Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The observed phenomenon on climate changes can be regarded as a hot topic that has elicited heated debates across the world. Over the years, environmental scientists have been heavily involved in research regarding the changes in climate conditions and effects that these changes have on the environment.
There has been consensus that climate change has played a critical role in the recent weather extremes being witnessed across the world (Gillis, para. 2). Gillis discussed the differences in opinions and research findings regarding what causes climate changes.
In his article, Gillis reveals that environmental scientists do not fully agree on whether human activities or natural, environmental variations can be blamed for climate change (Gillis, para. 9 and 20).
Global warming Since the early 1980s, the world has witnessed increased human activities. These activities have had a drastic impact on the climate. Increased greenhouse gas emission from burning of fossil fuel in the recent years has been a subject worth discussion in scientific researches on environment.
Scientists have believed that the continued human activities and industrial processes have had profound effects on weather extremes such as heavy rains and snowstorms (Gillis, para. 9).
According to recent scientific papers and reports, the percentage of earth temperature stood at less than 1 during the past century. Gillis observes that the earth’s land surface continues to gain extreme heat, which is thought to be as much as 13 per cent, in recent years (para. 1).
The Texas heat wave of 2011, the Russian heat wave of 2010, and the European heat wave of 2003 are some of the recent weather extremes that attracted studies to ascertain their exact causes (Gillis, para. 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gillis looked at James E. Hansen’s scientific paper that focused on the causes of climate change. He found that the scientist, together with his colleagues, had attributed the climate changes to global warming. In the paper, the scientists have established that, during the summer periods of 1951 and 1980, only 0.2 per cent of land surface was subjected to extreme heat.
On the other hand, the period between 2006 and 2011 witnessed extreme heat over the earth’s surface. This ranged from 4 to 13 per cent. The scientists concluded that global warming has facilitated climate changes in the recent times (Gillis, para. 12).
The report has attracted mixed responses from various environmental scientists who sharply differ with James E. Hansen (Gillis, para. 5 and 6). Some scientists argue that Hansen’s findings are not backed by persuasive evidence. Also, the findings were based on solid ground of greater overall likelihood that global warming may cause heat waves (Gillis, para. 18).
In addition, the findings of Hansen are highly debatable. This is particularly so through research suggestions provided by Dr. Hoerling, which noted that natural climate variability and largely contributed to the Russian heat wave and Texas draught (Gillis, para. 20).
Conclusion The effect of global warming on climate changes has been a contested issue by many environmental specialists. The various research findings carried out by the scientists continue to note that increased human activities are significantly impacting on the climate.
Today, researchers continue to struggle in finding the answer to the question as to whether climate changes are human-induced or natural. Regardless of the disagreements as to what exactly is causing this global climatic changes, there is a consensus that the earth is continuously being covered with anomalous warm events.
Works Cited Gillis, Justin. Study Finds More of Earth Is Hotter and Says Global Warming Is at Work. August 6, 2012. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/07/science/earth/extreme-heat-is-covering-more-of-the-earth-a-study-says.html
We will write a custom Article on Global Warming: Justing Gillis Discussing Studies on Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Environmental Issue raised in the “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling” Essay (Article) essay help: essay help
In the article, “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling”, weather change was the major environmental issue affecting the United States. This change comes in different forms such as vicious storms, famine and high temperature, which have adverse effects on the nation’s infrastructure (Wald and Schwartz par. 1).
Notably, the environment is susceptible to human and natural activities; for instance, the heavy construction of highways in the country affects the natural ecosystem. In addition, the article indicated that the nuclear power plant in Illinois affects the natural attributes of the environment due to the consequences of reacting components.
There are considerable environmental effects arising from complicated engineering, steel and concrete works in the US, which have altered of natural ecosystem (New York Times 1).
The article further outlines the affects of asphalts on the landscape. For example, the condition interferes with the flight operations because jets sometimes stick in the asphalts, thus threatening the human life (Wald and Schwartz par. 2).
Similarly, train operations are also affected by the stretching of the track. This means that the environmental disasters could pose danger to the human life and interfere with the natural aspects of the ecosystem.
Another observation in the article was its revelation that the excess heat interferes with the behavior of clay soil, especially those found beneath the highways. This condition makes the soil shrink (Wald and Schwartz par. 2).
Consequently, it affects the roads since they crack to adjust to the weather conditions, thus becoming risky to the users. As outlined in the article, the other effect of heat on the environment was that it could lead to unprecedented expansion of certain sections of the highway.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This expansion sometimes goes beyond the planned limits and the force excreted from each end could lead to jarring and other dangerous speed bumps, which alter the traffic flow in the affected areas.
The article also pointed out that the intense heat affects the grid, a situation that increases changes in the environment.
For instance, the temperature of a water pond in Chicago that was used to cool the units in a nuclear plant increased to a high of 102 degrees, which has serious consequences on the aquatic life (Wald and Schwartz par. 3). Since the temperature of the pond should only reach 100 degrees, an increase beyond this limit is environmentally disastrous.
The other aspect of the environmental issue that was presented in the article was the devastating storms, flood and forest in some areas of the United States. For example, the article highlighted the flooding in New Orleans, which brought several damages to the environment and the inhabitants of the area, such as washing away bridges, roads, plants and loss of human life (Wald and Schwartz par. 8).
On the other hand, the forest fires and storms were attributed to prolonged drought and intense heat respectively. They create environmental disasters in the areas affected, thus must be controlled.
Solutions to the Environmental Issues According to the article, the author proposed that since extreme weather patterns effect environment and the country’s infrastructure, the construction of highways and nuclear plants should be done while considering such extreme episodes (Wald and Schwartz par. 4).
For example, the designs for roads and railway tracks should consider the seasonal changes in rainfall and temperature because this could help minimize their affects on the environment. It could also reduce the amount of money wasted on the construction of highways on disaster prone areas.
We will write a custom Article on Environmental Issue raised in the “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited New York Times, Environment. 7 Aug. 2012. Web.
Wald, Mathew and J. Schwartz. Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling, 25 Jul. 2012. Web. <https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/26/us/rise-in-weather-extremes-threatens-infrastructure.html?_r=1
Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce Expository Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Electronic Payment Systems
Issues with Electronic Payment Methods
Addressing the Issues
Introduction E-commerce has emerged as a distinct and important phenomenon in the business world and its influence in the business world is daily increasing. E-commerce promises to have a significant and positive impact on businesses everywhere. Policymakers and researchers are of the opinion that e-commerce is the future of business as its benefits become more evident.
Zwass (2003) defines e-commerce as “the sharing of business information, maintaining of business relationships, and conducting of business transactions by means of telecommunications networks” (p.8). It offers many opportunities for businesses, as they are able to exploit the power of the computer and the internet in their everyday operations.
The global potential of e-commerce has made it attractive for many companies that hope to achieve considerable gains from e-commerce activities. For e-commerce to take place, a payment system has to be implemented.
Electronic payment systems are the preferred method in e-commerce since they are cheaper and more efficient. These systems make it possible for complete business transactions to take place solely through the internet. However, electronic payment systems bring about a number of issues for both the customer and the business.
This paper will set out to review electronic payment systems for e-commerce and discuss some of the issues that are inherent in these systems. Solutions that are applicable to address the issues will also be highlighted.
Electronic Payment Systems Since e-commerce relates to selling goods and/or services over the internet, the issue of on-line payment system is intricately linked to the e-commerce phenomenon. Zheng (2008) articulates this need by noting that all commercial activities need some form of payment system in order for transactions to be carried out and e-commerce is not exempt from this.
While offline payment methods can be employed in e-commerce, they would negate the advantages of efficiency and convenience that e-commerce promises to give. It is therefore important to employ payment methods that can be utilized in an online environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Electronic Payment (E-payment) technology is one of the most important aspects in the development of ecommerce and its development greatly influences the fate of ecommerce (Zheng, 2008). Bushry (2005) documents that electronic payment systems are already proliferating in banking, retail, and on-line markets.
This underscores the fact that electronic payment systems are increasingly popular in many developed nations and electronic payments are becoming preferable to the use of cash in many scenarios.
E-payment exhibits a number of characteristics that are different from traditional means of payment. To begin with, it introduces digital circulation which means that all payments are digitized (Zheng, 2008). The working environment of e-payment is also based on the internet, which is a relatively open system platform.
E-payment also makes use of advance communication means and it has a very high requirement for hardware and software facilities. These facilities are mandatory for supporting e-payments and without them; the payment system is rendered useless (Zheng, 2008).
Electronic payments are very convenient for both the customer and the company. They are efficient since the processing takes place in real time and the company does not have to incur overheads that would be used on mailing out paper invoices and then processing the payment received from the customer later.
There are a number of electronic payment systems utilized in e-commerce. The first is electronic cash, which is used in a manner similar to physical cash. Digital cash makes use of a sequence of binary numbers to represent an intrinsic value in a chosen currency.
Digital cash provides the means to transfer money between transacting parties over the internet. Once a transaction is made, it is settled immediately with the exchange of electronic currency between the transacting parties (Zwass, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Electronic cash offers security for both the merchant and the customer since it is impossible to counterfeit the bank’s digital signature. The merchant is also able to verify the validity of the payment made since he has the bank’s public key.
The second type of payment is the prepaid system, which requires the user to pay in advance and then buy products or services. Debit mechanisms utilized in e-commerce include smart cards, which are virtual wallets that store electronic money.
The fact that consumers are required to make the provision of funds before they engage in any commercial transaction guarantees availability of funds for online activities (Zheng, 2008).
The e-wallet is the most commonly used e-payment system today and it allows small purchases to be made. E-wallets are typically linked to the user’s bank account, which provides the money that can be used for online transactions.
The third form of payment is the credit or post paid system, which allows a user to buy products and then pay for them later. Credit cards are the most common post-paid mechanism for a number of reasons. Credit cards help the e-commerce system to overcome the complexities associated with digital cash and electronic cheques (Bushry, 2005).
Issues with Electronic Payment Methods E-payment systems are the driving force that stimulates more merchants to engage in e-commerce and more customers to make online purchases.
The e-payment issue has risen to prominence as more and more traders bring their businesses into e-commerce. These issues have mainly been focused on the security and stability since a key requirement for e-commerce transactions is the presence of a secure, stable and efficient payment system.
Electronic cash brings about a number of issues due to its digital nature. The first issue is with regard to counterfeiting. Zwass (2003) documents that fraud has always been an issue of commerce when dealing with hard currency.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also an issue with digital cash and security remains a paramount concern in this e-payment system. Unlike minted money that is hard to replicate, digital money is represented in bits and bytes and this makes it easy to copy.
In addition to fraud, electronic cash is also susceptible to double spending where a person spends the same digital cash twice since electronic coins can be copied by the user. The user can then proceed to use the money as payment for two different transactions.
Another issue is that the monetary value of electronic cash is not always stable. Currency fluctuations in the international market therefore poses significant problems for electronic money since sudden devaluation of currency will lead to great losses.
Bushry (2005) demonstrates that the issue is over who will take liability when such events occur. Electronic money also suffers from relatively short life span. Most hard currency has a long life span and the holder of the money is assured that they can use their money for extended periods.
Electronic money might have time limits imposed on it and after this time has expired, the money is worthless to the user. Clients also carry a big risk in having e-cash stored in their local drives.
This is because if their physical storage devices are damaged, the e-cash stored on it is lost forever and it cannot be recovered. Zheng (2008) notes that this risk of loss is one that many consumers are unwilling to bear.
Prepaid systems are preferred by many businesses since the receipt of payment is assured. However, there are risks involved when dealing with pre-paid systems such as virtual wallets. Bushry (2005) warns that this electronic payment mechanism may suddenly become worthless. If this were to happen, the customer will be left with virtual currency that is of no value since nobody is willing to accept it.
Hashim (2009) reveals that many SME managers are wary of using virtual currency because of these stability concerns. This concern is informed by the common perception that online trading is a high-risk affair that might jeopardize their businesses.
Privacy in prepaid systems has been identified as one of the immediate dilemmas by the accounting information systems. Companies use e-commerce sites to reach potential customers and in some cases, transactions take place in this environment and electronic payment is used.
Madieha (2002) observes that the usage of technical means to track down user’s surfing and purchasing tendencies has raised significant privacy issues. Changing market trends have made personal data very important since it enables consumer tastes and preferences to be identified.
For this reason, personal information has become a very valuable commodity and many players in the e-commerce industry are collecting, holding, processing, and using personal data at increasing rates. Boritz and Gyun (2011) demonstrate that personal information is gathered during the registration and ordering process as the customer is required to provide information such as name, address, and credit card number.
Many customers are concerned that their personal information might be obtained by an illegal third party who might use it for malicious activities such as identity theft. For this reason, some people are opting our of e-commerce activities partially by browsing for products but paying offline.
Since pre-paid accounts are linked to a user’s real bank account, intrusion on the pre-paid account by an attacker over the internet might compromise the bank account with dire consequences for the user.
Madieha (2002) asserts that because of these factors, consumer confidence in e-commerce is significantly reduced. The user is unlikely to engage in online transactions when they have worries that their bank account can be compromised from this.
Post paid system
A major issue with post-paid systems is that the overhead costs may be unjustifiable for the customer. As it is, charges are imposed on the individual whenever they use their credit cards to engage in e-commerce.
When purchases are of low value, the transaction fees incurred make this e-payment method inefficient. Zheng (2008) notes that for micro payments (which are transactions involving very low payment values) even a small overhead or a minimum overhead may become unbearable.
With post-paid systems, the client is issued with a physical card. This card is vulnerable to compromise since the information contained on the magnetic strip card can be copied, forged or altered. There is also real concern that hackers will steal and misuse credit card numbers given by the customer.
Payment by credit card requires faith in the system security and as such, mutual trust is needed between seller and buyer. Without this trust, the buyer will not be willing to expose himself to risks by making payments using his credit card to a merchant that he does not trust.
E-commerce businesses also stand the risk of suffering from internal fraud. In normal businesses, fraud is deterred by safeguards that have been developed over the years for traditional accounting. The same scenario does not apply in e-commerce where standards are still immature.
This issue has made many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generally stay away from e-commerce (Hashim, 2009). This is an important factor in the expansion of e-commerce since SMEs are considered to be the lifeblood of modern economies.
Addressing the Issues Since the issues discussed above hinder the growth of e-commerce, measures have been taken to address them. Companies have taken steps to protect personal information provided by users. Personal data is important for e-commerce since it makes it possible for targeted advertisements to take place.
Such kinds of advertisements are more efficient than mass advertisement and for this reason; many companies prefer to use this form of advertisement. However, customers may be wary of having their buying habits available online. Companies that engage in e-commerce can take up a number of measures to alleviate fears by customers.
Implementing privacy protection protocols such as information privacy controls will limit the extent to which the customers’ personal information can be accessed. This combined with privacy-enhancing technologies such as encryption and the Anonymizer will reduce customer vulnerability while on the network.
Boritz and Gyun (2011) assert that customers need to be confident of the privacy-enhancing technologies provided by the companies or else they will decline to engage in e-commerce transactions. This is because as long as customers are concerned about theft by criminals, they will not be comfortable using e-commerce.
Various factors are considered by consumers when they are deciding on the payment system to employ. A key concern is the approach to security taken by the business.
Consumers are wary of the dangers that exist in online transactions and Bushry (2005) reveals that the assurance of confidentiality of the transaction is an important factor for many consumers.
The issue of defaulting on payments by the credit card user can be resolved by ensuring credit worthiness of a cardholder. Companies that issue credit cards verify the credit worthiness of the customer in order to avoid customers using more than they can pay for.
Electronic cash can be used to ensure anonymity of the consumer. This is accomplished by using e-cash software at the customers end in order to blind the original number of the digital coin (Bushry, 2005). This creates anonymity which allows freedom of usage by the customer in the same way that physical cash can be used.
No one can monitor the spending pattern of a single user since intractability makes it impossible for different payments to be linked to a single buyer. Having untraceable currency is important for e-commerce since customers may be concerned about all their purchasing activities being traced back to them.
To address the problem of double spending, the issuer of digital currency must check the digital coins passed to it for redemption against a database; a process which increases the overhead costs for e-cash (Bushry, 2005).
The problem of losing e-cash through the destruction of local drives can be overcome by having a back up in another system. Many banks which issue e-cash advise users to back up their currency in order to avoid loss. Backing up is a fairly straightforward activity and the user does not incur any additional cost to do this.
Conclusion E-commerce is expected to dramatically change the manner in which conventional business is conducted. However, as more people become involved in e-commerce, some issues inherent in e-commerce are beginning to emerge. This paper reviewed electronic payment systems for e-commerce so as to articulate issues currently facing this aspect of e-commerce.
It began by underlining the manner in which e-commerce differs from conducting commerce in the physical environment. The paper has confirmed the importance of e-payment to ecommerce and also discussed the various methods of e-payment that are available. The digital nature of e-payments makes them open to some issues including fraud and privacy violation.
Most of the issues associated with electronic payment systems are a result of the fact that this systems are not well mature and they are still evolving. However, progress has been made and most of the issues facing e-payment systems have been addressed through technological advances such as better encryption technology.
It can therefore be anticipated that as e-commerce becomes more expansive and e-payment methods mature, most of the issues will be addressed sufficiently. This will bring about customer confidence in e-payment and the future growth of e-commerce will be guaranteed.
Works Cited Boritz, E.
“Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The fairy tale ‘Forty Fortunes’ has its origin in Iran and revolves around Ahmed, a poor man who follows the advice of his wife. The wife advises him to get into different professions for him to earn more money.
Although Ahmed understands that his wife’s advice is full of risks, he hesitantly agrees to follow it and becomes a fortune teller in a bid to increase his income and prevent her from leaving him.
Soon after he decides to become a fortune teller, a king’s treasure is stolen. Incidentally, the king gets information about his unique talent and bestows the responsibility of recovering the lost treasure on him within a period of forty days. He is supposed to employ his powers to trace it within that stipulated period of time.
Jamell, Ahmed’s wife is very delighted after discovering that her husband will be awarded many riches if he recovers the missing treasure.
However, if he fails to recover it, he will spend the rest of his life in jail. In an eavesdropping incident, the thieves get convinced that Ahmed knows of their whereabouts and that they will not escape the wrath of the king. Instead of being taken to the king once they are caught, they decide to negotiate with Ahmed to save them.
The story is very significant in the Iranian culture since it highlights some of the most important aspects of the Iranian people and their character. For instance, it points out the changes that have taken place regarding the role of women in the society in the Middle East.
Today, it is a common occurrence for women to be involved in formal jobs just like men. However, this was not the scenario in the past since women were supposed to stay at home and take care of their husbands and children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This story has continued to be told from generation to generation because it explains some aspects of Iranian culture and the Islamic world in general that are highly valued and that should be passed on from generation to generation.
For instance, it focuses on divining or foretelling. This refers to the use of mystic means to find out hidden knowledge. Throughout history, this has taken place in almost all cultures.
As an individual, the story has a lot of meaning and significance. One of the most important lessons that I learn from it is that people should not be afraid of trying new things in their lives for fear of failure. Ahmed only worked for survival and feared trying a different thing but when he did, he eventually became rich.
Retelling the Forty Fortunes Forty Fortunes is a story about Ahmed, a poor man. He is married to Jamell and they live in the Royal City of Isfahan. He has no trade and is not determined to learn any. All he owns is a shovel and a pick which he uses to dig holes for little money. He is clearly unambitious and tells his wife that all they need is only to survive.
Jamell is not satisfied with what her husband does and the situation becomes worse when she is turned away at the public baths, simply because the wife of the king’s Royal Diviner is using them. This leads her into thinking that her life and that of her husband can only change if the husband became a diviner.
Ahmed is taken by surprise when his wife advises him to become a fortune teller and at first takes her for an insane person. This is because he knows nothing about fortune telling. However, Jamell seems to be wise and creative since she tells him that diviners only apply wisdom to earn their living.
She tells him that all he needs to do is only get a dice and mumble some wise things failure to which she will leave him. To keep his wife, Ahmed is left with no option other than selling his shovel and pick to get a dice and the robes worn by fortune tellers. After he lands into the market place, he encounters the wife of one of the king’s masters who has lost her precious ring while at the public baths.
We will write a custom Essay on “Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He doesn’t know what to tell her but as he looks at her, he notices a hole on his cloak. He mentions it thus assisting the wife remember where he had hidden her ring. This earns him a gold coin.
When Ahmed takes the gold coin to his wife, she congratulates him but he keeps on saying that it was the grace of God implying that the thing was not going to work for long. On the same night, the royal treasury of the king is robbed of forty chests. The king’s Royal Diviner and his assistants fail to unravel the mystery forcing the king to call Ahmed since he had heard about him after recovering the lost ring.
When he enquires from him about the robbery, Ahmed has no idea on what to say but uses his own wisdom which turns out to be impressive to the king. Since there were forty chests, he tells the king that the thieves must have been forty, something that the king’s diviners could not find out.
He also promises the king that he will find the thieves after forty days failure to which he will end up in prison. Later, he expresses his worry to his wife because he knows that it is likely for him to end up in prison if he does not reveal the thieves.
In order for Ahmed to know when the forty days are over, he puts forty dates in a jar and eats one every evening. Surprisingly, one of the thieves is the king’s servant who overhears the conversation between the king and Ahmed. He goes back and explains this to their chief who then sends him to Ahmed’s house to listen for any information.
As the thief sits on the roof of the house, ahmed takes one of the dates and tells his wife ‘that’s one.’ The thief gets very scared and returns to the chief to tell him that Ahmed has unbelievable powers because he could know there was somebody on the roof.
The chief repeats the same procedure with an additional thief and everytime the number of the thieves on the roof coincides with the number of dates Ahmed has eaten. This convinces them that Ahmed knows about them and that he will take them to the king.
To avoid being taken to the king, the forty thieves reveal themselves and plead with Ahmed to save them. He agrees to save them on condition that they return all the treasures they had stolen. Before the end of the night, they return all the treasures to the treasury.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ahmed returns to the king and tells him that his magic arts can only get him either the thieves or the treasures but not both, so he has to make a choice. He does this since he has agreed to save the thieves if they returned the treasures. Since the king values the treasures, his choice is to get them back.
He is extremely happy to find them back and decides to make Ahmed his Royal Diviner. However, Ahmed knows that he does not have the powers to be a diviner for the king so he regrets the fact that he used all his powers that he cannot be a diviner anymore. In appreciation, the king rewards him two chests which make him a rich man.
Discussion of Re-telling the Story The re-telling of this story brings out the role of hard work and the need for individuals to believe in themselves. For instance, Ahmed lived in poverty using his pick and shovel to earn a living but he was not working hard enough. He was satisfied with the little he got as long as there food for his wife and himself.
It was not until his wife pressured him to change profession that he considered following her advice. The story is re-told in a manner that portrays the challenging and risky situations that Ahmed found himself in but applied wisdom in all of them to emerge the winner.
The main intention of re-telling this story is to convince individuals that they should not understimate what they can do. For instance, Ahmed never knew that he could apply a lot of wisdom to win the confidence of great people including the king and eventually become rich.
The intended audience of this story is adult people who find themselves under pressure to provide for their families. Some of them waste a lot of time doing unrewarding jobs without knowing that they have the potential to do greater things. All that is required is for them to believe in themselves and listen to the advice they get from people who are close to them.
Intel and Advanced Micro Devices Essay writing essay help
The chipset manufacturing industry has been under constant transformation due to the rivalry between Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). These two chipmakers are the dominant players in the manufacture of CPUs. The fierce competition between Intel and AMD has caused considerable changes in chipset technologies as each firm tries to gain market control.
These two companies undertake frequent refinements of their chipsets to achieve optimal performance in terms of speed, graphics and power consumption to achieve greater customer appeal. A chipset’s performance depends on factors such as cache memory, clock speed, host-bus speed.
Of the two companies, AMD was the first to introduce a 64-bit chipset with a clocking capability measurable in gigahertz. In response, Intel introduced its EMT64 chipset possessing 64-bit functionalities. Intel and AMD employ different chipset production techniques. AMD focuses on the issue of compatibility and manufactures chips based on pre-existing sockets.
The company produces a range of chips based on a particular socket until there is need to upgrade to a new socket due to technological constrictions. In this regard, consumers face few difficulties when there is need to upgrade or replace a chipset.
In addition, AMD processors support backward-compatibility and thus provide users with a lot of flexibility. AMD’s focus on compatibility extends to its processors’ bridge components, which are easy to mix and match unlike Intel chips whose design considers certain processor families.
To counter AMD’s strategy, Intel ensures frequent release of chipsets and system boards. This cushions consumers against difficulties associated with replacement or upgrading as socket sizes vary with new chipset releases.
AMD places emphasis on the issue of energy consumption by designing processors that operate at low energy levels. This has helped to boost the company’s customer appeal as it considers the minimization of consumers’ energy expenses. An Intel processor with similar functionalities will operate at higher energy consumption levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A processor clocking speed and its extendibility are key considerations in high-end operations. The architecture of AMD chips support faster clocking and over-clocking while maintaining stability. AMD chips’ design ensures the location of the L3 cache memory outside the CPU core to support over-clocking.
One can vary the BIOS settings and increase the speed of a processor accordingly. An Intel chip constitutes of a L2 cache memory located in its core. Although Intel chips resist over-clocking, the location of the L2 cache memory facilitates faster memory access and thus enable higher performance when compared to the AMD L3 cache memory.
The correlation between performance and cache memory speed becomes significant during small data applications. Intel chipsets exhibit effectiveness in extracting and analyzing data during a single program operation.
The architecture of Intel CPUs ensures minimal heat generation during execution of tasks. In this regard, Intel chipsets are likely to last longer than AMD chipsets with equivalent functions as they normally exhibit higher heat generation. This is a major setback for AMD equipped machines when dealing with heavy applications.
Although both companies have exhibited high levels of innovativeness regarding chipset technology, Intel controls a considerably large portion of the chipset market. Intel’s dominance over AMD in terms of customer appeal emanates from extensive campaigns and licensing of the brand’s name to several PC manufacturers.
However, AMD continues to penetrate market segments previously dominated by Intel and has proven to be the greatest threat to Intel in the whole chipset industry.
Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager Report argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Competencies acquired in class
How to increase those competencies
Introduction The following is a report on human resource development portfolio for a marketing manager. The paper looks into the job description of a marketing manager in terms of the key competencies needed for one to perform the task appropriately. The other aspect of this report looks in the competencies learned in the classroom.
The report also checks whether the competencies match the role of a marketing manager. It will also discuss aspects learned outside classroom through job training.
Job description The main responsibility of a marketing manager is to maintain the market in terms of developing competitive strategies for the company. It also involves ensuring that the company has first hand information on the market trends. The marketing manager has the responsibility of branding the company in order to promote the products in the market.
In addition, the marketing manager is responsible for coordination of the marketing staff to ensure that there is teamwork. Teamwork is very important because when the staffs work together they exchange ideas, which results to success due to high quality work. This is because among the staff are those who are experienced and hence can share their skills with newly employed members.
The marketing manager leads these teams to ensure that each member participate actively (Drucker, 1974). The marketing manager must conduct market and consumer research activities, analyse the research and make recommendation based on the findings of the research to instigate activities and decisions that are informed especially in product and brand development.
As part of the job, the marketing manager will have to create marketing activities that will fall within the stipulated budget. The marketing manager is responsible for the development of the pricing strategy of the company to ensure that the prices of the product are competitive in the market (Bradley, 2010).
The following key competencies ensure that the marketing manager performs the responsibilities appropriately. The first competency is that the marketing manager must have leadership competency, as the marketing manager must lead the marketing team by example.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager must lead promotion teams, consumer research team and branding team to ensure that they are effective. He or she must therefore have good interpersonal and leadership skills to lead the team (Bond, 2006).
The other key competency will involve carrying out market research. The marketing manager must be competent in gathering data from the market, analysing the data and using it to make decisions that will influence the pricing of the products as well as the marketing strategy that the company has to adopt (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
The other competency that the marketing manager must have is good financial accounting skills to prepare the marketing budget and ensure that it falls within the budget of the company. The marketing manager must be capable of accounting for the department’s expenditure when needed. This may involve preparing the departments books of account and financial statements (Hilgard, 1966).
The marketing manager must have good media liaison skills where he or she has media contacts such that if there is any promotion or advertising media contacts may be used. This media contacts ensure that the organisation creates a positive campaign that is well publicised in the media (Marder, 2007).
The manager must have branding knowledge especially on how to create advertising copies that will place the company in the mind of consumers. The marketing manager must be creative in order to come up with new strategies that will help the company develop competitive products for the company to remain ahead in its sales (Marder, 2007).
The marketing manager must also have knowledge of the industry especially concerning the new marketing platforms. The managers must be informed about the new developments in marketing both locally and globally. This helps the manager to make informed decisions. Information on the trends enables the manager to make the company ahead of competition regarding strategy such as pricing, advertising, and promotion activities (Mayo, 2001).
The manager must also be knowledgeable in technology matters about software that simplify their work (McDonald, 2007). The manager needs to be well versed with social media, email marketing and other forms of new media marketing. The manager must have knowledge in the use of enterprise resource planning software that helps managers in the execution of their responsibilities.
We will write a custom Report on Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This software enables the manager to communicate with the advertisers, make and analyse advertising designs presented for approval. The manager must know how to create advertising copy and branding strategies (McDonald, 2007).
The marketing manager must be a good organiser and planner of effective strategies on how to keep the company’s product at the top in the competition. The manager must plan on the budget to determine who will play different roles in the achievement of the set goals. The marketing manager must review the marketing plans of the company especially in creating appropriate strategies (Thorndike, 2002).
Competencies acquired in class The following are some of the competencies learned in class. The first one is financial accounting, which relates to the creation of marketing budget. The marketing budget ensures that there are adequate resources to maintain and sustain the marketing and promotion activities.
The promotional activities may involve use of flyers, logos, and T- shirts. This budget must take into consideration advertising and market research activities. The classroom provides a platform for acquiring these skills (Schein, 1992).
The other skill acquired from the classroom in creating the marketing campaign is the development of market research tools. The class project exercises enable the student to conduct market research project. One learns to create and design a market research program (Mayo, 2001).
One also learns to gather information from the market using different market research techniques such as market intelligence, market surveillance and consumer behaviour research. From the class, one also learns how to analyse the market research results as well as ensure that the findings of the research are of help to the target company (Mayo, 2001).
The market research skills that are acquired in class make a key competency. However, to harness such a skill it is imperative to have experience in such a department by having a firsthand experience in real company market survey and consumer insight research (Thorndike, 2002).
The other key competency learned in the classroom involves the creation of the advertising copy, for a marketing manager to be competent and deliver advertising messages that achieve the intended results he or she must have knowledge on how to design effective advertising that will brand the company positively as well as increase the sales volume of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From class one the manager learns to develop advertising by creating adverting copies. One also learns how to use various graphical software, how to design images for posters and other promotional materials.
There is learning on how to make an advertising campaign achieve the intended purpose by mixing the advertising messages together with the promotional messages that help the company have a positive response in the market.
The other key competency learned in class involves the creation of advertising and promotional messages that keep the company busy and ensures that the company has the needed resources that keep it on the winning edge.
Excellent written and verbal communication skills are another key skill learned in class through the essays and presentations done in classroom as part of the training. This skill is imperative as it prepares one to write persuasive messages for the consumers and ensures retention of the old consumers thus creating goodwill for the company.
The marketing manager must also persuade the management to allocate enough resources for marketing. The marketing manager must have presentation skills acquired from the classroom setting where one learns how to make persuasive presentations and answer questions as well as defend the point of argument (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
Problem analysis and problem solving through the essays and the company marketing strategy analysis help to be critical of the competitor and be a good analyser of different skills (Fuchs, 2003).
By having group work exercises, one learns how to develop team-leadership as well as become a team leader. This skill is imperative for marketing manager, as the manager has to deal with the teams. The manager has to coordinate and motivate the team.
From the group work, one learns to be a part of team and work with other people. One must learn to work with people who have different personalities and make them work for a common objective (Fuchs, 2003).
Through the classroom presentation, one learns how to make presentation skills. The marketing manager must present the budget to the management or the board members for approval. This means that the manager must make a persuasive presentation to the board. The presentation exercises conducted in the classroom prepare one before hand on how to make such presentations (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
The other exercises such as creation of marketing strategies and advertising copies prepare one to be innovative. The role of marketing manager involves a lot of creativity, as one must continually invent new products, new brands, and pricing strategy. The exercises done in the classroom prepare one to be innovative and think outside the box (Fuchs, 2003).
The presentation exercise and the critique of various strategies presented in class by fellow students and lecturers prepare one to have good judgment skills on what will succeed, and what will not.
The presentation skills ensure development of good decision making as one is analytical enough to see the potential failures of a given strategy and therefore develop a fall back plan in case the plan does not go as excepted (Thorndike, 2002).
The other key attribute involves the creation in the development, which is well intended to have the resources in developing the attributes that will be of help to the company. The other skill learned from class is using the enterprise software designed for marketing managers (Mayo, 2001).
This software enables the market managers to hold everything with different stakeholders who help the company create a positive way in developing the resources in the company (Fuchs, 2003).
How to increase those competencies Increasing ones career competencies as a marketing manager is achieved by receiving feedback from the colleagues and bosses and other stakeholders on the areas that one needs to improve. Such competencies may involve skills as communication skills (McDonald, 2007).
Leadership styles as well as teamwork are important and one may continually attend courses and seminars that relate to the career to be up to date with the developments in ones field. One must work towards improving capabilities through online assessment tests and courses to identify areas where one is weak as a manager as well as upgrade one’s competencies (Honey, 2007).
One should also join professional networks, which bring together practitioners in a particular field. The aim of these networks is to provide the members with information on the changing trends in the health care industry as well as provide training opportunities for the members at an affordable cost (McDonald, 2007).
The networking opportunities inform the members on career and job opportunities. They validate and act as a proof that one is competent in their field of operation. They also act as a guide in matters of legal and ethical issues that govern the field marketing and management (Honey, 2007).
Other than networking and informing the members of new opportunities in their field, the professional bodies provide continuing education for their members. These are important to the members to ensure that they are up to date with the dynamic field.
Opportunities of continuing education keep the members abreast with new trends and education requirements of their career. At a time when downsizing due to integration of technology in work places is common, the professional networks provide training opportunities for their members such that they are at par with the technological changes (Fuchs, 2003).
The other way of improving ones competency is by training in the job market. The training will involve working in the marketing department where one learns key competencies to have firsthand experience in the development of marketing strategies, promotional strategies, and development of advertising copies.
It is from the training that one acquires media contacts, which are critical as a marketing manager. From the training, one learns how to collaborate with others and work as part of a team (Fuchs, 2003).
Conclusion The human resource development plan assists one to develop a good plan that shows where to improve. The career development plan ensures that one is well positioned to take the responsibilities that pertain to a given career. They identify the skills that one has to develop to be suitable for a particular position. They also help one to appreciate the exercises learned in class that will be of help to the students in future.
Having the understanding of the importance, the students feel motivated to perform various tasks and roles given within the classroom setting. The human resource development plan also assists the students to participate in extracurricular activities that will give them the required experience and leadership skills.
The extracurricular activities help the students to discern their personal attributes such as being a team player as well as result-oriented person that are key personal attribute of a marketing manager.
References Bradley, N. (2010). Marketing research: Tools and techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bond J. (2006). Sociology and health care. London: Churchill Livingstone.
Csíkszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.
Drucker, P. (1974). Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York, NY: Harper
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Introduction Consumer behaviour is the general function of a customer’s preference and taste as well as the resultant utility. Consumers have variant perceptions of the satisfaction they expect to derive from a certain good or service which comprises their taste. On the other hand, a consumer has a certain degree of bias towards a given product given a choice between two which comprises their presence.
These two aspects influence the level of utility the consumer derives from utilization and consumption of the product in question (Frank and Bernanke 2001, p12).
However, a consumer’s preference and taste is constrained by variety of factors such as operating income, government restriction as to the allowed purchase quantity as well as the type of products. In effect, a consumer will spend their money on a bundle of goods that offer the maximum amount of satisfaction. Their choice of such bundles is therefore influenced by their tastes and preferences.
1. According to the neoclassical utility model as proposed by Mahoney (2001) in the case of two income goods x and z the consumer given a choice between the two products that are not substitutes the consumer has a certain preference for good x over good z presenting three options as follows :
x as preferred to z
z as preferred to x
z and x equally preferred or indifferent
These options can be represented as follows
Curve x represents a consumers preference for good x over z. Curve z represents a consumers preference for good z over x. P1 represents policy 1 which presents the consumer with a voucher that can be exchanged for a fixed amount of good x.
Line P2 represents a policy that presents the consumer with an income supplement sufficient to buy the same amount of good x assuming that every supermarket has the same price for good x (Witt 2001a, p. 1-5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At point O Under these two policies households’ preferences over the two goods will always have exactly the same impacts on the household in terms of its utility level and consumption levels of the two goods as illustrated by the diagram above.
At point O a consumer who has a higher preference for good x over good z under policy 1 as illustrated by curve (x,x) would ordinarily consume a bundle of quantity (x1,z1) having exchanged the voucher offered by the first policy however they can now consume for (x2) amount of good x after trading in the voucher for a fixed amount of good x which is the difference between (x1) and (x2).
A household which on the other hand has a higher preference for good (z) as opposed to (x) will consume (x2) amount of good (x) which is the equivalent of the (z2) amount of good z that they ordinarily are willing to consume as offered by the second policy.
In effect as long as the voucher offered by policy one is equal in quantity terms to the difference between the two curves representing the household differences in preferences the two policies will give similar results (Witt 2001b, p. 23-36).
2. Under certain house hold preferences the two households will have potentially different impacts on the households in terms of its utility and level of consumption. These circumstances are as follows.
If the goods are perfect substitutes
The preference curve for perfect substitutes is as follows
The households will willingly exchange one good for the other despite their preference therefore there will be a rather rigid manner in which they utilize the commodity in regards to quantity and utility. Therefore an implementation of either of the policies will always result to different results.
We will write a custom Essay on Consumer behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the goods are perfect complements
Aconsumer may have their own preference for either good however perfect complements vary and restrict such preferences to ensure that each quantity of one good acquired is acquired with an equal or similar quantity for proper enjoyment of either of the goods. Therefore, implementation of one both or either of the policies will lead to entirely different results. The utility preference and consumption curve will be as follows :
If the household acquires a unit of good x the household it ensures that it derives as much utility from it as one unit of good z and does the same for two units of good x this ensures a consistent difference in the overall utilisation and use of the goods. In effect implementation of either policy will always lead to different modes of consumption therefore different levels of utility (Nevo 2003).
In case the products are imperfect substitutes
If a consumer perceives a product to be an imperfect substitute of the other they have different levels of preference and utility for either product. It would not be possible therefore to equate the two goods in regards to consumption and preference. Therefore each product will have a different indifference curve. Application of either policy will lead to different results arising from the lack of similarity.
3. The two policies cannot be substituted because the first policy does not vary with the earnings and preference of the household but rather offers a rigid biased offer for a fixed quantity of good x while the second policy is a flexible policy that varies with the needs and capacities of households.
The approach taken by policy one limits the consumer’s choice in the amount of good x they consume. The consumer will always take advantage of a subsidy and they will therefore have little choice in the minimum amount of good x they will acquire.
The second policy on the other hand increases the maximum amount of good x the consumer is willing and able to consume. It increases the upper limit buy matching the subsidy with the consumers actual spending. This therefore maintains their choice but influences their capacity.
4. Utility as a function of preferences defines how much pleasure the consumer derives from a certain good or product. The rate at which a household consumes a certain good depends to a great extent on the satisfaction they anticipate from the good. This further has a bearing on the amount of a given product they are willing to consume.
On the other hand the consumers wilingliness to consume a product will however be curtailed their cost budget therefore limiting the amount they actually purchase of a given product (Bianchi 2002).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the amount of a certain product that a household consumes is a function of their budget constrains as well as their tastes and preference or rather the utility they receive from the good. The utility function represents the relationship between utility measures and the possible combination of goods as shown by the diagram below.
As such the utility derived from a given bundle of goods by a household increases at a decreasing rate. Therefore the more of a certain commodity the household consumes the lesser utility they derive from it. The two policies aim at increasing the amount of a certain good that the consumer purchases.
They will however not always achieve utility since the more the household consumes the lesser utility they derive. The total utility derived from consumption of the specific bundle of goods reduces as the consumer gets used to large amounts of the goods therefore reducing the satisfaction.
There are however alternative ways of increasing the utility as well as the consumption of these goods. This can be achieved through a product subsidy to reduce the price of the commodity. According to Nicholson (2002) a characteristic of preference is that more is always good.
A household is ready to settle for more of the cheaper product as opposed to lesser of another product for the same amount of money. A reduction in the price of product x changes the slope of the budget constraint holding the income constant as represented by the diagrams below
If the price of good x is 10 dollars, a unit the consumer who has a constrained budget of 400 dollars can only buy 40 units of good x. The household looks for the bundle that gives the best utility within the budget line. The consumers’ willingness to consume is limited by their anticipation of spending and their limits in budget. This however can be changed by the reduction in the prices of the product.
With a product subsidy that reduces the price, the budget line slope changes to adjust to the new price. If for instance the price for good x reduces to 8 dollars a unit the budget line changes and the consumer thanks to the price subsidy of 2 dollars per unit can acquire more units of good x he can now consume up to 50 units of the good with the same budget constraints as follows.
A consumer will be more willing to purchase additional units of good x at the same level of preference due to the reduction in price. This also has an implication on the utility derived from the consumption of the goods.
The firm will minimise its costs by reducing its labour usage where the average product of labour is increasing. Since the marginal product is greater than the average product of labour in the short run the firm will minimise its costs when the marginal cost of labour and capital are equal to the average product.
In the long run however the marginal product diminishes and the input combination that supports the least cost is where the marginal product for labour and capital is zero or where the average product of labour and capital are greater than the marginal product of labour and capital (Perloff 2012).
The firm will reap benefits in the long run since the marginal cost of production which is the additional cost of producing an extra unit of a given product is lower than the average product hence attracting the economies of scale (Perloff 2012). The firm will incur lesser cost per unit in manufacturing additional units of the good due to the benefits of scale.
References Bianchi, M 2002, Novelty, Preferences, and Fashion: When Goods Are Unsettling’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol 47 no 1, pp. 1-18.
Frank, R., and Bernanke, B 2001, Principles of Economics. McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston
Mahoney, D 2001, On the Representation Theorems of Neoclassical Utility Theory: A Comment, Web.
Nevo, A 2003, ‘New Products, Quality Changes, and Welfare Measures Computed from Estimated Demand Systems’, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol 85 no 2, pp. 266-75
Nicholson, W 2002, Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions, South Western College Publishing, Ohio
Perloff, J 2012, Microeconomics global economics global edition (6th edn), Pearson education, New York
Witt, U 2001a, ‘Economic Growth- What Happens on the Demand Side?’ Journal of Evolutionary Economics, vol 2 no. 2, pp. 11: 1-5.
Witt, U 2001b, ‘Learning to Consume—A Theory of Wants and the Growth of Demand’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Vol 11 no. 1, pp. 23-36.
Karyotype argumentative essay help
You will evaluate 3 patients’ case histories, complete their karyotypes, and diagnose any missing or extra chromosomes and the condition associated to those chromosomal states.
Check the grade rubric to understand how to obtain 10 points for this assignment.
This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. It is designed as an introduction to genetic studies on humans.
Karyotyping is one of many techniques that allow us to look for several thousand possible genetic diseases in humans.
You will be arranging chromosomes into a completed karyotype, and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic.
Karyotype analyses are performed over 400,000 times per year in the U.S. and Canada.
Imagine that you were performing these analyses for real people, and that your conclusions would drastically affect their lives.
The analysis involves comparing chromosomes for their length, the placement of centromeres (areas where the two chromatids are joined), and the location and sizes of G-bands. You will electronically complete the karyotype for three individuals and look for abnormalities that could explain the phenotype
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Table of Contents Introduction
Geographical setting of Monaco
Introduction Monaco is a country located in the Western Europe. It is a small, independent state located between the French Alps and the Mediterranean Sea. The country has an advanced economy, which has global acknowledgement as a world’s luxury destination. It enjoys strong constitutional framework (Stoll-Davey, 2007).
The backbone of the Monaco economy is based on the stable financial institutions. In addition, the country relies on tourism and good climate to support its economy. The presence of cultural events and high class hotels is the major sources of attraction to tourists.
The infrastructure include: Good health care services, excellent education system and tax exemption for residence. These are the major strength factors for the Monaco economy (Temperman, 2010).
Monaco’s History Monaco has been rated as one of the smallest independent state in the world. The country lies in the South-Eastern France, with many mountains on one side and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. The climate of Monaco is favourable with sea breezes and frosts.
Monaco is considered to be at proximity from Italy and France. However, the Monaco’s small geographical size makes it lack natural resources especially land for commercial and agricultural purposes (Mobile Reference, 2011).
Geographical setting of Monaco The country located between France and Italy. The geographical setting of Monaco indicates that Monaco is not only densely populated but also stands as a country with the smallest size. The lowest point of the country is on the border with the Mediterranean Sea.
The highest point is the slopes of Mount Agel, which is considered to be above sea level. Monaco has reclaimed some land from the Mediterranean Sea, hence increasing its size tremendously. The border to Mediterranean sea has made it easy to venture in the fishing industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country enjoys warm Mediterranean climate with a humid of subtropical climate. It experiences warm, dry summers and rainy winters. It has cool and warm interludes (Hyde, 2010).
Institutions The country has enjoyed stability long in 13th Century. The country is stabile with a clear constitution which defines the powers of the Prince. The Prince manages the powers of the executive and the government running policies. The Monaco government is composed of five ministers, also known as “Conseiller du Gourvernerment”.
The ministers have a representation of different ministries. This includes the youth, education culture and sports. The religious matters are also influential in the country because there is a minister for religious functions. There is a minister responsible for budget and the economy of Monaco. Monaco has its own legislative body which makes laws, and amends the laws to fit the circumstances of the day.
The legislative power rests on the national assembly. The assembly consists of 24 members elected to represent the citizens of Monaco. The judicial power is one of the most powerful wings of the Monaco government (Temperman, 2010).
The existence of any institution in Monaco has to take note of the fact that the country is a hereditary and constitutional monarchy. The principality of Monaco is that it is a city whereby the institutions available must be according to the guidelines spelt out in the constitution. The running of institutions is greatly influenced by His Serene Highness Prince Albert II.
The Prince has the powers to grant citizenship and Amnesty. The Prince is advised by the Council. The crown Council and the State Council are the main bodies that the King makes his consultations before he makes any decision. The consultations are mainly on issues of signing treaties and dissolving the National council. The council is also responsible for matters related to law and maintenance of order (Stoll-Davey, 2007).
The legislative power rests in the hands of the Prince and the National Council. It is only the two bodies who have the mandate to exercise the legislative powers. The country also ensures a clear separation of powers whereby the judiciary, the National Council and the prince powers are tamed. The courts are to exercise their powers while observing impartiality and fairness.
We will write a custom Report on Monaco Cultural Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The department of Finance has an administrative unit which has the duty of overseeing all the financial transactions. The institution was established in 1994, and it is the sole administrative institution in Monaco. The main responsibility of the institution is to investigate any suspicious financial transactions.
The institution also investigates the observance of the law which governs institutions in Monaco. Its powers are extensive, and it can access a number of public databases. The institution is attached to the control of the Minister of the State (Mobile Reference, 2011).
The financial intuitions in Monaco are subjected to a scrutiny by the designated authorities so as to detect offences related to money laundering and other offences. The public prosecution has a wide discretion to prefer criminal charges upon completion of investigations. The institution is made up of two judges.
The judges have the powers to make direct investigation or use the police intermediary in the process of gathering enough evidence. These guidelines of investigation have taken sometime, and there is a recent consideration to review it. The risk of money laundering to the Monaco banks has been a major influence towards a need to have a strong institution for investigating different conduct.
The system, which allows the officers to rotate to different posts in the same institution, has been highly criticized, and there is a spirited campaign for the guidelines to be reviewed (Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2010).
On the other hand, the country has established a Customs Union which was signed on 18 May 1963 under the Customs Conventions in Monaco. The institution has a leading role in identifying cross border transportation. The currency and negotiable instruments on the cross border dealings are closely monitored by the customs body.
The institution has maintained collaboration with the French government whereby necessary information is shared across the borders of the two countries. Bold steps to implement the law governing the cross border transactions have been taken (Kirk, 2002).
The banking sector in Monaco has borrowed a lot from the French government. The banks in Monaco are answerable to the political institutions. Many financial institutions in Monaco have had prudential aspects and the regulation of sound banking aspects in the country. The anti-money laundering arrangements in the Monaco are manned by efficiently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Monaco Cultural Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Monaco government has provided laws to cover different types of employees. There are obligations spelt out under the law whereby chances of money laundering and terrorism funding have been greatly minimized.
The issue of keeping anonymous accounts is not entertained in the running of financial institutions in Monaco. Institutions in Monaco are obligated to observe due diligence in all customers and to maintain high standards of verification of identity (Hyde, 2010).
Monaco’s social indicators have largely placed it at a level of world competitiveness. The country has free education program whereby children between the ages of six to sixteen are supposed to get compulsory education. The quality of primary, secondary and vocational education is enhanced.
The country has three private schools and ten government funded schools. The school curricula and the school programs highly resemble the French education systems. The country enjoys, high expectancy level and the population is rated among the oldest in the world (Haggett, 2002).
Monaco is also a member of different organizations under the United Nations Charter. This includes the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations organization for Education. In acknowledging the role of protecting intellectual property, Monaco is a member of the World Organization for intellectual property. In addition, Monaco is a member of many intergovernmental organizations.
It has the cultural and technical cooperation organization. The mentioned agency was established with the sole aim of dealing with culturally related function within and outside Monaco.
Under the move to protect the plants and animals considered extinct, Monaco is a member of the Convention on International Commerce in Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This is an international organization that protects and safeguards the extinction of endangered species (Haggett, 2002).
The Non-governmental Organizations are also part of the institutions in Monaco. They include International Diplomatic Academy that deals with diplomatic training in Monaco. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has the leading role in facilitating the conservation of nature.
This is in order to prevent the abuse of the natural environment. The promotion of culture in Monaco has been through the Oceanographic Museum and Monte Carlo Masters. In this case, Monaco citizens gather for Opera, theatres, and jazz festivals. The main summer festivals are also held in the Oceanographic Museum. For the citizens who take part in gambling, the country has five Monte Carlo Casinos (Bourgne, 1997).
Religion Monaco has a population of approximately 32,543. In the estimated population, 90% of the population is followers of the Catholic faith. Catholicism is the state religion. Although the country enjoys freedom of religion, the majority of the populations in the country are Catholics.
This has been through the influence of France and Italy neighbours. Christianity has greatly influenced the people’s living styles and the festivals that are observed. The religion has greatly been characterized by the absence of missionaries. The state strictly discourages any form of conversion.
Therefore, the country enjoys stable religious following without forced conversions. Therefore, majority of the Monaco population are staunch Christians. The culture of the Monaco People cannot be divorced from their religion. (Chon,
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In the competitive world, communication is conveyed in several ways. The response of the target audience to a given message will depend on how best the message has been displayed to be analyzed by the said audience. The most common means of communication is through signs and images.
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Introduction Globalization and advancement in information technologies have enabled business enterprises to compete across national borders. The physical distances have been drastically reduced and communication expenses have become relatively low. Business organizations and individuals no longer stick in one geographical region.
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Clinical psychology intends to cater for the positive features of human functioning as well as behavior. It further takes the human maladaptive deeds into consideration. These interventions can be used instead of the traditional ones which were employed to relieve pain and suffering.
Therefore, it is commendable as it positively improves the health of human beings as well as boosts their living standards. Research carried out by scientists shows that this type of psychology brings about character strength, happiness and good moral behaviors.
These aspects are devoted to this field as they play a great role in defining the progress of an individual (Plante, 2010).
These features, happiness, character strength and moral behavior are mostly utilized in a social and scientific way to come up with conclusions that are long lasting and effective. They mainly target constructive emotion, character as well as positive institutions.
Drawing on techniques that are effectively utilized to progress the science of mental disarray, the studying of mental health and its well-being has proven to be very essential. Rather than dealing with a particular intervention that targets a given condition, social psychology is significant in matters that concern the mindset, purpose, and consciousness of the therapeutic practitioner.
No matter how much technique an individual possesses, if he/she is not aware of judgment and feelings, or an unconscious intolerance is present, the therapist will not be efficient as a therapeutic force for the customer. The nature of how influential an objective as a force on the body as well as the mind is very essential (Plante, 2010).
Human consciousness is exploited to stimulate the body to memorize its coherence and bring back health. In addition, focused feelings can manipulate the thoughts of others and lend a hand in taking care of psychological grievances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research investigating the influence of the mind examined the consequences of mindful and unconscious thoughts. It was discovered that protuberances of the mind could effect objects of communication, be they inorganic or organic matters.
Behavioral psychoanalysis for social fear and free speaking panic refers to a range of systems that can be supplied individually or in amalgamation. The essential principle underlying the psychoanalysis approach is that feelings, manner and behaviors are inter-related. As a result, changing one of these can assist to alleviate predicaments in another.
For instance, by altering thoughts with regard to fears of unconstructive valuations may lead to a lesser amount of anxiety. From a cognitive standpoint, the extreme panic in social and presentation state is contemplated to be preserved by unenthusiastic attitudes about the possibility and appalling nature of discomforting oneself and performing ineffectually. Furthermore, the prospect and seriousness of pessimistic analysis by others also add to this.
The therapy procedure, thus, centers on modifying the terrible thinking models and values that social breakdown and negative response are likely to present. This process is referred to as restructuring (Plante, 2010).
From a behavioral point of view, social nervousness is preserved by steering clear of anxiety-provoking circumstances in order for the individual not to have the prospect to discover that they can put up with the anxiety. In this way, the nervousness will reduce on its own and the individual’s feared conclusions would often not materialize or would not be as dreadful as the individual imagined.
Prevention can take place either by not being part of the situation at all or by taking part in the situation but not fully. Contact therapies are, therefore, premeditated to slowly but surely encourage the individual to go into panic social situations and attempt to stay in that state of affairs.
The rationale for selecting an intervention depends on an individually-tailored panic hierarchy that begins with circumstances that are merely gently anxiety-provoking and build to become to the main dreaded encounters.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Clinical Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Plante, T. (2010). Contemporary Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley Press
Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption Term Paper best college essay help
The Shawshank Redemption written by Stephen King is a movie that entertains and teaches. Superb directing and acting make the movie an outstanding success. This study aims at analyzing the various features that make the movie one of the most watched movies on cable.
The salient factors that make this movie outstanding are discussed in detail in this study, and they include storytelling, acting, themes and directing among others.
Story telling in the Shawshank redemption The movie is excellent in the way the story of self development and hope is crafted to give an array of hope to all watchers and critics. The Story revolves around Andy Dufresne a man convicted of murdering his wife and lover and condemned to two consecutive life sentences at Shawshank Penitentiary.
Prison life dominates the early scenes of the story with prisoners and their gangs who will do whatever they can in their power to be dominant. These include use of beatings and rape to break their opponents will to survive.
Despite all these, Andy has a hope and a future to live for hence he schemes and plots his way out in an interesting twist. This gets him favors and acknowledgement from prison staff and prisoners (Spignesi, 2001).
The prison library is improved by him and adds dignity and meaning to the prisoner’s lives including the crafty Red (Morgan Freeman). It is through these struggles, tension and a hope for a future that Andy finds true peace and self reliance.
After twenty eight years, Andy escapes prison, exposes money laundering activities and clears himself from the killing of his wife and lover. Red who helped Andy is also freed at the end and the two friends reunite at the Mexico beach and together get their wish, freedom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Acting Two of the most exceptional actors in the Shawshank Redemption are Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman. They are able to tell the story of hope and redemption in the gentlest way.
Tim Robbins plays the part of Andy Dufresne in a journey that takes him to prison for nothing other than what he never did, killing his wife and lover. Robbins marvelously acts the part of calm, collected and controlled man throughout the scenes even in the direst circumstance (Spignesi, 2001).
Morgan Freeman acting as Red is a spectacular choice in the movie and makes the movie a superb watch. He comes out as a righteous man entangled by a wrong deed in the past.
He brings about sincerity and cynicism at the same time through the narrations he makes mainly about Andy. This act in Shawshank Redemption caps up another superb performance in the life of Morgan Freeman.
The cast of supporting characters, each with a story to tell in a way that blends to the main story is fantastic. Bob Gunton acting as Warden Norton is pious and devout at the start but is merciless, corrupt and callous as the story unfolds.
Bob acts out the part superbly and manages to bring out the villain in Norton in a masterly way and helps give continuity to the story. James Whitmore acts brilliantly in his part as the librarian trustee and long-serving convict.
William Saddler acting as prisoner, Clancy Brown as a vicious guard and Gil Bellows as Tommy Williams give superior supporting performances to the main characters (Spignesi, 2001).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conclusion is superb, acting with minor characters aiding the major to develop and bring out the salient facts in a story of hope and redemption.
Impact of society on the film and vice versa The society has an impact on the film because the film aims at exposing evils in the society. The main evils the film manages to expose are brutality and corruption in prisons. In addition, the society impacts on the film through the penal system which is portrayed to be inefficient and unjust. The injustices of the penal system in 1930’s had on the movie are vast.
The movie has an enormous impact on the society through the inspiring story of Andy. People get inspired through watching the movie because it has the potential of touching people’s lives, challenging them and redeeming their will to survive.
The main themes in the movie; hope, redemption, and friendship have an impact on improving the society. This is a depiction of a fantastic movie that has the ability to give someone, a new beginning and a hope for the better hence has a vast and positive impact on society.
Cinematography Shooting of the Shaw shank redemption is done in the realistic view which is clearly demonstrated by various scenes and their photography. Part of formalism is also visible in the shooting of the movie hence the movie can be described as classical.
A combination of formalism and realism in the shooting makes the characters have more intimacy with the audience. Formalism in the film is a prominent feature to show different stages and power of different characters in the film. The use of low angles in shooting scenes on prison staff, having them invisible and portraying togetherness helps demonstrate their powerfulness.
Use of high angles and loneliness depict powerlessness in prisoners. Close up shots for Andy and Red are used to distinguish them from other prisoners. The main reason is because of their hope for a future and the ability to hold on their friendship (Spignesi, 2001).
Lighting in the film is also used to demonstrate the different degrees of freedom in the movie. Dark lighting in prison cells represent a lack of freedom by prisoners and improves when they are outside to represent improved freedom.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This particularly is the freedom to move around, but the ultimate freedom is seen when Andy crawls out of prison to the real world and the lighting is very bright. To summarize, cinematography and lighting plays a vital part in ensuring closeness between audience and characters and serve to depict the main themes in the movie.
Overall textual themes The main theme in the movie is hope for a future that is worth living for in the most of hopeless situations. Andy portrays this theme at the beginning of the movie when he holds on to remaining shreds of hope after he is convicted of double murder and sentenced to life in prison.
He is rewarded at the end of the movie, but it is through patience and a great deal of sacrifice. The hope all in prison dream of is freedom, which the two main characters Andy and Red achieve in the end.
Their hope is apparent throughout the movie despite having to spend 28 and 40 years in prison respectively, hence hugely inspiring theme all. Andy within the prison system, through inner resolve and strength, aids in development of the theme of hope (Spignesi, 2001).
Another theme brought out exceptionally well in the movie is friendship mainly between Andy and Red. The two characters are willing to take any risks and sacrifices for each other for a friendship that spans almost two decades.
This is depicted in the narration by Red of his association with Andy and their life together. It is also evident where Red narrates Andy’s escape from prison. Despite the fact that he rejoices that his friend is free, he confides on the emptiness and loneliness he feels from losing a friend.
The other main theme in Shawshank Redemption is liberation, which is the hope of all the characters. Andy and Red get liberated at the end of the film from the severance of a prison wall. Brutality, corruption, hopelessness and despair in the prison that all the prisoners hope to be liberated from are evident throughout the Shawshank Redemption.
In the end, Andy, Red and Hatlen manage to achieve this at the expense of the conniving warden Samuel Norton. Brutality, corruption, despair and abuse are the other themes the Shawshank redemption manages to reveal (Spignesi, 2001).
Analysis Shawshank Redemption has a classical narrative structure, which is dominant in the movie. Frank Darabont wrote and directed the shawshank redemption in a manner to depict the three part format classical structure of setup, development and resolution.
The setup of the Shawshank redemption is the introduction of the characters, their aspirations, fates and challenges facing them. The main focus is Andy, wrongly convicted for double murders have the audience pitying him hence his innocence is not lost on the audience.
His moral character and ambition radiate to the other characters in his circle and the story develops from that innocence. It also aids in the creation of Andy’s character and aim to clear his name and recoup his freedom.
Meeting the warden, Samuel Norton one would believe in his Christianity and Virtue from his speeches and quotes from the bible. As the story unfolds, Norton turns out as the villain in the Shawshank Redemption and is depicted as corrupt, brutal and merciless. He destroys the only other chance of Andy proving his innocence apart from escaping, through killing Tommy and revealing his character.
Hadley in one scene is compassionate but in others is a merciless and brutal guard. Hardley and Norton aid in development of the story and act as impediments to Andy’s aim to prove his innocence leaving him with only one option, escape.
At Shawshank, we are introduced to Red and Brook, where Red is an inmate who has lost hope of a future but Red regains it with Andy’s help. Brooks is a long-serving inmate who has been institutionalized and serves to develop the theme of hope.
The resolution of the movie is when the two protagonists in the movie Red and Andy are reunited at the Mexico beach with a hope of a better life after prison.
This reinstates the fact that the film has a classical structure where the protagonist manages to overcome all obstacles, challenges and all conflicts are resolved. The audience is left chanting, and he lived happily ever after at the happy ending always common in classical movies.
Style and Directing The movie mostly makes use of flashback which turns out to be a powerful tool to keep the audience glued. The flashback also creates suspense and makes the viewers want to know what actually happens. At the beginning of the movie, Andy’s innocence is suspended for the audience to decide.
It is revealed at the end and shows how valuable suspense is used in the development of the main theme and the whole story. The use of tension and slow pacing shoots in some parts of the movie are also styles to note.
Another style that features incredibly in the movie is character development. The plot revolves around the development of the main characters Andy and Red and the directing marvelous. He succeeds in developing characters loved by the audience and with the ability to drive the storyline.
This makes the movie an exciting watch and the director brings out the humanity compassion and care in the characters. He is able to move even the hardest cynics through the humanly portrayal of the movie Shawshank Redemption. It is this lovely human touch that adds brilliance to the movie.
Editing and Sound The Editing style employed by the movie is continuity which involves a smooth transition from one scene to the next. The use of objective shots by the editor serves to give others a chance to give their views. L-cut editing technique is also employed in coordination with a sound that is synchronous to action on screen.
L-cut technique of editing allows the movie to have continuity and merge the sound of music and action on screen. Camera movement in the film fits the tempo of music in the movie. The eye line match technique is also evident in the movie and serves to develop the plot and make the audience part of the storyline in the movie. Generally editing and sound in the Shawshank redemption are used to create continuity of the movie.
Genre The Shawshank Redemption falls into the genre of thriller and has two subgenres crime and drama thriller. It is a crime thriller because most scenes are set in a prison and entail the various crimes committed in or outside the prison. It details the crimes claimed to have been committed by the protagonists in its development of the story and its main focus is on the actions in these scenes hence a crime thriller.
The movie falls in the subgenre of a drama thriller through the focus on narration and on each character’s environment. Emphasis on character development is another characteristic that makes the Shawshank Redemption fit the subgenre drama thriller.
Conclusion In conclusion, the various parts and characteristics were brilliantly combined to produce one of the best movies. Character development, editing, sound and music and the best directing aided in making Shawshank Redemption a must watch for movie lovers.
The brilliancy of storytelling, superb acting, matching of different styles and themes covered by the movie are some of the factors that make the watching of the film exciting, thoughtful and provoking. I would always recommend this movie due to the high caliber it put itself in the movie industry.
Reference Spignesi, J. (2001). The Essential Stephen King: A Ranking of the Greatest Novels, Short Stories, Movies, and Other Creations of the World’s Most Popular Writer. New York: Career Press.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Proposal argumentative essay help
Implications and limitations The sample in the research was a proposed study in the National Football players’ league. The players interviewed suffered from head injuries, causing the Chromic Traumatic Encephalopathy. The sample for the research is the players with head injuries. In a research, the proposed sample should reflect coverage of the represented population.
There are implications posed by the sample used and the instruments available in measuring the sample. First, the research deals with an investigation of the case and control groups.
The empirical measurement of the research entails the exclusion and inclusion methods, which may not be helpful in ascertaining the exact number of players who have suffered from Chronic Traumatic Enephalopathy (Boston University, 2009).
The proposed sample used in the research is not only small but highly restrictive. The sample is highly constricted because the research is retrospective, and hence has numerous implications. It means that few players will be selected, and hence they may not fully represent the entire population.
In the course of the research, follow-ups on the participants is required, which is exceedingly costly hence the sample is reduced. The reduction of the players means that the research is restrictive and cannot be relied to give valid results.
The proposed results will have certain implications to the players. The researcher may dispel with different requirements, hence requiring different variables to complete the research study (Nelson, 2012).
The comparison of the interviews taken will include many assumptions and the decisions made may be marred by assumptions. The statistical distribution of tables to analyze the correlation factors and the interviews has an error margin and has a low level of accurate data processing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The limiting factors present a possibility of errors in the research. The greatest limitation is the fact the sample of retired football players with head injuries is extremely limited. The implication is that fewer players in the National Football League have suffered from head injuries.
The disease is said to occur after the retirement of the players, which means that a lot of time may be taken in establishing the right sample. In addition, most of the players who have retired have not tested for the disease (Holbrook, 2009).
The measuring methods in the research are likely to be interfered with by other factors and may be highly affected. The testing of their reliability will occur after the research is finished. Therefore, the internal and external consistency may be lost in the time of making the measurements.
Though the use of inter-observer tests will be applied in measuring the validity, there are many errors which may not be detectable. Hence, the research may rely on assumptions only (Boston University, 2009).
Appendices and References The research will take approximately two years to be concluded. The period proposed will be enough to select the sample to be used in the research. The first three months of the two years will be spent in preparing the required documents, such as the consent and authority to conduct research.
Five months will be used in selecting the sample using the purpose method, and three months will be used in preparing the questionnaires and formulating the questions to be asked in the interviews. It is within the three months that participant permission will be sought.
The research assistants to assist in the research will be recruited and trained within two months. Rehearsal on how to approach the respondents and the collection of data will take one month. Once the training is completed, the research assistants will take four months collecting data from the respondents.
We will write a custom Proposal on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data will be collected using questionnaires and interview sessions. The interview sessions will be recorded by the research assistants. The questionnaires may be answered by the respondents or the research assistants may assist the respondents (Nelson, 2012).
One month will be used in submitting the data by the research assistants for analysis. The same month will be used to analyze the data and make conclusions. Compilation of the research and the conclusions reached will also take one month.
At the end of the data collection, if it is established that the time framework has not enhanced gathering of enough data, then time extension may be sought (Health Day News, 2009).
The researchers will require two personal computers and six laptops. The two computers will be left at the center and they will be operated by two research assistants. A data collection center will be created. The computers will have stable internet connection to monitor the communication between the assistants in the center and those taking part in data collection.
Consistent feedback and monitoring of the data collection process in the field will be highly encouraged. It means that the two assistants at the center must be present up to the time the people collecting data return from the field. The computers at the center will be installed with the SPSS to analyze the data (Holbrook, 2009).
The printed copies of the questionnaires and interviews will be done at the center. Therefore, a printer will be needed. Having a printer controlled at the center will save time and will facilitate proper coordination. The research assistants collecting data will require pens to give to the respondents so as to enter answers on the questionnaires.
A consistent internet and power supply will be a key resource if the research is to be a success. The monitoring of the entire research and data collection will require internet connection (Schwartz, 2009).
All the personnel required in the research must be fluent in English and should be computer literate. They should also demonstrate high standards of interpersonal communication skills. Two of the assistants must have knowledge in statistics so as to assist in measuring the data, drawing the graphs and checking the validity of the data using SPSS software.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More High observance of research ethics will also be a substantial requirement, which must be maintained by the research assistant at all material times. The professionals will need to be paid well since well paid professionals will be motivated. The research assistants will be divided two at the center and others will be collecting data (Holbrook, 2009).
The budget of the entire research will include the money spent on the hiring of the research assistants to the amount used in buying the computers and their installation. The assistances will be hired on a contractual basis and hence they will be paid at the completion of the research.
High salaries of 2,000 US $ will be for each research assistant. There will be allowances totaling to 1,000 US$. The high salary concept will be aimed to motivate the assistants hence delivering quality results. The computers, laptops, pens, power, internet, printers and the installation will cost 7,000 US $.
In addition, 1,000 US $ will be used by the research assistants to commute to where the response are. Extra 1,000 US $ will be set aside to cater for miscellaneous expenditures incurred in the period of the research. The total budget will be 12,000 US $ (Schwartz, 2009).
References Boston University. (2009). Nfl players association to support brain trauma research at boston university. State news service. Web.
Holbrook, E. (2009). Brain trust: a medical study confirms what too many have feared–the sport of football can cause brain trauma. what can the nfl do? Risk management, 10. Web.
Health Day News (2009). 3 NFL stars to donate brain tissue for trauma research; program studies affects of repeated blows to the head. Last consumer health News (English). Web.
Nelson, R. (2012). Evaluating football. EE – evaluation engineering. Web.
Schwartz, A. (2009). Case suggests safety risk goes beyond the nfl. The New York Times, B14 (L). Web.
Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Background
Background The practice of elimination and reduction of loss of property and life due to catastrophes have become common in areas prone to natural disasters. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation.
Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. Besides, participatory mechanism, public commitment, knowledge development, policy formulation and awareness among other non-structural mitigation methods are necessary to reduce the impact of disasters.
Structural mitigation Physical constructions have been used as elements of mitigation and have been helpful in reducting and protection against potential impacts of hazards. Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that structural mitigation through construction of protective infrastructure and hazard resistant structures has been relied upon by many nations and communities for defensive and shielding purposes.
These nations have set up legislations which are geared towards ensuring the effectiveness of both structural and non-structural mitigation activities. The legislations have basically been observed in seismic areas where building codes and land use regulations have been set in place.
In addition, Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) argue that the collapsing of buildings and subsequent damage on infrastructure and structures commonly occur in the event of landslides, floods, earthquakes and other disasters.
These are some of the factors that call for the effecting of structural mitigation practices purposely to save lives and property by reducing damages. Countries in seismic areas have embarked on construction, maintenance and designing of their structures to ensure safety of their citizens.
Through their civil engineers, they have retrofitted and strengthened old structures. In addition, they have designed canals, roads and new buildings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the model of mitigation and adaptation highlights that there are diverse ways through which disasters can be alleviated. This is largely due to the presence of technology, detectors and experts on climate change and environmental management.
Predictions on possible threats due to climate changes and other related catastrophes based on scientific investigation are critical for setting up strong and protective infrastructures. The enormous arrays of resources within governments set up to warn and protect are critical in developing structural mitigation capabilities.
Figure 1: A diagram illustrating a mitigation and adaptation model
Non-structural mitigation Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that non- structural mitigation practices aimed at minimizing the consequence of disaster are cost effective. They include provision of information on reduction of risk, participatory mechanisms, public commitment on ensuring safety, creation of awareness and better policies.
Many nations have set up regulations that control the activities which individuals, groups and industries undertake. Besides, the use of temporary restriction methods such as avalanche warning signs and flood barriers to limit risks to admissible levels has been common.
Planning, land use regulation, determining locations of human activities and settlement as ell as trainings on hazard have been set up as non-structural mitigation methods to reduce risks.
In seismic zones, non-structural mitigation has been a practice that involves anchoring and bracing household, industry and office items to prevent falling, injuries and damages. Items that are normally used include support systems, brackets, anchors and tie-downs.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) highlight that activities related to non-structural mitigation are generally inexpensive, easy to apply and effective in saving lives.
Figure 2: A diagram illustrating non-structural mitigation
To sum up, it is imperative to highlight that both structural and non-structural mitigation activities are necessary in minimizing risks, safeguarding lives and property from damages. However, non-structural mitigation has been a common practice due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.
Most structures constructed in disaster prone areas use non-mitigation strategies to effect safety. Even so, there is still need for governments to set up effective policies on environmental management to curb the rise of disasters due to climate change.
Reference Perry, R.W., Prater, C.S
Church best college essay help
30 External Factors of Economy Affecting Businesses There are numerous external factors of economy that affect businesses in various countries. They influence different business aspects. In this context, the first one is GDP. The total value of commodities a country produces in a given period (GDP) indicates the income rates of the concerned citizens and their buying trends.
Consequently, this economic factor is able to influence the establishment, ratification, and propulsion of any business in the concerned country as indicated earlier. Church
The Role of Technology in Linking the HRM with Organization Goals and Vision Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Strategic HRM
Role of Technology in Serving HRM
Human Resource Information System
Strategic HRM The integration of information technology into the HR development leads to newer capacities for an organization. This includes a definition of the information interface among staffs, an exchange of their contributions and their participation in virtual enterprises (Wang 2005).
Rapid organizational restructuring needs are calling for new ways of HRM to stimulate administrative change. Technology enables HRM to focus more on value addition in its activities for full realization of the business’s strategy (Wang 2005).
Gong and Chow (2010) show that for technology-intensive industries, knowledge and skills embodied in human capital directly raise productivity. Their research supports the need to integrate technological innovation and HRM to achieve directorial performance.
Organizations existing in performance-oriented cultures prefer formal procedures within the HR department. These include standardized selection methods, systematic performance appraisals, official job evaluations and formal recruitment channels (Panayotopoulou, Galanaki
E-Marketing Plan Recommendations Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Functional Team Framework Great Cup of Coffee Company
E-marketing involves building friendly partnership and working relationship with a market segment without necessarily having physical contact with it. In fact, the main source of exchanging information and advertising products is through written words in a social media such as company website.
Reflectively, success of e-marketing is deeply entrenched in the principle of keeping reliable and professional reputation in exchanging ideas and convincing customers in online selling.
Thus, the key conceptual idea of this reflective treatise is an in-depth and explicit analysis of recommendations for an e-Marketing plan on the periphery of functional team orientation for Great Cup of Coffee Company.
Besides, the paper is specific on values surrounding e-marketing and checkpoints that translate into sustainable, profitable, and relevant business engagement.
In the contemporary society, over fifty percent of companies use internet in research and promoting their services and products. Besides, the same percentage of people has access to internet and other social media.
Therefore, e-marketing is the ‘next big thing’. In order to have a successful e-Marketing plan in Great Cup of Coffee Company, structural planning is essential especially in locating target market and actualizing through execution of preset plans.
With proper planning, messaging, and market objectivity, comprehensive implementation is achievable at optimal level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to achieve structural planning, the same should labor to build a visible campaign for brand awareness which dictates the magnitude of acceptance and time frame for the same. Besides, the campaign should include strategies meant to expand and gain audience in the target market.
Another key recommendation in e-Marketing plan for Great Cup of Coffee Company envisions creation of a simultaneous but independently functioning cost balancing matrix that keep the firm in the competitive edge.
However, before implementing this recommendation, market research should expand into the territory of acquiring knowledge on prevailing market price especially when dealing with a product that is already in the market. Price research creates conducive environment for functionality and sustainability despite market swings (Kalb, 2002).
Essentially, success of e-Marketing plan depends on proper alignment of a functional team who is responsible for creation of flexible but quantifiable measurement tracking tools for reviewing results periodically. Reflectively, this team should have essential knowledge in social media and tools used in marketing via the internet.
Besides quality in service delivery and customer satisfaction depend on the support team. Therefore, customer retention is achievable through creation of reliable, informed, and passionate support team.
In addition, the plan should include a monitoring matrix that maps out potential competitors and identify online weaknesses and strength of clients. Moreover, the reporting criteria should reflect success of marketing calendar and set target periodically generated (Kalb, 2002).
The above recommendations depend on creations customized search engine and page which supply referrals to clients in order to affiliate sales. Therefore, it is necessary to develop simple and self explanatory market expedition since e-Marketing rely on exchange of information between parties.
We will write a custom Report on E-Marketing Plan Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the marketing site should give room for recommendations from clients on level of satisfaction (Kalb, 2002). Data from these recommendations are vital in reviewing future progress tracking devises and determining the magnitude of success within a period of time.
Conclusively, success of e-Marketing depends on execution of the above recommendations and transforming them into reality. Successful execution solely functions on inclusiveness, creation of quantifiable tracking devises for results, and recreating an informed support team.
Generally, these recommendations should be practiced flexibly since online marketing environment is characterized by constant dynamics that may make previous designs irrelevant.
E-Marketing Recommendations for Great Cup of Coffee Company
Reference Kalb, S. (2002). E-Marketing: What Went Wrong and How to Do It Right. Los Angeles: K
Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom Research Paper best college essay help
Introductions An organization strategic position is very important in determining how the organization is going to deal with changes in the local and global market. An organization that has well defined and specified strategies is likely to succeed in maximizing profits and in promoting innovation.
Competition among organizations in an industry can be quite detrimental to an organization’s success. In order to overcome the various challenges in the business sector, a business should have well defined strategies and objectives in order to fit in the dynamic business world (Sherif, 2006).
Business strategies are wide and encompass a wider scope. The main scope of a business strategy will encompass areas which include but not limited to the following: legal position of the business, social and economic environments, management structure, and the financial position of the organization (Sherif, 2006).
The following research paper is going to evaluate and find out the various strategies taken by Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom in order to realize its goals.
The various environments include the legal environment, management structure, operational and financial issues, social and economic environments and the impact of potential change factors.
Vodafone is a leading multinational telecommunication company in the United Kingdom. The company has its headquarters in London, UK. Vodafone is the world’s largest telecommunication company in terms of revenues.
The company is the world’s second largest company in terms of subscribers, coming second after China Mobiles (Books Llc, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has its operations in over 30 countries and has partners with over 38 networks in other countries worldwide. Vodafone has operations in various regions around the world. These regions include Africa and the Middle East, The American region, the Europe region and the Asia- Pacific region.
The company deals in a variety of products and services. The main product and services being offered by Vodafone include mobile money transfer services, mHealth solutions, voice calls, data calls, internet services and sell of mobile and related accessories (lbbot, 2007).
Discussion The legal environmental
The legal environment will always dictate the limits of operations of a business. Various countries have various legal policies, restrictions and guidelines that dictate how an organization should conduct its activities. Any non compliance to these legal policies and guidelines is considered a breach of law which is punishable in courts (Ibbot 2007).
Also, various countries have various legal requirements for registering a business organization. These requirements ensure that a business conducts the legal business activities it was registered for. For any business to be legally recognized, it must meet the set requirements in the region of its operation.
In the United Kingdom where Vodafone has its headquarters, there are various legal requirements and policies a business must observe and adhere to. Some legal requirements of a business in the United Kingdom include compliance with paying taxes, conducting the legal business a business was registered to do, protecting the customers from product and services fraud (lbbot, 2007).
Like any other company in the United Kingdom, Vodafone UK adheres to the various legal requirements in the United Kingdom. The company has been able to fulfill all the needed legal requirements for registration. The company has also, on several occasions, been named the best tax payer and tax compliance company in the United Kingdom (Books Llc, 2010).
All the above scenarios indicate the company has a good legal structure and system. It also indicates that the company follows and adheres to various legal policies, requirements, regulations and guidelines. The company has various ways and measures that ensure customers are not exploited and that they get the best services and products.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through advertisements and forums, the company is able to enlighten the consumers about their products and services. Also, the company has a well structured complaint system where customers are able to login air their complaints.
The complaint systems enable the company to have continuous improvement in their products and services. This eventually leads to the creation of products which adhere to the legal quality standards.
The company has also received some ISO: 9001 certificates and recognitions. These recognitions indicate that the company is adhering and is at the forefront in promoting quality products and services to consumers.
The company has a faster feedback response system when a customer reports a malfunctioning in a particular product. In some cases, the customer is refunded their money or the product replaced. This is done by the company in a bid to adhere to consumer protection legal policies (Books Llc, 2010).
The management structure may be defined as the arrangement of hierarchy of power in an organization. This structure will largely determine how organizational activities are going to be managed.
Managers are the people who are mandated with the task of managing various functional areas within an organization. Managers perform various duties which include planning, controlling and directing among others (LexixNexis, 25).
The extent to which these activities are managed will depend on the competence of the managers. If these activities are well managed, then the company is going to perform well in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
Vodafone UK success in terms of revenues and clientele base has been attributed to its well qualified management team. The managerial team is made up of highly qualified and specialized individuals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company management structure is in such a way that it fosters and promotes interaction between the various functional areas. This interaction increases mobility as well as dependence among various functional areas (Flood, 1997).
The organization structure is also structured in a way that information flow is two way. The structure fosters information flow upwards and downward the organization chart.
The bi-direction flow of information ensures that the managers are furnished with the operational information which they can use to make decisions. The bi-directional flow also ensures that the operations staff is furnished with information about the business policies and decisions (Slaa
Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Childhood is the period which is meaningful for every person because it is the start of a life-long journey. In his Moll Flanders, Daniel Defoe concentrates on many controversial social issues. Moreover, the childhood theme is also masterfully described in the novel as the key point for understanding the persons’ actions and the peculiarities of their further lives.
Thus, Daniel Defoe reveals all the worst features of the world’s reality and discovers all the hidden details of the persons’ souls in the work. He also accentuates the seriousness of the harmful surrounding which a child can undergo in his life and its influence.
The effects of childhood follow persons during their whole lives. Furthermore, people have the opportunity to observe the peculiarities of children’s everyday life as the part of the society anywhere.
To discuss the peculiarities of describing the concept of childhood in the novel, it is necessary to focus on the actual substance of childhood as it is and on the impacts of childhood on the life of the main heroine of the novel. Thus, in his novel the author presents the notion of childhood as a stand point to watch the heroine’s destiny and present her further development into a young lady with her own hidden psychological troubles.
Defoe opens his novel as a really strict narration that derives conclusion right away saying that Moll is going to continue her mother’s destiny, as well. This is what life did to her: born in dreadful conditions, not having an opportunity to meet mother ever, and raised by gypsies, Moll is not as bad as she could have become.
The peculiarities of Moll’s situation make her act as a grown-up. This situation can be considered as typical for that period. It was the eighteenth century – the time of nobilities, good manners, and dismissal of poor from any worthy life sphere.
Moreover, women could not have any rights except being a seamstress, if she wanted to work. Therefore, a girl who could possibly get to that atmosphere was doomed to lead a very modest life when she is a grown-up. A boy, however, had slightly more chances to achieve success and work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those children who were growing without their parents’ treatment in streets began to act and behave as grown-ups in order to survive in dangerous surroundings. They did not know that childhood as it could be with the parents’ care and without the needs to work since the age of eight as Moll worked.
However, those children who were born in rich families had the opportunity to enjoy all the pleasures of living with parents, even in spite of the fact that they were brought up by nurses. Thus, the memories about her childhood followed Moll during her life. That is why she tried to do all possible to pay much attention to her own child.
In some of the situations Moll states, “I was greatly perplexed about my little boy. It was death to me to part with the child” (Defoe 77). And furthermore, “If I was but sure my little baby would be carefully looked to, and have justice done it” (Defoe 107).
It is important that those people who bring up children have an extreme influence on their lives. Thus, the nurse Moll lived with was a very good example to follow. And, maybe, due to such a nondurable experience Moll turned out to have her own children ultimately.
The nurse is described as the following, “…she bred up the children she took with a great deal of art, as well as with a great deal of care… [she provided her children with] a plain diet, coarse lodging, and mean clothes…we were brought up as mannerly and as genteelly as if we had been at the dancing-school” (Defoe 8).
It is necessary to mention that although Moll is presented to very harsh conditions throughout her childhood, Defoe still brings in an element of an invisible helping hand as if supporting the idea that there is an angel that every child has.
Nevertheless, the theme of abandoned children can be observed on many pages of the novel. In Defoe’s novel childhood is depicted as the period for the fight for better conditions for life. Thus, Moll often meets beggars on her way.
We will write a custom Essay on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They are described as dark shadows of London’s streets. There are charity programs for such children in society; the authorities try to influence their lives. However, who would like to be a subject of charity? A child raised in conditions of condescension is likely to grow up having no respect for him. Is it possible to avoid the life of purposeless people, miserable drunkards, thieves, criminals, or murderers?
Daniel Defoe depicts childhood in the darkest colors that could ever be. He accentuates that Moll Flanders tried to escape her destiny, but she could not. Moll, being the central figure, makes the reader sympathize with her troubles, though at the same time wonder how in the world she could make it to a relatively good future.
Yet, she had a chance. And there are a number of such children who became unhappy and sad adults because they did not have a chance to change their life.
In his novel Defoe also reveals the theme of children’s aloneness. It is rather difficult to survive in the world where people have no support and understanding of their relatives and friends. What is the destiny for an orphan?
A child cannot possibly grow up as a rich and self-conscious personality. No one is ever able to have a rich inner world without friends or anyone to rely on. Streets and bands create the conditions for growing up as a severe and rough personality. This is, unfortunately, a side effect of self-sufficiency.
Being independent takes effort. A person faces challenges and life makes him bend down to earth, whereas some stand up back straight and some break. When speaking about simple survival, it is hard to consider decent childhood conditions for fostering main virtues.
And so, Moll was presented to the following being: “…even before I was capable either of understanding my case or how to amend… [she was] brought into a course of life which was not only scandalous in itself, but which in its ordinary course tended to the swift destruction both of soul and body” (Defoe 1).
Childhood can be thought of as the most essential part for fostering ideals and habits in a child. Moll in Moll Flanders is the splendid representation what poor childhood conditions may lead to. Completely disoriented and lost in her life, Moll is an example of what can possibly happen to a child who finds him in the same milieu.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. USA: Signet Classics, 1996. Print.
Hurricane Andrew Case Study custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew
Results of the Disaster
Introduction Disasters are a reality in human life and while some are avertable, others have to be faced. In the event of a disaster, preparedness, response, and recovery to the incident determine the extent of damage. Waugh (2000, p.34) points out that disasters invariably create unstable work environments for both the victims and the relief workers which makes it hard for emergency efforts to be implemented without prearranged plans.
As such, disaster planning and management play a major role in recovery from a disaster. To underline the role that planning plays in disaster response and recovery, this paper will review Hurricane Andrew which is one of the more significant natural disasters ever to occur on the US mainland.
A review of the response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 will demonstrate that a lack of elaborate recovery planning for a disaster leads to inefficiencies and additional damages.
Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew Hurricane Andrew occurred on August 24, 1992 in the Floridian coast resulting in huge human displacement and a colossal damage of property. As of that time, Hurricane Andrew was the third most powerful storm to every strike the United States mainland (Sirkin, 1995, p.1).
The increasing coastal population was responsible for the significant property costs associated with the Hurricane. While the Floridian coast is subject to hurricanes, it is a favorable location and people still want to live there.
Sirkin (1995, p.4) estimates that the property damages resulting from the hurricane were in the range of $20billion making it the most expensive and devastating storm as of then.
Before the Hurricane hit the US coast, Satellite pictures had tracked it crossing from the west coast of Africa and into the Atlantic as early as August 14. With the use of radar and reconnaissance, the Hurricane Center was able to issue a 12 hours in advance warning to the inhabitants of Florida giving them time to evacuate the coastal areas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the warning, massive evacuations were carried out along the Florida coast with about 1.2 million coastal residents being evacuated. The evacuation efforts before Hurricane Andrew are deemed as one of the finest coordinated in the US history and they enabled over 1 million residents to move to safer grounds.
Sirkin (1995) confirms that the evacuation efforts saved many lives which would have been lost if an evacuation had not been ordered.
Results of the Disaster Hurricane Andrew had been preceded by Hurricane Hugo which had occurred in 1989 and resulted in some changes in the Federal government’s responses to natural disasters. While there was a Federal Response Plan (FRP) in place, the level of Federal-State coordination and planning in Florida was still at an infancy stage (FEMA, 1993, p.33).
Most of the concepts advanced by the FRP were not understood by local government elements in Florida. The emergency preparedness plan of the Dade County ensured that over 84,000 people were offered emergency shelter by Red Cross as well as the numerous public buildings and schools that were allocated. However, this plan proved to be insufficient considering the fact that 250,000 people were in need of shelter and food.
There was lack of disaster recovery planning and this fact became evident within hours of the storm’s passing. After the storm had passed, no federal or state plan was in place to provide relief to the disaster victims.
FEMA (1993, p.33) notes that the Federal government waited for requests from the State for assistance instead of availing it beforehand. This proved to be ineffective as aid was not delivered in a timely fashion and people continued to suffer unnecessarily and more property was damaged.
The plan therefore failed to fulfill the core objectives of disaster management which are to save lives, alleviate suffering, and prevent further loses after a disaster.
We will write a custom Case Study on Hurricane Andrew specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a huge communication breakdown following the Hurricane which destroyed most of the communication infrastructure. Effective communication has to occur so as to coordinate the disaster management efforts.
Due to the heightened levels of psychological pressure and a break down of infrastructure such as telephone lines and mobile base stations, the normal forms communication proved inadequate in the case of Hurricane Andrew.
Haddow, Bullock, and Coppola (2008) note that in the first few days following Hurricane Andrew, FEMA (which is the Federal agency responsible for coordinating responses to huge disaster in the US) was unable to disseminate the needed information to communities and coordination of efforts among volunteer organization was poor.
Lessons Learned A number of valuable lessons can be learnt from the disaster management and recovery efforts during Hurricane Andrew. Hurricane Andrew brought it to the attention of the government that better proactive planning is necessary for relief and recovery afterwards.
The planning and preparation activities that had been undertaken before the disaster were crucial since they led to the saving of lives. The importance of accurate damage and needs assessments was also highlighted by this incidence since the initial estimates by local officials proved to be grossly understated.
FEMA (1993, p.35) states that well trained personnel should perform damage and needs assessment within 24 hours of the event and develop a response plan which identifies the needed resources.
The Hurricane revealed the need for more proactive measures to tackle disasters. Sirkin (1995, p.4) states that there was lack of an aggressive Federal support for the disaster victims with government agencies making promises of support without providing any meaningful resources.
It took 10 days for adequate supplies and manpower to be availed to the disaster victims. The delay led to more damages to property and unnecessary suffering by the victims of the Hurricane. The high cost in damages from the Hurricane could have been mitigated if prompt action had been taken.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hurricane Andrew by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Hurricane also highlighted the importance of better coordinated recovery efforts after a disaster. From the Hurricane, it was clear that for most disasters of a major magnitude, relief efforts have to be undertaken through the joint efforts of various organizations.
Hurricane Andrew overwhelmed the local and state resources and it was apparent that outside help were needed to contain the situation. During the occurrence of Hurricane Andrew, there were various plans put in place by the government for effective coordination of Federal government’s response to natural disaster.
The most notable of this was the FRP which was to act as a comprehensive framework through which various disaster response agencies and organizations are able to coordinate their efforts and therefore provide a unified response to disasters. FEMA (1993) notes that the FRP was based on the premise that a significant disaster would require the collaboration of Federal, State, and local emergency response and recovery operations.
Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the plan needed to be fine-tuned since despite its presence, the local government personnel in the affected areas were overwhelmed and unable to communicate specific needs.
Hurricane Andrew demonstrated how poor communication and coordination could be a major hindrance to response and recovery efforts. From the Hurricane, it became apparent that a well established Federal presence in the disaster area both before and/or immediately following the disaster (FEMA, 1993, p.32). Haddow et al (2008) state that after Hurricane Andrew, FEMA moved on to become the lead agency in emergency and disaster management in the US.
The Hurricane also brought to attention the inadequacy of existing communication systems in the event of a disaster. Waugh (2000, p.32) reveals that during disasters, communication lines can be damaged or become overwhelmed due to a spike in communication volumes as huge numbers of people try to communicate simultaneously (Federal Emergency Management Agency 1993).
Alternative channels of communications are therefore necessary to ensure that disaster management personnel can communicate unhindered during the disaster.
Conclusion This paper set out to review the destructive Hurricane Andrew which struck the Floridian coast in 1992 with devastating effects. Special attention has been paid on the lessons that can be drawn from the disaster recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew.
This paper has revealed that despite the advanced warning of the impeding disaster, the federal emergency response team did not come up with an effective recovery plan.
This resulted in greater damages and disruption of the lives of the people’s whose homes had been damaged by the hurricane. From the analysis of Hurricane Andrew, it is evident that better proactive planning and rapid response is necessary for relief and recovery following a disaster.
References Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1993). FEMA Evaluation of Federal Response and Recovery Efforts. NY: FEMA.
Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A.,