Introduction Globalisation has been seen as an opportunity for international business. Indeed, it has become part and parcel of international business that influences the movement of goods and services and the nature of trade patterns. Globalisation has been associated with the expansion of international business in various regions around the world.
International business relies on globalisation to bring together different cultures, markets, political settings, economic structures, and social elements (Shoham 2011). Despite these benefits, globalisation has serious effects on international business, which outweigh its positive impacts.
Globalisation and International Business An assessment of the effects of globalisation on international business has mainly focused on its positive impacts. As such, globalisation has been attributed to expansion and growth of the global economy. Trade between nations relies on globalisation to foster international elements of business, such as foreign direct investment. The investment opens business opportunities in various countries across the world.
It also plays an important role in removing the trade barriers, such as tariffs on imports and exports (Joshi 2009). Foreign investment provides marketing opportunities for multinational corporations. Another benefit of globalisation is that it increases consumer’s income by enabling multinational corporations to increase the wage earnings and salaries of different people employed by the firms (Daly 2001).
Globalisation also increases the investment opportunities for investors and business entrepreneurs around the world. Due to globalisation, business entities develop new products to serve new market segments in various countries across the world. Businesses also develop new products to diversify their product lines and serve more consumers in various market segments.
Development of new products has also enabled the consumers to access a wide range of goods and services. Consumers who buy goods from international markets are able to purchase their goods from more than one vendor (Meredith 2000).
Introduction of new technologies is another factor that has greatly contributed to the positive assessment of globalisation in international business. Organisations in the global arena are exposed to new technologies that are developed by different industries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such technologies enable organisations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. For instance, a business organisation can use new technology to enhance the production process and ensure cost reduction for competitive advantage. The use of technology in production processes is also important in ensuring economies of scale (Sullivan, 2002).
Another positive aspect of globalisation is increased performance of local and international companies due to competition. Globalisation increases competition between firms, thereby increasing business efficiency. Companies trading in international arena develop products that are of high quality with superior features and performance.
Consequently, such initiatives play an important role in attracting more customers and enable an organisation to improve its business processes. Globalisation provides an opportunity for international companies to identify unique points of competition, which can be used in developing products that meet the needs and expectations of the consumers in the market (Daniels, Radebaugh
Women’s Sexual Objectification Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Sociologists and psychologists use the term objectification in order to describe the treatment of an individual as some inanimate commodity that can be owned or manipulated, but not as a living being with dignity, emotions, feelings, or self-esteem (Gervais, 2013, p. 99). Much attention is usually paid to sexual objectification or representation of a person only as a source of sexual pleasure (Soble, 1997, p. 137).
This issue is of great concern to many feminist critics of mass media. For example, television can be accused of such practices (Cahill, 2010). This paper is aimed at discussing the process from the perspective of various representation theories. In particular, one should focus on the frameworks developed by Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, and Ferdinand de Saussure.
It is possible to examine the examples of objectification taken from reality shows and fiction films. These are the main questions that should be discussed more closely. Overall, one can argue that the representatives of mass media create stereotypic portrayals of women, and they can give rise to a belief according to which physical beauty is the major quality that a woman needs for success.
This form of representation can profoundly shape the attitude and values of teenagers. This is the main argument that should be elaborated.
The objectification of women is particularly widespread among reality shows. In particular, one can mention Fox Reality Channel show named Battle of the Bods. This show depicts three female participants who are ranked by three males. As a rule, these men have some common background.
It should be kept in mind that males, who act as judges, pay attention primarily to the physical appearance of contestants. Other qualities such as intelligence are completely disregarded. One of the messages conveyed created by the creators of this show is that physical beauty is the main thing that enables women to attain success.
Feminist critics believe that this representation of women can reinforce inequality between men and women (Gamble, 2001). On the whole, Michaelle Foucault’s theory of representation can be useful for explaining the way in which women can be treated as objects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This thinker attaches much importance to such notions as the relations between power and knowledge (Hall, Evans,
Three Top Financial Scandals in the Recent Past Term Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Summary
The London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor)
Summary Financial scandals have been common in corporations for a considerable length of time. In this particular paper, fraudulent financial activities that have affected three companies have been discussed. The rigging of financial markets and large well established corporations is not a new phenomenon. However, the trend seems to be getting out of control in the modern economy.
There are growing allegations that systematic robbing of financial institutions has been taking place in the past 3 decades or so. One of the worst impacts of financial fraud in these institutions is that the global interest ad exchange rates have always been forcibly fixed by a few fraudulent individuals.
In other words, the market forces of demand and supply are hardly left to play their roles in the contemporary liberalized economies. This paper offers a succinct discussion of three top financial scandals that have been witnessed in the recent past.
Introduction When banks in London are engaged in the process of borrowing from each other, there is a specific charge that is levied on the service. This average interest rate is referred to as Libor. The Thomson Reuters usually play the role of calculating this value (Snyder, 2012).
There are several instances when Libor matters a lot especially when it comes to the net value of a product or when borrowing loans from banks and other financial institutions. For instances, it is highly likely that Libor affects credit card usage and property loans in several ways. Even the US economy is significantly affected by Libor. Other scandals discussed in this paper include the Enron and WorldCom scandals.
The London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor) To begin with, it is perhaps necessary to explore the culprits behind the Libor scandal. The fixing scandal for interest rates is believed to have involved close to twenty major banks both in Europe and the United States. It has also been found out that banks spread across three continents were embroiled in the scandal.
The scandal remarkably jeopardized the career of Bob Diamond who was serving as the chief executive officer at that time. Pressure mounted each day for the CEO to surrender his office while other several top professionals in the banking sector across the world were being compelled to quit their offices so that investigations could be started (Snyder, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to assist the trading position of the bank immediately before the onset of global financial meltdown in 2007, submissions that were never true were made to the committee charged with the role of setting interest rates for Libor. This was a critical way of manipulating interest rates so that the overall financial performance of the bank could improve.
Besides, this move boosted the profitability of the Barclays Bank (Snyder, 2012). This was a serious fraud bearing in mind that Libor is a leading interest rates benchmark across the global financial markets. The integrity of the interest rates was adversely affected by the Barclays’ behavior since it generally posed a gross financial threat to other market players.
Enron Scandal The Enron scandal has also been noted as one of the most popular financial frauds that took place in the last decade. At the onset of the new century, Enron was a company to reckon with in several ways due to its performance and market stability (Foster, 2010). It recorded a tremendous success that several other companies could hardly attain.
Nonetheless, a harbinger of elaborate challenges was recognized by investors when earnings restatement was announced by Enron in mid 2001. Within a period of merely one and a half months, Enron was declared bankrupt and unable to run its financial obligations in spite of the fact that it was powerful market performer and oozed with adequate wealth.
The fraudulent financial activities that took place at Enron could be grouped into two categories. First, basic fabrication of numbers took place in the financial records of the company (Salter, 2008). For instance, when its venture with Blockbuster did not succeed, it was poorly valuated. Second, complex financial maneuvers were also witnessed prior to the fall of the company.
Nonetheless, the American economic system is largely believed to have significantly contributed to the decline of Enron (Foster, 2010). The people’s trust in the performance of the entire economy was also weakened after the scandal. The executives of the company were described as greedy individuals who could not maintain their integrity as outlined in the code of ethics (Fox, 2003).
WorldCom scandal Both the accounting fraud and erosion of profits affected the performance and market stability of WorldCom company. Illusionary earnings amounting to billons were created in the eyes of investors whereas the company was headed to serious state of bankruptcy.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Three Top Financial Scandals in the Recent Past specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the major impacts of this fraud was felt in the telecommunications sector. Millions of users were negatively affected by the declined performance of WorldCom Company (Romero, 2002).
According to the financial records of this company, the net value of assets owned by the firm was estimated at $107 billion. Before this filing could be released to shareholders, the company reported that expenses amounting to about $3.8 billion had been improperly accounted for in the records.
Telephone companies, suppliers, and banks were adversely affected by the fraudulent activities at the firm after the scandal was exposed. Before its bankruptcy, the total debts accumulated by the company stood at $41 billion. This marked the beginning of its downfall (Romero, 2002).
Conclusion In recap, it can be seen that the financial scandals discussed caused major economic hitch in all the three companies. However, the common attributing factor was poor management of the firms’ resources.
References Foster (2010). The decade’s worst financial scandals. Web.
Fox, L. (2003). Enron: The Rise and Fall. New York: John Wiley
Operations management practices of emirates airline Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Emirates Airline is a Dubai based company that has carved a niche for itself in the international scenario. The airline, in addition to the domestic market (UAE), caters to the needs of several countries around the globe. Due to arrival of new entrants and the stiff global competition, airlines have to adopt various measures for sustenance.
Emirates Airline is also feeling the heat of such competition and has adopted certain measures to sustain the competition. In addition to the low-price strategy being followed by the airline, various quality measures have also been adopted.
Being a service based industry, Emirates Airline stresses on providing the best service to its customers. In pursuance of this policy, the airline has included several new features in its aircrafts that enhance the quality and comfort of travelling.
Introduction To The Study Background of the company
‘Emirates Airline’ is the leading company of ‘The Emirates Group’ (The Emirates Group, 2014). The Dubai government is the sole owner of the airline. “On 25th October 1985, Emirates flew its first flights out of Dubai with just two aircraft – a leased Boeing 737 and an Airbus 300 B4” (Emirates, 2014a, p. 1).
The airline has always stressed on quality rather than quantity, and it is due to this policy that the airline has become one of the most favoured airlines of the world. After inception, the initial two years were a bumpy ride for the airline but third year onwards, the airline posted substantial profits without fail.
In addition to ferrying passengers to and from international locations, the airline also has a full-fledged cargo division. The airline also offers destination management and airline information technology development services (Emirates, 2014a).
Industry in which the company competes
In today’s world of diverse business opportunities and fierce competition in each of them, the customer or the end-user is at the receiving end of the benefits. The price and the service standards are the main concerns for the majority of customers while buying airline tickets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because there are so many options to choose from. It’s not that if a customer can’t get a ticket from a particular airline, he/she cannot travel. There are always other options available. As such, in today’s competitive world, the airline companies have to keep their prices to the bare minimum so as not to lose customers.
The airlines also have to provide best of services in order to win the hearts of their customers. Moreover, due to the relaxation in the aviation policies of various governments, there has been an incessant growth in the number of Low Cost Carriers.
In order to survive this competitive atmosphere, the airline companies are forced to reduce their prices and at the same time, offer one way tickets as well (especially in the case of international flights). But such measures should not affect the service standards.
Under such circumstances, the profit margin of the airline companies has decreased substantially. It is obvious, that somehow or the other these airline companies are always on the look-out for any chance to increase the overall profit.
One of the easiest methods adopted by the airlines is to increase the capacity of the aircraft or in other words buy bigger aircrafts. Even though this is a costly affair but during the long run the airlines are benefitted.
Strategy Of The Company Considering the expectations of its customers and the growing global competition, Emirates Airline has adopted a low-cost strategy. The services of Emirates Airline are already world-class, therefore the only thing that might attract new customers and retain the existing ones, is the price.
Airline companies, worldwide, have adopted their own revenue management systems in order to cope up with such circumstances. Various researches have been conducted on the international airways as regards to their revenue management strategies as well as the implementation of the adopted business models.
We will write a custom Essay on Operations management practices of emirates airline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Evaluation of the available revenue management strategies, business models and their implementation will be the basis for offering recommendations. The evaluation will help in establishing the relationship between the three aspects being observed and the impacts they have in the attainment of the airline’s revenue and business goals, missions, and visions.
Operational Areas Briefly explain the 10 Operational areas in Operations Management and provide examples for each one from the company’s perspective
Following are the ten operational areas in Operations Management, with specific examples from the perspective of Emirates Airline:
‘Design of goods and services’
During this stage, the organizations decide on the kind of service and the quality of goods to be provided to their customers. The cost factor is the main concern during the decision process. Emirates Airline is committed to offer low prices and best services to its customers.
Due to the stiff global competition, organizations have to comply with highest quality standards in order to impress their customers. Emirates Airline has the best quality in terms of its aircrafts, service, and booking related assistance. All the employees have instructions to strictly adhere to the airline’s quality policy.
‘Process and capacity design’
Tangible products have a greater significance during this process rather than those pertaining to the service aspect. The kind of technology used and the expertise of the employees matters a lot.
Other factors that decide the cost are the quality of product being offered and the maintenance required for such products. Emirates Airline ensures that its aircrafts are the best in the industry. Emirates Airline was the first airline to include private suites in specific airplanes (Forbes, 2012).
In order to be a key player in the global business, the location plays an important role. Easy access to the international community facilitates the expansion of business. UAE is one of the important destinations for conducting international business. Emirates Airline is based in the UAE and this gives the airline an added advantage.
Customers are highly impressed by the layout design of organizations in the service industry. It leaves an everlasting impression in their minds. The aircrafts of Emirates Airline are beautifully designed to suit the customers’ taste. The interiors bear a homely atmosphere.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations management practices of emirates airline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ‘Human resource and job design’
Employees play a crucial role in the success of any organization. The employees become all the more important in service industry because they are the ones who are in direct link with the customers. As such, suitable standards should be set for employees to follow.
Emirates Airline has strict guidelines for its employees that require them to behave nicely with the customers. The polite and courteous air-hostesses are an added advantage for the airline.
‘Supply chain management’
The supply chain management system of an organization should be perfect so that the customers’ requirements are met within the prescribed time-frame. In order to ascertain that its customers don’t have to wait for various services, Emirates Airline has separate departments to ensure efficient working. The airline has gone to the extent of opening a cargo division that works independently.
There are various factors that have to be considered in this operation; vendors, availability of goods, human resources, and the holding cost. As mentioned above, Emirates Airline has a separate cargo division that works independently in order to ascertain timely delivery of goods.
The scheduling of goods/services should be commensurate with the requirement of customers. UAE being an international destination for business and also for changing long-distance flights, it is very crucial for airlines to have a suitable flight schedule. Emirates Airline has designed its flight schedule after considering such requirements and tries its best to accommodate the transit-passengers.
Maintenance of tangible assets is a must for organizations so that their customers get uninterrupted services at all times. Emirates Airline has a full-fledged maintenance department that caters to the maintenance needs of its aircrafts and other equipment.
Product And Service Design Provide examples and discuss the various product/service designs that the company uses for its products or services
Emirate Airline, in adhering to its mission, is committed to offer quality service to its customers. The airline aims to be the best among the global airlines. In pursuance of its mission, the airline introduces new features and products in its aircrafts at frequent intervals.
The latest addition to such new features is the introduction of private suits in its ‘Emirate A380’ aircraft. Other features include in-flight shower arrangement and not less than 1000 channels for entertainment. The aircraft also has Wi-Fi connectivity that can be accessed from anywhere within the aircraft.
All the seats, irrespective of the class, have personalized video screens. The seats are comfortable so that passengers are comfortable, especially during long-distance flights. The food served is awesome and caters to the taste of the passengers. The children are treated with great care during flights. Special arrangements are available for them during flights.
On ground, the airline has first class lounges where passengers can relax during transits. The first class and business class passengers are provided with complimentary chauffeur-driven vehicles.
Where would you position the company’s products or services in their product life cycles and why do you say so?
There are four stages of product life cycle namely, development, growth, maturity, and decline. In my opinion, not only Emirates Airline but the complete airline industry is in maturity stage now. My opinion rests on the fact that of late there have been numerous airlines that have launched (small and big). This has made survival a tough bargain.
Emirates Airline has increased its budget for research and development to find out ways and means to sustain the competition. The airline has been forced to reduce its prices and use a defensive marketing strategy.
Is the company managing product/service design according to their selected strategy (low cost/ differentiation/ response)?
The airline is following its strategy of low-cost. In order to meet the losses from lower tariffs, the airline has started cutting overhead expenses and other operating costs. The airline is adopting this strategy so that the new entrants are not able to compete with the low tariffs and are discouraged to enter the airline industry.
What is the company doing to consider the effects of legal, ethical and sustainability considerations in the design of their products/services?
In order to fulfil its social and ethical commitments, Emirates Airline operates ‘The Emirates Airline Foundation’. The foundation, “provides humanitarian, philanthropic aid and services for children in need” (Emirates, 2014c, p. 1).
Emirate Airline uses aircrafts that have the latest technology. This helps in reducing emissions. According to the Chairman’s message, “In the air and on the ground, the Emirates Group is committed to acting sustainability in the interests of our customers, our business, the natural environment and the over 130 destinations we serve worldwide” (Emirates, 2014d, p. 1).
The parent group of the airline is committed to minimising the waste through recycling processes. The group advocates and practices minimum use of water and other natural resources. In association with the Dubai government, the group also initiated the ‘Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve (DDCR)’. The group also started the ‘Emirates Wolgan Valley Resort
Comparison between Hinduism and Buddhism Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Cultural and Geographical Origin
Specific Religious Practices
Hinduism and Buddhism Practiced in the World Today
Introduction Religion has remained an important aspect in the civilization of mankind. Whereas religious practices and belief systems may vary, the presence of a supreme being who is always worshipped is common. The deities are given special preference in any form of religious worship. This essay compares Hinduism and Buddhism.
Cultural and Geographical Origin The cultural and geographical origin of Hinduism can be traced back in the fourteenth century. The Afghans, Persians, and Arabs first used the term “Hindu” to denote the inhabitants of the aforementioned regions. The Indus River gave rise to the name Hindus and hence, people who used to reside close to this river were generally referred to as the Hindu (Fisher, 2014). Before the close of the nineteenth century, Hinduism became a religion.
The term was used by the British colonial masters to describe all the religious groupings and practices that were dominant in this population. Nonetheless, the precise time when Hinduism began cannot be easily established. It has been described as a timeless religion. In other words, it is as old as humanity. According to historians, the early civilization that took place in the Indus valley contributed significantly towards the origin of Hinduism.
Historical records indicate that northern India was the most likely origin of Buddhism. The fifth century B.C.E marked the first time when Buddhism came into limelight. However, the cultural origin of Buddhism is believed to be Gotama. He is the principal Buddha.
The latter term refers to an individual who has been spiritually elevated and therefore more enlightened than other Buddhists. Buddhism has also been associated with the desire to alleviate human suffering across the world. Since the time it came into being, Buddhism has undergone several modifications in terms of religious beliefs and practices.
Specific Religious Practices The aspect of worship is one of the most vital religious practices in Hinduism. Worship entails seeking the attention of God and Devas. For instance, when they need blessings, Devas is believed to be the provider of good tidings. God’s awareness in Hinduism has been enhanced through worship.
For instance, prayer, praise and invocations are collectively known as mantras (Flood, 2003). The meanings portrayed in the mantras can bring the presence of the gods close to them. Mantras also involve chanting and expressing full devotion to gods. A sacred river is used by those devoted to Hinduism to perform morning ablutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second most important religious practice in Hinduism is the Bhajan. This entails singing to the deities as way of praising them. It is usually a devotional song that may be presented as a simple or complicated devotion. In most instances, Bhajans express love for the spiritual gods and may also be lyrical in terms of composition. The songs contain statements from scriptures and denote the supreme nature of the deities.
Finally, Hinduism values rituals as part and parcel of religious practices. Rituals are executed regularly. Some of the religious rituals are done in homes a part form the usual places of worship. However, individuals, villages and regions carry out the various rituals in diverse ways.
For example, rituals may be carried out after taking a shower or late in the evenings in order to appease the gods. When rituals are being carried out, the deities’ images are made available as a symbol of their presence (Michaels, 2004).
Buddhists believe in the practice of meditation as the only way through which followers can be enlightened both in the physical and spiritual world. Buddhists’ meditation also brings about spiritual freedom according to their belief systems. All the major practices of Buddhism often involve meditation because it is a central theme or pillar. However, different Buddhist nations have adopted various ways of meditating.
Both tranquility (samatha) and insight (vipassana) are used in Buddhism in the process of meditation. The second common type of religious practice is the mantras. It entails hymns and chanting that are directed to the divine powers. The mantras are believed to contain powers that are beyond human understanding. The term has been derived from one of the Indian sub tribes. It basically means safeguarding the mind.
Finally, the Mundras are also evoked through the mind by making use of certain images drawn from Buddha. During Buddhist meditation, particular ideas are supposed to be evoked in the mind. Ritual meditations also demand the use of mundras. The Buddha’s identity is symbolized by the mundras.
Hinduism and Buddhism Practiced in the World Today The two forms of meditation in Buddhism may be used at the same time or separately. Sitting meditation has been adopted by Buddhist schools in both Japan and China as way of exercising religious freedom in worship. The Tibetan Buddhism is particularly notable in the practice of Mantras.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison between Hinduism and Buddhism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This segment of the population that predominantly practices mantras has a strong belief that the presence of the deities can be brought closer when this religious practice is exercised. In other words, the deities are easily invoked through the mantras (Coogan, 2003).
In addition, Hinduism has fundamental practices that are unique in each geographical location. In some regions across the world, religious customs in form of rituals can hardly miss during important events such as death, marriage and birth. For instance, such rituals are common in India.
Conclusion As can be seen, there are several similarities and differences between Hinduism and Buddhism. For example, both religions embrace meditation and mantras as ways of worshipping the deities. However, the Mundras exist only among the Buddhists.
References Coogan, M.D. (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fisher, M. P. (2014). Living religions (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Flood, G. (2003), Blackwell companion to Hinduism. New York: Blackwell Publishing.
Michaels, A. (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present (5th ed.). New York: Princeton University Press.
Los Faustinos Essay college application essay help
Interpretations rarely happen to be exciting, mostly because they render the source material that has already been well trodden by at least one author. The given rule, however, does not apply to Faust, seeing how the timeless classic story has become an inspiration for a number of amazing works of literature.
Speaking of the latter, Los Faustinos must be the least remembered of them, which is truly a shame, since the play offers a very interesting social commentary on the present-day political structure of most states. By using a unique methodology and incorporating the elements of a community-based theater, the author of the play managed to make the idea of the government assuming the role of Methesto, or Mephistopheles.
First and most obvious, Solano mixes the elements of two cultures in order to capture the specifics of the Los Angeles reality and trick the audience into paying attention: “Lucha constante y dolorosa./Pain and struggle burning through the night” (Solano, 1994, p. 2).
Although, much like the plot and the concept of the play, the given approach is not new, it works relatively well in the play, since it does not turn the atmosphere into something out of the ordinary and, therefore, does not shift the emphasis from the focus of the play, i.e., the social issues and the conflict between the authorities and the citizens.
Solano’s symbolism is also a strikingly simple yet very efficient method of conveying the key idea of the play. For example, the price that the Faustinos clan pays for the soul of each member is embarrassingly consumerist. Methesto buys the souls of the family members at quite a bargain by offering them a computer, a TV-set, etc.: “I’m going to give you this computer” (Solano, 1994, p. 28).
Another method used by Solano that can be defined as very efficient, though hardly subtle, is the use of the so called community theater, or community-based theater. Despite the fact that the given means of getting the message across makes it too on-the-nose, it still helps enhance the key concern to the point where the latter cannot be ignored anymore.
For example, the fact that Solano often mentions the threats of living in the Los Angeles community is worth bringing up as the basic means of persuasion: “It’s just that, no se, I get tired of being looked at funny because of where I live. Just saying the words East Los Angeles makes people think you’ve got a gun in your pocket” (Solano, 1994, p. 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Solano often exaggerates in order to create the surreal, postmodern atmosphere in his play, he still succumbs to depicting the flaws of society as the laws of satire demand – and, much to his credit, he clearly succeeds in this task.
While the idea of basing a play on the interactions between a representative of the netherworld and a human being is not new and was, in fact, started way before Goethe came up with his Faust, updating the play and adding a touch of social topicality to it by making the government play the role of Mephistopheles is admittedly clever.
By using an entirely new method of getting his message across, i.e., reinventing Faust to represent the concerns of the modern society, Bernardo Solano has definitely creates something new and exciting. More to the point, Solano should be given credit for using the elements of a community-based theater in his work. An overall well-written play and a very smart concept, los Faustinos is definitely worth being given a check.
Reference Solano, B. (1994). Los Faustinos (Juliette Carrillo, Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Community Theater.
Private Equity Firms Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
What is the private equity firm? A Private equity firm can be defined as a company that invest huge amounts of capital known as the private equity fund in the stakes of a private firms. In other words, private equity firms invest in classified equities of working companies through application of various investment strategies. From the definition, private equity means capital that is not traded in the stock exchange markets (Bruining et al. 593).
In most cases, private equity firms raise private equity capital from institutional investors and devote the capital in public firms that face delisting from the stock exchange through buyouts.
Private equity capital is normally used in the expansion of working capital of the acquired firm, make acquisitions, finance research and development as well as new technologies. In addition, the private equity capital can be invested in strengthening the balance sheet of an acquired company.
As indicated, private equity firms are often institutional and recognized investors committed to long-term returns on investments. Since private equity firms invest in companies that are almost collapsing, they often require longer periods for the acquired firms to turn around in order to start earning back investments.
In most cases, private equity firms normally apply venture capital, leveraged buyouts as well as capital growth as the investment tactics (Bruining et al. 595). Leveraged buyouts are the situations where private equity firms invest in a nearly collapsing public firm risking delisting from the stock exchange market. Leveraged buyouts involve purchasing huge debts of the firm with the hope of reselling once financial conditions have improved.
The injected funds are used to improve financial statements as well as prospects of the firm. Essentially, Private equity firms are perceived as the sponsoring companies since they provide funds for investments. In other words, private equity firms support other companies through the provision of financial assistances. In most cases, private equity firms normally raise funds, which they invest in private equities depending on the applied investment strategy.
How and when did private equity firms first started? Prehistory of private equity firms
Investments in private companies can be traced back to the beginning of industrial revolution when investors were involved in private acquisitions and mergers.Merchant bankers in the financial industry were often involved in making small investments on privately held companies. In addition, financial institutions were acquiring other firms particularly in the mining industry as well as other profitable firms in public sectors (Chemmanur et al. 4039).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such acquisitions were equated to the current industrial buyouts where private equity firms buy large public corporations that are nearly collapsing. In fact, the buyouts and acquisitions continued throughout the first half of the 20th Century before the development of the current venture capital.
In addition, the first half of the 20th Century was characterized by legal limitations on banks and other financial institutions that constrained the transactions involving private acquisitions (Chemmanur et al. 4039). Moreover, such regulations restricted the flow of capital from the merchant banks to the private firms.
In fact, the private equity firms started to come into existence after the denunciations of financial regulations that put limitations on the flow of capital. Besides, the lifting of the regulations also led to the emergence of venture capital. Venture capital provided funds as well as other factors that contributed to the growth of private equity firms particularly after the Second World War.
The emergence of private equity firms
Private equity firms emerged in 1940s when the development and growth of venture capital and leveraged buyouts were at the peak. In fact, the venture capital and leveraged buyouts were considered part of the private equity firms. Davila, Foster and Gupta argue that the growth and development of venture capital and leveraged buyouts also led to the development of private equity firms 691.
The venture capital provided funds that were greatly required at the time for the development of private equity firms. In addition, leveraged buyouts were part of the capital markets where institutional investors used to participate in the establishments of private equity firms.
Even though venture capital and leveraged buyouts grew and developed in analogous and unrelated paths, they offered suitable market for the establishment of the private equity firms (Bruining et al. 595).
Private equity industry developed particularly in 1946. The established and well-structured venture capital market during the time led to the development of private equity firms. The venture capital provided the much needed funds as well as technical expertise in the management of private equity firms (Bruining et al. 595). The establishment of venture capital brought to an end the shortage of funds that was required for the development of private equity firms.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Private Equity Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As indicated, the widespread of equity firms particularly after the Second World War was due to organized private equity market. However, during the period, the equity market was still underdeveloped resulting into the shortage of sources of long-term financing for private equity firms. Due to this inadequacy, the private sector took the opportunity to develop new markets for private equity firms.
The markets offered cheap and long-term sources of capital for existing and newly established firms (Bruining et al. 595). In addition, the new sources of funds established novel grounds for the startup of new equity firms. Essentially, developments of the equity markets that provided long-term and cheap funds resulted in mushrooming of new equity firms.
In addition, the private sector was responding to an economy that had increased funds particularly from the released wealthy military inductees. In fact, there was need for large firms to absorb such capital. In order to come up with such firms, a private sector that would attract large institutions was required. During this time, technical and managerial skills to manage the funds were also inadequate (Chemmanur et al. 4039).
The American Research and Development Corporation (ARDC) was established in 1946 to research on equity firms and their markets as well as to provide adequate advice on ways through which such firms could be developed. In addition, the ARDC was also tasked with the responsibility of raising funds for investments in equities. Moreover, ARDC was to provide training on the private equity management skills needed for the success of private equity firms.
ARDC was majorly formed to boost private equity investments and became the first institution to raise capital and invest in equity. In addition, ARDC took advantage of floating funds from wealthy individuals.
The corporation tapped the floating funds and invested in other areas including mergers and acquisitions that were equally profitable. Besides, ARDC invested in venture capital and was credited as the architecture of the current ventures capital (Chemmanur et al. 4039).
The growth and development of private equity firms from 1946-1980
The growth and development of private equity firms were at a slow progress in the first 36 years since the establishment of private equity firms. In fact, small volumes of private investments, undeveloped private firms’ management as well as unpopularity of private equity firms marked the period (Chemmanur et al. 4039). The smaller volumes in the private equity investments were due to lack of awareness among the institutional investors.
In fact, institutional investors in the early 1960s and 70s were not aware of the presence of private equity firms. Essentially, most of the institutional investors lacked adequate information concerning the operations of private equity firms. In addition, scarce skills and capital required for the success of private equity firms lacked (Chemmanur et al. 4039).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Private Equity Firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What are the main functions of private equity firms in the economy? Attracting investment funds
Like most large firms in the economy, private equity firms have greater roles to play in the economy. Private equity activities normally began by successfully attracting investable funds. In other words, the major function of private equity firm is to attract funds that can easily be invested in the economy (Achraya et al. 368).
Offering alternative investment opportunities to the investors
Private equity firms offer alternative investment prospects particularly where some sectors of the economy perform poorly. Moreover, while attracting investable funds, the private equity firms provide ways through which investors can allocate part of their investments in comparatively complicated, long-term investments.
Probably, sectors where investors can apportion their finances for enduring repayment range from pension funds to sovereign wealth funds. In these areas, individual investors are assured of their long-term benefits through appropriate management practices that private equity firms offer.
Investments in small, medium and large enterprises
Private equity firms offer capital to firms of various sizes within the economy. In addition, private equity firms offer funds to all companies in different stages of their life cycle. In fact, firms that are in infant stages can easily get soft loans in private equity firms. Additionally, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) can also seek expansion capital from equity markets.
Most importantly private equity firms normally fund firms that are just about to be liquidated. Besides funding, such firms are also provided with managerial skills as well as other incentives that would enable their continuity. Moreover, family businesses that need succession arrangement also seek assistance from private equity firms (George et al 215).
Private equity firms provide managerial functions
One of the major functions of private equity firms is the provision of managerial expertise. Industries in which private equity firms invest have increased benefits from the function. In fact, firms that are managed by private equity companies normally benefit from improved information arrangement as well as enhanced business control capacities.
In addition, private equity firms have the capability of introducing performance-based incentives aimed at enhancing performance of the invested companies. Further, private equity firms management tends to have increased control of novel management approaches and provides extensive value added post-investment support.
Increased capital investments
The attraction of investments funds into the economy leads to increased investable funds into the economy. The private equity firms have the capability of attracting investable funds, which increase capital that can be used by other businesses from various sectors of the economy. Statistics indicate that private equity firms have attracted over $250 billion for investment capital in the last financial year (George et al 215).
In market-based economy such as US, the private sector is perceived to be the major driver of economic growth. As such, private equity firms play critical roles in attracting and increasing capital for investment in the private sector. Therefore, private equity firms fuel economic intensification through the provision of investment funds. In addition, private equity firms facilitate increased private sector investments thereby inspiring economic growth
New business creation and sustainable investments
The funds invested by the private equity firms result in the creation of new businesses, which in turn lead to the generation of new jobs. In addition, private equity firms invest in businesses that are almost being bankrupt thereby ensuring their long-term sustainability. Such firms are critical for the growth of the economy (Cressy et al. 661).
Besides, sustaining the firms also mean maintaining the existing jobs as well as increasing the prospect of creating novel employment. Essentially, private equity firms promote the creation of new business through the provision of capital and management advice.
In addition, through maintaining the existing firms, private equity firms contribute to the preservation of employment opportunities. Besides sustenance and creation of businesses as well as jobs, private equity firms are also a source of positive externalities.
Positive externalities are benefits enjoyed by the third parties. In fact, increasing the knowledge base particularly in management and entrepreneurship increases multiple benefits that can only be described as positive externalities.
Improved management methods
Private equity firms have the capability of improving the managerial skills of various companies in which they have invested. In fact, the private equity management often has constructive influences on the performance procedures in terms of profitability and growth on firms in which they have invested (Chemmanur et al. 4040). In addition, private equity firms have the capability of ensuring that firms that are collapsing are provided with financial and management impetus in order to enhance their productivity.
Through such measures, private equity firms ensure the survivability of firms across various sectors in the economy. Besides, firms having succession planning challenges often seek assistance from private equity firms. Private equity firms provide appropriate advice on succession arrangement, which ensures long-term sustainability and growth.
Private equity firms foster innovation through various activity outcomes in the economy. In fact, through the provision of improved managerial skills, firms become innovative and entrepreneurial. One of the ways through which innovation can be enhanced is through investments in research and development. Putting funds on development of new products enhances the innovative culture within the firm.
Private equity firms not only fund research and development on new products and services but also other operation processes undertaken within the firm. Moreover, private equity firms invest in start-up firms that tend to be innovative.
Private equity firms improve the productivity of businesses through various activities. In fact, there is a direct relationship between increased productivity and economic growth. Increased productivity results from efficient production as well as use of resources (Bruining et al. 601). Essentially, private equity firms promote measures that aid in the efficient production and use of resources.
The private equity firms provide improved management as well as advice on better resources utilization. One of the ways in which firms can improve their efficiency is through appropriate training on management. Acquiring better management skills particularly in efficient use of resources is one of the ways through which organizations improve their productivity, which translate into general economic growth.
In addition, capital accumulation is encouraged through investments made on the fixed assets such as factories, housing units and production equipments. Private equity firms have large pools of capital that can be invested in such fixed assets. Such investments in fixed capital increase labor productivity.
The provision of capital for investments in physical capital contributes hugely to the economic growth. Further, by supporting the formation of new businesses, increased employment opportunities are created. Substantial growth in the economy can only be realized when firms are capable of sustaining the creation of new employment opportunities.
Firms with enhanced productivity have increased chances of being competitive at all levels in the market. The reason is that profits earned can be re-invested in other areas that provide the firm with increased competitive advantage. Besides, increased productivity contributes to economic competitiveness when it results in the amplification of firms’ competitiveness both at the local and global markets.
Increased economic competitiveness ensures enlarged economic expansion. Essentially, private equity firms contribute to increased economic competitiveness through enhanced productivity. Besides, increased economic growth is directly associated with trade exports.
Private equity firms encourage economic growth in a number of ways. First, private equity firms support export-oriented companies. Additionally, private equity firms augment the capability of export-oriented companies to develop into worldwide markets.
How do private equity firms operate and make profit? Private equity firms invest in classified equities of working firms through the application of various investment strategies. Actually, investment approaches of private equity firms encompass venture capital, leveraged buyouts and capital growth. Private equity firms are perceived as sponsoring companies since they provide funds for investments.
In other words, private equity firms support other companies through the provision of financial assistances. In most cases, private equity firms normally raise funds, which they invest in private equities depending on the applied investment strategy.
Essentially, private equity firms normally raise investment funds commonly referred to as the private equity capital from various financial institutions particularly pension funds and insurance companies to finance and sponsor investments.
A fee is charged on every investment made. The fees charged together with prearranged share of profit are the earnings of private equity firms on the investments made. In other words, private equity firms get carried interests on every private equity fund put in investments.
In most cases, private equity firms get hold of considerable minority position in some of the firms they have invested. Once the sizeable marginal position has been accomplished, private equity firms optimize the expected outcome of the invested capital. Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) are significant methods through which investment returns are conveyed back to the owner.
Besides, private equity firms get returns on their investments when the firms they manage are sold through mergers and acquisitions. Recapitalizations are also applied in order to realize the gains though at minimal occasions.
In the initial public offerings, shares of the firm are offered to be bought by the public through the capital markets particularly at various stock exchanges. The public offering provides fractional and instantaneous realization of returns to the private equity firm, which is normally the sponsor. In addition, IPOs offer the private equity firms with markets in which they will later sell its shares.
Through mergers and acquisitions, the firms being managed are sold out or merged with performing firms. Private equity firms realize the returns from sales proceeds. In the case of a merger, private equity firms have shares of profits made by the new firms that result from the mergers.
One major characteristic of private equity firms is that they make long-term investments in less liquid assets and have direct influence on the operations of firms. In addition, private equity firms take charge of the firms’ operations in order to supervise any potential risks and accomplish the required development through long-term investments.
What are some of the advantages of private equity firms in terms of disclosure and accounting regulations over other publicly-traded firms? Private equity firms operate like private companies. Therefore, private equity firms gain from the accruing benefits because of less restricted financial reporting and legal requirement. In other words, private equity firms are not exposed to stringent financial reporting and legal regulations.
The less reporting requirement procedures have increased benefit to private equity firms. The benefits range from increased control of the decisions made to elimination of double taxation on their shareholders.
Greater control of the firm’s decisions
With reduced reporting requirements and substantially decreased pressures from shareholders and markets, private equity firms have increased flexibility in terms of operations.
As such, private equity firms focus attention towards achieving long-term growth instead of quarterly earnings that are part of the financial reporting requirements in other publicly traded firms. In addition, due to reduced shareholders expectations and approvals, private equity firms have the capability of making decisions and taking action without the approval of the shareholders.
Increased benefits from Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) exemptions
The private equity firms are exempted from some of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filling requirements as well as other post-offering duties. In fact, private equity firms are exempted from some of the federal financial security regulations and obligations such as reporting on the shareholders’ discussions, investors’ conferences as well as research analysts’ discussions.
Such regulations have been found to be costly, consuming much of the firms’ time and have negative effects on productivity. In fact, most public firms argue that the effects of SEC regulations on the productivity of the firms are unpredictable.
The stringent disclosure requirements of SEC such as filling annual and quarterly reports are generally additional accounting and legal expenses. Therefore, exemptions from SEC regulations have drastically reduced accounting and legal costs for the private equity firms.
Private equity firms reduces the cost of going public
Private equity firms normally reduce various regulatory costs associated with going public. In fact, private firms going public usually go through a range of processes including restructuring as well as implementation of new accounting regulations and procedures. The restructuring process is designed to avoid possible issues that may come about due to SEC filing requirements.
The restructuring process normally involves reforming the structure of the organization and capital, bookkeeping procedures and practices, material convention, equity participation policies as well as the employment conformities.
In addition, detailed disclosure documents must also be prepared for the new investors. All the requirements are costly in terms of finance and time. Private equity firms sponsoring public offerings are normally exempted from the detailed SEC requirements thereby reducing the costs of going public.
Reduced chances of disclosing sensitive information
Private equity firms are not required to disclose details of their operations. As such, the chances of revealing sensitive information that can be used by the competitors are reduced. In fact, non-disclosure of the operations and financial outlook of private equity firms are added competitive advantage over other publicly traded firms. Competitors can use the information to point on the weaknesses, which can be used to reduce the firms’ reputations as well as erode the clients and shareholders confidence particularly during the financial turmoil.
Free from shareholders activism
In most cases, regulations require that the financial institutions as well as hedge funds buy over 50% stake in any public firm. Buying over 50% stake mean that the financial institutions can gain control over the operations of the business. As such, the majority shareholder can influence the sales as well as any considerable restructuring.
In fact, public firms that have been taken over by these financial institutions and hedge funds risk losing their entire stake. Since the requirement does not apply to private equity firm, they normally gain minority stake on firms they have invested.
In fact, the firms do not risk losing their stakes to the private equity firms. However, private equity firms gain executive control in order to manage potential risks and realize long-term growth and development of the firm.
Is private equity firm the same as the private equity fund? Private equity firms and private equity funds are normally being confused to mean the same thing. In fact, private equity firm and private equity fund have been used interchangeably in most of the scholarly articles. However, the two terms are different.
Essentially, private equity firms are companies that make long-term investments on both private and public corporations through the application of various strategies (Cressy et al. 649). Researches indicate that private equity firms commonly apply investment approaches that range from venture capital to capital accumulation.
On the other hand, private equity funds are finances that private equity firms invest on other companies. Besides, private equity funds are a pool of capital that private equity firms collect from institutional and retail investors in order to put in long-term investments through the application of various investments approaches.
The private equity funds earn profits or interests for the private equity firms. In other words, private equity firms earn a carried interest on every private equity fund that is put in investments (Cressy et al. 649).
What are some of the well-known private equity firms and where are they located Consistent with most current rankings of private equity firms, the most popular and largest equity firms range from the Carlyle group to Bain Capital. The leading firms often make large purchases in form of buyouts. In other words, well known private equity firms invest directly on the companies instead of trading in private equity asset category.
According to the current categorization, the well-known private equity firms include the Carlyle group, which is situated in Washington DC, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts based in New York as well as Goldman Sachs Principal Investments Group that is also based in New York.
Also in the top position in terms of trading volumes include Blackstone Group headquartered in New York, TPJ Capital, which is based on both Texas and California and Bain Capital based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Works Cited Achraya, Viral, Olivier Gottschalg, Moritz Hahn and Conor Kehoe. “Corporate Governance and Value Creation: Evidence from Private Equity.” Review of Financial Studies, 26.2 (2013), 368–402. Print.
Bruining, Hans, Ernst Verwaal and Mike Wright. “Private equity and entrepreneurial management in management buy-outs.” Small Business Economics, 40.3 (2013), 591–605. Print.
Chemmanur, Thomas, Karthik Krishnan and Debarshi Nandy. “How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface.” Review of Financial Studies, 24.12 (2011), 4037–4090. Print.
Cressy, Robert, Federico Munari and Alessandro Malipiero. “Playing to their strengths? Evidence that specialization in the private equity industry confers competitive advantage.” Journal of Corporate Finance, 13.4 (2007), 647–669. Print.
Davila, Antonio, George Foster and Mahendra Gupta. “Venture capital financing and the growth of startup firms.” Journal of Business Venturing, 18.6 (2003), 689–708. Print.
George, Gerard, Jonathan Wiklund and Shaker Zahra. “Ownership and the Internationalization of Small Firms.” Journal of Management, 31.2 (2005), 210–233. Print.
Tracking down the Origins of Sociology Essay essay help online free
The fact that sociology officially appeared only at the end of the XIX century sheds some light on the human nature. While paying close attention to society in general and the behavioral patterns of other people in particular, as well as the interactions between the members of society was practiced earlier, the idea of studying the society scientifically came comparatively late.
However, apart from the weird fact that people discovered the study of society much later than they could have, the origin of the idea to study society academically is also quite hard to nail down.
Despite the fact that there are strong indications to the nature of sociology pertaining to the effect of the Age of Science spawned by the French Revolution, sociology has clearly emerged as the solution to the chaos that the world was at the moment, which Heilbron’s work indicates in a very graphic way.
The shift from theology and metaphysics to positivism can be seen as one of the most obvious reasons for the French Revolution and the following social changes, as well as the collapse of the society that was traditional for the XVIII century, to be the key factor in the emergence of sociology.
As soon as the concept of the divine intent and the following idea of searching for the specific events to have particular reasons were switched by the suggestion to acquire knowledge based on the results of experiments and observations, the premises for studying the phenomenon of society by adopting the “anti-metaphysical conceptions of knowledge” (Heilbron, 1995, p. 198) appeared.
One of the most frequently used arguments against Heilbron’s concept of sociology being created as the response to social disruptions is that chaos cannot possibly produce an orderly and well-structured theory.
The given argument admittedly has a grain of truth in it; being completely disoriented and disorganized, people cannot possibly conjure an idea that will somehow help arrange the elements of the disintegrated society into an orderly structure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is worth mentioning that Heilbron considers the creation of sociology, not the phenomenon of order as opposed to the social disorientation that penetrated every single sphere of people’s lives.
In other words, Heilbron defines sociology as the method of studying various social mechanisms instead of viewing it as the saving grace for the post revolution France and the world that was facing an economical and a social crisis of massive proportions.
Thus, it is quite logical that sociology as the set of methods for studying the society in order to structure it properly could appear within the realm of complete chaos and obsolete principles of building social relationships.
As a set of theories that could help explain the changes that occurred to the society and help work on the possible solutions, sociology could not have developed in the society without crisis or negative economic, financial and cultural tendencies – there would have been no reason to work on the theory that could shed some light on the means to improve the situation.
Therefore, in some way, it can be assumed that sociology could only emerge in the world that was literally torn apart by the social and economic inconsistencies.
It is quite remarkable that sociology was born together with significant changes in the political structure of France, i.e., the creation of conservative and liberal political movements: “In addition to these conservative and liberal groups, contributions to the social sciences were also made by men from the natural sciences” (Heilbron, 1995, p. 196).
Thus, it was clear that the social changes that the entire nation – or, more to the point, the entire world – was shaken by actually spurred the creation and evolution of social sciences in general and sociology in particular.
We will write a custom Essay on Tracking down the Origins of Sociology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the Revolution, the world was literally in ruins, and people were in a desperate need to set the elements of society in order. However, to make sure that every single element is put in its place and that there is actual way to restore the balance between social forces, it was necessary to study the ways in which social relationships are built, as well as understand the principles of the social hierarchy.
Hence sociology was born. While it would be wrong to claim that sociology was considered to be the silver bullet for the entire humankind even at the time, it is still quite clear that sociology was meant to help structure the society.
Since the latter was completely disoriented after the French Revolution, sociology could clearly provide the answers to the questions that bothered people in the XVIII century, the key one being the definition of society and the principles of its clockwork.
Although the world would figure out later that sociology is only a tool to study the specifics of society and not the solution to the emerging problems, there can be no denial that the given discipline appeared as a response to the chaos within the post revolution society, as Heilbron’s works explain.
Reference List Heilbron, J. (1995). Reform, revolution and the Napoleonic Era. In J. Heilbron (Ed.), The rise of social theory (pp. 115–118, 195–204). New York, NY: John Wiley
Recent trends in union density and collective bargaining coverage Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The factors which diminish the role of trade unions
The need for trade union representation
Introduction Currently, trade unions in the United Kingdom pass through a period of crisis because these organizations no longer have a strong influence on the relations between workers and employers. Declining rates in union density and bargaining coverage indicate that employees do not want to be represented with the help of trade unions. This paper is aimed at discussing the current status of these organizations.
In particular, one should review statistical data that can throw light on the role played by labor movement in the United Kingdom. Moreover, this paper will include a discussion of the factors that contributed to the declining influence of trade unions on labor relations. Finally, it is important to explain the possible relevance of trade union representation.
These are the main questions that should be examined more closely. On the whole, it is possible to say that the decline of trade unions can be explained by the willingness of business administrators to meet the needs of workers.
Furthermore, employees believe that they can properly protect their interests without unionization. Nevertheless, the opportunity for union representation is not completely disregarded by British workforce because it can be a useful safeguard against possible infringement on their rights. These are the main arguments that can be made.
Current trends Overall, skeptical attitude toward trade unions is largely based on the statistical trades that have been observed during the last decade. Much attention is usually paid to the declining union density. For instance, in 2008, more than 70 percent of British employees were disorganized (Pollert 2010, p. 63). Furthermore, collective bargaining coverage fell from 85 to 30 percent (Pollert 2010, p. 63).
It should be kept in mind in the private sector, the unions have been almost marginalized. As a rule, private businesses resist the unionization of employees (Noon
Economic Policies: United Arab Emirates and World Trade Organisation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Trade and Commerce Trade and commerce has an underlying effect on the economy of the world as a whole. The effects of this phenomenon result from the different economic principles put in place by governments and other agencies to ensure international trade is free and fair. Krugman and Wells (2012) cite a number of economic policies that are fundamental components of international trade.
In the current paper, the author discusses various economic policies, such as price ceilings, price floors, and tariffs. The policies are discussed in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The author examines minimum wage and rent laws in UAE as components of price ceilings and price floors. The author also analyses a number of policies formulated by the World Trade Organisation (herein referred to as WTO) and the recently concluded Bali talks.
Government Policies in UAE: Price Floors, Price Ceilings, and Unit Taxes United Arab Emirates’ Policy on Minimum Wage
Labour regulations in UAE are outlined in Federal Law no. 8 of 1980 (UAE labour law, 2001). The minimum wage is covered in chapter 3 of this law. The law sets a cap on the wage that a labourer can seek from their employer in form of remuneration. The law defines wage as the cumulative costs incurred by an individual as living expenses. The cost is arrived at using a formula stipulated in the labour contract.
The law and minimum wage
According to UAE Labour Law (n.d.), minimum wage is not clearly defined. However, minimum wage is generally set at Dhs.4000. The assumption is that an individual will not be able to sustain their life below this income level.
Eligibility to minimum wage
The law on minimum wage covers all persons working in the UAE. The implication is that all industries that provide employment in the country are covered by this law (UAE labour law, 2001).
The law is applicable to all industries operating within the UAE (UAE labour law, 2001). The booming logistical, oil, and hospitality sectors are some of the areas covered by this law.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The binding power of the minimum wage law
Regardless of the legitimacy of the law on minimum wage, it is not binding to certain industries and occupations. The law stipulates that civil servants, members of the security forces, domestic workers, and farmers are not covered by this policy (UAE labour law, 2001).
Minimum wage laws in other Gulf Cooperation Countries
According to Peck (2010), Gulf Cooperation Countries (herein referred to as GCC) is a group made up of 6 nations. They include Oman, Qatar, and the UAE. The others are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Out of the six countries, it is only Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the UAE that have put in place legal structures to address the issue of minimum wage.
Rent Control Laws in Abu Dhabi and Dubai
Implications of the rent control laws
Krugman and Wells (2012) explain price ceilings as situations where the government puts a limit on the highest cost of a commodity. The rent laws in Abu Dhabi and Dubai are examples of this economic policy. Law no. 33 of 2008 (BetterHomes, n.d.) stipulates the permissible levels of increase in rent.
For instance, the law provides for a maximum of 5% increase in rent for a property that was previously rented out at 36% of its value. What this means is that the rent laws in these two cities constitute a price ceiling policy.
Overview of the rent control laws
Bowman (2013) points out that in Abu Dhabi, rent control laws require the tenant and the landlord to agree on rent. In the absence of this agreement, the landlord is allowed by law to increase the rent annually by 5%. A ceiling is set to regulate the increase. However, the law is silent on how high the rent should be maintained.
With regards to Dubai, BetterHomes (n.d.) cites the city’s caveat on increasing rent. The caveat covers people who were renting property valued at 25% below the average index in 2009. The element of price ceilings is observed in Dubai since the authorities forbid rent increments for certain groups of tenants.
Trade and Trade Tariffs Trade Regulations
Globalisation has made international trade an essential component of world economies. Trade regulations may hinder the process of international trade. Krugman and Wells (2012) cite the introduction of certain tariffs as potential barriers to international trade. Consequently, it is important to enhance uniformity in trade regulations. Oversight bodies, such as the WTO, are formed to address this issue.
We will write a custom Essay on Economic Policies: United Arab Emirates and World Trade Organisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The World Trade Organisation
The need to regulate international trade necessitated the formation of the WTO. The body was formed in 1995 (World Trade Organisation, 2011). The organisation is a global body that is charged with the responsibility of creating and enforcing rules of trade among the member countries. The body is composed of key stakeholders in international trade. It acts as a platform on which various issues related to international trade are discussed.
The organisation is characterised by different agreements arrived at through rigorous negotiation processes. Each of these agreements is usually ratified by the legislative bodies of the member states (World Trade Organisation, 2011).
The major objective of WTO is to enhance fair international trade practices. The legitimacy of the organisation is attained through various core principles. The principles include non-discrimination, transparency, and binding and enforceable commitments.
Trade ministers drawn from member countries met recently and ratified a new treaty in Bali (Mehra, 2013). The treaty was an indication of the commitment by WTO to establish a level playing field in international trade. With the help of technocrats from WTO, the ministers arrived at an agreement aimed at improving trade through a universal consensus.
The Bali Trade Agreements
As aforementioned, WTO is a platform through which stakeholders in international trade engage each other to address issues that affect the global economy. Accordingly, the body has designated special sittings through which trade ministers meet to discuss various trade related policies (World Trade Organisation, 2011).
Here, trade ministers meet to negotiate and deliberate on various treaties. According to Mehra (2013), the most recent session was held in Bali between 3rd and 6th December, 2013. It was the 9th session.
The Bali session was a follow-up to a previous one held in Doha (Mehra, 2013). The objective of this session was to establish a consensus between the developing nations with regards to a number of issues related to trade.
Fergusson (2011) points out that these talks were seen as the long awaited solution to the Doha Development Agenda talks that commenced in 2001. At the core of these talks was the need to harmonise various tariffs and other trade policies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Policies: United Arab Emirates and World Trade Organisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major agreement in the ‘Bali Package’ was in the area of trade facilitation (World Trade Organisation, 2013). In this regard, the ministers ratified the proposal to hasten custom procedures. In addition, the ministers called for increased transparency in custom practices.
The trade facilitation aspect of the agreement was meant to reduce bureaucracy and corruption through the adoption of technology. Developing nations stand to benefit from the infrastructure envisaged in this treaty.
Another agreement realised from the Bali talks involves food security. The trade ministers reached a consensus on matters to do with agriculture (World Trade Organisation, 2013). The ministers agreed to shield nations that stock their produce for the purposes of food security from penalties.
The contents of the agreement revolved around key issues like non-violation complaints and electronic commerce. The agreements on regular work also covered proposals for ‘aid for trade’ where developing nations are to be assisted in terms of trade (World Trade Organization, 2013).
Effects of the Bali Agreements on the UAE
The Bali agreements are highly regarded owing to the fact that they are binding and enforceable (Mehra, 2013). Consequently, nations like the UAE are affected by these agreements with regards to agriculture and e-commerce. Bowman (2013) cites the growing need to address the issue of food security in the region.
Currently, the odds are against the UAE and Dubai since they rely on the generosity of food producers to import food products to the region.
References BetterHomes. The rental increase cap- An update on tenancy law. Web.
Bowman, D. (2013). Abu Dhabi rent controls and lease renewals. Web.
Fergusson, I. (2011). World Trade Organisation negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service.
The International Problem of HIV/AIDS in Modern World Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Background of HIV/AIDS
Issues about HIV/AIDS
Possible solutions and Recommendations
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Traditionally, HIV/AIDS did not have much impact on international relations; however, today, it is one of the major international challenges. International Relations may be defined as a branch of political science that marjory deals with foreign affairs and relations between different countries and nations. It includes the role of sovereign states, intergovernmental organizations, and even non-governmental organizations.
The main aim of international relations is to produce normative standards globally by reducing conflicts and crises such as HIV/AIDS and to ensure that there is international cooperation. Therefore, this paper will evaluate and discuss global HIV/AIDS challenges and effects, specifically focusing on international relations.
Indeed, AIDS is killing people globally and the best thing to do is to find ways of resolving this problem. In addition, it is evident that finding a cure for AIDS will help in saving lives of many people globally as well as improve living conditions at family, community, national and international levels, as AIDS’ effects cover all these levels.1
Background of HIV/AIDS There are various theories and myths explaining the origin of HIV/AIDS. For example, some people argue that it emerged from laboratory experiment accidents while others claim that HIV/AIDS primarily originated from lack of enough food, leading to malnutrition, especially in Africa. Others argue that HIV/AIDS is one of the plagues sent by God to punish the world for involving in homosexuality.
AIDS is known to be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which most people believe was transferred to human beings around early 20th century by some non-human primates such as chimpanzees in Africa. In addition, some argue that HIV/AIDS was one of the strategies developed by Europeans to wipe out the black race out of the world.
Various factors contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in the world. First, due to international travels and trade relations, HIV/AIDS has spread from one country to another.2 Additionally, AIDS is said to emanate from blood transfusion, especially through infected blood donated and sent to various countries globally without proper screening.
Finally, drugs abuse such as heroin, which is mostly injected into individuals’ blood stream, leads to spread of HIV/AIDS, especially when drug users share their injection instruments. Therefore, the main issues of HIV/AIDS mostly revolve around its causes, beliefs, and myths about it.3
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues about HIV/AIDS The origin of HIV/AIDS can be traced back to 1980s. The first manifestation of HIV/AIDS was the clinical manifestation in early 1980s where AIDS was seen in gays, followed by Haitians and people in Africa. These people showed various signs of susceptible rare infection prompting more research to be done on the disease, with findings showing that the disease is very resistant to treatment.
The second period of the manifestation of HIV/AIDS is the molecular diagnosis period as established by scientists who discovered that AIDS was mainly caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This virus was found to be very dangerous and could cause destruction and severe damages to T-helper cells containing the CD4 cells, hence could cause death after a long period without treatment from the time of infection.
The last period is the political period where people argued that HIV/AIDS was marjory invented by scientists in a laboratory with the main intention of killing black people. This conspiracy was that AIDS was created as a biological tool by the West to wipe out Africans. Therefore, the first issue about AIDS is its manifestation in different forms.
The second issue about HIV/AIDS is that, today, it is not only a health issue, but also a national and international security issue affecting the global population. Therefore, it is important that various international researches be done in order to curb the spread of the disease globally. It is evident that HIV/AIDS is becoming an international issue, with about 42 million people having the virus globally.
With this population, majority of people infected with the virus are from Africa. In addition, the effects of HIV/AIDS today are not only confined to the families and individuals infected, but also involve the political, economic, and social factors of the country and people in the country.4
Today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), incidences of HIV/AIDS vary from country to country, with some countries having about 10% while others have around 90% prevalence of the disease.
Lastly, the spread of HIV/AIDS at a faster rate globally is another issue. For example, the epidemic has been spreading globally since its discovery, with over 25 million people having died from HIV/AIDS, majority of them being adults.
We will write a custom Essay on The International Problem of HIV/AIDS in Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Again, the effects of the disease have been seen in various countries, with increased poverty and poor economic growth rate incidences due to the pandemic noted. In the past, it was believed that HIV/AIDS mainly affected Africans, but contrary to that, today, the disease is seen to be affecting a significant number of people of all ages and races globally.
In addition, epidemiological data shows that HIV/AIDS is spreading much quickly in larger Asia, India, Caribbean, and even Eastern Europe. Although there are some significant effects of the disease globally, it is evident that the most seriously affected countries are in Africa, specifically the Sub-Saharan region.
Therefore, the main issues in HIV/AIDS are about how to get its cure, how to convince the world about the realities of AIDS, and how to get the best effective prevention methods, since AIDS has no cure.
Complicated Issues There are three major complicated issues about HIV/AIDS. To begin with, although scientists have attempted to find the cure of AIDS, they have been unsuccessful. 5 Secondly, AIDS is a condition that makes the body susceptible to other diseases; hence, it is usually accompanied by other infections. The final complicating issue about HIV/AIDS involves myths and beliefs that people have towards AIDS globally.
For example, a belief such as AIDS is a curse and punishment from God sometimes makes it very difficult to find the best cure about the disease. Therefore, these complicating issues make it very difficult to get the most effective possible solutions towards the disease.6
Possible solutions and Recommendations National and international policy makers need to put in place measures that would help in curbing the disease, among them being education and training, especially in Africa where the disease poses serious challenges.7 Secondly, there is need of empowering Africans in order for them to adopt healthy lifestyle and high living standards that would allow them to prevent the disease.
Furthermore, global leaders should be involved in various HIVAIDS educational programs as well as encouragement for HIV/AIDS testing and counseling. Lastly, male circumcision programs should be encouraged to reduce incidences of HIV/AIDS in some African communities. Nevertheless, everyone infected or affected directly or indirectly should be in the forefront to implement the zero tolerance agenda to the fullest.
Various models and theories can also be used in order to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Generally, theories are usually used to explain why people do what they do while models explain how they go about doing it. To begin with, AIDS risk reduction model explains how people adopt and change HIV related behaviors through risk assessment, enactment, and commitment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Problem of HIV/AIDS in Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Again, there is the diffusion of innovation theory, which explains how HIV/AIDS can spread through a population globally, for example through world opinion leaders. Besides, there is the ecological system theory that provides that HIV/AIDS spreads through families, communities, and even in various institutions.
In addition, there is the social capital and social cognitive theories, which explain that people usually get and spread HIV/AIDS through observation of others behaviors, social norms and beliefs. Therefore, these theories and models can be adopted in order to prevent HIV/AIDS spreading in the world.8
Summary and Conclusion It is clear that HIV/AIDS is an international problem that poses challenges to international relations among countries. In addition, it affects the economic, social, and political welfare of different countries. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases in the world that do not have a specific treatment and cure.
Therefore, it is important for international policy makers to provide measures and means that would reduce the infection rate of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
This would result into improved economic development globally, leading to sound international relations among nations in the world. Nevertheless, all nations should focus on zero tolerance agenda aimed at eradicating new infections, deaths from HIV/AIDS related infections and stigmatization.
Bibliography Bell, Sigall et al. AIDS. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2011.
Haacker, Markus. “Framing AIDS as an Economic Development Challenge.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 17, no. 2 (2011): 65-76.
Instead of Goods and Services, Consumers Today Buy Experience Essay (Article) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Abstract In today’s world, where communication has become fast and easy, people exchange their experiences with others. Reviews about products and services are posted online for people to read and decide their preferences. Such reviews are based on experiences that come from using certain products and/or services. Most people, who read such reviews, get influenced and believe what the reviews suggest.
So, it can be presumed that they are buying the experiences of others. Similarly, self-experiences of people play a crucial role in their future purchases of the same product/service. So, it is obvious that people buy experience instead of any product/service.
Under these circumstances and in order to achieve better performance, it has become imperative for businesses to concentrate on customer satisfaction. Due to the increasing global demand of various products, there is a stiff competition among companies to garner new customers and retain the existing ones.
Introduction Today, customers buy experiences instead of goods and services. This particular trait of the customers’ choice and preference has been noticed during the past couple of years. Initially, marketing was based on goods that were manufactured and traded. The Industrial Revolution proved to be a shot in the arm for marketing as a system.
As there were incessant developments in the industrial field, new methods of marketing were developed in order to get better bargains for products and approach maximum possible customers.
Growth of similar industries also acted as a catalyst for innovations in marketing. Intensive global competition necessitated the organizations to concentrate on the satisfaction factor of customers. Gradually, rendering better service became the main criterion for businesses.
It is imperative to understand the marketing aspect before discussing the main topic of this assignment. For a layman, marketing is nothing but simply a tool for selling products or advertising the products. But when we look into the intricacies of marketing, it becomes evident that it is not merely selling or advertising but a lot more than our eyes can see.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is marketing? “Marketing is a management process that identifies, anticipates and supplies customer requirements – and makes sure it’s done efficiently and profitably” (Spreckley
The Civil Rights Movement Research Paper online essay help
The Civil Rights Movement in its modern form was characteristic for the development of the American society during the period of the 1950s-1980s. The movement was started as the reaction of the African Americans to the social segregation and discrimination.
The protests against segregation and discrimination were actively supported by the public, and President Kennedy initiated the discussion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to stop racial discrimination in the American society.
Although the positive role of the Civil Rights Movement for changing the role of the African Americans in the American society is visible, this topic is also essential to be discussed because the movement for the African Americans’ rights provoked the associated movements against the social and gender inequality.
Thus, many effects of the Civil Rights Movement are observed in the modern American society which develops resolving the challenging questions of racism and inequality. That is why, this research aims to answer an important question: What modern effects of the Civil Rights Movement related to the issues of racism, discrimination, and inequality can be noticed in the present-day American society?
To explain the effects of the Civil Rights Movement from the sociological perspectives, it is necessary to refer to the functionalist, conflict, and interactionist theories.
Many modern researchers focus on the functionalist perspective and agree that the Civil Rights Movement influenced the society positively, and these effects can be observed today because the society is transformed, the problems of racism and inequality are discussed openly; referring to the conflict perspective, it is possible to note that discrimination is illegal, and the principle of the social justice and gender equality are followed.
Following the functionalist perspective, it is essential to state that the society develops as the whole composed of connected parts which should interact according to the idea of social balance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this perspective, the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s-1960s caused the development of many other social movements oriented to protecting women, sexual minorities, and workers’ rights, and these movements contributed to maintaining the necessary social equilibrium.
According to Isaac and Christiansen, ascendant social movements and modern protests can contribute to advancing the results of the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century because the principles of the social justice are re-thought and followed according to the tendencies of the new transformed society (Isaac
Narrative Perspectives in Robert Browning’s My Last Duchess and Edgar Allan Poe’s The Cask of Amontillado Essay college application essay help
One of the reasons why the story The Cask of Amontillado (Edgar Allan Poe) and the poem My Last Duchess (Robert Browning) are being commonly referred to, as such that represent a particularly high value, is that the narrative perspective chosen by the authors to highlight the discursive significance of the contained themes and motifs, does add to the perceptual plausibility of the concerned storylines.
In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that, while reflecting upon the motif of murder, Poe and Browning succeeded in convincing readers that it was specifically the very psychological constitution of both protagonists (Alfonso Ferrara and Montresor), which naturally predetermined their behavioral maliciousness. In my paper, I will explore the validity of this suggestion at length.
After having been introduced to the characters of Montresor (The Cask of Amontillado) and Alfonso Ferrara (My Last Duchess), we inevitably conclude that they seem to interact with the surrounding reality similarly. One of the reasons for this is that these characters’ foremost psychological trait appears to be their traditional-mindedness.
This is exactly the reason why Montresor decides to take a revenge on the character of Fortunato, whose very appearance presupposes his psychological incompatibility with the notion of tradition: “He had on a tightfitting parti-striped dress, and his head was surmounted by the conical cap and bells” (Poe 3). Apparently, Fortunato was dressed as a jester.
Yet, as historians are being well aware of, jesters have always been known for their reputation of ‘violators of tradition’. Therefore, the Mortresor’s deep-seated hatred of his ‘friend’ Fortunato can be well discussed in terms of ‘intellectual advancement’ vs. ‘tradition.
It is specifically the fact that the story’s protagonist unconsciously perceived Fortunato, as being much more intellectually superior then himself, that prompted Montresor to become obsessed with the thought of revenge.
Essentially the same thesis applies to the character of Alfonso in My Last Duchess. Being the traditionally-minded ‘man of stature’, Alfonso believed that in their relationships with husbands, wives must remain thoroughly submissive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is exactly the reason why, while proceeding with his monologue, Alfonso expresses its ill-concealed annoyance with his wife’s flirtatiousness:
She had a heart… how shall I say?… too soon made glad,
Too easily impressed; she liked whate’er
She looked on, and her looks went everywhere (Browning 22-34).
Apparently, Alfonso could not stand a thought that, being made of flesh and blood; it was perfectly natural for his wife to feel flirtatious at times.
Thus, it can be well assumed that it is specifically the hypertrophied sense of a ‘traditional propriety’, which defined the essence of Montresor and Alfonso’s existential modes. In its turn, this created an objective precondition for them to be individuals who strived to adjust the de facto reality around them to be consistent with the ideological provisions of their ‘overvalued idea’.
Consequently, this was causing Montresor and Alfonso to adopt an active stance, while denying the legitimacy of the idea that one’s life represents the greatest value of all. Therefore, there is nothing utterly surprising about the fact that, while elaborating upon their unholy deeds, both characters would do it in a strongly cynical manner.
We will write a custom Essay on Narrative Perspectives in Robert Browning’s My Last Duchess and Edgar Allan Poe’s The Cask of Amontillado specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is exactly the reason why the Montresor and Alfonso’s use of irony/sarcasm emanates the spirit of Freudian ‘uncanny’ – while sounding ironic, both characters reveal that, even though appearing as humans on the outside, they are in fact bloodthirsty monsters on the inside.
For example, there is a memorable scene in The Cask of Amontillado, where Montresor tries to talk Fortunato out of his decision to climb down the cellar, in search of Amontillado: “We will go back; your health is precious. You are rich, respected, admired, beloved; you are happy, as once I was. You are a man to be missed” (6).
What is especially chilling about the above-mentioned sarcastic statement, on the part of Montresor, is that; while appearing to be merely concerned with the protagonist’s wish not to allow his ‘friend’ to become ill, it actually reflects the sheer measure of the main character’s commitment to take a revenge on Fortunato.
Apparently, it was not only that Montresor wanted to ‘savor’ the approaching demise of Fortunato, but he also strived to make sure that his ‘friend’ does not reconsider its decision to venture down the cellar (the application of the so-called ‘reverse psychology’ method).
Browning’s deployment of the rhetorical device of sarcasm/irony in the poem also serves the purpose of enlightening readers about the fact that, despite being a socially prominent individual, it was in Alfonso’s very nature to treat people in terms of a soulless commodity. For example, even though Alfonso does not explicitly state that he murdered his wife, the following excerpt leaves no doubts that this was the actual case:
Oh, sir, she smiled, no doubt,
Whene’er I passed her; but who passed without
Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;
Not sure if you can write a paper on Narrative Perspectives in Robert Browning’s My Last Duchess and Edgar Allan Poe’s The Cask of Amontillado by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands
As if alive (43-47).
Alfonso could have well admitted to killing his wife in plainer terms. This, however, would have deprived his character of a perceptual genuineness, as a hypocritical moralist, capable of simultaneously expounding on the subject of decency, on the one hand, and acting as a thoroughly immoral psychopath, on the other.
Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to suggest that the specifics of both literary works’ narrative perspectives are solely concerned with the Browning and Poe’s intention to expose the mental inadequateness of Alfonso and Montresor, but also with their desire to provide readers with a preliminary clue, as to what should be considered this inadequateness’s actual root.
The validity of this suggestion can be shown in regards to another memorable scene in The Cask of Amontillado. In this scene, after having chained Fortunato to the wall, and after having listened to his screams for a while, Motresor begins to scream in return: “A succession of loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly from the throat of the chained form, seemed to thrust me violently back… I reproached the wall.
I replied to the yells of him who clamored. I reechoed – I aided – I surpassed them in volume and in strength” (9). Apparently, Poe was well aware of the fact that religious individuals, strongly affiliated with ‘traditional values’, are psychologically inclined towards deriving an emotional pleasure out of savoring the intensity of a particular emotion – regardless of whether this emotion happened to be positive or negative.
This is the reason why in Latin American countries, thousands of people request to be crucified, during the course of Catholic religious celebrations – by doing it, they derive a pleasure out of savoring their own sensation of pain. While exposed to the spectacle, the crowds of spectators savor the physical pain of these religious fanatics with essentially the same degree of intensity (Butler 274).
In a similar manner, by screaming even louder than Fortunato, Monresor sadistically enjoyed the pain of his ‘friend’. After all, it does not represent much of a secret to psychologists that sadism and masochism usually go hand in hand, with the notion of masochism being nothing but euphemistically sounding synonym to the notion of a monotheistic religiosity.
This explains why, before placing the last stone in the immurement-wall, Montreser exclaimed: “For the love of God!” (10) – after having experienced a sadistic/semi-religious ecstasy, while exposed to Fortunato’s pain, Montresor was able to convince himself that what he had done was indeed godly.
The particulars of the deployed narrative perspective in My Last Duchess, also appear to serve the function of providing readers with an in-depth insight into the actual causes of Alfonso’s behavioral abnormality. The legitimacy of this suggestion can be explored in relation to the manner, in which Browning’s poem ends:
At starting, is my object. Nay, we’ll go
Together down, Sir! Notice Neptune, though,
Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity,
Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me (53-57).
What this statement implies, is that throughout the course of his life, Alfonso never ceased experiencing the acute lack of an emotional empathy towards the people, with which he used to socialize. The reason for this is apparent – in Alfonso’s mind, there is no qualitative difference between the painting of his former wife, on the one hand, and the statue of Neptune, on the other.
This is because he is able to swiftly switch the focus of his cognitive attention from one to another with ease. As of today, however, one’s inability to experience the sensation of empathy to his or her close relatives is often being looked upon, as the proof of the concerned individual’s mental illness. For example, it is by observing the lack of such empathy in young children that psychologists are able to come up with a preliminary diagnosis of autism (Tager-Flusberg 312).
Thus, it will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest, even though the Browning’s poem and Poe’s novel were written before the very concept of psychology came into being, the themes and motifs, contained in these literary masterpieces, do correlate with what happened to be the recent breakthroughs in the field this particular science.
As such, these literary works can be deemed truly enlightening – after having been exposed to them, readers do become more knowledgeable of the fact that there is indeed a good rationale in thinking about one’s strong adherence to the provisions of a conventional morality, as such that extrapolates the concerned individual’s mental abnormality.
As it was implied in the Introduction, the literary appeal of Poe’s novel and Browning’s poem cannot be thought of in terms of a ‘thing in itself’. It is namely due to both literary masterpieces’ discursive progressiveness, reflected by the authors’ awareness of what account for the innermost predicaments of people’s behavior, that The Cask of Amontillado and My Last Duchess continue to be valued by readers.
Apparently, after having read them, people are able to increase the extent of their existential fitness, as their exposure to the earlier discussed literary works naturally increases the measure of their awareness of what are the behaviorally observable manifestations of one’s mental inadequateness. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.
Works Cited Butler, Matthew. “Mexican Nicodemus: The Apostleship of Refugio Padilla, Cristero, on the Islas Marías.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 25.2 (2009): 271-306. Print.
Tager-Flusberg, Helen. “Evaluating the Theory-of-Mind Hypothesis of Autism.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 16.6 (2007): 311-315. Print.
Browning, Robert 1842, My Last Duchess. Web.
Poe, Allan Edgar 1846, The Cask of Amontillado. Web.
High-level Plan: the Ministry of Labor Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
High-level Plan In order to implement the project, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) should first identify the main goals that should be achieved. Furthermore, one should be aware of possible challenges that can emerge in the future.
In this case, it is critical to control the inspections processes and measure the degree to which employers and inspectors comply with the regulations introduced by MOL. Overall, it is possible to work out a high-level plan that includes the following tasks:
First of all, it is necessary to make sure that inspectors provide accurate assessment of the practices adopted by employers working in Saudi Arabia. Thus, people, who will evaluate employers’ compliance with new regulations, should keep in mind that the results of their reports can be verified. This is one of the strategies that can be adopted.
Secondly, MOL should minimize the impact of subjective opinion on the evaluation process. In other words, the evaluation procedures should be designed in such a way that inspectors can rely on clear criteria while assessing the work of different organizations. This is one of the main issues that should be taken into account because inspectors should remain impartial when interacting with employers. This task can be viewed as the cornerstone of this project.
Furthermore, policy-makers should reduce the impact of inspection processes on the performance of businesses. Therefore, it is vital to identify the authority of inspectors who should not create significant inconveniences for Saudi companies. This is one of the main risks that should be minimized.
Apart from that, MOL should identify criteria according to which the work of inspectors should be evaluated. These professionals should have a clear idea about the performance standards that should be met. Their expertise and integrity are essential for the implementation of this project.
Finally, public administrators should develop a schedule for inspection processes and analysis of collected data. One should bear in mind that there will be 7.000 inspectors, and it may take a considerable amount of time to examine their reports.
These are the main elements of this plan. On its basis, one can single out specific steps that should be taken in the future. This approach to this project will be more productive because it will enable MOL to avoid delays or false conclusions about the practices of Saudi employers who must follow new labor policies adopted by MOL.
List of Deliverables Additionally, one can distinguish the most important deliverables that this project should produce. It is important to focus on the following aspects:
Increased accountability of inspectors;
Objective evaluation of employers’ business practices and their compliance with new labor laws;
Impartial evaluation of inspector’s performance;
Accurate reports about the impact of new laws and regulations on employers and their business practices.
These are the main aspects of this project. MOL should determine whether employers are willing and able to comply with the regulations that were introduced. Under such circumstance, inspectors will play a critical role. These professionals should remain unbiased while interacting with employers.
Secondly, they must have a clear understanding of the laws introduced by MOL. Finally, they need to provide valid and accurate information about the practices of employers. These are the main details that should be identified because they are vital for the effectiveness of this project.
The Dubai Quality Award: Case Study of ENOC Research Paper college essay help
Abstract This project deals with the implementation of the Dubai Quality Award. The report covers various aspects of the Dubai Quality Award and the journey of ENOC towards winning the award. The method used to collect data for this project was mainly a review of secondary data.
The best source of relevant information was the Dubai Quality Award website. In addition, data gathered from reports and books on quality management proved sufficient for attaining the objectives of the project. The three key findings made in the project were the following. First, it is clear that excellence awards give organisations the opportunity to increase the visibility of their brands.
Secondly, excellence awards give participating organisations the opportunity to identify areas where they need to improve their performance. Thirdly, it is apparent that the management of a quality award can influence its reputation. It is extremely important to find ways of ensuring that no questions arise regarding the processes used to identify winners of excellence awards.
The Dubai Quality Award: Case Study of ENOC This project relates to the Dubai Quality Award. The Department of Economic Development manages the Dubai Quality Award based on a model that is similar to EFQM. The objectives of the project are to derive lessons from the Dubai Quality Award regarding the management of Excellence awards as well as to identify the challenges and benefits.
The case study used in this project involves the Emirates National Oil Company (ENOC). The Dubai Government wholly owns ENOC. The choice of ENOC arose from its recent participation in Dubai Quality Award. The company won the Dubai Quality Award. It is now considered one of the best-managed companies in Dubai.
Company Background EMGAS is a subsidiary of ENOC. ENOC has vast interests in the economy of Dubai that ranges from exploration of oil to the marketing and distribution of oil products. The government of Dubai is the sole owner of the ENOC group. This means that the government of Dubai is also the sole owner of EMGAS.
The core business of EMGAS is the distribution of natural gas. The company sells gas locally in the UAE and regionally to the neighbouring countries. The company is the largest gas distributor in the region. It has the largest gas distribution network in the country. It also has the largest fleet of gas tankers in the region. Its infrastructure makes it the dominant player in the natural gas industry in the UAE.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the sale and distribution of gas, EMGAS also plays a significant role in the development and marketing of specialised gas products such as propellants, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The company also produces gas used in welding. Its product portfolio is on the rise in response to market demand and environmental conservation imperatives.
EMGAS also offers several services to its clients in line with its business activities. The services include consultancy of its clients and other players in the natural gas sector. The company offers consultancy services to those companies that seek to develop LPG bulk storage facilities.
EMGAS also gives expert advice to clients to ensure that all the bulk storage facilities in the UAE meet the strict safety standards required for LPG. In addition, EMGAS is the only organisation in the UAE tasked with the inspection of LPG tankers. The company gives annual inspection certificates to LPG tankers for use in the renewal of LPG transport licenses.
Business Excellence Model EMGAS won the Dubai Quality Award for its excellence in business. This annual quality award receives support from the Department of Economic Development. Its purpose is to promote excellence in business by recognizing companies that have the best business systems in the country. The main aspects of the Dubai Quality Award model are the following.
First, it is important to note that the Dubai Quality Award model is fully aligned to EFQM. EFQM looks at quality management from the perspective of “enablers” and “results” as shown in table 1 below.
The five enablers under this model include leadership, people, strategy, partnerships and resources, and products, processes and services. The four result oriented areas under EFQM are people results, customer results, society results and business results.
Figure 1: The EFQM model
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Dubai Quality Award: Case Study of ENOC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More EFQM makes it possible for a business to relate its excellence initiatives to the results it obtains. It helps organisations know the vital components of business excellence and it helps the businesses know how to measure results.
The Dubai Quality Award model adapts the EFQM model to create a criterion for evaluating Dubai based business. The Dubai Quality Award model appears in figure 2 below.
Fig 2: The Dubai Quality Award model
The Dubai Quality Award model maintains the two major aspects of EFQM, but it introduces a weighted system for giving scores to the specific aspects of business operations. Each of these aspects constitutes a criterion for the evaluation of a business that applies to compete for the Dubai Quality Award.
Reasons for the Selection of the Dubai Quality Award model The main reasons that influenced the selection of the Dubai Quality Award model for this project were the following. First, the Dubai Quality Award Model is very easy to understand. The model is very simple to conceptualize. This makes the model simple to be applied to any organisation.
The simplicity of the model removes the complexities associated with the use of more sophisticated models. In this regard, the model is easy to deploy regardless of the size of an organisation, and the age of the company.
The second reason underlying the choice of the Dubai Quality Award model is that it is applicable over a wide range of organisations. The model uses a set of indicators that exist in all types of organisations and can fit in any environment. The model relies on fundamental elements of excellence that exist in any type of organisation.
The third reason that leads to the choice of the model for this exercise is that the model produces results even for organisations that do not win the award. Any organisation that uses this model to address its quality concerns is able to identify areas of weakness for improvement. Since the model is simple, any consultant can help the organisation to apply the model in its systems in order to find out its level of business excellence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dubai Quality Award: Case Study of ENOC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fourth reason that leads to the choice of the Dubai Quality Award is the ease of replication of the model in various organisations. The model makes it possible for an assessor or a business manager to compare the performance of several organisations to learn from them.
In this regard, a company can tell whether it is exploiting its competitive advantages by looking at the comparative assessment of its business or not.
Application of the Dubai Quality Award Model The application of the Dubai Quality Award model involves several activities. In the case of EMGAS, the company first engaged consultants to assess their operations in reference to the award. This exercise helped the company develop a benchmark and identify the short-term and the long-term goals needed to achieve the excellence award.
The consultants then developed a seven-month plan for the company to help it satisfy the criteria for attaining the Dubai Quality Award. After seven months, the consultants assessed the company once again and they were happy with the progress achieved. The company then applied for assessment as a participant in the Dubai Quality Award.
The process used to identify whether organisations fit to receive the Dubai Quality Award is the following. First, interested companies fill entry forms in the way of a self-assessment exercise. The forms are the first basis for evaluation by assessors. The assessors send feedback to all applicants telling them their strengths.
The assessors send this type of feedback regardless of whether a company has been shortlisted for the award or not. The assessors then make site visits to all the shortlisted companies and analyze their quality management systems. Thereafter, the assessors develop a final list of potential nominees.
The assessors forward this list of nominees to the Dubai Quality Award Supreme Council. This council constitutes senior government officials and influential businesspersons in Dubai. The Supreme Council reviews the list of nominees and makes the final decision on which company qualifies to receive the Dubai Quality Award. The Dubai Quality Award has several categories.
This makes it possible to recognize companies that have achieved excellence in some aspects of their operations, but still need to improve on other aspects.
Challenges of the Dubai Quality Award All excellence awards have limitations of various kinds. The Dubai Quality Award model is no exception. The main limitations associated with the Dubai Quality Award are the following.
The first challenge associated with quality awards is their dependence on scoring techniques. Assessors usually evaluate the documents sent by quality award applicants and visit the organisations to appraise whether their quality management initiatives deserve recognition or not.
The challenge with this process is that some of the scores given by assessors are subjective. This means that some elements of quality awards do not rely on rational processes, but on subjective scores given by assessors.
The second challenge unique to the Dubai Quality Award is the final choice of winners. After the assessors shortlist potential winners and nominate award recipients, the Supreme Council takes over the process and picks the actual winners. The challenge associated with this stage is that the decisions made by the Supreme Council can be controversial.
In other words, the final decisions on who receives the Dubai Quality Award can seem political. The process of awarding winners is a very sensitive component of competitive quality awards. Failure to meet the expectations of all the stakeholders can result in the collapse of the project.
The third challenge associated with the implementation of the Dubai Quality Award is that applicants can take a technical approach to quality management. This means that a company can decide to devote an inordinate amount of resources to win the award.
Such companies can use the evaluation criteria as their resource allocation guide. The result is that other aspects of the business not covered by the assessment criteria can suffer neglect.
Critical Analysis of the Dubai Quality Award The Dubai Quality Award is a viable means of promoting excellence in business. The alignment of this model with the EFQM model makes it easily recognizable across the world. This is very good for businesses and other organisations in Dubai that attain the award. The Dubai Quality Award is also a useful tool for organisations aspiring to achieve excellence in their operations.
Participating in the excellence award gives the company the benefit of identifying areas it needs to improve on. This means that the company stands to benefit by participating in the awards regardless of whether it wins it or not.
The weak link in the excellence award is the role of the Supreme Council in picking the finalists for the Award. Their role can seem political to some participants. This can tarnish the reputation of the award in international quality award circles.
The Dubai Quality Award can improve its outcomes in the following three ways. Firstly, the final decision regarding who should be left to the assessors. This will eliminate the risk of the award losing its reputation in the international arena. Secondly, the Award needs to put more emphasis on its alignment with EFQM. The benefit of this approach is that it will increase the international visibility of the Dubai Quality Award.
In addition, it will make the award a prestigious recognition within Dubai. The net effect of this process will be the general increase in business excellence in Dubai. Thirdly, the Dubai Quality Award should aim at offering consultancy services for organisations that want to participate in the award.
This can be done in association with existing consultants. The Dubai Quality Award should certify consultant to help organisations prepare for participation in the excellence awards. This will help in the elimination of technical entries for the award because the consultants will help the businesses attain balance between making sound business decisions, and committing resources to participate in the award.
Conclusion This study revealed several things about the application of excellence awards at a company level. First, the study has shown that an excellence award is desirable for a company. There are two main benefits associated with participation in excellence awards. The brand reputation of companies that win excellence awards improves dramatically.
This means that the companies achieve higher profitability in their operations. On the other hand, companies that participate in the process but do not win the excellence awards still get insights into what they should do to improve their performance in the market place.
The study also has shown that the management of the process leading to the awarding of the excellence awards must be above reproach. The process must give assessors power over the decision to choose the final winners because the use of a different body can lead to disquiet among participating companies. In other words, the management of a quality award must demonstrate the same values sought from participating companies.
References Arson, E. W.,
Sustainability and Waste Management Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The challenges associated with landfills
The benefits of waste-to-energy technologies
Introduction The rapid economic development of Australia has underlined the necessity to minimize the impact of human activities on the environment. Scientists and public administrators pay close attention to waste management. One can say that the increasing dependence on landfills is one of the problems that should be addressed by policy-makers.
This paper is aimed at showing that people recover energy from waste, rather than deposit it in landfills. This is the main thesis that should be elaborated. Overall, this strategy has several important advantages that can be of great value to Australian community.
In particular, it can reduce water, air and soil pollution caused by disposing of refuse in landfills. Secondly, this approach can decrease the cost of energy, and this opportunity is important for the economic sustainability of the country. Finally, in the future, this approach can improve the use of land in various urban areas. These are the main aspects that can be singled out.
The challenges associated with landfills In order to examine this topic, one should first illustrate the problems that are associated with landfills in Australia. It should be mentioned that during the period between 2001 and 2007, the amount of waste, which was deposited in landfills, grew by approximately 12 percent (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013). In 2001, there were 19 million tons, while in 2007 there were 21.3 million tons (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013).
Overall, one can speak about commercial, industrial, and municipal waste that is not recycled in any away (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013). This trend is likely to continue in the future. It should be noted that the dependence on landfills can increase in the future due to the rapid demographic growth of the Australian society.
This argument is particularly relevant, if one speaks about large urban areas such as Sydney or Melbourne that attract people from different parts of the world. There are several challenges that are associated with the growth of landfills, for example, leachates or emissions to water, visual disamenities, or the release of greenhouse gases (BDA Group 2009, p. 4).
Moreover, one should bear in mind that approximately 30 percent of Australian landfills do not have the technologies that can enable them to capture methane and other chemicals that can produce an adverse on the environment (Lancaster 2012, p. 133). Thus, the increasing reliance on landfills can contribute to greenhouse effect (BDA Group 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, one should not forget that the decomposition of waste is a very time-consuming process (Lancaster 2012, p. 133). In some cases, the decomposition can take from 50 to 450 years (Lancaster 2012, p. 133).
This is why this trend should not be overlooked by policy-makers who must ensure the environmental sustainability of the country. In particular, they need to find some viable alternatives to landfills that cannot remain the only approach to waste management.
The benefits of waste-to-energy technologies There are several solutions to this problem, and one of them is the recovery of energy from waste. The most widespread method of achieving this goal is the incineration of refuse. In the past, policy-makers did not favor this approach because the incineration of waste could result in the emissions of various toxic materials such as dioxins and fly ash that can pose a threat to the health of a person (Afgan
The Impact of the Pilkington Report on the British Television in the 1960s Cause and Effect Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The period of the 1960s can be discussed as the decade of significant changes in the history of the British Television because of the intensive growth and development of television for the society and principles of broadcasting.
Many changes in the nature of the British Television and in used technologies which were observed and developed during the 1960s are associated with the effects of the Pilkington Report on the government’s vision of the role of broadcasting in the British society. The Pilkington Report was published and presented in 1962 as a result of the Pilkington Committee’s work.
The committee was organised in 1960 in order to explore the situation related to the development of the British Television regarding the impact of broadcasting on the society and the television’s possibility to respond to the public’s interests.
The chapters of the Pilkington Report presented the range of improvements proposed by the committee to be realised in relation to the most significant aspects of the British Television’s development.
In spite of the fact that the main ideas presented in the Pilkington Report were actively criticised by the broadcasters, government, sponsors, and by the public, the effect of the report on the further growth and development of the British Television in the 1960s was significant and rather positive because the necessity of the third television channel was stated and the BBC2, which was launched later in 1964, responded to the new needs of the television audience; because the focus on the development of colour television on 625 lines was stated; because the attempts to reform the independent television were realised and led to the improvement of the television quality; and because the more obvious focus on the television quality was proclaimed in contrast to the spread of ‘triviality’ on television.
The Origin and Main Points of the Pilkington Report
The Pilkington Committee is the Committee of Inquiry which was organised in 1960 in order to explore the situation associated with the development of the British Television, to provide the ideas on the future of broadcasting, to advise on the definite television services, and to present important recommendations on improving the quality of television.
The committee was headed by Sir Harry Pilkington (Milland 2004, p. 76). Thus, the Pilkington Report included the thoughts on the future of the British Television in relation to the allocation of the third channel, the development and re-organisation of the Independent Television (ITV), and the rejection of the general principles of the commercial television.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the Pilkington Report presented the detailed discussion of broadcasting as the important factor for the development of the British society. This factor influenced the development of the British Television significantly because the concepts of the broadcasters’ social and moral responsibility were re-thought.
Therefore, the authors of the report state that “by its nature, broadcasting must be in a constant and sensitive relationship with the moral condition of society. Broadcasters are, and must be, involved; this gives them a responsibility they cannot evade” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 15).
From this point, the purpose of broadcasting, which is reflected in the stated principles is in influencing the morality of the British society. Thus, according to Milland, “Pilkington produced the most cogent, best-argued and best-written statement of the principles” (Milland 2004, p. 77). In this case, the report can be discussed as good in promoting the idea and purpose of broadcasting from the point of the television’s role for the society.
The authors of the report also rejected the idea that the future of the British Television was in the development of the commercial principles related to broadcasting because the orientation of the ITV on advertising was actively criticised.
As a result, the authors of the report proposed several new approaches to using the advertisements in broadcasting in order to support the idea of the social and moral responsibility, to discuss the audience as citizens, to reject the idea of the audience as consumers, and to provide the new principles of the commercially competitive television.
Despite the fact that the ideas on the re-organisation of the ITV were presented in the Pilkington Report, the ideas were not supported with the help of the associated legislation.
The authors of the report paid much attention to the issue of expanding the powers of the Independent Television Authority and connected the discussion of the controversial question with resolving the problem of the commercial television (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962).
We will write a custom Essay on The Impact of the Pilkington Report on the British Television in the 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that the views of the report’s authors were not correlated with the observed social tendencies, and the committee’s proposals related to the principles of advertising on television were not supported with the necessary legislation.
That is why, the most important effects on the development of the British Television were observed in relation to the recommendations which were reflected in acts and policies. From this point, Television Acts of 1963 and 1964 supported the proposals developed in the report legally, and BBC2 was launched at the basis of the new 625-line UHF band (Milland 2004, p. 79).
It is also important to focus on the fact that the authors of the report demonstrated the opposite opinions on the role of the BBC and ITV for the society’s progress and for the future of broadcasting in Britain. Therefore, the report provides the critique of many aspects associated with the ITV’s content, idea, principles of organisation.
Thus, the content is discussed as poor in spite of its popularity because of the low quality of programmes and promotion of ‘triviality’ and violence.
According to the report, the ITV pays much attention to the foreign programmes which can erode the British culture and traditions, and the focus on commercial principles and advertising contributes to the progress of the vulgar materialist culture in the British society (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962).
Moreover, the idea of the commercial television can be discussed as not realised completely and adequately with references to the ITV resources. In addition, the authors of the report conclude that the role of the ITV as the broadcasting organisation “seemed to lack that positive and active quality which is essential to good broadcasting.
We reject, too, its [ITV] view that television will be shaped by society” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 67). In spite of the fact that the ITV’s performance was discussed by the authors of the Pilkington report as rather trivial and poor, only few changes were supported by the government to improve the quality of the independent television according to the high aesthetic standards which were actively promoted in the Pilkington Report (Milland 2004, p. 76).
However, these results should also be mentioned as the important positive effects of the report, which are related to the quality of the British Television.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of the Pilkington Report on the British Television in the 1960s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the contrary, the authors of the report demonstrated the significant support regarding the purpose and idea of the BBC, and proposed the development of the third channel which could be discussed as the improved version of the BBC. Thus, the authors of the report stated that they “found in the BBC an all-around professionalism” Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 48).
Moreover, it is noticed in the report that the BBC “knows good broadcasting … they are providing it” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 48).
According to the Pilkington Committee, the notion of ‘good broadcasting’ is closely associated with presenting the high-quality serious programmes which reflect the reality of the British society because, following the principles presented in the report, the broadcasters “must not only reflect society; they must pick out and focus attention on that which is significant” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 285).
The BBC is discussed as the channel which completes this task effectively.
Furthermore, at the same time, the broadcasters “must care about public tastes and attitudes in all their variety in all kinds of programmes”, and this idea can be discussed as “the nature of the broadcasters’ responsibility” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 285).
That is why, the BBC’s “awareness of the nature, the magnitude and the complexity of the task of catering for the needs of the public” respond to the basic principles promoted by the committee in relation to the nature of broadcasting (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 48).
From this point, the programmes of the BBC as the channel with the excellent reputation responded to the mentioned principles, and the programmes were described as sound and objective, made with references to the good taste.
The Allocation of the BBC2 and the Development of the High-Speed Colour Television as the Significant Effect of the Pilkington Report
The allocation of the third channel (BBC2) in 1964 accentuated the active shift in the sphere of broadcasting to the new standards and ideas of the high-quality television, which were proclaimed in the Pilkington Report.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that the Pilkington Committee achieved the significant results while attempting to propose the new standards for the commercial television when the government agreed to finance the BBC2 by the licence fee instead of referring to the advertising revenues (Milland 2004, p. 76).
Thus, the BBC2 was launched in 1964 as a result of the government’s new policies related to broadcasting and as the response to the recommendations provided in the Pilkington Report. Many positive commentaries on the nature of the BBC and the quality of the proposed programmes were provided in the report.
From this perspective, the BBC2 was launched to double the success of the BBC and to present more high-quality programmes oriented to the public’s interests, but contributing to the development of the educated society. Moreover, the decision to launch the BBC2 was important for the broadcasters because the new approach to television was also proposed.
Thus, the BBC2 proposed programmes and shows which could be considered not only as alternative to the programmes broadcasted on the BBC but also as experimental in their nature to meet the needs and interests of the audience.
Furthermore, according to Caughie, “the peculiar conjuncture in public service broadcasting produced by the Pilkington Report and the expansion of BBC2 opened a space in television drama in which social responsibility was particularly available for political appropriation and challenging reinterpretation” (Caughie 2000, p. 104).
On the contrary, many television series proposed by the ITV were criticised by the authors of the report because of their ‘triviality’, violent character, and focus on naturalism.
With launching the BBC2, broadcasters and directors proposed the new vision of the television show and focused on television drama. These new programmes and dramas were developed according to the principles of social responsibility mentioned in the report, and these programmes and shows were positively accepted by both the political leaders and by the public (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962).
The opportunity for the ‘challenging reinterpretation’ of the programmes and dramas’ content also contributed to the reputation of the BBC2 as the alternative channel to meet the tendencies of the changing society. In addition, the BBC2 became the first channel which used the technology of 625 lines and the specific ultra-high frequency bands.
The focus on the use of 625 lines can be discussed as the most remarkable technological improvement related to broadcasting in the 1960s. It was proposed in the report to refer to the colour television depending on 625 lines and with references to the specific ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands.
This proposal was supported by the broadcasters and government, and the necessary preparation for using the new technologies was started in 1962 (Milland 2004, p. 80-81; Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962). As a result, the quality of broadcasting was increased significantly, and the audience could see the positive result with references to the BBC2 launched in 1964.
The Focus on the Quality of Television Programmes and the Avoidance of ‘Triviality’ as the Effects of the Pilkington Report
It is stated in the Pilkington Report that the trivial approach to broadcasting is the main problem associated with the quality of the programmes which can influence the society and its morality.
The authors of the report state that the trivial approach can be reflected “in a failure to respect the potentialities of the subject matter, no matter what it be, or in a too ready reliance on well-tried themes, or in a habit of conforming to established patterns” (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 34).
As a result, many programmes broadcasted by the ITV were discussed as trivial in their nature because the broadcasters were oriented to the public’s interests without paying attention to the issues of morality and without following their professional code (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 66).
From this perspective, the important effects of the Pilkington Report are the positive changes in the quality of the broadcasted programmes because the broadcasters chose to concentrate on proposing the high-quality programmes and shows where violence and naturalism were replaced with the focus on realism.
Thus, the idea of the necessity of high-quality programmes is clearly reflected in criticism of the ITV content presented in the report.
It was also stated in the Pilkington Report that the quality of television was closely associated with the quality of drama, programmes, and series broadcasted (Report of the Committee on Broadcasting 1962, p. 65).
As a result, the demand for the new drama was accentuated. Much attention was paid to the progress from naturalism, which was often associated with ‘triviality’ and as it was discussed by the television critics, to realism.
Thus, Caughie states that in the 1960s and after, “in writing about television drama at every level, naturalism appears simply as bad realism, associated with sordidness, boredom, the kitchen sink” (Caughie 2000, p. 96). That is why, the focuses on the new realistic programmes and shows are necessary in order to promote the high-quality television and respond to the interests of the public.
The genre of the realistic drama-documentary developed, and BBC as a ‘serious’ channel and BBC2 as the alternative channel broadcasted the most powerful dramas among which it is necessary to concentrate on Up the Junction (1965) and Cathy Come Home (1966).
According to Caughie, in Cathy Come Home, the principles of the documentary drama are reflected even more vividly than in Up the Junction.
There is the “journalistic sense of message, a message given an urgency which seems to require a stronger central narrative and a greater authority for the documentary evidence”, and moreover, the documentary voices “are no longer at odds with the image, as they are in the quite radical juxtaposition of the love scene in the derelict building in Up the Junction” (Caughie 2000, p. 119).
Thus, Caughie discusses the fact of the focus on realism typical for the programmes and drama documentaries of the 1960s as important to speak about the positive effects of the shift on the development of the television content’s quality. From this perspective, the Pilkington Report was rather effective to affect the quality of the contents proposed by the broadcasters.
Conclusion In spite of the fact that the Pilkington Report published in 1962 was actively criticised by the broadcasters, government, sponsors, and the public, the role of the report in the development of the British Television in the 1960s is significant.
The examples of the main positive effects of the Pilkington Report on the progress of the British Television are the allocation of the third channel, the shift to the new colour television on 625 lines, and the improvement of the content quality.
Although such proposals as the re-organisation of the ITV and the reformation of the principles related to the commercial television were not supported by the government and reflected in the associated legislation, the Pilkington Report drew the government and public’s attention to the issues.
Although the Pilkington Report is often discussed as ineffective to propose the successful improvements because of the focus on radical discussions ands conclusions, the role of the report is significant because some of its recommendations contributed to discussing the period of the 1960s as the era of the British Television’s progress.
The focus on the new technologies such as the 625 lines and UHF bands is closely associated with the report’s recommendations; the increased choice of programmes is the direct result of launching the third channel; and the concentration on the social responsibility of the broadcasters is also the direct effect of presenting the Pilkington Report in 1962.
Reference List Caughie, J 2000, ‘The rush of the real’, in J Caughie (ed.), Television drama: Realism, modernism and British culture, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 88-124.
Milland, J 2004, ‘Courting Malvolio: The background to the Pilkington Committee on Broadcasting, 1960-62’, Contemporary British History, vol. 18. no. 2, pp. 76-102.
Report of the Committee on Broadcasting, 1960 1962, HMS Office, London.
Qatar Foundation and the Related Issues Case Study custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Corporate and Social Responsibility
Corporate Values and Mission
Introduction Supporting education, researches and community development is crucial for any state; therefore, the significance of such organizations as Qatar Foundation cannot be overestimated.
Providing sufficient resources for the evolution of the state economy by offering decent academic opportunities and chances for conducting new and important researches, such organizations not only create the environment for future progress, but also improve the reputation of the state.
In a very unique manner, the people at the helm of the organization have managed to incorporate the elements of politics, economy, science and culture into their organization’s key concerns, which allows for an all-embracing look at the state of affairs within the country.
Although Collis (1998) and Goold and Campbell (1998) tackle seemingly different problems regarding the Qatar economy and politics, they still consider the same issue that the Qatar Foundation does, and provide the solutions to the problems that the Qatar Foundation defines as the ones that require immediate solutions.
Corporate and Social Responsibility In his article, Collis renders the issue that the Qatar Foundation has also handled a few times already, i.e., the potential of corporate advantage and the means to create it.
While the leaders of the Qatar Foundation are clearly interested in the creative aspect of an organization’s rather than in the economical one, they still put a strong emphasis on the significance of corporate responsibility: “Ooredoo will also provide scholarships and training for CMU-Q students, and encourage them to volunteer for community service projects in the country, in line with Ooredoo’s corporate social responsibility strategy” (Qatar Foundation 2013, para. 4).
Corporate Values and Mission Goold and Campbell, on the other hand, consider an issue that belongs to the field of corporate values, as well as the definition of the corporate mission and vision. The authors, however, do not analyze the phenomenon of mergers as a whole and prefer to consider a particular specimen, which is known as synergy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Goold and Campbell also point at the necessity for companies to acquire new partners and even create mergers and acquisitions within the realm of the globalized economy, the authors are obviously more skeptical towards the effects that mergers have on the values of a company: “The pursuit of synergy often distracts managers’ attention from the nuts and bolts of their businesses” (Goold
Strategic Business Plan for Elite: When Objectives Comply with the Needs of the Market Place Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Executive Summary: Key Goals and Objectives of the Research The given paper is devoted to studying the key methods of promoting the Elite Company products in the Asian, European and American markets. Despite its success in its home market, the company clearly needs to expand and, therefore, has to define its key objectives and strategies in entirely new environments of the three markets in question.
Although each of the markets has its unique features, it can be assumed that, by creating a strong and cohesive strategy aimed at attracting more customers, as well as establishing reasonable and attainable objectives, Elite is going to succeed in each of the three markets.
The key goals of the given research, therefore, are locating Elite’s key strengths and weaknesses, setting the company’s objectives and choosing the strategies that will help Elite conquer the Asian, European and American markets.
It is especially important to make sure that the strategies chosen for Elite align with the demands of the customers from each of the three markets and make the company competitive compared to the major rivals in every target market.
Seeing how Elite’s mission is to keep in pace with the customers’ demands, the company will have to gear its strategies towards the specifics of each market and make sure that the technologies of the finest quality are utilized in the production process.
By introducing the objectives that will define the company’s further financial strategies and help the Elite Company provide its clients with the handsets of the best quality, the company leader will be capable of increasing the company’s net profits within a comparatively short amount of time.
Introduction: Situation Analysis. Elite within the Context of the Target Market Elite is not the first company that came up with an idea to sell handset appliances; nor is it the leading firm in the given industry. However, the company does offer unique opportunities to its clients, such as the chances to acquire the products created in accordance with the highest standards and the latest technologies. Therefore, the quality standards of the products promoted by the company are quite high.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the risks are much higher for selling handsets in Europe and the USA, it is important for a company to expand when the time comes. Seeing how Elite has already made an impressive start in the home market, it is time for the company to expand and integrate into the global market.
In addition, it is imperative for Elite to build more plants and use new technologies in the production process, which the Asian, European and American markets will help achieve.
Industry: handsets production and distribution within the context of Europe, Asia and the USA.
As it has been stressed above, the situation regarding handset appliances is different in each of the areas mentioned above. As a result, the company considers each of the markets from a different angle. While the American and Asian markets are viewed primarily as the locations for the plants to be built, the European market will be considered solely as the place for wholesale and retail business.
It is also remarkable that in the U.S. and European markets, features of the product in question are significant, while in the Asian market, customers are more concerned with the price of the goods. Consequently, the strategy for selling goods to each of the target customer groups will be based on the demands and preferences that the specified region is known for.
Competitive situation The recent analysis of the U.S. research and development market has shown that the industry is dominated by iPhoenix, SoftTouch, TechMobile, HctPhones, L’Etoile and Mobile, Inc. (Cesim, n. d.). The Asian and European markets also have very recognizable brands.
It must be admitted that Elite will need a considerable effort to integrate into each of the three markets successfully and land at least in the top ten of the most successful handset devices producer and distributor. To conquer the market and beat its rivals, Elite will have to use the current competitive situation to the company’s advantage.
We will write a custom Assessment on Strategic Business Plan for Elite: When Objectives Comply with the Needs of the Market Place specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competitive advantage Elite’s competitive advantage can be defined by several key features of the company; however, primarily, the given factor concerns the fact that the firm is relatively young compared to the rest of the entrepreneurships.
On the one hand, the given factor can be seen as an obvious disadvantage, seeing how it presupposes a considerable lack of experience and, therefore, means that the company will be exposed to the risks of making a lot of mistakes. On the other hand, though, Elite has clearly very little to lose, seeing how it is only starting to gain recognition within the specified field.
Therefore, even after making several mistakes in its strategies or their implementation, the company will be able to get over a crisis caused by a wrong move relatively easy, unlike major companies, which are doubtlessly going to be crashed by a sudden crisis or the outcomes of a wrong decision. Therefore, the Elite Company’s competitive advantage concerns its openness to changes and improvement of product quality.
The Elite Company within the handsets production industry: potential and challenges Much like its rivals, the Elite Company has a number of assets that it can utilize to its advantage. As it has been stressed above, the fact that the company lacks experience in working within the international setting and operating in the globalized environment will definitely have a couple of negative effects on Elite’s operations and especially the company’s financial transactions.
It would be wrong to assume that all of the expectations are going to be met in the course of implementing the strategies that will be provided below. Nevertheless, Elite has a great potential; therefore, further expansion is the only logical step in Elite’s evolution.
Past performances and three key ratios According to the existing data, the company’s past performance is quite impressive. Elite managed to beat its rivals within its home market and advance far enough to enter the global economy stage.
Profitability ratio (Return on Equity Ratio, or ROE) is the first ratio to be used in the course of the research and the simulation. In contrast to the other significant ratio, EPS, ROE does not define the immediate profit; instead, it provides the data on the income that the company will gain in the long term.
Helping locate the data concerning the net equity on a particular fiscal year, 2014 in the given case, the ROE analysis will provide the information regarding the benefits that Elite will obtain from each of the markets under consideration. Therefore, an analysis of the Elite’s opportunities in each market becomes possible with the ROE evaluation (approximately 11%).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Business Plan for Elite: When Objectives Comply with the Needs of the Market Place by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Next, to leverage ratios, it will be required to introduce the Debt Ratio (DR) and Net Debt to Equity Ratio, or gearing. Allowing for an analysis of the company’s assets and liabilities, the given data will help determine Elite’s possible losses and, therefore, is crucial for evaluating Elite’s chances for becoming competitive within the handset appliances market.
As long as the company’s DR is lower than 20%, rapid growth within the US, European and Asian markets can be expected, since the company’s profit is expected to be 20% at the very least. It is estimated that the company’s DR will be equal to approximately 15%.
Finally, it will be required to consider the Market Ratio, or Earnings per Share Ratio (EPS). The significance of the given ratio cannot be overestimated; knowing the EPS, it is possible to come up with a reasonable income statement and decide whether the strategies defined for the company’s further course are adequate to Elite’s needs and whether the company’s objectives are actually attainable. It is assumed that Elite’s EPS will be equal to $2.10.
SWOT analysis Strengths
Despite its obvious lack of experience, Elite definitely has a number of strengths, its openness to innovations and changes being the key one.
Indeed, while the company’s inexperience regarding the financial operations within the realm of the globalized market does seem a major problem, the fact that the Elite Company does not have a major strategy makes it less dependable on, which all its financial transactions and choices are based on, makes the firm somewhat omnipotent within the target market in that Elite is actually free to bend and shape its strategy any way that the company leader wants without drastic consequences for the company and its revenues – the deviations from the traditional course will not affect the company’s revenues, because there is no traditional course to begin with.
In addition to the fact that the Elite Company is ready for significant changes in its business and financial strategies, the firm’s cost position deserves to be mentioned among its obvious strengths.
Although one might argue that the cost position only increased over time in each of the target markets, compared to the corresponding data regarding the company’s revenues, the given characteristics has been improved quite a few notches. For example, in the Asian market, the costs were reduced by 1,611.4% (from $418,964to $26,000), whereas the profit was dropped by 279% (from $66,142 to 23,650).
Despite the fact that the costs still remain higher than the income, the positive dynamics in the company’s financial transactions shows that Elite is on the right track. The same can be said about the European and the American markets.
According to the recent data, the costs and expenses total declined from $246,965 to$17,600 (1400%), while the profit dropped from $90,125 to –$17,179 (624%) for Elite in the European market.
Speaking of the company’s success in the USA, one should bring up the fact that the amount of total costs was raised by 7,183%, while the profit that the company made estimated 9,226%. With this information in mind, the company should, probably, explore the chances that the U.S. market opens for it.
Unfortunately, most of the strengths mentioned above are balanced out by the company’s weaknesses, the lack of recognition being, perhaps, the key one. Indeed, unlike the rest of the companies, which, at the very least, have become quite recognizable brands, Elite is only starting to explore its potential as a member of the global market net. Hence, the lack of proper experience can be seen as a major drawback.
Another obvious feature that Elite will most likely have serious issues with concerns the fact that Elite needs to align its objectives in accordance with the demands of the target audience.
In other words, it is crucial that the company’s objectives should be suitable for the Asian, American and European markets at the same time. However, by getting its priorities in line and conducting a thorough analysis of the customers’ demands in each market, Elite will most probably succeed.
Elite will have a number of opportunities as long as the company gets its priorities straight. It is remarkable that, though the company clearly has very strong opponents, the past financial statement of the latter shows a rapid reduction of the total number of liabilities, with their last total number being lower than the previous one.
Therefore, it can be assumed that the Elite Company has impressive chances to increase its profit for the round, much like the US handset industry did previously, only making the retained earnings somewhat higher, which created pretty difficult environment for the industry to develop in because of the losses taken).
The same cannot be said about the Asian market, though; according to the annual balance sheet, the public enterprises controlling the industry of handset devices are doing not so good, with an impressive decrease in the operating profit and the profit for the year (a drop by $102,431) and a sharp decline in the profit for the year (from $77,814 to – $23,610).
One may assume that locating the company’s plants in Asia and the USA, while targeting at the Asian and European markets as the venues for trade seems reasonable.
The given choice was predetermined by the fact that the American and European states will provide sufficient resources of high quality, while Asia and Europe allow for vast and comparatively cheap promotion campaigns.However, by far the most impressive breakthrough concerns the situation within the European market.
While in the year prior to the company’s plans on extension, the participation in the European market brought mostly considerable reductions in the company’s revenues and nearly signified Elite’s end, the next year’s income statement showed that the company can, in fact, attract an impressive number of customers in Europe and even surpass the competitors, seeing how the income statement for the European market showed that Elite’s competitors gained a – $17,179 profit for the year previously.
Compared to the $90,125 that Elite’s rivals obtained in the same market the year prior, the given sum shows that they do have a very strong potential. The aforementioned fact that the rivals’ costs are rising in a geometrical progression gives reasons to assume that Elite has very strong chances of succeeding once attracting the potential customers.
Unfortunately, the company also faces a number of threats, the key one being the lack of information concerning the target market and the demands that its customers have for handset devices.
While the Elite Company has gathered admittedly large information concerning the net income of the U.S., European and Asian markets, according to the data acquired from the two previous years of the company’s experience, there is still very little data concerning what the customers actually want, which raises a few questions about the strategies that will have to be used to promote the product.
Therefore, the key threat associated with the financial position of the company is that Elite will not be able to coordinate its strategy and objectives with the current demand of the target markets.
The given threat, however, is relatively easy to tackle. By analyzing the handsets retail statistics within the specified regions, one will be able to come up with a cohesive and adequate plan concerning the future product line and the people whom it is going to target.
Significant issues to be faced Like any other company, Elite is going to face several issues in introducing its product into the new markets, the first and the most important one concerning the probable cultural dissonance and complexities related to the promotion program.
The target audience is very different, with USA, Europe and Asia having their distinct cultural specifics that clearly need to be addressed when defining the firm’s strategy. Hence, Elite is most likely to bump into cultural barriers when offering its products to the specified regions.
Another obvious issue concerns the fact that Elite’s revenues grow much slower than its costs do. True, there is a positive tendency in the company’s financial state, yet the company’s profit for the year has been shrunken down considerably.
The changes in the Elite Company’s annual profit margins, which have been described above, are very impressive; however, unless the company maintains its tendency of profit increase and at the same time finds the way to cut the costs for its performance, Elite might fail to withstand the pressure of competition on the global level.
Strategic Plan: Using the Company’s Assets the Right Way Mission statement: Elite, its key goals and the means to attain these goals.
Elite is one of the numerous companies that deal with producing and selling handsets. Elite strives to provide the customers with the handsets of the finest quality.
The firm manages to retain its customers and attract new ones, therefore, creating a base of loyal clients, by incorporating the policy of reasonable prices with the policy of maintaining high quality standards. What makes Elite special is the company’s attention to the customers’ needs and demands.
General strategy: Choosing the course of the company’s evolution
The company’s general strategy will be aimed at tying Elite’s objectives to the demands of the customers in three target markets. The given choice can be defined as strategic development and is used because of its immediate effect, which allows for capturing more new customers.
Long-range goals and objectives: What can be expected in the distant future. The method of balanced scorecard
Before going any further, it is necessary to stress that the objectives, which are going to be created for the Elite Company, are going to be based on the SMART principle.
Being targeted at five different aspects of an organization functioning at the same time, i.e., allowing for making the objectives more specific, introducing the means to measure them, making them more attainable and reasonable, as well as time-bound, is extremely important for a company to be able to link these objectives to the customers’ demands, which is exactly what the Elite Company needs at present.
Therefore, each of the company objectives listed below is also going to align with the key principles of the SMART methodology. Unless Elite creates the strategies that will provide a better connection to the target audience and understand the demands of the latter to promote customer satisfaction, the Elite Company may face the threat of failure. Elite’s financial objectives are:
15% increase in annual revenues;
3% increase annually in after-tax profits;
Profit margins of 9%;
25% return on capital employed (ROCE);
Sufficient internal cash flows to fund 100% of new capital investment
The company’s strategic objectives will include:
Winning an 11% market share;
Achieving a customer retention rate of 20%;
Acquire 100,000 new customers;
Reduce product defects to 5%;
Introduction of 2 new products (new models of handsets) in the next three years.
First long-range goal: using the existing assets efficiently
First and foremost, it is crucial that Elite should be aware of the demands that customers pose to other companies providing handset devices within the American, Asian and European markets.
Although the key factors according to which the given products are evaluated in these markets are relatively similar, due to the specifics of each target audience’s culture, considerable variations in demands can be found when analyzing these demands within the environment of each market closer.
However, the given goal is only attainable once the company uses its potential to the maximum. Therefore, the first goal for the company to achieve concerns the use of the company’s assets. It will take approximately four years to achieve the given goal.
Second long-range goal: creating a base of loyal customers
As it has been stressed above, due to the fact that Elite is being targeted at three markets simultaneously it will be required to make sure that the Elite Company will have a base of loyal clients.
The given goal is only attainable, however, once the target markets are analyzed carefully and the demands of the customers are taken into account. As it has been noted above, the key problem that the Elite Company will most likely have in the course of integrating into the global market concerns the sampling procedures.
The given procedures are crucial in order to define the demands of the target audience and will be carried out as surveys and opinion polls, as well as the analyses of the market statistics.
According to the SMART objectives building principle, the given goal is quite specific, seeing how it addresses particular markets and specific target groups; in addition, it is quite attainable, since it presupposes gathering and analyzing information regarding the Asian, American and European markets.
It is quite reasonable, since the given objective leads to a better understanding of the functioning of the target market and helps tie the objective and the new company strategy together. Finally, by setting a specific time frame, for example, three weeks, Elite leader will make the given objective time-bound and, thus, aligning perfectly with the SMART principles.
First objective: defining the future costs in each of the markets
One of the most important tasks, counting the possible amount of losses will help the Elite Company define the potential total profit and, therefore, decide whether pursuing the given market is actually worth the while. It is crucial that the probing of the target market should be very quick and at the same time provide accurate results.
Analyzing the given objective from the perspective of the SMART principles, one will realize that it is rather specific, since it is aimed at particular markets and a defined audience (i.e., the Asian, American and European handset appliances markets and the people aged 18–65, who are most likely to be interested in the given type of products).
Speaking of the means to measure the given objective, one may suggest that the number of demands that can possibly be met divided by the total number of demands processed should be an adequate means to measure the results.
The given procedure is very reasonable, since it allows figuring out whether it is actually possible to succeed in the specified markets. Finally, in terms of time boundaries, the given objective cannot be considered time consuming, since the process of acquiring and processing the necessary information is going to take a week at the very most.
It is crucial that Elite should find out the details regarding the future costs for more reasons than the calculations of the money that will have to be used for promoting the company brand within the specified market.
Seeing how Elite already has several rivals within the context of the Asian, European and American markets, it will be reasonable to suggest that creating a unique strategy of taking less costs than any of the competitors will help Elite establish a strong influence in these markets and, thus, beat the rivals.
Second objective: increasing internal cash flows for funding capital investment
To define Elite’s value in the three markets mentioned above, it is imperative that the company should be able to increase its internal cash flow. The given step is crucial for having the funds for capital investment and, therefore, for a better control over the three markets in question.
It should be noted, though, that, in contrast to the rest of the objectives, the given one is linked directly to the company’s promotion campaign and reputation, since this objective presupposes a search for the company’s future investors.
There are several ways for Elite to increase its internal cash flow; however, by far the most efficient one is linked directly to the second goal of the Elite Company, i.e., attracting more customers. To make the company’s customers loyal, however, a specific strategy will be required.
To be more exact, it will be necessary to come up with a legend that will represent the company and its values and, thus, enable Elite to sell the customers not only the products, but also the legend behind them. Thus, Elite will have a particular group of the clients returning over and over again.
Another possible means to increase the company’s cash flow concerns the efficiency of the Elite Company’s transaction activities. When it comes to analyzing the strategies that average companies use for not only financial, but also the transactions regarding the informational technology sphere, especially the ones on information transfer and processing, an impressive range of costs is often revealed.
Therefore, it will be reasonable to consider the use of the company inventory in order figure out whether every single item is used to its full potential.
There is no need to stress the fact that the given objective is very specific; it is targeted at particular elements of the company’s operations, and for serious reasons. Speaking of the measurement of the progress after the given objective is met, one might suggest that the output–input ratio for every single inventory of the company should be calculated, with an average mean defined afterwards.
Although it is hard to predict the outcomes of the given step, seeing how it will take much time to evaluate the efficacy of the company’s inventory, it can be assumed that an average mean of 85% is going to be an acceptable threshold.
It should also be noted that the given objective is quite attainable, seeing how the subject of the changes and the reasons for the latter are clearly defined. It is assumed that the given objective will be met within two months.
Third objective: attract 12% of the target audience in the European, USA and Asian markets
The last, but definitely not the least, the need to attract more clientele into the company is clearly Elite’s key objective at present. In fact, the two objectives listed previously are merely the tools for attaining the third one. The more clients Elite has, the more chances it will have to surpass the competitors and the more opportunities it is going to enjoy in terms of expansion into the global market.
Analyzing the given objective in accordance with the SMART criteria, one should note that it is clearly very specific and quite measurable.
With an actual goal of 12% of the entire market to be attracted, there is no need to provide the exact number of customers, though; due to the possible changes within the handset appliances market, it will be required to conduct calculations on a regular basis to figure out the actual percentage of the Elite customers at a particular point of time.
The reasons for attracting 12% of the entire market are quite obvious – Elite needs to not only make a statement in the current handset appliances market, but also surpass the competitors. Since Elite has eight (8) competitors at present and is the ninth one, it is reasonable to assume that any number of customers that is higher than an average mean of customers per company (
, Cx amounting to 1 (one company), the result being roughly 11%) can be defined as a doubtless success.
Speaking of the time that the given process is bound to take, one must admit that Elite will have to be very patient. With all due respect to the idea of an effective introduction of the company with the help of a flashy promotion campaign, such methods will only help trigger customers’ interest, yet will hardly suffice to retain their attention.
A development of a smart and cohesive legend, on the contrary, must result in a consistent interest from the target audience, yet will require much time for the legend to be planted into the customers’ minds. The given objective is expected to be achieved within six months.
Projected operational plans: Defining the company’s strategy within the current market Apart from coming up with long-term strategies related to Elite’s vision, it is also necessary to introduce the plans that can be used as guideline in taking the first steps in the new economic environment.
Production. What is going to be sold to the end customer: the legend behind the product
Speaking of the actual products, Elite is going to provide the traditional range of handset appliances, the inventory including handsets for phones and cordless (cellular) phone handsets. Defining the capacity of the handsets, one must mention that it is going to vary depending on the height above the ground; however, on average, the capacity is going to equal roughly 700–800 MHz to 2.3–2.6 GHz.
Finally, speaking of the R
QFD in Oil essay help
Project Structure The first section of the project presented introduction and literature review about engineering capabilities and house of quality in the oil and gas industry. These studies show that a focus o house of quality can improve engineering capabilities and customer requirement outcomes.
The second section of the paper presented research objectives with a focus on the relationship between engineering capabilities and customer requirements, which forms the research hypotheses.
The research method section shows the research design. The is a mixed methods approach that combined both qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to understand how high standards of engineering capabilities would affect operational efficiency and customer satisfaction at Emirates Gas LLC.
It also has data collection method. The researcher collected relevant data through questionnaires and interviews with operation managers and supervisors.
The data analysis and study result section showed that the researcher used descriptive analysis for tables, percentages, and frequencies while SPSS was used to show the correlation between improved engineering capabilities and improvement on customer requirements.
This analysis also confirmed the research hypotheses. Finally, the paper presented recommendation on house of quality and conclusion by showing that improved engineering capabilities led to increased customer requirements, satisfaction, and retention.
Research objectives To address and examine the company’s technical capabilities (engineering capabilities)
To understand and prioritise needs of customers
To understand operational challenges and recommend methods of enhancing them
To explore the relationship between engineering capabilities and customer requirement
Research hypotheses high standards of engineering capabilities would not lead to operational efficiency and customer satisfaction
high standards of engineering capabilities would lead to operational efficiency and customer satisfaction
Research Method This study used a mixed methods approach that combined both qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to understand how high standards of engineering capabilities would affect operational efficiency and customer satisfaction at Emirates Gas LLC. The researcher used a mixed methods approach in order to achieve the following advantages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, the study achieved the research validity by using triangulation. Triangulation entails verification of evaluation results. For instance, the researcher would use both qualitative and quantitative approaches in order to assess impacts of high standards of engineering capabilities on operational efficiency. Second, the researcher ensured validity and interpretability of the process through a mixed methods approach.
Qualitative study A qualitative approach allows for an effective way of understanding research aspects when not much is known about the research issue (Creswell, 2008; Johnson and Christensen, 2010).
A qualitative approach ensured that the researcher gathered information for in-depth analysis of impacts of engineering capabilities and formulated effective ways of developing appropriate interventions for house of quality for customer service enhancement. In other words, the researcher was able to offer a comprehensive view of the research (Steinberg, Bringle and Williams, 2010).
The qualitative research approach is an iterative method to study the engineering processes, house of quality, and customer satisfaction at Emirates Gas LLC. Thus, the researcher relied on discovery methods in order to find effective ways of gathering the needed information.
In this regard, the researcher reviewed available studies in order to identify a general theme or pattern in engineering capabilities and customer service outcomes. Still, this method allowed the researcher to change the study in order to provide new points of view based on emerging themes.
This was an iterative process, which the researcher conducted several times before data analysis and interpretation of the findings. It ensured that the researcher collected only relevant data in the study as the process unfolded. Patton suggests the use of an open-ended approach in this type of study (Patton, 2002).
Nonetheless, the researcher specified what areas of the study to focus on prior to the beginning of the study, but he noted that these areas of the study were subjected to changes as the study progressed and new methods of inquiry emerged.
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“Nature” Versus “Nurture”: Effects on Child Development Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The nature versus nurture controversy can be perceived as the roles played by heredity or inheritance as well as the environment in the development of human beings. The behavior of human beings is thus attributed to genetic predisposition, a phenomenon commonly referred to as the nature theory of human behavior (Keltner, James, Darling, Findley
Teacher Using Cooking Activity Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Promoting /cognitive development
Introduction Teaching five year old is as tricky as dealing with two year old children. Five year olds also have special needs that are critical to their growth and development. In this case, the five year olds perception and cognitive abilities must be harnessed in school for better understanding and good academic performance. In this case, a teacher may come up with activities that a five year old learner can cognitively understand or perceive. It is therefore, recommendable for teachers to use activities such as cooking, while teaching five year olds.
Perceptual development Perceptual development is an aspect of cognitive development concept that describes the psychological development of a human being. In this case, development is majorly concerned with children, as it deals with sensory aspects of a child. For example, the aspect of a child being able to perceive, understand and interpret is considered as development.
Cognitive development Cognitive development is a broader term that encompasses development and also deals with perceiving and understanding of concepts. However, cognitive development deals with the memory, the ability to concentrate and use of logical thinking and skills.
Promoting /cognitive development According to Saracho (1997), research has found that some activities that engage the child in the very activity improve perception and cognition abilities. Cooking is one of the activities that a teacher can use to involve the five year olds. Such activities are basically in form of demonstrations in a lesson. It is important to note that a child attention is captivated by the activity conducted by the teacher.
At this juncture, a teacher can engage the student in other lessons through explanations. Nonetheless, the child must be part of the activity. For example, the teacher can instruct the student to help in adding ingredients in whatever is being cooked. In so doing the teacher can come up with other activities that students can complete on their own. In the very process, a child develops the use of logical thinking by observing the process of cooking.
Using activities such as cooking, explains that action can be a supplementary of perceptual input. Considering that children are able to perceive an action as part of their own doing, the teacher can test the students with similar activities to assess their cognitive abilities.
A cooking activity has the potential of influencing perception and cognitive ability in that it involves action production-observation matching system. Another reason as to why a cooking activity by the teacher could be used in teaching five year olds is that such activities are considered to be motor actions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The teacher cooks by using various hand and wrist movements and such can be constructed internally by a child, thus developing a mental representation of the activity. If a child is able to remember such movements in cooking, it is because they are mentally constructed. This is a sign of attentiveness of children in the classroom.
As indicated earlier, activities such as cooking can be a major factor in provoking sensory elements in a child. The smell of food, the color of the food being cooked and ingredients used can be instrumental in helping the child learn and name objects. For example, a five year old child can learn that there exist different odors and different colors.
Moreover, activities such a cooking can be instrumental in inspiring children take part in scientific studies, where elements such as water and salt are being used. It is therefore recommendable that lessons with interesting activities be used in teaching five year olds.
References Marotz, L. R.
The One Percent and Occupy Wall Street Essay a level english language essay help
Occupy Wall Street is a movement, whose purpose is to fight against the excess of the Wall Street. The followers of the movement decried the apparent rate of income inequality; pushing for economic rights of the 99%. The bottom 90% of Americans earns yearly an average of $31,244 while the top 1% is making an average of $1,137,684.
Further, compare that the top 1% have 34.6% of American GDP while the bottom 90% contribute 26.9% of GDP. Without considering, top 1% in the apparent American income inequality equation, it falls from the current 11% to 6%.
Though 50% of the top 1% has a distribution among various professions, Wall Street contributes close to 50% of the top 1% richest Americans. First, directly through top executives and financial professions who make each 31.0% and 13.9% respectively of this group, combined they are over 40%.
Secondly, addition of some lawyers (8.4%), especially considering the substantial number of layers in business law and the total sum of the group, who derive wealth from the Wall Street, is close or just above 50%. Looking into the income distribution within corporate America validates this point: the average employee makes close to 185 times less than average top Executive.
The changing fortunes of American economy indicate a growing income inequality in America and blaming income inequality to the top 20% instead of top 1% Americans is hypocritical: it is just a means to pacify the common person to get less people to join the movement. Over the years, income of the bottom 90% Americans has been constant; meanwhile, the top 1% has grown from just above $400,000 to $1,137,6849 (1980- 2008).
Even after the recent world financial crisis, while the American and European have had economic recovery job creation has been low in comparison to growth. More and more Americans are working at multiple jobs since 1990; increasingly less are under unions, more jobs move to other countries than job creation within USA.
The results are drastic. The minimum wage has grown 21% since 1990 while the cost of living by 67%. Wall Street profits grew by 720% between 2007 and 2009; also growing over this period, is the rate of employment at 102% while home equity fell by 55%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The top 10 richest congress members are worth a combined $2.8 billion. The rest are not considerably rich as this group but have an average wealth of $912,000. The first group all voted for Bush tax cuts; these among other tax breaks favoring rich are quite significant. Especially considering that while the average income of top 400 richest grew by 392% (1992-2007), their taxation rates fell on average by 37%.
In conclusion, ideal and current class stratification of American society is unfavorable: in comparison to top 1% average yearly income of $1,019,089, top 0.01% – 0.1% make $2,802,020; top 0.01% earn $23,846,950 on average over the same period while bottom 90% earn $31,244.
Certainly, Occupy Wall Street movement with its chant, claiming they are the 99%, has a valid argument for rebelling against the existing income inequality in USA.
Case: AES in Nigeria Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Before the establishment of AES in Nigeria, the country experienced enormous challenges concerning the distribution of power supply. The National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) was the major stakeholder in Nigeria power industry. On the other hand, due to monopoly granted by the government, the body was not able to utilize its potential factors in the area of adequate service and maintenance.
In line with this, the overall power transmission lost an average of 30 to 40 percent and only 36 percent of the population had access to regular power supply. The nation main power distributor, National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) also experienced political manipulations that were meant to serve the interests of a few politically connected individuals. These challenges had a negative effect in the distribution of power supply to citizens (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
With the entry of the AES in Nigeria certain positive changes occurred. These changes led to the formation of a new electricity policy whose purpose was to privatize the energy sector completely and enhance competition and proper distribution of electricity in Nigeria. With this move, the government privatized most of the state owned enterprises (Azubuike, 2009, p.233).
Measuring AES success in Nigeria The measure of success by the AES should run directly proportional to its core principles and objectives. The AES can claim to succeed only if its projections in Nigeria are actualized. According to the core principles of the organization, four major values can be noted. The first value is integrity, this means the company values integrity in its operation and expects its personnel to carry out their duties with integrity (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
This fact however poses a huge challenge in implementing, because just like many African countries with bad reputation in fighting corruption, Nigeria is not an exception. However, integrity can be achieved by AES, if they strive to inculcate it into the organizations day-to-day operations and introducing incentives to those who maintain the true spirit of the company’s objectives (Azubuike, 2009; Zhang, 2013, p.2)
The second principle that the company holds dear is Fairness towards its customers, suppliers, personnel, government, and communities in which they operate. The organization maintains the policy against taking advantage of situations to gain profits and at the same time affecting others. This is a strategy by the organization that aims at gaining public confidence and trust.
Although most organizations that are profit driven usually ignore the importance of fairness whenever their interests are at stake, Fairness has proved to build good reputation for companies that practice this virtue. Fairness is achievable and AES can achieve this easily as part of their strategy (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third principle is Fun. AES desires that its employees have fun while working with the organization. However, this aspect depends on an individual, because most people end up being overwhelmed with work rather than enjoying what they do. If the organization can employ people who love what they do rather than what is being offered as payment, then this aspect will be fully actualized and they would consider themselves on the way to success (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
The fourth core principle is social responsibility. This aims at providing affordable services to customers and ensuring high degree of safety and reliability. This also includes providing employment to the surrounding community and ensuring a clean environment. If the company achieves its goal of replacing foreign expatriates with local skilled personnel, then, they can consider themselves as being successful (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
If the survey carried out in the case study is anything to go by, we would consider AES to be on the way to success since it had achieved some of its principles in its first year of operation in Nigeria (Zhang, 2013, p.2).
Reference List Azubuike, L. O. (2009). Privatization and Foreign investment in Nigeria. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.
Zhang, D. (2013). AES in Nigeria. Marketing Management Seminar 1 (8), 2-8.
Political Leadership and Organization Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Leadership is a vital component in every society. It defines the values, goals, and objectives of people in the society. Effective leadership not only defines these elements, but also determines how they are achieved. The success of the political leadership and organization emanate from the leadership style of the leader.
Therefore, to ensure success of political leadership, it is important to work with good leaders who are focused on positive results. Good leadership depends on the leader’s individual qualities or character (Crick 23).
Based on these assertions, this study will take a comparative stance by analyzing the good leaders, in particular Bill Clinton and John Kennedy. The characteristics of a bad leader will also be examined. In this comparison, the study will compare the New York Mayor Mr. Michael Bloomberg and the Toronto Mayor Mr. Rob Ford.
Hypothesis Political leadership and organization require the leader to exhibit exemplary characters of charisma, good interpersonal skills, results orientation and good problem solving skills (Wren 132). The personal qualities of a potential leader determine the outcome for the whole nation, so superior intelligence and education are a must. It is crucial that the person is respectable, reliable and just.
Since the market and economy greatly influence the outcome of the leader’s plans and goals it is their direct responsibility to predict any fluctuations and prevent loss of stability and control. This study will look at the relationship between a leader’s character and the success of the leadership style.
Empirical/ Theoretical gap Political leadership and organization are among the most interesting topics that have attracted attention of various researchers and authors. Every leader faces a theoretical gap in relation to the practical control and functioning of a nation, and the knowledge or empirical understanding that was gained prior to becoming a member of the office.
When an individual starts running for presidency or other leadership position, they will mobilize the resources and the political processes that are necessary for taking charge. Often, the internal politics are not as clear cut before the person gets the position in the government. As such, they must become aware of the current matters regarding the economy and policies that need to be changed or added.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every good leader has the ability to organize and mobilize forces that are directed towards the greater good of the nation. Sometimes, before the leader is selected, a candidate will make promises that sound fair, but the reality is somewhat skewed, as many details are still unknown.
As a result, the gap between theory and practice gets overlooked. This leads to promises that are broken, and a change in policies that was over optimistic beforehand. This is why foresight and empirical knowledge should be balanced with practice.
Mr. Bill Clinton William Jefferson Blythe III (Bill Clinton) was one of the youngest presidents in America. The leader was elected to the office of the president as the 42nd president of the United States of America. Bill Clinton was also among the first Democratic presidents who managed to serve two terms in the office.
Clinton attended Edmund Walsh School and Georgetown University where he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree (Morris 100). There are several factors that make Bill Clinton a good leader who has ever ruled the U.S. Apart from being a charismatic and influential individual, the leader is mainly remembered for significant contributions to the development of the country.
Bill Clinton was of one of the American presidents who managed to reduce the deficits in the federal budget and the economic recovery. The economic team appointed by the president played an important role in reducing the government expenditure and proper use of public resources.
On the political front, Clinton facilitated the change process in the Democratic Party by ensuring that the party was open to many Americans from various dimensions of social life. The leader changed the party to accommodate the needs of minorities and other groups in the country.
During Clinton’s reign, the Democratic Party played an important role in protecting the disadvantaged groups and stimulated economic development through government initiatives (Morris 112).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Political Leadership and Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Before his life in politics, Bill Clinton served in various leadership capacities. This therefore indicates that Clinton was born with leadership qualities. He became the student leader of Georgetown University and was also the leader of the music band in college.
Clinton was also involved in humanitarian initiatives displaying his leadership skills which made him an effective member. For instance, his reforms in the health sector were aimed at improving accessibility and quality of health care. He received higher ratings from the members of the public due to his charisma and concerted efforts to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS, as well as environmental problems such as global warming.
Mr. John Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States of America. His accession to power was marked by contention when he narrowly defeated the Republican candidate Mr. Richard Nixon. He served from 1961 to 1963 when he was assassinated during a public rally. Prior to his political career, John Kennedy was a leader in various capacities especially in the military.
His participation in the navy earned him recognition and awards for exemplary service. John Kennedy was a brilliant naval officer who is remembered for successfully leading his combat in Panama. In the navy, he rose to the ranks of a lieutenant and was in charge of a patrol board that toured the Pacific theater.
Kennedy became a hero in the military sector when he saved the lives of his fellow naval officers when their boat capsized (Alford
Evolutionary Psychology Essay cheap essay help
Assumptions of evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology originated from the Darwinian theory of natural selection. Darwin projected that psychology would later assume an evolutionary dimension through acquisition of different mental capabilities (Buss, 2005). This branch of psychology makes several assumptions in order to explain, diagnose, and treat mental or behavioural illness.
First, it assumes that the brain possesses the ability to process information and thus generate behaviour due to various internal and external stimuli (Buss, 2005). Second, the adaptive capabilities of the brain originated from natural and sexual selection. Sexual selection led to the evolution of adaptations related to mating and reproduction.
For males, it helps them compete for females while for females, it helps them to choose appropriate males for the purpose of reproduction. Third, the human evolutionary past was characterized by various neural mechanisms that played different roles such as finding solutions to problems (Buss, 2005). These mechanisms had their origin in natural selection.
Fourth, evolutionary psychologists assume that modern humans possess stone-age minds because the evolution of their brains led to the acquisition of different neural mechanisms that were necessary for problem solving (Buss, 2005). Fifth, there is an assumption that most brain processes and functions are executed unconsciously (Buss, 2005).
On the other hand, evolutionary psychologists assume that the tasks that humans find easy are not. They only appear easy because they are simplified by the unconscious mind that possesses complex neural mechanisms. Finally, evolutionary psychologists assume that human psychology comprises several specialized mechanisms that respond to different groups of information or stimuli (Buss, 2005).
Human behaviour is due to the synchronization of the inputs of these different mechanisms. These assumptions form the foundation of evolutionary psychology with regard to explication, diagnosis, and treatment of mental or behavioural illnesses.
These assumptions are based on the Darwinian concept of natural selection that was necessary because early humans needed to find solutions to their problems in order to enhance their survival.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evolutionary psychologists argue that natural selection was responsible for equipping humans with numerous psychological adaptations (Buss, 2005). They argue that this was similar to the mechanism through which humans gained their various anatomical and physiological adaptations. These adaptations are specialized for different environments in which humans live.
Examples of mental/ behavioural illness Depression has severe consequences that affect the survival of human species. For example, it makes people suicidal and less interested in certain activities. However, evolutionary psychologists have a different view of depression. They explain it as a way of developing enhanced mental skills (Trapani, 2010).
They argue that depression makes an individual focus on internal and external conflicts, thus improving their decision-making capabilities. When a person is depressed, the brain focuses all its energy and attention on the problem thus enabling the individual to find solutions to the problems (Trapani, 2010).
On the other hand, sadness enhances the ability of the brain to process information thus improving its ability to deal with complex and highly demanding situations. Depression also has a biological orientation. Children who come from families with histories of depression are likely to develop depression in the course of their lives. It helps them to adapt to different challenging environments and situations.
Autism is a condition that alters the ways people communicate and relates to those around them (Ploeger
“Taken” a Film by Pierre Morel Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
This essay is aimed at discussing the film Taken directed by Pierre Morel. In particular, it is necessary to analyze the content of this movie and its theme. On the whole, one can speak about the desperation of a father who must rescue his daughter.
Much attention should also be paid to the role of music in this cinematographic work. To a great extent, it reflects the inner world of the characters and enables viewers to sense their emotions. Furthermore, this element is important for creating the atmosphere of suspense and urgency. These are the main questions that should be examined more closely.
Taken tells the story of a former CIA agent Bryan Mills who attempts to rescue his daughter from human traffickers. It should be noted that Bryan tries to establish a closer relationship with his daughter Kim. Yet, she is kidnapped by people who want to sell her into sexual slavery.
In turn, the main character is forced to start the independent investigation in order to discover a network of gangsters who sell girls to wealthy clients.
These elements of the narrative are the most critical ones. In terms of its plot, this film can be viewed as an action film. However, it also throws light on the experiences of a parent who has to fight against heavy odds in effort to protect his only child. This is one of the aspects that can be identified.
This film explores several important themes. One of them is the relationship between a father and a daughter. It should be noted that for a long time, Bryan did not have an opportunity to be near Kim. He wants to become a good parent who can win the trust of his daughter, but she is kidnapped.
At this moment, Bryan understands that he may lose a person who is most dear to him. In this case, one should focus on the performance of Liam Neeson since this actor is able to reflect the main character’s desperation and his willingness to reunite with Kim.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, one can see that this person will stick at nothing in order to achieve this goal. For example, he is ready to torture other people, but this behavior can be explained by stress and willingness to punish those individuals who deprived him of his daughter. This is one of the points that can be made.
This movie can throw light on other important theme, namely the dehumanization of an individual. People are accustomed to thinking that every human being has an intrinsic value that cannot be measured. In turn, the authors of this film show that people can be treated as mere objects that can be put up to action.
Such individuals are able to turn human trafficking into a commercial activity that generates significant sums of money for them. Yet, they completely disregard the moral flaws of their behavior. Bryan must confront these people in order to save Kim.
Thus, the film-makers examine important ethical questions that should not be overlooked because they can affect thousands of people throughout the world. So, this theme is an important for understanding this movie.
It is also critical to discuss the way in which music supports this film. In this case, it can be viewed as non-diegetic sounds whose source cannot be identified or deduced. First, one can say that the soundtracks enhance the sense of suspense. To a great extent, they help the authors show that the protagonist is exposed to mortal danger. Moreover, it highlights the speed of action and urgency.
This argument is particular relevant if one speaks about the scenes depicting violence or pursuits. So, the music creates a certain mood or a continuing emotional state. In particular, one can speak about the anxiety that is shared by the viewers.
This technique is critical for engaging the audience and increasing the sense of reality. This is one of the ways in which music supports this film. This use of music is typical of action films or thrillers.
We will write a custom Essay on “Taken” a Film by Pierre Morel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the soundtracks included in the movie are used to signify very important moments in the plot. For example, one can mention the scene when the main character recognizes the voice of a gangster who could have kidnapped his daughter. At this moment, the audience can hear a very brief musical sample, which suggests that Bryan has discovered an important clue that can help him find his daughter.
Thus, the viewers can expect that the protagonist will do everything to learn where his daughter is. Therefore, music is important for the dynamics of the plot because it can highlight the key turning points. This is why its role should not be overlooked.
Moreover, the music reflects the inner world of the main character. In particular, it emphasizes the desperation that overwhelms Bryan. This protagonist knows clearly that he urgently needs to discover the traces which can lead to the gang; otherwise his daughter may be lost forever. This thought drives each of his actions. In turn, music prompts the audience to feel empathy with this person.
This is one of the effects that that the soundtracks produce. Additionally, one should bear in mind the music is also used to highlight Bryan’s attachment to his daughter and his understanding that he failed to become a good father for Kim.
The melody shows that the main character is overwhelmed by the feeling of loss or even depression. Thus, it is possible to argue that music throws light on the feelings that the protagonist does not want to speak about. So, this element is closely related to one of the main themes, namely the relations between Bryan and Kim.
Therefore, one can say that the music serves three important functions. First, it enhances the atmosphere of suspense and engages the viewers. Secondly, it enables the viewers to understand the emotions or feelings about which the main characters do not speak.
Finally, music facilitates the development of the plot. Thus, it is an important element of this film. It is essential for engaging the viewers and helping them see the world from the perspective of the protagonist. These are the main functions that can be singled out.
Overall, Taken can be distinguished among other action thrillers because it combines fast-paced plot, skillful performance, and music which enable viewers to empathize with the main characters. This film gives insights into the inner world of a person struggling of the life of his daughter.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Taken” a Film by Pierre Morel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the movie throws light on important moral issues such as the way in which an individual can be dehumanized. In turn, music prompts the viewers to identify themselves with the main character. Finally, it is useful for creating the atmosphere of suspense.
Themes, Content and the Power of Music in Iron Man: When the World Is Crumbling Essay college admissions essay help
When it was announced that the Marvel Studios was going to adapt one of the audience’s most beloved stories into a major feature length movie, the audience was hyped. Everyone wanted to see Iron Man on the big screen, and, one must admit, Jon Favreau did not upset people’s expectations.
Iron Man was huge not only because of the special effects, but also because of its likeable characters, the story arc of the lead hero, Tony Stark, and the complex ethical issues that the movie handled.
While the key theme of the movie clearly revolves around Tony Stark, the millionaire, Favreau also renders a range of ethical and philosophical issues. Among the key ones, a man’s role in society should be named.
Although Tony Stark seems to have all the power and money that a man may dream of, his story arc is clearly geared towards recognizing his place under the sun and changing from an arrogant snob into a hero in every meaning of the word.
Personal evolution, however, is not the only issue that the movie touches upon; Favreau offers his own take on political problems, including civil–military cooperation, terrorism in the Middle East, weapon trade, etc. Though widely considered misleading, the given interpretation of the current political issues is rather engaging and thought provoking.
Adapting a comic book into a movie is not an easy task for two reasons, the first one being the necessity to keep the original content intact, at the same time fitting several volumes into ninety minutes of running time, and the second one being the need to translate a comic book story, that is, a primarily visual narration, into a complex virtual world, in which visual and acoustic elements are combined.
Therefore, unlike in a comic book, in a movie, soundtracks play a huge role, which can be illustrated by taking the Iron Man soundtracks as an example.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no secret that taking the original story of the Iron Man without changing a few elements to add more credibility to it would have meant to shrink the range of the movie audience to the amount of the Iron Man diehard fans. The movie clearly needed a more mature character and a more serious atmosphere to it to look less goofy and at the same time retain its unique style.
Seeing how very little could be added to the story to make the idea of a man building a suit for flying more realistic, it was decided to use music to make people believe that the characters are real and, more importantly, want them to be real. The results were stunning, with literally every single lighthearted moment balanced out with a heavy soundtrack.
While the movie admittedly is too smart to take itself too seriously, the music adds the weight that the original story lacks to appeal to an average viewer, seeing how the number of soundtracks amounts to nineteen in the original release, and to twenty-seven in a DVD with extra scenes and director cuts.
The soundtracks are remarkably versatile; instead of recycling one and the same concept by putting the emphasis on action scenes, the movie allows for a number of quiet and, honestly, very sincere moments.
For instance, when Colonel Rhodes saves Stark’s life and the latter returns home, the first few seconds of the soundtrack actually land on a very peculiar note, leaving the feeling that the lead character experiences doubt and, perhaps, even fear.
The first few notes of the “Vacation’s over,” therefore, open a set of ethical questions to the audience, making it clear that the leading character doubts whether the Iron Man should resume his rescue mission or let the state defense forces do their job.
Not only does the theme make the character more humane and, therefore, more complex, but also raises the question whether becoming a vigilante is actually an ethically sober thing to do.
We will write a custom Essay on Themes, Content and the Power of Music in Iron Man: When the World Is Crumbling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Vacation’s over” feels like the character is actually starting to breathe and live on his own; however, the very next second, a powerful orchestral motif makes it clear that the movie does not have the time to explore the character’s doubts – the reluctantly heroic chords show that a major blockbuster did not dare to venture into the depth of a complex drama.
Nevertheless, the music does render the movie’s major themes successfully – it is just that the themes could have been explored in a much better way. To Ramin Djawadi’s credit, he does manage to address the major theme of the movie, the conflict of a rebel in the high class society, in a very impressive way.
“Institutionalized,” with its aggressive beat and intense lyrics manages to render the emotions of a rebel who is restricted by the social boundaries:
Sometimes I try to do things and it just doesn’t work out the way I wanted to. I get real frustrated and I try hard to do it and I take my time and it doesn’t work out the way I wanted to. (Marco Cárdenas Soler 0:17–0:33)
The seriousness of the issue raised in the movie, however, is often reduced by adding more laid-back music elements. For instance, the “Back in black/I hit the sack/It’s been too long I’m glad to be back” line from AC/DC’s “Back in Black” (Iron Man 1:04–1:07) is supposed to mark the first stage of the character’s evolution and define him as a self-assured million-dollar playboy.
As the movie progresses and the character evolves, however, the soundtrack is becoming heavier, still lending Tony Stark a unique air of nonchalance and affording being ironic towards the latter, as the “Are Those Bullet Holes?” (Iron Man 126:01) shows.
Speaking of music as a background for the characters to interact in, a number of movie directors seem to forget about the necessity to let the key film scenes breathe. As much as a movie needs music to create a specific mood, it is still required to have a couple of silent moments to let the atmosphere build up and to prepare the audience for another twist of the plot.
Luckily, Iron Man is one of the few movies that actually invites the audience to sink into its atmosphere and offers a decent payoff by using music as the means to put the emphasis on the climax. As the movie approaches the end credits and the leading character takes the floor at the conference, there is no soundtrack, and the entire scene seems rather ordinary and even mundane part of a life of a public person.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Themes, Content and the Power of Music in Iron Man: When the World Is Crumbling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, after Tony Stark confesses to be the Iron Man, the next scene explodes with music, doubtlessly leaving a big impact. The music, therefore, serves as the means to render the characters’ emotions, as well as to create a specific atmosphere, like music should.
Works Cited Marco Cárdenas SolerSuicidal Tendencies. “Institutionalized.” YouTube. Iron Man. Dir. Jon Favreau. Perf. Robert Downey, Jr., Terrence Howard
Vicarious Liability Research Paper college admission essay help
Abstract Vicarious liability is a class of liabilities that deals with transfer of liability from one party to another. This paper starts by an introduction of the doctrine of vicarious liability and proceeds to analyse the different ethical and legal issues surrounding the application of this doctrine.
The paper also highlights the applicability of vicarious liability in the contemporary times. The paper covers ethical issues in the application of employers’ vicarious liability, the application of the principals’ vicarious liability, the application of vicarious liability of corporations in tort, in vicarious employees’ continued liability and indemnity, and in vicarious parental liability.
Introduction Vicarious liability is a class of liabilities that deals with transfer of liability from one party to another. Vicarious liability operates under the doctrine of respondent superior, which puts legal responsibility to a superior for illegal behaviour or acts of the subordinates. Third parties are thus supposed to be ethical in their duties to avoid transfer of liability.
In the same way, vicarious liability puts legal responsibilities on third parties with the duty, responsibility, or right to monitor and direct their juniors who act illegally or commit a crime.
Vicarious liability can thus take the form of employers’ liability, parental liability, principals’ liability, corporations in tort liability, and continued liability, and indemnity of employees. All these liabilities have ethical issues to be considered during application. In various circumstances, it may be legal, but unethical to apply a particular vicarious liability.
Introduction to the doctrine of vicarious liability As aforementioned, vicarious liability operates under the doctrine of respondent superior and this doctrine puts legal responsibility to a superior for illegal behaviour or acts of subordinates. In essence, vicarious liability involves transfer of liability from one party to another. However, various ethical and legal justifications surround the application of vicarious liability laws.
Ethical doctrines guide the society in judging between what is right and what is wrong. The questions raised here include questions on whether in the application of vicarious liability to employer due to liabilities caused by employees is ethical and whether the application of vicarious corporation torts is ethical when an employee involves himself or herself in deals that cause the company certain amount of liability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another question is whether in the application of principals’ liability, it is ethical, especially when a person legalised to operate a machine; for example, a car, causes an accident and the owner is made liable by law.
Others include whether it is ethical in the application of employee continued liability and indemnification when the owner of a learning institution is made liable to a liability caused by an independent contractor and the question of whether it is ethical to make parents liable for the liabilities caused by their truant children.
This paper seeks to discuss ethical issues in vicarious liability and its appropriateness in the modern world through exemplification.
Ethical and legal justifications for the doctrine of vicarious liability Both employees and employers have raised various issues concerning ethical considerations in the application of vicarious liability in employers’ vicarious liability. In this doctrine, the employer is held responsible whenever his or her employees commit an act of omission or negligence in their line of duty. Therefore, it is questionable whether it is ethical to hold the employer liable for liabilities caused by his or her employees.
Giliker (2011) argues that under the respondent superior doctrine, as long as the employee was acting under the scope of his or her duties, the employer is held responsible for his or her negligence in the course of duty.
Ethical considerations in such a case ask the question whether the employee was personally licensed to carry out the duty, whether he or she was trained on how to perform the task, whether he or she acted on negligence, and whether he or she followed the guidelines of performing the task.
Therefore, it is unethical to hold the employer vicariously liable to liabilities caused by employees that are negligent in following the guidelines in their line of duty.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Vicarious Liability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also unethical to make the employer liable for omissions caused by an employee trained and licensed to carry out a particular duty; for example, a doctor in a private hospital who injects a patient with the wrong medicine should be held liable for the consequence since he or she is licensed to treat patients.
Franklin (2008) observes that out of the difficulties in distinguishing whether the employee got into the liability while working for his or her own interest or for the interest of the employer, the court must separate detour from frolic.
In vicarious liability, detour occurs when an employee is carrying out the duties as directed by his or her employer or terms of employment. On the other hand, frolic vicarious liability occurs when an employee gets into a liability as he or she acts on his or her own light and interests. Such an employee should be held ethically liable for his or her actions.
Conn (2009) argues that in case of a liability being committed by an independent contractor, the employer is not held responsible by law. Conn (2009) argues that vicarious liability transfers all liability to the independent contractor immediately he or she signs a contract.
The contractor is thus liable for tortuous acts. However, ethics should guide the injured party to hold the contractor liable and not the proprietor if the contractor is licensed to do his or her work.
Franklin (2008) argues that under the common law, a certain phrase in vicarious liability states that one “who acts through other acts in one’s own interest” (p. 435). This view can be considered as ethical in the modern society where employers hide under the guise of employees.
In most cases, employees are given instructions to carry out activities whose implications they do not know. For instance, a security guard who is instructed to lock out a particular person from accessing a premise without information about the legality of ownership by his or her employer may bar the legal owner of the same premise and be sued for obstruction and even trespass, which is unethical.
Giliker (2011) argues that both criminal and tort laws hold liable an employer who uses another person to commit a liability. The employers’ vicarious liability is applicable in the modern world; however, ethical considerations should be upheld.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vicarious Liability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The question of whether it is ethical to hold the owner of an item responsible for a liability caused by another person who borrows or hires a machine discredits vicarious principals’ liability. Principals’ vicarious liability in common law holds that when dealing with automobiles like vehicles, the owner of a vehicle is held liable for a liability committed by another person that he or she loans it to under the vicarious liability doctrine.
The principals’ liability operates under the premise that the owner is the proprietor and the operator is his or her agent. This scenario can only be ethical especially when a person loans a car to do a particular activity for the owner of the car. The principal owner cannot be ethically liable even if the driver were his employee.
In fact, with the modern day car leasing business taking root, this vicarious liability has been scraped out since it is considered unethical today. The principals’ liability holds that the line-holder is held, under the law, as having a non-delegable duty towards the client. The principals’ liability also holds that the client is liable for disruption of peace in the process of repossession.
It is ethically wrong to hold the lender vicariously responsible by law for destruction of property and breach of peace during the process of repossession. It is also unethical for a borrower who fails to repay his or her loan or to clear instalments to be justified under vicarious liability. The lender is ethically right to repossess his or her property and not to suffer loss.
Ethical issues have also been raised on application of vicarious liability of corporations in tort especially since companies cannot act on their own. Employees of a particular company can thus commit destruction and make the company liable under the law of tort. The question is whether intentional actions by employees that result in liability are ethical or not.
Companies act through employees and it is ethical to hold employees liable for their actions in the modern day business world. Employees can hide under a company’s name to commit destruction, thus causing liability since the company will be held responsible under the vicarious liability laws. Ethics and state of mind of senior officers should also be right in order to avoid unnecessary liabilities.
In fact, regardless of whether the other officials of the company know about it or not, the liability lies on the company; for example, the case of Meridian Global Funds Management Asia Limited v. Securities Commission of (1995) 2 AC, 500. In this case, some senior officers of Meridian Global Funds Management Asia Limited used company funds to buy some shares.
It was ruled that through the capacity of these officials acting in a good state of mind, the company knew about the venture. The same holds for employees who get into a liability while acting on behalf of their employer for example in the legal case of Armagas Limited v. Mundogas S.A (1986) 1 AC 717.
Brodie (2007) continues to affirm that the authority bestowed upon employees gives them the responsibility to act on behalf of the company. For example, it is ethically wrong, but legally right for a company’s financial manager who is authorised to enter contracts on behalf of the company to go on and hire services for his or her own interests thus putting the company in liability
Multiple ethical issues have also been raised on application of employees’ continued liability and indemnity in common law. In this vicarious liability, both the employer and the employee are liable for any harm that they cause in the course of their duty.
Under the respondent superior, the employer is liable for the harm caused by his or her employees in the course of their duties. The ethical question raised here is on the circumstances when the employer can be held ethically responsible.
Anselmi (2012) asserts that the American law states that unless proven otherwise by another written law, the employee or the actor is held liable under employees’ continued liability law. Giliker (2011) argues that regardless of the actor acting on behalf of the employer, he or she is also ethically answerable to the law of tort.
Employees’ continued liability is thus applicable in the modern world since it considers both the employer and the employee and can indemnify one of the parties. For example, the employees’ continued liability and indemnity is currently adopted by all the states in the United States and many other nations across the world.
However, the idea of indemnification happens in cases where either of the parties is sued. In such cases, ethical considerations are seen to have taken place. However, Anselmi (2012) further affirms that ethical indemnification can only be done at free will, but not through forceful means, as it happened in the case of Lister v. Romford Ice Cold.
Parents have an ethical responsibility towards their children and they are thus regulated under the vicarious liability in cases of tort of their children. The damage caused by children is transferable to the parents or guardians in vicarious liability. It is unethical for parents to neglect their role in parenting, hence damage caused by their children are vicarious to them.
Ethically negligent parents in regard to their children; for example, one who fails to supervise or keep dangerous explosives or guns away from children, is vicariously liable to all damage that the children commit. This aspect is ethical since the transfer of liability that is committed by children is clearly spelt out under the vicarious liability on parental liability.
Vicarious parental liability is applicable in the modern world especially with the increased child negligence and child crimes. However, it is unethical to hold a parent responsible for a crime committed by a child in the absence of the parent, for example at school.
Application of ethical and legal doctrines of vicarious liability in modern world Various ethical and legal doctrines of vicarious liability are applicable in the modern world; for example, vicarious parental liability is applicable in modern world especially with the increased child negligence and child crimes. However, it is unethical to hold a parent responsible for a crime committed by a child in the absence of the parent like at school.
Employees’ continued liability is also applicable in the modern world since it considers both the employer and the employee can indemnify one of the parties. For example, the employees’ continued liability and indemnity is currently adopted by all the states in the US and many other nations across the world.
The employers’ vicarious liability is applicable in the modern world since it takes into account the interest of both the employer and the employee. Portions of the principals’ vicarious liability are also applicable in the modern society especially with increase in lending in the motor industry.
Conclusion Various ethical issues have been raised in the application of vicarious liability. Transfer of liability from one party to the other can be ethical or unethical in different liabilities in the modern society.
Some of the vicarious liabilities are applicable in the modern world; for example, employers’ liability, parental liability, liability of corporations in tort, and employees’ continued liability and indemnity. However, other vicarious liabilities like the principals’ liability have been scrapped from the modern world of business due to inefficiency.
References Anselmi, K. (2012). Ethics, law, and policy: nurses’ personal liability vs. employer’s vicarious liability. MEDSURG Nursing, 21(1), 45-48.
Brodie, D. (2007). Enterprise liability: justifying vicarious liability. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 27(3), 493-508.
Conn, D. (2009). When contract should pre-empt tort remedies: limits on vicarious liability for acts of independent contractors. Fordham Journal of Corporate
Impressions of Philosophy Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In philosophy, there is no right or wrong answer; it is all a matter of opinion. This statement is perhaps one of the most debated and controversial arguments in value theory in philosophy of ethics. The theory value gives content to some ethical claims about what “right” and “wrong” actions entail. Consequentiality of right holds that a person should always take the actions that will result into the best outcome.
Prior knowledge or probability that some action will result in the desired outcome is necessary. However, the main question in this case is to determine what makes an outcome “good”. For instance, there are no logics in telling people to promote good without giving them a prior knowledge of what that “good” is or means.
Non-consequentialists also recognize some moral duty for philosophers to promote good by first telling the people what that “good” entails. In addition, non-consequentialist view of duties to promote good shows that there is a need to prove the actions that are right and those that are wrong.
For instance, these duties might make it possible to prove that an action with an overall good outcome is in itself wrong. For example, killing an armed person to protect the lives of ten people might be viewed as a right action in consequentialism. On the other hand, the action of killing the armed man is itself wrong because it destroys life, and one is not sure whether the man would have killed or not killed the ten innocent individuals.
Therefore, none of these actions is either right or wrong. To determine whether the action is right or wrong is a matter of the philosophers’ opinion. For instance, if someone proves that the sky is blue because human perceptions provide the reality, then that opinion can be justified and therefore, not wrong.
Given the success of science, does the world need philosophy? The success of science in proving old mysteries in nature has proved effective in undermining or upholding old philosophical explanations of various aspects of nature. The success of using science in solving problems has become so dominant that other forms of knowledge attempt to be close to the scientific discourse.
In fact, scientific knowledge seems to be masking other forms of knowledge, including philosophy. However, this does not mean that other forms of knowledge, including philosophy, have become obsolete. In fact, it is worth taking science as a form of support to the modern philosophy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emergence of the philosophy of science as a field of study proves that philosophy is still relevant and required in the modern context, despite the success of the scientific discourse.
In this context, it is worth noting that humans orient their lives around the ideas of searching for the truth and reality. We desire to know how the realty should guide our behaviors. In this context, it is clear that metaphysical theory, moral and ethical theories develop the foundation for scientific research.
By asking philosophical questions about human and nature, people are making foundations for further research, which in this case will involve scientific methods. In other words, science is used to solve philosophically derived questions. Therefore, philosophy is needed more than before.
Is philosophy relevant now that we have the biblical knowledge? This question has also dominated the debate on the need for philosophy in the modern context. Religious scholars have argued that much of the questions that rose in philosophy, especially those concerning the nature, truth, right and wrong and humanity can be solved through biblical knowledge.
They tend to argue that philosophy is an obsolete knowledge that heavily relied on questioning the existence of man and God, which is not only wrong, but also unjustified. However, modern scholars in both philosophy and the bible view the two aspects as closely related. For instance, the biblical is in itself a religious philosophy that tends to answer some of the questions raised in ancient philosophies.
For example, people like King Solomon were practically philosophers who raised and answered many questions about humanity. They interpreted the idea of right and wrong and related these to their knowledge of the will of God and human desire. In this case, we see that biblical knowledge is a form of philosophical knowledge.
Given that human are still advancing, the philosophy of the modern times attempt to raise questions in humanity and religion, which can be answered from the biblical perspective. Therefore, the philosophy of religion is still relevant and needed in the modern context.
We will write a custom Essay on Impressions of Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the contemporary education system, science has obscured other forms of knowledge, especially philosophical ideologies. It often appears that philosophy is an obscure discipline with little practical value. It seems irrelevant for students pursuing careers in medicine, business, engineering, technology and law. However, it is worth looking philosophy from a modern context.
For instance, philosophy primarily seeks to determine the difference between appearance and the reality. The practical role of philosophy is to dig deep into the phenomenon or object of interest and determine the difference between the reality and appearance.
When such questions are raised, it is the role of the persons involved to use scientific and other forms of knowledge to reveal the difference. In this way, questions are answered. Thus, philosophy has some significant practical application.
What Lurks behind the Other Side of the Coin: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’s Story, Explored Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gothic Novel and Its Key Features
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: Analysis
Introduction A Gothic novel has been amply represented in literature and studied well enough, yet it is still unbelievably popular. Edgar Poe, Charlotte and Emily Bronte, Bram Stocker, Daphne du Maurier, Mary Shelly, Oscar Wilde and many other writers became famous owing to the Gothic universes that they created.
Evolving with every new story and character created, the Gothic genre in general and some of its most prominent authors in particular definitely deserve being considered a bit closer, and Robert Stevenson with his Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is one of such authors.
Thesis Statement Despite the fact that some elements of Robert Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde do not align with the traditional Gothic novel genre, Stevenson’s story still should be defined as Gothic, since it not only creates a compelling Gothic character with a classic story arc, but also develops the character, therefore, contributing to the evolution of the Gothic novel genre.
Gothic Novel and Its Key Features With a relatively long history and quite a solid heritage, Gothic literature has a number of features that have become the staple of the genre and can be seen as the defining characteristics of the genre. Among the most frequently used ones, such themes as the description of the fallen world and elements of the supernatural should be mentioned (Throwbridge 27)
A Gothic character has also quite a number of features attributed to him/her; acquired in the course of Gothic novel evolution, these character traits define a Gothic hero and at the same time set limitations for the character’s growth. As a rule, a Gothic character develops such traits as emotionality and impulsivity, and often has a dark back story (Throwbridge 25).
Also rendering the issue of the fallen world and the supernatural elements within the realm of the ordinary, the plot of a Gothic novel is traditionally composed of mystery, elements of fear or terror and events leading to the character’s moral demise (Throwbridge 45).
The elements of the supernatural are evident in a number of Gothic novels. For instance, in Wuthering Heights, Bronte mentions moonlight several times as an element of mystery and describes a moonless night to create the atmosphere of suspense and threat: “There was no moon, and everything beneath lay in misty darkness” (Bronte 121).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The idea of the world demise is also translated into the setting, in which events traditionally take place in Gothic novels. According to the principles if Gothic storytelling, the key events are supposed to take place in a castle, old mansion or in a gloomy background, during fog, rain or cloudiness (Throwbridge 15).
Elements of Gothic settings can be traced in The Namesake, though, technically the novel is defined as a bildungsroman. For instance, Gothic architecture is briefly mentioned in the novel: “he has fallen in love with the Gothic architecture of the campus” (Lahiri 108).
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: Analysis It would be wrong to claim that the story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde fits the traditional concept of a Gothic narration impeccably; however, the question is whether the alterations made to the genre actually work for the benefit of the story or not.
As far as the use of clichés goes, it seems that the lack of the traditional, well trodden tropes that seemed to have worn out their welcome well before the story was written makes the novel all the more thrilling. The lack of traditional lackluster elements that do not move the story forward and only serve to make the author look lazy clearly makes Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde unique in its own way.
First, the fact that the novel is set in London, and, more importantly, on one of its busiest streets – at least, in the major part of the narration – sets the novel apart from a range of other Gothic stories. True, Stevenson does render the concept of decay and deterioration at some point when describing Mr. Hyde’s dwelling; however, the majority of the events depicted in the novel do not take place in the London suburbs.
Even the lead, though definitely rubbing elbows with a number of traditional Gothic character archetypes, still differs from a common Gothic interpretation of a protagonist. While in the tradition of a Gothic novel, the leading character is supposed to succumb to temptation of the antagonist, in Stevenson’s novel, Dr. Jekyll is his own worst enemy.
Thus, Stevenson diverges from the traditional method of building a Gothic character and, instead, explores the phenomenon of the latter by looking at his flaws. There is no obvious “bad guy” in Stevenson’s novel, and the lead is clearly no victim of an evil villain; instead, Dr. Jekyll falls prey to his own psychotic mind: “If I am the chief of sinners, I am the chief of sufferers also” (Stevenson para. 45).
We will write a custom Essay on What Lurks behind the Other Side of the Coin: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’s Story, Explored specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the story is narrated not by the twofaced monster himself, but by his friend, the new angle of viewing the character still enables the reader to consider the situation from Jekyll/Hyde’s perspective and embrace the horror that the character feels: “[…] man is not truly one, but truly two” (Stevenson para. 83).
The last and definitely the most important change that Stevenson makes to the tradition of a Gothic story is the choice to abstain from using the elements of the supernatural in the novel. However, Stevenson does not carve the given element out of the story completely; instead, he replaces it with the mystery of science.
Indeed, when taking a closer look at the change that happens to Dr. Jekyll as he drinks the serum, one will find out quickly that the scene of transformation has a lot in common with the werewolf related folklore and has, in fact, little to do with actual biological processes: the “virtue of transcendental medicine” (Stevenson para. 80), therefore, is miles away from being an accurate description of biological and chemical processes in a human body.
Nevertheless, Stevenson defies the concept of the supernatural and decides to switch it with what can technically be defined as science fiction. Hence, Stevenson practically heralds that the time for science to replace magic has come.
Conclusion Although traditionally considered a Gothic story, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde creates unique character elements and neglects a number of typical Gothic story elements. The few clichés that are left to identify the story with Gothic novels, however, serve their purpose well by informing the character, defining the story, outlining the key themes and creating a very specific and rather dark mood.
For instance, the “shadow of the fallen world” (Throwbridge 87), though conveyed in a very subtle way, can be easily traced in the transformation of the lead character. The “strong feeling of deformity” (Stevenson para. 9) that the character gave Mr. Utterson can be applied to the general impression of an average citizen when taking a closer look at the things that are basically wrong with society.
A novel that revolutionized Gothic literature by introducing a different character and shifting the emphasis from the collapse of the world to personal regress, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde deserves to be ranked among the best Gothic novels ever created.
Works Cited Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. 1846. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What Lurks behind the Other Side of the Coin: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’s Story, Explored by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003. Print.
Stevenson, Robert Louis. “Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.” Project Gutenberg. 2011. Web.
Throwbridge, Serena. Christina Rossetti’s Gothic. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. Print.
What are Cultural Differences in Management? Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The origins and definition of cultural management
Cultural differences in management
Introduction Cultural differences in management are examined by business administrators, psychologists, and even anthropologists. This report is aimed at examining several questions that are related to this topic. In particular, it is necessary to provide a definition of cross-cultural management. Furthermore, one should provide examples that can illustrate the cultural peculiarities of management.
For instance, one should focus on such aspects as the behavior of employees, leadership style, and interactions between people who represent various levels of the workplace hierarchy. Much attention should be paid to the strategies that can help managers to work in a multicultural environment.
Overall, business administrators should remember about cultural differences in people’s values, worldviews, or attitudes toward work, risk, achievement and so forth. This knowledge can be derived from various psychological studies. Yet, they should remember that conventional classifications of cultures are not always relevant because individual and cultural values are not necessarily similar.
The origins and definition of cultural management The importance of cultural peculiarities began to attract the attention of managers at the time when many American and European companies moved to developing countries. Business administrators understood that many of the conventional techniques could be applied to different business cultures.
For example, one can speak about the challenges that American businesses faced in India (Gopalan
Political Leadership: Bill Clinton and John Kennedy Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Methodology and Data
Introduction Effective leadership sets the pace of development and growth in an organization. In this regard political leadership is not an exemption. Good political leadership influences the development of a nation or region. The political leaders in a country play an important role in the society since they control the resources in a region and determine how the resources are utilized for the benefit of all people.
Political leaders use their power and authority to influence how various activities and operations are handled in a country. Therefore, to ensure the success of a country or a region there is a need to institute good political leadership. It is in this light that this proposal will look at the issue of political leadership and organization.
The proposal will compare Bill Clinton and John Kennedy as the good leaders. The paper will also look at whether the two individuals were leaders before they started politics. On the other hand, the paper will also compare the great leaders and bad leaders in this regard, the New York mayor Mr. Michael Bloomberg will be compared to Mr. Rob Ford, the mayor of Toronto.
Hypothesis Based on the topic of political leadership, the hypothesis of this study will highlight what made the aforementioned leaders to be regarded as good leaders, great leaders, and bad leaders. For instance, comparing Bill Clinton and John Kennedy both were good leaders that played a greater role in transforming the U.S.
Specific elements that made Bill Clinton a good leader included economic policies that greatly changed America. On the other hand, John Kennedy is mainly celebrated as a good leader that ruled the U.S. due to his policies, which have enabled America to attain success in various areas.
For instance, John Kennedy created the famous Peace Corps, which has enabled many Americans to volunteer in various programs around the world to ensure peace and sustainability. When comparing great leaders against the bad leaders, New York mayor Mr. Michael Bloomberg will be compared with the Toronto Mayor Mr. Rob Ford. The New York mayor played a cardinal role in ensuring environmental protection.
The mayor initiated strict regulations on the usage of plastic and non-degradable materials in the environment. However, the Toronto mayor has been accused of various offenses such as misuse of resources, acting in conflict of interest, and has abused alcohol and drugs in his office.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical Literature Theoretical literature for the term paper will highlight various issues on the topic of political leadership. The section will give attention to the historical aspect of the topic, the current issues on the topic, and develop a critical analysis.
The theoretical literature will also discuss the issues and create unity between historical facts, the gaps in previous studies, and current aspects on the topic. Theoretical literature will also give information on the background of the leaders in the study.
Methodology and Data This study will employ a qualitative research method. The data will be collected from various respondents that will be selected by the researcher. The researcher targets to collect the information from various institutions of leadership such as government offices and schools. The justification for the respondents is based on the fact that government offices have good historical information about the leaders.
Results The results of the study will be communicated to the targeted audience and other individuals who will be interested in the outcome of the research. The research will analyze the results before presentation to the targeted audience.
Conclusions The term paper will contain conclusions on all facts under study. This part will also provide recommendations for further study and opportunities, which may facilitate future research. The section will also contain the normative implications of the study.
Religion Role in the Political Decision Making Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Making Political Decision
Discriminatory Nature of Religion
Introduction Religion is one of the most fundamentally crucial aspects of humanity which defines people’s morals, believes and culture. In essence, it determines the manner in which people conduct themselves, socialize with their fellow human being, and how they uphold the societal values.
Since the church covers such an expansive scope in regard to its roles, there are many controversies which revolve around the roles it should play and those that it should not accomplish.
In addition, there is much contention on whether religion should be used as basis of making certain decision especially when it comes to matters of public interest such as politics. This paper will thus develop an argument contending that religion should not play a role in matters of public interest.
Making Political Decision It has been profoundly evident that religion has been used as a tool of making critical political decisions in the public sphere. This tendency has rendered such decision inappropriate owing to people who hardly understand that religion is more of a personal rather than a public value.
For example, Benoit revealed that religion was one of the reasons as to why the citizens of USA rejected Mitt Romney’s bid for presidency (176). In this regard, Benoit pointed out that Romney believed in Mormonism which is a religion drawn from the Later Days Saint (LDS) movement.
The Mormons broke up from the LDS to adopt other values such as polygamy. On the other hand, Obama when responding to a question concerning his faith admitted that he believed in Christianity. In essence, most of the USA citizens believe in Christianity more than Mormonism.
Additionally, Christians oppose some of the values of Mormonism including polygamy. They believe that a religion that purports such ideologies is impure and unacceptable. Based on this aspect, most citizens preferred Obama’s to that one of Romney.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas the Christians consider the Mormonism as an impure religion, Dawkins provide a compelling argument where he contended that religion has misdirected people on issues concerning the appropriateness of morals. He states that religion is the main aspect that purports the existence of absolute wrongs and rights (266).
He then compares this absolutism with the philosophy of consequentiality which determines the legitimacy of actions according to their impacts on the decision maker. This comparison shows that believing in Mormonism or Christianity was not either right or wrong. Instead it was only a depiction of what a person believes and what the other one does not.
As a result, Romney’s decision of believing in Mormonism was not wrong. In addition, it could not impair his capability to drive the economy of USA bearing in mind that the Governor had won over Obama during one of the debates concerning the future economic strategies (Benoit, 123).
In essence, the most pertinent aspect that could have determined the elections outcome appropriately was the leaders’ capability to articulate their issues rather than dwelling on petty issues such as religion.
Basically, religion is more of an adopted culture rather than a personal decision. When he was substantiating this argument, Dawkins stated that children should be forced into religion (25). He further points out that there is neither Christian nor Muslim child.
Instead, we have children who belong to Christian and Muslim parents. Although this statement does not directly express the opinion of the author towards the roles of religion in public sphere, there is much to draw from the sentiment.
Basically, the author seeks to imply that people adopt the religion that has been instilled by their parents. This implies that most people embrace believes which are not personally adopted. Since religion does not mostly originate from personal willingness, they should not be used in making critical public decisions.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion Role in the Political Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discriminatory Nature of Religion Dawkins focuses on the use of religion as a parameter of discrimination in the public sphere (46). He pointed out that the religion has provided a broad platform that allows religious and moral discrimination. In fact, he stated that USA has been affected by the religious profiling of people according to their faith.
He further exemplifies this by elaborating that the Arab-American citizens have experienced adverse discrimination from the Christians and natives. In this case, there have been a lot of conflicts between the native citizens and the Arabs where Arabs are even murdered. In fact, the Arabs are always associated with terrorism, robbery and Jihadist mentality.
This discrimination extends to government offices where the Muslims are secretly denied some privileges that can be accessed by other religions. Essentially, religious profiling does not take consider the individual values and the capability. Instead, it generalizes the conduct of Muslims collectively rather than individually.
The same case has been evident in Kenya owing to the recent terror attack which was allegedly launched by the Al-Shabaab military that are associated with the Muslim religion (Lawrence, 72). After the attack, various Muslim employees were retrenched owing to the stereotypic association with terrorism.
Since the personnel were playing critical roles, the retrenchment impacted on the operation of various governments thus impairing their functionalities. This implies that the employees had outstanding capabilities which led to the smooth running of those offices. Consequently, it is inappropriate to relate religion with certain stereotypes and use the when making public decisions.
In addition, since the religion has become a parameter of profiling and discrimination, it should not play any role in public determinations in order to prevent the intensification of conflict and rivalry in public entities.
Religious Bigotry Religious bigotry has been one of most adverse vices we have experienced in the world. It has impaired the social, political, and economic progress of various nations owing to blind beliefs and reactions in the public circles. Have you ever thought of what could happen if an Arabian president converted from Muslim to Christianity?
Dawkins provided a hint to this question when he elaborates about the persecution of Abdul Rahman where the court sentenced him to death owing to his religious conversion from Muslim to Christianity (Dawkins, 324). It is completely out of order for a court to impose a death sentence on the basis of religious change.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion Role in the Political Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, a court is a public institution that should limit its verdicts to the constitutional rules governing the country. Instead, it should not deny the citizens’ right of choosing religion. In fact, this is not one of the offenses that could amount to capital punishment.
It is thus evident that if public institutions were to use the aspect of religion making public decisions, it could lead to deadly implications to humanity. Consequently, Dawkins concludes by stating that the use of religion in public sphere is not only wrong but also deadly.
Conclusion It is evident that religion should not play any role in the public sphere owing to the impairment of various crucial factors of public interest. It cannot be disputed that religion is a core aspect that misleads people when making political decision.
Additionally, it factor of discrimination that divides people along their faith. Lastly, the discussion depicts how religious bigotry impact of the rationality of public institutions such as the judicial systems. Conclusively, religion should not play any role in the public sphere.
Works Cited Benoit, Peter. Romney vs. Obama: Election 2012. New York: Children’s Press, 2013. Print.
Dawkins, Richard. The God delusion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008. Print.
Lawrence, Ben. High stakes: political violence and the 2013 elections in Kenya.. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch, 2013. Print.
The Role of Gender and Social Class in Media Presentation: A Case Study of Roseanne and the Female Working Class Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Over the years, the place of the woman in the society has remained in the home. In most cases, the society regards the woman as subordinate to man.
That is perhaps the reason why, for a very long time, women have remained in the background. However, the role of women, especially as members of the working class, has evolved in the recent past. In the American context, women have become an important part of the working class.
To this end, activities by such bodies as the civil rights movement groups and the agitation for fair treatment in the society have gone a long way in helping the women emerge as significant members of the society (“Working Class Perspectives: Stereotyping the Working Class” para. 3). In addition, the media has played a huge role in establishing a place for women among the working class.
The current paper is written against this background. To this end, the author of this paper examines how women are treated in the media, especially in prime time shows. The author of this paper holds the opinion that social class, together with gender, influences how media houses report their news.
On its part, media coverage influences the determination of gender roles and formation of social classes in the society. As such, the two phenomena (media and gender and social class) influence each other.
In this analysis, the author of this paper relies on the depictions of the main character in the popular American sitcom, Roseanne. The main focus will be on the sitcom’s season 5, episode 5. The main character in this case is Roseanne. In the current paper, the author relies on the elements of the working class to argue out the research statement.
“Roseanne” will also be used in discussing the importance of media when it comes to the depiction of social class and gender issues. The importance of media will be measured against the effects that such kinds of presentations have on the viewers. The analysis highlighted above will be carried out in the context of Kathleen Rowe’s article on gender and social roles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Role of Gender and Social Class in Media Presentation A Critical Analysis of Roseanne’s Character
After watching “Roseanne”, one can describe the main character as a responsible and hardworking housewife. She is also a mother who is capable of handling all the affairs in her family. The same is especially evident in the fifth episode of season five.
Here, the scene opens with Roseanne’s sister seeking her help in a family business. In the same scene, her husband walks in and goes straight to the dining table and demands for food (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”). Despite her sarcastic and vulgar language, Roseanne appears to be a resourceful person.
Based on the manner in which she engages others in conversation, one can argue that she is unruly. A case in point is when she is engaged in a conversation with her sister about her daughter. She says, “you mean the best thing was not carrying, pushing a giant head through my vagina after nine months?” (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”).
Despite the fact that she means well for her daughter, such vulgar language is not necessary. The disgusting aspect of her language is made evident when her husband puts down the sandwich he was eating when he hears her speak.
Rowe (414) argues that Roseanne is a sloppy woman. The implication is that she has a carefree attitude towards most of the things she does. One such instance is seen when her neighbor’s son lends her a camera (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”).
Roseanne is having problems uploading the film and goes ahead to smash the camera on the table. Her reaction comes in the wake of the neighbor’s son telling her that she ought to handle the machine with care.
In spite of her carefree behavior, Roseanne is a considerate woman. The same is portrayed in the manner she handles her daughter’s ‘sweet sixteen’ birthday party (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”). Roseanne is aware of the fact that her daughter does not like attention.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Role of Gender and Social Class in Media Presentation: A Case Study of Roseanne and the Female Working Class specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, that does not stop her from planning a party for her. Interestingly, the party is just a gimmick because she has other intentions. She asks her husband to repair the car in the garage as a gift for her daughter. In addition, Roseanne allows her daughter to go out and treat her friends.
Another character of Rosanne that is depicted in the television show is her courageousness. In a game of truth or dare, she agrees to a double dare where she is dared to strip off her blouse and bra and run outside while screaming (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”).
Given that she is a mother and a wife, she should not even entertain such a dare. Surprisingly, she accepts the challenge, although she is eventually embarrassed when she runs into her husband and the new neighbor.
Roseanne’s character is very important in understanding the nature of people considered as working class in the society. The manner in which she is portrayed through media introduces the public to the various elements of the working class.
In this case, the depiction centers on the working class woman since she is considering setting up a business with her sister (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”). The significance of such depictions is made apparent given that “Roseanne” is a prime time show.
Elements that Comprise the Working Class according to “Roseanne”
For a person to be eligible for employment, they must be hardworking (Zweig 34). Roseanne is an example of a hardworking individual. The element of hard work is depicted in the manner in which she is able to manage her household, especially given that theirs is not a wealthy family.
Portraying her as a hard worker is seen as a strategy to incite the women folk who labor in their households to venture out of their homes. Such women are shown that they can also do well as members of the workforce. The sentiments are seen in the last scene when Roseanne seeks her husband’s opinion on whether to use the money her mother left her for business or not.
Working class requires one to be a visionary (Zweig 37). An individual must have certain goals that they are expected to achieve in their daily undertakings. The show introduces this aspect of vision in the last scene when Roseanne is concerned with the future of her children’s education.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Gender and Social Class in Media Presentation: A Case Study of Roseanne and the Female Working Class by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She is considering using the money left to her by her mother for her children’s education (“Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5”). After a discussion with her husband, she is convinced that it is better to use the money for investment. The education of her children will be guaranteed if she invests the money. To this end, Roseanne appears to have a vision for her family.
What if Roseanne is from a Different Race?
The show elicits debate on how the media depicts social class and gender (Rowe 412). However, one should consider how the public would view Roseanne if she is from a different race, such as African American. In this regard, Rowe (413) compares “Roseanne” with “Cosby Show”, where the family is African American.
Rowe (413) argues that the public acknowledges the fact that the role played by Roseanne is significant in encouraging the women folk to join the working class. The public does not look at her as a white person. Instead, she is regarded as more of a woman than a representative of the white race.
If her character was played by an African American, the public would form opinions about the show based on prevailing perceptions about the race.
Conclusion In this paper, the author affirmed the fact that the media relies on social class and gender to communicate with the audience. Roseanne is a white female and her depiction in the media helps to encourage women to join the working class. In addition, she is depicted as a member of the lower middle class. Her determination to get out of this social class is vividly illustrated by the way she is determined to start a business.
Works Cited “Roseanne Season 5 Episode 5.” Pretty in Black., ABC, Atlanta, 16 Dec. 1995. Television.
Rowe, Kathleen. “Roseanne: Unruly Woman as Domestic Goddess.” Screen 31(1990): 408-419.
Working Class Perspectives: Stereotyping the Working Class 2008. Web. .
Zweig, Michael. Working Class Majority: America’s Best Kept Secret, Cornell, Cornell University Press, 2001. Print.
Natural Resources Economics Essay college essay help
Sharks are disappearing from the ocean because there is the lack of effective regulations and laws to control the overly fishing and aspects of the international trade which can often be based on some illegal points. The problems in ecosystems and the popularity of sharks’ meat among consumers also affect the issue. This problem can be discussed as global, and it can result in the environmental collapse.
That is why, it is necessary to improve the points and conditions presented in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in order to state the regulations for the shark fishing and prevent any cases of the illegal trade.
Furthermore, it is necessary to support the idea of banning the trade of shark fin products, proposing the actual projects for regulations. In addition, it is necessary to increase penalties for illegal fishing and trade.
The current approaches to managing the Gray Wolf of Michigan are not enough. The failures in the programs can lead to the problems in the ecosystem’s balance. The focus on the associated hunting cannot be discussed as economically reasonable because the fact of killing the Gray Wolf of Michigan can lead to the destruction of the ecosystem, and its restoration needs significant financial resources.
That is why, it is necessary to develop the programs and regulations according to which hunting in relation to the Gray Wolf of Michigan should be prohibited; killing animals in the situations of the conflicts should be prohibited; and the additional resources to control the number of animals should be provided with references to the research costs in order to explore the associated ecosystem to prevent the ecological problems.
In spite of the fact that the multiple-use management approach is still relevant to be used in relation to the forest management, it is necessary to pay more attention to the ecosystem management approach according to which the health of forests should be supported.
Today, it is necessary to promote the idea of the forest ecology and to create the necessary conditions for the forest organisms’ development within the appropriate environments. This goal should be prioritized instead of focusing on producing the market goods as it was stated earlier in relation to the tendencies in the forest management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, the problem is in the fact that ecosystem management ignores the social and economic aspects associated with the forest management.
That is why, the forest should be managed according to the developed balanced system where the ecosystem approach is connected with the positive elements of the multiple-use management approach. From this point, the forest health remains the priority, but the economic and social aspects are not ignored.
The traditional market economy is focused on assessing the financial benefits related to production systems in order to choose the most efficient systems based on the economically effective use of resources. However, this economic system is limited because of not relying on a range of non-economic aspects, such as the focus on ecologically sustainable systems and renewable resources.
On the contrary, the ecological economy approach to natural resource use addresses these factors because the ecological economy states the connections between the economic systems and ecological systems where the development of the ecosystem plays a significant role in influencing the economy of the region.
According to the ecological approach, the natural resources are used to respond to the principles of sustainability, renewability, and often to the idea of organic production. From this point, it is more important for the society to refer to the ecological economy approach because the economic progress is guaranteed along with the efficient use of natural resources to create the sustainable environment.
Gender Differences in Communication Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help
For as long as there have been two different genders, there was a difference in communication styles between men and women. It was evident before and later, when women began fighting for equality rights and fair treatment. Verbal and non-verbal differences in communication lead to prejudice and partially, it comes from the fact that men and women are different not only biologically but mentally as well.
Charles Greenwood mentioned that even looking at The Early Communication Indicator (ECI), children of very young age have particular communication styles, ranging from gestures to vocalizations and utterances (Greenwood et al., 2013). As a result, the unique nature of each particular style of communication comes from biological and social or environmental factors.
Women would communicate both verbally and non-verbally in a way, which the modern society describes, as feminine. This is due to the influences of male preferences and social roles. Since birth, both boys and girls are conditioned to behave in a certain way, which is representative of their role in society and family.
Girls are taught to be more sensitive and rely on their feelings while boys are given lessons in masculinity. The society expects a certain “style” from each gender and thus, the separation in professional and leisure-time communication has been created (Ashford
Genre: Science Fiction Dystopia Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The film industry comprises many types of film products, which are commonly known as ‘movie genres’. A movie genre is conventionally a class under which a movie falls with regard to its characteristics, nature of the storyline, and theme.
As different types of audiences have different interests that make them to prefer different movie genres, so do the filmmakers, which explains why there are numerous genres in the film industry. In other words, genres are defined in a bid to please a certain audience whose interests are satisfied and relay particular information in the best possible way to the audience (Acher and Pincus 56).
Science Fiction Dystopia Genre Science fiction dystopia is one of the most fascinating movie genres of the twenty first century. In the contemporary world, people have made a great deal of progress as far as the issue of technology and science is concerned. Therefore, there is great anxiety as to where the technological development is taking the world.
To the advantage of the filmmakers, the existence of anxiety enables them to create movies that display the usage of technology in the future and its harmful replications that would crop up concerning the relationship between humans and scientific developments.
However, science fiction dystopia is almost the same as the horror movie genre. The difference lies in the former’s minimal role of human beings directly involved in causing harm to human life and products of scientific progress taking different roles in the movies as opposed to the horror movies.
In addition, it is possible for more than one film genres to be incorporated into a movie in order to produce a hybrid-genre film work. A good example is the case where war films incorporate modernized weapons that are products of fiction science as it has been the case in a majority of the twenty first century movies.
Although science fiction dystopia is one of the strongest movie genres, it is often very hard to apply it singly in a film without having to incorporate other genres. Science and technology are useful elements to human life due to their ability to solve problems that human beings face in their daily life. In addition, it is used to save money and time while increasing efficiency of the work done without it being applied.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, there has to be inherent problems facing human characters in order for the genre to make sense in a movie. Its application exhibits its ability to give efficient solutions to the problems affecting human characters throughout the movie (Acher and Pincus 78).
Comparing and Contrasting Science Fiction Dystopia with Other Movie Genres Four main movie genres were studied in the class work, which include science fiction dystopia, the western, the war films, and crime detective or noir film genre.
The western genre is the most common movie genre used to highlight the dominance and development of both American and European cultures and economies to the rest of the world. The western genre is the backbone of all other movie genres that are produced in the United States.
Looking into the film industry as part of literature, since it is a virtual literature work, movies are used to highlight human cultures and social behaviors. Literature is a definite mirror of the society whereby a storyline is filled with cultural and social ethics of the human characters in use, and thus the film’s storyline highlights the same for the human characters that are in play.
For instance, the movie, High Noon, seeks to highlight social issues in the American society. A retired Marshal (Will Kane) is about to die in the hands of a convict (Frank Miller) he helped to bring to justice. Kane seeks help from the society but it is too afraid to stand up to the task. Ultimately, Kane’s relatives leave the town, but his wife, Amy, changes her mind and rescues Kane, who shoots Miller dead.
As aforementioned, the western genre mirrors societal issues and crime, murder, and revenge are real issues in the American society. In addition, as opposed to science fiction dystopia, the western genre uses real people as characters to highlight real societal issues as shown in this movie.
However, this movie compares to science fiction by painting marshal Kane as a bold solo gunman who confronts a gang of dissidents. Kane comes out as a ‘superhuman’, and such characteristics are only found in science fiction dystopia.
We will write a custom Essay on Genre: Science Fiction Dystopia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The war film genre is also common in the film industry especially after the events of the World War II. Looking back into the relevance of the film industry to the society, movies are a part of literature that reflects the image of a society through virtual images. Hence, many movies have been played in the last half of the twentieth century, which tends to explain the events of the World War II across the world.
The war film genre is based on human and social relations that are conflicting and in most cases leading to war. For instance, the movie Twelve O’clock High is a twentieth century war film that was produced in 1949 and it is one of the most successful movies of the century. The movie is about the United States’ Army Air Force who flew for bombing missions against the Nazi German forces.
The movie is generally a fiction war film, as it was not based on real events of the war, but just an imaginary story of the events that could have taken place in the World War II (Rubin 87). The movie paints the American Air Force as the only force with the best war machineries when compared with other countries.
Science fiction dystopia has been used here to display the great efficiency of war machineries that the United States had in possession at the time (Rubin 65). Again, this genre differs from science fiction dystopia due to the use of real people to show real events in a real world.
However, this film takes after science fiction dystopia via the use of flashbacks where Harvey Stovall buys a jug from a stall and remembers the events of 1942 where the story begins and all other scenes appear futuristic.
The crime detective or noir film genre is also common in the film industry. Crime detective is an important area of expertise in any given society across all social parameters in the world. The genre is applicable in situations where a crime occurs and detective mission is undertaken to reveal the possible causes and the series of events that could have transpired when it took place.
Crime detective is an involving task that tries to look into past events that are unknown to prove the hypothetical truth for necessary action to be undertaken. The movie, The Maltese Falcon, which is a noir film, a golden falcon on its way from Malta to Spain disappears to the hands of pirates probably due to its worth. Sherlock Miles Archer dies in mysterious circumstances as he follows a lead to a missing girl.
The missing girl’s sister, Miss Ruth, is responsible for the death, but she frames Archer’s partner, Sam Spade, who was supposed to have accompanied Archer, but he broke protocols. Now Spade has to look for alibi and come up with strong evidence that he did not kill his partner. In the process of knowing the truth, he discovers the golden falcon and retrieves it before hiding it at a bus terminal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Genre: Science Fiction Dystopia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He then manages to know the Archer’s killer, but ultimately realizes that the falcon he has is fake. However, he manages to prove that Ruth was the real killer and even though they are emotionally involved, he arrests her and she is charged with Archer’s murder.
As mentioned, earlier noir films use real characters as opposed to science fiction dystopia. In this movie, science fiction does not have a place as all the events are real involving real people in real time.
The movie: Wall E Wall E is a perfect science fiction dystopia movie as it involves robots in a futuristic earth cleaning exercise sometimes in the 29th Century. Every occurrence in the movie is futuristic and fictitious and no human beings are involved in the task.
The movie’s plot is rather intriguing as at the start of the 22nd Century, unnecessary consumerism replaces humanity courtesy of the garbage that comes from the consumerism wastes.
In addition, the movie offers solutions to such the dire consequences of the consumerism issue. In another science fiction movie, Gattaca, the issue of genetics is explored widely. The movie shows how genetic manipulation can be used to aid individuals to overcome diseases and premature deaths.
Contemporarily, humans’ life span is decreasing and diseases like cancer amongst others are becoming a thorn in the flesh of humanity. I like Gattaca as it shows that not all is lost and people can still manipulate genetics to their advantage to overcome problems that appear insurmountable contemporarily.
Conclusion Film work is irrelevant until genres are considered and well applied in a film. Of all the four genres that were studied in class, science fiction dystopia is the most favorable for the twentieth and the twenty-first century movies. The economic and social developments of the world are engulfed in scientific and technological developments where nearly all problems have scientific solutions.
In addition, there is a great fear and anxiety in the contemporary world as technology is viewed to have taken the social evolutions many steps ahead from where humanity was half a century ago. That anxiety forms the basis on which filmmakers use to create imaginary storylines, in which future scientific developments are exhibited.
Of all movie genres studied in class, science fiction dystopia is superior to all others as it can be incorporated in almost all other genres. In addition, I like science fiction as it seeks to warn people and offer futuristic solutions to anticipated problems and that to me matters a lot as life is all about solving problems.
For instance, in Wall E, people are warned of unnecessary consumerism, which is slowly gaining pace in the contemporary times. In Gattaca, it is clear that humanity can use genetic manipulation to its advantage to clone superior being and overcome the problem of waning life span and diseases like cancer and insanity.
Works Cited Acher, Steven, and Edward Pincus. The Filmmaker’s Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide for the Digital Age, New York: Plume, 2012. Print.
Rubin, Steven. Combat Films: American Realism, 1945–2010, Jefferson: McFarland, 2011. Print.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on Commercial Market Report essay help site:edu
Abstract An unmanned aerial vehicle is a powered machine which operates without the intervention of a human being. Aerodynamic forces are used to provide the thrust to lift the vehicle. It can also fly autonomously or under the remote control of a pilot. The features of the unmanned aerial vehicle are expandability and recoverability. The UAVs are also able to carry lethal and non-lethal payloads.
The challenges preventing the UAV from launching in the commercial market are many which include inappropriate air regulations that govern all the unmanned aerial vehicles, affordability in terms of price and customization, liability for the civil operation, capacity involving the adaptability of payloads, unreliable frequencies of non-military nature of civil operations, technology developments, training issues of operators and customer perception (Finocchio, Prasad
Managing Information Systems (Emirates Airline Company) Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Abstract The Emirates Group has invested in both the Dnata services and Emirates Airline. This company was established in 1985 at the United Arab Emirates (Al-Abed 2005, p. 9). In the year 2102, the company was rated among the biggest airline companies in the world. The company offers flight services across all the continents. Emirates provide cargo services in over 40 destinations under the management of the Emirate Skycargo department (Peng 2009, p. 337).
It works in cooperation with Dnata, a division of the Emirates Group, offering flight services. In this article, the competitive environment of the Emirates Airline is analysed using the Porter’s five forces model.
Similarly, the article focuses on the role of information system in the company with the aim of highlighting on its importance. Through this, the article illustrates how effective management of information systems has placed the company at an advantageous point against the competing airlines. As such, the use of IT has made the company unrivalled in the airline industry.
Emirates profile in the industry The Dubai based Fly Emirates is considered one of the fastest growing global airlines. Recent statistics indicate that Emirates airline is a prolific profit earner.It employs over 50,000 workers worldwide and has a turnover of about $18.3 billion (Boermeester 2006, p. 106).
The company has a remarkable big number of sophisticated and luxury aircrafts, which includes about 180 large, A 380 Airbus, and Boeing. Year after year, the Emirates Company expands and gains international acceptance. The company strategic plans have made Emirates Airline to win over many passengers’ confidence becoming the largest carrier of passenger with approximately 125 destinations worldwide.
The company over time has won several excellence awards. These awards are about 500 in number indicating that the company has had a successful past. The company also ventures in tourism and travel related services boosting its international popularity. The workforce of the emirates is diverse as its employees come from about 160 countries across the six continents it operates.
The success of the company is attributed to the hiring of diverse and experience workers. In addition, the company has greatly motivated its employees by exempting tax on their salaries.The Company has gone an extra mile in promoting the employee’s skills and expertise.This is achieved through training seminars and allowing workers to further their education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor is the conducive and fascinating environment in the new cosmopolitan setup of Dubai. Notably, the success of any business greatly relies on the input from workers. The Dnata, one of its divisions, helps the Emirates Company in management of cargo, passenger travel, catering, and Information Technology needs.
The Dnata has a long experience dating back to its establishment in 1959. This department operates mainly in the Middle East, the Emirates base.
Role of information and technology It is true that in the current world information technology is a necessity and not a luxury (Burgess 2002, p. 279). The use of advanced information technology can lead to a company’s success. The use of IT has become cheaper and easier with the arrival of internet. For instance, the use of fibre optic cable for internet distribution has made sharing of information easy and quick.
A customer can access numerous services through a click a button. Collection of business information such as opportunities, customer feedbacks, online selling, purchasing, advertising, and marketing of products has become easier with the adoption of information technology. Actually, information plays a major role in the success of an organization.
Without information technology, the company will face steep competition from rival businesses (Visscher 2001, p. 4). For this reason, the Emirates Group managers have embraced information technology with an aim of improving the company’s competitiveness and profitability. This is indicated from the award won by the Emirates’ vice president of IT, Mr. Naef on 17 February 2013 in Dubai city.
These awards were sponsored by Corporate Publishing International to acknowledge companies exemplifying the need for innovations and information technology to promote business advantage, raise company’s performance, and enhance their growth. These awards encouraged the company to enhance the use of IT in the workplace.
The Emirates Group has collaborated with the major Information and technology firms. These firms include Microsoft and the HP. Emirates has seen the recent development of a management system known as Knowledge In-flight Service abbreviated as KIS. The management system enhances communication between the company and the customers.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Managing Information Systems (Emirates Airline Company) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is an efficient work output as the Emirates’ crews are able to have a personal customer service. The personalized quality customer services are a unique and distinct product for all its airline customers. The management systems place the Emirates Company at an advantageous point against all the competitor airlines. The information and technology systems have made Emirates unrivalled in the airline industry.
The information management system makes the work of the Emirates’ crew easy, since all the data and records of customers, staff and flight are available in a database. It is reckoned that Naef commenced Knowledge Flight Services when he first came to Emirates Company.
This is an application, which runs on the windows platform called classic. NET. The project mainly utilizes the tablet gadgets. Tablet gadgets proved attractive, fashionable and light.For these features, tablet was chosen to host the KIS application.
Coincidentally, Griffiths, the Emirates’ senior vice president of the cabin crew had embraced the similar idea of using KIS to create a competitive advantage against their rivals. The Griffiths’ management system used tablet running on windows 8 platform. The main objective of the IT management system was to increase customer satisfaction while guaranteeing maximum security of the Emirates Company.
The company has over 16, 000 cabin crew members spread over 130 destinations in six continents.The use of this IT management system has helped Emirates to efficiently manage its employees and airline customers. The system device puts customers and staff information under one platform. The application also includes merging of catering information and all the logistics involved in the Emirates airline industry.
This has made Emirates to stand out in the airline service industry. With time, KIS has been updated to accommodate a new user-friendly interface, emerging trends, demands, new tasks, and future services. Being a pioneer in airline based IT solutions, the company also has shifted to an iPad host gadget, which was supplied by the partnering HP Company. The company chose the Elite Pad 900.
The IT, KIS application has enabled the Emirates flights to be updated automatically as they land at any destination worldwide. This is possible due to the synchronization of the Elite Pad and the central database. All information is captured, sent, received, and recorded. The application has numerous advantages, which include the automatic updates of the customers’ information and tasks to be carried out.
These updates are real time as opposed to the non-real and manual updates, which the rival companies are using. The technology ensures that the events of the customers within the flight are captured and necessary actions can be taken appropriately. All these initiatives are aimed at giving a high level of service to Emirates customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Information Systems (Emirates Airline Company) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Porter’s five forces model Before analyzing the competitive environment of Emirates Company using the Porter’s model, facets of the model should be understood. Porter’s model is a vital mechanism tool used in determining strengths and powers of a given company.
The five forces model is very essential in that the company is able to know its current competitive environment as well as the new position a company may consider to engage (Ahlstrom
Rationale and Team Responsibilities: A Brief Overview Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Defining a structure of an organization is not an easy task, since it involves a thorough analysis of the company’s goals, mission and vision, as well as careful consideration of the roles and responsibilities that the company members are going to take within the given structure.
Because of the focus of the Mobile Headset Company, as well as the fact that the company consists of comparatively few people, it will be most reasonable to adopt the Functional Structure (Daft, 2010) and make sure that the chosen structure should provide the best opportunities for information management and contribute to an efficient knowledge sharing process.
The choice of the Functional Structure Model as the basis for the organizational structure was predetermined by the fact that the given model allows for a reasonable distribution of roles and responsibilities to each of the company members, as well as defining the tasks that each department is supposed to accomplish.
Therefore, the Functional Structure model helps solve one of the basic problems haunting large companies, i.e., the means to introduce cohesion and cooperation into the work of different departments within a company.
To start with, the delegation of responsibilities within the company in question is going to be carried out in the following manner:
Table 1. Roles and Responsibilities of the Company Members
One of the key peculiarities of the structure provided above is that the delegation of responsibilities is strictly hierarchical, i.e., the corresponding tasks can be assignment to a corresponding staff member of a department by a superior staff member or a department; however, the given rule presupposes that the task cannot be assigned to a Discount Manager by the CEO of the company; instead, the Finance Department manager is supposed to handle the given task.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the suggested system admittedly lacks flexibility (Daft
Innovation Planning and Design Process Report writing essay help
Introduction The process of innovation planning and designing plays a significant role in making an organization gain a competitive advantage. This process requires creative and competitive ideas from many individuals. It is employed in different functions such as production, inventory, and marketing. Organizations need employees with diverse sets of competencies.
They enable organizations to develop, test, as well as commercialize new products. Managers provide employees with resources that are necessary for a company to accomplish its objectives. Innovation does not only involve taking products and services to the market, but also emphasizing on quality products and services. A good plan ensures high quality products and services, as well as enhanced employee performance.
This paper addresses the innovative planning and design process within an organization. It analyzes the internal and external factors related to designing innovation strategies. It also discusses he importance of innovation systems, as well as the steps involved in the process of innovation planning and design.
Internal and external factors related to innovation planning and design There are various internal and external factors that determine organization’s innovation strategies. The internal factors include the creativity of individuals in an organization, communication, relationships between employees and managements, and employee motivation (Rowe, 2008).
In addition, employee perceptions of organizational change, innovation plan efficiency, and organizational assumptions determine the innovation strategies used by an organization.
Communication is a significant factor that determines the success of designing innovation strategies. Organizations that set up and nurture efficient communication channels excel in their innovation strategies. Efficient communication ensures effective coordination of different business units in the organization.
Furthermore, it ensures that products and services are made available at the right place and time. Good employee-management relationships also contribute largely to efficient designing of innovation strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employee relationships enhance sharing of an organization’s goals and eliminates constraints to organizational performance. It is also easy to influence employees to perceive organizational change positively, and hence accept and implement innovations in an organization without pausing barriers.
Employee motivation also contributes to efficient designing of innovation strategies (White
Walt Whitman Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Walt Whitman was an American journalist and poet born in 1819 in West Hills, New York and who died in1892 in Camden, New Jersey. During his life, Whitman served the community in numerous ways, for example, he was working as a teacher, volunteer nurse, journalist, essayist, and a government clerk (Bloom 16).
Whitman was a classical scholar who influenced the development of poetry through his numerous works that are relevant even today. He started writing and publishing his poems at a time when people did not enjoy the freedom of expressing their thoughts freely.
Nearly all of Whitman’s literary works evoked different reactions of social masses which caused Whitman to be given some of his famous nicknames such as the “Father of Free Verse” and “The Bard of Democracy”. The author’s life was stained by numerous disputes regarding his sexuality (Symonds 43). This issue provoked so much interest that biographers analyzed his poems as a way of understand his feelings.
They still continue to describe his sexuality as bisexual, although there is no clear evidence that Whitman had any sexual experiences with men. Whitman’s life was dominated by poetry and politics, especially during the industrialization era when he strongly opposed slavery. He was a staunch campaigner of democracy, as he used his influence to advocate for abolishment of slavery (Bloom 21).
Discussion Walt Whitman hailed from a family with eight children and it faced numerous economic challenges. The poor economic background of the family resulted from poor investment decisions made by the parents. The author described his upbringing as one characterized by ceaseless motion, worry, and lack of happiness.
The economic situation in Whitman’s family meant that there were limited life opportunities for him and his siblings (Bloom 26). Thus, he had to look for a job after finishing school. He worked in various places including his job as a trainee and printer at a local newspaper called Patriot. This job helped to shape Whitman’s career as a poet and journalist.
While working for the newspaper, Whitman had learnt how to use a typesetter, and gained a lot of knowledge about the printing press. He did not stay with this employer for long, and moved to another newspaper in Brooklyn called Long-Island Star. While in Brooklyn, Whitman visited the local library on a regular basis to read, as well as participate in debate and theatre performances (Meltzer 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aspiring poets respected Whitman a lot for his lifestyle and beliefs, for example, in his youth, Whitman chose not to consume alcohol (Meltzer 109). Through his poems, Whitman encouraged readers to stay away from the temptations of alcohol, as it had serious effects. Whitman admitted to have written The Inebriate under the influence of alcohol.
He felt embarrassed by the poem because of the numerous contradictory phrases it contained (Symonds 48). Since then, Whitman decided to consume only alcohol free drinks. Whitman was a religious man, and believed in God. Through his works, Whitman advocated for equality among all believers. He believed that all religions were equal and none should feel superior over the other.
Some of the poems that emphasized his belief in God include Song of Myself, and With Antecedents (Symonds 53). However, it was hard for Whitman to avoid skepticism, as he did not believe in any religion despite accepting all of them.
One of the characteristic features of Whitman’s poems was the use of an expressive style, images and symbols. Ordinary poems did not have these elements. Although there were poets who used expressive style in their writings before Whitman, many people consider him as the one responsible for popularization of this style (Meltzer 126).
Whitman believed that the ideal recipe for a poet to succeed was a shared passion for poetry between poets and the readers. He expressed his thoughts about the success of poets in his collection of poems called the Leaves of Grass. According to Whitman, there is a dependent relationship between poetry and society.
The society helps influence the development of poetry by providing an audience, while poetry helps instilling positive ideals in society through information and knowledge (Bloom 30). Whitman underlined this concept in one of his poems called the Song of Myself.
His writing style also incorporated first person recitation. Whitman had a strong ability to create poems in singular form. This earned him a title among the American readers of the “Poet of Democracy”.
We will write a custom Essay on Walt Whitman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The writer used Leaves of Grass to divulge the character and identity the American people. Through his poems, Whitman gave a detailed account of the civilization era in the United States of America. Leaves of Grass is one of the most important reference resources for history students, who study events that marked the civilization of America (Meltzer 132). Despite his success as a poet, Whitman was not much into poetry.
He realized that he had the ability to bring change in the society by pursuing a different dream. Thus, he started his career as a poet. Whitman used a variety of themes in his poems to discuss various issues that affected the society. One the themes that he used in his poems was sexuality. This theme resulted in widespread criticism from readers over the offensive topics discussed by this theme.
The manner in which Whitman discussed human feelings elicited questions about his sexuality that remains a mystery to date. Many people believe that his controversial themes helped a lot in shaping a realist society that accepts everyone despite their perfections and imperfections (Symonds 61).
Whitman helped to create a positive mentality about diversity through his poems. Readers of these poems have managed to carry on his teachings into the modern society.
Conclusion Walt Whitman was one of the most influential people in the field of fictional writing. His legacy still lives on many years after he passed on. According to Whitman, there is a dependent relationship between poetry and society. Whitman is remembered for his role in introducing a new style of writing poems, and his fight for democracy in the United States of America.
Whitman also inspired many people with his lifestyle and beliefs. Most of Whitman’s admirers believe that he is the best poet that America had at that time. Many modern poets still promote the legacy that Walt Whitman left through their poems. Throughout his life, Whitman served his community in numerous roles, and through his work, he advocated for equality among all religions and all people. He believed that all were equal.
Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Walt Whitman. New York: Info Base Publishing, 2009. Print.
Meltzer, Milton. Walt Whitman: A Biography. New Jersey: Twenty-First Century Books, 2002. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Walt Whitman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Symonds, John. Walt Whitman: A Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.
Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power Essay college admissions essay help
Power is present in all spheres of life. Michel Foucault has enormously shaped the idea of power present in institutions. According to Foucault, power is often used as a means of coercion. The main philosophy that he delineates is that power is everywhere and it gains eminence through regimes of discourse (Foucault 778). This paper is an exercise to understand the presence of power within a university campus.
The first part of the paper will discuss the philosophy of power as presented by Foucault. Power is defined by Foucault as a relation between groups and forces within a social institution:
The term “power” designates relationships between partners (and by that I am not thinking of a zero-sum game but simply, and for the moment staying in the most general terms, of an ensemble of actions which induce others and follow from one another) (Foucault 786).
The power as Foucault defines is not imposed from within the structure of the institution. Instead, it arises from relations in the society. Foucault states that there are different modes of power – disciplinary modes of power and social power (Foucault 53). Power is not related to any institution nor does it arise out of force. Power does not exist individually.
It is present with other powers institutionalized by other bodies. According to Foucault, power is passes through the institutions and does not belong to individuals. Furthermore, Foucault also demonstrates that the concept of modern discipline has developed through this new understanding of power within institutions.
The panopticon system is the way power is institutionalized within a modern setting (Foucault, Power/Knowedlge 155). Foucault states that there is no “exercise of power without a certain economy of discourses of truth” (Foucault 93). The concept of power as delineated by Foucault has certain facets:
Power is found in relation to the social body and these two things co-exist,
Power relations are interlinked with other forms of relations,
These relations do not dictate the nature of “prohibitions and punishments”,
These discourses are unified into a unitary form of domination. (Foucault 142)
Power can be used for establishment of power, knowledge, and competency (Foucault 781). Further, these struggles can be used against the group of “domination and exploration” (Foucault 782). The question that arises is that how the power is exercised. Foucault presents the answer to this question:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Power relations, relationships of communication, and objective capacities should not therefore be confused. This is not to say that there is a question of three separate domains.
Nor that there is, on the one hand, the field of things, of perfected technique, work, and the transformation of the real; on the other that of signs, communication, reciprocity, and the production of meaning; and finally, that of the domination of the means of constraint, of inequality, and the action of men upon other men (Foucault 786-787).
The presence of power within institutions requires obedience through recognition of power relations. The discipline of apprenticeship is necessary for appropriate communication of power, according to Foucault. The next section of the paper will discuss how power is structured within universities.
This section will delineate the issues of power that is evident within a university campus. Universities are structured in three broad groups. The first group of people is the educators or the professors. They are the ones who are in possession of knowledge and therefore, due to their abundance of knowledge, they hold a specific power over others in the institution.
This group also has an institutionalized superiority in the mind of the other groups in the university. For instance, students realize the power that the professors have through popular discourse of teacher’s superiority. The second group is that of the students. This the largest group within the educational institution.
They are the ones who are present in the university to gain knowledge and therefore, they hold a position of submissiveness. Further, the third group includes other people associated with the university. These may include the accounting staff, people at the library, and so on. These three are the broad groups; however, there are many other subgroups within these broader groups.
Who has power in the universities? In any educational institution, considering that they are the institutions of knowledge, power is present among the people who have more knowledge. According to Foucault, individual professors do not have the power.
We will write a custom Essay on Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The power they have does not come from their individual knowledge or positions. It is the institution of the professors. In other words, the group of people who control the dissemination of knowledge in an educational institution is the group that probably holds the maximum power within a university.
Foucault states “power exists only when it put to action” (789). In case of the group of students, the power originates from the groups that are formed. For instance, a student’s body, which has been elected to represent to the administrators, holds the power. The members of this body instantly hold the greater power than the other members of the students’ body.
Further, these people hold greater power because it is discoursed by the institutional machinery that they are the ones who represent the others to the administration, and therefore possess the greater power. Therefore, even the others within the students’ body feel that these students are important. The power of the students in the university is almost similar to that of papal power, which they hold over other students.
The others consider the students’ body almost as a group of priests who have remarkable power to transfer the wishes of the students to the administrators. Therefore, the belief that they are the only people who can transport the ideas to the others is a possible way in which the students’ body derives power.
The other possible source of power within the educational institution is observable in the student-teacher interaction. Students are the subjects and the objects of submission, while the teachers are the source of power.
The teachers’ body, due to greater knowledge available to them, holds a higher position and is the one who watches over the students through instruments such as projects, presentations, and examinations.
The power that the teachers hold is again the one that is discoursed to them, rather than the ones which arise out of position. Hence, Foucault rejects the concept of positional power, and fosters the belief that power is one that is created through the confrontation of the two bodies, in this case , the students and the teachers’ body. Foucault has explained the existence of power in relation to civil authorities and the criminals as:
Basically, power is less a confrontation between two adversaries or the linking of one to the other than a question of government. … “Government” did not refer only to political structures or to the management of states; … to govern, in this sense, is to structure the possible field of action of others. (Foucault 786)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the power one attains within the government is also the one that the others should abide. Had there been no discourse of the existence and the perceived superiority of the government, power would not have become such an important tool (Fanon 176).
The power that the governing bodies assumed, or any other bodies within the universities, was not derived from the structure of the institution, but from the mode of actions of the people.
The main issue is that the groups in the university provide that power emerges as a game of freedom. The process in which one group or the other within the university seeks freedom is a method in which power is created within the organization. As one tries to attain freedom, the other tries to bind it using the rules and regulations of the institution.
In this way, the governing bodies of the universities again hold power over the students as well as the teachers’ body. This is a spiral chain of power and the effect of it extends to all the bodies within the institution. The presence of the power within the organization, be it an educational intuition or any other, power arises from the beliefs and perception of people and through the hierarchical machinery.
Power is a system that is enforced through ages of discourse. Thus, the case study of a university shows that power, as Foucault asserted, arises not from the structure of the organization but through various methods of interaction and actions.
Works Cited Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Paris: Grove Press, 1963. Print.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline
Social Construction of Race and Gender Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Problem of Social Construction of Race and Gender
Introduction Race and gender have been considered socially constructed in our society, and despite the efforts that have been put by several human rights groups it, this perception is yet to change.
According to Haslanger (2012: 43), “The term socially constructed, means that the society and culture has created specific roles, and that these roles are what is generally considered ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific race or gender.” This means that the society expects men to behave in a way that is different from the way women do.
There are some activities that women are not supposed to do simply because they are women. Similarly, construction of race is exhibited when one race is expected to behave in a way that is different from other races. For instance, before many of the African nations gained independence, the Blacks were considered as slaves, and the Whites were seen as of superior race.
There might not be a scientific proof that Whites could be superior in any way to the Blacks. However, because the society had developed a perception that Blacks are inferior to the Whites, following a long period of slavery, this perception still remain. Social constriction of gender and race has been seen as the main reason why social segregation based on these two demographical factors are common in our society.
The Problem of Social Construction of Race and Gender The society has been fighting social construction of gender and race because of the call made by several human rights group for equality in the society. Social construction of race and gender has been seen as an impediment to development, and a reason why some social injustice are still common in our society. It is a scientific fact that men have greater physical strength than women.
However, this should not make women a weaker sex in the social spectrum. Women should not be denied positions of leadership in the society just because they are women. As Ferber (1999) says, the society has discriminated against women for a very long time.
Although women are currently getting liberated, the social construction that existed in the minds of people still linger, and many societies still believe that women are inferior to men, and are treated as such.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social constructionism theory holds that some demographic groups of people are expected to behave in a given manner within the society (Karambayya 1997). For instance, women would not be expected to assume roles that have largely been associated with men.
Careers in engineering, medicine, law, architect or any other well-paying technical jobs are expected to be a preserve for men. Women should get to such profession as nursing, teaching, and any other less technical unattractive jobs in the society. This is a social injustice.
If women have the capacity to do what men are doing, then gender should not be the reason why she should be denied the opportunity to do that job. Women have proven that they have the capacity to assume roles that were considered as meant for men. In leadership, women have proven that they can excel. Margret Thatcher remains one of the most celebrated prime minister of the United Kingdom.
Other notable women leaders around the world include Indira Gandhi of India, Hilary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice of the United States, and the current German Chancellor, Angela Merkel. These are women who have gone beyond social construction that women are considered a weaker race before men.
Social constriction of race has caused a lot of injustice in this society. As Obach (1999) notes, the United States has witnessed a long period of racial discrimination. When the country gained independence in 1776, the statesmen and women of this country promised that slavery and slave trade will be abolished.
When the country became independent, the Blacks, Whites, Indians, and all other races that were residing in the United States during that time were granted citizenship of this country. However, the perception that the Whites were superior to all other races still remained. The Blacks were considered an inferior race, and there were restricted to some social services.
Ferber (1999) by nineteenth century, there were still some posts written, ‘Whites Only.’ This is a clear indication that the Whites segregated other races, and there were some services that they could not share with the Whites.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Construction of Race and Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recent election of a Black president of this nation was seen as a positive move by this society towards racial justice. The society has come to realize that it is important to avoid any prejudice against a section of the society because of their race.
The main problem with social construction of race and gender is that the society has been trying to justify why a given group of people is considered superior to others. This justification has even made the discriminated group believe that they are inferior group. As Obach (1999) puts it, the discriminated group have come to accept their unfortunate condition.
They have come to believe that they below to the inferior race or gender. This makes the fight against all forms of social construction a little more challenging. However, the recent moves by human rights groups have helped change this perception. People have come to accept that human being, regardless of race, gender, or any other demographic differences, are equal, and should therefore, be treated as such.
Racism Browne (2003: 37) defines racism as, “Actions, beliefs or practices, which consider the human beings to be divided into races with shared qualities, traits, or abilities, such as intellect, personality, and morality, and the belief that races can be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to others.”
As described in this definition, racism is a stereotype that holds that some members of the society are superior to others and deserve being treated as such. A good example of racism was witnessed in the United States, where Whites regarded Blacks and other races as being inferior to them.
They treated them as second class citizens who were not expected to use the same facilities as those used by Whites. The Whites had their own schools, hospitals, and other social amenities. The Blacks also had their own social facilities. South Africa also experienced Apartheid rule that was fought and brought to an end by the late Nelson Mandela.
Sexism Sexism refers to discrimination prejudice that is based on an individual’s gender (Karambayya 1997). It is the perception that men are superior to women, and should be treated as such. In the current society, sexism still persists in many ways. As Obach (1999) notes, the American society has generally failed to appreciate that it can be led by a woman.
This was not only shown by the failure of Hillary Clinton to win the primaries against Obama in the 2008 race to Whitehouse, but also by the limited number of women who vie for these seats. As was mentioned before, social construction of gender becomes even worse when those who are discriminated against come to accept that they are a weaker group.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Construction of Race and Gender by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The American women have believed that they are inferior to men, and therefore, have avoided vying from the country’s top post. In 2008, Sarah Palin was nominated by the Republican Party to vie alongside the Arizona Senator John McCain as the Vice President of this country.
McCain thought that the society would accept her as a female vice president. However, this was not the case. She failed to appeal to the society due to a number of reasons, top of which was that she was a woman.
Conclusion Social construction of race and gender has been very common in our society for a very long time. Women have been considered inferior to men, and the Whites, the most superior race.
As demonstrated in the above discussion, social construction in itself is an injustice. Every human being should be treated equally. Gender or race should not be the reason why some members of the society are denied opportunities within the society.
It is wrong to treat others as second class citizens because of their race or gender. Human rights groups have been fighting this vice for a long time now. Although their efforts have transformed the society positively, social construction of race and gender is still common in this society.
References Haslanger, Sally. 2012. Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ferber, Abby. 1999. “The Construction of Race, Gender, and Class in White Supremacist Discourse.” Interdisciplinary Issues On Race, Gender
Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The Process of Management “ Management is the art of getting things done through people. It also implies the process of accomplishing results with and through the efforts of others. It involves the development of the necessary actions for achieving the objectives of an organisation.
Many organisations have policies, procedures and guidelines that govern the decisions made. The manager must understand how to get people do what he or she wants them to do, as well as know what they are doing, the results to be achieved and how best the results can be achieved efficiently (Fox 145).
Management involves making decisions such as hiring and firing, adopting new market strategies and new personnel policies. A manager therefore should be a person who exercises authority and leadership over other people.
In organisations, people are seen as a resource that is relatively inflexible and can be controlled for organisational gain. Human resource management therefore centers on articulating the needs and aspirations of the workers and, meeting their needs, giving them challenges and helping them towards self actualization (Fox 154).
The management functions include planning, organising, selection or staffing, directing, controlling or coordination, recruitment, budgeting and reporting. For the personnel manager, planning means the determination in advance of a personnel program that will contribute to the goals established for the enterprise.
To do this, the manager must focus on the economic, social and political environment in which the organisation will be operating in. He or she must also establish the resources needed to make the plans work (Fox 167).
After a course of action has been determined, the organisation must establish how to carry it out. Since organisations are a means to an end, organising involves designing the structure of the relationships among jobs to ensure that they are well coordinated. In organising, a manager decides on a position to be filled and duties and responsibilities attached to the position.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager also has to establish positions to make decisions about how work will be done on a day to day basis. The organising function also entail taking into account organisational changes which may be occasioned by things like demise of workers, firing of workers and how to compensate for such changes (Fox 170).
The directing aspect of management is the actual doing of work by looking for appropriate ways of motivating or getting people to do work willingly and effectively. The manger must provide directives to the staff members. They should know the results the manager expects and thrive to meet those results. Managers should also help the staff by explaining and communicating effectively his or her expectations to the staff (Fox 199).
After controlling, the manager determines how well jobs have been done and what progress has been made towards attaining the goals. He or she must know what’s happening so as to take steps in making changes to ensure the attainment of goals and objectives. Control is concerned with regulating activities in accordance to the set goals (Fox 211).
Managers are also supposed to plan to meet current objectives of the organisation, both short term and long term as well as make the best use of resources for the benefit of the organisation. They should be in a position to oversee problems and investing to be self reliant.
Manpower Recruitment, Selection and Orientation The manpower planning approach to the recruitment or selection of individuals for promotion moves considerably beyond the traditional personnel ‘mechanics’. Recruitment refers to the identification of appropriate personnel in internal labor markets, while selection suggests a choice among alternate people of applicants either internal or external to an organization (French 13).
The man power planning perspective emphasizes career planning, human values and up to date tools and techniques for scrutinizing candidates and applicants. All of these focus on the long run objectives and emergent development of an organization (French 18).
The main aim of some managers is to place all persons on jobs perfectly suited to them and society, the assumption being that each person should use his abilities, temperament and motivations in all the best way possible for him or her. The other assumption is that the society will make the best possible use of its total manpower resources (French 19).
We will write a custom Essay on Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clearly, these observations are broadly conceived and seek to bring about union of individual, company and society interest against a backdrop of change and shifting needs. Thus man power planning for recruitment and selection witnesses the shift from a static base to the dynamics of change. The servicing of current problems remains a continuing need, but increasing attention is devoted to forward looking programs.
The manpower planning perspective demands ‘total’ pictures of current and future manpower needs and avoids the disjointed functional approach of past years. Reliance on short-run, purely economic criteria for determining manpower needs is viewed with disfavor (French 39).
Recruitment and Good Management Practices The satisfaction of management obligation or the ‘goodness’ of management practice develops through carefully planned effort in sales, production, manpower and fiscal management, and through research and innovation in each area. Careful planning and operation in these areas demands knowledge-both accumulated and assimilated. That knowledge must be pertinent to the jobs and the problems typical of the given concern (Aquinas 18).
Recruitment programs exist as means of seeking out those individuals possessing the required knowledge, the physical and mental competency and the psychological compatibility. These programs exist as part of a larger effort (Aquinas 18).
If total staffing effort of an organisation is haphazard, the results, from even the most technically correct recruitment program will be relatively poor. One can therefore summarise that good management practice requires competent selection and induction as well as competent recruitment. This, in turn, re-emphasizes the need for a sound over-all management philosophy (Aquinas 19).
Selection and Good Management Practice The staffing effort becomes to the manpower manager what vendor analysis is to the purchasing agent. Staffing includes the determination of manpower needed, the determination of the best source of supply, and the development of the best means of acquiring and assuring quality selection from chosen sources. It also includes consideration of the best way to put man into his new environment (Aquinas 22).
Recruitment serves to locate the proper sources and to interest potential employees in the possibility of employment. Selection serves to identify and promise the desired quality. Selection thus facilitates good management practice by isolating the required knowledge and compatibility necessary to that and making it available to the organization (Aquinas 23).
It is the positive counterpart of selection. Many management thinkers indicate that finding recruits is a positive action, whereas the act of eliminating all but the most desirable from group of candidates makes the selection function negative.Recruitment is continuing effort involving daily application. It requires special knowledge and effort. One must know where to look for desirable recruits for no longer are they available at the gate (Aquinas 28).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recruitment is therefore both a selling job and a problem analysis. It involves a long range-planning which includes manpower forecasting, in terms of manpower quantity and quality. To be effective, both the planning and the operational phases of the system require excellent communication with all segments of the company. The manpower division should develop a well coordinated flow of information and to and from their manpower sources (Aquinas 31).
Though recruiting is important, it merely succeeds in bringing potentially effective personnel to the organisation. Distinguishing between the most and least desirable recruits and detecting and eliminating people with non-obvious deficiencies are the problems of selection.
Selection techniques seeks to determine the probable effectiveness of those made available through recruitment efforts. This evaluation provides personal data basic not only to the hiring decision but also to decisions regarding promotion and transfer, training and compensation, and concerning the prevention or handling of operational manpower problems (Aquinas 38).
Selection is the ‘core’ of the staffing effort. Truly, effective selection goes beyond the traditional idea of finding the right man for the current vacancy. It embraces the concept of hiring persons potentially suited for the next job in the hierarchy.
Effective selection procedure requires careful attention to system, and must be adjusted to fit the specific needs of an organisation. A carefully conceived selection procedure is just as important to the small firm as to the large. After all, the smaller the universe, the larger the errors appear. Loses from unnecessary turnover become uncomfortably significant in the small organisation.
However, such loses can be prevented in part by good manpower selection. In large organisations, equal care is needed in apportioning funds, and effective man power selection can minimize the risks of loss associated with poor personnel department. The amount of money available should not be the deciding factor in determining the steps taken. The known needs of the organisation are the correct criteria (Aquinas 54).
Systems design depends on the organisation’s job and administrative requirements and the care taken in adjusting theory to practice. The systems approach has four theoretical requirements namely assurance of order, consideration of situational variation, adjustment for administrative needs and recognition of the functional needs of the organization (Aquinas 56).
The selection of manpower is therefore fundamental in the staffing effort. As a process it seeks to determine, the most qualified persons for given vacancies and future growth from among many applicants made available by the recruitment procedure. Modern-day selection is based upon a system of complete selectivity where-in the total competence of applicants is evaluated.
The system, for both rank-file, and managerial selection, is based upon standard or uniform steps. Although uniformity is necessary and order is a promise requirement, the system must be flexible or else the job-job variations in requirements cannot be met effectively. Furthermore, the tools used to facilitate the living decision must be scientific as possible or the system will provide little better results than the hit-or-miss practices of the past years (Aquinas 58).
After recruitment, an orientation should be given to the new recruit as well as to a person who moves up. The objectives of a good orientation include making clear to the employee the terms of his employment, communicating to him or her all the job requirements and inspiring in him or her confidence in the organisation he or she has joined as well as in his own ability to learn and perform on the job (Aquinas 81).
Fair Employee Practice Organisations and managers must be fair to their employees. Bias may be imminent during the selection process; however, many countries have put in place legislations to ensure fair selection. Such legislations include those which advocate for the rights of such groups as the disabled, expectant mothers, among others.
Discrimination throughout the selection process should therefore be avoided. Organisations and managers should ensure that men and women have equal opportunities for employment, enjoy equal pay for similar jobs and same working environment (Aquinas 82).
Another way to retain employees is through employee training and development. Through training, the employees learn skills to perform various tasks. They also re-learn when they change jobs within an organisation. Training entails learning, which involve acquisition of new patterns of behavior (Aquinas 89).
Employee Motivation Motivation is the process of encouraging or influencing people to behave in a particular manner, which they would have otherwise not behaved without the encouragement or the influence. Employees need to be motivated so that they may work hard towards the achievement of organisational objectives.
Employees may be motivated either by internal or external sources. Internal motivation comes from an individual and is also known as intrinsic motivation while external motivation comes from outside sources and is also known as extrinsic motivation (Sims 67).
Organisational culture refers to shared beliefs, values, norms and practices which characterize an organisation. Organisational culture is a very important aspect in any organisation which aspires to realize its vision through the mission (Sims 67).
Organisational culture is closely related to organisational structure, which refers to how the organisation is structured, how power and authority to make decisions are distributed along the structure of the organisation, and who should take what direction or instructions from whom and when (Sims 67).
Organisational culture is a very important aspect in any organisation which aspires to realize its vision and mission. This is because organisational culture determines whether the organisation is able to work together towards the realization of the vision (Sims 67).
Organisational culture is learned implicitly through interaction within the organisational setting. The employees learn it through imitating others who they find in the organisation.
This imitation happens unconsciously due to the human instinct to adopt behaviors which make him or her fit in the social environment which he or she finds himself or herself in. Through communication and interaction with each other, employees may coin some terms or codes which are unique to the organisation.
Employees also learn organisational culture through conditioning and reinforcement. For instance, if certain behavior is rewarded by the management of an organisation, the employees will tend to perfect that behavior which eventually becomes part of their culture. Likewise, if certain behavior is negatively sanctioned by the management, then the employees will tend to avoid it, thus becoming one of the don’ts in the organisation.
A strong organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees are committed to their work and discharge their duties with little or no supervision while a weak organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees have little commitment to their duties and are closely supervised so as to discharge their duties effectively (Sims 76).
There are various models of organisational culture. One such model is the power culture which is characterized by centralization of power to some few people within the organisation. These persons are usually very influential in the organisation and therefore everybody else tends to foster a good relationship with them. In this culture, employees are motivated to the degrees into which they emulate those central persons.
In this type of culture, decisions are made easily because there are no many hierarchical positions in the structure of the organisation (Sims 79).There is also role culture, which is characterized by doing things as per ones position, meaning that an employee only cares for what is of concern to him or her or what lies under his or her docket.
This culture is also characterized by rigidity in decision making because of the bureaucratic nature of the organisational structure which leads to inefficiency (Sims 85).Task culture is characterized by the formation of groups which are composed of people with some expertise or knowledge to perform some specific tasks.
In this type of culture therefore, group work is very important and authority as well as supervision play little or no role because the teams are trusted by the management with their tasks (Sims 85).Lastly, there is person’s culture which is characterized by a feeling of superiority among the employees, who think that they are very valuable to the organisation.
In such a culture, unity and cooperation among the employees may be rare because each employee thinks that he or she is the best and therefore not ready to share what he or she knows with others without extra remuneration by the organisation for the same (Sims 90).
Organisational Learning Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge and understanding regarding a particular subject. It can take various forms and may be acquired from various sources which may include imitation, observation, listening, brainstorming, doing and learning through mistakes, trainings, seminars, and from cultural practices (Sims 95).
The concept of organisational learning has its origin from Argyris and Schön, who in 1978 came out to express their views on the concept. Their view has been referred to as the technical classical approach to organisational learning. Their model of organisational learning comprises the single and double loop learning(Sims 95).
Single loop learning entails the detection and correction of mistakes or errors made in organisations which makes organisations perceive change as an incremental process. Double loop learning entails changing of strategies by organisations due to either internal or external forces.
Argyris and Schön model of change can be viewed as a technical approach to organisational learning because it involves the use of individuals and systems or strategies by organisation to meet their objectives (Sims 95).
Organisational learning enables organisations to prepare employees for any change which may come as a result of organisational restructuring or mergers or due to adoption of a certain technology. It also enables organisations to have in place very competent and reliable employees, who are flexible and open- minded to handle any situation which may come along their way in their lines of duty.
Organisational learning keeps organisations in a strategic position for increasing their competitiveness as well as coming up with best practices which not only improve organisations’ productivity but also the image of organisations to their customers (Sims 98).
For example, an organisation which deals with provision of electricity may engage itself in what is referred to as corporate social responsibility by undertaking activities like conservation of the environment, fighting poverty through provision of scholarships to needy students or training communities on entrepreneurship (Sims 110).
Knowledge Management Knowledge management entails the development of strategies which make an organisation more competitive. Its major tenets are innovation, research and development. These aims at making the organisation have in place a good stock of knowledge resources, which can easily be transformed into inventions in form of introduction of new and unique products in the market.
Knowledge management also helps organisations differentiate their products and position themselves in a strategic position in the market such that they may have a good share of the customers.
Knowledge management also involves the sharing of the lessons learned through the process of organisational learning. It can therefore be argued that organisational learning is an aspect of knowledge management. The two focuses on the improvement of organisational performance and the attainment of its long term and short term goals.
Organizational Culture Many organisational researchers agree that a cohesive organisational culture is the one in which all members of an organisation hold to similar beliefs and values which glue the organisation together. These beliefs and values may be implicit or explicit to the organisation, meaning that they may be or not be publicly declared in the organisational core values.
In this kind of a culture, it does not matter the organisational structure but what matters most is the commitment of each and every member of the organisation to these believes and values. For example, an organisation may value hard work, honesty and team work and believe in transparency, utmost good faith, ethics and morality. A cohesive organisational culture has got many benefits.
One benefit is that it leads to high motivation among the employees because they share common believes and values. When employees are highly motivated, there is minimal use of resources in their supervision which in turn increases their productivity because to them, what matters most is the good of the organisation as a whole but not personal good.
Another benefit of cohesive organisational culture is that it facilitates the alignment of organisations for the achievement of their objectives, mission and vision without much difficulty. This is because the employees are not only fully aware of the mission, vision and objectives, but have also internalised them thus making them to work hard to achieve them. This makes them more motivated to accomplish the set organisational gaols, targets or objectives.
Strong organisational culture also boosts organisational efficiency because of the internalisation of what is required of each and every employee when and where. The sharing of values and beliefs creates a good working environment free from any kind of confusion, ambiguity or lack of understanding among the employees, which apart from increasing efficiency also saves on time wasted when things seem not to move in the right direction because the employees are able and free to consult each other without the fear of victimisation or intimidation especially by the senior managers. Employees also portray good behaviour at work because they know what is right to be done and what is not right.
Furthermore, strong organisational culture leads to cohesion among various departments of an organisation which leads to harmonisation of all organisational procedures, policies and practices in each and every department.
This cohesion leads to proper utilisation of organisational resources without sabotage as well as sound, logical and relevant polices on how to coordinate organisational activities in a manner that would maximise the organisations’ chances of realizing their mission and vision.
Cohesion among various organisational departments also leads to the sharing of information by various departments which increases the employees’ levels of understanding of how various departments work. This is very important because it enables employees to multitask especially in times when staffs in some departments are not available.
For example, the understanding of administrative issues in the organisation by the head of accounting departmental may make him or her work on behalf of the head of the administration department when he or she is not present.
Strong organisational culture enhances control, good coordination and consistency within an organisation. This is because the employees and the management are in good terms and thus are able to agree informally on various procedures and practices without compromising the quality of the organisational practices and objectives.
This saves on time because employees implement the changes which they find necessary without having to wait for bureaucratic board meetings and discussion to approve even the slightest change in procedures or practices.
Lastly not the least, cohesive organisational culture enhances team work, group leadership and collaboration of the employees in various tasks. This is of crucial importance to organisations because it opens the room for employees’ creativity, innovativeness and openness to positive criticism which makes work not only enjoyable, but also enriched with a multiplicity of ideas.
This in turn leads to increased achievement levels by the organisation as opposed to situations in which employees’ creativity and innovativeness are not entertained by the management of the organisations.
Works Cited Aquinas. Organizational behaviour : concepts realities applications and challenges. New Delhi : Excel Books, 2006. 18-89. Print.
Fox, William, M.The management process : an integrated functional approach. Charlotte, N.C. : Information Age Publishing, 2009.145-211. Print.
French, Ray.Organizational behavior. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2011.13-39.Print.
Sims, Ronald, R.Human resource management : contemporary issues, challenges and opportunities. Greenwich, Conn. : Information Age Publishers, 2007. 67-110. Print.
Comparative study of three children literature books Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help
Introduction There are many literature methods that are used to enable the student understand the meaning of the story or what the author wants to convey. When writing children books, it is imperative that these literal devices as well as the language be carefully formulated so as to enable the children understand the message be conveyed and also for the reader to learn the lesson that the author wants to convey.
The plot of the story must be carefully organized such that it is coherent and the children understand the story. Various authors use different literal devices so as to convey the message to the child and also ensure that he enjoys reading the book as well as in deriving meaningful teaching from the stories (Zile
Thomas Paine Quotes Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Quotes on religion Ideas of Deity
Paine’s idea of deity is that the first cause a man can attribute to God is the cause of all things. He rejects the traditional conception that there is a time that a man would have eternal duration. He saw the idea of conceiving and believing that there is no end as outrageous (Paine, The Age of Reason, 2008).
The quote clearly depicts Thomas Paine as a deist but not a theist. He uses the model of enlightenment to purvey his issues on the logic of religion. Thomas Paine criticizes conservative views of religion. Strong in his texts is the belief that the traditional church is a mere creation of humankind and therefore false.
Also, he describes the church as a setup not only to chain but also to frighten them. It aims at monopolizing yield and dominance. Paine was extremely sentimental about how religion maintains things as they are.
It was a way of ensuring that the social structure remains the same. He dismisses the beliefs of the church as an established entity with a single God. His quotes on the duties of the church were insensible (Lucci, 2008).
Traditional Christian values and virtues of justice, mercy and other creeds of the church were an invention according to him (Dolbeare, 2009).
Paine discusses the inconsistencies that are present in the biblical texts. A good example he noted was that the first five books in the Old Testament were quite contradicting. The traditional view that Moses was the author of the books in his view did not hold. He reasons that Moses died before the era of the Pentateuch and contents in these books were irrelevant.
He questions the value of morality in the bible. The descriptions of war and punishment that befall people in the Bible are his base line of argument. God’s morality is in question here as he allows his people to suffer. A French philosopher by the name Voltaire agrees with Paine that this kind of traditional religion could eventually lead to atheism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Christianity, he says, is a religion that is irrational and would result in immorality. Benjamin Franklin, unlike the two, maintains his conservative views on God and his beliefs in religion. He writes about thanksgiving, loyalty and service to God. All of them, however, agreed on some dogmas about religion (Hentz, 2010).
According to Paine, the nature speaks a universal language that is original and every man can understand it. The language cannot be neither counterfeited nor altered since it is based on original truth confirmed through the senses. Empirically, it is true since there is enough evidence. On this view, Thomas refutes faith to know the world (Paine, The Age of Reason, 2008).
Paine (2008) notes, “To argue with a person who has renounced the use of reason is like administering medicine to the dead” (p.84).
He believes that through reasoning man could discover God. Nature spoke a clear language to him that is free from manipulation and contradictions from men. The religious texts were open to exaggeration and forged information since man writes them as God dictates. He argues that science is able to discover phenomena through the senses and therefore offer rational judgement (Corfe, 2007).
Thomas’ ideas are more radical than those of other philosophers mainly due to their presentation, the way he captures his audience and includes all classes. His ideas, as he projects, are exclusive. His inclusion of the less privileged including farmers makes his unique work of other philosophers. Other philosophers were particularly specific to their target audience. That is why he is the most radical liberal of his time (Lucci, 2008).
Political Quotes Paine. (2009). “These are the times that try men’s souls” (p. 102).
Thomas Paine is particularly radical on the political spectrum. He advocates for true democracy and revolution. Different from the likes of Burke who were conservative valued the meaning of revolution. Burke sees any worth in the French and American Revolutions; in fact, he shows sympathy to the colonists.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Thomas Paine Quotes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He supported the existing tradition as well as the things as they are unlike Paine. Thomas Paine rejects Burke’s ideas on maintaining the social order. He campaigned against the existing social order calling the forming new social order (Paine, The American Crisis, 2006).
Paine continues and notes that the constituents of monarchy exclude a man from empowerment and information that would change him. He sees this as a hindrance against the highest form of judgement. Once this comes to reality, man is likely to rebel against the traditional system of governance (Dolbeare, 2009).
Thomas Paine Revolutionary ideas went a long way in influencing the common’s man’s rights, freedoms and responsibilities. He is famous for enlightening people of their civic tasks and dignity in Europe, America and England. He plays a significant revolutionary role in these continents. He receives credit for naming The United States of America. Napoleon suggests the erecting a gold effigy to honour him (Dolbeare, 2009).
References Corfe, R. (2007). Deism and Social Ethics. Suffolk: Arena Books.
Dolbeare, K. M. (2009). American Political Thought. Washington: CQ Press.
Hentz, J. M. (2010). The Real Thomas Paine. Mexico: Inverse.
Lucci, D. (2008). Scripture and Deism. Bern: Peter Lang.
Paine, T. (2006). The American Crisis. Fairford: Echo Library.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Paine Quotes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paine, T. (2008). The Age of Reason. Sioux Falls: NuVision Publications.
Data Warehousing at REI Case Study essay help free: essay help free
This paper looks into several aspects related to the acquisition of a data warehouse by Recreational Equipment Inc. (REI).
REI’s Data Warehouse The term ‘data warehouse’ has two components. The first component is the term ‘data’ which refers to the record. There have been little efforts among IT academic circles to distinguish the use of the word data from the use of the word information. In a broader sense, data refer to unprocessed records, while information is the product of data analysis.
The second component of the term ‘data warehouse’ is the word ‘warehouse’. In this case, warehouse is a store or a place used for storage. These two components bring about a special meaning used in IT circles.
A data warehouse is a physical or virtual storehouse of electronic information. In the past, organizations used physical warehouses to store files and folders used for their business activities. After the advent of IT tools for business, companies started building large storage facilities known as data warehouses to store electronic information.
REI is building a warehouse for the following reasons. First, the company’s data storage requirements have been on the rise because of the growth in its membership. In this regard, the quantity of records the company stores grows with time. The second reason is that the company wants to increase the accuracy of the information in its hands regarding the outdoor activities of its members.
The company needs this information for planning and for increasing its value for the members. Third, the company needs to increase the overall efficiency of its services using information-based approaches to business management.
A data warehouse will make it easy for the company to manage information in its hands and to execute data mining activities efficiently. Consequently, the company wants to build a data warehouse to increase its business efficiency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages of Consumer Cooperatives Compared to Traditional Firms The disadvantages of consumer cooperatives in comparison to traditional firms are as follow. First, consumer cooperatives reduce the choices that an individual member enjoys. As opposed to them, traditional firms usually strive to give consumers the widest range of products. Their intention is to maximize the chances that all consumers who come to the store find what they want.
However, consumer cooperatives focus on giving their members the best value. This usually means that the members cannot access the full range of products within a specified category. Secondly, consumer cooperatives are driven by the need to give members the best value for their money.
The result is that they are not as efficient as traditional firms, which usually do their best to maximize profits. Companies that operate based on the profit motive tend to be more efficient because operational inefficiencies reduce their margins.
The third disadvantage of consumer cooperatives compared to traditional firms is that they depend on long-term supply contracts with suppliers. While these contracts guarantee the availability of products, it exposes the consumer cooperatives to dumping of the products.
A company holding a long-term supply contract with a consumer cooperative will tend to prioritize business from customers who do not have contracts to secure the income from these customers. Consumer cooperative can end up with poor quality goods and services from such suppliers. This increases the costs of quality control incurred by consumer cooperatives.
Marketing Strategies Made Possible by REI’s Data Warehouse A data warehouse is a critical component of the IT infrastructure that every organization needs for the implementation of online marketing strategies. The types of marketing strategies that a data warehouse would support include the ones that follow.
Firstly, a data warehouse gives an organization the capacity to gather and understand tastes and preferences of individual customers. This allows the organization to implement target marketing activities. Online marketing companies such as Google use this approach.
We will write a custom Case Study on Data Warehousing at REI specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the company can carry out email marketing based on the data contained in the data warehouse. Since all the customers register willingly, the company can expect a good reception of its email marketing campaigns. E-mail marketing includes sending newsletters, special offers and other marketing materials to all registered users.
The data warehouse will also be an essential tool for planning during the formulation of the company’s marketing strategy. The data warehouse will give the company the capacity to analyse information from a cross section of customers.
This will enable it to pick out trends in consumer preferences. It is very important to remain ahead of the curve when it comes to uncovering changes in consumer preferences.
The fourth aspect of marketing that the data warehouse will enable the company to handle is the development and management of loyalty programs. The company must do everything in its power to ensure that all its customers remain loyal. One of the ways of doing this is by running loyalty programs that reward customers based on the cost of purchases.
Finally, the company can use this data warehouse to keep track of its customer base. The data warehouse will make it possible to know whether its customer base is expanding or shrinking. At the same time, the database will make it possible for the company to develop targeted marketing campaigns for market segments that have the greatest growth potential.
Most of these marketing strategies would have been possible to implement regardless of the presence of the data warehouse. However, their scope would be very limited. In this regard, the data warehouse will make it possible for the company to carry out more effective marketing campaigns because of increased data processing and management capabilities.
Risks and Concerns Surrounding the Creation of a Data Warehouse The risks associated with the creation of a data warehouse are as follows. First, data warehouses are prone to cyber attacks. For a data warehouse to be effective, it must be accessible online. However, the internet makes the data warehouse accessible to anyone with the skills needed to get around security barriers. This increases the potential for security breaches.
The second risk that the data warehouse must deal with is computer viruses, which, in this paper, account for all unwanted software. Viruses can corrupt the files stored in the warehouse, making them inaccessible or useless. Viruses can get to the warehouse through the internet, or via portable storage devices.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Data Warehousing at REI by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most serious risks associated with the proposed data warehouse is identity theft. The data warehouse will host personal information from millions of the company’s customers.
Such information is very attractive to fraudsters. Online fraudsters work very hard to get access to people’s personal information stored online. Some of the fraudsters also sell this information to third parties who have criminal intentions.
The fourth risk that the data warehouse will have is the risk of physical damage. Many companies usually concentrate on dealing with cyber threats against their information systems but fail to take sufficient action to protect these facilities from physical damage. The entire system can malfunction if there is a physical damage to the data warehouse hardware.
The fifth risk associated with the proposed data warehouse relates to the handling of data by the company. Company employees can misuse the data by sending unsolicited emails, or by giving unauthorized persons access to the information in the warehouse.
Reasons for REI Decision to Acquire IBM’s Data Warehouse Technology The choice of IBM as the provider of the warehouse technology is hardly surprising. Several reasons must have played a part in this decision. These reasons are as follows.
First, IBM is a very experienced company when it comes to providing IT-based solutions for businesses. The company specializes in providing technological tools for businesses. The decision to develop a data warehouse is a very significant one for any company. Therefore, it is understandable for a company to decide working with a reputed IT solutions supplier.
The second reason that must have informed the company’s decision to work with IBM is the desire to get technical support once the system is operational. IBM has the capacity to provide technical support to the company after the installation of the systems.
REI does not have the expertise needed to handle all the issues associated with the operations of a data warehouse. The association with IBM will ensure that REI gets the best skills needed to run its warehouse.
The third reason underlying the choice of IBM by REI is the need to create customer confidence. The data warehouse will store personal information given by the company’s customers. Therefore, the choice of IBM will give the customers confidence in that their information is in safe custody. This will make it easy for the company to acquire data from the customers.
References Haddon, L. (2004). Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life: A Concise Introduction and Research Guide. New York, NY: Berg.
Burning: Poetry Explication Essay argumentative essay help
The poem Burning can be regarded as an example of free verse; this means that the author does adhere to a certain rhyming pattern or meter (Cushman and Cavanagh 524). Furthermore, one can say that this literary work allows different interpretations and responses of the readers.
Overall, it is possible to say that this poem explores the feelings of profound loss; it depicts the downfall of something that has been an inseparable part of people’s life. This is the most important issue that should be discussed in this paper.
One of the details that attract the attention of the readers is that the writer does not following a specific musical pattern while writing this poem. The lines of this poem differ in terms such criteria as the number of syllables and meter. Moreover, one cannot speak about any distinct rhyme scheme that the writer adheres to. The following lines eloquently illustrate this argument,
“They take it into their arms,
as they squeeze out its last warm
breath of life” (Anonymous 1-4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is difficult to say if this approach to musical devices can be linked to the theme of a poem. Nevertheless, it indicates that the author is more concerned with the expressive power of the literary work, rather than its formal elements. This approach often gives more opportunities to the author.
This poem also contains sensory images that are related to touch, sight, and sound. In this way, the writer wants to emphasize the experiences of an individual who witnesses the demise of something that could be a symbol of power or beauty. It is possible to give several examples illustrating the use of sensory images.
For instance, one can look at the following sentence, “the last time a dying bell calls, its voice choked on maroon smoke” (Anonymous 15-16). Furthermore, the writer creates a powerful image of fire with the help of the following line, ‘’their fiery tongues spray high blood-red, golden red” (Anonymous 5-6). In this way, the author portrays a certain building that is consumed by fire.
Nevertheless, this poem contains very unusual sensory images. For example, when speaking about a wooden frame, the writer asks a question, “Can you hear it aching?” (Anonymous 9). On the whole, sensory images help the author explore the experiences of a person who observes the destruction of something valuable or beautiful. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
Furthermore, the writer relies on figurative language that is supposed to intensify the feeling of loss. For instance, one can mention that the author relies on personification while describing physical objects. Such a technique as personification means that inanimate things acquire the attributes of a living being (Moen 62).
In particular, one can refer to the cases as “dying bell” or “the fiery tongues” (Anonymous 15, 5). Furthermore, this poem contains powerful epithets that help to create a vivid picture of fire consumes a building. For instance, one can mention such an epithet as “ferocious meal” (Anonymous 17). These examples show that figurative language makes this poem more potent or impressive.
On the whole, the poem Burning can give rise to various interpretations; still, it seems that the author mostly focuses on the feelings and emotions of a person at the time when he/she sees the annihilation of beautiful things. With the help of sensory images, figurative language, the author is able to produce a long-lasting impression on the reader. These are the most important aspects that one can identify.
We will write a custom Essay on Burning: Poetry Explication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More List of Selected Literary Items Free verse
Works Cited Anonymous. Burning. 2008. Print.
Cushman, Stephen, and C. Cavanagh. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: Fourth Edition, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012. Print.
Moen, Christine. Sensational Sentences, New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2003. Print.
Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
TV Advertisement versus Online Advertisement in Europe
Drivers of the Transition
Introduction Advertising is a vital aspect in any business and thus firms choose to incur the costs associated with it because through it, they establish links with their customers and consequently capture their share of the market. Huge sums of money are spent on advertisement as firms endeavor to reach out to consumers.
With the advent of globalization and the ongoing fast-paced technological advancements, it is imperative for firms to ensure that their advertisement campaigns are effective. This assertion holds as the contemporary consumers are exposed to a plethora of products and services from all over the world. As such, only the best or most appealing form of advertisement can win the consumers’ hearts.
Consequently, firms carry out their advertisement campaigns via a myriad of media platforms including radio, TV, the Internet, and print media such as newspapers and magazines among others. The Internet, which is a relatively new technological development, is rapidly emerging as a major medium through which firms can advertise and reach large numbers of consumers effectively.
Global Internet usage statistics keep on growing. As of 2011, two billion people regularly used the Internet globally (Global Editor Par.5). This percentage represents about 30% of the total global population. However, it should be noted that some parts of the world are more advanced in the Internet usage as compared to others. For instance, Europe is one of the world’s most established Internet markets.
By the year 2009, already over 50% of European households had access to the Internet (Internet Advertising Bureau 2). This aspect means that the number of individuals who access the Internet on a daily basis transcends half the population of Europe as individuals from non-connected households may still access the Internet at the workplace or via connected devices such as smartphones and tablets among others.
In effect, advertisers are increasingly paying attention to the Internet as a potent advertisement medium. According to Digital Europe, online advertising has done much to alter the marketing landscape in Europe (2). From the onset of the new millennium, the Internet is emerging as a major consumer media channel albeit with notable disparities between countries across the continent (Digital Europe 2).
In the UK, statistics indicate that the amount of money spent on online advertising surpassed the amount spent on TV advertising in 2009 (Sweney 45). In the light of this background, this paper seeks to respond to a fundamental question, which Europe’s TV industry needs to pay close attention to, viz. is TV advertising, as a medium of reaching the masses, dying on the European continent?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an effort to address this question, the paper examines literature that shows the dynamics of TV advertisement over the past several years alongside a similar examination of the growth of Internet advertising. Such an approach is anticipated to give a clear picture of the increase in popularity of the Internet advertising and its entrenchment in the field of marketing.
At the same time, it will show how TV advertising has fared on since the emergence of the Internet as a mainstream media channel.
The paper will serve to disambiguate the confusion that exists concerning the dynamics of TV and the Internet advertising because currently, some reports propagate the idea that despite the exponential rise in the popularity of the Internet as an advertisement medium, it has not affected TV advertisement.
Proponents of this line of argument include Gervet and de Chanville who assert, “Contrary to the fears of many, the Internet hasn’t yet cannibalized TV advertising” (4). According to such proponents, the Internet may be enhancing the TV experience.
TV Advertisement versus Online Advertisement in Europe TV advertising has been a dominant medium of advertising in Europe for many years and it remains a favorite to date. It was the leading channel through which marketers sought to reach consumers until 2011 when it was surpassed by online advertising (which includes Internet based advertising accessible through both computers and mobile phones) in terms of the money spent on advertising (WSI 4).
Therefore, the UK became the first major economy in which money spent on online advertisement surpassed that spent on TV advertisement ($6.4 billion against $5.3 billion respectively) (WSI 4). This development marked a watershed in the UK’s advertisement landscape.
Although the figures belong to the UK, most other European countries are moving towards a similar phenomenon insofar as TV versus online advertising is concerned, but Denmark and the Czech Republic have already posted that online advertising expenditure exceeds that of TV advertising (WSI 34).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These three countries are pioneers in this transition, but it should be noted that countries such as Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Spain are almost making the transition as well. Probably by the end of 2014, all of them will have made the transition for online advertising closely trails or is at par with TV advertising in almost all of them (WSI 33).
Denmark’s online advertising industry was the first to overtake TV advertising followed by the UK, but since it is not one of the major European economies, the UK received more attention as the first major economy to make the transition (Sweney 45). These patterns show that although TV is still one of the favorite channels of advertisement for marketers in the European context, it is fast being overtaken by online advertising.
In the year 2005, total European online advertising expenditure stood at €4.5 (Digital Europe 1). This figure was close to 5% of the total money spent on advertising in Europe. At individual country levels, some countries spent up to 8% of their advertising money online (Digital Europe 2).
Either way, both percentages are above 2%, which is considered the threshold at which online advertising starts being considered as a mainstream advertising media. Many European countries, by the year 2005, had gone beyond the threshold level of 2% in terms of money spent on online advertisement.
These countries include Finland, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the UK (Digital Europe 2). In essence, Europe as a continent reached this level earlier than 2005 because on average, its total spending on online advertising was about 5%, as noted above. Considering the fast-paced nature of Internet access expansion in Europe, almost one decade later much has changed.
The UK, Germany, and France are Europe’s digital giants. In effect, they accounted for over 85% of the money spent on online advertising in Europe in 2005. The UK alone is reported to have accounted for about 42% of Europe’s online ad expenditure the same year.
Over the years, tremendous growth has been realized in the European online advertising industry and as noted earlier; Denmark, Czech Republic, and the UK have already recorded online advertising budgets that are larger than TV advertising budgets. Clearly, there is a very strong growth towards preference of online advertising over TV advertising across the European continent.
Recent studies indicate that in the UK, which is considered the pioneer economy to make the transition towards the dominance of online advertising over TV advertising, online advertising currently accounts for about 23.5% of the total advertising money. This figure in comparison to the 21.9% of money spent on TV advertising shows a disparity of over 1.5%.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, considering the rapid growth of online advertising and the view that TV advertising has exhibited a 17% decline on a year-by-year basis, within a short duration of time, the disparity is likely to grow exponentially (Sweney 45).
The UK only spent £19.4 million on online advertising in the year 1998, but currently the figure stands at £1.75 billion (Sweney 45). This aspect shows a clear-cut trend of strong growth that is increasingly pitching the Internet as the future medium of advertising.
The emergence of the Internet as the dominant channel of advertisement has not been an overnight development. Rather it took many years for the Internet to entrench itself as a mainstream medium that can substitute some of the roles that were exclusively played by traditional media such as radio and TV.
This steady growth shows that even though there may still be confusion about which form of advertising is dominant (because in some countries TV advertising is still dominant over online advertising while in others online advertising has overtaken TV advertising), the confusion will not last long. Internet advertisement will eventually emerge at the top in countries where it is still trailing TV advertisement.
Meanwhile, there is a reason for the TV advertising industry to worry because clearly, the growth of online advertising is not guaranteed to stop once it overtakes TV advertising, as indicators show that it is bound to continue growing (Henningsen et al. 194).
Its current growth patterns are very strong and are likely to stay so for many years to come. If these growth patterns persist, TV advertising is likely to continue ceding ground for online advertising.
According WSI, on average, most European countries have Internet usage statistics of about 70% of the total population (2). Even so, the figures are still steadily growing and within a short time, they are likely to reach over 80%. The same case applies to mobile connectivity.
On average, over 50% of the European people own smartphones, which enable them to access online adverts. These figures show that there is a room for growth in the online advertising industry because as more people are connected to the Internet, a larger share of the advertising pie continues to be targeted at them.
Drivers of the Transition These trends evoke an important question on whether the Internet has become more enticing or whether people simply do not watch TV across Europe anymore. In an attempt to answer this question, several arguments have been advanced. One of such arguments is that linear TV audiences have massively declined in the last decade (IBM 1).
This observation does not imply that fewer people watch TV today than ten years ago; rather, it means that over the years, the entertainment landscape has transformed tremendously (IBM 2). Technological advancement has placed numerous options at the disposal of TV viewers such that today, an individual only watches what he/she wants and how he/she wants it.
In other words, numerous TV stations are available to viewers today and due to technological advancement, people opt for thematic TV content, which they can manipulate as they please (IBM 3). In effect, though there is a bigger audience today than a decade ago, the audience is spread across numerous TV channels, thus making it difficult to reach a substantial portion of the population as easily as was the case ten years back.
For instance, in 1977, a marketer in the UK only needed 3 spots on a major television channel to reach up to 80% of the population, but today, up to 65 spots are necessary to achieve the same goal (IBM 9). This realization means that it may be necessary to spread an advertisement across a larger number of channels or keep it running on a major channel for longer to increase its chances of reaching more people.
However, it is worth noting that if a marketer chooses either of the two options, it comes with huge cost implications that many may decide to shy away. The cost of running an advert on TV as compared to placing a banner across a web page or incorporating a few words about a product alongside the search results on the Internet is far much higher (Digital Europe 6).
The implication of this aspect on TV advertisement is that it is likely to cause TV advertisement to decline because as the Internet usage increases, marketers become more confident of reaching larger numbers of people.
The UK, whose Internet usage and online advertisement statistics are well documented, is among the European countries that have already reported a larger portion of advertisement funds going to online advertisement rather than TV advertisement. This trend is not without a substantial reason behind it.
Statistics show that Internet usage in the UK is extrapolated to rise to about 80% of the population by 2016 from its current 75.7% (WSI 3).
Based on these figures, it becomes apparent that advertising on the Internet is far much affordable and has the potential of reaching many more people than advertising on a major TV channel today. This assertion underscores the impression of why the European countries, which are among the most entrenched Internet users across the globe, are already exhibiting a shaky future for TV advertising.
The European countries that have not yet crossed over to the Internet advertising dominance over TV advertising are already on the verge of doing the same.
Another argument that has been advanced to respond to the concerns over the decline of TV advertising in Europe is that even for the viewers who are exposed to television, the ability of TV advertisement to influence them effectively is limited by a number of factors brought about by technological advancement. According to TAM Ireland, about 49% of households in the country have PVR (personal video recorders) (IBM 13).
These devices allow a viewer to pause or fast forward live TV while watching. In effect, about 85% of the households that own PVRs reportedly assert that they watch TV via PVR for in doing so, they can easily skip the commercial breaks that are often embedded in popular programs (IBM 4). The implication of this state of affairs is that over three quarters of Irish homes with PVRs are likely to be unexposed to TV advertising.
The element of uncertainty in the preceding sentence is contributed to by the view that about 75% of those who reported that they fast-forward through commercial breaks occasionally stop the fast forwarding when something in the advertisements captures their attention (IBM 13). Therefore, they are partially unexposed to TV advertisement.
However, going by the percentages, it becomes apparent that TV advertisements are increasingly reaching a shrinking audience across Europe. Marketers who use TV advertisement may not be aware of this scenario because conventionally, they base their choices on the TV usage statistics.
Yet such statistics fail to capture the actual behavior of TV viewers who for example, fast forward through commercial breaks because technology has made it possible. The actual effectiveness of TV advertising can then be determined through the return on investment (ROI).
This aspect means that marketers can determine the effectiveness of a TV advertisement campaign based on the results in terms of the sales realized due to the influence of a particular advertisement campaign. Unfortunately, Gervet and De Chanville note that TV advertisement campaigns have been increasingly disappointing (9).
Reports indicate that even the most acclaimed TV adverts still register dismal results. For instance, in Australia, Carlton’s multi-award winning advertisement that was touted as the ‘biggest ad’ failed to deliver expected results in terms of sales (IBM 11).
In TV advertising, although still considered by some as among the most endearing form of advertisement that exists to date, the departure from linear TV viewing occasioned by technological advancement has done much to alter its ability to reach large audiences.
However, despite these changes, Gervet and De Chanville (2) note that TV remains the favorite medium through which marketers can reach the largest number of consumers at the same time. Favorite programs such as The X Factor can place up to 10 million consumers at the disposal of advertisers at ago (Gervet and De Chanville 3).
With such numbers of consumers exposed to advertisement at the same time, TV advertising could still achieve tremendous results. Therefore, it is upon TV advertisers to ensure that the adverts they make are creative and endearing.
Traditional TV viewing where viewers had no option, but watch what was brought on their screens is a phenomenon of the past (IBM 2). The advent of digital technology has brought numerous possibilities in the realm of television broadcasting and viewing.
Digital technology has made it possible for viewers to pause or fast-forward live TV; access TV stations from the world over, and due to the rise of pay-TV, viewers increasingly have access to personalized TV programming (IBM 2). With these options at the disposal of the viewers, traditional TV stations that were mostly free-to-air have lost a big portion of their audience.
This loss is also aggravated by the rise of on-demand TV programming that is accessible through Netflix and Hulu (Gervet and De Chanville 2). Netflix has particularly grown in popularity in the US and a large part of the European continent. It is important to note that this type of TV technology is Internet supported.
In this sense, it is arguable that the Internet is supporting the TV viewing experience for audiences as noted by Gervet and De Chanville (2). On-demand TV programming not only allows viewers to access content at their own convenience, but also it offers options for accessing ad-free content.
In the light of such developments, it becomes apparent that though TV may still be viewed by many, it is becoming increasingly difficult for TV advertisers to forecast the size of the audiences they are likely to reach through advertising on TV. This assertion holds as reports indicate that like in the US, many Europeans assert that they consult a website before making a purchase (Gervet and De Chanville 4).
Conclusion This paper sought to investigate whether TV advertising is dying among the European countries (EU) and much has been established to this effect. The confusion that existed about the medium of advertisement, which is dominant between online advertising and TV advertising, has been disambiguated. Apparently, online advertising is on the rise with very strong growth rates.
TV advertising on the other hand is on a steady decline despite the view that TV audiences may have grown due to population increases. Countries such as Denmark, Czech Republic, and the UK have already made the transition to spend more money on online advertising than TV advertising.
Denmark and the rest of the Scandinavian world have not released much information concerning their extent of digital prowess, but it was the first European country whose online advertising industry surpassed the TV advertising industry. For other European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France, whose digital statistical data is available, the transition is in the vicinity.
Several other European countries are also moving towards this transition. These patterns clearly indicate that TV advertising is on a decline in Europe. A careful analysis of the TV viewing behavior across Europe supports this view by revealing several factors, which connive to aggravate the decline of TV advertising.
TV may remain a major medium of entertainment for long, but advertising through it is quickly becoming ineffective across the European continent.
Works Cited Digital Europe. Tracking the growth of online marketing spend, London: Digital Strategy Consulting Limited, 2006. Print.
Gervet, Eric, and Matthieu De Chanville. Does Advertising still need Television? Seoul: A.T. Keaney Inc., 2012. Print.
Global Editor. Whitepaper: Outlook on European Display Advertising Trends, by Clipperton Finance 2013. Web. .
Henningsen, Sina, Rebecca Heuke, and Michel Clement. “Determinants of advertising effectiveness: The development of an international advertising elasticity database and a meta-analysis.” Business Research Journal 4. 2 (2011): 193-239. Print.
IBM. The Death of TV as we know it: A future Industry Perspective, New York: IBM Corporation, 2006. Print.
Internet Advertising Bureau. Brand advertising and digital, Karlsruhe: AIB, 2010. Print.
Sweney, Mark. “Internet overtakes television to become biggest advertising sector in the UK.” The Guardian 30 Sept. 2009: 45. Print.
WSI. Internet Marketing Trends Report 2013: UK
Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU Term Paper essay help
Introduction Tobacco consumption is the leading avoidable cause of death in Europe. Traditionally, the tobacco industry in Europe was left to regulate itself since tobacco use was viewed as a matter of personal choice and government regulation was weak. The tobacco industry argued that intense government regulation was unnecessary for a legal product that was used by individuals on their own volition.
However, this attitude changed rapidly in the EU starting from the late 1990s. The EU and its Member States singled out tobacco use as a vital area that needed significant government intervention and control. The Union recognized the significant health and economic burden that tobacco use caused to its constituent States and their citizens.
Statistics indicate that 650,000 people in the EU die because of smoke related health issues each year. Berger-Walliser and Bird reveal that tobacco consumption kills up to half of its users (1016). In addition to this, smoking costs the EU about $100 billion annually in health care costs and other indirect costs including premature disability and lost productivity.
For this reason, the member states agree that preventing smoking is good for the health and economic outcomes of the countries. With these considerations, the EU has implemented a series of directives and recommendations aimed at reducing tobacco use within the EU. One area that has been targeted in the aim to encourage a decline in tobacco use is advertisement.
This paper will endeavor to provide an informative image of the situation with tobacco advertising and sponsorships in the EU considering the legal obligation of EU member states to implement the Directive 2003/33/EC, which effectively banned the advertisement of tobacco products.
Advertising and Tobacco in the EU The EU and its Member States have recognized the many adverse effects that tobacco use causes. To reduce the tobacco consumption levels within the region, the EU has concentrated on advertisement.
In spite of persistent claims by the tobacco industry that advertisement does not have any impact in the overall tobacco consumption among member states, the EU has consistently suggested that advertising does indeed affect tobacco consumption. Advertising is regarded as one of the most visible business activities and it aims at attracting people to use the advertised product and increases its market share of the product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advertising therefore plays a significant role in promoting sales and attracting new consumers. According to the European Health Forum, there is a positive relationship between aggregate cigarette advertising and aggregate cigarette consumption (Smith et al. 3). In addition to this, the EU contends that advertising is responsible for the favorable assessment of people who smoke by the rest of society.
This social acceptability contributes to the promotion of new smokers therefore increasing the number of tobacco users. The strategies and policies aimed at reducing tobacco use have therefore targeted multiple forms of tobacco advertising within the EU.
EU Regulations From its early years, the EU had grand ambitions of reducing tobacco consumption among its member states. One area that has been particularly targeted by the European Commission is tobacco advertisement.
In 1998, the European Council issued directive 89/552/EEC, which required member states to impose a mandatory bad on all tobacco advertising and prohibit brand name sponsorship and promotion at public events (Gruning et al. 4). In response to this directive, the EU enacted ambitions legislation that sought to gradually phase out all forms of tobacco advertising and sponsorships within the EU region in a span of 9 years.
This was the first EU directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. The complete ban on tobacco advertising was supposed to begin with a ban on billboards and in cinemas, followed by a ban on newspaper and magazine advertising, and finally a ban on advertising in sports venues. The total EU ban was expected to be in place by 2006.
However, the ambitious directive failed to get unanimous support as major tobacco companies and some member states contested against it. This eventually led to the legislation being reviewed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) after contention by players in the tobacco industry.
The first EU directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship was annulled on October 2000 following the successful challenge by the tobacco industry (Gruning et al. 5). The judges in the European Court of Justice decided that the legislation was unlawful and therefore struck it down.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Council Recommendation 2003/ 54/ EC A significant policy in the effort to prevent smoking in the EU is the Council Recommendation 2003/54/EC of 2 December 2002. This recommendation was aimed at encouraging EU member states to increase tobacco control. Emphasis was made on adopting strategies aimed at preventing tobacco use among the young population.
This emphasis was made due to the revelations that up to 90% of individuals started smoking before they reached the age of 18 (Giuseppe 48). This recommendation urges the EU member states to implement laws and measures aimed at preventing access of tobacco products to individuals under the age o18. In addition to this, the recommendation calls for greater restrictions to all forms of advertising of tobacco products.
Directive 2003/ 33/ EC The new tobacco product directive implemented to replace the annulled directive 89/552/EEC was the Directive 2003/33/EC of 26 May 2003. This directive imposed an EU wide ban on the advertisement of tobacco products (Smith et al. 7). Specifically, the directive prohibited tobacco advertising in the press and printed media, and on the internet or by email.
The only form of advertisement permitted was publications intended exclusively for the tobacco trade. The directive also imposed restrictions on sponsorship and according to the directive, radio advertising of tobacco products is prohibited, and radio programmes may not be sponsored by tobacco companies.
Sponsorship of events involving several EU member states by tobacco companies was also prohibited and the distribution of free tobacco or promotional material during national sponsored events banned. All member states were required to comply with the directive by 2005 (Smith et al. 8). All members were expected to come up with penalties that would dissuade the tobacco industry from violating the terms of the directive.
The effectiveness of Directive 2003/33/EC was hampered since it failed to regulate indirect advertising. Specifically, the regulation did not regulate the use of non-tobacco products to promote tobacco brands. This weakness was exploited by tobacco companies, which replaced direct advertising with indirect advertising (Smith et al. 10).
In addition to this, this directive was week since it did not result in a complete ban on tobacco advertising. The industry is still able to advertise in cinemas and on billboards. In addition to this, tobacco advertisement can occur using merchandising. Tobacco companies are also permitted to sponsor events with participants coming from only one EU member state.
Directive 2010/ 13/ EU This “Audiovisual Media Services Directive” imposes some regulations on the manner in which advertisements may occur through audiovisual products. This directive addresses a major setback in Directive 2003/33/EC namely indirect advertisement. The Directive prohibits audiovisual commercial communication that promotes tobacco usage by the viewers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Following the implementation of Directive 2003/33/EC, the tobacco industry had used indirect forms of audiovisual commercial communication to circumvent the ban and therefore promote their product (Smith et al. 10).
The Directive closes this loophole by banning the use of indirect advertisement by the tobacco industry. The directive prohibits product placement of tobacco products in all audiovisual material circulated within the EU zone.
The Effect of Regulation in EU The EU has recognized that tobacco products are exceptional and required additional regulation. The various directives and initiatives implemented by the EU to deal with tobacco consumption have had tremendous impact. The various policies and directives implemented have had significant positive outcomes in Europe. The trend in the EU has by the large been towards the achievement of a smoke-free Europe.
The European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy in 2011 declared that over the past decade, a clear trend towards smoke-free environments has been noted in some of the EU member states. In spite of the annulment of the directive 89/552/EEC, some countries still implemented their own legislation stimulated by this directive.
Supporters of the phased ban proposed by this directive such as the UK initiated their ban in December 1999. The UK government expedited the ban on print and billboard advertising on December 1999, which was two years before the EU ban would have come into effect (Giuseppe 45).
Increasing legislation by the EU has effectively discouraged new entrants in the European market. MarketLine Industry Profile reveals that due to advertising restrictions within EU member states, new entrants would find it increasingly difficult to establish a brand (14).
Due to advertising restriction, brand awareness is difficult to generate in the European tobacco market. The tobacco market has therefore continued to be dominated by the large players such as British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and Imperial Tobacco Group.
The EU environment has taken significant steps to reduce the number of new smokers. Research indicates that most people begin smoking before reaching the age of 18. The EU has made significant steps towards preventing smoking among children and young people. Targeting this group is important for a number of reasons.
To the tobacco industry, the young market represents the future consumers of tobacco products (Berger-Walliser and Bird 1020). Introducing this group to tobacco ensures that the future growth in tobacco consumption is assured. For the European Health Forum, preventing this group from taking up smoking presents the most effective strategy of reducing tobacco use.
A number of strategies have been employed to discourage underage smoking. To begin with, Directive 2003/33/EC imposed a ban on the sale of tobacco to minors in all EU member states. Stiff penalties are imposed on any retailer who violates this legislation.
In addition to this, advertising to children is prohibited. In the latest move to discourage tobacco use, the European Parliament has approved a ban on flavored and menthol cigarettes. This ban, imposed in July 2013, aims to limit the appeal that cigarettes have to children and young people (MarketLine Industry Profile 17).
The EU has made use of health warnings to dissuade individuals from taking up smoking. Evidence reveals that health warnings can promote smoking cessation and discourage youth uptake (Giuseppe 210). The EU adheres to the “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” (FCTC) which is an international treaty devoted to public health. The union has therefore revised its labeling policies to meet the guidelines stipulated by the FCTC.
In response to the EU policies informed by the FCTC, Member States have imposed regulations on the mandatory health warnings to be displayed on each cigarette packet. There are laws that require tobacco packaging to describe the harmful effects of tobacco in large and clear print.
The effectiveness of package warning depends on factors such as size and the position of the warning text or image. The EU requires warnings to cover at least 30% of the principal display areas on each package.
Recommendations have also been made for pictorial warnings to be included. While it is not a mandatory requirement, the EU allows countries to use pictorial health warnings and actually has a list of recommended images that might be used for this purpose.
Research indicates that pictorial health warnings are highly effective in reducing consumption levels of tobacco products (Berger-Walliser and Bird 1020). This warnings increase motivation to quit and help former smokers to remain abstinent. They also have a discouraging effect on youth to start smoking.
The EU has been engaged in moves aimed at implementing plane-packaging regulations in Europe. This is in response to the proposals made by Article 11 of the FCTC. The FCTC encourages the adoption of plain packaging to achieve the desirable outcomes of reduced tobacco use. Plain packaging has the potential to encourage a less favorable assessment of people who smoke.
Berger-Walliser and Bird reveal that packaging leads to significant image factors with smokers who consume certain brands being rated as trendy, stylish and outgoing (1043). These positive attributes contribute to the favorable assessment of people who smoke. With the introduction of plain packaging, the brand elements and brand imagery will be removed.
Individual governments have played a major role in the implementation of the policies against tobacco advertisement. The reason for this is that bans on tobacco advertisement are considered a health and safety issue meaning that they fall within the realm of individual national governments in the EU.
The commitment of most EU states has led to the positive trend towards the achievement of a smoke-free Europe. However, there is still opposition from countries where the influence of the tobacco industry is still strong. Germany stands out as one of the few EU member states with strong opposition to stringent policies against tobacco.
Gruning et al. document that Germany has consistently employed weak tobacco control policies (6). The country also demonstrates strong opposed to the EU tobacco control legislation. This negative influence of Germany has slowed down the rate of change in tobacco control legislation. Even so, most governments have shown support for anti-tobacco legislations.
Opposition to EU Regulations The tobacco industry has been the strongest opponent to any comprehensive ban on advertising. The industry asserts that advertising does not have any effect on aggregate consumption but rather affects the share of customers a particular brand is able to win over in the cigarette market. The tobacco industry has seen EU regulations as a major threat to the future growth and productivity of the industry.
The major companies in this industry have therefore engaged in activities aimed at preventing policies that are detrimental to the tobacco industry. Research by Smith et al. reveals that tobacco companies such as BAT have engaged in the promotion of IA in Europe as a measure to undermine anti-tobacco policies (3).
Secret tobacco industry documents made public through court orders have shown how transnational tobacco corporations have joined forces to counter policies that inhibit the industry. The strategies used by the tobacco corporations include influencing specific countries to undermine strong conventions against the tobacco industry.
Smith et al. observe that Germany was earmarked by the transnational tobacco corporations as one of the countries that would play a big role in undermining the effect of anti-tobacco policies including the strong Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (7). Gruning et al. confirm that the tobacco industry has made use of some EU member states to limit the EU mandate and therefore weaken the anti-tobacco legislation (21).
Germany has been lobbied by the tobacco industry to push against a comprehensive mandate on the issue of tobacco advertising. The country has played a part in the refusal to grant the EU more competences and therefore expand its mandate. Germany has been able to achieve some measurable success in this because of its considerable economic and political influence in the EU.
The European environment has witnessed a greater push for risk assessment and impact assessment. Before a major EU policy can be made, an impact assessment (IA) must be made. Ideally, IA as a tool for evaluating potential legislative changes ensures that policy decisions are more transparent, scientific, democratic, and rational.
Tobacco companies have pushed for more business-oriented impact assessments before policies can be implemented. This has benefited the companies since the IA often favor corporations. Smith et al. state, “The tobacco industry has already used IA commitments and the requirement for stakeholder consultation to actively challenge EU tobacco control legislation” (6).
The tobacco industry has overemphasized on the negative economic costs associated with anti-tobacco laws and used this argument as the grounds for weaker legislation. The tobacco industry has attempted to underplay the health impacts of its products while prioritizing business interests. This suggests that IA has been used to advance the interests of major corporation even at the expense of health.
Discussion and Conclusion The European Union has established itself as a global frontrunner in tobacco control. This union has imposed some of the most stringent policies to deter tobacco use and therefore citizens in the member states from the harmful effects of tobacco use. From the information provided in this paper, it is clear that the EU has made significant strides against tobacco advertising.
There has been a marked reduction in advertisement and the tobacco industry’s growth has been protracted. The EU tobacco market has not witnessed any new entrant due to the advertising limitations imposed though the EU. The EU has therefore experienced a decline in consumption of tobacco over the years.
Even so, tobacco use is still a pressing concern for EU member states since tobacco consumption remains to be the leading contributor to disease and other chronic health problems. The EU environment has been characterized by intense opposition by the tobacco industry to some policies meant to reduce tobacco consumption in the EU region.
The paper has noted how tobacco lobbyists have influenced some member states to make their case against stringent measures. The opposition by the tobacco industry continues to be a challenge that must be addressed for a smoke-free Europe to be achieved.
Works Cited Berger-Walliser, Gerlinde and Bird Robert. “The Impact of Plain Packaging Regulation on Illicit and Non-Illicit Tobacco Products in the European Union.” North Carolina Journal of International Law
Policies in Canada to Enhance Economics Essay custom essay help
For some time, during and after Canada’s financial crisis in 2008, it was considered fashionable to refer to the country as a regulatory and fiscal prudence paragon. In the years preceding the crisis, the government in Canada involved in budget surpluses. This enabled the country to grow the economy, while avoiding huge debt loads.
Extremely high debt loads are experienced in Spain and Greece. Moreover, the banking system in Canada underwent critical capital requirements. It is also worth noting that they were more averse to risks, as opposed to the counterparts in Europe and America (Von Hagen, Schuknecht
Why Scientology is not a Religion Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction In the recent past, conflicting arguments seeking to define and create a clear understanding of what religion is have been circulating all over the mass media. Compared to the ancient days, the modern society has assumed an open-minded approach concerning religion. This has led to the rise of the numerous religious systems hence creating a conflicting understanding of the real religious setting.
In addition, freedom of worship is wrongly being used to create many beliefs that have been taken in as religious systems. This paper seeks to define and elaborate the original meaning of religion in comparison to some modern beliefs that can be classified as cults. In this paper, the religion in question is the Scientology church, which in my opinion should not be considered as one.
The history of Scientology Scientology was developed to replace an existing self–help system called Dianetics created by L. Ron Hubbard. Hubbard’s Dianetics system was created and intended to be a psychotherapy that would later became a fundamental foundation for developing his religious principles (Kant, 2001). In its psychotherapy function, this system induced a memory of traumatic events in an individual’s life in the past.
This, according to Hubbard, would free individuals from being victims of their experiences (Kant, 2001). The church of Scientology is accepted in a number of countries as a religion and it has been rejected in some. Every authority has its own argument to defend their approach towards the church.
The church is a product of a science fiction writer known as Ron Hubbard. He lived from 1911-1986 when he died aged 75. In 1953, Hubbard incorporated the first church of Scientology in New Jersey, Camden (Monaghan
Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Barthes Theory of Representation
Stuart Hall representation theory
Heroes’ Stereotypes in Movies and Cinemas
Introduction Representation can be defined as the action of speaking on behalf of someone else or the use of signs to stand for something else. It involves construction that occurs in the mass media to change aspects of reality, including the people being represented, places, and even cultural identities. Using mass media, representation has witnessed changes over time despite appearing natural (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).
In most cases, representation depends on an individual’s interpretation, since it usually involves selective aspects. In mass media, representation usually involves the use of art and signs to change the concept of concrete reality, hence leading to stereotyping of characters and heroes in movies and other non-fiction programs from a specific point of view.
In this view, representation provides a means and way through which ideologies and concepts of reality are created in such a way that the texts or movies characters including the heroes resembles something else (Martinec and Salway, 2005).
This paper will discuss how movies and cinemas usually use representation to stereotype heroes represented in the movies. Again, the paper will discuss representation theory of Barthes in explaining these stereotypes of characters, such as heroes in movies and films (Murray, 2013a).
Barthes Theory of Representation To begin with, Barthes representation theory talks about denotation and connotation (Flynn, 2011), and argues that photography connotation, which involves the socio cultural and ideological and emotional personal associations of signs, can be distinguished from aspect of denotation. The aspect of denotation usually involves the literal meaning of signs.
Therefore, he argued that these connotations and denotations are usually related to the individuals’ gender, class, age, cultural beliefs, and even ethnicity in their interpretation (Hartman, 2006). Again, signs are more easily interpreted through their connotation than through the use of their denotation.
In addition, in most cases, connotation deals with how images and signs are photographed while denotation involves what is photographed (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008). Furthermore, connotation is more related to myths that are usually associated with classical stories about heroes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, myths can be used in making sense of the cultural experiences in most cases, especially considering that they are just the most dominant ideologies and values of our time. Moreover, most media representation usually associates our experiences to cultural myths and beliefs that reflect our true realities, including values, attitudes, and beliefs (Felton, Dimnik, and Bay, 2008).
Stuart Hall representation theory In terms of non-fiction, Stuart Hall argued that there are three ways of understanding reading texts, which involve encoding and decoding a text. Firstly, texts can be read through the reader’s own values and experiences, hence allowing a chance to recognize and interpret the text according to the writer’s intended purpose.
Secondly, there is the use of negotiated reading, which involves decoding the text in a different way from what the writer encoded in the text. Lastly, there is the oppositional reading where the reader interprets a text in far much different way from which the writer intended (Martin, 2012).
There are various ways through which stereotyping of heroes is used in the movies. For example, although movies are meant to enhance communication, in most cases, the communication process becomes more complex, leading to meanings that are contradictory and inaccurately represented, hence stereotypes is seen (Murray, 2013a).
Heroes’ Stereotypes in Movies and Cinemas According to Barthes theory of representation, there are signs and images that usually function in relation to the society’s cultural beliefs. Therefore, in these movies, meanings are expressed in terms of myths, rituals, and even one’s social class in the society (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).
For example, in movies, prominent heroes like Billy Blank and the late Paul Walker, among many other heroes in movies are usually represented as having good and extra ordinary qualities and characteristics such as, physical strength, through the use of connotation and denotation (Murray, 2013b).
Even though these stereotypes depend on the societal beliefs, their meaning changes when denotation and connotation are added (Shaffer and Casey, 2013).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, Barthes argued that the way black people are represented in the mass media might be due to stereotypes that create the blacks as being more associated with crimes and criminal activities. This usually makes the viewers of movies and cinemas to associate the blacks with violent criminals and associate the whites with characters involved in restoring peace and solving conflicts and disputes (Atilola and Olayiwola, 2013).
In addition, most heroes in movies and films are usually associated with good qualities such as great physical strength, ability to fight many people and even ability to use knowledge to challenge tricky situations.
From this perspective, the social media such as movies create stereotypes by providing information and images that viewers, readers and audiences usually interprets and recall mostly with association to the existing beliefs and experiences that they have found from the movies.
This implies that association involves connotation, while denotation provides and produces long-lasting meanings that install stereotypes in the minds of viewers and readers (Barthes, 1977).
This idea of connotation and denotation can also be used in politics where opponents associate their rivals with criminal activities and lack of ideologies. Again, it can be used in texts and newspaper captions to provide conflicting meanings and qualities of others, hence providing stereotypes on other rivals (Mircea, 2013).
Perception can also be a form of connotation where an individual only categorizes and classifies things depending on his or her existing knowledge. Ideological and ethical form of connotation can also be used in movies where individuals recognize values according to their cultural beliefs (Cardon, 2010).
Other examples of this theory include some African leadership that have been associated with dictatorship and abuse of power. Therefore, most African leadership movies also are represented through dictatorship and abuse of power.
Again, in most movies and cinemas, women are stereotyped as weak characters; however, women who are heroes are usually given strong qualities including physical strength (Martinec and Salway, 2005).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, Roland Barthes theory of representation is important in analysing heroes stereotyping in movies since it give various myths about people and places. This theory talks about how the media represents people and heroes in movies using myths.
For example, in various Hollywood movies, heroes are usually unrealistically represented with extra-ordinary qualities, leading to stereotypes in the mainstream societal view. Specifically, in the White House Down movie, we see the white guy being the one who ends up being the hero at the end of the movie while Jamie Foxx could not save himself (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).
Again, in this movie, we see the policeman struggling to save his daughter, and although there is terrorist attack in the white house, it is only the white guy policeman that manages to save the president. This movie also depicts Cale (white policeman) as the man with ability to save the president from the terrorist attack while Raphelson (who is black) is taken into custody.
This shows us that whites are given qualities that are more heroic in movies, thus providing enough evidence about the use of stereotypes in movies. Here, a mere policeman, Cale, saves not only the president, but also country and the president’s daughter.
On the other hand, in the movie of Hancock, Will Smith (who is black) is depicted as the bad guy in the beginning, and this is even made worse when the white guy comes in and ends up being civilised and the good guy (Murray, 2013b).
Therefore, in these two movies and other movies, the Whites are usually stereotyped as having good qualities while other races, especially the blacks, are associated with bad qualities. In addition, most movies associate women with weak qualities, thereby stereotyping them as weak characters in the society (Oliver and Fonash, 2002).
In most Holly wood movies, black characters are given the roles of athletes, gang members, or police officers. In addition, Arabs are associated with terrorist characters while Asians are given character roles associated with factory workers or physicians.
In contrast, the whites usually take the leadership roles and other good roles in movies (Shaffer and Casey, 2013). These movies and films usually show racial stereotypes, with heroes usually depicted as having good characters. Another good example is in Superman movies, where the Batman is represented with good qualities including extra physical strength and good voice that attract women (Oliver and Fonash, 2002).
Conclusion This paper has discussed how heroes are mostly stereotypes in movies and other mass media as having good qualities such as physical strength. Again, there are also gender stereotypes where women are usually associated with weak and soft qualities, despite that being not the reality on the ground.
In addition, in most movies and cinemas, we have found out that there are racial stereotypes where whites are usually associated with good qualities while other races are associated with inferior qualities. This is evidenced in some movies like the Hancock, White House Down movie and the Superman where white characters are given the hero roles while other races are given roles that are less glamorous.
Besides, from the paper, it is clear that heroes are usually depicted to have good qualities while other characters may be associated with some abnormally weak qualities. Finally, the paper has discussed how Barthes theory of representation has successful used connotation and denotation to show how the media uses cultural values and myths in order to portray media stereotypes of heroes.
References Atilola, O.,
Effective Human Resource Management Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Numerous changes in personnel management over the past two decades have necessitated the need for HR managers to come up with strategies of addressing the constant and dynamic market needs. Effective human resource management considers the changes in market trend, customers’ needs, and employees’ desires in applying an inclusive and effective leadership style (Odusina, 1977, p. 11).
From the global perspective, globalisation has turned the world into a ‘global village’ where businesses interact easily with their clients. Additionally, businesses find themselves competing for one globalised market, which is already crowded. Therefore, organisations have to put in different strategies on how to attract and retain their competent employees in order to provide services and products that outshine those of their competitors.
From this dimension, organisations are applying strategies that enable them gain competitive advantage over their competitors. The dynamism in the current market implies that tastes and preferences of customers change at high rates.
Therefore, for companies to comprehend the changes in customers’ preferences so that they can satisfy the needs of their customers, they need to absorb or hire creative staff (Lewis, 2000, p. 14).
Hiring of competent and creative staff is not the final requirement, but conducting continuous training in order to update them on the changes in the market, as well as listen to their demands helps in implementing strategic business objectives.
In addition, effective human resource management has to ensure that employees meet their set targets within the firm, as well as create appropriate performance appraisal systems in which motivation becomes the key aspect in making employees work and yearn to work for the same organisation.
Recruitment and selection of the right personnel, development of an effective training program, and creation of appropriate performance appraisal systems make a complete cycle for effective HRM (Kushal, Ravishankar,
Planning for Growth Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Organizational Structure and Staffing Needs
Customers and Promotion
Ethical Issues and Social Responsibility
Introduction Kelly has established a successful business in a period of five years. This is a clear indication that she has some of the best entrepreneurial skills and abilities. As well, Kelly has unique entrepreneurial goals thus making it easier for her to achieve most of her targeted goals.
With such skills and dreams, Kelly plans to expand her business and develop a competitive enterprise. This discussion explains some of the critical issues for Kelly to consider as she looks forward to expand her small business.
Growth Strategy The case study explains how Kelly has managed to establish a successful business. She has been selling foods and sandwiches to her customers for the last five years. Now it is the time for Kelly to expand her business. That being the case, it is necessary for Kelly to have the best strategy for her new business (Bovee
Public budgeting Research Paper college application essay help
Public sector finance is a branch of finance, which looks into the allocation and distribution of government revenues and its fiscal and monetary policies. Public finance has three fundamental attributes: public revenues, public expenditures and public debt.
Public revenue deals with sourcing by government for money to fund its activities through means such as taxation. Public expenditure concerns with the utilization of public revenue, while public debt refers to government borrowings to fund government expenditure deficits.
With this in mind, public sector accounting involves recording of financial transactions within a public sector organization. Key issues will be sources of revenue for the public institution from internal sources, and from the government, allocation of the institutions revenue in a budget and actual use of the funds received. Difference between public sector and private sector accounting is primarily: accounting principles, profit motive, operations decision making and consensus building.
First, accounting principles used in the private sector are quite different to those used in the public sector. Each country sets its own accounting principles through adapting international set standards. Given, the international accounting standards is common for both government and nongovernmental organizations, it is the financial reporting standards differ.
The non-governmental sector financial reporting accounting falls under international financial reporting standards. However, the government sector follows a different set of financial reporting accounting principles: the international public sector accounting standards, which, adapt international financial reporting standards to suit financial accounting for public sector. Accounting items such as accrual basis of accounting and the form of financial accounting statements are different.
Public sector finance is a branch of finance, which looks into the allocation and distribution of government revenues and its fiscal and monetary policies. Public finance has three fundamental attributes: public revenues, public expenditures and public debt.
Public revenue deals with sourcing by government for money to fund its activities through means such as taxation. Public expenditure concerns with the utilization of public revenue, while public debt refers to government borrowings to fund government expenditure deficits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this in mind, public sector accounting involves recording of financial transactions within a public sector organization. Key issues will be sources of revenue for the public institution from internal sources, and from the government, allocation of the institutions revenue in a budget and actual use of the funds received (Johnson, Et al, 2008).
Difference between public sector and private sector accounting is mainly: accounting principles, profit motive, operations and consensus building. First, accounting principles used in the private sector are quite different to those used in the public sector. The non-governmental sector accounting falls under regulation of the country’s accounting body, which sets the accounting principles such as accounting principles.
However, the government sector follows a different set of accounting principles: the international public sector accounting standards that adapt international financial reporting standards to suit financial accounting for public sector. Countries use the international public sector accounting standards as their basis for setting their individual country’s public sector accounting standards (Jones, 2011).
Private business, goal is to gain profit while the government sector goals are service delivery to the citizens. Therefore, while private sector firms seek to maximize profitability, public sector organizations seek more funding to achieve their purpose. This poses a challenge in the public sector especially in providing management incentives for productivity.
Given public sector institutions receive greater revenue share from central government when the institutions fully use prior funds allocated, this creates the tendency of managers to increase bureaucracy instead of focusing on fulfilling the goal of the organization through allocation of funds efficiently and effectively.
Management of private firms, with guidance from the board of directors, carry out their duties in line with the company’s operational plans, strategic plans basing on the firm’s mission and vision. Public sector institutions apart from their operational plans, strategic plans, mission and vision; receive additional organizational control from stipulated government regulations, policy and legislation. Thus, the public sector organizations have limitations in their management decisions options, which inhibit the growth of the organization (Jones, 2011).
In the private sector, once management has outlined its course of action; this may require consensus building depending on leadership style such as dictatorial leadership style requires little consensus building for decision making. In the public sector, consensus building operates at an accelerated level, given the highly political nature of the public sector.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Public budgeting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It requires all parties to be on board before management undertakes critical management decision; the daunting number of consultations from its board of director, ministry, citizens, employees and third parties of interest. This is a barrier against efficiency and speed of decision making due to the consideration of many diverse factors. The bureaucratic land mine alienates creative and highly motivated staff in charge who may resign citing work frustrations.
In the public sector institutions, the budget drives funds that the institution will receive from the government depending on how the government approves its budget along with internal sources of revenue. Finally, during financial reporting, it accounts for budgeting, receiving, distribution and subsequent use.
Therefore, unlike private sector where financial reports drive the next financial period activities, in the public sector it is the financial budgeting that drives the next financial period activities. Thus the financial budget importance should not face underestimation (Johnson, Et al, 2008).
References Johnson, W., Joyce, G.,
The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Executive summary Josephine McMurray, Elizabeth Hicks, Helen Johnson, Jacobi Elliott, Kerry Byrne, and Paul Stolee authored the article, Trying to find information is like hating yourself every day: The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition, which was published in the Journal of Health Informatics.
The article examines the implication of electronic medical records (EMR) coupled with parallel paper medical records on continuity of information in healthcare facilities. In conducting the research, ethnographic field study was deployed as the main methodology for gathering data.
The article draws its inferences from results of three main case studies involving older patients having hip fracture and transitioning within healthcare settings (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).
The focus of the article is on the implication of the electronic information systems (EIS) interoperability on the capacity of healthcare providers to communicate amongst themselves and the implication of digital records on transformation of information handling and processing systems within healthcare facilities.
According to the article, enhancement of continuity is an important outcome for healthcare information system. In this context, healthcare records are pivotal in enabling care providers to exchange patients’ clinical coupled with demographic information, which is necessary to effect appropriate treatment (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).
Records also aid in accountability transfers, regulatory compliance, and provide means for following up quality of the healthcare delivered. While the authors find documentation important in this extent, they argue that documentation culture consumes 25 percent of the caregivers’ time in a healthcare facility (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).
Improving the documentation process can aid in improvising of more accurate, better quality, secure, and speedy, and even well coordinated healthcare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the authors, the above qualities cannot be achieved via paper-based approaches to documentation of healthcare information. This assertion underlines the importance of transitioning to EMR healthcare information systems.
However, the authors report low adoption rates of the EMRs in clinical settings in Canada. They also argue that care providers encounter challenges in sending and receiving information that has been digitized. Consequently, “the adoption of digitized documentation is inconsistent across healthcare sectors and interoperability between information systems is limited” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.220).
Based on this realization, the researchers found it sound to conduct a research to investigate the effects of electronic and paper information parallel system in fostering efforts of communication exchange during the process of transitioning of patient within the healthcare continuum.
The authors present two main viewpoints. First, “partial interoperability between electronic information systems has complicated not eased the ability to communicate across settings and disciplines” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.223).
The authors note that during the period, which the research was conducted, Canada had strategically focused on investment in EMRs. Nevertheless, most cases studied showed that transitional information was transferred through paper-based means of communication.
Despite the availability of EMRs in the three cases considered in the research, healthcare providers exchanged transitional information through fax or transportation of paper-based information during transferring of the patient across the care continuum. In particular, the authors exemplify this view point by claiming that in the case involving Mrs.
Robertson, two facilities sharing ownership cared for her, but even though EMR was available to the two care facilities, “staff continued to fax requests for admission and discharge documentation to each other and maintained separate paper charts” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.224).
We will write a custom Report on The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, clinical care workers entered Mrs. Robertson’s information manually to an external database in each of the care facilities. For long-term care facilities, none of them deployed EMRs.
Documentation of information is meant to ensure ease of accessibility and retrieval of information. However, in the second viewpoint of the authors, “while some information is more accessible and communications streamlined, parallel paper and electronic systems have added to the front line providers burden, not eased it” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.224).
In this context, the article findings indicate that even if information were recorded previously in the EMR system, front care providers raised concerns that they encountered challenges in accessing and retrieving the information. These challenges were attributed to poor user interfaces and unavailability of records’ summaries.
However, physicians argued that although it was difficult to retrieve and access information from their places of residence in the EMR system, when such information was retrieved, it helped them in cross communication.
As part of analysis of the article, it is important to note that transition from one information system to another involves organizational change. Before people can learn and acquire experience in the use of new information system, confusions and problems are anticipated. Therefore, it is not surprising that people would deploy paper-based approaches in the documentation process while EMRs were available.
From the context of the second viewpoint of the authors, any digital information system has challenges articulated to its design. Some of these challenges include poor design of user interfaces and interactivity. When such challenges are encountered, the solution encompasses system redesign and improvement to meet user requirements, but not scraping it.
In my opinion, the article is relevant to management information systems for Public and Health Administration. It provides possible area of improving EMRs to meet the needs of the users and deliver the outcomes for which the system is installed within a healthcare facility.
Reference McMurray, J., Hicks, E., Johnson, H., Elliott, J., Byrne, K.,
The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie Essay scholarship essay help
One of the reasons why Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie continues to be referred, as such that represents a particularly high literary value, is that the themes and motifs, contained in it, are discursively relevant. That is, by being exposed to how the play’s characters address life-challenges, viewers do recognize these characters’ innermost psychological anxieties, as such that relate to the ones of their own.
In my paper, I will explore the validity of this suggestion at length, while focusing on the significance of the motif of an existential alienation, which I believe is being prominently featured, throughout the play’s entirety.
Even though that there are a number of clearly defined modernist overtones to how the play’s plot unravels out on the stage, due to the plot’s structural simplicity, grasping it mentally does not represent much of a challenge. In essence, it can be outlined as follows. The character of Amanda Wingfield, who shares a household with her son Tom and her daughter Laura, tries her best to help Laura to find a man who would be willing to marry her.
This, however, is not easily accomplishable, due to both: Laura’s physical deficiency (she limps) and the fact that she happened to be an unnaturally shy individual, afraid of socializing with ‘strangers’. The character of Tom (narrator) temporarily works at a shoe-warehouse, while striving to support his mother and sister.
However, being endowed with artistic aspirations, he finds the routine of addressing his professional duties increasingly unbearable – hence, Tom’s tendency to overindulge in drinking. Being emotionally involved with Laura, Tom also tries to set her up with a potential husband – he invites his coworker Jim to a family-dinner, so that he would be able to get to know Laura better, and eventually to decide to marry her.
Despite her shyness, Laura does become relaxed in Jim’s presence and begins to experience the sensation of being romantically attached to him. However, it does not take too long for her to find out that Jim plans to marry another woman, which results in Laura having sustained yet another emotional blow. The play’s ending implies that Laura effectively gives up on her hope of being able to lead a conventional lifestyle, and becomes socially-withdrawn for the rest of her life.
Thus, it will only be appropriate to suggest that the very subtleties of the plot create objective preconditions for viewers to perceive the play’s characters, as such that do not quite ‘fit’ into the reality that surrounds them. This simply could not be otherwise, because, as the earlier provided outline of Williams’s play implies – these characters never ceased experiencing the sensation of an existential alienation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manner, in which the character of Amanda goes about trying to exercise a parental authority within the family, illustrates the legitimacy of this statement perfectly well. For example, in her conversations with Tom and Laura, Amanda never ceases to promote the so-called ‘traditional values’, deeply imbedded in the notion of religion.
Hence, Amanda’s insistence that it is not only that people must utter a prayer, before they have a dinner, but that neither of the household members may skip attending this ritual: “Amanda: We can’t say grace until you (Tom) come to the table!” (Williams 753). Apparently, it never occurred to Amanda that the very realities of living in the early 20th century’s America were exposing the sheer erroneousness of Biblical fables.
This is why the Amanda’s traditionalist approach to parenting could not prove effective, by definition. As a result, Amanda was becoming increasingly frustrated with her inability to instill Laura and Tom with ‘proper morals’, which in turn was causing her to suspect that she probably was not a ‘good mother’, after all.
It is needless to mention, of course, that this could not result in anything else, but in making Amanda ever more psychological uncomfortable with the surrounding socio-cultural environment.
This is exactly the reason why Amanda would never skip an opportunity to reflect upon how things used to be back in the past: “Amanda: One Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain – your mother received – seventeen gentlemen-callers! We had to send the nigger over to bring in folding chairs from the parish house” (754).
The very delight, with which Amanda expounds on her memories of the past, leaves no doubts as to the fact that, psychologically speaking, Amanda was growing increasingly tempted to submerge into the ‘reality’ of the past, while ignoring the actual reality of the present (Bluefarb 513).
Essentially the same thesis applies to the character of Laura, even though that, unlike her mother, she was not overly fascinated with the ‘good ole’ days’. Being an emotionally sensitive girl, who used to experience the sensation of inferiority (due to having to wear braces on her leg), Laura could not help creating her own ‘world’ of little figurines of exotic animals, made out of glass, among which she felt thoroughly comfortable.
We will write a custom Essay on The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As time went on, Laura was becoming progressively withdrawn, while preoccupying herself with taking care of her beloved figurines. This, of course, used to cause Amanda a great deal of worry: “Now all she (Laura) does is fool with those pieces of glass and play those worn-out records. What kind of a life is that for a girl to lead?” (758).
Nevertheless, contrary to what Amanda used to believe, her daughter’s mental condition could hardly be remedied by the mean of encouraging Laura to socialize more. Apparently, Laura’s obsession with the ‘glass menagerie’ extrapolated her cognitive and emotional incompatibility with the functioning of the American materialistic society.
Hence, the symbolical significance of Jim’s rhetorical question: “Unicorns, aren’t they extinct in the modern world?” (774) – without intending to do it rationally, Jim did hint that individuals like Laura (the ones that indulge in a socially withdrawn daydreaming) will never be able to adjust to the real world.
Therefore, there is nothing utterly surprising about the fact that, throughout the course of the play’s entirety, Laura is being represented as an individual, whose biological vitality has been irrevocably undermined. In its turn, this explains why, as opposed to what it happened to be the case with her mother, the Laura’s sense of existential alienation has strongly defined tragic undertones to it.
Even though that, formally speaking, the play’s narrator (Jim) does not appear to experience the sensation of a societal alienation, this is far from being the actual case. This is because, despite the fact that Jim does tend to indulge in a number of different socialization-related activities, without seeming to suffer any emotional damage, as a result, he finds it increasingly difficult adjusting to his social role of a warehouse-worker.
There is a memorable scene in the play, where Jim comes up with the emotionally-charged speech, on the subject of his deep-seated incompatibility with the idea that working at a warehouse accounts for his ‘true calling’: “You think I’m crazy about the warehouse? You think I’m in love with the Continental Shoemakers?
You think I want to spend fifty-five years down there in that – celotex interior! with – fluorescent – tubes! Look! I’d rather somebody picked up a crowbar and battered out my brains – than go back mornings!” (757). Apparently, being an idealistically-minded young man, Tom could never adjust to the prospect of spending the rest of his life, working as a manual laborer.
This is the reason why, throughout the play, Tom acts as a socially alienated individual, who strives to overcome the sensation of being ‘unfit’ to lead the conventional lifestyle of a laborer by the mean of uttering sarcastic remarks, every time he finds it appropriate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As King (1973) noted: “Tom toys with the same madness in which his sister Laura is trapped but saves himself with irony” (209). Therefore, just as it happened to be the case with the earlier mentioned characters, Tom appears to have suffered from his deep-seated suspicion of himself being not quite ‘normal’ – hence, the clearly defined motif of alienation to the manner, in which this particular character addresses life-challenges.
Even the play’s most conventional character Jim, also seems to be affected by his realization of the fact that he is not quite as successful, as he hoped he would be: “I hoped when I was going to high-school that I would be further along at this time, six years later, than I am now” (778).
In fact, this appears to be the actual reason why he was able to get along with Laura right away – apparently, Jim was no stranger to the sensation of being a ‘loser’, which is why he could well relate to the Laura’s emotional state of being. However, unlike what it was the case with Tom, Jim never had any aspirations of grandeur, which is why he was able to successfully deal with his alienation-related anxieties (Cluck 87).
The deployed line of argumentation does substantiate the idea that, in The Glass Menagerie, it was specifically the main characters’ subtle understanding that they do not quite belong to this world, which prevented them from being able to enjoy their lives to the fullest. Therefore, it would only be logical to assume that in Williams’s play, the theme of alienation affects plot’s developments more than anything else does.
Given the fact that, it was implied earlier, the realities of a post-industrial living do cause more and more Americans to grow increasingly detached from the classical (euro-centric) conventions of what should be considered one’s ‘purposeful life’, there is nothing too surprising about the cult-status of this particular Williams’s play.
After all, just as it was the case with the characters of Amanda, Tom and Laura, many contemporary Americans (particularly Whites) do realize themselves being in no position to be able to keep up with the pace of a social progress – hence, their tendency to choose in favor of socially-withdrawn lifestyles. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.
Works Cited Bluefarb, Sam. “The Glass Menagerie: Three Visions of Time.” College English 24.7 (1963): 513-518. Print.
Cluck, Nancy. “Showing or Telling: Narrators in the Drama of Tennessee Williams.” American Literature 51.1 (1979): 84-93. Print.
King, Thomas. “Irony and Distance in ‘The Glass Menagerie’.” Educational Theatre Journal 25.2 (1973): 207-214. Print.
Williams, Tennessee 1945, The Glass Menagerie. Web.
“8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” and “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
The modern day and age offers rights and freedoms that people have not experienced some time before and the majority of official rulings have acknowledged that people have a right to marry whomever they want, as it is their personal and private choice.
While both authors address the issue of Proposition 8 and challenges that LGBTI face due to its criteria, author of “8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” focuses more on the reasons why people support the proposition, while author of “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” is more concerned with the fact that either way proposition 8 is immoral and discriminatory towards LGBTI.
The laws and government must unite society and differences between people and not divide. The two articles have valid points but the end result is clear—it is not up to the government to decide whom a person wants to marry but at the same time, educational and other public institutions should take extreme care in voicing opinions and changing policies according to personal views of people, keeping a lawful and moral balance.
Jennifer Roback Morse has written an article to explain and clarify the proposition and true reasons for it. The article focuses on the facts of why people support the proposition. It does not explain how people are affected, their feelings and outcomes they face. It illustrates why it is morally correct to choose laws and regulations that divide people through court orders, instead of finding ways to look for common ground and reach a mutually beneficial solution.
She gives specific points and views of people who are not agreeing with the courts passing laws that would make same sex marriages official and thus, give people same rights and freedoms as everyone else. She also argues that it is not particularly fair for children to be educated about same sex marriages and unions, as children are too young to understand the true reasons and circumstances of such marriages.
Jennifer Morse explains that people who are against these rulings are not against people who are homosexual but that they oppose the court’s decisions because courts are taking their authority too far. Her points are made very clear but there are some issues that can be raised.
Marriage is a union of two people and it is not up to other individuals to decide who these people are and what qualities they have. A union is defined by feelings that are mutual and if two people want to be together, they should not be denied that right. The majority of society has the right to form a bond and has the privileges under law to receive benefits and protection that such union entitles them to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, it would be unfair to deny others this right because someone is unable to understand the reasons people are together, even though they can understand themselves. The fact that people are anti-laws that give LGBTI people same rights and freedoms extends towards people themselves and the explanation that the courts are given too much power to grant people these rights is also a movement against people receiving these rights.
The point that parents should be the ones deciding the type of education their children should be receiving is valid but, to a certain degree. Children should not be denied the truth but the matter of private relationships between people should not be a part of educational curriculum, no matter if it is heterosexual or homosexual. Education should be impartial and neutral, leaving emotions and love for everyone to decide on their own. But the fact that such unions do exist, should not be denied, as it is the undoubted reality of the world.
If young and older children can take a family class, which they choose under their own want and if they are educated about heterosexual marriages, they should also be educated about other types of marriages. But education should in no way be forced onto anyone. Even though Morse in not against LGBTI people, she does show some fear of what will happen to people if they are suscepted to laws and freedoms that are changed in LGBTI favor.
This comes from a long standing argument that people choose to be gay or not and it might make someone LGBTI. This has been proven to be untrue. But even if it is assumed that it is true and a person can choose, it is still no one’s business because a person wants and needs that on their own accord. LGBTI people are not asking for extra privileges and freedoms, they want to have same rights and protection under law as everyone else and it is only fair.
“Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” reinforces the view that due to changes in laws and governments giving people an opportunity to decide laws for someone else is morally wrong. The fact that anti-LGBTI discrimination exists cannot be denied. People do truly face violence, stereotypical behavior and threats towards them if they are LGBTI or support policies that are in favor.
The article shows how the proposition is having a hard emotional or psychological influence on people. It is very depressing, especially for children who face discrimination in schools and neighborhoods they live in. People are afraid that their marriages will be no longer valid and those who support LGBTI are also concerned that their views and beliefs will be jeopardized by the proposition.
There are a number of examples of how the stereotypical behavior manifests itself, affecting families, friends and everyone involved in the matter. Anxiety and depression are the result of differential treatment and people are always in the state of fear that they will be the target of violence and other threatening verbal or physical behavior.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” and “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The general atmosphere in the society is now at a peak point where everyone has a very negative attitude and this has a significant effect on people’s lives. The actions of the government and society are taking a wrong direction.
They are finding ways to separate people even further when the focus should be the unity and finding of common ground. The laws being made must forbid further discrimination and stereotypical treatment, which will in turn lead to equal rights and freedoms.
The authors of two articles have shown different perspectives on the way society and government view people with different sexual preferences. The laws of the country dictate order in society but people’s private life is personal business.
Even though the majority of population respects others there are still people with hurtful and prejudiced opinions. In the end, it is everyone’s duty to respect others and provide hate free environment to live and enjoy justice.
Concept of Managing Teams at the Workplace Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Concept of Teams
Conditions That Determine Team Success
Building a Cohesive Team
Introduction The concept of teamwork at the workplace is practiced in many organizations. A team can be described as a group of people who depend on each other for skills and resources to enable them achieve a specific objective. Managers need special skills to manage various employees in the organization to enable them collaborate on specific tasks to achieve positive results. Managers need to make all their employees resourceful to ensure their output brings positive returns to the organization.
Concept of Teams Managers should realize that teams are formed to achieve a collective objective where all members depend on each other to achieve it. Team members need to be given freedom to make their own decisions. This approach makes all members of a team to tolerate different opinions put forward by their colleagues.
All employees in an organization have different personalities and this has an impact on the way they share ideas (Burke and Cooper 57). Managers should structure their teams to accommodate all types of personality profiles to make them diverse and competent.
Teamwork helps organizations to achieve key goals which are part of their long term strategies. Effective team managemen helps business organizations to come up with new ideas which make them stay competitive in their chosen industries. Employees who are skilled in a variety of disciplines enable firm stay ahead of its competitors because they share their knowledge and skills with each other.
Managers need to monitor their teams to ensure their activities are in line with the firm’s strategic goals (Heneman and Greenberger). A manager should not interfere needlessly in team operations as this will affect the ability of members to think on their own.
Conditions That Determine Team Success Managers need to know that there are several conditions which determine the success of workplace teams. The design of work place teams should conform to the overall context in which the organization transacts to make team members’ contributions valid and beneficial. The organizational culture should make team members more open to acquire new skills and information from each other to enable them move forward in a positive direction.
The knowledge acquired through collaboration between team members improves their ability to make decisions which have a bearing on the firm’s operations (Evans and Lindsay 97). Therefore, managers need to encourage team members to learn from one another to enable them stay focused on their objectives. Team members need to be open with each other to build strong relationships to make their team cohesive and progressive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Team members need to learn conflict resolution and problem solving skills for them to be well prepared to deal with any challenges which may come their way. All members within a team should be willing to compromise so as to build consensus when making crucial decisions. Open communication between members enables them to set clear goals and how they are to be achieved.
Team members should share tasks between them so that everyone is allocated a specific responsibility to ensure that each individual acquires crucial knowledge on what needs to be done. Team leaders should help members set goals and monitor their performance (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 83). Therefore, this enables members to develop standards which guide their partipation within the team.
Building a Cohesive Team It is important for activities which are done by work teams to be well coordinated. A workplace team needs to be productive to make it achieve its goals within stipulated time limits. Members should work well with each other to achieve their expectations. Tasks to be performed by each member should be well defined and aligned to strategic goals in the organization.
It is necessary for managers to decide how much decision making power teams should have in the beginning before they begin working on specific tasks. This will ensure that decisions made by team members are practical to make them easy to implement (Parker 45). Work place teams need to accommodate different employees and their skills to make them effective.
Members of work place teams need to come up with common codes of conduct, which they all must abide by. Codes of conduct help to maintain discipline in all procedures members are involved in to ensure they are in line with organizational expectations. Workplace teams need to do tasks which are well defined to make members more focused on what they need to achieve.
Members need to prioritize on the most important issues that need to be addressed which impact on internal operations within the organization (Sims 104). It is necessary for team members to make decisions which are only influenced by facts and not personal opinions.
In conclusion, workplace teams need to have creative members to ensure that they generate new ideas which impact positively on internal operations in the firm. All members should be assessed on their abilities to determine their contribution to the team. They should also be encouraged to participate in team work as this is the only they can learn new ideas.
We will write a custom Report on Concept of Managing Teams at the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Burke, Ronald J., and Cary L. Cooper. Reinventing Human Resources Management: Challenges And New Directions. New York: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Evans, James Robert, and William M. Lindsay. Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Heneman, Robert L., and David B. Greenberger. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. London: Information Age Publishing, 2002.Print
Jackson, Susan E., Randall S. Schuler, and Steve Werner. Managing Human Resources. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Parker, Glenn M. Team Players and Teamwork: New Strategies for Developing Successful Collaboration. New York, NY: Wiley, 2011. Print.
Sims, Ronald. Organizational Success Through Effective Human Resources Management. New York : Greenwood, 2002. Print.
Environmental public health Essay essay help
Introduction Public health is a major concern in the world today. The welfare of human beings has been put in the spotlight of major scientific research. As such, the research has emphasized on the need for public health ethics so as to ensure that people’s health is put into consideration. Professionalism within the public health sector has, therefore gained some renewed attention from various agencies.
The need to have professionals who are well equipped with skills and knowledge in environmental health is thus of paramount importance to any nation. The following essay focuses on professionalism in environmental public health raging from the code of ethics, standards of practice, to ethical decision making among other core values.
Code of ethics The code of ethics refers to the manner in which environmental health professionals are expected to conduct themselves while delivering their services to the public. These include the upholding of the rule of law through promotion of justice, accountability, maintaining confidentiality of the public and ensuring competent practice among health professionals (Dawson, 2011).
In Canada, The Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors (CIPHI) concerned with environmental public health is the only body that usually regulates and outlines the ethical conduct of health professionals in Canada. As such, the body usually deals with the welfare of people’s health by ensuring that the concerns are put into consideration while still engaging in the diverse world of knowledge and research.
Promotion of Justice
The promotion of justice among health professionals in Canada requires from every health professional to recognize the fact that every person has a right to fundamental rights of health regardless of their race or any other social distinction.
Additionally, Environmental Public Health Professionals (EPHPs) are obliged to promote fairness and equity as well as respect human rights in their different areas of research. With these attributes in mind, the welfare of the public is thus given priority by health agencies.
Accountability is a requirement among health professionals so as to ensure that they are held accountable and responsible for their actions. As such, a high degree of loyalty to CIPHI is paramount in ensuring that health professionals safeguard the interests of the public. These obligations have no exceptions or compromise as ignoring them would pose dire consequences to the public. Consequently, the impact on people’s health would be dire consequences.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maintenance of confidentiality
Maintenance of confidentiality among health experts is another requirement within the code of ethics of the environmental public health. This requirement compels all health professionals within the public sector to safeguard the health secrets of any family or community through the privacy laws that have been established (Dawson, 2011). This ensures that people’s life secrets are protected and their privacy is respected by all health professionals within the country.
Competency is a key requirement among health professionals in ensuring that their knowledge and skills remain relevant to people’s health. As such, EPHPs strive to remain competent and up to date with the various developments in the world of environmental public health.
Competent knowledge and skills are vital in ensuring that their work and service to the public remain competitive and up to date with technological advancements.
The scope of practice has, therefore, been put in place to ensure that every health professional conforms to the standards of quality and competency in the field. The need to keep people fully informed with regard to health issues is paramount so as to ensure competency and delivery of professional services to the public.
Standards of practice A Professional Standard of Practice can be defined as a specific level of performance where an individual must perform various professional tasks and responsibilities while maintaining some minimal standards below which the quality of work is unacceptable (Canada, 2008). As such, any professional activity or task must be performed at a minimum threshold so as to ensure that quality of the work is not compromised at all costs.
Standards will always provide values and a set of principles that must be observed while engaging in research. These standards ensure that professionals in the field of public health remain competitive and knowledgeable in handling pertinent issues within the field. They usually enlighten the public on what is expected of health professionals and also inform the latter of their responsibility and accountability.
These standards of practice serve to achieve the vision of health professionals enabling the professionals to make informed decisions with regard to the welfare of the public, ensure cohesion and conformity of all health professionals with the universally agreed requirements as well as provide a legal framework of understanding the code of conduct of these professionals. The standards include accountability, competency, ethics, application of knowledge, leadership as well as relationships standard.
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental public health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accountability standards aim at ensuring that the health professionals conform to the legislative requirements by taking responsibility with regard to their actions (Frumkin, 2010). Additionally, health professionals are also obliged to assist in the development of rules and policies to govern their field and ensure consistent practice of all stakeholders.
With regard to competency standards, EPHPs maintain their proficiency and competency through advancements in research as well as taking regular training programs to advance their knowledge and skills. Additionally, health professionals are obliged to dedicate their time and resources in order to meet certain requirements that are set by the regulatory authority (Frumkin, 2010). These rules are aimed at ensuring delivery of quality services to the public which are in line with universal standards.
EPHPs must maintain their ethical standards which outline their responsibilities to the public as well as inform the public and other health professionals of their ethical commitments to environmental public health concerns. The professionals should also maintain and safeguard the information pertaining to the health of their clients.
Leadership standards compel health professionals to be role models with regard to their professional etiquette and participation in various community development projects. These requirements ensure that there is sharing and dispensation of knowledge and skills to the community and other groups of interest.
Development of adequate conflict resolution skills that are highly effective is paramount to any health professional within the public health sector. This portrays their ability to find effective and workable solutions in the event of a conflict.
Ethical decision making Decision making within the environmental public health sector can be defined as the identification of conflicting values within a particular society which can be solved through the employment of a legal moral framework (Frumkin, 2010).
For instance, a law might be formulated by health professionals requiring all children within public institutions to wear leg guards while playing football. However, the parents might oppose the move by arguing that they reserve the rights to make rightful decision regarding the interests of their children.
The ability to recognize and acknowledge an ethical concern is paramount to any health professional who is equipped with knowledge and understanding of pertinent issues that a particular society faces. These decisions are made in steps which include recognition of the ethical problem or concern, identification of conflicting values and putting into consideration the ethical support towards the health program from the society. As such, improvement of the public health is an essential consideration while making decisions pertaining to the public welfare.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental public health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, professionalism in environmental public health is paramount to all health professionals, which is due to the fact that the public heavily relies on their services for a healthy life. As such, ethics and various standards of practice cannot be overlooked by the professionals. Should these factors be put into consideration, the results will be visible to everyone, and thus will ensure a healthy and productive nation.
References American Public Health Association. (1971). American journal of public health: JPH. New York, N.Y: American Public Health Association.
Benatar, S. R.,
Transmission and Reception of Television Signals Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Transmission of television signals
Reception of television signals
The books, Electronic signals and systems: television, stereo, satellite TV, and automotive by Stan Prentiss, and Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a particle engineering guide by Walter Fischer provide sufficient information that is relevant to the research question. Stan Prentiss is one of the leading writers in the field of engineering.
In his book Electronic signals and systems: television, stereo, satellite TV, and automotive, he explains to the reader the process of signal transmission and reception. He targets students and anyone who interested in learning the basics of signal transmission from a broadcaster to the screen of a television.
Prentiss has writer several books on the topic of signal transmission and reception. These have been augmented by research that he has conducted on the same topic. In addition, it has been published by TAB books, a publishing company that publishes academic books.
On the other hand, Walter Fischer is a prolific writer who has authored several books in the field of engineering. In his book Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a particle engineering guide, he takes a similar approach to that of Prentiss to explicate the process of signal transmission and reception. The book is published by TAB books, a publisher with a positive reputation for publishing educational books.
Fischer uses a language that is simple to understand. Therefore, he targets both professionals and non-professionals who are interested in engineering as a scientific discipline. This source is authentic and relevant because it has been cited by many professionals in many leading universities around the world when writing their dissertations.
Transmission of television signals Fischer (1961, p.87) gives an overview of signal transmission by stating that a transmitter tower transmits signals in form of audio and video components that are relayed in form of a carrier wave. The transmitter tower modulates the two components into one unit for ease of transmission. He further explains what modulation involves.
Modulation is the addition or removal of certain components in the signal in order to facilitate transmission. Prentiss (1991, p.193) adds to this by stating that modulation is carried out to eliminate any chance of interference between the video and audio component. Amplitude modulation is used to modulate the video component while frequency modulation is used to modulate the audio component.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prentiss (1991, p.193) discusses modulation in digital televisions by stating that phase modulation is utilized. When two signals share the same timing when they are transmitted, they are said to be in phase. If not, they are out of phase. Transmission is done at very high frequencies (VHF) and ultra high frequencies (UHF) because at these frequencies, TV signals can travel long distances (Fischer, 1961, p.91).
In addition, signals can easily penetrate structures thus improving reception. Before transmission, several requirements are fulfilled. The video line resolution of the video signal is set and the cycling speed is determined (Fischer, 1961, p.96).
In addition, the speed of frame display is set in order to enhance reception. An important aspect of transmission is signal compression. Signals are compressed in order to improve transmission and to avoid loss of integrity during transmission.
First, a video camera takes a picture of a certain object at a certain recommended frame rate (Fischer, 1961, p.98). Secondly, the camera turns the object into pixels of different intensity and color. Thirdly, the pixels are paired with synchronisation signals to improve reception and display (Prentiss, 1991, p.145). This results in a generation of a composite video signal that is then transmitted.
Transmitters possess gadgets that convert transport stream into signals that are conveyed in both the audio and video format. Transmitter towers convey three main types of signals depending on type and frequency of transmission. These include antenna signals, satellite signals, and cable signals (Prentiss, 1991, p.147). Antenna signals are conveyed from radio transmitters.
They are significantly weak and a television antenna must be close enough to a broadcast tower in order for it to receive a signal that is strong enough to display images and produce sound.
Satellite signals are transmitted from a broadcaster to a satellite in space, and then to a dish that acts as a receiver. The dishes must be in line with a conveying satellite in order to receive signals without interference. Transmission of satellite signals usually occurs at very high frequencies.
We will write a custom Assessment on Transmission and Reception of Television Signals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, satellite signals behave like light waves. They can travel long distances without losing their integrity (Prentiss, 1991, p.99). On the other hand, certain signals are converted to electrical signals to improve the speed of transmission. The main advantage of antenna signals is that they do not lose their integrity during transmission unlike cable signals that do.
Reception of television signals After signals are transmitted over air, the antenna or receiver mounted a television set receives them (Prentiss, 1991, p.134). Antennas perform two main functions. These include reception and amplification of signals. TVs contain special gadgets that convert received signals into a form that enables them to be displayed on a screen.
Quality of signal reception depends on the type of television set that receives it. For example, a satellite TV uses a receiver to convert signals into video and sound (Prentiss, 1991, p.137). On the other hand, modern TVs have inbuilt receiving units that eradicate the need for special receiving units. After a signal is received, it is decoded by the receiving unit and separated into video and sound components for display.
The receiver converts the received TV programs that are in form of waves into signals that are displayed as images (Prentiss, 1991, p.142). TVs possess display devices that are referred to as Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs).
CRTs convert television signals into visible light for enhanced display. According to Prentiss (1991, p.107), a CRT contains steering coils that transmit the signal that is converted into an electron beam to the screen. TVs also contain sound devices that turn electrical signals into sound.
Conclusion Transmission of television signals involves transmission of both audio and video components from a transmitter. The transmitter modulates the two components into one unit for ease of transmission. The signal is conveyed to the atmosphere in form of a carrier wave that is conveyed over air and received by an antenna or receiver mounted on a TV. TVs have inbuilt receiving units that eradicate the need for a special receiving unit.
After a signal is received, it is decoded by the receiving unit and separated into two components: video and sound. The video component is displayed on the screen while the sound component is transmitted to the sound device. The two books used in the research provide sufficient information that covers the research topic satisfactorily.
References Fischer, W 1961, Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology a Particle Engineering Guide, TBA Books, New York.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transmission and Reception of Television Signals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prentiss, S 1991, Electronic Signals and Systems: Television, Stereo, Satellite TV, and Automotive, TBA Books, New York.
DuPont Environmental Corporation Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Winkler asserts that the safety, health, and environmental (SHE) organizational units have often undergone reforms that are run through defaults (p.36). This implies that such organizational restructuring are determined through extensive financial considerations and business reorganization instead of self-instigated SHE managerial efforts.
Up to late 1990, the SHE institutions experienced tumultuous moments. In fact, the business management observed the SHE organizations as overhead or service sources over-involved in various reformation waves, which either merged or subcontracted such activities to the joint service sectors.
Recently, the restructuring zeal lessened and in the past ten years, environmental organizations executives polished up their institutions in order to fix the most appalling labels that occurred during the insistent service reformation periods. However, the SHE departments experienced intensified pressure that required such environmental units to accomplish various objectives with minimal resources (Winkler 37).
As the most excellent SHE corporations found in the industry, DuPont Corporation had to adopt the unsurpassed practices in designing the organizational safety, health, and environmental measures.
DuPont Corporation Case Study The environmental invention center has consistently assessed the features possessed by the safety, health, and environmental corporations that record higher performances. Also dubbed as the ‘evolving corporations,’ this research focuses on a large environmental corporation called DuPont since the institution has somewhat established environmental management practices. Besides, DuPont has structured layers, including facility, business units, and corporate levels that enable the company to acquire the preeminent SMEs practices (Winkler 37).
The case study assesses whether the typical managerial aspects and capacity, namely the communications linkages, structure, and the size of the organization can assist the company to offer valued business services proficiently while adhering to environmental concerns and laws. That is, in case DuPont realizes the correct mixtures of clients’ desires at minimal outlay.
The topic is significant given that the clients’ identities fluctuate very much depending on the type of the plant managers, marketing directors, as well as the board of directors’ requirements and requests. Besides, the conception of realizing the requirements of the clients materialize to have followed another dimension, including the capacity to manage the ensuing stakeholder concerns (Bradley and O’Neal 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case study report provides the organizational background of DuPont SHE, the devotion to environmental safety, the implications of DuPont organizational culture namely the advantages and prospective drawbacks, as well as the right balance.
Background The culture and history of DuPont Corporation
In the fiscal 1802, DuPont Corp was initiated for the production of black-powder. During the nineteenth century, the black-power operations materialized to be environmentally and naturally hazardous. The DuPont Corporation family unit passed away in the untimely years despite the fact the company used the high-tech environmental safety practices.
However, whatever emerged from such incidents appeared to be the profoundly entrenched culture maturing after a while to the central values which most people alleged to be inimitable in their respective depths.
Over the past thirty-five years, the embraced internal practices attained a sophisticated point that was outwardly recognized to the levels, which made DuPont Corp to form the consulting businesses and safety or environmental trainings. DuPont emerged as a detached company called the DuPont Safety Resources in the fiscal 1998 (Bradley and O’Neal 2).
It was however, reported that the cultural safety had a spill out consequence on the interrelated areas, namely health and environment. A case illustration occurred in the financial year 1920s and 1880s when DuPont manufactured dyestuffs and dynamites, which considerably generated occupational and environmental health concerns.
In financial year 1935, DuPont Corporation therefore proposed and set up the Haskell manufacturing medication, ecological, and toxicological lab in order to enlarge the scientific and technological statuses.
Regarding environmental matters, DuPont Corp created reputation for initially adopting the high-tech ecological practices (MacLean 16). The DuPont Corporation for instance, was amongst the initial adopters of the prescribed 1971 SHE policies besides creating the official SHE deputy president rank in the fiscal 1989.
We will write a custom Case Study on DuPont Environmental Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whereas the SHE administration systems assumed by DuPont Corp were known and saleable, the corporate structure for this corporation appeared to be somewhat characteristic of the big companies that existed in those periods. In fact, the DuPont corporate groups comprised of the environmental, occupational health, safety, and medical directors as well as trade level and small supporting personnel, including the entrenched plants consultants. From 1980s to early 1990s, DuPont Corp utilized the dispersed formation of safety, health, and environmental structures to keep the general trade philosophies.
DuPont Corp experienced the key reformation in the fiscal 1993 when twenty-three extremely independent, but planned trade entities substituted the five key commerce units. The number of DuPont Corp workers was reduced by one third while other organizational units namely the IT, finance, EHS, and HR had to be commercial service sources (Winkler 37). DuPont was primarily staffed with SHE commercial entities, but the company expanded to incorporate specialists employed from the external sources.
The manufacturing and production sectors reinstated the departmental units in the financial year 1996 yet the management clues were to be given by the deputy leaders. The groups functioned founded on the placed orders, although independent planned commercial units issued or settled the incurred total expenses.
DuPont Corp equally incorporated additional minute factions such as the original commercial units, which concentrated on control and peripheral ecological affair topics besides catering for the outstanding outlays. DuPont Corp stipulates the sustainable ecological development topic as well as the zilch green flaws aims and reputation beliefs.
DuPont Environmental protection Research Findings
DuPont Corporation brings outstanding engineering and science to the universal markets via groundbreaking services, materials, as well as products. For over two hundred years, DuPont Corp has built environmental legacy through cooperating with various organizations in tackling the unprecedented environmental protection, safety, energy, and food challenges that presently face the globe.
DuPont Corp works jointly with world leaders, NGOs, governments, and clients in discovering the current toughest environmental challenges and their respective solutions. In fact, DuPont Corporation protects the environment and people, reduces over-reliance on fossil energy, and offers adequate healthy foodstuff to all groups across the globe (Bradley and O’Neal 6).
Given the situation of the global environment, DuPont strategies intended to protect worldwide niche was rather imprudent as the corporation intended to shun the ensuing penalties and comply with the environmental regulations. For instance, DuPont Corp established the corporate environmentalism strategy in the earlier years that compelled the company to accomplish the expectations of the community and not merely to meet the law provisions.
DuPont Corporation environmental managers and operators are obliged to share and learn the emerging environmental issues athwart departments. This corporation usually meets with community members, environmentalists, and regulators to deliberate on the novel ecological protection strategies (Nohria et al. 42).
Not sure if you can write a paper on DuPont Environmental Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to tackle various environmental and economic challenges currently encountered, DuPont Corporation welcomes practical measures and inventive thoughts from individuals and employees who are concerned. The company constructed the DuPont Corporation Chamber Works meant to enhance the regulatory procedures and design supple and smarter control systems.
DuPont works closely with the environmental protection department and EPA to ensure that unsafe wastes are neutralized and properly discharged to avoid environmental pollution and degradations (Bradley and O’Neal 7). To realize these goals, DuPont Corporation has structured its environmental, safety, and health sectors to cater for various environmental protection needs.
The environmental safety commitment
The culture of safety has a superseding effect on environmental issues according to DuPont Corporation ecological management. The influence is in regard to how matters of control, exterior affairs, and strategies are addressed. However, few corporations have made this changeover despite the fact that several other environmental companies initially exhibit safety measures as their core values.
The dedication to the ecological wellbeing at DuPont Corporation ensues due to the existing board’s policies entrenched in the individual ideals, each day’s predicaments, as well as yearly zest.
In fact, all these approaches are the sets of environmental symptoms that affect a number of ecological companies these days (MacLean and Nalinakumari 120). Hence, quite countless corporations find this prod unreservedly pervasive when pursuing and implementing environmental protection measures.
Conversely, environmental safety is part of the DNA composition in the DuPont Company operations. Foreigners draw the environmental safety training observation program into attention when considering the origin of DuPont environmental protection triumph. Conversely, in the direction of environmental safety there is completely no-nonsense policy as understood by DuPont Corporation workers.
This generates a milieu bordering the unswerving uncertainties in missing the numbers as is evidenced in other environmental protection corporations (Yang and MacLean 14).
The inferences of DuPont’s Organizational culture
Initially, extra tasks carried out by an individual employee and the SHE greater concerns about ecological possession led to the expansion of the size of SHE corporate staff. In order to look after issues relating to environmental control and compliances only few individuals were required by this company. Secondly, the shared environmental service administrations could probably fail in case they did not meet the consumers’ quality demands.
However, the shared service administration remained prosperous, given that specialists manned them. Moreover, the improvement in the environmental protection communication and cooperation augmented when employees were encouraged to work. Workforces are required to undertake ecological issues that receive the slightest interest of the managers as well as the shared value.
Lastly, the department of SHE does not turn into a dumping place for the non-performing labor force and this is quoted in the DuPont business customs. Such situation causes adverse influences on the SHE capability to manage the environment (MacLean 19).
Potential drawbacks at DuPont
The company’s non-deliberate consequences emerge from the focus based on the safety, health, and environmental issues. DuPont latterly had voluntary and inner company perflurooctanoic acid threshold that was established below the risk-based rules. This made the corporation to be perceived to be violating the environmental regulations stipulated under the Toxic Substances Control bylaw.
Sometimes business executives use instances such as the PFOA controversy to resource their commercial accomplishments. Such corporations employ such examples to streamline and shun going further than the environmental compliance bylaws. The controversy like that of perflurooctanoic acid is extensively enclosed in the Environmental Protection and Quality Management bylaws (Bradley and O’Neal 12).
Finding the right balance
In the determination of every company’s business objectives and culture, it is necessary to find the right sense of balance. The corporation gives an impression of achieving high-performance level that offers quantifiable environmental protection proceeds. Through piling the devoted EHS resources, DuPont environmental protection level could be reached by other dedicated ecological corporations (Winkler 42).
The contemporary reorganization
DuPont readjusted the undertaken businesses into five platforms and retailed Conoco in the fiscal 1999. This envisioned a reflection of the fresh farming, dietary, communication, and electronic business ventures. Hitherto, each organizational personnel was defined to be economically viable. Besides, the SHE distinction commercial hub had developed and employed not more than forty workers. These employees focused on ecological control, policies formulations and discharge, and peripheral green affairs.
Actually, the workers are remunerated by the business found in their small core factions (Chandler and Salsbury 34). The bigger amenities had almost twenty ecological professionals. The environmental plants are classical and have six implanted SHE connoisseurs compensated by the sites where the experts work. In fact, the SHE experts exist in the business units to back various environmental protection sites inside the corporations.
The corporation’s reorganization originated from a number of events and issues, among them the superannuation of Tebo Paul over the past years. DuPont environmental protection team grew in the face of SHE Corporation and other minor experts. At present, the lineup comprises of fifteen affiliates as it was rationalized to reveal the 5 podiums of commerce.
Definitely, the allotment of business prospects was limited despite the fact that specialized regional SHE resources inside the SBUs advanced (Karan and MacLean 67). Thus, the repositioning of various SHE consultants often materialized inside the distinctive ecological, protection and health organization.
The remediation of SHE services was not affected given that the services were located in the original regional administrative centers. Actually, the engineers oversee services even though they remain in the ecological fortification services. The product stewardship is in receipt of the augmented scrutiny at the time of recent recognition when the issue of perflurooctanoic acid was developing.
With the purpose of enhancing fine ecological control, a sophisticated artifact stewardship board became molded. Moreover, an establishment of the networks and a direction-finding team made certain the harmonization of environmental protection technical allotment and the growth of the strategy (MacLean 12).
The issue of perflurooctanoic acid
DuPont’s position of deputy head has been filled within the premises. Contrariwise, the outside hiring of Linder Fisher echoed the wish of seeking for the fresh planned views. Fisher has distanced herself from interfering with any individual at EPA in regard to the issue of perflurooctanoic acid (Winkler 37). The background of Linder armors the specified position at DuPont on this subject.
Fisher’s background work at EPA when compared with the present day situation is much far-reaching. Linder carried out various duties on the biotechnical issues that are tactically pertinent to the DuPont’s day-to-day ecological operations.
Splitting of EHS functions
Operational firefighting is dominant in countless corporate civil services. Splitting the functions of SHE enable the company to evade the difficulty of a solitary leader over engagement in the daily operations. In essence, the split could generate latent glitches clashing with the synchronization of the SHE aims.
Thus, DuPont Corporation employs a range of set-ups, lineups, and commissions in the ecological administration and protection strategy (Bradley and O’Neal 4).
The DuPont’s decentralized and centralized resources
There is need to avoid the difficulties that companies run into when they go to dissipations of centralization and decentralization. Despite the fact that the centralized resources offer economies of scale, the site implanted and local-rheostat resources are essential to accomplish the responsibility and possession (D’Alessandro 1). Interestingly, DuPont reorganization stripped resources out of the trade level factions and made them obtainable to a wider client base.
DuPont accomplished the ecological protection goals through ensuring that the corporate group hardly reports as employee functions but as operators. Secondly, the corporation handpicked and permitted five frontrunners of the SHE platform to remain inside the enterprises and report to their own managers.
Conversely, DuPont never placed the site-embedded resources into use. Indeed, several dimensions ascend from the systems for changing the cost allocation of SHE quality center. To encourage larger environmental performance, DuPont has a set-up of internal service groups that are on demand and operate like outside consultants.
The comprehensive allocation systems favor and allow the under-performing environmental workforces to continue in service. However, the environmental scheme can save costs related to categorization.
Subsequent to the provision of group determination, a number of shared service factions have moved in the direction of the environmental allocation technique. DuPont is following this tendency as it appears. In recent times, certain corporations have relocated their environmental auditing services (MacLean 16).
Their ecological audit range within financial audit services to the impartial protuberant groups. In general, the environmental culture of DuPont is in support of ecological protection. Thus, DuPont has more disseminated ecological protection services managed by the audit program director, regional networks, and corporate teams.
Conclusion Various topical researches investigated the attributes of environmental corporations that generated sustainable and high fiscal performances. The study outcomes revealed that the environmental organizational matters significantly contributed to such positive results.
However, it is apparent that hardly any specific organizational structure will exclusively define the best environmental corporation. The following study outcomes outlines some of the attributes deemed imperative for an environmental organization like the DuPont Corp.
Streamlined environmental regulations and rules
Attention to the environmental personnel strategic direction, roles, and competencies
Trimmed environmental management layers and shunning hierarchies
Environmental cultural discipline, responsibilities and freedom within the instituted frameworks
Improved degrees in sharing environmental technology information
Whereas hardly any environmental organization structures characterize triumph, the best environmental corporations assume structured blends including matrixes, decentralized and centralized to realize the business, environmental, safety, and health objectives at minimal costs. DuPont Corporation is amongst the environmental organizations that have realized such ecological protection and performance blends.
However, the environmental model blend adopted by DuPont Corp may not be suitable for all other ecological companies though cultural discipline is necessary. DuPont Corporation has environmental checkers and auditing staffs responsible for monitoring and maintaining the safety, environmental and health standards. The company ensures the SHE objectives are accomplished by employing the right staffs intended to protect the environment.
Most environmental organizations have the culture of maintaining the underperforming employees and are not eager to restructure the SHE departments. In fact, such environmental organizations tend to concentrate on personnel headcount standards without comprehending the impacts of the emerging environmental, health, safety, legacy, and regulatory issues.
Despite not mentioning and detailing all factors that must be taken into account when reorganizing the SHE divisions, this research report highlights the spot on choices that DuPont Corp adopted to ensure environmental as well as personnel health and safety protection.
The case study research report is important given that it highlights the DuPont Corp devotion to safety, the implications of DuPont organizational culture namely the advantages and prospective drawbacks, the SHE departments restructuring, as well as the right balance.
Works Cited Bradley, Martin, and O’Neal, Elizabeth. “DuPont Chambers Works.” Chemical Engineering, 104.11(1997): EC-14. Print.
Chandler, Alfred, and Salsbury, Stephen. Pierre S. DuPont and the Making of the Modern Corporation. Frederick, MD: Beard Books, 2000. Print.
D’Alessandro, Wilson. “DuPont Stands and Fights for its Cause.” Cross-Lands Bulletin, Amherst, NH: Victor House News, 2004. Print.
Karan, Elizabeth, and MacLean Richard. “Corporate Environmental Organizations: Evolving Business Management Strategies and Corporate Environmental Strategy,” International Journal of Corporate Sustainability, 10.8(2003): 2-153. Print.
MacLean, Richard and Nalinakumari, Brijesh. “The New Rule Makers: The Paradigm Shift in Environmental, Health, Safety, and Social Responsibility “Regulations” Now Underway. Corporate Environmental Strategy.” International Journal for Sustainable Business, 11.8(2004): 2-198. Print.
MacLean, Richard. “Superior Environmental, Health, and Safety Performance: What is it?” Environmental Quality Management, 13.2(2003): 13-20. Print.
MacLean, Richard. “Better Bench-Marking: How to Derive More Value and Insight in a Survey Weary World.” Environmental Protection, 15.7(2004): 12-14. Print.
Nohria, Nitin, Joyce, William,
Women Liberation during the Socialist Era Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of the scenes in film and ballet version
Gender norms at the time
Women and Masculinity
Women soldiers under political influence
Introduction This lecture is a close examination of women liberation during the Cultural Revolution in China. Despite the great suppression that women were subjected to, they stood up against all odds to defend their rights. Rising from the lows of an abused slave, Wu Qiong Hua showed a great spirit of a soldier.
She had a strong will to stand up for her rights and that will led her into joining the army and finally became an army leader. She had a great personality and great determination to fight for what was right.
Considering the male dominated society and era that Wu Qiong Hua lived in, it is hard to imagine the feat she was able to accomplish. She was more than a fighter; she had the personality to fight women suppression.
Thesis Women in China had been chained up by the traditional feminine role for thousands of years. They were coerced to obey the three obedience and four virtues. Mao introduced a new perspective of viewing women thus redefining the woman theory in a more liberal perspective.
This was during the Cultural Revolution and women gracefully enjoyed a new status they had never experienced before. The new era in womanhood witnessed deep transformations spanning from the external appearance to the internal perceptions which had been deep seated during the class struggle era.
The woman soldier is squarely a product of the actions of Mao, and thus of the socialist China. She is a witness and a proof of the transformation that took place during the socialist era. Women of this era were the contradictory mixture. They were the modifiers and were also the ones that were modified.
The Red Detachment of Women, both in 1961 film version and 1964 ballet version, presented the enormous transformation of the female figure and their social status during the era of socialist China. The Red Detachment of Women, which had been assumed as the “model work” in Cultural Revolution, also reflects the life, politic, ideology and social values at the time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historical Background The pre-socialist era was oppressive towards women. There were very many oppressive practices that the society embraced and which greatly burdened women. Fulton discusses these practices in great details. The first practice she highlights is that of foot-binding.
This is an eleventh century practice introduced to the society by the wealthy class. Foot binding was very painful, but unfortunately very significant because it determined whether a woman could get married or not. This practice started at a very tender age of three years (Fulton 35).
Another way that women were oppressed was in the manner in which the society allowed men to relate to them. Wives were treated with a lot off disrespect. A wife was a subject to the family she was married to.
She did not have any powers but always had to be submissive to the family of her husband. Women also fostered oppression against themselves. A first wife had more power than the other wives and using this power she could cruelly treat the other wives.
Concubines were used by men for sexual pleasure as well as for children siring. Wives had more power than concubines and as result concubines were also cruelly treated by wives. If a wife was barren she could take the children of a concubine.
If a husband died, his wife took charge of the concubines and would do anything with them including selling them to a brothel. Prostitution was even worse. There were times when peasants resorted to sell their girls to prostitution (Fulton 35).
On the question of women liberation from the above snapshot, Mao did a revolutionary work. Laws were instituted that gave protection to women, and consequently gave then a leeway from oppression. One such law was the right to get a divorce.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Women Liberation during the Socialist Era specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A wife could request for a divorce from her husband. This gave a great chance for wives to divorce husbands who abused them. Foot binding was also becoming a past act by 1949 as result of intentional advances by Mao to liberate women.
Arranged marriages were banned – men and women had to choose each other for marriage. This gave great freedom to women to settle into marriage with men they were comfortable with. Marriage contracts and associated sales were also banned. This gave some dignity to women not to be viewed as goods for sale.
Prostitution was outlawed and concubines were freed. A federation was started, Women’s Federation, to better the status of women in the society. Women were encouraged to join schools and the workforce (Fulton 35).
Analysis of the scenes in film and ballet version Both the film and ballet version of The Red Detachment of Women reflects the status of women during the pre-socialist era. Wu Qiong Hua best illustrates this as she moves from being a slave into being a woman soldier. At the start of the film and the ballet, we get introduced to a slave girl who has been trying to escape from abuse in vain.
She is subjected to beatings and torture every time she tries to escape. It seems she cannot do anything to free herself. The implication that is shed as at this level is that women were oppressed by forces above them and which they could not control (Xie 1).
This was a true depiction of the events of the time because women were always under the control of their husbands and their mothers in law and if they were not married they were under their fathers’ and mothers’ control. As already discussed above, there was a time when families could sell their girls to get cash for food.
Fulton also notes that at this time, food was so scarce that parents had to choose among the children who was to eat and who to starve and more often than not girls were forced to go hungry (Fulton 36).
The statement is simple, girls/women had nowhere to escape to for freedom whether they were married or not; oppression was right on their necks. This is exactly what is depicted at the opening moments of the film and ballet versions (Xie 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Liberation during the Socialist Era by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth noting that it is only the initial moments of the film and ballet versions that represent the status of women in the pre-socialist era. The depiction is that women were completely hopeless and they had nowhere to run.
When Changqing gets attracted to the situation of Wu Qiong Hua, this marks the beginning of the desire by the Communist Party to liberate women and the whole of China indeed from oppression.
The director used music and light to show the situation between good (socialist era) and bad (pre-socialist era). Changqing represents the good side which is bent on helping Wu Qiong Hua from the oppressive side Nan Batian (Xie 1).
Gender norms at the time During the socialist era, women experienced great changes in their societal status. One change which greatly changed the position of women in the society was the increase in their duties and especially the things they could do.
Women were allowed to join the labor force in the factories. They learned how to run the factories. They were also allowed to go to school and gain academic competency.
The call for education was even among the peasants and thus generally women gained education, and consequently were more informed.
Education and empowerment from gains earned by joining the workforce raised women to a new level confidence; women gained some sort of independence which gave them some self-confidence. With this sort of confidence and the backup of the law, women were empowered to bargain even at the household level (Fulton 37).
The role of the Women’s Federation cannot be assumed. This organization worked hard to see that women were given an opportunity to progress in the society. Some of the functions that the federation undertook was closing down of brothels and ensuring that all concubines were freed.
The federation organized for the employment of women and did all it could to ensure that those who wanted to join school did that. Women were also informed of their rights concerning the various issues which touched their lives such as being married against their wish (Fulton 37).
The empowerment of women did one great thing – it reduced the gender gap which had existed before. Women were no longer viewed as doormats but were accorded some respect. The mixture of women and men in the workplace made it possible for the notion of male gender superiority to melt.
This era therefore uplifted the female gender, and as a result helped to wither masculinity dominance in the society. In other words, this time helped greatly in fostering equality. There was a great change in ideology on the role of women in the society. The society was turned round to respect and support women whom they had so much scorned.
Women and Masculinity Despite the stated above facts that the status of women changed under the socialist era, some critics have observed that the change in gender roles and the uplifting of women status was not as high as it has been said to be. According to Evans, women still played the roles of taking care of their families especially children.
She argues that the fact that women were allowed to enter the workforce did not mean they neglected their primary role of taking care of their children, husbands and often parents-in-law. This was their customary domestic division of tasks (Evans 1).
It is further noted that there was a violation of very basic issues that relate to women. The manner in which they were integrated into the workforce left much to be desired. The phrase “Whatever men can do, women can do too” was popularized in China at this time. Unfortunately, this led to rendering women masculine. Women were pushed into being like men – some sources refer to women of this age as ‘iron girls’ (Wang 136).
For instance, they to wear the same uniforms as men and they made to appear as men. Men were being used as the yardstick for evaluating women (Li 1). This meant that women were losing their womanhood and were being transformed to be like me. This was degrading to women.
Women soldiers under political influence As already noted above, women gained from the recognition they received from the political sector during the socialist era. It has been noted that the Communist Party had the interest of liberating women way before it was in power. This desire started among the founders of the party before it was even formed.
As time progressed, much development unfolded and led to including women in the movement of the party after it was formed. Women issues were discussed in the first, second and third congress of the party back in 1923 (Evans 1).
When the communist Party ascended to power, it had a clear picture of the need to liberate women. This is because women liberation was an issue which had been discussed at length way from the very beginning of the formation of the party.
However, Evans argues that women liberation and politics, especially party politics, have been mixed up in issues to do with the definition of some terms.
It has further been argued that depending on a term picked, the definition and perspective of liberation would take a different course. It is noted that the term given to liberation of women could change in definition depending on the party priorities (Xie, Lily, and Barry 1).
Conclusion To conclude this lecture, we must note that the study of Chinese women warriors is very important. This is because they have made an important contribution in history of China. They stood up against barbaric traditions and fought their way to freedom.
They therefore made a great contribution to the progress of the reformation of China. Asian women warriors in general have also made great contribution to their specific homelands in ensuring women rights are uplifted.
The studies of women warriors in general therefore help us to appreciate the vital role that women play in the society to ensure that all society members are treated equally.
Works Cited Evans, Harriet. “The Language of Liberation: Gender and Jiefang in early Chinese Communist Party.” Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context 1 (1998): 1. Print.
Fulton, Jessica. Holding up Half the Heavens: The Effect of Communist Rule on China’s Women. Class Article, 2013. Print.
Li, Yuhui. “Women’s Movement and Change of Women’s Status in China.” Bridge, 2013. Web.
Wang, Zheng. “Maoism, Feminism, and the UN Conference On Women: Women’s Studies Research In Contemporary China.” Journal of Women’s History 8.4 (1997): 126. Print.
Xie, Bingying, Lily C. Brissman, and Barry Brissman. A Woman Soldier’s Own Story: The Autobiography of Xie Bingying. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Print.
Xie, Jin. The Red Detachment of Women. Shanghai Tianma Film Studio production, 1961. Film.
Leadership aspect at Chris company Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Many descriptions for leadership exist in the present society but a general explanation for this concept means a process in which a person leads while others follow. A leader ensures the organization of his team to achieve certain goals.
Some of these goals include profit maximization, increase sales volume, and improve customer satisfaction as well as employee satisfaction. A myriad group of leaders prevail from the industrial to the domesticated level and they comprise the following entities:
Charismatic, democratic and autocratic leaders are just a few types of leaders. The democratic leadership style is seen to be the widely applied leadership style.
Notably, no company endeavored into the sports equipment business except Chris Company thus an advantage on its side.
However, the rising levels of competitors in the same market pose as an enormous competition for Chris Company. Alternatively, the fact that the competitors are producing low quality products is an opportunity and an advantage to the company.
In an attempt to restore confidence and trust in the organization, the CEO should first disband the whole finance team and employ a new CFO. The management should transfer all employees in the department to other departments within the organization in order to ensure productivity.
The departments incorporate logistics, the sales department as well as the human resource sector. The CEO should also ensure that there is an assurance department in the organization responsible for auditing all the departments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lack of an assurance department raises tension within the employability realm hence calling for the creation of one. The employment of a new CFO will eventually restore confidence and trust in the organization.
Chris Company is the single group manufacturing the sports equipment hence posing as an advantage to it. In order to take advantage of the popularity of the sport, Chris Company needs to improve its marketing plan.
This means that Chris Company will have to increase its advertising campaigns whilst basing this to quality assurance and efficiency in production. In addition, Chris Company should also hire sales representatives responsible for promoting it products in various parts of the world.
In accumulation to the above, the sales representatives should ensure that they attend the Olympic Games to market the equipment and to learn better IMC techniques. This will not only increase the popularity of the company but increase the sales and eventually the profits.
Marketing parse is not the only channel to success rather the CEO should also look for alternative means to finance its working capital. After remaining with an operating capital of 70%, the company requires more finances to reach the 100% mark of the operating capital.
The management and leadership process is in a continuum and the CEO should give directions to the HR department to increase the workforce in the factory. This means that the requisite labor force should have the capacity to work efficiently in a cost effective manner in order to reduce the work backlog and increase profits.
In designing a plan in order to stay at the top of the market, all departments will need representation. The CEO should ensure a strategic plan formulation and ensure that all departments take part in this process. From an overview of the organizational structure, it desires a restructure.
We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership aspect at Chris company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This necessitates the inclusion of new departments within the same structure to make it robust but manageable. The most appropriate departments for inclusion engross the audit and assurance department as well as the procurement department.
Finally, the plan should ensure that each department is functional and relevant. As such, they should create targets that the management reviews periodically depending on the different strengths they possess including finances and the social structures.
In conclusion, leadership in management especially during the formulation of a new company is extremely important. This is because it has the team building capacity that fosters the need for unity and making rational decisions through popular participation and liaison.
George Fitzhugh’s Classical Conservative Arguments Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help
Cannibal All was published and was received with a lot of contempt from the North. Its publication was at a time when the abolitionist theory on slavery was at full roll. The conflict between conservatives and the abolitionist was at its peak.
George Fitzhugh was true radical crusader of the continuation of slavery. His attack on abolition of slavery was fierce and stinging in many respects. He particularly hated the concept of a free society, leisser-faire economy and the organized wage slavery.
The first classical conservatism argument placed by George Fitzhugh was the idea that no man is ever free. That slavery is the only constant. That we are always a slave to some degree and all that we may do is simply to be able to choose which type of slavery.
In his opinion the slavery of the South provided the best alternative. At least the slavery as practiced by the South, encouraged the care and love of the slaves by their masters. The masters provided for their protection safety and family wellbeing.
On the other hand according to George Fitzhugh, the Free State being advocated by the North was tantamount to a form of slavery in which the slave owners have no moral obligation for their slaves (Dolbeare