing in complexity and functionality and, thus, organizations must in turn develop the skills to match these growing complexities in order to benefit fully from the advantages that come with the new systems.
As Kuo-chung and Chih-ping7 further point out, it is also critical to develop a capability in diagnosing systems problems. This capability provides the IS personnel with knowledge on analyzing the actual depth and scope of the specific problems that afflict the system. It, thus, offers an avenue of searching for appropriate solutions of the identified problems during system breakdowns.
IBAC refers to the knowledge on how to align the IT strategy with the existing business strategy. This can be done through the IT department outlining the IT strategies, plans, as well as technical investments, and implementing the IT technical architecture. Alternatively, IT department having high IBAC enjoys a deeper understanding of the processes of business together with the organizational goals8.
This business knowledge provides the IT department with the expertise to develop highly effective IS strategies, as well as provide information services that accurately fit the organizational needs.
IBAC equally signify the potential ability by firms to identify as well as employ information technologies that are emerging as a way of transforming the organization to achieve competitive advantages. It may also enable the change of industry structure where the focal firm is situated.
Relationship Resources (RR) RR comprises of the internal relationship resources (INR) and the external relationship resources (EXR). The former portrays the working relations that exist between the IT department and other departments in the same organization.
The EXR, on the other hand, portrays the working relation between the IT department of an organization and the organization’s existing business partners who are external, such as the suppliers and customers.
This structure provides an avenue for social exchanges that exist between the firm’s IT department, on the one hand, and its various clients on the other hand. This results in achieving closer ties and developing mutual trust together with respect. This relationship, in turn, creates stronger bonding that allows the parties to share a common view and work towards achieving the objective easily9.
Partnership between the IT and its clients also enhances the sharing of responsibilities between partners and contributing resources to achieve the common goal. Greater mutual coordination is easily achieved as a result of the good relationships, allowing adjustments that consider the counterparts’ needs to be undertaken.
One major benefit of the close interrelations is the containment of disputes. Even in instances where the disputes arise, it is easier for a resolution to be worked out between the parties because of the close ties in their working. Mechanisms for resolving any likely disputes have been developed well in advance.
IS Security Infrastructure Information system offers a different perspective other than the technical issues that affect an organization since it involves the aspect of management of an IS architecture in order to influence greater achievements. The IS technical architecture (ISTA) concerns various IT-based assets, including software and hardware, which offer protection to information systems from security-related breaches10.
The framework is made of seven components that include “information transmissions, access control, access rights authentication, encryption and decryption”. It also involves log analysis, malicious protection, storage and backup.
The IS management architecture (ISMA) concerns the rules, as well as the regulations that are established by the organization in order to manage and offer control to its information system as far as issues on security are concerned11. The management mechanisms offer various precepts that control individual behaviors so that they can be in tandem with the information security requirements of the organization.
In particular, they outline all the roles as well as the responsibilities that individual employees are required to follow in order to protect the information from being accessed by unauthorized personnel.
Security and Safety Measures: Students Familiarity and Actual Practice Password
Systems are often protected from unauthorized access using passwords. This system protection mechanism involves “must-remember sensible” or “non-sensible” combination of characters that make up the alphabet or numerals. Such characters or numerals must be entered in their exact appearance as originally done in order for a user to gain access to the system.
Passwords can be considered either as simple or sophisticated. Simple passwords are those that can be remembered easily and may be guessed without much difficulty. Such passwords are also ‘non-hacker proof’, meaning that hackers may easily temper with the system using such passwords12.
Sophisticated passwords, on the other hand, may not be easily hacked by malicious people. They comprise of both letters and numbers and sometimes may also include special characters.
Generally, passwords can be tampered with algorithmically in efforts to gain access to protected data. This concept is a self-certifying means that needs conscious efforts in order to recollect. In this regard, passwords are generally less perfect and can be strengthened by using human characteristics, instead, to help in identification purposes.
Organizations need to make a more complicated process of selecting a password to ensure that the passwords or their pre-registration questions are not easy to guess. This would make the passwords tamper-proof and enhance the confidence of clients. However, this system has a disadvantage in the sense that answers to some easy questions may also be easily guessed by other people with malicious intents.
Security problems and the related pervasiveness
Students do not keenly take the required precautions when it comes to protecting their passwords. In most cases, students are seen to take the risky step of showing others their passwords yet the passwords should be secret. Although such practices may not be as grave in social engineering circles, they are dangerous when it comes to computer systems.
Organizations are awake to the risks that privacy invasion brings. Surprisingly, firms still do not heed to the need to use technology to reinforce privacy. Computer Crime Security Survey (CSI/FBI) indicates that “there has been an increase in security incident reporting from 20% to 25%”13.
Some companies object to reporting of security breaches citing the likelihood of the public losing trust with the organization. The public may end up viewing the organization as an imperfect persona. It may also influence the clients into instituting legal action against the organization.
Clients may view this as negligence on the part of their organization to institute proper breach-control mechanisms, and use this as reason enough to incite other clients against trading with the company.
According to numerous studies conducted to ascertain the aspect of system security, simple passwords that are used by individuals for security purposes are preferred by up to 69% of the individuals. The users are extremely familiar with such passwords and actually use them on a daily basis as they access their computer systems. On the other hand, up to 64% of system users use such simple passwords more than half or 50 percent of the time.
From these findings, it is possible to deduce that knowing a simple password often translates into making use of it. Complex passwords are preferable to simple passwords in achieving effective protection against entry into computer networks and systems by malicious individuals14.
Findings on use of sophisticated passwords indicate that 87 percent of system users are not aware of such an existence. Thus, lack of knowledge about sophisticated passwords also means not using them.
Nevertheless, people get used to something before they start practicing it and becoming more experienced, thus it is understandable in this case. Computer system scans that occur on a daily basis each time a computer system is turned on are also critical security mechanisms that can be used to control access of unauthorized personnel.
Computer systems may also rely on anti-virus software to protect against viruses that are intentionally developed to harm stored information. Fifty-six percent of computer system users, however, are unaware about anti-virus software15. A very small percentage of users, about 15%, use such software for protecting their systems.
All the three articles have relied on surveys as well as statistical analytical tools in their researches. This has enabled the articles to provide reliable arguments.
The articles have also drawn their findings from wide testing samples used in the studies. This gives more accurate findings compared to when such testing samples are drawn from a narrow perspective.
All the articles include an extensive discussion at the end of the research seeking to expound on the research findings. This makes the researches more understandable.
Further research direction has been offered in at least two of the articles. This gives hope for more elaborate research on the same area in the future.
There are limited recommendations that are being offered by the authors of the articles. While the articles have offered an insight into these problems, they do not provide the reader with the perfect solution on the way forward.
Some of the authors do not cite any limitations encountered while undertaking their studies. This makes it difficult to evaluate the authenticity of their answers.
Could the Articles be better?
The researches undertaken by all the authors in these articles are comprehensive enough and help the reader to clearly determine the main issue of concern that is being raised. Failure to include the limitations of research in two of the articles, however, makes it difficult to ascertain the true extent of the research findings. It is important to include the limitations for the research articles to be complete and more relevant.
Threats and Opportunities
The three articles show how organizations are becoming increasingly exposed to IS attacks. The danger of IS invasion due to recklessness of employees or the management is still a threat to the organizations. In addition, hackers are continuously developing severer threats to invade the highly secured systems.
This is a great threat to firms that do not have the capacity to install highly secured systems and employ personnel who have the capability to avert such security breaches. Organizations have the opportunity to avert infiltration of their information systems by investing more in research and development.
Moreover, organizations have the opportunity to borrow IS technology from other organizations that already have enhanced security systems.
How Information System Security could be enhanced in the Future
Creating more awareness on the need to use anti-virus software is one of the biggest steps towards enhancing IS security. This comes from the realization that more than half of all computer users are not aware of the need to use anti-virus software. Organizations also need to develop a culture of upholding information security such that the current employees and those who join the organization later give priority to IS security.
Conducting regular system audits will also help organizations identify any loopholes in the system and devise ways of sealing the loopholes. Moreover, scheduled IS audit will help the IT personnel determine the effectiveness of the existing IS security measures.
Conclusion Advancements in the information communication technology have provided an avenue for virtually all organizations to incorporate IT systems in their operations. However, IT systems face a great challenge of security breach that may lead organizations to lose their sensitive data to unauthorized people. Security mechanisms must be established in order to guard against such intrusion.
The top-level management of organizations must take the leading role in developing a culture that emphasizes on security. Employees must also be trained and made aware of the benefits of utilizing IS security measures. Several mechanisms exist, including blocking individual workers from accessing information from other departments that may not be useful to them.
Bibliography Chaudhry, E Peggy, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald. “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security.” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 587–599.
Kuo-chung, Chang and Chih-ping Wang. “Information Systems Resources and Information Security.” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 579–593.
Lomo-David, Ewuuk and Shannon Li-Jen. “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice.” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 29-47.
Footnotes 1 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 591
2 Ibid 590
3 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 588.
4 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 595
5 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.
6 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.
9 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582
10 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582.
12 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 30.
13 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 31
14 Ibid. 34
15 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 36
Nokia: Case Studies Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The three important issues the company should focus on in terms of expense control Employment at the company should be cut down to a manageable size. The company should only retain a sizeable number of workers that it can manage comfortably as the revenues continue to dwindle. The goal is to save a significant amount of revenues currently being paid out as salaries and wages.
Business acquisitions should only be limited to those that are viable and those that require less time to return profits. The financial goal of this move is to save funds from further non-profitable ventures.
Closing the extra regional offices and branches and instead maintaining the main ones only is the third strategy. This action will save a significant amount of revenue that is currently being spent on meeting rent and other related expenses.
Assessment of Nokia-Microsoft’s Windows Mobile The Window’s smartphone by Nokia has failed to recapture the market leadership in the sector. Instead, Nokia has continued to lose its market share while recording huge losses, especially in the smartphone sector. The Windows mobile platform has failed to achieve its intended purpose of spurring growth for the brand maker.
From the current market trend, it is possible to adjudge that the Windows mobile platform is inferior to its main competitors Android by Google and iOS by Apple.
The best alternative for Nokia should be using the licensed Android OS on its smartphone devices in order to boost its market share. This will see Nokia devices enjoy the same superiority as other leading Android devices such as Samsung, thus attracting a huge global market to recapture its market share.
Necessary steps to regain the North American Market Nokia should begin by carrying out an extensive study of the North American market in order to determine trends and preferences. Market needs for the smartphones, especially in North America, keep changing rapidly as users seek for new features and capabilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A closer link to the market will enable the brand maker recapture the market. Additionally, Nokia should seriously consider introducing the Android OS in its devices because this platform is sought after by the North American market.
Realistic strategies for regaining market share Price competition
Nokia should shift its competition towards the aspect of price by targeting to avail high quality products at cheaper prices. Lowering prices will see more users acquiring its products, thus increasing the market share.
The costs will involve buying more materials and utilizing them on more products in order to achieve economies of scale advantage. However, this strategy is risky because the gadgets might be of an inferior quality to compromise on cost.
This strategy should focus on releasing new products with enhanced features and performance. This will provide the market with a high range of products capable of competing with the other brands. The costs involve intensive research and development, while the risk lies in spending too much on a technology that fails to pick up.
I prefer the price competition strategy because with its capacity, Nokia is able to achieve success through building economies of scale advantage. Nokia is also shifting production to Asia where it is likely to benefit from cheaper labor.
Evaluation of Stephen Elop Performance Stephen Elop has performed dismally in his leadership. The company has continuously lost market share and registered losses. I recommend that he should change his strategy by focusing more on changing market trends and incorporating them immediately, instead of taking time before acting. Nokia has been rigid in its operations, failing to read signs early and take the right steps to address challenges.
Thus, the CEO must consider flexibility while competing for business. Additionally, Elop should consider expanding Nokia’s business by venturing into new business areas, such as personal computers and laptops. This will see the firm cushion itself from harsh business conditions and performance affecting one area.
We will write a custom Essay on Nokia: Case Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Sprint La Conexion Familiar Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Problem facing Sprint
Action the management can take
Implications of Sprint’s response
Problem facing Sprint Trade unions aim at ensuring that employees get good working condition and remuneration (Bacon 752). Hence, they compel organizations to increase employees’ salary and improve working environment, which lead to increased operations cost. This underlines the reason why organizations strive to make sure that their employees are not unionized (Booth 34).
The basic problem facing Sprint in La Conexion Familiar is ensuring that its employees remain non-unionized as unionization will lead to increase in operations costs. Besides, the company will not be able to exploit its employees since they will be able to fight for their rights through the union. Initially, employees were not allowed to take bathroom breaks.
They were expected to be at their workstations at all times, and this added to the company’s output. Besides, the company controlled the amount of water that every employee consumed to make sure that they did not keep on leaving their workstations.
Trade union curtails the powers that employers have over their employees (Boxall and Haynes 570-573). Hence, Sprint will not be able to fire its employees at liberty once they join a trade union. Besides, the union will ensure that all workers are treated equally, which will mean increasing the wages of the non-English speaking workers.
Sprint has gone to the extent of establishing policies to help in making sure that its staff does not join a union. The main problem is to dissuade employees from joining the union. All employees have the right to join unions and employers are not allowed to intimidate them (Clawson and Clawson 100-104).
However, managers in Sprint are going against the labor laws by using intimidation to discourage employees from joining trade union. Despite the intimidation, the company cannot overcome staff’s determination to join a labor union. A majority of the staff is willing to join a labor union.
The company has remained non-unionized for many years. Hence, the management fears that allowing one section of Sprint’s operations to join trade union will prompt other sections to demand for the same. Hence, the company is not ready to allow workers in La Conexion Familiar to join a union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the company knows that even if it does not allow employees to join a trade union, they will use other means to make sure that they are unionized. Thus, it is hard for the management to reach a consensus with employees. The management is trying to threaten the employees that it will close the plant if they join a union. However, no employee can yield to these threats.
The closure of the LCF plant will have negative impacts on other plants owned by Sprint. Hence, the management will be forced to comply with employee demands as a way to safeguard the image of its plants.
Action the management can take Labor laws prohibit organizations from using intimidation or coercion to discourage employees from joining trade unions (Brown 166). All employees are at liberty to join a trade union of their choice. Sprint has made sure that it factors in these provisions in its union policy. It discourages its managers from intimidating employees that wish to join trade union.
However, this does not happen during the negotiation process. The management goes to the extent of threatening employees that it finds participating in the unionization process. Besides, Sprint has tried to sell La Conexion Familiar as a way to preserve its non-unionized legacy. The main reason why employees seek to join a trade union is poor working condition and remuneration.
Hence, to address this problem, Sprint needs to sit down with its employees and look for ways to address their complaints (Kerr 42). Trade unions compel organizations to improve the working condition for their employees (Hyman 210).
Hence, Sprint does not require waiting until employees demand to join a trade union to improve its working condition. The company should talk with the employees to identify the challenges that force them to join a trade union and work on them. This will avoid cases of employees staging an organizing drive.
Apart from improving the working condition, Sprint should take the initiative to remunerate its employees in line with their performance or workload. Paying employees according to the workload or performance will lead to them not thinking of joining a trade union (Lucio and Weston 79-82). To deal with the looming organizing drive, Sprint management ought to meet with the employees and promise to address their complaints.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sprint La Conexion Familiar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will help to postpone the drive as employees wait to see if the management will keep its promises. Whenever organizational managers work closely with employees, it becomes hard for employees to revolt since the management responds to their complaints (Rynes, Gerhart and Minette 385-390).
Consequently, rather than considering the costs associated with labor unions, Sprint management needs to move swiftly and assure its employees that it will work towards improving their working conditions and remuneration. This will reduce the employees’ urge to join trade unions thus dealing with the looming organizing drive (Martin et al. 67).
Implications of Sprint’s response The future of long distance service market depends on how Sprint will respond to the looming labor crisis. If the company goes ahead with its endeavor to stop its employees from joining trade union, it will kill the long distance service market. Employees require being motivated to offer quality services.
Hence, denying the employees the right to join a union without solving their problem will demotivate them, and eventually kill the long distance service market. On the other hand, if Sprint agrees to allow employees to join trade union, it will enhance the quality of long distance service market. LCF focuses mainly on the long distance service market.
Therefore, allowing employees to join trade union and solve the looming problem amicably will lead to employees improving their services (Sheehan, Barker and Rayner 55). In return, this will help in expansion and growth of the long distance service market.
The action that the Communication Workers of America (CWA) takes will depend on the response that Sprint takes. If the company denies its employees the right to join a trade union, CWA will take the necessary measures and file a petition with the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). NLRB is the body responsible for solving disputes between employees and employers in case labor conflicts.
The board may take time before giving its judgment. However, based on the seriousness with which the CWA is treating this matter, it appears that it is ready to take all the necessary time to see that LCF’s staff gets justice. Hence, CWA is likely to mobilize all LCF’s staff to pressure Sprint to yield to their demand. In case this endeavor fails, CWA will seek for assistance from the National Labor Relations Board.
Works Cited Bacon, Nicolas. “Trade unions responses to workplace restructuring: exploring union orientations and actions.” Work Employment
Leadership Pipeline Case Study college essay help near me
Table of Contents Skills which future leaders require
How high potential leaders ought to be identified
Essential developmental experiences
Skills which future leaders require Future leaders of the organization will need to possess strategic management skills as this will be critical in top leadership situations. Instances of expansions through mergers or acquisition are becoming quite rampant. Alternatively, new opportunities to either change product design or introduce new ones are always lurking (Biggs 106). Therefore, one must know how to handle such scenarios through sound strategic decisions.
A leader should also be familiar with financial skills as management of stock prices is critical in maintaining peak performance. Large organizations like Mattel reported dismal performance under a new leader because it lacked skills on how to handle Wall Street (Conger
SG Cowen Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help
SG Cowen: Recruitment process The hiring process in any company should be marched with the objectives to be attained by the new employees (Taylor 6). In fact, the set goals should inform the required skills and competencies during the hiring process (Turban and Daniel 733). In essence, for the firm to attain its goals and remain competitive, it must maintain a stream of skilled and competent employees (Barber 136).
The key decision factors Cowen considers in making hiring decisions The hiring process in the company is based on the strategy of choosing the best candidate in the MBA class from the top business colleges. The candidates chosen are incorporated into the company’s associate programs.
Even though the company is looking for the best talent, the criteria used in selecting the recruits do not secure talented candidate. The recruitment and the hiring process are even challenging. The considerations to the key positions include the high academic performances and considerable job accomplishments. Besides, the candidates must have attributes that are oriented towards the organization goals.
An important area the company was considering includes exceptional academic achievement particularly in business. In addition, the candidate must show the right attitude and enthusiasm on the job to be provided. Other attributes the company was considering includes the interpersonal skills, social development skills, culture and communication skills.
About the criteria The criteria used by the company to hire the best candidate are challenging and do not secure the talented candidates required. The hiring process begins by visiting business schools providing the information regarding the company intentions and the hiring process to the potential candidates. The visiting and the information provision process is followed by the interview session, which is long and involve complex processes.
As the case indicates, the hiring criteria in the company have many problems. First, the banking professionals undertake the hiring processes instead of the human resources managers. Human resources professionals are presumed to be having hiring skills and competency in the hiring process (Avery 672). Therefore, employing the banking professionals was a great mistake.
Due to lack of formal training in the recruitment process, the SG Cowen employees ended up with recruitment criteria that stereotyped their candidates. The recruitment team considered factors such as the marital status, the type of English the candidate use, physical appearance as well as other personal attributes that does not add value to the firm (Agnvall 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the candidates are chosen according to the interviewer individual belief. The process leads to biases through which the candidates are chosen. As indicated in the case, the prejudice of individual towards a particular candidate can sway the whole team not to select the best candidate.
The hiring criteria based on subjective measures compromises the attainment of the company objectives (Allen 77). The hiring process should not be based on long procedures. The hiring procedure should be specific to the competencies the company needs (Kiger 39). Since the hiring process in SG Cowen is long and based on subjectivity, the process can be described as being unfair.
The two Candidates to Choose Selecting the best two candidates among the remaining pool of four candidates proved to be challenging task. In fact, this was the most important decision to be made by the recruiting bankers. Serious considerations have to be made regarding the candidates as all have the required qualifications. For the right candidate to be selected, the bankers should look for the distinct attributes that differentiate the applicants (Billsberry 23).
The attributes should add value to the firm (Ployhart et al 47). The bankers are to make decisions that have two important consequences to the organization. The decision on the type of recruit will affect the success of the company. In other words, the recruits the bankers are going to select will either make the company succeed or fail.
Therefore, the candidates must have the right attitude towards the success of the organization goals (Overman 3). Generally, the success of the firm depends on the quality of its workforce. The quality of new hires must also imitate the quality needed in the workforce (Breaugh 103).
The decision also influences the quality of the workforce. The bankers must identify the person having the cultural fit for the organization.
Therefore, giving an approval for the right candidate who fit culturally within the organization is critical for the maintenance of the company reputation and credibility (Jattuso and Evans 139). In addition, making the right hiring decisions will increase the personal credentials as well as benefits that come with it.
We will write a custom Case Study on SG Cowen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the above criteria, the first candidate that could have been chosen among the four is Natalya Godlewska. The candidate possesses strong academic credentials compared to other candidates. The candidate holds good grades in both her MBA and undergraduate studies.
In addition, the candidate has perfect referrals from her former employees. Among the distinct attributes the candidate possess include hardwork, determination, ambitious, and the right attitude towards work (Hansen 59). In addition, leaving its former jobs to join the firm indicates the enthusiasm and the right energy the candidate has towards the job.
Even though some of the members expressed reservations on her cultural fit in terms of language barriers, the candidate still outfit the others based on her competence and experience. The candidate’s background explains her poor English but that will not have greater impact of her job delivery.
Moreover, the candidate has successfully worked in other firms, which is a proof of success in her social skills. Further, the candidate has mastered her graduate courses in US graduate schools where English is used. Language does not determine the candidate social and cultural adaptability within the workplace (Backhaus 117)
The second candidate that could have been chosen is Ken Goldstein. According to the criteria set by the company, all members of the team commended the candidate. In addition, the former employer has put the candidate in high evaluation points.
Moreover, the former employer has recommended the candidate for high performance that the firm requires. Besides academic credentials and the company criteria, the candidate is a team player an attribute that is highly regarded by the firm.
The reservations being expressed by some members that the candidate cannot fit among the recruits due to family commitments are based on subjective recruitment critter. In essence, such an attribute is not important as being competent and able to deliver the results.
The most important attribute the new hire should express is the commitment towards the organization success (Pulley 89). The success of the candidate in Price Waterhouse Coopers expresses his commitment despite additional domestic responsibilities. Such commitment will be simulated in the firm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SG Cowen by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Agnvall, Elizabeth. “Hiring at-home workers.” Staffing Management, 4.4 (2008): 2-5. Print.
Allen, David.Retaining talent: A guide to analyzing and managing employee turnover. Alexandria: VA SHRM Foundation, 2008. Print.
Avery, Dereck. “Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising: Are differences black and white?” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88.4 (2003): 672-679.
Backhaus, Kristine. “An exploration of corporate recruitment descriptions on Monster.com.” Journal of Business Communication, 41.2 (2004): 115-136. Print.
Barber, Alison. The hiring challenge: Recruitment in small firms. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2005. Print.
Billsberry, James. Experiencing recruitment and selection. Chichester, UK: John Wiley
Merck scholarship essay help
Table of Contents The amount of success the change effort produced
Sustainability of the Changes
What Could Warner Have Done Better
The amount of success the change effort produced Change has become inevitable as the business environment keeps on changing. The main aim of introducing change in an organization is to improve the current way of doing things to secure better performance in the future that is likely to give the organization competitive advantage (Pato and James 15).
The one facilitating change in the organization should ensure that he or she does it in a meaningful manner to ensure that the change process succeeds. In most cases, change is led by the organizational managers and top executives. Merck
Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Data and Method
Introduction The most significant twentieth-century trend is that suburbs became the dominant life style for Americans (Teaford, 2008). Whites experienced overwhelming suburbanization. In 1920, Whites and Blacks lived in suburbs almost equally: about one-third of each group’s residents. However, there was a dramatic increase in suburbanization after WWII.
By that time, the Whites suburbanization rate grew by nearly 70%, from a 1940 level of about 38% to a 1970 level of about 63% (U.S. Bureau of Census 1963). The change to suburban dominance in population is reflected in comprehensive statistics on economic activity (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011). In many cases, suburbs have outpaced their core central cities in economic importance since 1970.
According to the Bureau of Census, 46 percent of the 1990 population lived in suburbia, 40 percent in central cities, and 14 percent in rural areas. This study will examine the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between Whites and Asians in 260 metropolitan areas (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1963).
Recently, Asians are the fastest growing minority group. According to the Bureau of Census, Asian population grew from 3.5 million in 1980 to 7.3 million in 1990 and to 8.8 million in 1995 (Palen, 1995). Currently, the Asian population consists of around 4% of the entire population (Bureau of Census).
There always has been debate as to whether higher level of minorities’ suburbanization yields lower segregation or higher segregation. Segregation is the distribution of racial and ethnic groups into separate and distinct residential areas of the city (Logan, 2011). The general trends in residential dissimilarity across 260 metropolitan areas from whites have declined since 1970.
Even though Blacks have experienced the most declines in residential segregation, they remain the most segregated in cities. The largest black population averages remains high. While the Asians remain the least segregated compared to other ethnical groups, the average level of Asian-Whites segregation has not changed much. So the question is why do we care about segregation and why does segregation matter?
According to previous social scientists, there are some serious social costs related to residential segregation. This compares to the researches on examining Black-White segregation or Hispanic-white segregation. However, there are not many studies only focusing on Asian-White segregation. Accordingly, a variety of factors affect segregation of Asians but this paper will only focus on the role of suburbanization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By using the data collected from the 260 major metropolitan areas across United States in 2009, the researcher will test the hypothesis that the level of suburbanization leads to the decline of Asian-White segregation based on spatial assimilation model.
Theoretical Arguments The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between whites and Asians in metropolitan areas. The hypothesis of this research is based on the spatial assimilation model that physical mobility implies one’s upward social mobility. In other words, once Asians social status moving up, then they can get living closer with whites.
Therefore, Asians will have less social, economic, and cultural gaps with whites, which finally lead to the decreasing of Asian-Whites segregation. The researcher will put this hypothesis to the test. Additionally, the reputation of Asians towards Whites plays an important role concerning the point of Asian suburbanization increasing the Asian-Whites integration.
To restate my hypothesis: the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area will help to alleviate the Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area. My theoretical argument is to explain why suburbanization might lead to contact that is more residential with whites.
Moreover, the average incomes of Asians are the highest among other minority groups. According to the contact hypothesis, four conditions are especially important. That is urbanization, poverty levels, geographic location, and governments.
Some scholars who adapted the stratification perspective state that there is relatively weak correlation exist between the continuously Asian suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the unit of metropolitan area.
According to Logan and Stults’s (2011) report of the New Findings from the 2010 Census, they found that Asians are considerably less segregated than African Americans, and their segregation levels have remained steady since 1980. In addition, with the growth in Asian population, unique ethnic conglomerations tend to coagulate. Because of this, the groups live more sparsely now than in 2000, a trend that has grown since 1980.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite Asian isolation, another important factor is the stereotypes of Asians. Maria Krysan (2002) conducted an open-ended question survey in Los Angeles, and asked whites about their comfort with different levels of integration with Asians and then asked to explain.
Krysan (2002) found the major problem with Asians is based the stereotypes: the modal response was that Asians are not friendly, stick to themselves, or are uninterested in integration.
The problems with Asian neighborhoods, according to these whites, are “cultural differences” – particularly expressed as language concerns (Krysan, 2002). Thirdly, the rapid development of suburban Chinatown plays an important role in the controversial issue of continuing Asian-White segregation even in the suburbs.
Another study can be looked at is Monterey Park, a suburb outside Los Angeles that became a focal point for new Chinese immigration. In 1960, the population was 85 percent white in contrast to the population in 2000 was 43 percent Asian, 35.5 percent Hispanic, and only 21.6 percent Whites. For a time, the city was known as the “Chinese Beverly Hills”, and it was later referred to as the first suburban Chinatown.
Lastly, other sociologists have suspected that the presence of Asian neighbors provides a protection against white flight, or in the terminology of Farley and Frey (1994), a “buffer.” Buffering is shorthand for the argument that the movement of “more fully assimilated second and third generations of Asians to higher-status, more integrated communities” provides “a push that should lead to greater integration of blacks.
On the other hand, the spatial assimilation model has remained largely controversial issue in the previous studies, which are related to the possibility that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs, from four aspects: Asian isolation, the emerging suburb Chinatown, Asian stereotypes, white flight, and multiethnic buffers.
According to Logan and Stults’s report of the 2010 Censes new findings, the rapidly growing Asian populations are as segregated today as they were thirty years ago, and their growth is creating more intense ethnic enclaves in many parts of the country (2011).
This paper will focus on the gateway city (this is the city that facilitates entry into the main city), because most of the new Asian immigrants live in suburban towns within the metropolitan region, not in the central city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, our focus on the special assimilation perspective will help us to understand the importance of moving beyond the city and looking at the metropolitan region more broadly when we study immigration and other demographic trends that affect our communities. (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011).
Hence, while this paper looks into this aspect, it will also delve into the effect of suburbanization on segregation of minority groups with special regard to Asians.
Literature Review Large bodies of past researches show the focal relationship between the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area.
According to article “Trends in the Suburbanization of Racial/Ethnic Groups in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970 to 2000 (2011:239)”, the authors found that nearly all the variance in 1970 to 2000 growth in White suburbanization (86 percent) is explained by changes in the supply of suburban housing. However, the percentage of variance explained is much lower for the other minority groups.
This suggests that the overwhelming cause of changes in White suburbanization over the past three decades was increases in the supply of suburban housing. Another study indicates that Whites have suburbanized faster and more completely than other groups.
Hwang and Murdock (1998) concluded that the suburbs possessing seven image indicators: suburb’s smaller population size; lower density; younger housing stock; lower percentage of minority residents; suburb’s old age; higher percentage of traditional family homes and higher percentage of owner-occupied homes did draw more white movers.
Massey and Denton’s (1987) cross-sectional analysis of segregation in 1980, reported that in metropolitan areas in which Hispanics or Asians had higher incomes and were more likely to speak English or to be U.S. born, these groups were significantly like to live in suburbs and thereby to experience lower levels of segregation.
Moreover, according to Logan et al.’s (2004) finding, they firstly concluded that among Asians, an increasing share of foreign-born persons were associated with greater decreases in segregation. Secondly, if Asian economic standing improves, it will have a great potential to further residential assimilation with whites.
Therefore, according to the assimilation model, scholars suggest that discrimination does not fundamentally drive the segregation between Asians and Whites, but the social status and culture differences seems more likely driving the segregation between Asians and Whites.
Based on the 2005-2009 American Community Survey (ACS) Logan (2011) found White incomes averaged over $60,000, which is about $25,000 more than blacks and $20,000 more than Hispanics. However, Asian incomes averaged just over $70,000. Thus, if we use the spatial assimilation model, which the economic status increases, it will finally lead to residential assimilation with whites.
Obviously, the dramatic increasing suburbanization rates of Whites, Asian prestige (based on statistics) and theoretical expectation based spatial assimilation will create the connection between the two testing variables that the increasing rates of suburbanization will finally lead to the decreasing level of Asian-Whites segregation.
Compared to other minority groups, Asians are the least segregated group with whites. Just like Krysan (2002) found, it seems more likely the biggest problem of segregation between Asians and Whites is not about discrimination, but cultural differences
. Thus, I assume that Whites hold positive attitudes toward Asian’s reputation, and this finally leads back to the model of assimilation – once we fill the culture gap, this will eventually leads to Asian-Whites integration.
The perspective of reputation of a minority group is critical. As long as the reputation stays stable, then if the social status increases and the cultural differences decreases, finally the spatial distance will relatively decreases. In addition, the spatial assimilation model denotes this meaning too.
Data and Method In this section, the researcher fast forwards to 2009 using the most recent population census data in 2010. This study tests the relationship between the level of suburbanization in the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-White segregation across 276 metropolitan areas in 2009. In analyzing this focal relationship, I am testing the hypothesis that the higher suburban concentration the lower Asian-White segregation.
In other words, there is a negative relationship between suburbanization and Asian-white segregation. The total number sample of metropolitan areas is 276.
First, in order to generate a new variable that indicates the percentage of the population living in the suburbs in each of the metropolitan areas, I used the variable of suburban population in 2009 divided by the total population in 2009, then converted into percentage measurement. However, in order to keep the consistency in the sources of data, the number of metropolitan areas changed from 276 to 260.
My analysis only includes one measure of a metropolitan-area characteristic, which is the percentage of suburbanization rate in 2009. In terms of the dependent variable, I use an “Index of Dissimilarity” to measure the level of Asian-White segregation; it indicates how evenly the members of Asians and Whites are distributed among the 260 metropolitan areas across the nation.
The “Index of Dissimilarity” refers to the percentage of Asians who would have to move in for all neighborhoods to reflect a certain percentage of Asian composition of the entire city (say 46.31 percent). There are five dimensions define geographic traits that social scientists think of when they consider segregation (Gottdiener and Hutchison 2011:213). They are Unevenness, Isolation, Clustered, Concentrated, and Centralized.
The percentage of a metropolitan-area population residing in the suburban ring of the metropolitan area is taken from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System (2009). The researcher will use correlation analysis to test whether there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan areas in 2009.
The bivariate regression utilizes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables to predict the score of the dependent variable from the independent variable. In other words, after testing the hypothesis by using bivariate regression model, we will be able to predict the level of Asian-white segregation from the level of suburbanization.
However, in this study, we are more focusing on the association or relationship between these two variables than prediction.
The most common is a Pearson correlation coefficient (r), which is the correlation between two interval variables, and it ranges from -1.00 to 1.00. If -0.3<r<0.3, then we consider it as weak relationship; if -0.7<4<-0.3 or 0.3<r<0.7, then it is considered as moderate relationship; if -1.00<r<-0.7 or 0.7<r<1.0, then we interpret it as strong relationship.
Results Results from model predicting the level of suburbanization has very weak positive association on Asian-White segregation in 2009 in 260 metropolitan areas across the United States. This is completely opposite to the hypothesis. The correlation coefficient arrived at from the regression model is 0.0121. This indicates a weak but positive relationship between the variables.
Therefore, the level of suburbanization almost has no effect on the level of Asian-white segregation in 2009 across 260 metropolitan areas (n=260). Obviously, the result does not support my hypothesis that there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation. This shows that other factors are also at play in affecting the segregation of Asians.
This may include poverty levels, demographic shapes, levels of immigration, social status, and state and federal policies. While suburbanization plays a role in segregation, the factors appear more pronounced as they form a larger chunk of the explanatory model (Timberlake et al. 2011).
Moreover, the bar graph interprets the level of Asian-white segregation are all under 50, which means modest segregation. An interesting finding in the bar graph shows that the modest level of suburbanization actually has higher Asian-whites segregation than the lowest and highest level of suburbanization. The result implies that segregation tends to categorize things into certain groups that look alike.
This actually supports my counter theoretical argument that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs. For example, while Chinese are of Asian descent, suburban Chinatowns seem to be resided by Chinese only. This is despite the fact that there may be black population residing alone and whites alone in the same locality.
Discussion The United States has traditionally been referred to as a “melting pot”. Her history began with waves of immigrants; bring their own cultures, traditions and all hoping to find freedom, new opportunities, and a better way of life.
The racial segregation has a long history in the United States: from the Black Codes to Chinese Exclusion Act to Japanese American internment to Jim Crow Laws to Redlining to Separate but Equal to White flight. As we can see, the state of segregation has been changed from legally enforced separation to more voluntary or involuntary separation.
The result shows that the increasing suburbanization does not have big effects on Asian-white segregation. However, it has a slight influence on bringing up the segregation of Asian and Whites. Therefore, the question as to whether suburbanization created more opportunities for living the “American Dream,” lingers.
On the other hand, it is prudent to ask whether suburbanization led to the homogenization of American culture, which produces more segregation and isolation. As I already argued at the beginning, too many unmeasured variables affect segregation of Asians. For this study particularly, I only focus on the role of suburbanization (Lu, 2001).
The results explain my hypothesis that suburbanization might not be the only factor that cause the Asian segregation. Therefore, in spite of suburbanization, what are the other factors affect segregation of Asians? According to Park and Iceland’s (2011) findings of residential segregation from 1990 to 2000, Asian segregation levels are consistently lower in new destinations.
Moreover, the native-born are less segregated than the foreign born, which is consistent with immigrant spatial incorporation. Finally, socioeconomic indicators are generally consistent with predictions of spatial assimilation. This study posits several academic and procedural limitations. First, lack of independent variables causes spuriousness. Secondly, there lacks available data to support Asian segregation.
Thirdly, this study only observes one year (2009), which is too short for studying segregation. Usually, sociologists often study segregation for at least a decade or even longer periods, so they can gather more data and come up better patterns. Data availability has the capacity to bring studies that are more empirical. Additionally, it is possible to relate to different periods to study patterns.
References Gottdiener, M.
Social Network: Consequences Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Social network sites (SNSs) have drawn millions of users, many of whom have tailored them to their everyday needs. SNSs include Facebook, Bebo, 43 Things, BlackPlanet, and Athlinks, among others. Social network sites have made communication easy throughout the globe. In fact, they have spurred globalization across the world. In the process, SNSs have brought about many consequences.
While some consequences have been beneficial, others have been damaging. Moreover, some users have been addicted to SNSs. In essence, relationship between people and SNSs has been created. This paper will explore consequences of relationships formed between SNSs and individuals (Gomez-arias
Ethical Issues Surrounding Social Networking Sites Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The ways in which people communicate and interact with each other have changed greatly with the emergence of new technology. Cyberspace is fast becoming the new way through which people meet and interact with each other and even share details that are personal or otherwise. Over the last couple of years, social networks have become a source of information for most people.
However, there are a number of ethical issues that have become associated with social networks. Ethics have an important role to play in an individual, as well as in social media (Arnold, Beauchamp
Bureaucracy and post-bureaucracy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Over the past, different theories and ideas on management have continued to develop at high rate due to the increased regulatory restructuring as well as flexibility to meet the customer demands (Du Gay, 2000). In addition, to circumvent the problems of ambiguity in dealing with the customers, organizations are embracing different modes of management to achieve efficient output.
Further, the policies underlying the administration of organizations have increasingly become ambiguous and complicated. Therefore, organizations have a responsibility of either restructuring their organizational ideologies based on the structural design or focusing on the public administrators and the way they should function to maximize their output (Du Gay, 2000).
Bureaucracy The paradigm of bureaucracy is a theory of management that is centered on the organizational structure. Hierarchy is a significant element of a bureaucratic organization. The significance of bureaucracy is to ensure faster and free delivery as well as accountability in the performance of assignments.
Korczynski (2004) provided examples of bureaucratic organizations such as INSCO where team leaders are hierarchically appointed. Further, at the ADBK and CBK, the approval officers who check mortgage applications are to forward their findings to the supervisor for consent.
Bureaucratic organizations also emphasize on the delegation of tasks that every member has to fulfill in order to achieve the goals of the organization (Korczynski, 2002). For example, in the bureaucratic organizations, the abilities of the approval officers are expected to process a given number of application forms per days.
Another important issue emphasized by the bureaucratic organizations is the adherence to the written procedures in conducting their businesses. Such procedures ensure efficiency in their operations. There is evidence of record keeping as well as written communication protocol that every employee must follow.
The communication protocol must also be followed in communicating with the clients. In Korczynski (2004) study of several organizations indicates workers exposed to several memos directing them on how they should carry out correspondence with the clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an attempt to operate efficiently, bureaucratic organizations do not operate smoothly and hence have their points of weaknesses (Korczynski, 2003). For instance, rules in a bureaucratic organization have to be adhered to the latter in the way they are written irrespective of any situation that might arise. As a result, many firms applying this paradigm are unable to operate efficiently (Alvesson
The New Employee in the Daniel Orozco’s Orientation Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
The new employee is the main character in Orozco’s story “Orientation.” Orozco only concentrates on relationships of other employees and makes the new employee a mere observer in the new setting.
The narrator refers to the main character using the second person voice. “You must pace your work” (Orozco 2).However, the narrator tells the story using the first person voice. “What do I mean? (Orozco 3).
The new employee does not speak in the story although we can see that there was dialogue. “I’m glad you asked that” (Orozco 3). We assume that the new employee asks a question but the narrator does not include it in the story. By so doing, the narrator demonstrates that the new employee who is the listener is completely insignificant.
Similarly, the job that the new employee is to partake is insignificant to the story. The story is set in a conventional office environment. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses this setting to make the lives and behaviors of employees appear more disgraceful.
The narrator shifts from orientating the new employee to the general office to revealing about personal lives of the employees. He tells us about Russell Nash and his lust for Amanda Pierce. Apparently, discussing such information in an office environment is absurd.
Assuming that the narrator and the new employee had never met before, the narrator ought to have restrained from discussing sexual relationships of other employees because he risked embarrassing the listener. Under normal circumstances, such discussions only happen between people who are close to each other.
The narrator maintains a professional stance by refusing to comment on different sexual aspects of the employees. He only narrates events without sharing his mind about the same. For instance, he describes what Amanda’s husband does but he refrains from offering further comments (Orozco 4). This adds value to how the new employee perceives the information that the narrator shares.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrator also tells the new employee about his job limitations. “There are no personal phone calls allowed” (Orozco 1). The narrator then explains to the new employee about what he can do when there is need for an emergency call. “If you must make an emergency phone call, ask your supervisors first” (Orozco 1).
The narrator uses a professional tone in these two communications and creates a professional mood, which contradicts the idea of unprofessionalism when discussing personal information about employees.
The objects in this piece of literature are the offices and the cubicles. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses these objects to indicate to the new employee that he must act professionally as he is an official environment. These objects also instill caution in the new employee and that is why he listens cautiously and asks questions where he does not understand.
The story ends with a climax, as the narrator tells the new employee about Kelvin Howard, who is a serial killer. “Kevin Howard sits in that cubicle over there. He is a serial killer” (Orozco 5). The narrator goes ahead and explains how Kelvin mutilates people in town. He, however, clarifies that Kelvin only kills strangers.
By doing so, the narrator intends to assure the new employee that he is safe because under normal circumstances, an employee would scare the idea of working with a prominent serial killer.
The narrator also portrays Kelvin as a hardworking man who does not let his non-professional activities interfere with his professional duties. Supposedly, the new employee feels secure because he will not be a stranger to Kelvin, but a professional colleague who Kelvin cannot attack. Therefore, this conclusion works because the aim of orientation is to make people comfortable in new settings..
Works Cited Orozco, Daniel. Orientation, New York: Faber
The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System Report essay help site:edu
The Key Features Of An Incident Command System An incident command system is a model that is used in the command and control of emergencies. It is a system used to respond to incidents that involves disasters and provides a framework for responding to the occurrence of emergencies by coordinating and controlling relief efforts in an emergency. The common goal of an incident command system is to stabilize incidents leading to the preservation of life, the environment, and property.
A study by Rubin (1997) shows that the incident command system is used to ensure efficient and effective utilization of resources in responding to disasters.
Studies by different researchers have shown that the incident command systems have proved to be successful models widely used in responding to different types of emergencies, which include incidents that involve multiple casualties, handling of hazardous materials, sea accidents, and the widespread rescue missions (Cole, 2000).
One of the areas in which the model was applied successfully was when I was assigned the duty to command an incident command system in response to an incident that involved earthquake victims. The disaster involved earthquake victims in one of the local areas in the USA, southern California where I worked as an incident commander.
The incident command system involved the commander cooperating with group members working in the relief efforts (Cole, 2000). The commander was also required to be open minded to new ideas by the team members, participating actively in the incident response system, and ensuring that effective communication characterized the entire system (Cole, 2000).
The main components around which the system was build included a command structure that included entire resources and persons working in the relief efforts, the planning component, operations element, logistical elements, and finance and administration.
In context, each of the elements mentioned above contributed significantly to the success of the incident command system that I was to implement in the designate area. While the entire system elements have been mentioned, my part as an incident commander was to take on the responsibility of the command function of the incident command system (Cole, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to the disaster that occurred, the framework involved executing the activities that fell under the responsibilities of the incident commander, one of them being to establish the incident response program.
The incident response program involved putting in place measures to preserve the life of the people adversely impacted by the earthquake. In this case, the emergency program required an emergency movement of the people from the disaster zone by identifying and creating new areas that were safe from the effects of the earthquake.
In addition, the program under the commander included coordinating the relief efforts with the people involved in the disaster relief organizations who were working on the ground to provide emergency relief efforts for the people (Cole, 2000).
In addition, the program included making an inventory of the people and the property discovered during the search and rescue operation, which had not been destroyed by the earthquake. The standard procedures for responding to the disaster included coordinating security personnel to ensure the safety and protection of property and personnel actively involved in the rescue program (Rubin, 1997).
The core responsibilities under the commander included establishing a command structure with an effective coordination of the relief efforts. In addition, the use of resources that included provision of shelter, food, clothing, communication, fire, medicine, and other necessities were effectively administered on the victims of the earthquake.
In addition, the commander ensured that the safety of the earthquake responder was guaranteed in the disaster prone area. The commander had the responsibility of ensuring that the response to the incidents occurred according to priority (Cole, 2000).
Objectives That An Incident Commander Based on the article, What Is the Incident Command System (ICS)? (n.d), it was important to determine and prioritize operational objectives in responding to the earthquake incident. The operational objectives included warning the people who had been affected in the earthquake prone area, which were caused by the secondary hazards due to the earthquake.
We will write a custom Report on The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That was in addition to providing the people with the capability to provide themselves and the relief agencies with public safety information which included information on boiled water, shelter, and the provision of sheltering areas. Information is constantly made available of the threats to public safety and health, status incident responses, damages, injury, and status of critical incidents.
The commander creates an incident response team to make the incident response plan effective and successful.
The commander used the team to assess and establish the nature and scope of the earthquake, to send information to each member of the team members, identify the roles and responsibilities of each team members, establish a framework for monitoring and progressing team activities, and to prove the chain of custody of the incident response activities.
Shelter management, search and rescue, public information, logistics management, and long term recovery were critical in creating the plan.
References Cole, D., (2000). The Incident Command System: A 25-Year Evaluation By California Practitioners. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/index.html
Rubin, D.L., (1997). The Incident Command System: Myths, rumors and unnatural acts. Fire Chief, 41, 63-68.
What Is the Incident Command System (ICS) ?. (n.d). Retrieved from https://www.selectagents.gov/
Kids Market Consulting: Marketing Attractivenes Report college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine
Reasons for Success of Kids Market Consulting
Future potentials of the Kids Market Consulting
Introduction Marketing is an important function in an organization. It involves communicating to consumers with the aim of convincing them to buy a given product or service provided by the organization.
The major objective of marketing is to attract customers in the organization. It is important to note that marketing can be regarded to as a science since the marketer is required to carry out market analysis. In marketing, one has to choose market targets in order to carry out marketing segmentation.
In doing so, the marketer will have to carry out a number of analyse. Thus, marketing is regarded as a science. The reason why marketing is critical to a business organization is because it determines its performance or its profitability (Winer and Ravi 14).
The concept of marketing management has become more significant with the emergence of globalization. Multinational organizations are required to manage marketing beyond their home country boundaries, thereby making the process more complex and increasing its significance (Pride and Ferrell 24).
The marketing manager is required to analyze data in the various countries where the organization plans to establish operations in order to develop a marketing strategy that is going to give the organization competitive advantage in that country.
Marketing attractiveness is one of the issues that the marketing manager needs to address. He needs to focus on the right model to research on the marketing attractiveness. This report is related to a research on marketing attractiveness by a Ukrainian company known as the Kids Market Consulting.
Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine Before an organization establishes itself in a market, it should first carry out a research about the market to establish if it is going to be profitable or not. Market attractiveness refers to the possibilities that the market structure in a given industry is going to be profitable (Saxena, 2009). A firm will always be attracted to invest in a market or in an industry that is profitable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of factors that should be considered when determining the attractiveness of the market. To begin with, what the firm should consider is the growth rate of the market, as well as the market size. A market that has a high growth rate is worth investing in because chances of viability are high compared to chances in a market that has a low growth rate.
In a market that is growing, there are chances that more customers will be coming to the market. As a consequence, the total sales and profitability are likely to be high. However, chances are that more competitors are likely to join a market that is growing, and the competition will be higher.
High competition has the potential of reducing the profitability of that organization. In addition, there is the possibility of government interventions, thereby affecting the activities in the market.
On the other hand, a large market has more customers and the possibility of more sales and more profits is high as opposed to a small market where there are less people (Dibb
Business Case of Company A and Costco Company Case Study cheap essay help
An invoice payment refers to a situation in which a business provides its services or conducts its transactions on credit. The seller mainly sells the goods but receives payment at a later date.
Whenever invoice payment guidelines are appropriately set, the customers make their payments on time and in accordance with the set guidelines. In a situation where a customer fails to stick to the required terms, essential measures are taken to ensure he or she checks on his or her payment discipline.
In this case study, we are taking a consideration of the business activities between company A and Costco Company. The major transactions made involve the selling of DVDs and games. However, it has been noted that the payment procedures are not appropriately followed by both the companies. In order to solve this problem, proper strategies need to be employed.
To begin with, company A will have to track the credit limit. This will involve an analysis of the outstanding credit before delivering the next sales. The findings will be presented to the company’s management staff who will take the necessary action.
A notification sent to the staff ensures a review of the procedures initially set and corrects any uncertainties that may arise. This will avoid future problems in invoice payment. Furthermore, this will enable a review of the invoice payments and correction on the outstanding credit.
Additionally, procedures that will provide a way forward on handling of delayed payment on invoices should be laid down. The staff should come up with procedures that will prevent customers from delaying delivery of payment on purchases made. This will enable the customer to prepare payment in advance in order to avoid consequences arising from late payments.
The company can also evaluate its partner’s financial condition. If institutions are facing challenges in implementing their mandates, it goes without question that they will have problems paying for their transactions. Evaluation of the financial situation of the partners will thus enable the company to establish the financial situation and set required measures to be undertaken in order to enable them honor their payments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Negotiations on new payment terms may be another strategy to be considered. By reviewing the payments made and comparing them with the conditions initially set, the company can know if there may be need to renegotiate for new terms. The customers may be finding it hard to bear with the existing terms as a result of financial crisis. To avoid losses, new terms of transacting business can be negotiated.
The new terms will enable both parties to enjoy a comfortable position. Company A may also consider strategies that enable the customer to deliver payment with ease. This may include an earlier preparation of the invoices. For example, the company may decide to be sending the invoices together with the goods on delivery.
Organizing a payment plan for the customer may also be another effective way of ensuring proper payment of the invoices. This will enable the customers to establish outlined ways of paying for the goods sold to them.
For example, a plan can be laid out whereby the other company pays for the goods in installments in cases of financial constraints. This will serve as a motivating factor due to the fact they will have a chance to re-establish their business while conducting a business transaction at the same time. The client will be encouraged to organize a proper payment procedure of the invoices in order to sustain the business relationship.