Gilgamesh And Odysseus: A Comparison Essay Cheap Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction: Mythical Characters and Their Heroic Qualities

Gilgamesh and Odysseus: Compare and Contrast

Gilgamesh and Odysseus: Common Themes


Works Cited

Introduction: Mythical Characters and Their Heroic Qualities Mythical characters in literature have significantly projected personal qualities and ways of living in the communities. They also reflect different attributes of humans, such as heroism, revenge, apathy, etc.

The most commonly renowned mythological texts that project heroic attributes are Homer’s Odyssey and the Epic of Gilgamesh. Comparing different mythical heroes from literature can help understand their different qualities and heroic ideals. This paper makes a comparison of Odysseus and Gilgamesh in order to find out what their similarities and differences are.

Gilgamesh and Odysseus: Compare and Contrast The text about Odyssey is written by Homer, while Gilgamesh is written by Shin-Eqi-Unninni. On comparison, Odysseus and Gilgamesh possess traits such as friendliness, courage, and heroism. Odysseus had a hereditary right to the throne and ruled Ithaca that was complemented by his impartiality, ruthlessness and diplomatic skills.

On the other hand, Gilgamesh was the king of Uruk in Babylonia, who is physically sturdy and strong, having supernatural powers and the will to protect his people (George). As Gilgamesh was an oppressor, he was given the title of the goring wild bull.

By taking a look at Homer’s Odyssey, one can observe that he was a hero based on his pure spirituality and strength to take challenges. At the beginning of the tale of Odysseus, he sailed far, reached north, put the ships on Hangar, where Eurylochus, who was second in command of Odysseus, prepared a male and female sheep for sacrifice.

After offering prayers to the dead, the people of the river offered the sheep to them and put the remaining parts in a pit that had been dug with shadows of the dead gathering around. It was a ritual to establish communion with the dead who bore messages for the living and was respected and offered sacrifices. Odysseus has been observed to take the challenge despite the fact he was aware of all the hardships (Louden).

Odysseus was greatly opposed by her wife, mother, and other people who really cared about him. But he continues to achieve his objective, and show is a heroic attribute. There were many memorable quotes mentioned in the Odyssey that show his high morals and astounding insights.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fact that he had different heroic ideals can be understood by the following quotation from the text. It states that “‘Stand clear, put up your sword; let me but taste of blood. I shall speak true. ‘” Book 11, lines 106-7 (Louden). The above-noted dialogue was delivered by Odysseus’s mother on the event of slaughter of animals by Odysseus.

Similarly, in the Epic Of Gilgamesh, we can note that the protagonist is two-thirds god and one-third human. The character of Gilgamesh is an example of a supernatural force in the story. He is not only brave and sturdy like Odysseus, but also miraculously trusted by the people. Gilgamesh used his power for the sustenance of his people.

For instance, he dug wells and made barren land cultivable for his people, providing them with space for agriculture and paving the way through mountains and making passes for access. He also constructed fortified walls for his people in and around Uruk. Gilgamesh had defiance in him as far as doctrines are concerned about having a thirst for glory (George).

On one fateful event, Gilgamesh, accompanied by Enkidu, entered the forest that was forbidden to mortals. They cut the trees and slay fiendish Humbaba with the help of Shamash’s divine intervention. The most interesting part of Gilgamesh’s tale is that he initially was not liked by the masses but later on succeeded in living a dazzling joyous life. Gilgamesh’s intrepidity said the words to follow to his followers:

“Until the end comes, enjoy your life, spend it in happiness, and not despair. Savor your food, make each of your days a delight, bathe and anoint yourself, wear bright clothes that are sparkling clean, let music and dancing fill your house, love the child who holds you by the hand, and give your wife pleasure in your embrace. That is the best way for a man to live”. These words were said by Gilgamesh to highlight the true nature of life, showing his fortitude and command due to his personal experience (George 83).

In both historical mythologies, the two prime characters of Gilgamesh vs Odysseus have conflicting characteristics, throwing light on the varying role a hero plays. To normal understanding, both the heroes have the bravery and divine intervention in common (Launderville).

Gilgamesh, for instance, is involved in manipulating recent married brides who did not see their husbands face putting a big question mark on his character. Odysseus, on the other hand, is exactly Gilgamesh’s opposite. He also has his ups and downs, but characteristically cares for his people and has a good relationship with his son and virtuous wife (George). In this aspect, Odysseus differs from Gilgamesh in a complete way.

We will write a custom Essay on Gilgamesh and Odysseus: a Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The comparison of Odysseus and Gilgamesh makes sense when a goal is materialized in both the stories. Both of them have a sense of urgency and stand for a cause. Odysseus is considered cunning but loyal to his wife and child, and Gilgamesh tries to be immortal, making “heroism” a cultural value in both the Sagas (Louden).

Gilgamesh becomes righteous king from a bully and tyrant by love or friendliness of Enkidu. The death of Gilgamesh’s friend’s death is another event that makes the way Gilgamesh thinks about living different. The similarity of Enkidu and Gilgamesh is that they both realize that the gods, when angered, become devastatingly brutal. Ea is the god of wisdom and crafts rescues Utnapishtim and other species and the whole of humankind (Callen King).

Gilgamesh is portrayed as an oppressive hero and a fearless, noble warrior. And the weakness displayed for the plant of youth and his friend’s death makes him only human, and as we know, there are no black or white areas in a human’s reaction; there are only grey areas in Gilgamesh’s attitude. Was Gilgamesh free to act on his will, or did the gods control him? Which makes a justified question? (Callen King)

Gilgamesh starts with a journey while Odysseus is already on one right from the beginning of the text. Both men holding prominent positions in the respective tales have physical powers given to them by gods. Both the epic tales were initially poems praising their respective heroes. While Gilgamesh is an example of a supernatural force, Odysseus stands out as a better strategist. His entering the enemy’s fortified area was indeed a clear display of valor. And fighting his way through the difficult times confidently emerging as victorious (Launderville).

Gilgamesh and Odysseus: Common Themes The common theme present is of heroism in both the Epic tales. They are men with extraordinary strength and supremacy. The heroes give us sheer strength in mind and on the other hand, understanding of heroic physical strength in particular. Both heroes face death and travel through their paths bravely and honorably with Odysseus’s family facing hardships due to his faraway journey in pursuit of knowledge and wealth. Both the characters break themselves to hero and tyrants.

Gilgamesh succeeds with his lesson about the reality of man being mortal soon. He also understood that no matter what one’s achievements are, even if they are godlike as far as Gilgamesh is concerned, one has to cherish the smaller things. It took Gilgamesh a single day while Odysseus’s journey expanded to twenty years to understand that everyone has to discover the meanings of life.

Gilgamesh and Odysseus were designed to confront the outer limits of human existence and then to bring back knowledge extracted from this extreme perspective (Launderville).

Gilgamesh shows no mercy to the beast and slays it taking apt advice from Enkidu, who says: “Kill the beast now Gilgamesh. Show no weak or silly mercy towards so sly a foe.” Taking the advice, Gilgamesh cuts the beast.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gilgamesh and Odysseus: a Comparison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Odysseus, on the other hand, though Athena’s divine assistance, along with Telemachus, and a couple of herdsmen, manages to kill all of the suitors. The katabasis generally referred to amongst many others as a trip to the supernatural underworld. Katabasis is also adverted to a journey through this world to another plane in this incident the trip to the underworld (Launderville).

Conclusion This essay looked at the similarities and differences of Gilgamesh and Odysseus, two famous characters of epics. In summary, it becomes visible that Odysseus vs Gilgamesh are two heroic characters from mythological texts. Both the mythical heroes have shown that everyone has the attribute to take up challenges and learning from experiences. Thus, the common theme of both the mythical texts presents that attributes of heroism can be attained by anyone provided they are ready to face challenges. Still, there are some aspects in which Odysseus differs from Gilgamesh very much. The latter, for instance, is involved in manipulations, while the former characteristically cares for those who surround him.

Works Cited Callen King, Katherine. Ancient epic. Chichester,West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

George, A. R. The Babylonian Gilgamesh epic. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Launderville, Dale. Spirit and reason: the embodied character of Ezekiel’s symbolic thinking. Texas: Baylor University Press, 2007.

Louden, Bruce. Homer’s Odyssey and the Near East. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.


Kathleen McNamara’s “Constructing Authority in the European Union” Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Governance is a process where a government effectively exercises its constitutional authority and utilizes its resources adequately. The problems and affairs are collectively overseen by international organizations, government of countries and World organizations like; United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), African Union (AU) and European Union (EU) respectively.

In the course of governing the globe, all the super powers that participate in this process make and implement policies that are beneficial to its citizens, government or corporate organizations. These benefits are either political or financial.

This essay will constructively criticize Kathleen McNamara’s article “constructing authority in the European Union” which tries to portray the EU as illegitimate and a taken for granted political entity.

Furthermore, the essay will analyze the importance of the EU as a global governor and the dividends which Europeans enjoy through this respected and important organization. This article critique is intended to acquaint the reader with the writer’s perspective regarding globalization and the management of the globe in a globalized age. (McNamara, 154)

The European Union as a Global Governor The European Union has by every legitimate means contributed immensely to the growth of both member states of the union and the entire globe. The EU is regarded as one of the most powerful and successful political innovations in the world. It has 27 member states with its powerful presence recognized in a lot of political spheres. (McNamara, 153)

Despite the EU’s reputation, writer Kathleen McNamara thinks otherwise. This brings to mind the question; what is McNamara’s perimeter for measuring success? Also important, one begins to wonder about McNamara’s source of information and how reliable or authentic these sources are.

It is important to note that, there is no reliable and scholarly authority that supports McNamara’s argument and this implies that, the article “constructing authority in the European Union” is merely a personal opinion of McNamara. Regardless of the fact that every individual is entitled to his/her own opinion about any issue, McNamara’s argument about the EU could be termed as dogmatic.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A literal example of this could be seen in the argument about the EU’s passport. The ability of the EU to successfully establish a standardized passport is a milestone achievement and a bold step in the right direction. This step is already emulated by the African Union and this clearly shows that, the EU regardless of McNamara’s argument had done something useful and worth emulating. (McNamara, 171)

The EU has its significant presence in the world trade organization (WTO) and other formal international forums like the G-8. The world trade organization and the G-8 are reputable and formal international forums that have contributed a lot to the growth of the entire world through policy making. These forums consist of scholars, reputable politicians and intelligent policy makers from different nations around the world.

If the EU was a taken for granted political entity as McNamara tries to describe it, serious minded international forums like the G-8 which has world powers like United States of America (USA), China and a host of other countries as members would not have recognized the EU presence in its forum. These examples show that the EU has clearly been a significant and seriously taken political entity not only in Europe but the entire world at large. (McNamara, 156)

Criticizing Kathleen McNamara’s argument about the European Union (EU) Kathleen McNamara’s arguments, opinions and interpretations of EU’s policies are definitely misplaced. The EU as an entity, does not function alone and policies of the EU are widely recognized and respected throughout the world which is an indication that the EU is not a taken for granted political entity. This renders all the arguments and sources of McNamara null and void.

In McNamara’s article “constructing authority in the European Union”; the writer tries to describe the EU as an illegitimate political entity since its legitimacy is contested by certain people. McNamara feels legitimate authority means achieving a significant level of acceptance without coercion. (McNamara, 153) But it is important for the reader to note at this point that, there is no single policy, law or decision, be it legitimate or not that is unanimously accepted by people.

This means that, it is literally impossible for any organization to make decisions or policies that will be unanimously accepted by everybody involved. A lot of policies made in the past by other international organizations were also challenged or contested; the power and transparency of the United Nations has consistently been challenged too. But never in history has contesting the position of an organization been used as a yardstick to measure such an organization’s legitimacy.

Therefore, using a group of people’s opinion as a yardstick to contest the EU’s legality is totally absurd. More so, since the inception of the EU, it has only experienced an increment in the number of its member states which stands currently at 27. If the EU was coercive as McNamara tries to describe it, its membership would have decreased instead of steadily increasing. It is expected that McNamara would have taken into cognizance all this facts before concluding that the EU is illegitimate and coercive. (McNamara, 157)

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Kathleen McNamara’s “Constructing Authority in the European Union” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another argument by McNamara which lacks substantial evidence to support the writer’s thesis is referring to the EU as an elite project without mass participation in decision making. McNamara ought to have known better but the writer prefers to lurk in the dark about the EU, obviously blinded by personal opinions. With 27 member states and making decisions and policies that affect over 200 million Europeans, the reference to the European Union an elite project is totally absurd and terrible. (McNamara, 172)

Conclusion Writer Kathleen McNamara obviously used unreliable sources with distorted facts and half truths to write the article “constructing authority in the European union”. The writer’s argument is dogmatic as aforementioned with no substantial evidence to support the argument. The article was more or less written from McNamara’s personal opinion and the article can therefore, be classified as a mere expression of the writer’s opinion.

Issues like the EU passport had been embedded with the words “European Union” on it are trivial besides the AU also has its passport embedded with the words “African Union”. Furthermore, if the European Union decides to depart from the modern age model of political authority been tied closely to sovereign or territorial states and a new model works effectively for the EU, then McNamara has no reason to criticize such a decision. (McNamara, 174)

Considering the number of years that the EU has been in existence and it’s ever increasing membership; it can be logically concluded that the EU has solid significant cultural foundations that are important and significant to Europeans no matter what McNamara thinks.

Works Cited McNamara, Kathleen. Constructing authority in European Union: Chicago: Regency, 2007. Print


Steroids Position Paper Essay custom essay help

Introduction By definition, steroids are artificial or natural composites that assist in controlling definite body functions. They are categorized in two groups namely anabolic steroids and androgenic steroids.Anabolic steroids are the most common one, which is utilized by sportspersons to enhance their performance in sporting.

In light of exploration and subjective reports regarding whether to use steroids or not for bodybuilding reasons, it appears there are unquestionably two distinct groups and every camp with primarily divergent viewpoints concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using steroids.

Each group has come out strongly to defend their positions with yes group arguing that enhancing performance benefits that steroid brings outweighs the side effects while the anti-group have stated numerous reasons to discourage sportspersons from using them.

When you think critically as an athlete, can your health be compared with merely winning a race? Of course, not health is more important that is why I am against using steroids to enhance performance. All athletes should think about the harm they are doing to their body and their general health before using steroids

Steroids are harmful and should only be used when a medical doctor recommends instances such as treatment of osteoporosis, impotence, anemia, and breast cancer regulation and enhance weight loss when patient losses too much weight (Lewis 2).We also have steroid creams, which come in handy in dealing with specific skin and irritating situations. Much as there numerous medical applications of steroids, their use in medicinal applications has been limited, as a result of possible side effects that come with their use.

Therefore, generally speaking, steroids are not good for use as it leads to the numerous adverse effects. According to Lewis, people who use steroids have higher chances of developing heart diseases, stokes, interior body bleeding, virus-related infections, liver tumor and general weakening of immune systems(3). With such health complications, risk factor is increased, life expectancy is decreased the users may die earlier than non-users.

Another dark side of steroids is that they lead to hormone imbalances, particularly in teenagers who may already be having issues with hormones. With use of anabolic steroids, it may result in contracting of testicles,breasts, and low semen count. For girls, it may lead to small breast, being more of a man like deeper voice and disproportionately growth of body hair for instance growing beards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additional, with abuse of steroids, it affects individual growth and may result into an individual remaining short for the rest of theirlife (Robinson 3). Such issues affect ones’ self-esteem and affect their performance even in class.

Steroids are addictive. There use will force users to continue a costly drug custom and should they stop using them abruptly, they will have to face withdrawal symptoms such as sleeplessness, tiredness, anxiety, mood swings, appetite loss, and steroid cravings (Lewis 4).

Most of people who stop using similarly undergo depression mostly years after stopping to an extent committing suicide becomes their only better option. Sometime as they try to control side effects associated with use of steroids, they try out other drugs or medicines, which in many cases can simply leading to use of hard-core drug making the situation worse.

Continued use of steroids leads to false impression and mania and in the end; they transform a humble and mild mannered individual into a violent murderous fanatic or mania commonly referred to as ‘roid rage’. Another factor about anabolic steroids that people have continued to ignore is the fact that they are illegal under the penal code. They are categorized as controlled material and registered pharmacists under doctor’s recommendation can only retail them. Therefore, if anyone gets them via other means, they risk being jailed.

The misconception about bodybuilding and steroid could be the reason why people abuse steroid. People are made to believe that by simply taking steroids, it will enhance their muscles and make them ‘muscular’ and built. The truth is that even after taking them, one need to do bodybuilding workouts and lift weights before attaining desired physique.

Steroids alone will never to do that but instead waste peoples’ general fitness. Even though to some extent, steroid may assist in improving physical appearance, if correctly executed, bodybuilding aerobics will give similar outcomes without any harmful side effect (Lynn 2).

We have anothergroup, which has argued that steroids use is not bad provided they are taken under a medical doctor’s management. There justification is based on the fact that steroids improve individuals’ healthiness and well-being and, certainly, be the leaders as far as bodybuilding accomplishment is concerned.

We will write a custom Essay on Steroids Position Paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those who support use of steroid do not seem to understand moral quandaries that come with use of steroids and in their opinion, bodybuilding success is an indication of advancement and they should continue using so as to excel in sports or bodybuilding. Furthermore, they argue that “given steroids are synthetically derived versions of the natural male sex-hormone testosterone, it is thought they could actually assist the male who, for whatever reason, experiences declining levels of this hormone” (Lynn3).

In myview steroid should only be used for limited medical applications under doctor’s direction and if an alternative can found, it should be used instead of using steroid. This is because even when used for medicinal purposes and in small quantities, steroids might lead to permanent harm to the patient, even if the patient discontinues using them.In addition, for those who abuse steroid for bodybuilding and performance enhancement purposes face severe consequences and they must stop using them.

Just to mention a few, the use of steroid leads to negative effects such heart diseases, liver cancer, low sperm count, interior body bleeding, strokes and general weakening of the body immune system. Moreover, steroids lead hormone imbalances leading to shrunken testicles and breasts for boys while girls it may lead to small breast, being more of a man like deeper voice and disproportionately growth of body hair for instance growing beards.

Finally, it leads to addiction, which is an expensive habit to maintain,and this is coupled with high chances of being jailed is caught. It is better to avoid using steroids and try doing physical exercise to enhance physical appearance since it reality steroids alone will not give you that muscular appearance you are dreaming out but properly executed bodybuilding aerobics does.

There is noteworthy reason as to why someone should use steroid since the side effects are more and therefore people should abstain from using steroid. The secret is exercises consistently and correctly, eat a well balanced diet and you will a health physical appearance. Steroids will offer a momentary solution, but you may death is not something you can tradeoff with just enhancing physical appearance.

Works Cited Lewis, Liz.5 reasons not to take anabolic steroids. Bliss Tress,15 Dec. 2007. Web.

Lynn,Michy.Steroid use and abuse: The good, bad, and ugly of steroid abuse. Yahoo Inc., 16 October 2006. Web.

Robinson,David. The Anthony Catanzaro approach to natural bodybuilding: The pros


Hopi Education Theories and Practices Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Pedagogical Theories Identified in Hopi Life The early education of Hopi culture was to encourage a worldview integrity without which knowledge could indeed become dangerous and dreadful. The educational theories which can be identified in Hopi life include behavioral learning, cognitive learning, and social learning theories. Each theory enabled the youth to learn more about the world and concepts typical of their own culture and related issues. Experience was an integral apet of the Hopi culture as young people learnt different concepts as soon as they encountered those.

Theories: Behavioral Learning Theory

This theory has its focus on stimuli and responses that can be readily observed. This process was used by older individuals within the surroundings of children, so that as soon as Hopi children reached maturity kinship reactions were embedded in their thinking, feeling and everyday life and were part of him just as sleeping and eating.

The Hopi were not merely informed that rules of behavior were wise but rather they lived with them as they grew up and became a part of their environment which is very different from the American separation of teaching at home at school and during Sunday school. “But I am still a child. A lost child. I cannot find my way. Where is the pathway of peace? Where can I find the harmony of the true Hopi?” (Qoyawayma 3).

Theories: Cognitive Learning Theory

The process of acquisition is combined with remembering facts and related information, and application of this information in practice is usually referred to as a cognitive learning theory. What is learned and internalized in infancy and early childhood can resist any contact situations.

The Young Hopi children are taught cultural values through the use of stories. One of the first stories which were told to Hopi youth by their elders was that of the blue corn or sakwapqa’ö. The most important aspect to consider in the traditional education system of the Hopi people is the emotional commitment involved in this particular type of process which enabled them to resist cultural change (Eggan 1956: 347).

This theory was used for teaching young people of the Hopi society to cognate the world. From birth, the young of the household were attended to and disciplined mildly for the first several years by their relatives in addition to their mother and visitors whom were in the home (Egan 1956: 349).

Theories: Social Learning Theory

Social context presupposes acquisition and application of knowledge. The Hopi people received education from their families where adult members had the responsibility of educating young. Stories which were told in Hopi culture pointed to improper behavior as the source of crop failure or sickness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This effects were clearly seen and understood by all the children of the village. It was the belief of Hopi people that each person in the group is responsible for what happens to all. If one child disobeys and does something bad, every child of the clan may receive a punishment (Eggan 356)

Cultural Values or Ideas Being Supported Clan Identity

In addition to extended families, Hopi people belonged to one tribe in which they were born. A Hopi was a child of his father’s clan and this group took a lively interest in him (Eggan 354). Identity is an important part of Hopi culture, especially with regard to clan membership. The relationships similar to the ones between family members are binding forces for the members of the clan which is also the center of the tribe.

The clans hold the Hopi villages together and provides a singular Hopi identity ( Women are treated differently than in western countries because children become the members of a wife’s rather than a husband’s clan. Children are named by the women who belong to the father’s clan (Apache “A baby never depended on only his physical mother. “Many arms gave him comfort” (Eggan 353)


Hopi wisdom encourages a hopi to speak truth and warns them against looking outside themselves for a leader as they all have leadership qualities within them. The Hopi people are encouraged to be courageous. As reported by Eloise, Hopi elders consider the counsciousness of an individual as something that is not posessesd by this person until he/she comprehends and acknowledges spiritual responsibility.

Corn Relationships and Human Being

Corn has a great significance among the Hopi people because it sustains them both physically and spiritually given that they lived in an area where food was often scarce. Corn was a great source of nutrition with all important minerals and elements and was available when other products were scarce. Members of the Hopi society learned to make other products like piki and cake-like food using corn. People of hopi tribes believed that corn was given to them by deity of flora and spirits of different natural phenomena (

Corn plays a major role in the everyday life of the Hopi as well as in ceremonial life. According to the tradition related to corn, a nice-shaped ear of corn was placed into a medicinal bowl located on the alter for ceremonial purposes; preceding this, this ear was decorated with jewels and feathers. The ritual included purification of people who took part in the ceremony by sprinkling them and ceremony-related objects with meals made of corn.

Additionally, to prevent enemies and undesirable guests from enetering the territory of the tribe, corn could be placed across the road ( The Hopi people believed that corn was an indication that life is a planting, a growing, and harvesting and that prayers are physical things when appropriately conceived capable of coming to plentiful fulfillment and seedtime (Qoyawayma 8).

We will write a custom Essay on Hopi Education Theories and Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Child Naming

Names are important among the Hopi people as they help in identification of the members of this tribe. During the birth of a Hopi baby, the Hopi culture provides that the infant and the mother should be isolated inside a dark house for a period of 20 days. The mother is required to place two ears of corn next to the cradle and remain close to the infant until the day of the naming ceremony takes.

The paternal grandmother was required by the Hopi culture to give a blessing to the child before the other family members on the morning of the child naming ceremony. The blessing was given using sacred ears. The child was given a hand made quilt by the grandmother before the other members are allowed to offer the baby their quilts.

In case of a large family, the baby could end up with several names and quilts. The parents of the new born child then make a selection of the name to be used from among the suggested names. After becoming a member of another religious society such as the Kachina society, the Hopi people made provisions to change the names of newly-initiated people (

Responsibilities in Hopi Clan

Men and women had in Hopi society were assigned different responsibilities. Hopi men were expected to hunt deers in order to obtain meat as well as hides and bones for clothing and tools. Women in this society baked cornbread and gathered fruit and herbs. Most of the agricultural field work with the exception of corn planting which is a community event in which both men and women participate was carried out by men. In contrast to other societies, the arts of weaving and leatherwork were not only done by women, but men as well.

Religion: Kachina Dolls

Education of children was performed by parents who used Kachina dolls to explain diffent concepts of life. The Kachina dolls enabled the children in Hopi society to understand the importance of Kachinas in tribal ceremonies (SR Publications 2008: n.p.).

Good Heartedness

The Hopi believe that the dark-hearted people will be eliminated and the good hearted ones walking with the One will continue this world. The religion teaches that all distress from crop failure to illnesses is as a result of bad hearts.

A good heart is a positive thing which should never go out of a Hopi’s mind (Eggan 1956: 360) only those people who have good hearts are effective in prayer resulting in constant probing of the heart. Oh, for a heart as pure as pollen on corn blossom, and for life as sweet as honey gathered from the flowers” (Qoyawayma 5)

Art as a Medium of Instruction

The Hopi have expressed their artistic skills in form of jewelry, pottery, painting, textiles, and basket making. The Hopi people were able to communicate their dreams, visions, and beliefs through their artistic skills. The artistic skills on pots told a stories which taught the young members of the society (Faulstich 2008: n.p.).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hopi Education Theories and Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Information on Hopi Culture. Web.

Apache Tracker. Hopi Culture. February 23, 2011. Accessed

Eggan, Dorothy. Instruction and affect in Hopi cultural continuity. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 12 (4)(1956): 347-370.

Eloise, Hart. Wisdom teachings of the Hopi. Sunrise Magazine, October/November 1990.

Faulstich, Paul. Ethnocology. Environmental Studies,148, 2008. Web.

Hopi-Songs of the Forth World [Film]. 58 min. Dir. Ferrero Pat. Distributed by New Day Films.

Qoyawayma, Polingaysi. No turning back: A Hopi woman’s struggle to live in two worlds Quilting and the Hopi. February 23, 2011. Accessed

SR Publications. Hopi: Songs of the Forthworld. 2008. Web.


Military Draft: Arguments for and Against Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Arguments In Favor of Military Draft

Arguments Against Military Draft


Works Cited

Introduction While the all-volunteer military force established in 1973 by the US has been adequate up to the end of the last century, recent events have resulted in the over stretching of the military forces of the country.

These events have been in the form of the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan; both of which have resulted in the deployment of thousands of US troops. This has resulted in some policy makers giving consideration to reinstating a military draft to increase the military forces numbers therefore relieving the armed forces of the pressures that they currently face.

These propositions have been met by mostly negative reactions by the American public who deem a military draft as a violation of their civil liberties. However, the US faces multiple wars and increasing threats from hostile nations leading to a high demand for a bigger army. These realities seem to dictate that a reinstatement of a military draft may be in the best interest of the US. This paper shall set out to argue that a military draft should be reinstated since it holds numerous merits for the country.

Arguments In Favor of Military Draft A military draft will result in a situation whereby all citizens will be required to serve the country in an equitable manner. This will result in a sense of patriotism and loyalty by the army personnel. As it currently stands, military service is viewed as a way to make a living. It can therefore be alluded that most of the people enlist to the army as a means of employment rather than from a sense of duty to the country.

Asher reveals that in 18th century France, the army was made up mainly of enlisted personnel who joined the army to avoid poverty, unemployment or the law (3). In effect, this army had a severe desertion problem and there was lack of loyalty since the soldiers were little more than mercenaries. However, when conscription was introduced where all French men and women were eligible for mandatory military service, the draft was regarded as a republican duty and hence loyalty increased and desertion decreased.

Defending the country should be the civic responsibility of every citizen of the country. As it currently stands, the United State’s army is mostly composed of minorities and the working class. Dickinson reveals that African-Americans who make up approximately 13% of the population form about 22% of the armed forces (49).

The author goes on to note that recruits mostly hail from the “middle and lower-middle socioeconomic strata” (49). This clearly points out that the military does not have an equal representation from all levels of the society but rather is made up mostly of minorities and the working class.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rangel Charles, a politician in favor of the draft quips that the current all-volunteer system is unjust and immoral since “it shouldn’t be just the poor and the working poor who find their way into harm’s way” (Dickinson 49).By reintroducing the military draft, this situation would be changed since all members of the society would be forced to participate in military service in an equal manner.

A military draft would result in more public involvement in the activities of the military. As it currently stands, most citizens are apathetic to the military and their only concern is how military activities affect their taxation. As a result of this non-committal nature, politicians do not have to seek popular approval before committing troops to battle.

Weisberg best illustrates this by noting that in 2006, 3 years after the Iraq war had began, the US did not feel like a nation at war even though American troops had been killed and maimed in battle up to the date. Dickinson states that a society wide draft would result in more families and politicians having their children or kin in the military (49). This would result in greater deliberations before sending the soldiers into battle since the human sacrifice being made in war would be greater felt (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt 516).

In addition to this, military draft would result in greater political fallout from unpopular wars since people would be more willing to take onto the streets to demonstrate against the war. The huge anti-war sentiments expressed by American’s following the Vietnam War in 1965 were as a direct result of the military draft that was in place at the time.

Arguments Against Military Draft A major argument advanced by opponents to military draft is that this system results in forcing of people to serve in an army against their wills. For these opponents, “the draft is a form of slavery and individuals surrender part of life when called to serve” (Asher 21).

While military drafts evoke negative images of being forced to fight for one’s country against your will, Asher notes that the concept of conscription can trace its roots back to ancient Greece where “all citizens enjoyed the benefits of freedom in exchange for their obligation to defend the sate” (3). From this, it can be seen that a military draft is in reality a system where the citizens are afforded the chance to fight for their country.

Another argument against military draft is that it would degrade the military’s performance greatly therefore making it less effective. Bandow states that conscription would lower the level of the US military since it would require the induction of less qualified personnel who are rejected in the all-volunteer system of present time (1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Military Draft: Arguments for and Against specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This ideal is corroborated by a retired general, Sullivan, who declares that “the army prefers high quality volunteers to mixed quality draftees” This argument is faulty since as it currently stands, the US military does not necessarily get the “best” applications for service. As it currently stands, there is a shortage of young men and women willing to serve despite the increase in need for service men in the military (Kagan and O’Hanlon, 11).

Dickinson reveals that Pentagon is having problems attracting enough recruits to maintain current troop levels and in desperation, the army has lowered standards leading to 25% more high school dropouts being let into the army (50). The argument that conscription will lower the standards of the army therefore fails to hold true in light of this revelations.

Conclusion This paper set out to argue that a military draft is needed to ensure in the US. To reinforce this assertion, this paper has discussed the merits that military draft would have to the military as well as the society as a whole. Reinstating the military draft would result in equal representation from all levels of the society therefore leading to more citizen involvement in military affairs and hence accountability by politicians.

A military draft would also strengthen the US military in numbers which would be desirable since the US is facing a much dangerous world today and the all-volunteer military is simply too small to meet the global demands that the US military faces.

Works Cited Asher, Robbie. Draft or volunteer army: our nation’s best interest. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, 2008.

Bandow, Doug. “Fighting the war against terrorism: Elite forces, yes; conscripts, no”. Policy Analysis, No. 430, April 2002.

Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack and Schmidt, Steffen. American Government and Politics Today. Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Dickinson, Tim. “The return of the draft”. Rolling Stone, New York, Is. 967: Feb 10, 2005.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Draft: Arguments for and Against by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kagan, Fredrick and O’Hanlon, Michael. Increasing the Size and power of the U.S. Military. The Brookings Institution, 2008.

Sullivan, Gordo. “Washington Tightwads Are Creating a Hollow Military,” Wall Street Journal, 22 September 1998.

Weisberg, Jacob. “The Gross Unfairness of an All Volunteer Army.” Slate Magazine, 22 March 2006.