Genetically Modified Foods Projects Descriptive Essay College Essay Help

Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods produced through modification of various genetic make-ups, using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques involve selective breeding and creating somaclonal variation. GM foods have been in the market from the early 90’s but have gained more popularity in the past decade. However, since its inception, this technology has been faced by various criticisms from economic views, religious, safety, to ecological issues.

To develop these foods, there is always a pioneering project to create and test the foods. However, these projects encounter various problems which have led to the failure of some of the projects.

For a project to be successful, there are various issues that must be considered, below are guidelines which are worth noting when undertaking such projects. Foremost, it is recognized there are several procedures involved in the project development with the main ones being, initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and closing. One of the fundamental issues that determine the success of any project is the planning stage of a particular project.

This is the function of the project management, who should determine which resources will be required (both human and material resource) along with a budget of the costs that are anticipated. For the successful execution of a project, the managers of the project should have a documented Project Management Plan (PMP) and a Project Execution Plan (or PEP). The PMP will be a stipulation on how the project will be managed, controlled, and the stakeholders involved, while the PEP will be a guideline of how the project will be implemented.

The PEP stipulates the time required for each activity, resources, constraints, deadlines and other critical dates in the schedule. In addition to a plan, the management should also adopt a project management model that guides it the execution of the program, although the model chosen can be changed at different stages. Some of these models include: Critical Chain Project Management, Extreme Project Management, Event chain methodology and the Process-based management model.

Communication is another major issue in project planning; there must be an effective communication channel for the project to be successful. Each member involved must be clearly aware of the responsibilities assigned to them.

Here should also be a communication guideline on who is responsible for giving information so that anyone who needs clarification will be able to get it and to avoid conflicts of responsibilities. Another essential tool for project implementation is the Project Success Plan. This shows what the project is meant to accomplish in a given time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The plan should be formed once the project’s participants have been chosen and it should be communicated to the members and should continuously be used as a reminder of the mission of the project when the team gets out of track, or there are anomalies occurring. The plan should also include the rewards of the project once it has been executed to motivate the members by informing them of the benefits accruing from the project.

Another vital consideration is the project management: genetic engineering projects face administration problems because no one wants to lead in case it fails, but everyone usually wants credit if it succeeds.

Projects, therefore, require proper leadership for them to succeed and there are three majors’ issues that the administrators must focus on. “Project managers must focus on three dimensions of project success, completing all project deliverables on time, within budget, and to a level of quality that is acceptable to sponsors and stakeholders” (Nordlee, 2009, p. 334).

Plans made always do not turn out exactly as expected; therefore, managers should be aware of this by being prepared for any anomalies. Planning the reform should be a routine task for managers and they should seek ways of perfecting in the job. Genetic engineering projects often take a long time before they are complete; some even take years without results.

A specific timeline should be set for the project, with all relevant issues been considered when doing this and more importantly, quality. Qaim (2003, p. 90), gives an example of the “Standard ISD model that ensures professional standards and best practices are built into a project.” This model helps in maintaining quality and also reduces the work involved, therefore helping the managers in dealing with time and budget pressures.

Genetic engineering projects are also faced with many disputes on the intended benefits of the project; some participants may want crops that are disease-resistant while others wish to drought-resistant plants, therefore, causing a conflict of interests.

Projects need sponsors formal approvals, authority permission among other stakeholders and forms of support. This is to prevent imminent risks, however, “anyone who has the power to reject or to demand revision of deliverables after they are complete must be required to examine and approve them as they are being built” (Stanley, 2010, 43).

We will write a custom Essay on Genetically modified foods projects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Project accomplishment is connected to detailed examination of the importance of the project deliverables. It is evident that when a project achieves deliverables that are intended to meet a carefully documented requirement, the project is likely to be successful. Therefore, the project administrators should ensure that the recognized requirements of the project before undertaking it.

Genetic engineering projects often start and then come to a stop at a certain point due to lack of resources. Most of these projects are expensive because of the equipment, expertise and complex development environments that they require. Others take too long and therefore sponsors start to lose hope and pull out.

The project implementers should make sure that they have been accorded the necessary resources required for the project on time. Managers should identify and inform the sponsors on the benefits of the project so that they can win their trust and be awarded excellent resources. This will enable them to do a perfect job that will need no revisions afterward.

They, therefore, should maximize the resources given to do the job right so as to prevent wastage of resources that could be incurred repeatedly. The responsibility of the project administrators should be stipulated so that it is clear on who will be held responsible for the performance of the project. Notably, “managers must have the authority to acquire and coordinate resources, request and receive cooperation, and make appropriate binding decisions which would have an impact on the success of the project” (Rao, 2010, p. 2)

The sponsors of the project must participate in the development of the project not to remain passive. They should be involved in approving the benefits expected, involve themselves in all stages, examine interim achievements without disrupting the project development process, and ensure there is proper documentation of the project’s progress. The managers should also ensure that the project is adequately funded and supported by continually advertising it and its benefits.

Genetic engineering has many benefits to the society worldwide, although the benefits are hardly recognized. There have been many successful projects in the medical field and also in agriculture. For example, there are GM crops that can now release toxins to kill insects that invade them and others are also resistant to viral diseases, therefore, making farming cheaper since there is no need for herbicides.

Other GM crops produce nutrients that they release in the soil, therefore, making it fertile while others grow faster than their original pace, thus, making food available at all times (McHughen, 2000, p. 156). There are so many benefits of genetic engineering depending on the intended objectives of the project; hence project managers should therefore commit, sacrifice and be ready to act as salespeople or marketers at times for the success of their projects.

The managers should also hire competent team members, the best qualified and experienced, even if it implies more costs because there will be assured quality in them. The manager should shield the members from any external disruptions and also ensure that all the resources they require are available.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Genetically modified foods projects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If a project is being sponsored by an organization with other operations; the organization should create a project management office to ensure that all projects are awarded the necessary attention and also control resources being utilized. The Project Office will “review the organization’s overall mission and strategies, establish criteria for project selection and funding, monitor resource workloads, and determine which projects are of high enough priority to be approved to prevent project jam” (Martineau 2001, p. 269).

Projects will always be faced with risks in their development due to uncertain events that characterize the real world. Some of these risks include environmental outbursts, chemical exposures, experimental mishaps, unforeseen delays, the control room at risk of flooding and many others.

Each project is faced by different risks, but there are those that are common in all and therefore, the managers should be prepared for such by being alert. Projects, therefore, require effective monitoring and controlling so as to mitigate these uncertainties. This can be done through: Measuring the ongoing project activities, monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance, and identifying corrective actions to address issues and risks (Holmes 2010, p. 14).

A risk is an uncertainty and could have a positive or negative impact on the project. Possible Risks should be identified during the initial stages of the project so that the team can be prepared for any future occurrences that could compromise the success of the project.

These risks should also be communicated to the team members as soon as they are identified to alert everyone. Risks can be identified by collecting information from the public or the media. After that, the project management team should research on the possible solutions to the hazards that have been applied before.

Project implementers should also note that risks are not only negative but could also be positive; hence it is advisable always to be updated on possible risks because some could cause uncertain events that can turn out to be advantageous to the project. The project manager should keep a record of possible risks and their effects to avoid confusion if anything happens. “Risk tasks could be conducted to identify or analyze risks or to generate, select and implement responses.” (Lai et al. 2006, p. 435)

A common problem in genetic engineering projects is ownership rights; when a project ends up being successful, wrangles begin on who is to be accredited for it and especially when huge revenues are involved. For example, the modification of vitamin A had over 70 people claiming ownership leading to many conflicts.

Genetic engineering projects are carried out by scientists who have different theories and methods in conducting their research. Sometimes the scientists are required to bring together ideas to come up with concretes idea and thus they should be ready to cooperate and share the benefits of the project according to the agreed-upon plan.

The genetic engineering projects also face a lot of criticism from various religions which claim that the GM foods are ungodly. Project’s managers should ensure that the clergy is well enlightened on the benefits of the plans to avoid conflicts. The religious community should be informed that the world’s population is growing and there is no food to feed everyone through traditional methods and the only way to produce enough food for them is through these projects.

Rejecting these foods amounts to allowing people to starve, which is not a religious value. All these issues should be well anticipated and clearly stipulated before the initiation of the project to avoid such conflicts which can make a project to lose its stakeholder’s credibility or even halt its progress.

In case a project is affected by a risk that impacts on its implementation process, the team should concentrate on minimizing its effects on the project. This could involve change of suppliers of technology, sponsors, or even members of the team involved. The critical issues involved in risk management are: “risk avoidance, risk minimization and risk acceptance.”

If the risk cannot be avoided, then its effect should be minimized and if not, the project should be dropped immediately to prevent further loss of resources on an already failed project. Lastly, project managers could practice project maintenance (Boucher 1999, p. 342): “This is a continuous approach which involves, continuing support of end-users, correction of errors, and updating the technology being used in the project.” It is necessary for project managers to prepare a risk management plan to mitigate the imminent risks or distractions.

In conclusion, the above genetic engineering project guidelines are equally essential in any project if it is to succeed and should be fundamentally considered in the project management plan.

Reference List Boucher, D., 1999. The Paradox of Plenty: Hunger in a Bountiful World. Food First, pp. 342.

Holmes, B., 2010. Altered animals: Creatures with bonus features. New Scientist, pp. 14.

Lai, L. et al., 2006. Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Nature Biotechnology, pp. 435–436.

Martineau, B., 2001. First Fruit: The Creation of the Flavr Savr Tomato and the Birth of Biotech Foods. CA: McGraw-Hill.

McHughen, A., 2000. The Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods, Pandora’s Picnic Basket. London: Oxford University Press.

Nordlee, J., 2009. Identification of Brazil-Nut Allergen in Transgenic Soybeans. New England Journal of Medicine, pp. 334.

Pollack, M. and Shaffer G., 2009. When Cooperation Fails. The International Law and Politics of Genetically Modified Foods, pp. 24-26.

Qaim, M., 2003. Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries. The Science Journal, pp. 900–902.

Rao, S., 2010. Genetically Modified Tomatoes Can Last 45 Days On The Shelf. Discover magazine, pp. 2.

Stanley, H. et al., 2001. Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, pp. 11931–36.


The Literary Function of Dreams in the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay a level english language essay help

In a society, dreams serve various purposes depending on the culture, community, or family. The significance of dreams is related to the way an individual feels about them. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, which was developed over a period of nearly a thousand years from about 2500 to 1500 B.C., several dreams are told involving the fifth king of Uruk, Gilgamesh, and his compatriot, Enkidu. Even though the original author of the book is not known, it is largely associated with Sinleqe-unninni, a scholar who lived in the ancient Mesopotamia.

Gilgamesh, who is described as two-thirds god and one-third man, is the central character in the story. Because of the importance of dreams, at critical instances, Gilgamesh does elaborate rituals to evoke dreams to advise and guide him. In fact, he follows this internal guide over every other counsel. These dreams greatly influence the plot of the narrative since the characters perceived that the deities sent the dreams, they needed interpretation because they had a unique revelation, and were able to foretell the future.

First, we see that as the story starts, King Gilgamesh of Uruk is depicted to be in mature manhood and superior to all other men in both beauty and strength. The unsatisfied craving of his two-thirds divinity makes him to find no suitable mate in love or war. More so, his daemonic energy makes his subjects to be unsatisfied with his rule.

The men of Uruk murmured in their houses, “Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement; his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father; for the king takes them all… his lust leaves no virgin to her lover” (Lawall, 13).

Since there were no challenges worthy of his nature, Gilgamesh turned to excess and indulgence, and he celebrated his victories with too much debauched partying, which annoyed the individuals in the city as well as the gods in the temples. Because of his oppressive rule, the people asked for help from the gods since they feared that someday Gilgamesh would ask for a greater part of his divine heritage, challenge the gods and even rock the pillars of heaven if he was not controlled.

Therefore, to counter the threat, the gods devised a plan of creating Enkidu, who was the mirror image of Gilgamesh. They believed that the king would divert his dangerous energies toward that rival thereby stop challenging heaven.

he sky god, Anu (An), and the mother goddess, Ninlil (Ninhursag), made Enkidu from clay and gave it life before dropping him in the wilderness to live and eat like an animal. In time, a trapper met him and asked a harlot from the city to seduce him so that the wild animals can reject him. The trapper said to the harlot, “When he comes near uncover yourself and lie with him; teach him the savage art…for when he murmurs love to you, the wild beasts that shared his life in the hills will reject him” (Lawall, 14).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thereafter, an irrevocable step was taken to domesticate the ‘natural man.’ This involved taking him through various stages such as learning to wear clothes and feeding him on food prepared by humans. He was tamed slowly by slowly until he was able to make it to the great-civilized city of Uruk.

To foretell the coming of Enkidu, the gods sent two dreams to the king. He then narrated the dreams to his mother. Concerning the first dream, he said, “There were stars in the heaven…one of them, a meteorite, fell down to me. I tried to lift it, but it was too heavy for me; I tried to move it away, but I could not remove it…. I bent it as over a woman, and put it at your feet, and you yourself did put it on a par with me” (Lawall, 15).

His mother, Ninsun, who was a goddess, gave him the meaning of the dreams that he was experiencing. He told him that the star, which was too heavy for him to carry, was the man whom she had made to be his companion.

This man, she said, would watch over him, as would a wife; he would never keep away from him and would always come to his aid. More so, the weight of his strength would be felt throughout the country. Ninsun stated, “I myself put him on a par with you…He is a strong companion, one who helps a friend in need …That you did bend over him, as over a woman means that he will never forsake you. This is the meaning” (Lawall, 15).

The first dream in the story predicts the coming together of Gilgamesh and Enkidu. This sets up the theme of the story by demonstrating their eternal friendship. This dream introduces the important idea of the solidarity between the two men and helps to develop the plot of the story since subsequent events in the story is based on this newly found friendship.

Gilgamesh then tells his mother about the second dream. He said, “I saw it (the axe) and was glad. I bent down, deeply drawn towards it; I loved it like a woman and wore it at my side” (Lawall, 15). His mother explained that it was not an axe: “That axe, which you saw…that is the comrade whom I give you…he is the brave companion who rescues his friend” (Lawall, 15).

She explained that Gilgamesh would not succeed in overpowering Enkidu; however, ultimately they would associate with one another intimately and conquer their enemies with ease. This shows that dreams are mantic, that is, able to foretell the future. On the other hand, the interpretation given to Gilgamesh also anticipates a contemporary approach. The axe, phallic and violent, represents a man who will be hostile at first but turn into a friend, and to embrace an axe is to change hostility into love and friendship.

We will write a custom Essay on The Literary Function of Dreams in the Epic of Gilgamesh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thereafter, Gilgamesh and Enkidu upheld the spirit of comradeship. When Gilgamesh afterward had a dream concerning his fate, his compatriot told him its meaning. Gilgamesh dreamt that Enlil, the father of the gods, had concealed his destiny.

In interpreting the dream, Enkidu told him that it represented his certain mortality, the rewards of unexampled preeminence over the people and success during combat. When the two heroes decide to steal trees from a far away cedar forest, which a terrifying demon called Humbaba protects and is prohibited to mortals, they had dreams that were very influential to their mission. The dreams were actually ignited by Gilgamesh.

He achieved this by digging a well, going up to the mountain, and sprinkling some substances on the earth to plead with the gods to send him a dream concerning the journey to the forest. In his subsequent dreams, Gilgamesh’s astounding courage and unwavering confidence, which he had when the story started, is disputed. Implying a sense of fear and uncertainty, he states, “I seized hold of a wild bull in the wilderness.

It bellowed and beat up the dust till the whole sky was dark, my arm was seized” (Lawall, 21). This seems to imply an anticipation of a fight that they were about to encounter. In the same way, in his other dream, Gilgamesh recounts, “I dreamed again. We stood in a deep gorge of the mountain… and suddenly the mountain fell, it struck me and caught my feet from under me” (Lawall, 21).

In giving the interpretation, Enkidu appears to verify that they would not match up the strength of the gigantic Humbaba when he says that the mountain that he saw is the terrifying demon. However, he is optimistic that “they will seize and kill him” (Lawall, 21). In both the dreams, Gilgamesh is saved and each time refreshed with water; therefore, this seems to foretell the eventual triumph that they will have.

Motivated by the explanations of the dreams, they embarked on a mission to the forest, where Humbaba lives, to cut down the trees. In the forest, they succeeded in killing Humbaba. Moreover, they butchered a semi-divine bull, the Bull of Heaven, which was sent by Anu, the god of the sky, to teach them a lesson for disobeying Ishtar, the goddess of love.

After the success of their mission, Enkidu now dreamt that they had gone contrary to the wishes of the gods so much that one of them must be sacrificed. Thereafter, he quickly succumbed to a fatal disease. When he was sick, Enkidu dreamt of the afterlife in which he saw the earthly privileges of most people scrapped from them. After Enkidu’s death, Gilgamesh moaned the loss of his compatriot, and in spite of his relentless effort to penetrate the mysteries, he never had any significant dreams.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, dreams are recurrent and since they foreshadow events in the future, they are useful in motivating the characters in their endeavors. For example, Gilgamesh dreams give him the self-confidence he needs to prevail over impediments such as a horrifying monster like Humbaba or the Bull of Heaven by making him to be focused and heroic in his ways.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Literary Function of Dreams in the Epic of Gilgamesh by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dreams persistently were a major source of encouragement for Gilgamesh that is why he even asked the gods for a dream in certain occasions. The relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu was strengthened when they knew what was going to happen in the future since they clung together to fulfill their missions.

In conclusion, it is evident that dreams serve a variety of literary roles all through the story. The main role seems to be in foretelling the future events and ideas thereby building the plot of the story. The story is a mixture of pure adventure, morality, and tragedy and dreams are interpretable as messages from deities intended to communicate to those few mortals of high status in the ancient Mesopotamia society.

Works Cited Lawall, Sarah. “Gilgamesh.” The Norton Anthology of World Literarture, Vol. A: Beginnings to A.D. 100, 2nd ed. New York: W W Norton


Effects of stress on physical health Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Stress forms an integral part of our daily life despite negative notions people have developed against it. According to Wein (2000), stress ensures that the body functions optimally particularly when responding to adverse situations. He further explains that the flight or fight response guarantees individual’s safety since the body is able to react swiftly to the changes in environmental conditions. However, chronic exposure to stress may pose adverse effects to one’s physical health.

To begin with, stress has been known to suppress immune system thereby increasing the body’s susceptibility to infections (Wein, 2000). Moreover, stress triggers the onset of heart diseases as well as high blood pressure thus subjecting an individual to health risks. Finally, stress is associated with a variety of health problems including backaches, stomachaches, pain, headaches, diarrhea, loss of sleep as well as weight gain (Wein, 2000).

Chronic exposure to stress lowers the body’s immune system thereby reducing its ability to respond to invaders such as viruses or bacteria. It is therefore important for individuals to know their stress limits in an attempt to effectively manage stress.

Health effects of stress Psychological stress triggers the physical symptoms as well as onset of various illnesses in the body. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about ninety percent of all diseases and illnesses are stress-related (Wein, 2000). Chronic stress interferes with the normal functioning of the body systems. At the outset, chronic stress suppresses the immune system, elevates blood pressure, and increases cardiac risk as well as stroke.

Effects of stress on the immune system When the body is subjected to stressful conditions, stress hormones such as cortisol hormones are released by the pituitary and adrenal glands so as to initiate the stress response in the body. Such response is vital since both the brain and immune system can communicate to ensure effective stress management.

However, such communication may be disrupted when one is exposed to chronic stress thereby suppressing the immune system. This would pave way for stress-related illnesses to attack the body. In such situations, stress hormones are persistently pumped into the blood thereby lowering the fighting ability of immune cells. According to Niess et al (2002), prolonged psychological stress suppresses immune system by reducing the macrophages, CD8 lymphocytes as well as NK cells. This exposes the body to various infections.

Effects of stress on the heart The heart functions best at certain levels of stress. However, chronic stress may lead to adverse effects on the heart performance thus posing cardiac risks. Stressors trigger cardiac events including pathophysiological changes such as myocardial infarction and ischemia, abnormalities associated with the wall motion, sudden death as well as changes in heart regulation (Soufer, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deepa, Pradeep,


Labor in capitalism system Essay best college essay help

Introduction There have been many economic systems in history of the world, all formed out of various ideologies but the most prevalent one has been capitalism. It is a system whereby the means of production are in the hand of private owners and its main aim is profits and more profits. Supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments decisions are determined by made a liberated market governments have little or no authority over the market.

The revenues from the entities are mainly for the owners and little is used to pay wages to workers. “In this system therefore production is done by the employees who use their employer, producing commodities which belong to the employer. Labor is a commodity of production (just like equipment and materials) belonging to the employer” (Daniel 1986, p. 156).

Other economic systems that have been in existence earlier are: feudalism, socialism and communism, all these systems are a little similar but all are completely different from the ideology of capitalism.

Both communism and socialism advocate for equality on ownership of property; property should be under the control of the government and all forms of means of production including labor are to be owned by the state to ensure fairness. These systems have been advocated for by many economic theorists for; example Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, among others.

One of the crucial issues in this system is labour; as said earlier everything in capitalism is determined by the market including labour. People who believe to have unique talents are paid very highly and once they stop being good at the particular job. The rewarding system of capitalism is very mean because some people earn more than they should for example CEO’s will earn more than anyone else in an organization yet he does perform as many tasks as those below him.

Karl max is one of the greatest and most controversial sociologists and economic theorist who existed in the 19th century but his woks have lived on up to date. He is one of the major proponents for the communist system and a radical political philosopher who some considered to be very dangerous. He criticized capitalism in his various works and said that one day socialism will take over from it.

Another major theorist is Adam smith who is considered to be the founder of economics as a science. He integrated social theory with economics and stipulated the way man should live .They both have similar ideologies but politically they are completely different each trying to advocate for the best economic system. Both of them agreed that there would be no consumption without production but their differences were on how production should happen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Smith believed in division of labour which would involve specialized tasks allocated to people who are good at the tasks. The division of tasks would ensure maximum productivity due to specialization.

“He saw in the division of labor and in expanding markets virtually limitless possibilities for the expansion of wealth through manufacture and trade” (Shaikh 1998, p. 65); and this would only happen if the government did not involve itself with the system instead it should let it free so as to allow the most efficient operations for both private and commercial businesses.

This system was named “laissez-faire” meaning “leave alone” and was sustained by his book “Wealth of Nations”. Smith said that people operating freely for their own benefit would be more productive by creating economic incentives that would contribute to the well being of the society.

He agreed that the system will not satisfy everyone’s needs individually but according to him it will be for the good of the state and that is the most important thing. This kind of labour therefore pointed on specialization of labour and then breaking down of responsibilities into smaller parts .Individuals will be expected to specialize on one task to increase efficiency because workers will not change from one job to the next therefore ensuring efficiency.

This ideology was the sole reason as to why factories, especially the English Victorian industries developed very fast. He said that “the government’s core functions are maintaining defense, keeping order, building infrastructure and promoting education. The government should keep the market economy open and free, and not act in ways that distort it” (as cited by Heilbroner 2000, p. 82). Smith therefore believed in a collective interest of the people not personal interests.

He also said that the price of labour can no longer be measured with the value of the good because the owner of the means to produce the good must also be rewarded the labour must produce to tangible goods and also in surplus for reinvestment. “Smith decided to settle on labor as the source of value: The number of hour’s labor that a good can be exchanged for constitutes its inherent worth” (Heilbroner 2000, p. 103).

Smith also believed labor into productive and unproductive labour and it is worth to note that he believed that agricultural activities were the only form of production. He therefore believed any service related activities were not productive and that they should not be allowed since they were not contributing to the nation‘s prosperity. Some have critiqued him as being greedy and obsessed with production and investment at the cost of human life.

We will write a custom Essay on Labor in capitalism system specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Karl Marx on the other hand was for the system that would ensure equality and that was the responsibility of the state according to him. Marx said that the workers did not like not work under the conditions that the owners of capital provided and hence one day that would have to change hence calling for a socio economic transformation Marx argued that the system alienated people from their work, and they became subject of their products therefore losing their human dignity.

They would view themselves as objects because the commodities they produced were valuable than them. The wages that people would earn are very little too and to avoid starvation then worker has no other option but to accept the payment.

The working conditions are not also good because they toil all day without rest, this leads to both physical and psychological pain and hence the worker dies early living the family in the same position. As technology advances more machines are invented and are even valued more than people and that is humiliating for the worker .People cannot leave the system yet because there is a lot of labour available to be bought at this demeaning price.

Karl Marx was therefore not pleased with such kind of a system and hence he developed a labour theory too that he demeaned fair. He said that for production to take place the worker must be in a position or capacity to produce. “This means that this means that he or she must be clothed, sheltered, fed, rested, among others before he or she will be able to properly complete the job.

Marx stated that the hours it would take society to feed, clothe, and shelter, the worker needs so that he or she is fit to produce” Nicolaevsky


“New Capitalism” by Peston Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction The lucid facts, logical ideas, mindboggling thoughts and authoritative opinions presented in Richard Sennett’s highly revered book of “New Capitalism” have been increasingly debated over the recent past based on their relevance in the modern day society.

A few economic bigwigs have been able to come out in opposition of thoughts presented in that book, while a whole lot of many others have strongly defended it. So what really is it about this book that makes it a bone of contention for economists, economy-oriented academicians and even scholars from other fundamental disciplines such as sociology?

Preliminarily, the book coherently outlines the earlier forms of industrial capitalism in both public and private organizations and its global impacts.

From that background, he then goes a mile further and circumspectly analyzes the current form of capitalism which he calls “New Capitalism” and explicates its diverse effects including: the progressively widening gap between the “haves” and “have-nots” in the society, the rise of a new influential capitalist group of people based on their timely positioning in the shifting economy, socio-political and economic traumas of those who constantly face oppression from actions by the elitist class in the society and finally, Sennett presents possible solutions and practical initiatives that can help bring reform to this derogative new form of capitalism (Sennett, 2006).

It is based on these documentations by Sennett that this paper is going to explain the current socio-economic and political happenings as selectively reported by the media on the amassed consequences of “New Capitalism.”

Main discussion The evolution of New Capitalism and its consequences

Just a few decades ago, banks were considered as invincible institutions that could never collapse. Their perceived strength for a long time is what essentially ensured that economies of countries stayed intact in spite of repeated global hiccups Stelzer (2008). But looking at the current situation, one can not help but feel awed—if not sympathetic—at their rate of collapses which have in turn led to the tumbling of governments. This is the exact scenario that Sennett (2006) had forecasted, and many more sociopolitical happenings are further getting confirmed by the day.

A recent expansively written article by BBC’s renowned writer Robert Peston in December 2008, clearly highlights how the dawn of the New Capitalism is adversely affecting Britain, USA and the world at large—and how the already grim situation can get grimmer if reformative steps are not taken. His article is primarily going to be the basis of analyzing and ascertaining projections by Sennett (2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To begin with, many researchers observe that the current economic challenges that are being faced globally are principally because of them getting into huge debts. To this effect, Peston (2008, p.1) says that:

We borrowed too much, especially in the US and the UK. And the process of paying the money back is not only leading to a fall in living standards but is also precipitating very significant changes in how the global financial economy operates.

He goes ahead and cites that the most affected parties in this issue of borrowing are households and corporate institutions. And based on the fact that so much of the economy is controlled by these two parties, the resulting economic impact is devastating. Sennett (2006) explains this situation by saying that in the New Capitalism—which we are in fact already experiencing; societies will be enticed into taking huge debts by the calculative money managers.

Once this is done, the lenders will come to ask for their money when you least expect it. And if you can not pay it back, they will freeze your assets and booming businesses thus getting even more benefits than what should. This is the typical scenario that Peston is explicating above.

Peston (2008, p.1) further preempts that the “Economic conditions in 2009 will be treacherous. There’ll be a formal recession in most developed economies, and the economic contraction is highly likely to be more severe in the UK than almost anywhere.” And as we now know, most of the high performing and well-to-do economic countries have been on a downward spiral with the USA and UK being the most affected (Stelzer, 2008).

According to Sennett (2006), this economic meltdown and economic tumbling further presents an opportunity for the rise of capitalists’ states that had foreseen this scenario ages ago and socio-economically aligned themselves accordingly. A good example is China who, according to Peston (2008, p.2), have been saving over the past decade as a country and as individuals. He additionally states that the Chinese have also been increasingly industrious over the past few years making viable (yet cheap) products, which are in turn exported to the USA and Britain.

Then unknowingly, we borrow money from clever bankers who saved their money (or at times, from moneys that our governments borrowed from countries like China) in order to buy these goods. As a result, China and these few bankers keep on progressing financially while our nations continue spiraling downwards. Essentially, this is what Sennett means when he says that “the rich will keep on getting richer while the poor ones get poorer” (p.6).

We will write a custom Essay on “New Capitalism” by Peston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Stelzer (2008) and Peston (2008, p.1 and p.6) assert that the new age capitalism has resulted in higher numbers of unemployment. Peston (2008) equates this numbers to “The extraordinary volatility we’ve experienced in the price of sterling, commodities, energy, shares and capital – which makes it so hard for businesses and investors to plan.” (p.1).

He then collectively alludes that the remaining unemployment figures are as a result of tight budgets in economies which is making companies streamline their expenditure through cutting down of jobs (p.5-6).

To this effect, Sennett (2006) says that the cutting down of jobs will only affect the tumbling economies and not those capitalist societies that had anticipated the socio-economic shake up. Again, this is the reason why China and India have been recently reported to have increased employment rates (Stelzer, 2008).

Interestingly and sadly, this new brand of capitalism is making most governments use the common man as their financial cushion—when in real sense, it should be the opposite. Accordingly, Peston (2008, p.3) notes that this “oppression” to the common man is comes in form of over-taxation and the reduction of support-funds.

The money realized from the taxes are then used by the governments to try resuscitating the, seemingly, dying financial powerhouses like banks, state corporations, privately state owned investments among many others. As for the reduction in funds, this is simply meant to cut on the expenditure by banks and other donor organizations so that the money can be ploughed into other revenue-generating projects.

According to Sennett (2006), this poses a great challenge to the “modern man” who has grown up relying on such funds. Consequently, the withdrawal or reduction of the funds leads to impoverishment of this people which further opens a door for a vista of detrimental effects like: low economic output, poor healthcare and in some cases, untimely deaths which wholesomely plunges these economies even more.

In relations to the above point, Peston (2008, p.3) observes that once the banks have started facing problems, most money managers withdraw their moneys from banks and, in most cases, invest them in overseas countries or bank them in offshore accounts. This eventually leaves their native bank with no money to conduct its business. And as we all know, this cumulatively impacts negatively on the country’s socioeconomic and political setup (Sennett, 2006).

Notably important, Peston (2008, p.1) says that “For many years to come, what’s happening will affect the relationship between business and government, between taxpayers and the private sector, between employers and employees, between investors and companies.” This is a trivially bad circumstance to end up in—based on the much we have witnessed so far. It is therefore important that we not only look at the consequences of the New Capitalism, but go a step further and show how we can curb or if possible, ultimately stop its negative effects.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “New Capitalism” by Peston by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In doing so, we must first inherently establish its root causes (things that have contributed to it), then from here; we can get to uproot them and cultivate a new environment that nurtures positivity by offering possible solutions. So what/who is responsible for this perilous situation we are in?

Contributing factors to the consequences of New Capitalism With regards to what/who is responsible for our current New Capitalism predicament, Peston (2008, p.5) says that “We’re all at fault to varying degrees.” Whether knowingly or unknowingly; we all have, in one way or another, contributed to the dilemma we are in.

Starting with the government, Peston (2008, p.5) reports that “The authorities in the US and the UK were aware of the dangers of allowing the financial and trade deficits with China and other exporting nations to persist” but instead of correcting it through proper regulation of taxation and interest rates to reduce increased consumption; they chose to keep quiet thus landing us in our current quandary.

Additionally, Peston (2008, p.5) says that the general public partly got themselves into the mess that they are in. Instead of questioning the ramifications of the colossal hedge funds and private booms of 2007 which were given at absurdly cheap terms; they blindly signed the dotted line and partook of the funds. As at now, most of them are still struggling with repaying that, when they would have simply avoided it in the first place.

As for the banks’ role in the devastating implications of New Capitalism, Peston (2005, p.5) expressively notes that:

A corollary of precisely this complacency was that central banks, such as the Bank of England, were hopelessly wrong in believing that the explosive growth of credit and the surge in the price of assets such as houses was somehow hermetically sealed from the rest of the economy, such that it wouldn’t damage everything when the bubble was finally popped.

As we now know, the growth of credits was a porous plan that negatively impacted and still continues to devastate Britain’s economy.

To make matters worse, Peston (2008, p.5) observes that:

Regulators were negligent in allowing the creation of what’s become known as a shadow banking system, in which trillions of pounds of long term loans in the western economies were financed with credit that could be withdrawn far too quickly.

As a result, there was no fall back or something to adhesively hold the economy once financial shake-ups began hitting hard. Finally, Peston (2008, p.5) blames the media for agenda setting a platform for the negative growth of New Capitalism by ignoring to play the “watchdog role” and warning the world about this predicament.

The way forward—possible solutions Of course banks and the government played a bigger role in getting us in this dangerous situation we are in; but going around negatively trumpeting each others’ names and pointing judgmental fingers to one another will not help us. So what is the way forward for Britain, USA and other parts of the world as well?

Firstly, Zhou Xiaochuan’s sentiments that the US should take a leading role and adjust its policies, reduce fiscal deficits and increase its saving ratios since it is the world’s superpower; can be a good start (Peston, 2008, p.2). Factors like the heavy debts by the US and the falling down of prices might inhibit this, but in overall it is a venture worth trying (p.4-6).

Peston (2008, p.5) just like Sennett (2006) say that massive printing of money can also help reducing debt. However, this should be done sparingly and cautiously to avoid high inflation like the renowned case of Zimbabwe.

Personally, I think that the creation of more investment avenues for those at the grassroots of the society can also offer a good balance in the spread of resources thus reducing the gap between the rich and the poor. Once equilibrium is reached, the society is bound to progress as an entity and in-turn, having a positive socioeconomic impact on a global scale. This, among many other fundamental solutions, not stated, can be of invaluable help.

Conclusion In finality, it is inevitable to note that New Capitalism is not an entirely bad thing. China, India, Japan, Saudi and other increasingly growing economies are typical examples to ascertain that (Peston, 2008, p.2).

Additionally, the increased networking and cooperation among various countries has been able to open up more trading avenues for investors to spread their financial tentacles. All we have to do is positively learn from our mistakes and forge ahead rather than just sitting down and blaming ourselves over past things that we can not change.

References Peston, R. (2008) The New Capitalism. BBC News Web.

Sennett, R. (2006) The Culture of the New Capitalism. London: Yale University Press.

Stelzer, I. M. (2008) New Capitalism: Market capitalism in the United States will never be the same. Weekly Standard Web.


Work-life balance Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of work-life balance

Strategies for attaining work-life balance


Reference List

Introduction Choosing the best kind of a job to take is perhaps the most challenging task facing contemporary professionals. Many people have therefore found themselves being victims of wrong decision making as far as job-choice is concerned. This is because professionals are usually attracted by monetary benefits in such a way that they fail to consider other important aspects of jobs like non-monetary benefits.

These non-monetary benefits include the number of hours that a person is expected to commit to the job and other benefits given by the employer to the employee. The latter could be things like leaves and days off while the former determines the work-life balance characteristic of the job. This paper examines the importance of work-life balance and gives some suggestions of how the same can be achieved.

Importance of work-life balance Work-life balance can be defined as arrangements made by employers to enable their employees to live full lives. This implies that as much as they will be giving their best to the job, the employees will be having a chance to do other things in their lives. Work-life balance is a very important aspect of any working environment. Among its advantages is the fact that employees are more motivated to perform their duties since they do not get overworked. This is advantageous to both the employers and the employees.

The employees benefit in that they develop healthy relationships with their employers and at the same time they get time to build non-professional aspects of their lives. This way, they are able to develop their careers positively and engage in productive activities as they build their careers. On the other hand, employers are able to achieve greater productivity of their firms since employees are greatly motivated to work.

Employees give their best to the job due to the motivation and thus quality and greater volume of production is guaranteed (Clayton, 2005, p. 27). The employers also benefit in other ways since the benefits they give to their employees enable them to gain good publicity that attracts more productive workers and more customers if the firm is in the hospitality industry.

From the above discussion, it is apparent that work-life balance is of utmost importance in organizations. Firms should therefore know how to appropriately establish appropriate measures in order to enable their employees live a full life. On the other hand, employees should strive to live a balanced life even in conditions that are seemingly unfavourable. The following paragraphs explore how employees and employers can achieve work-life balance.

Strategies for attaining work-life balance Even though the relationship between a person’s professional life and his/her personal life is indubitably rich, it may prove to be tricky to attain and keep a healthy work-life balance. The following are some of the strategies that employees can use to live a full life. First of all, it is of utmost importance for an employee or employer to keep calm in challenging situations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, if a person is experiencing personal problems like problems of marriage, he/she should ensure that the same does not affect his/her professional life. If the person is an employer, he/she should not, for instance, fire an employee due to his/her personal problems. On the other hand, an employee should ensure that he/she does not let his/her personal life affect his/her professional performance.

For instance, if the employee is experiencing family problems, he/she should maintain the same level of performance as when he/she does not have such problems (Gordon, 2003, p. 1). Likewise, stress in the workplace should not affect the personal lives of the employees. An employee should ensure that they live their personal lives to the fullest while ignoring any problems that may have occurred in the working environment.

An employee should also ensure that he/she engages in important bodily activities in order to live a well balanced life. He/she should thus engage in physical activities and ensure that he/she sleeps and eats well.

It is thus apparent that any job that gives an employee time to engage in the aforementioned activities can be considered to be offering work-life balance. It is also important for the employee to set boundaries for both professional and personal activities. This will ensure that both lives do not clash (Clutterbuck, 2003, p. 112). This way, the employee will be able to achieve enviably in both realms of life.

Conclusion As evidenced in the discussion above, work-life balance is a very important determinant of professional performance. It is thus of essence for employers to ensure that they give their employees adequate time to engage in personal activities. On the other hand, employees should ensure that they use the free time they are given by their employers wisely.

They should ensure that they engage in productive personal activities and at the same time avoid taking their professional problems home. It is thus of essence that people evaluate prospective employers keenly to make wise choices as they choose between jobs. This will ensure that they do not take jobs and regret later.

Reference List Clayton, D. (2005). The Work-life Balance Program. University of California.

We will write a custom Essay on Work-life balance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clutterbuck, D. (2003). Managing the Work-Life Balance. Journal of Management, pp. 101-120.

Gordon, M. (2003). 9 Strategies For Regaining Your Work Life Balance. Web.


Stereotypes and Realities of Japanese Yakuza Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction Organized crime has been a problem in many countries in the world. Yakuza members in Japan also known as gokudo are a perfect example of organized crime. Police and the media refer to them as the boryokudan meaning a violent group while they call themselves ninkyo dantai or basically chivalrous organization.

Although there is uncertainty concerning their origin, there are two major divisions, Tekiya and Bakuto who are believed to have emerged during the mid-Endo period. Some people maintain that Yakuza are descendants of a group known as Kabuki-mono which existed in the 17th century which was also know as hatamoto-yakko, characterized by weird hairstyles and clothing as well as carrying large swords in their belts.

Currently, Yakuza members believe that they originated from mkachi-yokko also known as servants of the town whose main activity was to protect their community from hatamo-yakko. Whichever the case, there is much concerning the Yakuza that makes them to be a unique group of people[1]. This paper shall focus on the stereotypes and realities of the Japanese Yakuza.

Background Information History of Organized Crime in Japan

As highlighted earlier in this paper, Yakuza are divided in to different groups. The Tekiya or the peddlers were the lowest socially ranked group in Edo. The group became distinct immediately after starting to take over some administrative roles related to commerce like allocation and protection of stalls. Their role in commerce continued to advance since during Shinto festivals, they opened some stalls and some of the members were hired to become security officers.

The peddlers used to pay rent for the stall and for the security offered. As years progressed, they were recognized by the Edo government and were given permission of carrying a sword which was a major step forward as it was only the Samurai and the noble men who were allowed to do so[2].

The Bakuto was yet another group of Yakuza which was mainly involved in gambling. Socially, they were lower than the Tekiya since gambling was an illegal activity.

Nevertheless, the group established many gambling houses especially in abandoned shrines or temples where they carried out their illegal gambling businesses. The group maintained their own security and such places as well as the Bakuto community were regarded with contempt by the whole society. It is believed that the Bakuto group contributed greatly to the stereotype of the entire Yakuza community[3].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is yet another group that contributes greatly to the Japanese Yakuza known as the Brakumin. The group is mainly considered as an out cast as it is comprised of the descendants of people who had occupations that were not acceptable in the society such as undertakers, leather workers or executioners. They used to live in seclusion mainly in ghettos and hamlets. The group which is discriminated against even today accounts for more than half of the total Yakuza population[4].

Studies indicate that the Yakuza community is an outcast and does not have any problem with that since they are even proud of it. Although, there are several factors that contributed to the emergence and the predominance of the Yakuza, the economic situation was a major contributory factor since most of the groups comprised people that were involved in extortion and selling fake goods to customers in the local markets.

Some rituals being practiced today in Japan like the initiation ceremony are still similar to some Yakuza rituals. Nevertheless, though some yakuza groups are really diversified, some groups still identify themselves with some original groups like Tekiya and Bakuto. Yakuza, a group influential not only in Japan but also in other parts of the world is currently composed of a hundred and ten thousand active members organized in to two thousand and five hundred families[5].

According to Kaplan,


Power and knowledge Report best essay help: best essay help

Michel Foucault asserts that the relationship between power and knowledge is mediated through information. He argues that those who have power create and maintain communication. In addition, the powerful define who other people are through the information they issue.

For example in the media, the powerful dictates the kind of programs we should watch hence they have an influence over the knowledge we gain from the media. Foucault is of the opinion that knowledge is a form of power is gained from power. This is summed up in his theory which postulates that knowledge is power. When knowledge and power are linked, a discourse is created. In addition, the discursive elements set the stage for moralities (Foucault 85-92).

The dominant discourse can be changed when another group with more power and knowledge communicates widely their counter-discourse. Individuals are receptive to discourses they understand. In addition, these individuals are perceived to be a powerful and knowledgeable group.

This explains why individuals can either be proponents or antagonists of a certain theory or moral issues. In addition, this justifies the varied opinions of people regarding certain issues. Foucault notes that power has the ability to change behavior and the world. However, power itself cannot be affected (92- 101).

Liberal Governmentality Governmentality is the study of autonomous in relation to political and economic exploitation. Foucault argues that governing people is not about coercion and domination by the authority but the versatile equilibrium where harmony and conflicts should be tolerated. In addition, he emphasized the differentiation of power and liberties by identifying three types of power relations which include liberties, government and dominion (94).

Liberties are strategic power gamers which involves human interaction in various forms such as ideological manipulation, moral advice, rational argumentation and economic exploitation. The liberty of individuals is maintained and enabling people to have freedom of choice since there is no coercion (Krieken para. 6).

On the other hand, government power regulates the freedom of others by using certain rules and rationality. This subjects all the parties involved to a predetermined set of conduct. This means that power has a complete dominion on all the subjects under it. Therefore, all the decisions they make override the power to freedom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Domination power on the other hand is stable, fixed and hierarchical in if functioning. This type of power dominates its subjects thus giving them limited freedom. The states of dominion relate to the effects of technologies on government in terms of systematization, stabilization and regulation of power relationships which lead to domination (Wickham 248-255).

Social governance An example of social governance is evident in advanced liberal democracies where the government is devolved into a state, geographical territory and the population. Liberal government is aimed at increasing demographic and cultural diversity due to increased migration and globalization. Foucault advocates for liberty. This is evident in that he tirelessly fought for classical-liberal and neo-liberal freedom in his struggles to attain a free society.

Foreign control should be strong in order to provide concerted efforts of nation-building and help in addressing criminal issues, anti-social behavior and other behavioral characteristics (Wickham 248-255). In addition, important issues such as poor housing, unemployment, inequality and low pay are targeted to improve individual’s social status.

Stressing on the importance of sovereignty and legislation is mainly aimed at improving legal framework to ease implementation of policies. This is also aimed at shifting resources to the marginalized areas and to move away from universalistic and egalitarian policies.

Works Cited Bo, Carlsson. Jurgen Habermas and the sociology of law. Cardozo Law Review 4.1 (1996): 765-771.

Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledge: selected interviews and other writings (lecture two). Brighton: Harvester Publishers, 1980. Print.

Krieken, Robert. Legal informalism, power and liberal governance. Social and Legal Studies 10.1 (2010): 1-5. Print.

We will write a custom Report on Power and knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wickham, Gary. Foucault and law. Brighton: B


Contrast the different levels of police operations and their unique operations Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction The role of the police is to enforce laws, protect property and reduce civil disorders in the society. In this essay, I wish to discuss the differences and similarities between the federal, state, and local levels of law enforcement and contributions of August Vollmer and other pioneers to the development of Criminal investigative techniques.

Differences and similarities between the federal, state and local levels of law enforcement

A local police officer has his/her own jurisdiction in a given town. The local law enforcers provides patrol of the communities within their jurisdictions, emergency services and conduct criminal investigations. On the other hand, state law enforcers share same responsibilities with the local state. State officers are assigned the duty of providing security to the country. They ensure that rural areas, highways of state are safe. In addition, they also conduct criminal investigations.

Federal law enforcers work in certain areas of crime. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigations is responsible for major criminal investigations and they include civil rights, cyber crime, major thefts, terrorism, and counter intelligence. However, these enforcers have differences in their operations, support, funding, jurisdictions and staffing (Adams, 2001, p. 138).

In terms of resources, it could be labor, funds and the state law enforcers have adequate resources compared to the local law enforcers and this is because their operations are countrywide.

Local law enforcers deal with a small portion of place while state law enforcers ensure that the whole country is safe. Local officers provide patrol services within their community but the state officials patrol the whole country.

Federal law enforcers specialize in issues of crime. They handle major crimes like terrorism, cyber crimes, counterintelligence while the local and state law enforcers perform the same duties.

Contributions of August Vollmer and other pioneers in law enforcement to the development of criminal investigative techniques

Vollmer insisted that police should attain college degrees. They were to attend school to acquire skills and knowledge. He encouraged his men to attend classes in police administration. Bicycles and squad cars were used by the police for patrolling (Vollmer, 1983, p. 23). They provided transport for the police and patrolling enhanced security in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A scientific crime laboratory was set up and a full time forensic scientist was employed. A lie detector machine was bought to be used in criminal investigation. He condemned corruption and ineffectiveness that existed in the police institutions and urged them not to be influenced by politics.

According to Bayley (1998), the United States, just like other countries, has created a government institution for maintaining internal order. His study of police institutions contributed to positive changes in the administration. The police appointed were intellectuals who were smart and better informed.

Senior police managers were ambitious. They applied management skills to run their organizations. This symbolized how committed they were in their work because they did research on their own. The work of the police became more intellectually demanding, it required new specialized knowledge about technology, forensic analysis and crime.

Conclusion In conclusion, all law enforcement agencies share same responsibilities but in today’s society, the roles assigned to this law enforcement will continue to change.

Reference List Adams, T. (2001). Police Field Operations. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Bayley, D.H. (1998). Ideas in American Policing. Web.

Vollmer, A. Pioneer in police professionalism: Oral history transcript/ and related material, 1972-1983. Retrieved from

We will write a custom Essay on Contrast the different levels of police operations and their unique operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Digital Art Exhibition Review Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Digital Exhibition

Digital art criteria

Digital Virgin

Digital Dancer


Reference List

Introduction Digital or new media art has greatly transformed the world or art. Digital art emerged in the 1970s and has gained immense popularity with advancement in digital technology. Prior to the digital art era, modern art was more prevalent. Sometimes, digital art is often grouped as a form of modern art but comparing it with most modern art works, it is evident that there is significant difference.

New medial or digital art therefore refers to a variety artistic works prepared using digital technology (Miller 2008, p. 31). Other phrases such as multimedia and computer art are also used to refer to digital art and all the artistic work the common features are referred to as new media art. Uri Dotan is one of the most successful digital artists.

Based in New York, the artist has many artistic works under his name. Uri Dotan’s works of art are common in many exhibitions not only in New York but also in other parts of the world. With advancement in internet technology, many artists have resorted to online exhibit to display their works of art. In this paper, I will review Uri Dotan digital art online exhibit.

Digital art has wide usage in advertisement and filmmaking. It plays a significant role in the modern world where graphic representation has found wide use in the field of marketing. The wide usage of the internet has also created very significant ground for growth of digital art.

Digital art can be created in various ways. Some of the artistic works are purely computer-generate while other could be generated from other sources. The works of arts could be generated through scanning, vector graphics and other technologies (Christiane 2006, p. 46). The works of art therefore can refer to works of arts created through other means and later transformed using a computer program.

Digital Exhibition Uri Dotan’s online art exhibit is one of the most fantastic online exhibitions to visit. Unlike conventional art exhibit, online art exhibit is accessed from any place in the world, as long as one has internet connection. Online exhibit is therefore open to large audiences. With many upcoming artists, online exhibition provides an efficient ways for displaying artistic works to the public. Uri Dotan is a skilled artist as demonstrated in his works of art. The common theme in his artistic works is that of influence of technology.

In his works of arts, the artist is able to take his audience many years ahead of their time. Using his skills in digital art, the artists capture his imagination of the future. Digital art is first of all created in the mind of the artist before being projected electronically (Churchill 2007, para. 3). Uri Dotan demonstrates his imagination as he takes us fifty years ahead of our time through his skills by creating artwork that shows influence of technology on society (The Williams Gallery 2008, para. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The extraordinary Uri Dotan’s sculptures and paintings exist in digital world. The artistic works appealing to the eye right from the first pages of the online exhibition.

Digital art criteria To review an exhibition successfully, one need to use some criteria. Each style of art has some expected criteria. Although the criteria are not explicit, an artist using a particular artistic knows the standard that his or her work or art should meet. Digital art style in one of the challenging styles to analyze.

This is above all due to the dynamic nature of the style where digital artists keep coming up with new things every now and then (Wands 2007, p. 79). Digital art mainly comprise of paintings, sculpture and other work of art that have been transformed using digital technology. For digital art to be considered to be successful, It should be able demonstrate relationship with the work of art from which it was obtained. Uri Dotan is able to demonstrate this as looking at his work one knows that he or she is looking an artistic work.

The second criterion that Uri Dotan is able to demonstrate in his work is that is able to the medium as a tool to communicate his message rather than as an end. Their criterion that Uri Dotan is able to demonstrate in his work is originality. All the artistic works in the exhibit are not derived from other people’s works but they are original. The last important criterion of good work of art demonstrated in Uri Dotan work is life. All his works of art have life in themselves and therefore, they are able to be appealing to eyes.

Digital Virgin The first artistic work to be encountered is given the name Virgin. The beautiful digital painting is an abstract sculpture. The digital Venus is created in an architectural space giving it an outstanding pose (The Williams Gallery 2008, para. 4). The painting is composed in a vertical rectangle with figure centered. The painting is movable and recognizable; it as if the artist is welcoming his audience to view his remaining works of art.

Digital Dancer The second artistic work in the online exhibit is referred to as Digital dance. The artwork is comprised of bright strips of metal. The work is poised vertically by use of architectural space (The Williams Gallery 2008, para. 6). Although all these are features of a conventional work, there is no doubt when looking art work that one is looking and a virtual sculpture. Although virtual, the artwork is able draw emotions of creativity associated with world of art rather than technological environment.

Uri Dotan’s proficiency in digital art continues to unfold as one meets his other works. The second phase of his exhibits begins with a figure which is more mural Navado-like. Tree leaves and sticks have also been used to symbolize hair and the hand. A pedestal, in three dimensions, sits in front of the mural. Beneath this figure, a keen observe is able to what looks like human feet.

We will write a custom Essay on Digital Art Exhibition Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Uri Danton’s artistic demonstrate his command in digital art. The artist is able to explore various styles in his artistic work. For his fifth piece of work (labeled Hummingbird), Uri Danton has decided to make use of an angle and walls, as opposed to the all too familiar rectangle (The Williams Gallery 2008, para. 7). The image is not completely enclosed but some of its parts come out of the case.

The image seems complicated with shadow falling on the wall. In total, there are eight Uri Dotan’s artistic works in the online exhibit. All the eight digital images are wonderful and they demonstrate Dotan’s proficiency as a digital artist. The artist is able to create spaces and fill them with desired figure.

Conclusion Digital art is a major revolution in the world of art. Advancement in digital technology has provided artists with a tool not only to create new images but also transform old works of art. Uri Dotan has demonstrated his skills as a digital artist. In the online exhibit, his work comes out as of high quality and skillful.

Reference List Christiane, P., 2008, Digital art. New York: Thames


Change, Creativity, and Innovation Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Reflective Observation There is no need to elaborate the fact that our community and our county is in dire need of creative people. Creative individuals are sources of innovation and creative solutions that can enhance our way of life. Without them culture and society will stagnate and the world will be overwhelmed with problems and unable to solve new challenges that crops up everyday.

There is a need to be creative but it starts with the individual. I must aspire to be creative and to see things differently. I need to train myself to think outside-the-box. The readings, especially the book by Dawson and Andriopoulos was a tremendous help in this regard.

Creativity is closely related to change and innovation. Creative people are not bound by the status quo. This is not an easy thing to do. There is the risk of being alienated if an action or word spoken will offend another person, especially if that person has power and influence.

In a corporate setting there is a tendency to follow policies set by those who are unwilling to adapt and to experiment. Creative people are wary of the limitations set by others and at the same time they too feel the pressure. It is a balancing act. It is not practical to always go against those who are in power, especially if that person is your boss. However, men and women and children of the 21st century would probably be still living in caves today if not for change agents.

Abstract Generalization One of the most intriguing and interesting component of organization change has something to do with speed and scale of change. I believe that this is an important topic that I need to familiarise myself with. An example of is the concept called first-order incremental change which is another way of saying that change must be a slow and adaptive – the objective is to refine a business process rather than to radically alter something that has been proven effective (Dawson


Corruption in Russia Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of corruption

Effects of Corruption in Russia

Works Cited

Introduction As Boylan (1-2) argues, corruption is one of the prime causes of Russia’s political, economic and, social problems, because of the rampant involvement of most government officials in corruption. As he further adds, although the government has put down measures to contain the practice, for example, the adoption of the 1997 anti-graft legislation, such efforts have achieved little, as corruption has become a normal practice in the Russian bureaucracy.

One thing that makes the whole scenario worse is the fact that, the same law enforcing officials mandated with the duty of safeguarding the Russian citizenry’s rights, have collaborated with corrupt groups to terrorize the same citizens they took oath to protect. Therefore, as a result of these “gangs” sharing their gains with law enforcing agents, the economic security of most business persons is at stake hence, the common practice of businesspersons also offering bribes to receive protection.

For example, in 1999, over 5.7% of the total annual earnings of the Russian government were bribes. The same has been the trend over subsequent years, because of the increasing corruption index. Although most research findings showed a decline of revenues received from bribe tax by 0.3% from the previous 1.4% in 2006, the corruption index has risen over the recent years, as currently the Russia corruption syndicates contribute over 300 billion annually (Roaf 1-3).

In addition, as media reports indicate, the extortion of money from innocent citizens in Russia has developed into a recognized institution, because the practice is not only common in business world, but also the practice is spreading into learning institutions, military recruiting agencies, and learning institutions. Because of such uncontrolled corruption levels, organizations that have failed to comply with the new corruption standards have been forced to go into liquidation and there is increased lack of media freedom.

In addition, because of the clear connection between corruption and increased crime, security standards have declined in Russia, because of the ever-increasing net of criminal gangs, which evade the long arms of the law, because of the nature of bribes that they offer (Feifer 1). Considering these effects resulting from the escalating levels of corruption in Russia, corruption is one of the primary impediments on Russia’s political and economic stability and democracy.

Causes of corruption Historically, the falling of communism opened doors to the economic market restructuring of Russia’s economic structures. In the process of that transition, criminal organizations rose into power as most business operators sought ways of protecting their wealth. One of such groups was the Russian Mafia, a criminal gang that controls a bigger section of Russia’s black market.

In addition, back then, Russia lacked a strong police force to combat criminal gangs hence, giving way to increasing cases of insecurity, money laundering and corruption, as this was the only way of protecting one’s acquired wealth (Glenny 10-33). Although incoming and outgoing governments have put up measures to combat these practices, these historically inherited behavioral norms have been the hardest to eliminate from the streets and public offices in Russia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corruption net in Russia is very wide, as it involves both government officials and most powerful business stakeholders, who control the biggest ratio of Russia’s economy. Although most individuals assume that corruption is a historical heritage in Russia, as Roaf (2-4) argues, this problem has persisted, because the government of Russia has failed to enact strong legislation to combat the vice.

For example, Russia’s complex tax and custom system does not safeguard citizens from power abusers, who take advantage of weaknesses in the accounting and auditing systems to steal public funds. In addition to such deficits in regulation, the government has also failed adopt effective capital controls to manage the flow of money among its citizenry.

These inadequacies have forced most low-earning government officials to engage in corrupt deals to substantiate their economic deficits. On the other hand, excessive government taxation imposed on citizens has made the scenario worse, as most low-earning employees have to carry the burden of the system.

In addition to weak economic control measures, Russia has a weak legal enforcement system hence, the nature of failures that are clear when it comes to prosecuting crime perpetrators. Majority of crime perpetrators are individuals of the political class and the business elites; hence, considering the influence they have on the government, it becomes very hard to prosecute them, as this may jeopardize the stability of Russia.

In addition to governmental flaws, the civil societal has also failed to defend citizens’ civil rights through monitoring all governmental processes. The fact that there are clear media biases in reporting corruption cases in the government have made the case worse, as most media reports never expose the real corruption level in Russia (Orttung 2-3).

Effects of Corruption in Russia The Russian corruption takes two primary forms namely; stealing of public finances by governmental officials and soliciting of bribes by governmental officials for any service offered. Regardless of the form of corruption, all sectors of the Russian bureaucracy have felt the effects of corruption.

The effects are so damaging to an extent, most foreign investors have been scared to invest more of their funds in Russia. For example, in 2009, IKEA (a Swedish firm that deals with furniture products) announced its intention to terminate its business expansion prospects, because of the unpredictability of Russia’s market structures.

We will write a custom Essay on Corruption in Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering this, corruption has greatly contributed to the declining growth and development levels in Russia, because of the increased inequality in resource and capital finance distribution. Majority of the individuals who benefit from corruption funds are politicians, prominent businesspersons, some criminalized gangs, hence, the common citizen rarely benefits from such proceeds, although they are the main taxpayers (Stott 1).

One prime product of the rising Russia’s corruption levels is abuse of office power by governmental officials. Soliciting of bribes from citizens by governmental officials has become a common practice among all public office bearers in Russia. This has greatly affected the distribution of public finances, as most of these officials have diverted most public finances into personal pockets.

Such diversion of public funds resulting from abuse of office powers has made the Russian government to loose billions of development revenue. For example, annually the Russian government losses billions of dollars to rogue importers who bribe custom officials hence, evading paying tax. As research studies show, although Russia has no mechanisms of accounting for this in its national budget deficit, this is a clear indication of weaknesses in its revenue management systems.

Economically, corruption has reduced the level of both local and international investment levels, as most investors have expressed intentions of withholding or withdrawing their investments from Russia. Russia is one of the Asian countries with the lowest levels of foreign direct investments, as its increased corruption levels have deterred normal business operations.

On the other hand, corruption is one of the primary factors that have deterred the much anticipated for industrial restructuring. There has been many corruption reported cases among most firms participating in this process, as most of them have to bribe their way into getting the contracts hence, perform poorly (Roaf 4-6).

Another detrimental effect of the increasing levels of corruption in Russia is denial of media freedom. Prior to Putin’s media crackdown of 2006, the media played a central role of exposing all governmental corruption scandals. This changed with the confiscating of media rights hence, the current media biased reports of the level of corruptions.

Majority of currently operating media houses in Russia are state managed or are managed by individuals who have strong ties with the government hence, the current controlled flow of information. Going hand in hand with confiscation of media rights is the declining respect of citizen’s fundamental rights.

The government has failed to protect its citizens from the corrupt hands of middlepersons and law enforcing agents who have greatly abused their powers. Over the recent past, more so prior to the 2007-2008 elections, the government took most previously owned private organizations, for example, the Gazpron energy and Yukos oil company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corruption in Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This largely has denied citizens property ownership rights, as most individuals cannot afford to pay big taxes or bribes demanded by finance officials to sustain their enterprises. In addition to taking away of media and private ownership rights, as Orttung (4-5) argues, corruption is one of the primary causative agents of the increased state insecurity as more criminal gangs have rose into power.

The organized crime gang net in Russia is very extensive to an extent it operates not only in Russia, but also in other international countries, because of the increased corruption levels in Russia’s custom department. Considering this, although the present leadership has put up measures to deal with the situation, still corruption remains one of the biggest problems facing the Russian government (Serio 11-27).

In conclusion, the impacts of corruption are evident in Russia with the current increasing levels of abuse of power by government officials. Therefore, to remedy the problem, there is need for the Russian government to adopt means of reforming its systems of governance, as this is the only way of cleaning its systems from negative impacts of corruption.

In addition, there is need for development of a free civil society, which should go hand in hand with decentralization of power, because of the need to reduce the current abuse of office of power among its officers.

Works Cited Boylan, S. Organized crime and corruption in Russia: Implications for U.S. and International law. Fordham International Law Journal, 19 (1999). Web.

Feifer, G. Corruption in Russia, part 1: a normal part of everyday life. Radio Free Europe, 2007. Web.

Glenny, M. A journey through the global criminal underworld. New York: Knopf Publishers, 2008. Print.

Orttung, R. Causes and consequences of corruption in Putin’s Russia. Ponar’s Policy Memo, 430 (2006):1. Web.

Roaf, J. Corruption in Russia. International Monetary Fund, 2000. Web.

Serio, J. Investigating the Russian Mafia. Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 2008. Print.

Stott, Michael. Russia corruption “may force western firms to quit”. Thomson Reuters, 2010. Web.


Long Term Care of Elderly People Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Provision of the most appropriate health care services has been US government’s top priority over the past decades. A significant number of Americans, particularly the poor and elderly have been found to be uninsured or underinsured (Swartz, 2007).

Every individual yearns for long term care and the federal government together with the private sector has made concerted efforts to bring this dream into reality. This essay discusses some of the factors that cause many families not to be keen on anticipating the cost of long term care especially for the elderly and what implications it has on employers of those who care for their family members.

The essay further analysis the factors that impede access of mental health services in the US and how WWI and WWII helped in creating awareness of this disorder among the federal government and the public. A discussion of the erroneous assumptions about the treatment of mental illness is presented. It also presents a personal opinion of the various methods used to ensure eligibility for Medicaid support of long term care expenses.

There has been an increasing longevity of Americans and the cost of providing long term care. This means that families ought to be financially prepared for the cost implications. However, research findings reveal that very few families and individuals take this consideration seriously (Sultz,


Using M-Business and B2C Principles to Transform and Enhance the Competitive Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Advantages of an Online Movie Rental E-Commerce Company

Action Plan

Cost Estimate

Risks and Rewards



Advantages of an Online Movie Rental E-Commerce Company There was a time when e-commerce was buzzword in the business world. It provided speed and efficiency because a brick and mortar store can communicate with customers at the speed of the click of a mouse and the convenience of sending the same communiqué through the Internet. However, times are changing, as expected in an era characterized by digital technology and the World-Wide-Web.

The new concept is called M-Commerce short for mobile e-commerce which is the use of portable devices such cellphones, PDAs, laptops, and iPads.

However, even considering the potential of M-commerce it has to be pointed out that the road towards commercial success will never be paved smooth and the businessman must adapt to changes and have the foresight to tweak the business model and tailor-fit it to customer needs. It is also best to start small and apply these new principles and technology to an easy to manage business such as a movie rental company that is already into e-commerce.

Before pushing forward with this study it is helpful to take a step backwards and come to understand the big picture when it comes to the relationship between the Web, Internet infrastructure, conventional store format and e-commerce. In the past the customer will have to use his or her car or at least walk a considerable distance to visit his or her favourite store where one can purchase needed items, groceries, and other products that are needed in the home, school or office.

But after the World-Wide-Web became popular businessmen adapted a certain aspect of Information Technology to enhance business to customer interaction. Instead of merely relying on traditional channels of marketing and customer relations it became possible to have greater access to customers via the Web.

Store managers and various types of merchants can easily send messages via e-mail to their customers informing them of new products, promos, and other important events regarding their business. On one hand the customer can receive these messages much faster and can have access to more product information in a relatively short period of time.

This will result in the ability to make quick decisions with regards to purchasing a particular product or not. But gone are the days when merchants are merely content with sending e-mail, the lowest form of e-commerce. The next step was to develop a system wherein customers can transact online, have a preview of the said product, make payments and receive their order without having to leave the comfort of their homes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a radical departure from traditional brick and mortar stores where there was a need to have a face-to-face interaction with customers in order to complete the sale.

Those who have tasted success using e-commerce is now ready to go to the next level which is the creation of a system that allow customers make purchases and pay for services online even if they are not at home in front of a computer. This time around they can transact using mobile devices wherever they are and whenever they feel doing business with companies that has embraced M-Commerce.

In this regard it can be said that the e-commerce platform is experiencing another radical upgrade that will in turn result in increase productivity, increase efficiency and overall better customer service (Samuelson


History of Astronomy Report argumentative essay help

Phases of Astronomy

Until the present day, astronomy had its origin in antiquity, based on the study and observation of physical objects such as the moon and the sun. These were closely interlinked with mythology and religion. The Mesopotamian era catalogues stars, a time when a circle was first divided into 360 degree.

This was when Stonehenge observatory was first constructed in Southern England, followed by the period when the Indians constructed a big wheel to be used as a calendar, to the period when the carol temple was constructed as an observatory leading to the Greek period (Smith, 1999).

The Greek astronomy was influenced by the Egyptian and Babylonian astronomy that relied on astrology leading to the medieval western European view of astronomy and the renaissance period to the modern view of astronomy.

Important Astronomers

The astronomic wheel relied on important astronomers such as Plato who argued that the circle is the only perfect form, followed by Aristotle who proved that the earth was round contrary to the previous beliefs that the earth was flat, then Aristarchus who discovered that the earth rotated about its axis, to Eratosthenes who discovered the method for calculating the earth’s circumference, then Hipparchus who discovered stellar magnitudes, and Plotemy who came up with Almagest (Smith, 1999).

Ancient Greek Science

These included Copernicus who published his work in 1543 on retrograde motion the sun as the center around which planets revolved based on a mathematical model. This was followed by Tycho Brahe the inventor of geheliocentric system that provided accurate measurements of the positions of the planets. This was followed by Kepler. Smith (1999) argues that Kepler devised the three laws of motion.

These laws identified planetary motions to be elliptical with equal displacements of the line linking the sun and the planet taking place at equal time intervals and the relationship between the distances between the planets taking mathematical relationships of cubed distances. This was followed by Galileo who discovered the physical nature of heavenly bodies, the Milky Way, Jupiter, rotational sunspots, and the phases of Venus. This culminated to Sir Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion.

Copernican Revolution

Based on a heliocentric model of the movement of heavenly bodies replacing the Ptolemaic model of the universe, where the universe was seen from the perspective the planets revolving round the sun in a sphere the birth of heliocentric cosmology. Mathematical calculations were basic tools in use.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Astronomy Today

This has blended principles of physics, quantum physics, and spectrometry in the study of heavenly bodies with new discoveries. In addition to that, satellites, spacecrafts, space observatories, and robots have been tools used in modern astronomy. Today the universe is idealized as being flat.

The Future of Astronomy

Based on current technology, physics, and astronomy more research may reveal new laws that govern the universe, the nature of solar systems and man’s position and ability to conquer the universe.

Newton’s Laws of Motion

According to the first law, a body can only change its direction of motion upon the action of an external impulsive force, while the second law stipulates that the rate of motion of a body is directly proportional to the applied force in the direction of the force and the third law clearly stipulate that actions and reactions are equal and opposite to each other.

Einstein’s Law

The energy contained in the photons of a body is equivalent to the product of the frequency of light and Planck’s constant that depends on the quantum energy in photons.

Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity

The amount of energy in a body was directly proportional to its mass taking the square of the speed of light as a constant.

References Smith, G. (1999). A Brief History of Astronomy. University of California, San Diego.

Center for Astrophysics


Consumer Behaviour Report essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Models of consumer behavior in sport tourism

Sport tourism: Rafting

Consumer behavior motivation


Reference List

Introduction An understanding of consumer behavior is fast becoming an area of research and a cornerstone to marketing strategy and practice in many fields especially tourism. For some time, there have been an increasing number of tourist behavior studies that today constitute consumer behavior literature in recreational and tourist contexts (Crotts and Raaij, 1994, p.37). This paper will largely seek to explore consumer behavior in recreation and tourist contexts with regard to models of consumer behavior in sport tourism and decision-making.

Tourism can be defined as “the temporary short term movement of people and their activities during their stay at their destinations” (Burkart and Medlik 1974 cited in Woodside 2008, p.69). Today, tourism is regarded as one of the world’s leading commercial activities that the developed world continues to promote and invest in.

In its composition, tourism industry when analyzed from both a geographical, commercial and sociological perspective can be seen to involve a wide range of sectors of the service economy, which may include: air, sea and land transport; accommodation and hospitality services; attractions and activities; sales and distribution channels (Woodside 2008, p.69).

In addition, marketing has become a key element in tourism in that, marketing tourism has developed and applied unique marketing mix concepts in what can be seen as relatively linear fashion.

Moreover, marketing tourism services constitute a number of features totally different from the marketing of other services; and for the tourist consumer, such distinct services include: shorter exposure to the service, emotional motives for the purchase, the importance of personal sources of information before making any purchase and also the importance of image in the selection of tourism destination (service).

Literature review Hoyer and Macinnis (2008) define consumer behavior as” the reflection of the totality of consumers’ decisions with respect to the acquisition, consumption and disposition of goods, services, activities, experiences, people and ideas by human decision-making units over time” (p.3).

To further elaborate this definition, consumer behavior can be seen to also involve feelings and coping where emotions are seen to play a powerful role in behaviors of a consumer. Solomon (1992) defines consumer behavior as the study of the “process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires” (Crotts and Raaij, 1994).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To supplement this particular definition, Van Raaij (1986 cited in Crotts and Raaij 1994) notes that consumer research on tourism should be regarded as a key cornerstone of market strategy and that a thorough understanding of consumer behavior is necessary in order to make adequate marketing decisions.

In this regard, consumer behavior is perceived to be attempting to explain the decision making processes of consumers facing several alternatives or choices. Further, Crotts and Raaij (1994) observe that few tourist-based consumer behavior studies have been carried out in the past years with some exceptions such as satisfaction and motivation research; moreover, large segment of the existing academic research is largely dedicated to tourism marketing.

As a result, most studies seem to be focused on describing tourists rather than understanding and explaining their consumption behavior. Despite the enormous regards of tourism experience as unique in nature, it should not be forgotten that it can be related to consumption behavior and numerous studies conducted examining the interactions between key elements and the processes involved in consumer behavior.

On the other hand, sport and event consumer behavior is the process “involved when individuals select, purchase, use and dispose of sport and sport event related products and services to satisfy needs and receive benefits” (Funk 2008, p.6).

The author is convinced that there exists no definition of sport and event consumer behavior and that sport consumer behavior represents only consumer behavior relative to the products and services offered mainly in the sport and leisure industry. When analysis of sport event behavior is done there are always three main components from the tourism literature: 1) travel to participate in a sport event activity; 2) travel to watch a sport event activity; and lastly, 3) visiting a sporting attraction.

Basing on these information sport and event consumer behavior can be explained to be the process involved when individuals select, purchase, use, and dispose of sport and sport event related products and services and the process is created by a desire to seek sport consumption experiences that provide benefits and satisfy needs.

Daniel Funk contend that the phrase ‘Sport consumer behavior’ is about the journey and not destination whereby, it provides the description of the essence of sport and event consumer behavior (Funk, 2008, p.4). According to the author, Sport consumer behavior whether it constitutes watching or participating in a sport event is about the experience, while a desire to seek out a consumption experience reflects a desire to satisfy internal needs and receive benefits through acquisition.

We will write a custom Report on Consumer Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the amount of time and money people spend on sport and other events represent behavioral outcomes of some experiential journey and the journey specifically corresponds to the specific sport or event pathway an individual travels to seek experiences that provide positive outcome; thus, with regards to this view, sport consumer behavior and consumption activities that finally occur at sport event destinations imply the completion of the journey (Funk 2008, p.4).

Eric Schwarz and Jason Hunter on the other hand offer a detailed view on sport consumer behavior by stating that, sport consumer behavior can be defined as the conduct that sport consumers display specifically when seeking out, ordering, buying, using and assessing products and services that consumers expects will provide satisfaction to their needs and wants (Schwarz and Hunter, 2008, p.90).

Models of consumer behavior in sport tourism Understanding consumer behavior has and will never be simple since consumers have the habit of saying one thing but doing the opposite (Anon, n.d, p.1). Consumers generally respond to influences that change their mind and these issues have led to development and adoption of different approaches in order to understand consumers.

In general, the conceptual model for consumer behavior with regard to sport tourism is established between the consumer’s decision process with respect to sport tourism and the factors influencing this particular decision process. With regards to the model, several stages are identified in the consumer decision process: “need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, choice of product or service and post-purchase evaluation” (Wierenga, 1997, p.148; Tyagi and Kumar 2004, p.55).

Zaltam and Burger (1975) define a model as a simplified but organized and meaningful representation of an actual system or process (Pizam and Mansfeld 1999, p.18). It has the tendency to specify both key elements in a system such as consumer beliefs and attitudes, situational factors, and purchasing behavior and the relationship between these elements.

Wahab, Crampon and Rothfield (1976) observed that a tourist is normally resigned to a reduction of financial reserves and expects no economic return on the purchase of an intangible satisfaction (cited in Pizam and Mansfeld 1999, p.18).

According to the authors, tourism purchase decision is based on nine decision stages and all decision making stages go through the same process. In addition, Schmoll (1977) established a model that borrowed heavily from Howard and Sheth (1969) and Nicosia (1966) models of consumer behavior and the resulting model was based on the assumption that:

The decision process and its eventual outcome are influenced by four sets of variables which are customer goals, travel opportunities, communication effort and intervening variables;

It is possible to identify these sets of variables and their individual components;

The eventual decision is I fact the result of a distinct process involving several successive stages or phases; and lastly

The model is composed of four fields (Pizam and Mansfeld 1999, p.20).

Sandhusen (2000) develops a model of consumer behavior and notes that the model investigates the nature of consumer behavior by focusing on questions like when, why, how and where people do or do not buy products or services (Litwin 2007, p.306).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This particular model is referred to as ‘black box’ model and the black box model shows how stimuli, consumer characteristics, and decision processes interact in eliciting consumer responses (p.219). The author goes further to indicate that the stimuli that influence consumer decision-making processes can be categorized as interpersonal or intrapersonal (Sandhusen 2000, p.219).

Sport tourism: Rafting For some time now, I have increasingly become a sport tourist specifically with regard to rafting. Rafting is basically a leisure sport recreational that involves the use of inflatable raft to steer through a river, lake or ocean. The sport has been in existence since the mid-1970s and has turned out as one of the leisure sports that many tourists participate in.

Rafting as a sport that thrills human can be seen to be the result of human eternal wish to conquer the heavy obstacles and as a result, a tourist will run to the top of a mountain hills or sails and navigate through the sea despite the existence of the anger. The sport has generally no human opposition, but the only available opposition is the existence furious tide and uneven or obstructing stones in the water. However, before an individual becomes a confident rafter, he or she needs proper training.

Rafting needs adequate security and it has become a major concern for the sport and top class security level needs to be ensured in order for the tourists not to feel insecure. Most of my rafting sporting events do take place in Virginia which is a south eastern state of USA.

Virginia is situated in the coast area of the Atlantic Ocean, with various rivers running through it thus providing an important environment for the sport, with James River being the most preferred destination. Therefore, to many families, river rafting has become an enthralling outdoor sport that during weekends and holidays many families will engage in and when it comes to this adventure sport people usually select the river where they perceive to be the best place to raft.

Consumer behavior motivation Motivation is defined in literature work as ‘an inner state of arousal’ where the aroused energy is directed at achieving a particular goal. This definition portrays a consumer as a motivated consumer who is energized, ready and willing to participate in a goal-relevant activity (Williams 2002; Majumdar, n.d, p.36).

Consumers can be motivated to engage in behaviors, make decisions or process information and this motivation can be seen in the context of acquiring, using or disposing of an offering. Consumers in sport tourism have different motivations for engaging or participating in a particular sport or activity. For example, motivations for sport consumption could be utilitarian where the consumer expects some practical benefits, emotional or hedonic where the consumer is in need for status, social recognition or just individual fantasies.

The Drive Theory that put a lot of focus on biological needs contends that the desire for a product, service of mere experience arises from some kind of inner drive whereby the consumer intends a lot to fulfill numerous inner needs both physiological and psychological, which may lead to consumption decision. According to the Expectancy Theory, consumers’ actions are generally driven by expectations of desirable outcomes rather than a push from inside (Sandhya, n.d, p.65).

Therefore, a particular consumption decision is made when there is a feeling that the choice will have more desirable consequences. In fulfilling sport needs, Maslow’s Theory of Motivation can be utilized whereby Maslow sought to explain how people are driven by different needs at a particular point of time and as a result he proposed five major types of human needs which he put in a hierarchical order (Kolb 2006, p.137).

Maslow’s theory, when put into perspectives of consumer behavior, can be analyzed in a way that once a consumer has food, clothing and shelter which basically they need, all other subsequent purchases are made to meet higher needs and this is applicable to a sport tourist.

Conclusion The sport consumer motivation process can be seen as process that causes individuals to behave the way they do as consumers, and as a result, individuals are motivated to either participate in a sport or sport event because the behavior has certain attractive outcomes.

Thus, motivation constitutes an internal factor that arouses and prompts goal-directed behavior. At the primary level, sport consumer motivation largely reflects desires to satisfy an internal need or receive a benefit through acquisition and this motivation process in many instances contains five primary stages: needs recognition, tension reduction, drive state, want pathway and goal behavior which must occur in sequence.

The sequence indicate how a need recognized by a consumer creates internal tension that later pushes an individual toward seeking pathways that provide opportunities to satisfy the need and in the process receive benefits through behavior. Further, sport consumer participates in sport consumption activities of watching or participating by getting directions along five core sport pathway motives of socialization, performance, excitement, esteem and diversion, concepts generally denoted as (SPEED).

Reference List Anon. Consumer Behavior. Web.

Crotts, J. C. and Raaij, W. F., 1994. Economic psychology of travel and tourism. NY, Routledge. Web.

Funk, D. C., 2008. Consumer behaviour in sport and events: marketing action. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. Web.

Hoyer, W. D. and Macinnis, D. J., 2008. Consumer Behavior. CT, Cengage Learning. Web.

Kolb, B. M., 2006. Tourism marketing for cities and towns: using branding and events to attract tourism. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. Web.

Litwin, M. L., 2007. The ABCs of Strategic Communication: Thousands of Terms, Tips and Techniques. IN, AuthorHouse. Web.

Majumdar. Consumer Behaviour: Insights from Indian Market. New Delhi, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Web.

Pizam, A. and Mansfeld, Y., 1999. Consumer behavior in travel and tourism. NY, Routledge. Web.

Sandhusen, R., 2000. Marketing. NY, Barron’s Educational Series. Web.

Sandhya, K. P., General Psychology. New Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. Web.

Schwarz, E. C. and Hunter, J. D., 2008. Advanced theory and practice in sport marketing. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. Web.

Tyagi, C. L. and, Kumar, A., 2004. Consumer Behaviour. New Delhi, Atlantic Publishers. Web.

Wierenga, B., 1997. Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world. MA, Springer. Web.

Williams, A., 2002. Understanding the hospitality consumer. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. Web.

Woodside, A. G., 2008. Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. UK, Emerald Group Publishing. Web.


Marketing Mix of Yorkshire Tea Report college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Results and Analysis


Reference List

Abstract The aim of the research was to determine the right marketing mix for price, promotion, product, and place for Yorkshire Tea to put it at a competitive edge with its key competitors by identifying and determining the right market and their needs to tailor its product to meet customer needs.

Introduction Yorkshire Tea is one of the tea beverages that are widely consumed by a number of people in the beverage market occupying about 27% of drinks besides alcohol, water, soft drinks, and coffee.

Research has shown that Yorkshire Tea occupies a 20% share of the market while its closest competitors PG Tips is estimated to occupy 18%, Twinning’s estimated to occupy 18%, Tetley estimated to occupy 16%, and Other brands that occupy 28% of the market. The demographic consumption of Yorkshire tea is characteristic of an even distribution. Product information is readily available online, magazines, newspapers, and other retail outlets.

Methodology A five member team was formed to conduct the research discussed as follows. These members consisted of Leo, Emma, Jason, Imad, and the group leader. The team planned way before hand on the tools to use for conducting the interview and analysing the results.

According to their plan, questionnaires were administered on a number of male and female participants. The percentage composition of the participants in age was designed as follows: below 16-2%, 17-25-42%, 26-35-34%, 36-45-18%, 46-59-4%, and above 60-0%. The team had identified the outside of the shopping mall located near Univercity.

Each participant was required to provide information by filling in the questionnaire on one’s most preferred drink, and the frequency with which the drink of choice was taken. In addition to that, participants were required to fill in the questionnaire on the most preferred tea among the range of tea beverages that were perceived to be York Shire’s Tea competitors. Competing tea beverages against Yorkshire that were researched on included, Yorkshire Tea itself, PG Tips, Twinning’s, Tetley, and other tea beverages from other destinations.

Each participant was required to indicate how they came to know Yorkshire Tea with the options of Televisions, magazines, Newspapers, and people to select from. Other information sources could be online and an individual’s own encounter with the product.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to article Novak (2010, p.1), further research was conducted on the volume of sales of York Shire Tea and the packaging done on the product. The effect of different packaging methods and the perceived value and customer loyalty to the brand thus created were identified to range from light red, dark red, blue, brown, and green and their respective percentage packaging were analyzed.

Customers supplied information on their preferred product price, which was evaluated on the scale of very expensive, expensive, fair, and cheap to very cheap. The information was presented graphically for analysis purposes.

According to McNamara (n.d, p.1), each respondent was required to provide information on the most preferred customer they thought the product was tailored to target. In addition to that, each participant provided recommendations on any improvements to be made on the product they thought was desirable to meet their needs.

Results and Analysis According to the research it was established that Yorkshire Tea (n.d, p.1) enjoyed a 20% consumption rate as compared to its competitors. Data was analyzed and presented graphically. It was established that other tea beverages competitively occupied 28% of the market, while the closest competitors had 18% and 16% shares in the market.

That indicated how competitive the market was in terms of customer base for the product to maintain a strong customer base and sustain its position and increase its market share. Thus the concept of place, where to market the product, its brand name could seriously impact on its position in the market. The quality of product packaging, consumption warranties and other aspects should be incorporated in product design and differentiated to meet target market needs.

According to the Novak (2010, p.1), the research indicated that the pricing of the product should be consistent with market demographics, which could depend on, among other factors production costs of Yorkshire Tea, supply chain components such as transportation.

McCarthy (2010, p.1) argues that other pricing components for consideration included warehousing, advertising costs, public relations, and administration activities. According to the article Yorkshire Tea, they were realized to be pertinent factors to integrate in product promotion to succeed in sustaining and increasing the market share for the product affirmed in the article Yorkshire Tea.

We will write a custom Report on Marketing Mix of Yorkshire Tea specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internet, magazines, newspapers, and other marketing were identified to take shares in advertising the product. The Yorkshire Tea (n.d, p.1) promotional schemed were realized not meet all the marketing needs as each occupied a relatively small share.

According to the article The Marketing Mix, product pricing was perceived to be relatively expensive for the majority of participants as illustrated on the figure below. Promotional actives were noted to be rare as the respondents affirmed.

However, it was realized during the research that different packaging were done on the product tailored at different market needs and taste. These included packaging products in light red with a 10% liking from the customers, Dark red that had a 30% share, blue with a 20% share, Brown with 10% share, and Green with a 30% share. Based on these distributions of product innovations, the colors with a high percentage share could be enhanced and their prices tailored to attract more customers.

Conclusion The research successfully established Yorkshire Tea’s competitors based on the 4 P’s of product, price, promotion, and place. Tea drinking was realized to take only 27% of the drinks consumed in the market and the need to expand on this market was clear from the research results.

The product was established to take a 20% share of the market behind its key competitors who were 28% ahead of the beverage. Other close competitors were closely behind Yorkshire tea with a paltry 18% and 16% respectively calling upon producers to adopt aggressive marketing methods to attract more customers to create a strong customer base and brand loyalty, like the coca coal company.

It was realized that despite the beverage being tailored to meet key target customers, a lot of innovation was needed in the side of product promotion, pricing, product innovations, and place to attract more customers. That could give the company an upper hand in the competitive market.

Following the research it was recommended that future research incorporate Porter’s five industry forces along with the 4 P’s approach, and value chain analysis and their effects on the strength of the product in the market and sustainability and strategies to gain a bigger market share. It was recommended further that Yorkshire Tea producers incorporate key competing elements characterizing their competitors, identify, and evaluate their weaknesses and build on their strengths to thrive on success in the market.

Reference List McNamara, C. General Guidelines For Conducting Interviews. Basic Business Research Methods. n.d. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Mix of Yorkshire Tea by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McCarthy, J.E. Marketing Mix 4p’s Model. Value Based, 2010. Web.

Novak .J. Marketing Mix. Marketing Mix. Marketing, Chichester, United Kingdom 2010. Web.

The Marketing Mix. The 4p’s of Marketing. Marketing. Business Knowledge center, 2002-2010. Web.

Yorkshire Tea. British Delights Yorkshire Tea. British Delights, 63 Power Road Unit 2, West Ford, n.d. Web.


Corporate Social Responsibility Importance for Business Organizations Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Demand for CSR and Ethical behaviour

Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility

Disadvantages of unethical behaviour

How companies can improve their CSR

Role of leadership and management in CSR

Examples of companies



Introduction Although the primary objective of business organizations is the making and maximization of profits, it is always good for companies and other business organizations to uphold ethics in their operations and generally be socially responsible.

Despite this fact, some companies have faced insurmountable problems due to their failure to incorporate the ideas of Corporate Social Responsibility in their policies. These instances have served the purpose of confirming to other companies and business organizations that Corporate Social Responsibility is essential for the success of any business organization.

Corporate Social Responsibility touches numerous aspects of life, all of which are meant to conserve resources and ensure the good of the public. As the needs of the consumers/public are catered for, the socially responsible company also benefits in numerous ways. This paper looks into the importance of ethical behaviour and Corporate Social Responsibility to business organizations.

Demand for CSR and Ethical behaviour Barely twenty years ago, companies were not keen on social responsibility and thus they operated in ways that were profit oriented. With time, the effects of irresponsible corporate behaviour were continually experienced until it became clear that companies needed to be socially responsible.

For instance, companies in the manufacturing sector were releasing a lot of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere which aggravated the problem of global warming. The adverse effects of global warming, like earthquakes, floods, hunger, hurricanes etc, made administrative authorities to be very vigilant on operations of business organizations.

The press also continually became attentive to companies that did not observe social responsibility and the result of this was that companies strived to protect their image by being socially responsible. Companies in the manufacturing sector have therefore been trying to be environmentally friendly and thus their effluents are closely monitored to ensure that they do not cause harm to the environment.

Since the introduction of the ideas of social responsibility, the scope of social responsibility has broadened to cover areas that were never covered before (Kotler, 2005, p. 126). These include the responsibility of companies to, not only ensure environmental conservation but also to, raise living standards of their consumers, engage in charity work and the like.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the ideas of social responsibility discussed above are essentially voluntary except the ideas of environmental conservation. The ideas do not have profit-oriented motivation but companies that engage in them build their profit-making foundations in one way or another.

This is the main benefit associated with CSR although it is in most cases difficult to quantify it. This is so because the benefits that are directly associated with ethical behaviour and Corporate Social Responsibility are not directly associated with profits (McManus, 2006, p. 20). The two establish the foundations of profit generations which in turn make the business organization generate more profit.

Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility The benefits of upholding ethical behaviour and operating in a socially responsible manner are multifaceted. For instance, a company that operates ethically is likely to have a better management than a counterpart that does not value ethical behaviour.

Thus in a company where organizational policies favour mutual respect among employees the company will have minimal employee collisions and will most likely have greater productivity and thus the company will maximize its profits. Other ethical-related issues will likewise be avoided (McNamara, 2005, p. 59).

Similarly, a company that upholds Corporate Social Responsibility will enjoy many advantages due to better relationships with its consumers and administrative agencies. An example of such advantages is the fact that a socially responsible company is bound to have a lot of goodwill which will indubitably translate to greater revenue.

This is because a company that is respected and appreciated by its customers will have an increased number of customers which will lead to more sales. Secondly, a company that upholds CSR will be mindful of the kind of products that it sells to its customers.

This means that products will be environmentally friendly and they will also be designed with the health of the consumer in mind. This implies that the company will not have problems with administrative bodies related to environmental pollution and degradation. The company will therefore save a lot of money which could be otherwise spent on court cases and it will also get limited customer complaints meaning that its net sales will be higher.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility Importance for Business Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, a company that values Corporate Social Responsibility will be respected by the government in which it operates and thus the company is likely to get policy-related favours from the government (Gregory, 2007, p.35). It may even get subsidies to aid it in its operations since the government will be guaranteed that the welfare of the company translates to better living standards of its citizens.

Disadvantages of unethical behaviour Although the incorporation of the ideas of CSR in organizational policies is somehow voluntary, companies have a moral obligation in implementing the same. Those that fail to adhere to the provisions of CSR experience a lot of problems that make them lose a lot of revenue and status.

The worst kind of social responsibility to ignore is that of environmental conservation. Companies that fail to adhere to the provisions of ethical behaviour and CSR related to the preservation of the environment are bound to experience a great deal of problems. First of all, such companies get a very negative publicity which makes consumers of their products to start consuming products from other companies.

This results in substantial reduction of the consumer-base of the company which in turn affects the profitability of the company. Such companies may also fall victims of public protests which lead to disruption of the normal operations of the company. This results in less productivity hence less profitability.

In the same way, companies that concentrate in profit maximization and forget their responsibility towards their employees and consumers alike are bound to suffer major drawbacks related to lack of CSR. For instance, if a company does not give its employees fair wages for their involvement in its operations, it may experience a high employee turnover which may have serious repercussions to its production and profitability.

This is because the company will be required to spend its revenue on recruitment and selection of new personnel and spend additional resources on training. The company will also be likely to experience problems related to mistakes committed by recruits and it may also experience slow productivity due to the inefficiency of inexperienced personnel (Samuelson, 2004, p.38).

On the other hand, a company that does not put in place sufficient measures to ensure consumer protection against poor quality products will experience adverse effects on its profitability. Apart from being likely to lose a lot of customers, such a company may have to spend a lot of resources on law suits filed by consumers who may take unhealthy products from the company.

In the same way, the company may face stiff penalties imposed by regulatory bodies which may make it unable to continue its operations well. For instance, if a company engaging in the manufacture of drugs produces drugs that have serious side effects, the company may be closed down or fail to get important certifications. This may make the operations of the company a challenge.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility Importance for Business Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How companies can improve their CSR There are a number of suggested approaches of CSR in the discussion above. Most of the ideas mentioned above have also been expounded to show their benefits and the repercussions that could result from failure to implement them. One such approach to CSR is the conservation of the environment in the course of running the business organization.

Although the main focus of the environmental conservation ideas discussed above is on the operations of the organization, the same can be approached from a different perspective. That is, the company can do more than just ensuring that its operations do not negatively affect the environment. This can be achieved by employing a variety of approaches which may include advocacy for environmental conservation and giving support to environmental conservation efforts by others.

This support may be in form of special recognition by awards or financial support. The company can also participate in the same by partnering with regulatory bodies to ensure companies and individuals who do not comply with the rules of environmental conservations are appropriately dealt with.

Another discussed issue is the application of CSR from a health perspective. Companies need to not only ensure that their products to consumers are healthy but they should also ensure that they participate actively to health provision efforts. This may be achieved by making direct contributions to health campaigns, supporting behaviour change campaigns advocating for healthy living, sponsoring awareness campaigns for unpopular ideas of health and allowing their employees to donate their time in such campaigns.

There are also a number of other ways in which companies can be socially responsible. These include the allocation of a certain percentage of product sales to charity and helping the needy as a way of giving back to the community.

Companies may also incorporate within their policies social-based reward events for their employees as a way of showing their appreciation for the involvement of the employees in generation of revenue. Such events may include leisure trips, day offs, dinners, etc. These are bound to impact the motivation of the employees in a major way (Bartol et al, 2008, p. 35).

Role of leadership and management in CSR Corporate social responsibility as the duty of organisations has to be incited by the top management or leaders of an organisation. The leaders have the role of instilling the need to get back to the society in their subordinates. They have to strategise and make sure that the set objectives for being responsible to the society are achieved.

A major function of the top management is to make sure that the subordinates deal with people from the society in an ethical way. The advantage of having the top management responsible is because of the reason that they are highly listened to and obeyed. Leadership and management are mostly used in organisations where authoritative style of governance is used. In that people have to be pushed to work as they cannot do anything productive on their own.

Examples of companies Evidence of the great need to incorporate CSR in the policies and operations of companies and other business organizations has been evidenced by a myriad of companies. This has been achieved through the success of companies that appreciate CSR and the problems faced by companies that in one way or another do not uphold the ideas of CSR.

An example of such companies is BP. Despite the fact that the recent BP oil spill was somehow accidental, the same shows the laxity of the company to be socially responsible. The oil spill has severely affected the environment and life especially marine life.

The company suffered a major loss due to the spill but it is yet to face more problems due to its ignorance of CSR. It is no doubt that the spill has substantially affected the status of the company. The company’s customers have lost their trust in the management of the company and the U.S. government has also expressed serious concerns over the problem. The company is thus bound to lose a substantial number of its customer’s world over.

One of the companies that have successfully applied the ideas of corporate social responsibility is Chevron. The company has dedicated a huge sum of funds in an AIDS patient support programme in South Africa. This can be seen as an effort to help people live healthier lives as discussed in the text above.

The company is also concerned about current problems the world is facing and thus it has invested in a solar demonstration which is aimed at investigating ways in which solar energy can be used in the future. This can be seen as a response to the energy crisis facing the world today and thus it is oriented towards CSR. The company is also concerned about the intellectual welfare of people and thus it has formed strategic partnerships aimed at encouraging female students to take courses oriented towards science and engineering.

This can be seen as a good social responsibility step aimed at helping the community as well as ensuring sustenance of the industry. Chevrolet is among the few companies that are known for their efficient use of energy and thus they contribute minimally to the proverbial problem of global warming. This can be seen as a social responsibility step aimed at environmental conservation and thus the company is conscious of the need to conserve the environment for future generations.

Conclusion As discussed in the essay above, Corporate Social Responsibility is a practice that benefits both the community and the company that practices it. The several ways in which CSR can be implemented have been discussed and the weight of each of the methods emphasized. For instance, environmental conservation is the most important part of CSR due to the past instances of environmental degradation by companies.

Ethical behaviour has also been highlighted as an important part of any successful business organization and reasons for the same given (Bartol et al, 2008, p. 35). One of such reasons is the fact that ethical corporate behaviour reduces organizational problems and builds the goodwill of the business organization.

Given the benefits that come with CSR and the disadvantages that are related to the same, companies should ensure that they set up appropriate and sufficient strategies for implementation of CSR. This is because failure to do so may result in crippling consequences to the companies.

Thus companies should set aside a portion of their capital or revenue to finance CSR costs because implementation of CSR is, in actual fact, an investment. Companies should also make sure that they uphold high standards of ethical conduct and incorporate the same in their policies for easy administration of ethical behaviour. This is because, as discussed, ethical behaviour has a lot of advantages and benefits that work to the good of any business organization.

Bibliography Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G.,


Rhetoric in design Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract Aristotle, the world’s illustrious genius is the one who discovered and put into perspective the three rhetoric devices namely ethos, pathos and logos. Rhetoric is credible art of making persuasive appeal to the potential audience through deliberate use of argumentative convincing language.

This essay puts in to perspective the use of rhetoric literal devices utilized in both verbal and written communication in contemporary art design work such as product design. The introductory section serves as the synopsis highlighting the key uses of the three elements of rhetoric. Further this paper will elaborately show the usage of these devices through pictorial examples appended on this paper. To wrap up, this paper will review why the rhetoric devices serve such a momentous role in the field of art and design.

Introduction Rhetoric brings out the oomph in a communication; it is the spice that seasons the words of a speaker enthralling the awaiting audience to yearn for more. As George categorically stated, rhetoric entombs the power of words, the energy in communication (1992, 1). The driving force behind the speaker’s words and the vigor remitted through is utterances in nutshell explain rhetoric.

Evidently, rhetoric empowers speakers to prey at the credulity of the awaiting audience swaying them to the desired state. Kennedy summarily, states that the ethos of a speaker exudes the speaker’s character credibility, logos comprise of the persuasive evidence presented to the audience and then pathos carries with it the emotional appeal that arouses the audience to feel and grasp the sentiments of the information send forth.

Dewey, adds into Kennedy’s perspective but takes it a notch higher by suggesting that rhetoric can be implemented in both language and design (1958, 46) Design comprises of wide range of products and artifacts, rhetoric can be utilized in both fine arts and in industrial production.

In a close rejoinder, John continues to say that,’ when approaching design from a rhetorical perspective the hypothesis should be that all products are clear arguments about how we should lead our lives” (Lawson 2004, 56). Consequently, the potential buyers are likely to purchase products in accordance with the degree of persuasion.

McKeon categorically stated that rhetoric is widespread device covering a wide scope of disciplines shared among myriad disciplines (1987, 186). Further, the author proceeds to say that rhetoric provides a conduit through which theoretical experiences are brought into solid practice (192). Buchanan states that “a statement that relates this to product design in that the designer’s work is to conceptualize and evaluate ideas, then make them tangible through products that are expected to have an appeal to the final user” (1988, 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To sum up all these ideas, the new rhetoric of our modern days has become a cementing factor fusing words and things. A creative art becomes the most ideal podium through which modern rhetoric can be extravagantly exhibited.

General overview of rhetoric and Rhetoric in design

In a critical review Hauser extended the idea that rhetoric is a communication which endeavors to coordinate social action. (1986, 2) In other words, rhetoric has a sole goal of affecting and influencing the decision making capability of the human mind. Rhetoric swerves the normal human thinking agility persuading it to make choice in a specific premeditated manner.

Rhetoric plays a significant role of creating a persuasive, instructive piece which veers the potential audience towards making a certain anticipated decision. Michael (1981, 45) quoting Aristotle, also adds that rhetoric is “the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” He then goes on to describe three main forms of rhetoric. ‘These are Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.

What’s This? Richard (1998, 23-25) in order for rhetoric to take its root in the anticipated potential audience the person conveying the message should show integrity and should be a trustworthy source to the prospective audience. The credibility of a person is drawn from his proficiency and his past experiences; the person must have ethical appeal, should be humane and show consideration to the feelings of the potential audience.

The logos facet of the rhetoric devises appeals to the logic and the common sense of the audience. The information provided should be backed up with solid evidence in order to appease the reasoning of the awaiting audience.

Pathos, on the other hand has appeals on the emotional sentiments of the budding audience so that they not only use their logic but also their feelings in making decisions Michael (1981, 6), putting rhetoric devices in product designs states that ethos exude the touch of the designer bringing out the voice of the product. Logos persuades to the logic of the audience on the significance of design and pathos forms the personality of the manufacturer.

A different way of looking at logos in product design is that they entomb the intelligence, the refined thinking and the summary of the message the designers sought to send across. The message garnered in a product is highlighted in a simplified and highly acceptable manner using a logo.

We will write a custom Essay on Rhetoric in design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the person manufacturing or designing a product appeals to the audience, through his credibility and acquired reputation; the element of pathos is keenly brought into use in this case. In order for a designed product to be popular, people must be able to trust its manufacturer, the mode of its design and the reason for its usage. The three elements of rhetoric are thus brought into play.

Designs in relation to the theory of rhetoric

Gerard states that the rhetorical terms of logos, ethos and pathos can easily be mapped onto design in a straightforward way (1986, 9). The three elements compliment each other as they blend to exude a product that both appeals to the human senses and the logic. In the following cases, there are illustrative diagrams which highlight how the three elements of rhetoric namely ethos, logos and pathos come into interplay during product design.


Conall (2007, 9), states, that, ethos of a designer can be considered to be his or her broad reputation and standing; this also applies to a particular company or brand reputation or credibility. Some designers and brands have a great deal of credibility with certain audiences to an extent that some names are household words and are popular world wide.

This is influenced by the fact that the behavior of people is affected by certain brands which is the basic idea formulated by their manufacturers. They design their products in a special way that never fails to influence their thoughts and behavior on the brand in question. According to Conall (2007, 9), the brand speaks to the buyer who is finally persuaded to buy it due to its outstanding quality and practicability.

Consumers also love to buy items that remind them of important events in their lives other than them meeting their needs. This is what brings out the mutual connection between design and rhetoric and this is further explained in the various inventions that come up everyday making design evolutional.

For, example as stated by Nora (2009, 46), Scavolini brand, shown in the diagram below, ‘is a furniture company in Italy; the company that best succeeds in satisfying its consumer’s most varied and concrete demands in terms of styling, functionality, safety and durability’. It hence commands more credibility than most company’s in this area. This is evident from the number of loyal market it controls world wide.

Fig1. (Sample ethos) The ultimate kitchen by scavolini 2009,1)


Buchanan (1998, 24), states that ‘people will usually evaluate a design before buying it; this means that consumers make comparison. In order for a brand to stand out, its design and the presentation should make a hard sell to the consumer even before they use it. Creative manufacturers then go a step further to create brand loyalty that appeals to a specific niche of the customers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rhetoric in design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The brand names, the color schemes and even the taglines used of products create the initial appeal on the customers impelling them to choose one product over the others. The various forms of communication and persuasion that lead to people being convinced that they want a particular product or a particular designer’s work constitute the logos,(Buchanan, 2001 ,24).The following is analysis of a sample logos by Capital Logo Design (2009):

Figure2: Capital Logo Design (2009)

A statement from Capital Logo Design (2009) states that this logo was designed for a Shell Oil wholesaler. In order to make sure that his customers gets to know from which company he obtains oil from, these client requested the Shell logo to be incorporated into the design. This is a clear way of how a logo tries to convince a customer about a particular product.


According to Buchanan (1998, 25), pathos to a designer is incorporating features that appeal to specific groups of individuals. This is the susceptibility of the consumer to a certain product. Conall (2007, 16) states that, fashion victims epitomize this dimension of design. This means that those that are fashion-conscious have a list of “must-have” brands that depends on their design. The picture below tries to further explain what pathos is to a consumer:

Figure3: ZilSOUND (2010, 24)

By going through the features provided in the mobile phone brand above in the picture, people desiring to have the latest mobile phone or other could be swayed in to buying it.

Conall (2007, 16), ‘in his study suggest that, rhetoric is increasingly seen as a comprehensive tool for evaluation.’ This can hence give designers a means of dealing with consumer values and requirements. Conall (2007, 16), proceeds to say that, ‘the new Rhetoric as portrayed in design can facilitate areas of human activity which entail a synthesis of ideas and competing values in order to arrive at a best outcomes.

Tancred (2004, 22), then adds that, “it has then been established that rhetoric is not concerned with any single delimited kind of subject but is like a language and a useful art”. Lawson continues to state that, “it is clear that its function is not persuasion but rather the detection of the persuasive aspects of each” (2004, 53).

As Postman and Weingarten (1969, 23) have pointed out, Rhetoric is a form of communication, and the main purpose of communication is to affect the behaviour of others; design influences behavior in a special way: In today’s consumer design the object must speak to the potential purchaser to persuade him or her to buy.

Conclusion In order for the modern designers to retain their credibility in the highly competitive world mired with cutthroat competition; they must be able to renovate and change with times. The ability to adapt to changes, embracing new tactics and skills in the highly dynamic industrial world is the only way contemporary designers can survive and retain their relevance in the art and design field.

Design is in itself evolutional and designers are faced with the task of being on their toes at all times in order to counter the changing demands that characterize the design industry. To achieve this, they must keep abreast with the newest trends in the market and carry out surveys on their clientele base to understand their needs.

This way, they stand a better chance to give them practical designs which will also reflect their values. Ethos, pathos and logos come in hardy to give a finishing touch to the art designs in order to give them the desired appeal. These principles make rhetoric a worthy and valuable skill that helps designers sway their audience who in return show loyalty by making these brands their preferred designs.

Reference List Buchanan, Richard. 1998. “Branzi’s Dilemma: Design in Contemporary Culture Design.” Design Issues 14(1).

Capital Logo Design.2009. “Logo design samples”. March 19. Web.

Hauser, Gerard.1986. “Introduction to Rhetorical Theory”. June 14,

John, Dewey.1958. Art as an Experience. New York: Capricorn Books.

Kennedy, George. 1992. “A Hoot in the Dark”. April 16. Web.

Ó Catháin Conall. 2007. Is Design Research simply rhetoric? Design Studies. Belfast, N. Ireland: Queen’s University 3(3).

Postman, Cannon Weingarten.1969.Teaching as a Subversive Activity. New York: Doubleday.

Reed, Nora. (2009). “Online home furniture magazine”. 2 July. Web.

Richard, McKeon. 1987. Essays in Invention and Discovery. Woodbridge CT: Ox Bow Press

Shugrue, Michael. 1981. The art of rhetoric. Design and the New Pennsylvania State University: University Park, PA.

Tancred, Lawson. 2004. The Art of Rhetoric: Translated with an Introduction and Notes. London: Penguin Books.

ZilSOUND. 2010. “Mobile phone”. 25 Aug. Web.


Boots pharmaceuticals Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Strengths




Boots pharmaceutical has been in existence since the 19th century. It is based in the UK having prime outlets England and Ireland. The company has undergone radical transformations since the early 90s. Faced with unending competition from supermarkets and other specialized stores, this company underwent a series of mergers, most notable with Alliance Unichem in 2006 to form Alliance Boots. This was later bought by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, a concealed equity entity.

Strengths Boots pharmaceutical has employed 60,000 employees on a permanent basis. These are fully committed employees who are motivated and have the desire to see the company grow in leaps and bounds. A survey carried out showed that employees are contented with the present, working conditions. This is a crucial component for entities that endeavor to make inroads in the market.

The company is focused on beauty products as well as pharmaceutical products. This guarantees a large market base due to the wide range of products on offer.

The parent company also provides many other products apart from medicine. The company is properly protected from turbulent markets and has adequate options incase a product fails in a certain market. Boots Company has focused on marketing in order to establish and maintain stable client base. Their prime of ensuring customer satisfaction by offering quality service will also work in their favor.

The company has adopted modern technology as a method of dispensing its products. Customers are required to take their prescriptions to a store, after which they collect their prescriptions from a vending machine at a central location. This service has been rolled out on a small scale in England, but will be applied en masse after trials have been finished.

Weaknesses Although they have a website, it is difficult to carry out online shopping. The website is poorly designed; hence customers can easily get annoyed when they opt for this method. It can easily be confused for a company offering advice on medical issues online. The site barely quotes the range of products and services offered in specialized shops.

Lack of proper management techniques saw the company incur massive losses. The poor planning and incompetent strategies employed by the management frustrated customers, further driving them away to other firms. This resulted in a large decline in its market share hence weakening its brand name.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opportunities The company has an excellent customer attraction strategy. Improving their presence in specialist and departmental stores will be immensely beneficial to them. As a result of differences in upbringing and socialization, some customers may not feel relaxed buying certain products from public stores.

They are more comfortable talking to attendants at boots about toiletries and other personal effects. These outlets also provide trained medical personnel to respond to various customer needs. This is in contrast to other retail outlets, which lack such additional privileges and instead sell the products in order to clear stocks they hold.

Threats The main problem facing boots is the decision by supermarkets to incorporate non-food items in their goods list. This has been facilitated the concept that they are convenient and offer prime products at fair costs. It also offers a variety for people shopping for groceries. It is noteworthy that most supermarkets understand their purchaser’s wants hence design their products and services to satisfy this.

The company is also under threat from government supported proliferation of pharmacies and other medicine distribution agencies. This eventually affects their core business since most supermarkets run fully fledged pharmacy chains, and doctors who operate spare hours are paid extra amounts by the government.


Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Fredrick Douglas was born in Tuckahoe, Hillsborough, about twelve miles from Easton in Talbot county of Maryland to a white father (though not mentioned) and a black mother, Harriet Bailey. He never knew his real age or year of birth, though this was common to most the black slaves’ children in America unlike the white children who were told of their age and date of birth.

After his birth barely a year he was separated from his mother who was taken to a further distance to offer labour to the whites farms a distance of about twelve miles. He reveals that the slave’s children were left at the care of aged women who were unable to provide labour, and that this was meant to break the strong affection of the child and the mother.

Douglas says the only time he was able to be with his mother was during the night. She used to work in Mr. Stewart‘s farm some twelve miles from their home lived and had to walk the distance at night to come and see him. By early the next day, she was expected to be in the farm offering some service in the field, failure of which the penalty was being whipped thoroughly unless one had special permission from the master.

At the age of seven, he received the news about the death of his mother just as one gets the news about the death of a stranger. The loss of his mother was a big blow to him especially on the point that she had not revealed to him his father (Douglass 3).

Despite being born of two distinct worlds, he shares that the child had to bear the wrath of the mother so he was equally a slave, because any black woman who had a child with a white man had to undergo more hardships than any other slave especially if it was with the master.

At his childhood he was under two slave masters; the first one being Anthony who had thirty slaves in number under an overseer called Mr. Plummer “a miserable drunkard, a profane swearer, and a savage monster” (Douglass 15). He was a very cruel man who always went to the farm with a cowskin and a heavy cudgel which he used to whip, cut and slash women’s heads so horribly.

The inhumane nature of Plummer forced the master to intervene and warned him of his cruelty. Douglass tells of an ugly ordeal he experienced for the first time and it was on his aunt called Hester, the mistake being she went out at night and was found in company with Lloyd`s Ned. She was made to strip off her clothes from the neck to the waist level; hands held up and crossed then tied on a hook up leaving her resting on her toes and what followed he could not comprehend until he hid himself in a closet (Douglass 17).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His second service as a slave was at Colonel Lloyd and Captain Thomas Auld`s plantation and these is where he came to the full wrath endured by the slaves, the bloody sinister. Furthermore the annual allowances given to the slaves were unbearable, as for men one coarse linen shirt and trouser and one winter trouser all made of coarse Negro cloth and any one who, missed had to go naked until the next season.

This plantation had different kinds of overseers both the barbaric and the kind hearted ones as we had those who found pleasure in whipping the slaves and even killing them. Douglas was the lucky one as his age did not allow him to work in the fields, but chase the fowls from the farm and other small duties.

A message of good hope came to him concerning his move to Baltimore and indeed it was good news just from the way he is to disguise himself that is to be smart. Even after moving to the place got a warm welcome from his master to be and put in charge of young Thomas Auld whom he was to take care of. It opened his desire to get knowledge and write about the slavery life. His mistress, a kind hearted woman, laid the foundation by starting to teach him the alphabets and later how to spell words of three or four letters.

The master was in great objection of these saying “If you give a nigger an inch, he will take an ell. A nigger should know nothing but to obey his master–to do as he is told to do. Learning would ~spoil~ the best nigger in the world. Now” (Douglass 31). These did not deter his efforts to get knowledge which he would use to liberate his fellow slaves but sparked a strong desire to want to learn more.

He discovered that their existed a large rift between the slaves in the city and those that lived in the countryside. Those in cities were less mistreated, given good food and clothing and the work they did was not an overload that’s why he notes that “a city slave is almost a freeman, compared with a slave on the plantation” (Douglass 32).

Most of the masters in the city were after providing the best to their slaves except for one Mr. Thomas Hamilton and his wife who mistreated their two slaves Mary and Henrietta. The two were emaciated and skinny as a result of denial of enough food thus leading to Mary contending with the pigs on the streets for the thrown offal.

Though he was denied access to learning materials in his master’s house, Fredrick planned his own strategy of getting knowledge and that was by befriending many white children on the streets who taught him how to read. Having acquired skills on how to read, he came across a book that inspired him a lot “The Columbian Orator” where he learned of emancipation of slaves after the incidence of a slave who tried to escape thrice but was later emancipated by his master.

We will write a custom Essay on Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also talked of Catholic Emancipation a speech given by one Sheridan and this was enough knowledge to him as he was able to know of the benefits the slaves had to gain and their human rights.

Although, he had all these within his confines but their was little he could do to save them as he was only twelve years old. He felt like he had poisoned himself with that knowledge that had opened to him his whole but nothing could be done. One word that its clear meaning was not known to him was “abolition”.

After helping some Irishmen to unload their stones from their truck they heed to him the idea to escape and head to the North but the biggest fear was they mighty monopolize from his escape by getting him back and then being paid by his master. So he pretended to have heard nothing from them. These helped him plan his escape effectively and made much effort in knowing how to write which he perfected after a long struggle.

After years of being subjected to torture by his former slave masters, Douglas was at last a free man on the 3rd September 1838. These was the time he arrived in New York although starting life and trying to adapt to it was a hard task as he knew nobody, and the other thing being he feared he might fall prey of kidnappers who were after stranded fugitives. But his happiness was that he was no longer a slave, at a place where everybody was friendly, though he had no place to call home or anybody he knew.

Before he could stay long in that state of disarray in a strange city, came a very kind hearted man called Mr. David Ruggles who took him to his house where also took care of other fugitive slaves. He inquired to know more about him and where he wished to go and when Douglas told him of his desire to go to Canada he objected and advised to go to New Bedford where he could secure some employment to sustain my survival.

There was a religious marriage between Douglas and Ann who was also a slave but free organized by Mr. Ruggles who invited Rev J.W.C. Pennington who presided over the ceremony. They were kindly hospitalized when they arrived in New Bedford; even where they had left their luggage for lack of fare it was settled by the owner of where they were welcomed.

He thought at first that people of the North were extremely poor considering the fact that they owned no slaves that they never enjoyed any luxuries unlike the southern slaveholders, but that was not the case when he stepped in New Bedford, their were so many riches and everybody lived and enjoyed the life.

He lived with one Mr. Johnson, a humble, kind and hardworking man, together with his wife the kind of life he had never lived with the likes of Covey, Hugh and many other slave masters.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It gave him confidence to fight for the liberation of all slaves in the South and to preach for the abolition of slavery. Douglas openly admits that the religion in the South among the masters was indeed a false pretence because they claimed to be devoted Christians and even had church leaders come to their houses often but they never ceased from mistreating their subjects.

He observed that people in the North had strong faith in Christianity that’s why everybody was working thereby not being able to note the difference between the master and the servant. He further brings out how they would pray for God to bless them and fill their stores with more grain yet on the other side they are extra mean starving their slaves, the worst of all being their whipping of the slaves and even slashing their heads and feeling pleasure in doing so yet claim to be religious people.

Works Cited Douglass, Frederick (1963). Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. New York: Forgotten Books. Print.


Clown Program Development in Hospitals Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Issues associated with the development of clowns

Cost and Benefits of clown program

Implementing the program in healthcare organization


Issues associated with the development of clowns Most of the children tend to shy away from the hospitals because of its frightening nature and experiences. The hospital presents a place away from home for the child with no familiar family members around. The environment is always strange with smell and noise and this creates some fear of the new and unknown to the child.

However, the development of clown program tends to alleviate child’s fear of being within the confines of a hospital by making them feel at ease. This kind of freedom has a positive impact on the child’s healing process since it provides an effective distraction from the pains of illness (Joseph, 2002).

Therapeutic Clown change the child’s experiences in hospitals by offering good substitute to the needles and painful processes. It provides the patient with the opportunity to have fun which is natural and normal to the children. Therapeutic clown offers the children emotional comfort by being the child’s playmate or a friend (Source Direct, 2004). This makes the clowning program in hospitals to be an effective therapy to certain illness since it forms a vital part during recovery process.

The process is made possible through the subtle humour that goes with it helping in pain alleviation; this therefore makes it be accepted as one of the rehabilitation treatments to children (Cino, 2010). Clown program provide an immediate special kind of treatment through fun and laughter which has physiological and psychological benefits. This helps the children to feel more comfortable with the medical procedures and emergency cases.

There are cases whereby some children, young people and even young adults fear interacting with the clowns. This might be because of unfamiliarity they have with the Clown’s make- up and costuming, other cases can be attributed to insensitivity and unskilled clowns. This can also be aroused by the fear of the evil clowns usually given wide coverage through the media. Therapeutic clowns must learn on how to approach patients professionally to avoid negative responses from the children and others (Koller and Gryski, 2007).

Cost and Benefits of clown program Growing research has revealed that the use of clown program has significant benefits for medical treatment as well as the maintenance of health care systems since it reduces the use of pharmaceuticals. This ensures that the high costs involved in the use of drugs and the complications that may accompany it are minimized. The clown program also acts as substitute to ease the tension and fear that a child may undergo during certain medical processes.

Besides the patients, clown program is also beneficial to the health care workers since it improves their working conditions (Koller and Gryski, 2007). There is faster growth on the costs of Pharmaceuticals of all kinds; this has contributed to the increase in healthcare costs in most countries. The clown program hence, provides the best alternative for the reduction on the use of these hence controlling the health care costs (Koller and Gryski, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Implementing the program in healthcare organization Research has revealed that the use of Arts-based programs and activities alongside creative Arts Therapies has produced effective results when used as tools for improvement of health. These programs have proved to lower the costs of health care and even contribute towards sustainability of health care systems. The use of clowns has tremendously contributed to the health of individuals and community at large (Arts and Health Network, 2010).

The research done in the health care organization has consistently cited the importance of implementing psychosocial care within the children’s health care unit (Oremland and Oremland, 2000). It has been noted that play in children protects the child against developmental delays including emotional maturity (Pederson, 1995, pp. 365-375; Vessey et al, 1994, 369-381).

This makes it vital for the healthcare organizations to implement hospital play programs that assist in psychosocial care. The clown program presents the children with opportunity to interact and get thoroughly involved in plays (Koller and Gryski, 2007).

References Arts and Health Network. (2010). Arts for the health of it, and the Joy of it. Retrieved from

Cino, L. (2010). The Therapeutic Clown Program. Retrieved from

Joseph, M. (2002). Therapeutic Clowning: Healing connection through play. Credit Valley Hospital 20 (5), 4.

Koller, D. and Gryski, C. (2007). The life Threatened Child and the Enhancing Clown. Retrieved

We will write a custom Essay on Clown Program Development in Hospitals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Oremland, E.,


Media Ethics: Towards Employing Utilitarianism and Kantian Theory in Examining Practical Ethical Issues Essay college admissions essay help

In this era of global interactivity and extreme media scrutiny, real-life situations and instances of behaviour that raise ethical issues and moral dilemmas continue to reverberate across all civilizations in the world. The role of the media in disseminating information to people is legion, but arising ethical issues persist to put this important institution in a collision course with germane issues that must be primarily dealt with for responsible practice (Plaisance, 2009).

These ethical issues put into perspective the need to rely on philosophical thought to decide on the proper course of action. It is the purpose of this paper to utilize both utilitarianism and Kantian theory to critically examine some underlying ethical issues relating to the claim below:

There’s almost no situation in which I’d stop filming to do something, because I think a film record of a given situation is ultimately more effective, and has greater impact. In the end, it helps more people than if I put down my camera to lend a hand (Bowden, 1987 p. 182)

To offer a critical evaluation of the above claim, it is imperative to briefly discuss the two broad classifications of philosophical thought from which utilitarianism and Kantian theory derives from.

The first classification – teleological ethics – comprise of theories which are essentially concerned with outcomes or consequences and the capacity to produce the best possible decisions. These theories are glued by the premise that ethically right decisions are those that produce maximum consequences (Albarran, 2010). To date, utilitarianism, with its axiom of the greatest good still offers the best example of teleological ethics.

The second classification – deontological ethics – comprise of ethical theories concerned with the philosophical process of arriving at decisions based on established principles (Albarran, 2010). These theories affirm that the rightness or wrongness of an action or behaviour is dependent on that particular action or behaviour and not on the outcomes or consequences it produces. Deontological ethics are best illustrated in the philosophical works of Kant.

Utilitarianism, espoused by such philosophers as David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and Jeremy Bentham, among others, states that moral actions are correct to the extent that they tend to enhance the ‘greatest good for the greatest number.’ As one of the best known adaptations of consequentialism, this theory defines what is morally acceptable in terms of the “maximization of the net expected utility for all parties affected by a decision or action” (Smart


The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Definition of Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning for Small businesses and Improved Performance

Pitfalls of Strategic Planning



Abstract The purpose of this essay is to analyse the concept of strategic planning and its relevance to the activities of an organization. Strategic planning has been viewed as an important cornerstone in the decision making activities of an organization. It enables an organization to achieve its goals and objectives through the development of plans. These plans can either be long term, medium or short term depending on the type of business and the context that strategic planning will be used in.

Introduction Strategic practitioners recognised the importance of strategies in the processes and operations of an organization which saw a lot of emphasis being placed on strategy which later saw the development of strategic planning as an organizational concept. Strategic planning slowly replaced corporate planning which mostly involved developing formal plans that lacked any strategic focus. This change was largely due to the emphasis placed on the planning activities of an organization.

The relationships that were meant to result from this change sometimes could not be achieved. Researchers found that only few organizations were able to succeed in achieving their goals and objectives through the use of strategies. Practitioners of strategic planning have founded their research efforts on the assumption that the creative task of formulating and implementing strategies can be designed into a series of actions referred to as planning that will lead to results that can be repeated in the future.

Definition of Strategic Planning Strategic planning is a technique that is used to organize the present activities of an organization to reflect the desired future projections of what the organization wants to achieve over a certain period of time. A strategic plan is a map or guide that will be used to lead the organization from where it is now to where it would like to be. Strategic planning mostly focuses on the external environment of an organization.

Since every organization has different activities and operations that set it apart from other companies, the strategic plans of every organization will therefore be different from that of the other organization; therefore Strategic planning systems will be designed to deal with the unique characteristics of organizations (Samson and Daft 2009).

Strategic planning is derived from strategy which is the layout of a plan or set of actions that will be used by the organization to achieve their objectives. Strategic planning is the systematic and formalised effort made by an organization to develop detailed plans that would be used to implement the objectives, goals, strategies, and policies of an organization (Wittman and Reuter, 2008). Planning deals with looking at the future results of current decisions that are made by decision makers.

This means that strategic planning provides managers and people in positions of decision making with the cause and effect of consequences that would occur over time if that particular decision was made. If the decision maker does not like the results of the decision, he can easily change it to one that would yield positive results. Strategic planning looks at the alternative courses of action that are available in the future and what options are chosen from these alternatives, they are used as a basis for making present day decisions

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Grunic and Kuhn (2008) viewed strategic planning as a process that began with the identification of objectives and goals which later led to the development of organizational strategies, plans and policies that would be used to achieve these goals.

Strategic planning was seen to be a process of making decisions in advance that would determine what kind of planning activities would be undertaken and how these activities would be done. The process was also systematic as the various activities were organized in a sequence. Strategic planning process was geared towards companies that had their operations and activities in one particular industry within the market.

The basic format of a strategic planning process that is used by most organizations is to first develop the company’s mission, objectives and goals as a first step. Once this is done the organization’s internal and external environment is assessed to determine the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats.

The next step will involve selecting strategies that will be used to deal with the identified strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats. The organization should ensure that the identified strategies are in line with its mission ad goals. After the appropriate strategies are identified and developed, they are finally implemented.

Hills and Jones (2009) note that organizations go through a new process of strategic planning every year as a result of changing business environments and the global economy. This however does not mean that new strategies have to be identified and implemented every year. What usually happens in most organizations is that the strategies are modified or reaffirmed since the strategic plan is usually designed for a period of more than five years.

Strategic Planning for Small businesses and Improved Performance Given all the evidence on the benefits of strategic planning, most small businesses still do not practice planning. Most of the concepts and research on strategic planning have been geared towards helping larger organizations.

Managers of small businesses mostly focus on the short term rather than on the long term strategies. Their decision making technique is characterised to be reactive instead of proactive and deliberate. For those managers who do practice strategic planning, the process is mostly characterised by ad hoc instead of formal activities (Wang et al. 2006).

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to May (2010), small business owners today are realising more than ever that they need strategic planning to make decisions. This has emerged out of their uneasiness about what the future holds for their businesses or the fact that they have attained the present level of small business success without any strategic planning and they don’t feel like proceeding with ventures that they are unsure will yield any profits. Such uncertainties lead them to secure stable and predictable styles of management that mostly involve strategic planning.

The main difference of strategic planning for both the large and small businesses is that the larger organization can financially afford to conduct extensive strategic planning activities which at times might be very expensive while the small business has a limited amount of financial resources. The strategic activities of the smaller organization might be limited or constrained due to finances; the smaller business will also mostly rely on its internal resources do the planning (May, 2010).

Wang et al (2006) conducted investigations on why some small businesses failed in their activities and operations. They noted that the major reason was attributed to the lack of strategic planning and poor business motivation. Previous studies by scholars such as Mintzberg, Crawford and Lefebvre also suggested that formal strategic planning systems in small organizations were absent.

The authors noted that small business strategic planning was mostly characterized by informal planning systems that were unstructured and sporadic. Other characteristics were that the process was viewed to be incomprehensive, incremental and reactive.

Wang et al (2006) note that the motivation for a small business owner to be in business was mostly interwoven with their personal lives. Most small businesses are family owned which shows that the personal motivation in starting the business lies in trying to provide a better life for the business owners and their families. Some of these owner usually lack a business background or the technical known how of running the business. This means that they lack basic strategic planning information.

Such a situation enables the businesses owners and entrepreneurs to get away with developing short term strategic plans for their businesses .Because of the size of the firm and constant uncertainty in the global business environment, small business have a limited ability to control events. That is why their focus is on short term and medium planning instead of long term. The strategic model should be designed in a simple and inexpensive way

Pitfalls of Strategic Planning The main problems experienced by small businesses when trying to initiate the planning process have been identified as the lack of time and lack of proper strategic planning knowledge. But when managers discover ways to overcome these constraints, strategic planning can lead to the improved performance of the business.

Small business managers need to gain an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of small businesses which will set a strong foundation for strategic planning activities. The size and simple structure of small firms allows them to increase their responsiveness to external changes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Strategic Planning and Its Relevance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In discussing the failure of the concept, various studies have been referred to further explain why strategic planning sometimes fails in organizations. One pitfall is that no one study has been found that has assessed the outcomes of deviating from the long range plans.

All studies that have been conducted on the subject do not show whether there has been any negative consequences of not following the long range strategic plan. Another pitfall came from an earlier study that highlighted that while particular companies engaged in systematically planned activities, other organizations that did not engage in strategic planning were able to surpass these companies performance wise; this showed that the best planners did not always perform the best (Dimitrou and Thompson, 2007).

Studies done in the 1970s by scholars such as Malik and Karger found favourable results when strategic planning was used while other studies such as those done by Sheehan, Grinyer and Norburn did not see any benefits of practicing strategic planning. Henry Mintzberg after a review of these studies came up with a conclusion that planning was not the only best way. He noted that in some circumstances it did not pay and that when planning was at its best, it might have had some suitability to particular and not all organizational contexts.

Another pitfall of strategic planning is that most companies find the solutions derived from the formal process of strategic planning to not be what they had actually expected. They usually had a basic idea of the kind of results to expect once the process was done.

Strategic planning makes a majority of the firms today to engage in less risky forms of long range planning in their decision making activities which often at times do not yield the best results. Major criticisms have been drawn to the fact that strategic planning does not in any way contribute to the strategic thinking of major decision makers in organizations.

Many of the benefits that accrue from strategic planning cannot be measured and it is difficult to prove the planning process in absolute terms. This is due to the fact when the planning process is initiated; it becomes hard to compare what has happened with what could have happened. This leads to a lot of speculations and formation of assumptions that are in most cases usually wrong. There is also another pitfall in the form of identifying the amount of costs that have been used in the planning process (Hill and Jones, 2009).

These costs can only be seen if additional profit made by the organization exceeds the additional costs used in planning. Logical expectations of most organizations are that strategic planning will lead the company to be successful in the future; this is a big misconception. Most managers view strategic plans to be the key that will lead the organization to market success which explains why they become devastated when the strategic plans fail (Hill and Jones, 2009).

Conclusion Planning activities are important to an organization to ensure that everything moves in a systematic and orderly manner. Without planning the members of an organization would lack a guide or plan that would direct them to achieve the organizational mission, vision, goals and objectives. Planning is therefore to be the most important activity that an organization should undertake to ensure that it runs smoothly and effectively. Strategic planning should also be given the same level of importance as general organizational planning.

While strategic planning for organizations has been going on for a very long time, the smaller businesses are yet to catch on, yet planning is very important for an organization to achieve optimum success through the proper utilization of resources.

Strategic planning might have some pitfalls but when used in the proper way and in the right organizational context, it can improve the performance of both large and small businesses. Managers should therefore exercise this concept to ensure the decisions they make now will reflect what the organization wants to achieve in the future.

References Dimitrou, H.T., and Thompson, R. (2007) Strategic planning for regional development in the UK. Oxford, UK: Routledge

Grunic, R. and Kuhn, R. (2008) Process based strategic planning. 5th Edition. Berlin: Springer- Verlag

Hill, C., and Jones, G. (2009) Strategic management theory: an integrated approach. Ohio, US: South Western Cengage Learning

May, M.G. (2010) Strategic planning. New York: Business Expert Press

Samson, D., and Daft, R.L. (2009) Management Third Asia Pacific Edition. Australia: Cengage Learning

Wang, C., Walker, E.A., and Redmond, J. (2006) Ownership motivation and strategic planning in small businesses. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability. Vol II, No.4

Wittman, R. and Reuter, M.P. (2008) Strategic planning: how to deliver maximum value through effective business. London: Kogan Page


Company Profile: Western Water Report custom essay help

Overview Western water is an Australian water utility company that is part of the Victorian corporation covering the areas of Lancefield, Bacchus Marsh, Melton, and Sunbury which hosts the Western water headquarters and Melbourne.

Western Region Water Corporation also known as Western Water is among Australia’s thirteen urban water corporations. Western water serves a population of 140,000 covering 55,000 properties providing drinking water, recycled water and sewage services.

Western water was founded in 1989 under the water act. Western water has employed 135 people as at June 2009 of which 45% are women. The company generated a net profit as at 2009 of $6.5 million and developer revenue of $ 14.2 million. Western water carries out a number of functions the main one being water supply.

Western water is making present and future water supply projections for the next 50 years. The focus of this activity is currently on Western water’s five main supply sources which supply up to 15 towns. “To effectively address and tackle this issue Western water has strategies on water supply demand and regional catchments management allowing them to cater for the increase in water demand” (Annual Report 2009 6).

Western water also carry out recycling water processes to supply class A recycled water with the ultimate goal of achieving 100% recycling of all water produced from the recycled water plants (RWPs). Approximately 88% of the total water supplied in 2008/9 was recycled. In the same year and by the company’s recycling efforts approximately 2 billion litres of drinking water was saved through substitution.

“Western water is also involved in water conservation programs carried out by a conservation group running education, water and energy conservation programs” (Annual Report 2009 6). The water conservation program at Western water involves issues such as leakage reduction, applying regulations, promotional campaigns, customer recognition among other issues.

Western water also provides sewer service managing 1,048 km of sewer main. Western water has an elaborate system which transfers sewage from consumer properties to recycling and treatment. Western water has invested in latest technology to deter blockage in this area of service making it efficient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biosolids are a product resulting from Western water recycling services. Biosolids constitute nutrient rich organic material created at various Recycling Water Plants. These can be utilized as an alternative fertilizer solution. Western water has a biosolids policy and strategy to maximize the use of biosolids by adopting sustainable and environmentally acceptable management practices in line with the EPA guidelines on reuse.

“Western water faces the main challenge of meeting the rising demand for water supply and the risk of changing climatic conditions resulting in threatening droughts on the main water resources” (Annual Report 2009 7). Western Water subscribes to an effective environmental risk management policy. “Within this policy the Western Water addresses the environmental risks resulting from the activities typical to the company” (Community Involvement 5).

Water harvesting as the biggest of the activities undertaken has the risks associated with it addressed through management of the catchments and enhancement of biodiversity values in these areas. Sewer collection and treatment as another of the activities at Western Water has been aligned to the need to ensure the maintenance of security and quality of the recycling process.

Organisational Structure

Western water’s organizational structure is founded on values that support their activities. The board at Western water has the mandate of implementing Western water’s general strategy (Organizational Chart 8). The organizational structure in place at Western water is the matrix structure where part of the hierarchy (management team) is functional while the other is executive (board of directors).

“The board of directors at Western water carry out the planning and management of the policies and strategies at the firm” (Community Involvement 9). The board members have the relevant skills and know-how to meet our objectives. Western Water’s management team consists of a skilled set of experienced professionals devoted to achieve the corporate and strategic objectives.

Strategic Plan

“Western water’s mission is to be a leading service provider working with the community towards a sustainable future” (Annual Report 2009 7).

Western water has established their strategic plan from their vision touching on the following:

We will write a custom Report on Company Profile: Western Water specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A need to drive an environmentally sustainable future

A need to be counted as a valued and innovative service provider by the customers and the wider community.

The strategy is being enforced through a number of policies including:

Water supply demand strategy

Green house gas emission policy

Trade waste policy

Biosolids policy

Water plan 2009-2013

Western water utilizes the balanced scorecard to manage and report on strategic business performance. This has been the single most important tool in aiding Western Water strategic and water plan. Measures and initiatives derived from Western Water’s strategic plan, Water Plan 2008-2013, governmental procedures and response from within and customers have been incorporated into this tool to sharpen the focus.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Western water’s vision is to be the leading service provider working with the community towards a sustainable future. “This is achieved through engagement with the community to deliver quality, innovative and environmentally sustainable water services” (Community Involvement 3).

The firm also has customer advisory groups (CAGs) and Community Reference groups (CRGs) to ensure effective community input and inclusiveness. Western water is also aware of the indigenous community and its heritage. “At Western Water cultural and heritage supervision plans for Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV) are developed for all works within 200 metres of water ways” (Community Involvement 3).

“Western water continues to seek for ways to spur community projects geared towards enhancing the neighbourhood’s environmental work towards a more sustainable future” (Community Involvement 4). Western water also runs a number of sponsorship and community events as part of its corporate social responsibility.

Customer Responsiveness and Quality

Western water is bound by a customer charter that ensures valuable customer service delivery and sensitivity. Customer services at this company are continually being benchmarked by the Customer Service Benchmarking Australia (CSBA) to ensure that the services provided conform to the very best standards in the market. A customer satisfaction survey has indicated a steady average of 8.3 out of 10 points over the period 2005 to 2009.

Western water drinking water quality supplies are consistently checked. This is meant to ensure that compliance and standards are upheld as set within the safe drinking water regulations 2005. “Western water guarantees quality of the drinking water supplied in terms of its health and aesthetic” (Water Quality Reports 9). This is upheld through quality monitoring processes that involve uninterrupted measurement of key parameters using on line instruments, day by day operational tests involving the treatment plant team and weekly autonomous monitoring.

Works Cited Annual Report 2009. Western Water, 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Profile: Western Water by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Community Involvement. Western Water, 2010. Web.

Organizational chart. Western Water, 2010. Web.



Toyota Company’s and the European Union Crisis Management Essay college essay help near me

Crisis management is a crucial managerial task which calls for continuous preparedness because of the uncertainty of occurrence of a crisis which could be disastrous or form a platform for catapulting the organization to another echelon. Crisis management is a widely used terminology which applies to diverse occurrences which disrupt the normalcy of organization’s operations.

The term is unique in various companies or organizations; however, irrespective of the name given, the mannerism of dealing with the situation still remains unanimous across the organizations. The environmental factors are both potentially beneficial and potentially destructive to the running of an organization and therefore the management should be on a high alert in order to detect any possible occurrences of interruption.

Crisis is subject to a domain of several variables particularly in international business which include; the features of the event, the significance to both parties, the magnitude of the impact on both parties and the extent to which the event is influential to the neighbouring community (Chemical Engineers, 2005).

Crisis has affected most organizations though this is only clear to the external environment when the effects that come with it are allowed to spill to the surrounding. In some instances the effects are positive hence instrumental promoting the image of the company however in some instances it smears the otherwise good image with mad.

The main focus here will be on two companies which have been greatly affected by crisis leaving behind outstanding effects. In order to clearly demystify the two sides of this phenomenon Toyota Company’s accelerator pedal and toy security crisis whose effects have negatively impacted on the exemplary image of the company will be subject of analysis. Parallel to this, the European Union banking crisis that caused tension among the financial institution is a case in point for successful quenching of a crisis.

Toyota motor Company is a renowned motor vehicle manufacture company for the “Toyota” brand of vehicles. It was established in 1933 as a branch of Toyoda and become an independent company in 1937.

The company has improved its business territories across the world and become one of the major car manufacturing companies in the world, making massive profits as well as upholding a high profile in the international business community. As a result of this the company opened branches in most countries across the world and concurrently increased the production of the motor vehicles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s production has also widened its base introducing several other products and attracting the world market. The company became outstanding among the lead competitors such as Chrysler and General Motors among others. The company was flourishing with a very outstanding reputation for genuine quality products which gave them economic mileage over their counterparts. Despite this attributes the company was not insulated from the impending crisis.

Owing to the financial crisis of 2007-2010, the company suffered a huge loss reporting immense loss of US $4.2 in 2009. This was due to reduced sales and increased production. The company was caught unaware by this world wide crisis and therefore was not ready at the moment to counter the eventuality. Further the company was forced to recall the Toyota toys in 2007 due to security problems, incurring losses and losing customers trust.

This should have been a perfect lesson for the company and act as a warning for any upcoming hazards. However the company suffered a great setback this year not only incurring losses but also damaging the reputation of the company name further when the company was fined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for their tardy response to the faulty accelerator pedals of the vehicles that they had released to the market.

These crises have negatively impacted the operations of the company and therefore the crisis management was not of positive consequences to the company. The consequences of this are the long term degradation of the image of the company at the same time creating a strong hold for their competitors to take the advantage of this loophole (Hemus, 2010).

The great challenge of any crisis irrespective of the company is the timely detection of the chances of its occurrence. This is important in determining the possible causes of action to avert the crisis since prevention is better than cure. The effects in such cases are mild and in many cases not noticeable by the external environment. It is also of essence in order to have the knowledge of the effects of the crisis to all the concerned individuals.

Toyota Company had a weakness in detecting the signs and symptoms of the creeping crisis. The company also had a weakness rooted in their culture of high quality production of motor vehicle as a result slight deviation in quality became very outstanding. The hierarchical communication system of the company hindered the individualistic nature of crisis resolution where individual’s voluntary deals with the problem at individual level (Littlejohn, 1983).

Prodromal crisis stage is the initial and most important stage in crisis management where the management preplans for the actions for any anticipated crisis. This is the stage where a company focuses on the possible crisis, effects on the operations of the company and what can be done to deal with the situation. At this level the crisis can be averted upon effective execution of appropriate antidotes.

We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Company’s and the European Union Crisis Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Toyota Company despite early symptomatic signals did not plan effectively to curb the crisis. The response to the security problems of 2007 by recalling the toys did not form a perfect platform for crisis preparedness in the company and therefore when the case of fault accelerators cropped up the company was also caught unaware and a repeat of the earlier eventuality occurred. This unpreparedness caused the crisis to move to the next phase (Erika, 2008).

Acute crisis phase management is the level at which a crisis cannot be averted and thus the future of the company greatly depends on how the company deals with the situation. Toyota Company had the opportunity to deal with the crisis as soon as it occurred but instead they allowed their products with fault accelerator to spread across the market before intercepting it.

The company further incurred losses by sluggish response hence causing them to be fined. At this very stage the integrity, quality and the welfare of the company’s workers is very colossal though this was not the case for Toyota. It is evident therefore that the company did not satisfactorily deal with the crisis at this level (Marr, 2009).

The chronic phase also known as clean up stage is an important stage in protecting the self image of the company. This stage calls for the managerial skills of the company’s leadership to respond to the crisis by using the available tools to clear all the consequences of the crisis such as auditing.

Toyota company were not keen enough at this stage to clear their name off the mess in time and therefore the crisis eroded their image across the world at the same time causing the company to lose enormous finances through the reclamation of their products (Darling, 1994).

Crisis resolution is the final and important phase in crisis management where the crisis is resolved through the application of the planned actions during the prodromal stage. It is this very stage which can act as the prodromal stage of the next crisis because crises are always uncertain and thus requires preparedness.

Toyota Company faced security problems in Toys which was a clear indication of what was standing a head of the company, the fault accelerators. The fact that the crisis still made immense disaster to the company points to the ineffective resolution of the previous crisis and therefore did not act as a prodromal phase to the preceding crisis as is the case in the crisis management theory (Coombs, 2007).

On the other hand successful crisis management can be exemplified by the winning of the confidence of financial institutions to invest in the European banking systems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Toyota Company’s and the European Union Crisis Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The European banking system is a financial institutional that labours to harmonize financial institutions across the territorial boundaries through introduction of transnational institutions and financial stability provisions which would alleviate the tension and thus create a favorable atmosphere for financial transactions across the countries. This saw the introduction of one market and a single passport applicable across the divide ( Fonteyne, et al. 2010).

The crisis that faced European Union was that of fear against financial freedom. The crisis management by the union was very successful in that they were very effective at each phase of the crisis development. The prodromal stage of the crisis saw the union identify the potential occurrence of a tension that would curtail financial transactions across the institutions and therefore they preplanned to effectively solve the situation. The identification being the major task of crisis management was therefore a success.

The next phase of the management being the acute phase was when the tension was at its peak and therefore financial transactions were very expensive forcing individual to restrict themselves within their financial institutions. It is during this phase that saw introduction of single passport and one banking market. The development of tension could not be reverted at this stage but contained.

The European Union was quick in ensuring that the tension did not exceed beyond controllable limits through timely interventions such tax reduction. This phase saw the protection of the welfare of the parties involved at the same time upholding the integrity and the impartiality of the financial institutions. Consequently this led to the offset of the failing cross-border banking and intelligibility of financial institutions and overhaul of the attitude towards increased costs.

During the chronic stage the European Union was successful in clearing the tension through the effective strategies that were put in place which included the assurance of the participants of cost effectiveness of the implementation of the action plans through reduced collateral destruction to the economy as well as lack of costs in the government budgets.

This was efficient in clearing the tension and restoring the confidence of the two parties who were shying off from financial investment in the European Union banking system. The timely response and the application of managerial tools at the disposal of the European Union leadership were instrumental in the effective management of the looming tension among the financial institution.

The actual crisis resolution is the final phase which was authentically approached by European Union through the various action plans which aided in effective financial freedom. This has sufficiently served as a prodromal phase for an impending crisis keeping the union on its toes.

Some of the crisis resolution actions undertaken included; formation of European Resolution Authority (ERA) which was taxed with the role of resolving cross border cost-effectiveness, development of European Deposit Insurance and Resolution Fund (EDIRF) which derived its funds from the industry, systemic levies as well as premiums emanating from deposit insurance and the establishment of legal structure throughout the involved parties (Aghion, Oliver and John, 1992).

Crisis management therefore is a critical and inevitable phenomenon which applies to all organizations irrespective of the nature of the organization and can occur at any time (Fink, 1986). The manner in which the crises are managed is imperative for the future of the company.

It is important therefore to invest in training the management to be ready to deal with crisis because of its uncertainty nature. The crisis of the Toyota has been a very big lesson to many of the world’s large organizations to be prepared for any crisis irrespective of its status or size since crisis does not discriminate.

The organizations’ integrity and prosperity is greatly dependent on the manner in which the crises are solved and the ability of the company to learn from the past crises. The European Union crisis management parallels the Toyota companies approach and act as a blueprint for successful and effective crisis management.

In conclusion planning is a very effective tool for effective running of an organization. It is important therefore to forecast success and keep an eye on the eventualities that might unfold during service execution of individual and organizational duties. Crisis management is as important as it is disastrous depending on what actions are done prior and after the crisis (Darling, 1994).

List of References Aghion, P., Oliver, H. and John, M.,1992. The Economics of Bankruptcy Reform. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 8 (3), pp. 523-546.

Chemical Engineers, 2005. American Institute of. Corporate Crisis Management. New York: CCPS.

Coombs, W.T., 2007. Crisis Management and Communications. Illinois: Institute for Public Relations.

Darling, J.R., 1994. Leadership


Transformational Leadership Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction In any organization, the focus is based on yielding high profits. The key to this lies in the leader who in turn inspires the staff. Leadership in an organization is usually classified in different categories based on the style the leader uses.

Different leadership styles are used to attain desired goals, but Bass (2006) pointed out in his work that the secret to an organization that is effective in achieving its goals lies in the use of transformational leadership. A leader usually uses power and influence to exercise authority. In transformational leadership however, the idea is to emphasize on influence to manage the teams and bring them aboard in understanding the vision the leader has.

Transformational leadership therefore can be defined as implementing new ideas by way of adopting a more flexible and universal method of influencing and continually ameliorating those around them. This type of leadership calls for the leader and the staff to work on improving one another’s motivation levels.

Motivational leaders bravely work towards making the staff realize the need for higher ideas and the vision they have for the future of the organization. Transformational leaders naturally role model the followers and pass their enthusiasm by clearly letting them visualize what his ideas are, what he is doing and by outlining his genuine personal beliefs he shows the followers that he has these values. Transformational leaders are able to achieve these results by possessing certain qualities and characteristics.

Transformational leaders understand their abilities and confidently stand firm on their beliefs. The confidence in their abilities keeps them motivated and helps them to emotionally connect to the organization. They have high levels of self-determination which helps them attain a sense of direction for the organization and in turn influence the followers and together they propel the organization in the right course.

They possess self drive which helps them to visualize themselves as achievers who do not have to rely on luck to achieve good results. It is this understanding of self that help them to transform those around them (Chammas, 2010).

Another characteristic of effective transformational leaders is seen in their ability to understand those around them and particularly those under them. Transformational leaders carefully understand and purposefully influence and motivate the staff to understand the goals and together they working the direction of attaining that goal since he assists them to realize its intended worth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This requires the transformational leader to have the right communication skills to be able to relay the vision they have to a point of winning the willingness of the followers such that they too are excited and have the drive to achieve the desired change. A transformational leader fully understands what they hope to achieve and the process carefully relaying the intent to the followers requires idealized influence which ensures the followers are not resistance to the idea.

To do so the leader must also be willing to actively involve them in chatting the way forward towards attaining the goal. After they are all in agreement of the right course of action to take, the transformational leader again provides inspirational motivation to keep them going and excite their minds to have the urge to achieve the task.

After the transformational leader purposefully develops the ideas and effectively influences the staff to yearn to do attain the goal, it only marks the beginning of the process. The work of the transformational leader now is to keep the staff focused on the vision continually, help them stick to the agreed on course of action to attain the vision and continually be actively involved in influencing more and more colleagues to support the vision.

The importance here is to make sure that the staff clearly understood the vision the leader has for the organization’s future and make sure that they will support the course and keep abreast with the importance of the task even in years to come. The staff should not just be involve din doing their assigned job but engage in the job because they realize the importance of the outcome of the job.

The last characteristic of transformation leadership is a combination of three qualities which require that the transformational leader think outside the box. According to Chammas (2010), a transformational leader is not afraid to evaluate the organizations tradition and make changes to them without interfering with the organizations core business.

This requires that they come up with innovative and creative ways that work inline with the vision they have for the organization. In their pursuit for change they are seen as ignoring the present and yearning for a better future. A factor that works with this is their willingness to embrace innovations and ideas.

The transformational leader encourages the others to come up with new methodologies and innovations that are in line with attaining the vision. This they do so as to keep abreast with the changing times and to demonstrate that they understand that new challenges in the future need new solutions.

We will write a custom Essay on Transformational Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They therefore encourage suggestions and accordingly offer appraisals for the best ideas. The third point on the same is that the transformational leader takes up their role as the advisor and the guide of the team. Their role here is to assist the whole team through the operations. This requires that they understand that each individual have their own personal strengths and weaknesses in given areas.

The leader also takes into consideration the individual’s level and will to adjust to the new ideas. By understanding the readiness levels the leader is able to establish the right timing for implementing the new ideas so that the resistance is kept at minimal. The ability to forge ahead and achieve anew transformed organization depends on the transformational leader’s influential levels on the staff and to develop them in the areas needed to achieve a new organization.

Transformational leadership has proven effective by far compared to other leadership styles. This is due to its influential nature that seeks to have both the leader and the follower develop each other and together they work towards attaining a vision and in turn a new organization.

The benefits of adopting transformation leadership are clearly felt in the outcomes. Transformation leadership increases the influence at the topmost leadership level. This according to Cox (2010) is because transformational leaders act as role models to other employees in the organization hence are obeyed and their method of dealing with people is respected. The result is an organization where there is solid unity between the leader and the employees which give rise to an atmosphere of mutual trust and communication is effective.

This means that the executive is given a hearing by other staff and therefore implementation of ideas is fast and the environment at the work place is not tense or hierarchical. This is because more emphasis is laid on developing each other as opposed to arguing on bureaucracy. The leader concentrates on guiding the staff through the vision as opposed to spending most of the time trying to unite opposing groups in an organization. Results are achieved very fast once all the staff are on board and are working passionately.

Another benefit of transformational leadership is seen in the way the leader oozes with charisma and the excitement they have performing their duty. The rest of the staff is able to read clearly what the leader’s aspirations are and consequently they follow in trying to achieve the vision too. The energy possessed by transformational leaders is said to be a major contributor of the other staffs willingness to join in because they are inspired by their leader’s genuine vision of taking the organization to a whole new level.

A successful and effective organization is able to be realized through two important aspects; a leader who has a clearly defined vision for the organization, and staff who have the will to assist and work together towards realization of that goal. Transformational leaders are enthusiastic about the vision they have and through their ability to bring other staff on board, realizing the vision becomes very easy and hence a successful and effective organization (Cox, 2010).

A major benefit of transformational leadership is the way they are able to guide the employees bit by bit in achieving a change in the organization. This they do by gradually explaining and influencing the employees and therefore take them through the step-by-step process of attaining the desired change.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Transformational Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are able to visualize the changes the organization should hope to achieve e.g. introduction of a new product, new methods of operating, new technology adjustments etc. they then embark on a mission to carefully engage the employees in trying to understand their feeling toward the desired change. According to Xenitelis (2010) this they do through employing tactical approaches in trying to reveal their thoughts on the same and to involve them directly in the process of defining the desired change.

They then attempt to make that necessary adjustment so as to make the employees clearly get the picture as to why the change is important, and what it hopes to achieve. After the necessary change is made to propel the vision, the transformational leader then guides the process and ensures that every one is on board. The leader keeps a constant check by evaluating the process as it continues and hence makes the necessary changes.

This step-by-step engaging of the process proves very successful and is the most effective way of the organization realizing changes. It is also an effective way of avoiding resistance to change which is usually a major hindrance to progress in an organization. Its effectiveness is seen especially where the organization wishes to launch a new product or they desire to make complete change in their operating processes (Xenitelis, 2010).

Employees in an organization led by a transformational leader always feel the challenge to keep their energies going because they are inspired by the leader. This fosters a feeling of taking ones duties and responsibilities personal and yearning to perform ones tasks to the best of their abilities. This sort of inspiration by the transformational leader encourages the employees to come up with new ways of doing things.

Creativity and innovativeness amongst the employees is encouraged and this in turn brings out the full potential the individual has while still addressing the issue of self development. The benefits of such a working environment trickle down to the organization which has employees with self fulfillment and are giving their best and their creative input is enjoyed hence the organization’s effectiveness is realized (Stewart, 2006).

Bass, one of the pioneers of transformational leadership pointed out that application of this style of leadership helps the employees push their abilities to levels they never thought they could reach. In addition to transformational leadership uniting and ensuring people are in agreement, Bass pointed out that it fosters a working culture where moral force flourishes and therefore the level of employee turnover is kept at minimum.

Employees who understand that the organization they are working for encourages them to give their creativity and allows them to develop to levels they never thought they could achieve are likely to stick with the organization for long. The benefits of such a working culture are realized in the organizations success towards achieving its vision since the costs associated with employee turn over and employee retention are cut as well as the benefits of developed and satisfied employees (Bass, 2006).

Transformational leadership brings forth a culture and climate in an organization whereby, success is bound to prosper. When a transformational leader takes into consideration the abilities and needs of each employee individually and shares their genuine vision in a clear and elaborate manner, it brings forth a culture of honesty and receptiveness.

The employees feel that their input is respected and credit awarded for their ideas. This in turn gives rise to a working environment where there is job satisfaction and consequently due to absence of commotions the environment is stress free.

The employees are always in high spirits and their motivation to work hard is on top hence they express freely their abilities to improve on certain areas and the areas where they are strong in is emphasized on. Organization’s success is bound to be realized in such a working culture which is stress-free, high motivation levels, job satisfaction is high and personal abilities are given a consideration.

Transformational leadership is beneficial in that it can help an organization cut on the costs. Through the transformational leader’s ability to connect with the employees and giving them a chance to understand the task at hand including allowing their ideas and creativity, job satisfaction is achieved which means employees do not feel the need to leave the organization hence the reduced employee turn over. This in a major way saves the organization high costs that are associated with loosing employees and having to employ new ones.

In a transformational leadership organization, the employees are given a chance to concentrate on areas they are strong hence the unnecessary costs of having to train the employees on areas they are unfamiliar with are reduced. This also goes for the fact that the employees are given a chance to develop and as they work harmoniously they teach each other through sharing of ideas and hence in-training of employees is unnecessary in most cases (Stewart, 2006).

In conclusion, effectiveness in an organization highly depends on the leader’s ability to have a vision, ability to build consensus with the employees and adjusting his leadership style such that it fits the vision and is able to guide the whole team towards the desired direction.

Transformational leadership takes all this into consideration by having the leader clearly understand the direction he wants to propel the organization, influencing the employees and making them understand how important the change is then together they engage in the process.

Transformational leadership combines the right employees and the right motives and inspires creativity and motivation in achieving a smooth flow of processes which in the long run ensure an effective organization which delivers in its results and is consistent in achieving the desired changes.

Reference List Bass, M. and Riggio, E. (2006) Transformational Leadership. New York, Routledge.

Chammas, A. (2010) Leadership Characteristics for Organizational Transformation Success, Transformational Leadership, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 16-27.

Cox, R. (2010) The Benefits of Transformational Leadership. 2010. Web.

Stewart, J. (2006) Transformational Leadership: An Evolving Concept Examined through the Works of Burns, Bass, Avolio, and Leithwood, Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy. vol. 27, no. 56, pp. 1-19.

Xenitelis, M. (2010) Transformational Leadership, Management. vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 11 17.


How Has Change in Ship Technology Effected International Politics? Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Technology in the perspective of international politics

Global Maritime threats

Ship technology and international relation


Works Cited

Introduction Technology has been regarded as a major source of social, economic and political change, and in almost every instance, it has been regarded as the master variable that has the potential to explain almost everything. For instance, technology has played key role in economics through being responsible to the process of opening up opportunities for economic growth (Herrera 3).

In communication, technology has become the main tool and process that is influencing and directing political structure of almost all human societies and Marxism; and other numerous social theories have at length explained the structure and change of human society and economy as a result of advancement in technological base.

In addition, the role of technological development has not only been limited to these areas but has also influenced international politics where great transformation has occurred since the time of medieval to the modern stage.

Notably, technology has been the main influence in gun development, the sailing of the ship, growth in development of literature and this became more evident with the end of the feudalism and the subsequent emergence of states systems in Western Europe specifically during the 17th century.

The main objective of this paper will be to analyze international politics and how it continue to be affected and influenced by technology with special attention to how change in ship technology affected international politics.

Technology in the perspective of international politics The development of nuclear weapons especially towards the end of 20th century led to numerous literatures being developed on the system-altering effects of technology and by the end of the cold war, many questions were asked about technology and the system change (Hererra 3).

What is evident is that the expansion and growth of digital information technologies has led to speculation on their potential and real impact on international affairs. For example, there is a section of people who are convinced that technology is responsible for the transformation of many national-state systems into postmodern world order or even what others refer to as post-international politics that is fast becoming global world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International political experts assert that the relationship between technology and international politics can be experienced almost everywhere; thus, by redefining international system to incorporate technology, technology subsequently becomes a political phenomenon to be studied and analyzed. There is no doubt that the relationship between international politics and technology is essential and equally constitutive and that technology is extremely rooted in international and domestic political cultures.

When analysis of the impact of technology in other fields is carried out, it is evident that technology has been at forefront in instituting profound changes both positive and negative in society and as a result, the view in international politics is that technology needs to be considered as a transformative element of the international political system and reliable evidence emanates from their huge effects on force, security, geography, diplomacy and state-society relations together with the transnational processes that are behind their creation.

The origin of technology can be said to have been as a result of core sociopolitical events that were taking place in the world and that no major technological discoveries can be said to have been ‘discovered’ by humans nor was it an act of accident, but it can be seen that each technology was built to complete certain and fundamental human social, economic, political or security purposes.

Hence, the originality of each technology was a product of chance, contingency and also conjuncture. Particular choices and specific events with varying effects are attributed to the development of technologies in one way and not the other with significant impacts for international politics (Hererra 11).

Global Maritime threats The modern world has had to contend with the fact that global piracy is not the only threat to international safety, specifically to the safety of merchant vessels but there are new forms of emerging security threats originating from maritime terrorism.

This has forced many nations and companies to rely more on ‘just in time’ delivery systems, thus showing how vessels of different countries are prone to terrorists groups that have the aim of disrupting global markets and peace. At the same time, peace and security situation in Middle East is more fragile, and the inevitability of ‘tanker wars’ in the region cannot be ruled out (Anon 1).

While in the recent past the concern of the West nations has been about Iraq’s security and threat, it is dawning on them that Iran, once a security collaborator in the region is fast constructing a vast fleet of missile and torpedo-armed fast boats, while numerous reports describe how the missiles are supplicated, with some indicating that they range from 39m missile-armed attack craft to jet skis that are further backed by irregular forces that well equipped with shoulder-fired rocket launchers (Anon 1).

We will write a custom Essay on How Has Change in Ship Technology Effected International Politics? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, maritime security has apparently become an issue of concern that cannot be ignored or denied. Moreover, the naval military forces have taken up the challenge of protecting the merchant shipping from being attacked by aggressive warships or the paramilitary vessels. Indeed, major operations by the naval forces have extended to far regions such as the Arabian Gulf.

Ship technology and international relation The field of international relations has for a long time been concerned with the issues of war, and tracing history with much focus to the Second World War, global attention has been accorded to the effects of weapons of mass destruction largely in the form of nuclear and biotechnology weapons.

Today, the role of ship building technology in its usage in transporting weapons among nations is under investigations. Ship technology in the recent times has evolved and developed to a level that its position and role in global security issues cannot be ignored.

In addition, history suggests that since the concept of ship sailing on water became possible to humankind, the world has continued to experience warriors, soldiers and sailors who often engage in fighting each other on ship, boats and all means of ship fighting. To an extent, excellent and sophiscated naval weaponry has for a long time been credited as determining factor in ensuring which country become the dominant power in their period or time.

History of ship war and its impacts can be traced back to the success of Athenians fighters over the most populated Persians during the fierce Battle of Salamis (Kimmons Para. 2), where naval weaponry ship was used.

Nevertheless, during the Roman and Carthaginian war, Romans were assured of success when they defeated populous Carthaginians fleets during the Straits of Messina battle (Kimmons par.2); and the technique they employed was one where they innovated the corvus – a kind of a drop-bridge used to allow the fighters to technically and in a fast move board the vessel belonging to enemies.

Therefore, sophiscated marine strength can be seen to have been the vital element to the dominance of the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Spanish Empire and British Empire together with USA. British, for instance, came as a country that benefited from marine technology especially with regard to ship technology from late 18th century to early 20th century (Kimmons Para. 3).

In addition, British were particular successful due to their current and improved ship technology which in turn allowed the country to conquer various parts of the globe where it was easy and fast to transport soldiers to areas where they were needed urgently during the timers of war while at the same time ensuring there was adequate and sufficient supply of materials to these areas.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Has Change in Ship Technology Effected International Politics? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Gulf War was a period that witnesses some exemplary manifestation of high-tech military weapons and technology whereby America came out as a respected military power.

Huge personnel and large equipment were transported to the Gulf region and estimates show that the whole personnel and equipment in this region was equivalent to the entire population together with all automobiles and other infrastructures of Oklahoma City (Welch Para. 1).

Recounting the successes and failures of the Gulf War, the USA military department suggested that there was need to improve the naval technology and ensure there is a faster and reliable sealift (Welch Para. 1).

The end of Cold War saw major changes taking place in the world where positively, the event saw a major reduction in threat of any substantive global conflict; however, this was not to be the case for regional conflicts as they remained potentially dangerous. Immediately after the end of the Cold War, two major regions (areas) were identified to be still major threats to international peace which constituted the Gulf and the Korean peninsula (Welch 2).

In addition, the Department of Defense became keen on developing and engaging two contingency operations concurrently. The developed strategy needed to be able to convey two huge forces through the use of airlift and sealift; however, observation made was that the existing sealift could not deliver the required services as it was not fast enough.

At the same time, it was observable that the airlift had the advantage of speed but unfortunately it didn’t have adequate capability to move heavy contingent that are necessary and needed by military personnel to respond fast to urgent crisis. As a result, it became the concern of key military stakeholders in US army to innovate and develop necessary solutions which in turn would strengthen the sealift capabilities of US especially in protecting the national vital interests (Welch 2).

Such concerns by the American defense force were born from the international threats the country got exposed to due to its global activities especially in military. Subsequently, there has been some concern on the advancement of technology taking place in the field of shipping. For instance, technological advancement has enhanced construction of modern, efficient and fast ships that can effectively and reliably be used in the US military naval activities.

High-Speed Sealift (HSS) are the new and sophiscated oceangoing cargo vessels that have speed abilities of minimally 40 knots or higher (Welch 3). These types of ships are different from the traditional naval ships used by military which have a capacity of 30 knots such as the Sea-Land SL-7’s. FSS has been built using sophiscated and high technology that constitute HSS hulls and engines whereas the traditional ones were built using convectional hulls and power plants (Welch p.3).

HSS technology has immensely contributed to construction of ships that have the capacity of having 40 knots or higher which have been able to meet the needs of Department of Defense in promptly delivering huge combat forces to different global areas experiencing crisis. Therefore, High-Speed Ship technology is seen to have the potential of satisfying needs especially of speed.

Conclusion In the new 21st century, ship technology has particularly advantaged the advanced and established nations of the world over the non-state aggressive groups.

The continuing threats emanating from terrorists groups and hostile nations such as Iran and North Korea provides a picture of how the naval military is going to depend and foster ship technology in order to be adequately and efficiently prepared to deal with this threat. Hence, ship technology in terms of international relations is seen to be influenced by heightening global security concerns, terrorism, piracy and more importantly, national security concerns.

What should not be forgotten is that adequate support should also be accorded to the Department of Defense and this can be achieved through bringing together the US Transportation Command, the Congress and private sectors and pooling the necessary resources needed to develop the modern High-Speed vessel that not only accomplishes the needs of military but also ensures American maritime security in the 21st century is perfectly strong.

Works Cited Anon. Maritime threats and countermeasures: the latest piracy report from the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) shows 87 attacks on merchant ships in the first three months of the year 2002-the worst quarter’s figures since 1991. Web.

Herrera, Geoffrey L. Technology and International Transformation: The Railroad, the Atom Bomb, and the Politics of Technological Change. NY, SUNY Press. Web.

Kimmons, Ronald. Naval Weapons Technology. Web.

Welch, Don. “High-speed ship technology: maritime vessels for the 21st century.” Transportational Journal. Web.


Property and Capital Markets Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Abacus Funds Management Limited

Abacus Funds Management Limited Company was formed in 1996 as a subsidiary of Godfrey Pembroke Limited (Australian security exchange, 2010, p. 4). Its main objective was to ensure that high value clients are well sourced and packaged for good property based investment opportunities (Australian security exchange, 2010, p. 7). In 1999, the company broke away from the parent company. Over time, it increased its distribution and financial planning network.

Abacus Property Group was derived from the merger of its trust with a small development company in 2001 (Abacus Property Group, 2010, p. 3). In 2002, it funded$54 million property acquisitions to expanding its existing mortgage portfolio. This facilitated its successful participation in various property transactions.

Progressively, the firm was also able to form an integrated property investment group. These changes enabled the firm to have an internal management structure that thus advancing its activities.

For example, the company was able to diversify its business activities to increase its market presence. In 2002, Abacus achieved the Australian stock exchange market status, and by 2007 it was included in the S


The Stanford Prison Experiment Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Social psychology examines how the personality, attitudes, motivations and actions of individuals are influenced by social groups. Researchers in the field have always been interested in the effects that social and environmental elements have on individuals’ perceptions and behavior.

One of the most common research studies in social psychology is that conducted by Zimbardo, Haney, and Banks in the summer of 1971. This study is commonly referred to as the “Stanford Prison Experiment” or the Zimbardo experiment. The Stanford Prison Experiment of 1971 by Zimbardo proved that social context has a bigger impact on individual behavior than individual characteristics.

The Stanford Prison Experiment involved a total of twenty-four male subjects who were selected to participate in the study from a sample of seventy-five male volunteers. The participants were selected based on their psychological stability determined by a series of tests. Twelve of the participants were assigned to the role of prison guards while the remaining twelve were assigned to the role of prison inmates.

The mock prison was at the basement of the psychology center of Stanford University. Guarantee was given to the prisoners that even though some of their fundamental human rights would be violated, they would not be physically abused. However, they were not informed of what to expect. The guards on the other hand were informed about administrative processes but no training for their role was offered to them. They were however prohibited from physically abusing the inmates (Brady and Logsdon 705).

On the first day of the experiment, the prisoners were apprehended and donned in prison attire while the guards were donned in khaki uniforms and other attire that symbolized power and authority. The reason for this was to accurately simulate a real prison situation. What followed next was disturbing and something that the researchers did not expect.

Within a span of one and a half days, the guards had taken full control over the prisoners and were aggressive towards them. In some instances, the guards physically abused the prisoners. In short, the guards undoubtedly enjoyed the exercise of power and often volunteered to extend their shifts. The Stanford Prison Experiment ended prematurely on the sixth day rather than the initial two weeks planned for it. This was much to the disappointment of the guards and elation of the prisoners.

The researchers had to bring the experiment to a close because of the negative psychological effects it had on the prisoners. Indeed, several prisoners had to be sent home on the first and second day of the experiment because of severe psychological disturbances (Brady and Logsdon 706).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the premature end of the experiment, what took place in those six days of the experiment was enough for the researchers to make a valuable conclusion. The researchers concluded that the degree to which average people quickly conform to roles assigned to them on the basis of differences in power supports the situational hypothesis.

This is the hypothesis that social context has a bigger impact on individual behavior than individual characteristics. The participants had taken their roles so seriously that they failed to differentiate between their selves and their roles. The participants who had been assigned to the role of inmates had indeed become inmates while those who had been assigned to the role of guards had indeed become guards and acted so. There was no line between reality and role playing (Brady and Logsdon 706).

Works Cited Brady, Neil, and Jeanne Logsdon. “Zimbardo’s ‘Stanford Prison Experiment’ and the relevance O.” Journal of Business Ethics 7.9 (1988): 703-710.


Nudism or Naturism Report (Assessment) essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Media Text Located

Nudism or Naturism in Detail

The Moral Panic caused by Naturism among the Youth

Measures To Be Taken To Curb Nudism Practice



Introduction They call themselves the ‘Generation Y’ and the ‘Future leaders of tomorrow’. They fall in the age bracket of between 18 – 30 years and comprise almost more than half of the world’s population; these are our youths. Their recent behavior is causing a moral panic in the society and it is indeed a worrying factor. This moral panic is caused by youth naturist or nudism; they call it ‘freedom of the body’ and to them, there is nothing wrong by walking naked, playing games while nude or exposing their nudity to the public.

Media Text Located The members of AANR youth ambassadors have posted a video to justify their naked act (youtube, 2010). The video comprises of young members being interviewed while others are basking naked by the beach. The problem here is that they seem to be comfortable in their naked state and the numbers of the youth joining the nudism club seems to be on the rise causing a moral panic.

This particular you tube clip has over 5 million viewers, evidence that they have managed to get the message to millions of youth out there. The youth advocates and the State seem to be bothered by this act (Kanter, 2010); they are calling for this nudism youth camps to be abolished.

Nudism or Naturism in Detail According to Williams (2007), the ideal narrative of socialist nudism asserted that nudism is both a way to liberate the worker and a method of controlling sexual drives. He defines it as a freedom of liberation and control. Most naturists activities have membership, a good example are the nudism beaches.

Most of these members are the youth and their numbers are increasing by day causing a moral panic. In their leading website, Nudism (2010) actually indicates its desire to increase membership and involvement of the 18-30 groups. It calls it a national concern and the majority of the group members are college girls.

The Moral Panic caused by Naturism among the Youth Surprisingly, nudism was known to appeal to persons over the age of 30 in earlier years where the numbers of young nudists were few, if any. However, recent conducted research shows that the youths are now joining the nudism world at an extremely rapid and alarming rate. Why is this so? The youth find it fun exposing their beautiful bodies. Recent posted photos in the websites are mostly of the youth sunbathing in the beaches naked or engaging in various nude sports and activities.

Cultural imperialism is also another reason for the recent recruitment of the youth to the world of nudism. Saldanha (2010) blames the tourists in Goa for introducing immorality among the youth. Free online pornographic materials especially nudism sites that encourage membership can be attributed to the rise of youth nudism; family nudism has also been known to encourage nudism especially to children who takes up the nudism culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why should this be a moral panic? The youth are slowly corrupting their young minds. As the future generation, these young minds have been corrupted with sexual fantasies and its all about sex. Phillips et al. (2000) argues that naturism makes explicit links between the body and nature in which the ideas co joins with ideas about sex and sexuality.

Though most naturists’ claim that any sort of sexual activity is condemned, it cannot be avoided either. As a result, unwanted pregnancies are on the increase and lots of abortions as a result henceforth. Rampant sexual activities are common among the youth naturists as compared to the older generation because of their active minds.

While the minds of the older generations are mature enough to control the erotic sexual fantasies, this is not the case with the youth whose minds are still growing.

Groupies are also very common with the youth naturists; this is engaging in sex activities with more than one partner. The biggest worry is lack of protection while engaging in this sexual behavior with multiple partners causing a moral panic.

According to Ross (2005), health factor is a major implication in the world of naturists; this is practically true as per the rising sexually transmitted diseases among the youth in these camps. They don’t seem to worry about the future but that they are socially accepted in the world of fun.

Sex dugs are also a common phenomenon, the sex power drive is too much such that they result to use of sex drugs as a catalyst. This is especially common in activities such as nudism camping. They have thrown caution to the wind about the dangers and negative implications of this sex drugs.

Incest is also a major implication; this is especially in family nudism. The youth have confessed of engaging in sexual activities with their brothers, sisters or even cousins.

We will write a custom Assessment on Nudism or Naturism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homosexuality and female prostitution is also rampant among the naturists. They call it experimenting and it is as a result of influence among the members in the group. According to Nudism (2010) “more than 100 local naturist clubs have been established for gay men in major cities in Canada and United States”.

It can also not be ignored that sex crimes have been on the rise among the youth naturists’ members as a result of this particular groups.

Exposing each other bodies causes a psychological reaction of sexual fantasy to the mind and as a result it is sexually driven. This, if not satisfied can lead to sex crimes such as sexual assaults or even rape. Nudism camps and leaders have actually failed to instill measures to curb and protect the youth in this movement.

Measures To Be Taken To Curb Nudism Practice The government should intervene and ban these groups. Recent US Supreme courts have actually banned these practices in their recent upheld decisions terming them as immoral. They can also be registered like any other organization and membership to be governed to exclude the youth; registration aids the government to keep the organization in check under certain terms.

The youth should be given advice by their elders; problem comes in when their elders are the same people condoning this practice and it becomes difficult to implement this measure. Most of these families raise their children as nudists. Measures should be taken to deal with nudists families to shield their children from this immoral practice.

Cyber nudism sites should also be banned. Free access and membership to these sites should also be discouraged.

Conclusion Nudism and naturist is therefore a moral panic in view of our discussion above. If tolerated and encouraged, our future leaders will slowly and gradually diminish with the immoral acts of this world. We should therefore teach and train them to be better and morally upright people.

References Kanter, J. (2010) How Green is a Nudist vacation. New York Times. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nudism or Naturism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nudism (2010) Pure Naturism. Web.

Phillips, R. et al. (2000) De-centring sexualities: Politics and representation beyond the metropolis. Buckinghamshire: Green publishing services.

Ross, C. (2005) Naked Germany: Health, race


The Rape Case Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Power Influences on the Rape Case

Risk Issues in the Rape Case

Disciplinary Technologies involved in the Rape Case

Consent in the Rape Case

Scripts of the Rape Case

Reference List


The Cherly Moss rape case of November 2009 involved Moss, a 26 year old woman and a single mother of four children who reported of having been raped by a 19 year old man in Bournemouth along the St Peter’s road. She insisted that she had tried to stop the man who she identified as Devine. The investigation from the CCTV showed that the sex was consensual.

She later dropped the case and was subsequently charged with making false allegations of rape and was convicted in Bournemouth court to fifteen months of imprisonment. When giving the sentence on 6th of August, 2010, Judge Wiggs Samuel claimed that the rape allegations Moss had made were very serious and that great quantity of police resources and time had been wasted in the investigation. Additionally, the allegations were likely to psychologically affect the man accused of the rape allegations.

Moss Cherly was portrayed in different pictures by the media and the society. She was presented as not only being promiscuous but having wasted state resources including $5,500 in form of taxpayers’ money and 180 hours of the police.

She was perceived as having been ashamed of having sex in the alley. The media presented her as an unemployed house cleaner, a single mother struggling to raise her four children. She was perceived as promiscuous that was portrayed by her drunkenness state and her alleged engagement through phone contacts with the man accused of the rape.

The media never showed coverage of the rape story, yet emphasis was given on the false allegations. The picture portrayed by the media through the age difference of Moss and the 19 year old soldier showed that she was looking for ways of earning income for her family and the general perception was that she initiated the sexual event. The tone presented during the case was that of despise and disgust.

The headlines claimed she had sex with other soldiers in the alley, thus depicting a picture of a prostitute. The representation went beyond expected societal norms that a prostitute can be raped as reported. Evidently, coverage was not offered to the case allegations and her first reporting showing that the media was not in agreement with her claims.

Power Influences on the Rape Case Foucault (1997) perceives power as being everywhere and hence it can be within us.[1] He further asserts that the concepts of a subject are created through power relations with the emphasis on human historical determinations which determine the acceptance of the legitimacy of power relations. The aspect of rape is perceived from different perspectives. Power is revealed in the Moss rape case from different perspectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, initial reporting of the case was not given media coverage, but on the conviction of Moss for false allegations, massive media coverage was received with such heated headings as “woman jailed over false rape claim,” “UK mum of 4 Moss Cherly has alleyway sex with soldier, then cries rape,” “rape lie mother is caged,” and “warning after Bournemouth woman jailed for false rape” among others.

In this case, men are perceived to be in control of the sexual relations while women are perceived to be subjects thus limiting the emphasis on rape cases reported.

In the rape case, Moss was said to have initiated the sexual ordeal and that the act was consensual. Although not much was said of the CCTV video recording, the report was that Moss was a willing party to the sexual event (Marhia, 2008).[2] This creates confusion on what type of sexual assault is reportable as rape since forced sex is perceived differently. As a result, although Moss claimed to have tried to make the accused stop the ordeal, she was perceived as willing to take part in the act.

While rape has been found to have psychological effects of trauma on women (Gill, 2007), the cross examination of the incidents eliminates the value of the victim.[3]

In this case, no consideration was reported of the trauma that Moss could have undergone. In contrast, upon her conviction of false allegations, focus of the media was shifted to the trauma and extreme psychological effects on the accused soldier. The media said that the man must have been frightened of the claim. In fact, Judge Miggs said that the worse effect of the allegations of rape by Moss was on the accused man.

It is also argued that when women say no to sex, they do not really mean it; women who have had sex with other partners before are likely to have it with another one; women who are sexually promiscuous are likely to be untrustworthy regarding their rape allegations; women who are sexually promiscuous have less rights in choosing who to have sexual relations with; and women have the tendency of provoking men to sex hence should be blamed for rape.

It is also argued that rape is usually characterised by false allegations. All these assertions reveal the perceptions and the place of power in rape (Kelly, 2001).[4] The police and law enforcement in rape reveal the element of power where Moss as a victim of rape was subjected to cross examinations.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Rape Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is done using the recordings of the CCTV cameras, with the police trying to ensure that she maintained her story before investigation. On conviction, the emphasis is on the wasted resources of police and time in investigation thus showing that the police never thought that there was any rape in the first place. Power is also revealed in this case by the media which tries to evade responsibility (Marhia, 2008).[5]

Risk Issues in the Rape Case Estrich (1987) asserts that the element of risk in rape is affected by factors arising from societal and cultural interpretations which differ from one context to another.[6] However, she argues that the media displays risk in rape as an element of danger and fear that needs to be avoided.

Further, risks are also represented through the individual characteristics of the victim so as to determine if the victim was aware of the risk and if they could have avoided it. Kelly (2001) reports that the rape cases which receive convictions and much media coverage are those characterised by risks which include other forms of violence such as kidnapping, murder, many assailants as well as the involvement of weapons.[7] This shows the reasons for the non-coverage of the rape case of Moss in the initial stages of investigation.

As represented in the case by the media, there is no element of risk that is identified that could be linked to the rape assertions. First, the young soldier is depicted as an innocent soldier in a training program and much younger than Moss. Additionally, Moss is represented to have been drunk and thus was responsible for her behaviour (Marhia, 2008).[8]

Risk in this case is only perceived by the assertion that the accused man is at risk of being accused of a wrong he did not commit. Additionally, the stereotypes of rape in this case are included through the characteristics of the victim such as age, sexual behaviours, mode of dressing, relations with the perpetrator and the place of the offence (Gill, 2007).[9]

In this case, the age of Moss depicted by the media creates a perception that she was not likely to be raped. The representation of Moss as a mother together with her drunken state and the fact that she was out at night contradicts the perceptions of society towards a mother character. This in turn elicits feelings that she was not at risk in the rape event.

Disciplinary Technologies involved in the Rape Case According to Foucault (1997), discipline unlike punishment is meant for correct training through the control of behaviour.[10] Disciplinary measures taken in rape cases differ depending on the judicial system but they are motivated by the media reporting.

The measures taken in rape, as most agencies focused on addressing rape assert, are supposed to stop the crime and help both the offender and the victim. In analysis of the rape case of Moss, the accused man was in fact not arrested but only examined. However, upon the dropping of the charges against him, Moss was arraigned in court and convicted.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rape Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The disciplinary measures in rape are presented as being frightening and causing distress. Although the discipline measures are supposed to help the offender, the rape allegations are represented as a consequence of the actions by Moss. The system of judgement also seeks to use the measure taken not as discipline per-se but more as punishment for the crime committed to avoid such events occurring in the future.

While the measure serves as punishment, the media presents it as a repercussion yet no concern is given for the trauma experienced by Moss. Further, the media tends to focus on the characteristics of the offender to gain the cause of his or her actions that are usually attributed to psychological problems which limit discipline to psychological interjections (Estrich, 1987).[11] In the case of false rape allegations, this is not taken into consideration as revealed by the case of Moss.

Consent in the Rape Case The issue of consent in sexual relations judgements has been perceived to be implied. Additionally, due to the influence of power for men in sexual relations, women are perceived as subjects whose consent need not be guaranteed. This has not only limited the reporting of crimes, but also shaped the societal attitudes towards rape and eventual punishment. The press displays the characteristics of the victim, the offender and the place of offence to limit the classifications of rape.

In the rape case of Moss, the consent of Moss to the sexual ordeal is judged through the CCTV video camera together with other issues raised by the media such as the initialization of the conversation with the soldier that perceives her willingness to have sex with him. Additionally, the fact that she gave out her phone number further strengthens the media’s perception that she was willing to meet him again and that she consented to the act.

This perception is just limited by the prior misjudgement of the case. Additionally, consent is perceived as implied. The indication of the characteristic of Moss as being a mother of four children raises the opinion that Moss was more likely to lie about rape because she had had prior sexual relations with other men (Kelly, 2001).[12] Her single motherhood further raises the perception that single mothers are viewed by society as being promiscuous and that their consent to a sexual relation is not necessary.

Scripts of the Rape Case The scripts prepared by the press on rape reveal their opinions and views towards rape cases. Marhia (2008) argues that the reporting of rape cases in the United Kingdom is guided by the code of conduct and ethical guidelines with further guidance of the press complaints commission although guidelines are not specified as to the rape reporting.[13] Rape cases are usually judged as criminal and do not receive as much compensation hence are not attractive to news journalists.

The recording of the Moss case reveals that the initial rape case as reported by Moss was not reported or even followed up by the media to establish the truth. Reliance is based on the report of the police that the case was later dropped. Contrary to this, there is massive media coverage of the proceedings of the false rape allegations with much heated debate on the same. The recordings represent a single woman with four children who is claimed to have wasted the state resources and caused distress to the accused man.

The scripts of rape do not focus on the element of rape, but on the injustice that is perceived to have been done on the accused man. The articles just follow on depth analysis of Moss to justify and further support the fact that she was guilty. While Moss weeps as she seeks forgiveness from Devine for false allegations, this only shows the shift in the societal concern to protecting the offenders from such allegations.

Reference List Estrich, S., 1987. Real rape: How the legal system victimizes women who say no. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Foucault, M., 1997. The Essential Works 1954-1984, Vol. III. New York: The New Press.

Gill, R., 2007. Gender and the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kelly, L., 2001. Routes to Injustice: A Research Review on the Reporting, Investigation and Prosecution of Rape Cases. London: John Wiley Publications.

Marhia, N., 2008. Just Representation? Press Reporting and Reality of Rape: The Lilith Project. Web.

Footnotes Foucault, M., 1997. The Essential Works 1954-1984, Vol. III. New York: The New Press.

Marhia, N., 2008. Just Representation? Press Reporting and Reality of Rape: The Lilith Project.

Gill, R., 2007. Gender and the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kelly, L., 2001. Routes to Injustice: A Research Review on the Reporting, Investigation and Prosecution of Rape Cases. London: John Wiley Publications.

Marhia, N., 2008. Just Representation? Press Reporting and Reality of Rape: The Lilith Project.

Estrich, S., 1987. Real rape: How the legal system victimizes women who say no. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Kelly, L., 2001. Routes to Injustice: A Research Review on the Reporting, Investigation and Prosecution of Rape Cases. London: John Wiley Publications.

Marhia, N., 2008. Just Representation? Press Reporting and Reality of Rape: The Lilith Project.

Gill, R., 2007. Gender and the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Foucault, M., 1997. The Essential Works 1954-1984, Vol. III. New York: The New Press.

Estrich, S., 1987. Real rape: How the legal system victimizes women who say no. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Kelly, L., 2001. Routes to Injustice: A Research Review on the Reporting, Investigation and Prosecution of Rape Cases. London: John Wiley Publications.

Marhia, N., 2008. Just Representation? Press Reporting and Reality of Rape: The Lilith Project.


Human Resource Management Report a level english language essay help

Introduction The expression used to refer to human resource management has substituted the conventional phrase for personnel management. The management of human resources is a more tactical and rational approach in the administration of individuals than personnel management.

It entails selection, recruitment, training, development and compensation of human resources (Storey, 1998: 20). Human resource is responsible for managing the labor force as the most important asset in the organization. The aim of human resource management is to empower workers to work effectively to achieve the organizations objectives. Human resources use continuing strategies to develop the workforce in an organization.

Human Resource Management is an indispensable element in the performance of a corporate organization and works together with other departments to achieve the organization’s goals. The tasks of the human resource consultant are centralized on the advancement of the labor force in a corporate organization. His strategies should be in line with the needs of the organization. Today, HR practitioners are the strategic partners to an organization.

They assist in the improvement of strategies used to realize the organization’s arrangements and aims. Their responsibilities include: selection and recruitment, recognition and rewarding, development of performance contracts and appraisal, employee development and succession planning. This paper gives a description of the human resource activities at Alfalah Bank in Pakistan, explores the major issues faced by the organization, gives a discussion of the implication of the issues, and possible solutions for the issues.

Alfalah Bank’s HRM Practices Recruitment

This can be defined as the process of searching for applicants and encouraging them to apply for vacant positions in a firm. There are mainly two types of recruitment process: internal and external. Internal staffing is the sealing of vacant positions by choosing from existing employees in a corporate organization where as exterior staffing is the filling of job vacancies by receiving applications from outside the organization (Armstrong, 2006:53).

At bank Alfalah, recruitment is made by filling three kinds of job categories for growth and expansion, these are: trainee officers, contractual employees, and top managerial staff.

Recruitment is based on the level of requirement needed in each job category. For top managerial posts, the HR officials use either the internal or external sources based on experience and qualification. Trainee officers are recruited through external sources as well as the contractual employees. For both the internal and external recruitment, the organization uses, newspapers, website, and direct application as sources for recruitment (Akber, 2009:20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The recruitment process is normally carried out through the following sources

Newspapers and magazines


Training and development of present employees

Retired persons

One of the major parts of the process is the online recruitment. It is fast and efficient for both organizations and the applicant. On the website, the registration function is posted together with the available posts. It also gives a lot of information on the roles of the successful candidate and the cultural values and ethics of the organization. Almost half of the total workforce in Pakistan is recruited through the website.


Selection is the process of establishing the ideal candidate to fill a certain post. During this process the human resources management looks for recruits who not only are suitable for an immediate post but also for the organization’s development. Standard documentations are used by majority of human resource managers.

This documentation compares the job roles to the qualities and skills of the recruits (Bohlander


The Decline in Birth Rate in Hong Kong Essay writing essay help

Introduction It has been noted that the birthrate in Honk Kong has decreased drastically over the years. Arthur points out that Hong Kong’s birthrate had been in the increase over years, that is after II World War but a decrease trend from 1960 onwards had been observed (112). Statistics indicate that the population in 1960 was 36 per 1000 fertile women, a figure that fell to 20 per 1000 by 1970. By the year 2000, the figure had dropped to 8.l and the falling trend seems to be continuing up to now.

Several reasons can be attributed to the decline; Urbanization is one of the reasons that has lead to factors like family planning which was not a major concern in the past. Ambrose states that use of contraceptives in Hong Kong start at early age by women (26).

Female literacy levels have also influenced the birthrate in Hong Kong as most women put their career first and tend to shun motherhood. Infant mortality is another cause; there are many reported infancy deaths in Honk Kong causing a decline in birthrate. The pension policy is also another factor that has contributed to the decline in population.

The Effect of The Low Birth Rate In The Economy

The continuous decline in the population will have an adverse effect in the economy if encouraged. There will be less people working for the market and labor creativity will be affected greatly (Brigit 97).The domestic market will be largely hit due to the decrease of labor and creativity and this will greatly affect the foreign investment which is one of the most important sources of income in the economy.

The saving ratio will also be less due to low birth rate and this will greatly affect the economy if the government fails to intervene.

Measures To Be Taken By the Government To Ensure Enough Supply Of Labor In Future

The government, by taking instant action can help save the situation in Hong Kong. Children should be taken as a blessing and the government should ensure that their rights are upheld and protected (Douglas et al. 42).

The Amnesty International USA named Hong Kong as one of the places that had recorded continuous low birth rates. It provides that child interest should be taken as first priority as one of the measures to protect them from such acts like child trafficking, war and child abuse (112).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pension service available should be adjusted and the one-child policy done away with. Instead, the government should instead opt for new policies of giving compensation to mothers who give birth to many children and that causes of infancy mortality should be addressed. It should also encourage programs that support working couples with children and provide them with financial support; the programs should also aim at advising couples against the use of family planning services.

Henry suggests that the government should adjust its monetary policy which has had a negative effect in the economy and created high number of unemployment and a deflation in the currency (46).

Conclusion Regaining the normal birth rate in Hong Kong does not mean that overpopulation will be encouraged as many think. It will instead be a positive measure for the economy of Hong Kong whose labor market depends on the new generation that is now becoming almost extinct by day. The government should implement measures to salvage the situation before it is too late.

Works Cited Ambrose, Ying. Social Life


Catullus’ Lyric Poem and His Obsession with Lesbia Essay essay help: essay help

Gaius Valerius Catullus was an Italian poet who wrote before the time of Christ. He was prolific. There are at least 116 poems attributed to his name (Lawall, p.1046). But the most important are those that were written to express his love for a woman named Lesbia. It was not a simple relationship like a boy meeting a girl and they fell in love, get engaged and the wedding follows soon after.

In the case of Catullus he fell madly in love with a married woman. He wanted her and he wanted to be with her but it was forbidden love. Catullus problem was complicated by the fact that at one point in time, Lesbia agreed to become his lover. Catullus had to break free from her obsession with Lesbia but it was not going to be easy.

Catullus gave a clear explanation why he struggled so much to overcome his feelings towards Lesbia and he wrote:

Now Lesbia is stunning, for Lesbia’s beauty is total:

And by that sum all other women are diminished (Catullus, 86).

The poet had created a standard and therefore it was difficult for him to find another woman that can replace Lesbia. But he must break-up with her because he himself made it clear that she lost interest in him. She is also a married woman but this is not the only complication to the Catullus-Lesbia affair, the poet also hinted that there were other lovers (Catullus, 76). However, she already cast a spell on Catullus and he was unable to break free.

At first Catullus was happy and she regarded the obsession as the expected outcome of desire for the woman that he truly loves. But as time passed, Lesbia’s affection towards him grew cold. Catullus was no longer happy to be under her control. He now calls the feeling lust and he believes that it was a form of disease that he must get rid of. He used different methods to break her spell the first time he tried to convince himself that there is nothing good that will come out of his love for her and he said:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leisure, Catullus. More than just a nuisance,

Leisure: you riot, overmuch enthusing.

Fabulous cities


Caribbean Art History Essay college essay help online

Caribbean art history is an integral part of Caribbean history that offers important insight into the unique cultural aspect of the Caribbean people and their way of life. Like all other cultures, Caribbean art history has evolved over many years largely influenced by external factors that no doubt left a lasting effect in their way of life.

Most notable factors that influenced and shaped Caribbean history in general include the European colonialists, climate, topography, religion and the sea (Wilde 2). Among the various islands that make up Caribbean, Haiti is the island most recognized for its world class art heritage that is very prized and renowned worldwide. In this paper we are going to discuss Caribbean art history and its influence by summarizing various key articles on the subject as well as the spiritual influence.

The Afro-Spanish spirituality was one of the influential factors that significantly shaped the present day Caribbean art history in more than one way. The Caribbean Art history is comprised of five key components; folk arts, folk festivals, popular music, folk institutions and folk religions practices (Wilde 3). The West Africa slave trade route for instance was responsible for migration of millions of slaves to Caribbean islands who brought with them rich cultural heritage from this region.

The interactions of the African culture heritage with Spanish culture that was indigenous to Latin America is believed to have led to the Caribbean identity that is comprised of Blacks, Spanish and indigenous. Regardless of race, Caribbean people are unified by common characteristics that include similar colonial experience, ethnicity and common agricultural activities.

Religion is another important element of the Caribbean people that is found to be in existence at every level of the society although the actual religion beliefs differ among various communities (Thames 3).

The aspect of religion in any given society serves important functions that essentially promote the unity, peace and wellbeing of the community members. It is regarded as one of the most influential social factors that significantly impacts on the way of life of a community since it defines its social environment as well as physical relationship of the community and the environment.

From a personal perspective, religion is very critical since it provides society members with a sense of direction, hope, faith, meaning and an inner belief that they can trust. Another important function of religion in a society is the aspect of faith that enables society to rely on, knowing that it can be used to promote society and individual wellbeing through giving of sacrifices that are meant to appease gods and prevent bad luck.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Folk Catholicism is one form of religion in Caribbean that is well captured in the people’s art history through paintings and practices. Catholicism religion for instance involves three elements of devotion that include syncretism, appropriation and innovation, for each of these elements the religion beliefs are rooted in specific practices.

In Trinidad another form of religion belief exist that is different from Catholicism, some of the religion beliefs practiced by inhabitants includes making farm sacrifices to spirits named di that are believed to bless and bring about bountiful harvests.

The influence of other cultures can be found at most other areas of Caribbean history, especially in the religion of the society. There is no doubt that these cultural influences are also responsible for shaping other areas of the Caribbean art history as well.

Works Cited Thames, H. Latin America: Ancient History, 2007. Web.

Wilde, A. History of Caribbean Art: Spotlight Haiti, 2010. Web.


Entrepreneurship Maclean Palmer Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Team Evaluation

Selecting the Team

Bonding the Team


Team Evaluation A motivated, visionary, and risk taking business leader, Maclean Palmer jr jointly collaborated with four other business entrepreneurs and set the scene to establish Maclean Palmer, a private equity firm. Maclean Palmer, an entrepreneur at heart identified an available opportunity with private equity investment and endeavored to gather the necessary human resources to initiate the investment process (Barringer, Ireland,


American transformed timeline for the years 1780 to 1850 Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

American expansionism has a huge impact to the world power position held by the country today. The adventure is now deeply rooted in foreign relations. Historically, various periods related to the American foreign relations growth include cold war, territorial expansionism and Vietnam War. According to Divine (2002), the end of U.S. struggle in conflict of dictating imperialists brought about the War with inhabitants in the aim of improving or expanding land resources, which went on from the later eighteenth century until the 1900s.

America began growing prosperously as an industrial country during the 1780 to 1850; therefore, the expansionism played an enormous part in determining the US foreign relations.

On the word of Divine (2002), the increases in economical demands such as the industrial supplies was one of the route cause of impartial Americas search for the international markets especially for clearance of surpluses. Unlike the French and British governments who involved traditional empires, the Americans implemented the imperialism or the open markets to enhance economical potentials and boost the economy.

Imperialism therefore assisted America to accommodate external relations for extra foreign financial support and stronger relations. Strategy to accommodate foreign relations especially during the 1780 to 1850 was in the aim of capturing novel markets and venture into new niches as opposed to supporting human constitutional rights or democracy.

In understanding the meaning and emergence of expansionism, there is need to understand the experiences of people in eighteenth-century and the manifestos their leader made concerning foreign relations. The American expansionism is highly justifiable as a domesticated plan and therefore was of great significance to the residence during the pre-colonial era or because partially it represented progress (Divine, 2002).

It was a vision many had anticipated because it would domesticate and equalize the rule of law to norms status of civilization such as, getting rid of the upheaval status of Civil War. The Americans were in full support because of believing that work and life would have a better meaning. The growth of a country especially the establishment of the constitution emerged from the existence of peace even decades before the war.

The American vision for democracy or a unified nation in pursuit of better destiny is therefore a major contributor to the vision of expansionism. In the 1780 to 1850 era Americans had the expansionism vision in the context of territorial growth and to most leaders or potential kings, the new American territories meant higher opportunities to gunner stronger individual heroic resourcefulness and successes in battles as opposed to the economical success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the era forced the domestic expansionism, many other great minds had a different view and embraced a more antagonistic expansionism involving foreign relations. Majority of the Americans still had expansion plans even after the Wars and are the current viable expansionists because of establishing bigger commercial empires.

The aggressiveness of economists advocated for a worldwide practice of economical growth as opposed to the expansionism expressed by the aggressive private armies in support of filibustering. The government due to its failure to arrest or sanction perpetrators arguably supported the Wars. The main aim was to gain the territorial concession but the need for physical advantage became perplexing or mystifying among most Americans, and eventually there was need for finding governed Patent Intentions.

The law therefore brought in enthusiasm for territorial expansion in a more sensible manner. According to Brinkley (2007), even before the civil war, there were debates among politicians on territorial expansionism, where by some were in support for while others were against expansionism for one reason or another. The establishment of the laws therefore had a major contribution to expansionism.

References Brinkley, A. (2007). American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Vol. 1 New York: McGraw- Hill Press

Divine, R. A. (2002). America past and present, London, England: Longman press.


An Upset at Fosters Australia Limited Report scholarship essay help

Introduction On 13th April 2006, an upset occurred at Fosters Australia Limited. A 58 year old member of staff by the name of Cuu Huynh was crushed involving a handrail and a machine door operated pneumatically. This machine takes bottles from pallets prior to their filling. Mr. Cuu Huynh died six days later in hospital.

This accident happened at foster Australia limited’s Abbotsford brewery plant. Fosters Australia limited was fined $1.125 million on 5th august 2008, under segment 21 of the act pertaining to occupation health and safety. This was the biggest fee to ever happen in Victoria. Proceeds from beer sales all over the world were high until recently (Kirk, 2003, pp, 42).

Background Foster Australia limited is a giant brewery company in the world. The corporation has established 20 plants based in diverse countries. It produces fosters lager, which is the, biggest Australian beer taken by significant proportions across the world. Fosters lager is brewed in nine countries.

Statistics expose that over 100 million cases of fosters larger is taken every year. Fosters lager is available in over 150 countries making it the third largest distributing product (Geoffrey


Community Based Corrections Annotated Bibliography best essay help: best essay help

The annotated bibliography on impacts of community based corrections on the criminal justice system covers the issues discussed below.

Thesis Statement The proponents of community based corrections argue that there is need to find an alternative to imprisonment of nonviolent offenders which is low cost given the financial constraint the federal government is facing and the increasing jails populations. This alternative to incarceration has been widely adopted in United States of America and other countries in the world.

This can be attributed to its ability to punish, rehabilitate, reintegrate and counsel convicted offenders. The results are safer and more productive communities. Therefore, community based correction programs have had positive impacts hence its wide adoption.

Introduction Community based corrections in the criminal justice system are programs that offer an alternative to jail term for convicted offenders. This is based on the fact that convicted offenders will eventually return into the community and therefore the need to repair the damage done to victims of crime and reform the offender in order to reduce the risk of re-offending potential.

The proponents also believe that only a small percentage of these crimes committed necessitate capital punishment or incarceration. The petty offenders can also be punished using more humane and productive modes that consume fewer resources.

The history of community based corrections

The roots of community corrections shall be discussed. Criminal justice was seen as a harsh system especially to minor offenders. In the Nineteenth century judges had powers to delay sentences to offenders as long as they continued to behave well. This was eventually adopted and developed to incorporate a variety of community based sanctions.

Administration of community based correction programs

This part discusses the roles, positions and assumptions on which the criminal justice system is operated and how community corrections fit correctional goals.

The actors in the community based corrections are also discussed and their roles in the criminal justice system

The future of the community based corrections shall be discussed

The role of community based corrections at the three major decision points

After the arrest of an offender community based corrections play a crucial role at the decision points. The three decision points which are bail, sentencing and reentry will be discussed in details.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The goals of community based corrections

The main goals of community based corrections are punishing the offenders while at the same time ensuring the safety of the public, addressing victim’s needs and curbing future acts of crime. This is done through various ways which will be discussed in the paper.

Conclusion This part will cover the summary of the major topics discussed in the paper.

Annotated bibliography Alarid, L.F., Cromwell, P.F.,


The elements of the marketing mix Report college application essay help

Introduction A customer is the backbone of any given company; the main decision that a marketing manager should make determining his company’s market segment. A market segment is a homogenous subset of the main market, which share similar characteristics which make it demand similar goods. A segment is also stimulated by similar innovations. After developing a marketing segment the next step is to develop mechanisms to enable him sell in the target market.

One of the ways to enter in the target market is marketing mix. An effective marketing mix ensures that goods are available to the target customer, when they need them at and they are affordable (Anctil, 2008). Toyota is the world leading automobile manufacture, its success has been tagged to its strong marketing strategy; it uses 4Ps to market its products. This paper looks into marketing mix (specifically 4Ps of marketing mix). It will also discuss how Toyota Company has utilized this strategy in its marketing.

Concept of 4Ps 4ps concept was developed in 1960 by a marketing expert called E J McCarthy (Mind tools, 2010). The Ps represents Price, product/service, promotion, and place;


The price of a commodity is an element of total cost plus a profit margin. When a target market has been established, there is need to determine the price affordable to the customers. A marketer should be aware of consumer trends and their potential. The social class that the product is targeted will influence the price of the products.

The price parameter can be approached from the actual product price or the possibility that the product can be divided into smaller parts, not necessarily cheap, but to enhance affordability. From a broader point of view the market can be divided into three sections; the high class, the middle class, and the lower class.

The high class is not interested on how expensive a product is, but their point of interest is the utility that the product is going to give. When they are buying things they are looking for something extra that can make them feel special and different. To target this group, the product should try to show how it is different from others, the price can be set high since the possibility is ,this group will think that the higher the price the higher the utility. The middle class buy the common goods in the market.

When they are the target group, the price should be harmonized with competitor’s prices. When the target is the lower class, price is the determinant of the market, the lower the price the better. The products can be packed in smaller quantities at “lower prices”. Understanding of the market segment is thus crucial.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Place

The market segment that the marketer want to target, will influence the distribution that he is going to use. Where the customer is more likely to be found should be the place that the goods are provided. If the target customers are people who value recognition, most of them are in the high class, they are more likely to be found in the shopping malls and “designer” shops. The products should be displayed on these stalls.

The possibility that these kind of client will be in the back street shops is unlikely and thus the products should not be there. The common market is also a place that they are unlikely to go. If the products are targeting the lower class, they should be distributed in the supermarkets that are expected to be less expensive than the shopping mall. There are also some places that are regarded to be the high class estates. These are found in the areas that people of a certain class live.

If the target is the low class the goods should be available in the local slum and suburbs’ shops. If the target is for the middle class place products where the competitor products are, the focus should be more on strategies to persuade them. The middle class are known to be looking for something extra at the same price. There will be no harm if the products are distributed in the competitors area; efforts should be the way we display what we are offering extra (, 2010).


Promotions are done in the effort to either introduce a new product or increase the market segment. To engage in a promotion, the first thing to understand is the availability of the target customers. Where are they likely to be found? Are they free in the mornings, is it in the afternoon? After realizing their availability and when they can give you time, and know the age of the market.

The promotion for the youth should be designed to target the youth. The behavior of the youth is that they don’t want something that feels so common, let the promotion give a different good-feel on the customer. If the promotion focus on introducing a new product, then a lot should be invested in assuring the client of better quality than what is offered by the competitor.

The existence of opinion leaders should be evaluated. Customers are likely to follow the opinion leaders in making their decisions. The existence of groups in the society and their matching lifestyles can also be of great use. If the promotion is for an already existing product in the market, the approach should be from the angle that we are thanking our customers. If the customer feel appreciated and recognized he will develop loyalty and influence other to follow his way.


When a company is developing a product, there is a need that the product is supposed to fulfill. The higher the utility the customer gets, the higher the demand for the product.

We will write a custom Report on The elements of the marketing mix specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When products are developed, the team should always invest in offering something extra to the consumer. If target customers are aware of the expected ingredients, the campaigns should have a lot of emphasis in the ingredient used. On the other hand, if the customers are not much interested in the ingredients, or they even are not aware of the ingredients, the focus should be the outcome that the product will give.

The marketing campaigns should explain to the customer what benefit he will derive from using the goods. What does the target customers expect, what are they likely to be moved by? What is the age of the target customer? If the target customer are children- by extension the parents, the products should have attractive bright colors that are more likely to attract children.

If the target markets are the youth, then the fashion should be of emphasis. Packaging should gives a sense of superiority to the product. The youth will always want to have a better product than their peers. Effort should be made to ensure that the product is portrayed to give the impression of superiority. The language on the product packaging should be targeted at the desired group age.

If the prices have reduced and are lower than the market prices, it is important to include them on the package. In all the marketing of the products whether they are target to the high class, middle class, low class, the old, and the youth, the marketer should assure the customers of the availability of the products at all times (See appendix 1). Understanding the target market segment cannot be overlooked (Anctil, 2008).

The case of Toyota Company Toyota was incorporated in 1937 in Japan by Kiichiro Toyoda; it has grown to be the world number one automobile provider. It assumed the number one automobile producer in 2008 after it surpassed general motors. The company operates on a five principal policy; Kaizen (continuo’s improvement), teamwork, Challenges, Respect and Genchi Genbutsu (go and see). Alongside these policies the company has a strong marketing strategy. Let’s examine how it markets its products;

The company has two market segmentation; they are developed and developing countries. Its products are designed to meet the needs of the various markets. One of the ways that it has adopted is a continuous improvement of its products.

There is a research department that has the aim of undertaking its policy of Genchi Genbutsu (go and see). The section is supposed to survey the market and come up with various recommendations that are aimed at improve the company’s services.

As it conducted this duty, the issue of technology came up and the company had to implement the change. Other than just implementing it started a long term policy to ensure that there is continuity in the works. The company’s first car was a high fuel consuming passenger car called A1 and G1. The vehicles were manually modeled.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The elements of the marketing mix by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Today, the numerous models in the market are as a result of computer aided modeling. All along we are hearing of Toyota X new model. This shows how they have continually improved their products to remain competitive in the world. Secondly, another area that the company has improved is on the fuel consumption in the vehicles. This has been ongoing and in 1980s it saw the company get Japanese Quality Control award, this was due to the rewarding innovations especially in the fuel section that the company had gotten.

On the same angle in 1973, during world fuel crisis, the company was able to penetrate the American market when Americans preferred automobiles from the company due to its low fuel consumption. All the above are not coming to the company as mere luck but are deliberate planning and organizing of the available physical and human resources. A lot more that the company intend to bring are the electric automobiles that are on testing stage (Hino, 2006).

When it comes to price, there are different models which cost differently depending with the target customer. In developing countries where it is considered to have a market that require less expensive good, the company has engaged in what is referred to as Custom Bonded Factories; these are factories placed in less developed countries and receives CKDs (completely Knocked Down) parts from Toyota and assemble them into a complete automobile.

This takes the benefit of low labor thus the products can be sold in their country of assembly at a lower price. On the other hand, these are government and Toyota programs so there are arrangements made to reduce taxes on these CKDs, this makes them even cheaper and affordable (See appendix 2).

The product is advertised in the individual countries according to the capability of the customer there. There is an also “door to door” promotion where the company approach companies, governments, corporate bodies and offer the products that they have that can meet the need of the customer.

In case the company does not have a full order in their warehouse, the policies of the company allows for the neighboring country to export to the country of deficit. All Toyota branches are located in city centers where they are likely to tap the greatest number of customers (CIOinsight, 2004).

Conclusion A customer is the backbone of a company; the main decision that a marketing manager should make determining his company’s market segment. One of the ways to enter in the target market is marketing mix. The 4Ps represent Price, product/service, promotion, and place.

An effective marketing ensures that goods are available to the target customer, when they need them at and they are affordable. Toyota is one of the companies that have benefited from using the strategy. It manufactures different models which costs differently and makes them available to target customers.

Reference List Anctil, E. (2008). Marketing and Advertising the Intangible. ASHE Higher Education Report, 34(2), 31-47. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

CIOinsight. (2004). Toyota’s Business Intelligence: Oh! What a Feeling. Page 3-4. Web.

Hino, S. (2006). Inside the mind of Toyota: management principles for enduring growth. Tokyo: Productivity Press.

Mind tools. (2010). Marketing Mix and 4Ps. Web. (2010). The Marketing Mix (4Ps of marketing). Web.

Appendixes Appendix 1

A marketing mix diagram

Appendix 2

A marketing mix used by Toyota (Hino, 2006)


History of Nationalist Ideologies Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help

Nationalism is an ideology, which strives to create and sustain a nation based on commonalities of a given government, nation or territory. According to nationalism, the perpetuation of identity values, the self-determination of all subjects, the well-being, and the splendor of an individual’s nation are its principle values.

The dominance of global politics and values by nationalist ideologies can be traced back to the ninetieth century, from the Romantic concept, “cultural diversity” and the liberal’s argument that political legitimacy is only achieved from the consent of a region’s population, and impacted much the social, cultural and political trends.

The nation state view began in Europe with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1684. Then, nationalist ideologies were considered an elite concern for many centuries, but during the ninetieth century it spread enormously in Europe and later globally.

In the greater part of the ninetieth century, regional politics were basically a struggle between the emerging nationalist ideologies and the old autocratic governments. Notably, WW1 marked the final destruction of many multinational states, such as the Ottoman Empire and Russia, but signing of the Versailles Treaty showed an effort to recognize nationalist ideologies, as most parts were seen as nation states.

Several ninetieth century scholars argued that nationalist ideologies were a positive value since they associated it with values such as individual and collective freedom from oppression.

Liberals believed that nationalist ideologies gave all states equal liberties and argued that it would make all nations to interact with one another peacefully and constructively, and international actors would be empowered to make decisions in a more rational way since, contrary to anachronistic despotic regimes which oppressed national minorities, nationalism stood solidly for individual independence. However, the WW1 did a lot to change this illogical attitude, as many people then died in the name of nationalist ideologies.

Nationalist ideologies can be explained in various ways. According to Hobsbawm (8), nationalism is based on the assumption that “any sufficiently large body of people whose members regard themselves as a ‘nation’ is worthy of serious study.” Nationalism can be explained from two perspectives: primordial and modern.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The primordialist scholars have argued that nationalist movements were able to create unity among formerly disgruntled populations, since they were able to establish actual, existing cultural, social or historical bonds among the people of a particular region.

Hence, nationalism was believed to be an expression of natural ties among populations that had only to be awarded an efficient political system in the form of the nation-state. However, these scholars did not believe that the nation was as a result of racial or ethical structures, unlike the Romantic cultures, which argued that all nations were linked by their specific culture that was formed by language, religion and social values.

On the other hand modernists did not believe that nationalist movements were an expression of natural ties among individuals, especially after the upheaval of WW2.

Modernists argued that common identities and shared cultural values were not just out there and that consolidation of nationalist movements was based on the approaches political elites and thinkers, and on the objectives of popular groups, which were instrumental in invoking a thinking of commonality. This critical view argues that nationalism is an invention and is brought about by intellectual and political awareness.

However, the public display of nationalist sentiment became a vital feature of the modern nation-state. If the interest of the population was at the foremost, then it was usual that political parties were formed that wooed support from the electorates.

Therefore, in many countries many pressure organisations emerged to influence the ruling regime and to enable a public sphere of political and cultural negotiation. Notably, there are various types of nationalism societies in modern day world. These nationalist societies are quite different from each other as each represents a certain ideology, group or interests of a specific culture.

There are different types of nationalisms, which include: First, expansionist nationalism, which centers on the ideology of acquiring new territories of land with the view that the current territory that they were occupying was either too small or inadequate to serve their interests either economically or physically.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on History of Nationalist Ideologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With that in mind they always sought to increase their geographical area by acquiring new lands even if it was already occupied others. For example, Adolf Hitler applied this type of nationalism whereby he sought to increase Germanys’ territorial boundary by annexing the neighboring countries in Europe.

Secondly, civic nationalism, which is the most common type of nationalism from the 19 century to date. The ideology behind this type of nationalism is that a given state or country is defined as an union of people whom have same rights and their differences are not taken as a point of discrimination therefore all the citizens of a given nation have the same political, social and economic rights.

Under civic nationalism, ethnicity of the people is not taken as a key factor in nationhood but as a political individual who is autonomous. Due to this autonomy of the different people in the state, a given country is able to draw from the society political authority which is legitimate and democratic. The society in this type of nationalism is usually rational and liberal in exercising its given rights and members who comprise of this type nationalism usually join it voluntarily (Graham


Race, Ethnicity, Gender Identity Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Global perspective on Race, Ethnicity and Gender

America’s Educational Inequality

Ethnicity and education inequality

Gender and academic inequality




Introduction Today globalization is seen to be affecting the nature of debate on educational inequalities that for a long time has been viewed in the perspectives of race, ethnicity and gender especially with regard to global economy. Despite consistent and more recent efforts and strategies to address the issue of eliminating discrimination that is perceived on the grounds of race, ethnicity and gender, profound evidence in our society shows that discrimination on grounds of race, ethnicity and gender continues to persist in our modern society.

Education presents an opportunity for human to succeed in life and according to Moses (2002, p.1), education holds the promise evoked by these three words; hope, possibility and just. But the author at the same time regrets to the problem where students of color, poor and working class students, and female students of all kinds have suffered from what he refers to as dysfunctional educational system of USA which is failing these students and hence does not fulfill its purpose (Moses, 2002, p.1).

Kennedy Howe (1997) observes that efforts towards equality of educational opportunity have largely failed especially when issues of race, ethnicity and gender are scrutinized; “rather than nurturing hope, education causes despair to the mostly to the colored people, ethnic minority and largely female” (Moses, 2002, p.1).

Furthermore, the author appears to disagree with the words of a Law professor at the University of Texas at Austin who asserted that students of color are unable to compete with white students at selective universities because within the cultures, education success is not held in high regard and academic failure is not looked upon by disgrace (Moses, 2002, p.1).

The author evaluates the comments of the law professor and note that such opinions held in institutions of higher learning shows how the education system and institutions have become dysfunctional. Therefore this research paper will explore the issue of education inequality in American institutions in the perspectives of race, ethnicity and gender.

Global perspective on Race, Ethnicity and Gender Race, ethnicity and gender have been seen to continue to act as limiting factors that put barrier to access to quality education for all, equity and access in the world. At the same time, the above factors continue to represent major barometers in social stratification and differential access to schooling in both the developed and third world countries (Zajda, 2009).

For some time now, there has been a concerted effort to address ways of eliminating discrimination of race, ethnicity and gender; and analyzing statistics from many countries around the world it is evident that the three issues still persist. Today, in many societies of the world, individual’s skin color still dictates how equality is conducted and perceived and as a result social stratification continue to affect the educational impacts of many individuals divided a long reams of race (Zajda, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the American society, race continues to be a significant aspect in academic achievement. Racializations in education and their impacts on minority groups have greatly been studied. At this juncture, minority groups have been disfavored by the American educational system and this has resulted into these minority groups experiencing unequal opportunities as far as education opportunities are concerned.

Travis Gosa and Karl Alexander (2007) note that race still matters in USA schooling and afterwards success (cited in Zajda, 2009). Their observation is that race has profoundly and greatly affected both working class and middle class of African Americans.

America’s Educational Inequality Most books and other literature works have written greatly about the history of America’s education history whereby the immense literatures show that as late as 1960s, many African-American, Latinos, and Native Americans students received their education in totally segregated schools that operated on funds less than those of serving whites; while at the same time, they were largely prevented from accessing higher education opportunities (Darling-Hammond, 2010).

By 1970, there were some legal advances that saw narrowing down of these inequalities as segregation became outlawed in most institutions and as a result there were visible evidence that the gap between minority and white students narrowed greatly. For instance, “the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the scores of African-American students climbed 54 points between 1976 and 1994, while those of white students remained stable” (Darling-Hammond, 2010).

Despite these remarkable developments, educational experiences for minority students continue to be largely separate and unequal, whereby statistics shows that 75 per cent of minority students still attend schools that are greatly dominated by minority students. At the same time most of these minority schools are located in central cities and continue to receive fewer funds as compared to those of white students located in suburban districts (Darling-Hammond, 2010).

Recent studies and findings on school funds from major cities of Alabama, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Louisiana found that schools serving colored students were understaffed, had unqualified teachers and curriculum offered was ‘irrelevant’ to the needs of the students in these schools (Darling-Hammond, 2010). In other words schools serving minority students have fewer resources when compared to those serving white students and this contributed to poor results by the students from minority groups.

Jonathan Kozol (1991) making comparison on inequalities between public schools that serves minority in urban setting and also public schools that serves the white in suburban whereby he noted that much funds and resources were being spend on white students even with little needs while at the same time in minority schools like MacKenzie High School in Detroit, courses in word processing were being taught without word processors because the school had no enough resources to acquire the equipment (cited in Darling-Hammond, 2010).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race, Ethnicity, Gender Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand in the white’s suburban schools, students were much privileging “from computer hookup to Dow Jones to stock transactions and science laboratories” (Darling-Hammond, 2010). More interesting is the fact that at Paterson Schools in New Jersey did not have the capacity to employ competent teachers with sufficient skills to teach foreign languages (Darling-Hammond, 2010).

Ethnicity and education inequality For the last four decades many scholars have dedicated their resources and energies in examining the relationship between ethnicity and academic performance.

For example, Rabiner et al. (2004) studied that while a large portion of children from different ethnic backgrounds constitute a significant and increasing percentage of the American public school population that accounted for almost 40 per cent of national enrolment in 2000, what was evident was the fact that for the past thirty years fewer minority students have been considered proficient in reading while at the same time statistics shows further that minority students scored less on standardized tests as compared to whites (Zajda, 2009).

Hedwig (2007) observes that, inequality in “educational opportunities and outcomes between African American and White children in the United States have been a national concern since the Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) decision.”

Studies to investigate school ethnic composition in relation to academic performance done in the past have largely utilized standardized tests scores and grade point average (GPA) at the elementary and secondary levels and the studies have indicated that for instance, being an African American at the individual level has a negative effect on academic performance (Hedwig, 2007). On the other hand, when education conditions of Latinos as an ethnic group are studied and analyzed the statistics are alarming.

For example, in 2003, statistics showed that 48 per cent of Latinos had in a way attained at least high school education and when compared with White student ratio that had completed high school education, Latinos were seen to be lagging behind (Rodriguez and Massey, 2008). The historical development of Latino education system in USA has on various occasions been described as “subjugation, colonization and segregation mechanisms used to track down Latino students” (Rodriguez and Massey, 2008).

What is evident from numerous literature is that Latinos for a long time have struggled to preserve their cultural roots and heritage in a largely ‘Americanized’ education system. Further the schooling of Latinos is always described under bilingual education perspective and when the statistics of white educated youth employed are revealed there is a tendency for skewness where more white educated as compared to Latinos educated and with the same education credentials are employed.

Gender and academic inequality Gender inequality has remained another persistent issue in social stratification and division of power. Many writers have noted that gender inequality reflects society’s existing patriarchy (Zajda, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race, Ethnicity, Gender Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Further the issue of gender in many literatures has been tied to the issues of race, ethnicity, power, status and class and what is seen in the American society and other global societies is the tendency to encourage and motivate women to develop skills that are basically useful and essential in low paying jobs, for instance clerical works that in turn leads to lower income and status (Zajda, 2009).

Furthermore the issue of women experiencing inequality especially in jobs emanates from the fact that most women cannot work fulltime and overtime and therefore have limited opportunities as far as career development and education are concerned.

Global statistics shows that one in three women are illiterate as compared to men whose statistics indicate one in every five men is illiterate (Zajda, 2009). Historical women education inequality shows that from 1950s to1960s, the percentage of women receiving some kind of college education stood at 43 per cent which dropped to23 per cent during the period of depression and later rising to 30per cent where it remained for relatively long time without being interrupted (Jacobs, 1996).

In 1970 President Nixon’s Task Force on Women’s Rights and Responsibilities identified that sex discrimination in education was linked to denial of employment opportunities.

The commission in its findings for the period it conducted interviews established that there was widespread of sex discrimination at all levels of education systems in 1972, the country through Nixon’s government banned all forms of sex discrimination in educational system. Attempts to eliminate gender identity as a factor in teaching and learning and to share all aspects of education still receive opposition especially from those who believe that the federal government should not attempt to interfere with the schools.

Recommendations Unequal access to education opportunities is a form of racial discrimination since it ruins the future prospects of many young people especially the minority groups, With regards to race and education opportunities in USA what is evident from the past policies that have been designed to address the issue of race as hindering many minority groups is the fact that numerous education policies tend to dwell on minority where public policy on minority primary and secondary education discourage integration and largely promotes isolation and inequity. What is needed is a sustainable educational plan in form of policy that will address race issue in the current education system.

Therefore the following recommendations should be studied: Designing and establishing Racial Equity Plans at the school, district, state and national levels that include quantifiable goals; schools need to move a way from the procedural ways of applying suspensions and expulsions that sometimes ignites racial discrimination; develop plans that guarantee the equitable distribution of resources that take into account the critical role of quality public education as one remedy for past discrimination; At the post secondary level affirmative actions need to be instituted that guarantee or facilitate increased number of minority completing graduate and college school.

With regard to gender identity and access to educational opportunities key policy recommendations are made that will ensure female access to education is increased as economic prospects have been attached advancement in education. First the number of women teachers should be increased as this will act as motivation to female students in many institutions to pursue further educational opportunities.

Current statistics indicate that women administrators in key educational institutions are still low as compare to male administrators. Second, there should be establishment of Female Development Act that will largely outline and elaborates affirmative actions that should be realized in educational systems. Third, the Gender Discrimination Prevention Act should be empowered with some legal powers to investigate and even institute law suits to those who violates or discriminate on gender basis.

Conclusion Race, ethnicity and gender identity are three issues that continue to bewilder the American and global community. Notably is the fact that these issues have affected and defined how access to educational opportunities is perceived.

The major casualties in all this circumstance of events have been the minority groups of the society whereby their access to educational opportunities has been limited by their color, ethnic or sex. The resultant effects have been deterioration in their general welfare state as they thrive and get submerged in poverty incidences.

What is needed is adequate policy framework that addresses these issues. The policy framework currently needed should appear to give different alternatives as compared to the existing alternatives that in essence have continued to perpetuate these issues further.

The policy framework need to address highlight how race, ethnicity and gender identity can be well addressed within the key existing institutions of law, economic, politics and even culture. It should not be forgotten that any form or kind of the above mentioned discrimination will greatly affect the lives of the victims involved and hence concerted efforts will be necessary to avert such harmful consequences especially on the part of minority groups.

This research has therefore tried to identify and suggest key policy strategies that can be spearheaded in order to minimize the cases of racial, ethnic or gender discrimination specifically in the country’s education systems. The recommendations are not adequate or exhaustive and future efforts to identify and formulate other policy strategies are welcome.

References Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education. Web.

Hedwig, L. (2007). Effects of School Racial and Ethnic Composition on Academic Achievement during Adolescence. The Journal of Negro Education. Web.

Jacobs, J. A. (1996). Gender Inequality and Higher Education. University of Pennsylvania. Web.

Moses, M. S. (2002). Embracing race: why we need race-conscious education policy. NY, Teachers College Press. Web.

Rodriguez, H. and Massey, D. S. (2008). Latinas/os in the United States: Changing the Face of America. NY, Springer. Web.

Zajda, J. (2009). Race, Ethnicity and Gender in Education: Cross-Cultural Understandings. NY, Springer. Web.


History of Que Corporation Report college application essay help

Table of Contents Immediate Issue at Que Corporation

Basic Issues at Que Corporation

Strategic Perspective

Issues Analysis


Alternatives and options



Reference List

Que Corporation was founded in mid-1960s and has established its headquarters in Brisbane, Queensland. The Corporation is involved in the manufacture of industrial products that are used in the exploitation of mineral resources. As a medium company, Que has steadily grown in domestic mining and exploration of mineral resources. Since its inception, Que has utilized small scale supplier for their moderately priced products with overall good reliability.

In the contemporary world, supply chain management has become a vital component for companies and their businesses to design make and deliver a product or service (Hugos 2010). Basically, supply chain management constitute model of collaboration, planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR).

Supply chain management (SCM) has been defined as “the integration of key business processes from end-user through original suppliers that provides products, services, and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders” (Lambert, 2008, p.2). Companies therefore continue to depend more on supply chains to provide them with what they need to endure and thrive.

It has been suggested that companies in any supply chain must make decisions individually and collectively regarding their actions in five areas:

Production, which includes creation of master production schedules that considers account plant capacities, workload balancing, quality control, and equipment maintenance;

Inventory, where inventory act as a buffer against uncertainty in the supply chain and the main aim is to know what inventory should be stocked at each stage in a supply chain;

Location, has to do with where facilities for production and storage inventory should be located, the most cost-effective appropriate locations for production and inventory;

Transportation, where consideration has to be made as to how inventory should be moved from one supply chain location to another; and

Information, whereby questions concerning how much information should be collected and how much should be shared (Hugos, 2010).

Immediate Issue at Que Corporation Que Corporation has made great strides as far as its sales are concerned. As a result of its great success that has been evident in gross sales, the corporation for sometime has been contemplating on increasing its sales and reach new foreign markets.

Notable thing concerning the corporation as far as its delivery systems are concerned is the fact that increased number of the corporation’s customers has constantly preferred and expected faster deliveries; unfortunately, Que corporation continues to experience difficulties in meeting its customers expectations in terms of product delivery.

The impacts of this particular problem have proliferated all the way to Que’s own suppliers. The corporation’s marketing and sales department on the other hand has made future delivery promises but the purchasing department has not managed to achieve the same success especially in sourcing additional suppliers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But the purchasing department has not entirely failed but has consistently demonstrated efforts but the problem largely emanates from the fact that the current suppliers were finding it unable to meet increased production requirements while at the same time new suppliers are experiencing obstacles in obtaining consistent results in terms of quality, volume and timely delivery. This constitutes the immediate issue that Que corporation faces and which needs immediate address.

Any supply chain basically faces the challenges of meeting or even sometimes of exceeding customer expectations (Bidgoli, 2010, p.48). A supply chain is regarded to be sustainable especially in the long-term when customers’ requirements are fulfilled adequately. But in many cases realizing such in a supply chain is complex and challenging and therefore the best thing is to manage the supply chain with maximum effectiveness in order to achieve sustained competitiveness in terms of cost and customer service (Bidgoli, 2010, p.48).

In ensuring effectiveness in supply chains, it is important to eliminate all the existing delays of information and materials as fast as possible, also question and investigate any form of inventory and why it exists, identify any kind of uncertainty since uncertainty has the potential to lead to poor decision making and also a suboptimized flow of materials, and lastly business entities utilizing supply chain need to try and promote the customer demand signal to the maximum extent possible. In other words the company should create and promote demand-driven supply chain.

Basic Issues at Que Corporation The first basic issue that has been identified at Que Corporation has to do with first delivery to customers. Compounding this particular issue is the inability of suppliers to meet increased production requirements while the new suppliers are confronted with the issue of being unable to consistently maintain product quality, volume and also delivery on time.

Another basic issue has to do with the Corporation’s compromise on using smaller scale supplier for a moderately priced product that the company has regarded to be reliable. Also, the company has continued to face problems in identifying and investigating potential suppliers that have the capability to foster and promote Que’s corporate strategy.

As a result of undertaking this initiative Que Company has consistently sourced for suppliers who have components or subcomponents that have the ability to provide a quality product without being involved in the final assembly. Further the company’s purchasing team has not had any opportunity to travel and in the process identify and investigate new opportunities as far as international suppliers are concerned.

Suppliers sometimes are unable to take on additional work or expedite the manufacturing process due to their own manufacturing limitations. The company continues to face numerous challenges resulting from the nature of the equipment, operating environment and frequent transportation between various operating sites which have greatly led to increased demand in spare parts.

We will write a custom Report on History of Que Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most occasions, customers have preferred to maintain the company’s equipment at their site while the company sometimes is forced to return the equipment to the company’s site due to the complexity of the equipment and sometime this has not worked well with many customers. Concerning technology in the company, use of technology has differed in accordance to functions being performed.

Most departments apart from R


Ethical Decision Making and Sustainable Development Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Ethical decision making is always a difficult task since the decisions made affect to some individuals and the society. There exist ethical dilemmas in determining the right path to follow when values are in conflict. For example, there are some instances where the requirements of the customer may disagree with the organizational goals and mission. This implies that decisions need to be made in order to establish the course of actions.

Consequently, when there is difficulty in decision making, pressure always is directed to the executives who are responsible for making decisions. In this sense, a comprehensible and dependable ethical framework can enhance the decision making process and establish company initiatives that will help guarantee that the results are appropriate and maximize the available efforts in line with the decision making and the anticipated outcome. Managers often benefit form several approaches to solving ethical quandaries.

These approaches include the utilitarian theory, the moral rights theory, individualism, and the justice approach. The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the two common approaches: utilitarian approach and the moral-rights approach. The paper also expands on the ideas about the drawbacks of the utilitarian approach. The last section focuses on the role of multinational organizations in ensuring that there is a sustainable development globally.

Utilitarian Approach To begin with, making ethical decisions require consideration of the facts, the subjects involved, the best approach to follow, the effect of the approach, and the examination of the whole process. The utilitarian approach to making ethical decisions was advocated by the nineteenth-century by Bentham and Mill.

This approach requires that an individual should take a moral action that produces the greatest value for many people (Draft, 2010). In this strategy, a decision maker is expected to take into consideration the impacts of each decision alternative on all parties and choose the one that is of great value to a maximum number of people. Many people use this type of reasoning in making daily decisions.

When requested to describe why we have a moral obligation to carry out some action, we normally consider the benefits that will result from the action or the bad effects it will avoid. Managers, doctors, and legislators weigh daily the good and bad effects of policies when deciding, for instance, when to endorse a new medicine, whether to allocate resources in a project, or whether to monitor employee use of the internet.

Furthermore, as a consequentialist theory, utilitarianism has different approaches in which all of them agree on the principle of utility; which requires that in every action we must always consider good over evil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To determine if our actions are certainly going to produce the greatest value, there is need to engage in a “utilitarian calculus”. Thus, we start by weighing the good and bad effects of an action. If the moral action produces a greater value of positive results than negative results for all the parties affected, then the action is good; otherwise, the action is bad (Samson


Singapore Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Singapore, officially recognized as Republic of Singapore, is located in Southern Eastern Asia islands between Malaysia and Indonesia. Its geographical coordinates are 1 22 n, 103 48 E (Maps retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).

It covers an area of 697 sq km with water mass covering 10 sq km, while land mass, 687 sq km, with 1.47 percent of the land being used for arable farming, 1.47 percent for permanent crops, 23 percent forest and nature reserve, while the rest 74.06 percent for other purposes. But, it has embarked on land reclamation projects and is estimated to increase its land area by 100 sq km by 2030.

Its cover area is about 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC and has a coastline stretching 193 km. Its climate is tropical, hot (with temperatures ranging from 22 to 34 °C), humid (at around 90 percent in the morning and 60 percent in the afternoon), rainy (two discrete monsoon seasons; North Eastern monsoon (December to March) and South Western monsoon (June to September)) (Table derived from Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).

[hide]Climate data for Singapore (Singapore Airport) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 29.9 (85.8) 31.0 (87.8) 31.4 (88.5) 31.7 (89.1) 31.6 (88.9) 31.2 (88.2) 30.8 (87.4) 30.8 (87.4) 30.7 (87.3) 31.1 (88) 30.5 (86.9) 29.6 (85.3) 30.9 (87.6) Average low °C (°F) 23.1 (73.6) 23.5 (74.3) 23.9 (75) 24.3 (75.7) 24.6 (76.3) 24.5 (76.1) 24.2 (75.6) 24.2 (75.6) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.6 (74.5) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) Precipitation mm (inches) 198 (7.8) 154 (6.06) 171 (6.73) 141 (5.55) 158 (6.22) 140 (5.51) 145 (5.71) 143 (5.63) 177 (6.97) 167 (6.57) 252 (9.92) 304 (11.97) 2,150 (84.65) Avg. rainy days 12 10 13 14 14 13 14 13 14 15 19 19 170 Sunshine hours 173.6 183.6 192.2 174 179.8 177 189.1 179.8 156 155 129 133.3 2,022.4 Source: Hong Kong Observatory Singapore is lowland with gradually elevating central plateau with water catchment areas and natural preserves. Singapore has signed several international environmental agreements including; Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes.

According to the Singapore Department of Statistics (2010), as of July 2010, its population was estimated at 5.081 million, with 3.7 million residents, of which 3.24 million were Singapore citizens and 0.55 million being permanent residents. “In populous rankings it is position 118. The total population showed a lower growth trend of 1.8% in 2010, reflecting a slower growth in the number of permanent residents and non residents from the last year.”

The birth rate is estimated at 8.82 births per 1000 people while the death rate 4.66 deaths per 1000 people. The median age of the resident people was 37.5 years, with the old-age support ratio (population aged 15 to 64 years/elderly aged 65 years and above) being 8.2 for the resident population. As of 2008, the infant mortality stood at 2.1 per 1000 people, life expectancy ay 78 years for males and 83.2 for females.

Singapore has a total workforce of 3 million people with 18.1 percent working in the manufacturing sector, 68.3 percent in the service industry and 12.9 percent in the construction industry. Of the total population, 74% are Chinese, Malays 13% and 9.2% being Indians. Majority of the population, 35 percent, speak Mandarin language, then 23 percent English, 14.1 percent Malay and the rest Chinese dialects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The most practiced religions are Buddhists, Taoist, Islam, Christianity and Hinduism. Literacy rates stood at 92.5 percent, with the government allocating 3.7 percent of the national GDP to education, as of 2001. Because of the varied population and presence of foreigners (who account for 42 percent of the population), Singapore has a multi cultur.

On the other hand U.S., the world’s third most populous country, has a population of 310 million (as estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau), with a birth rate of 13.82/1000 population and a population growth rate of 0.98 percent. U.S. is a multicultural nation with an individualistic way of life. “It has a diverse population with 31 racial groups, the majority being White Americans, German Americans, Irish and English Americans.”

The CIA World Factbook estimates the U.S. land cover to be approximately 9.8 sq km. It has a varied climate with humid continental in the north and humid sub-tropical in the south.” Consumer prices in U.S. are 15.37 percent higher than in Singapore while the Local Purchasing Power in United States is 63.3 percent higher than in Singapore (Adamovic, 2010).

Singapore has a well established free market economy, which greatly relies on exports and adding value imported products, particularly the manufacturing industry, which in 2005 constituted 26 percent of its Gross National Product.

As of 2009, Singapore exports were estimated at US$274.5 billion, positioned 14th in the world’s exporters list. Singapore’s exports are mainly machinery and equipments, consumer commodities, pharmaceuticals and mineral fuels. Its main export affiliates are Hong Kong, Malaysia, China, Indonesia, U.S., S. Korea and Japan.

Its import market is worth US$240.5 billion, with its principal imports being machinery, mineral fuels, foodstuffs and consumer commodities. Its import partners include US, Malaysia, China, Japan, Indonesia, S. Korea and Taiwan. Singapore was the thirtieth biggest trading partner of the U.S. in 2009 with re-exports accounting for 48.9 percent of Singapore’s total exports in 2009.

While its counterpart, the U.S., is the largest importer of products and the 3rd largest exporter, although its exports-per-capita are relatively low.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Singapore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the International Monetary Fund, “the U.S. GDP of $14.4 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and almost 21% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP)” (Adamovic, 2010). As of 2009 had exports approximately US$1.05 billion with agricultural goods, industrial supplies, capital goods and consumer commodities being its principal exports.

Its export partners are Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, UK, and Germany. U.S. import market is estimated at 1.56 trillion with most the imports being from China, Canada, Mexico, Japan and Germany (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010). Its main import commodities are agricultural goods, industrial supplies, capital goods and consumer products. Currently, the direct quote for the Singapore dollar against the US dollar is 1:1.34.

In conclusion Singapore provides a good business environment. Although the cost of business there is a bit higher, but the well developed economic system, makes it easier to conduct business and offers a potential for growth. The highly educated population provides the necessary work force in the relevant industries.

Reference List Adamovic, M. (2010). Cost Of Living Comparison. Numbeo. Web.

Central Intelligence Agency. (2010). Singapore. The World Factbook. Web.

Central Intelligence Agency. (2010). United States. The World Factbook. Web.

Singapore Department of Statistics. (2010). Press Release. Census of population 2010 advance census release. Web.


The Global Compact Report a level english language essay help

Introduction The Global Compact is a strategic policy scheme by the United Nations meant for corporations that are willing to align their business operations and working strategies with ten principles that are universally accepted with regards to human rights, anti-corruption, and environment. The United Nations Global Compact was launched in July 2000 (Tully 2007, 101-106)[1].

The two principles addressed are:

The principle against corruption This was the 10th principle on corruption adopted on June 24, 2004. Corruption is a multifaceted and convoluted issue with a broad scope. Many tools and resources have been established to help firms and corporations to develop and effectively implement policies that restrict corruption activities. In order to stop and check corruption within companies, the Global Compact came up with certain guidelines on how corporations can be made to engage in clean business.

The Global Compact recommended that corporations should incorporate a vivid anti-corruption commitment into their corporate citizenship program. This principle also requires that corporations should avoid all forms of corruptions bribery and extortion (Rasche 2010, 520-563)[2].

The company’s point of view The incorporation of this principle into the operations of the company may not be difficult. However, there is high likelihood that the company may not be able to come up with the appropriate and effective strategic means of tracking corrupt activities since the reality is that corruption takes place secretly and in many cases may involve the top executive officials; this actually makes it potentially difficult for responsible junior officials to effectively investigate any corrupt dealings within the company.

So, as much as the company may be willing to incorporate the principle in its business operations, the outcome may not be positive as expected.

The principle about the respect of human rights Under this principle, business organizations are expected to give support and also respect the preservation of human rights that are recognized and proclaimed internationally. The business corporations are also required to ensure that they are never be involved in the abuses of human rights (Mares 2004, 94-96)[3].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s point of view Respect for human rights is very important both for the reputation and success of the company. It is important to note that any business entity that does not respect human rights is bound to fail. This stems from the fact that the most important part of a company is the personnel.

A company needs human beings to provide labor and also needs customers or clients to consume its products (Stationery Office 2009, 71-75)[4]. Without respect to human rights, the company fears it may lose out in business which is the case with any business entity (Alston 2005, 141-157)[5].

Positive and negative lessons from the company’s perspective and other companies’ experience in the process implementing the practices There are a number of positive lessons that have been learnt in the process of implementing the practices. One of them is that integration of the principle or respecting human rights have given the companies’ workforce confidence and assurance about the protection of human rights.

This has motivated the workforce and hence increased commitment to companies’ business operations. The companies have therefore learnt that respect for human rights is not only important for companies’ reputation and public image, but also to get the commitment of the workforce. The integration of the principle against corruption has managed to lower the level of corruption within the companies even though it may not be possible to eliminate corruption totally within the companies’ business operations.

As much as there are positive lessons to be learnt there are also negative aspects of the principles that have been learn. The companies have learnt that it is easy to incorporate the principle of anti-corruption in their operations but almost impossible to operationalize it due to possible involvement of top executives of the companies. Meanwhile, the companies have also learnt that it could be costly to implement these principles since they add to the cost of companies’ business operations.

Benefits and risks to key stakeholders The implementation of anti-corruption principle is of great benefits to shareholders of the company since the effectiveness of its implementation is highly likely to reduce possible embezzlement of funds which may lead to collapse of the company (National Technical Information Service 2005, 113-118).

The public reporting about the company’s intolerance to corruption passes a strong sign customers and both existing and potential investors about the company’s intention to engage in clean business transactions and possible growth of the company.

We will write a custom Report on The Global Compact specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The risk involved here is that in case the top executives are involved in corruption and lack of respect for human rights, any attempt by junior officer to address the issues of both principles may lead to such an officer losing his or her job and therefore livelihood. The violation of these principles by the company may tarnish the image of the company and hence drive away customers and investors; this has the possibility of affecting the share values of the company. Consequently, the stakeholders may lose in their capital investments.

Recommendations In order to ensure successful implementations of the above principles, the following recommendations are appropriate:

The United Nations Global Compact should come up with a strategy of rewarding companies that are showing positive out come as a result of implementing the principles in within the context of their business operations;

The Global Compact should also come up with a certain framework to punish signatories companies that default on the principles;

The companies should not just be expected to implement the principles simply because they are signatories; the Global Compact should assists companies in implementing the principles by providing consultancy services to the companies;

The accountability should be decentralized and the Global Compact should work in collaboration with governments where signatories operate. This implies that the Global Compact should monitor implementations of the principles through local governments.

Reference List Alston, Philip. 2005. Non-state actors and human rights. Collected courses of the Academy of European Law: 141-157.

Mares, Radu. 2004. Business and human rights: a compilation of documents: 94-96.

National Technical Information Service. 2005. Daily report: People’s Republic of China, Issues 113-118. The University of Michigan: 113-118.

Rasche, Andreas. 2010. The United Nations Global Compact. Achievements, Trends and Challenges: 101-106.

Stationery Office. 2009. Any of Our Business? Human Rights and the UK Private Sector First Report of Session 2009-10: Vol. 2 Oral and Written Evidence: House of Lords Paper 5-ii Session 2009-10: 71-75.

Tully, Stephen. 2007. International documents on corporate responsibility. U.S.: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Global Compact by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes Tully, Stephen. 2007. International documents on corporate responsibility. U.S.: Edward Elgar Publishing

Rasche, Andreas. 2010. The United Nations Global Compact. Achievements, Trends and Challenges: 101-106.

Mares, Radu. 2004. Business and human rights: a compilation of documents: 94-96

Stationery Office. 2009. Any of Our Business? Human Rights and the Uk Private Sector First Report of Session 2009-10: Vol. 2 Oral and Written Evidence: House of Lords Paper 5-ii Session 2009-10: 71-75.

Alston, Philip. 2005. Non-state actors and human rights. Collected courses of the Academy of European Law: 141-157.


Love for Nature: A Symptom of a Lovesick Heart Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Love for Nature

Love for a Woman

Understanding Wordsworth


Works Cited

This study will be a comparison between Wordsworth’s poem and a song written by Sting. Wordsworth’s masterpiece was written a long time ago but Sting’s composition was fairly recent. Wordsworth’s Tintern Abbey and Sting’s Fields of Gold share so many things and at the same time differ in so many respects.

Both share the same passion and love for nature. However, the speakers had different explanations why they love nature. Wordsworth consider nature, the sight, sound and smell of it as a natural healing ointment for the soul, while Sting see nature as a mere reflection of what he felt inside during the period in his life when he fell in love.

Love for Nature In the case of Wordsworth the whole poem was written to express love for nature and why the author felt that this particular place, the Tintern Abbey deserves to be visited as often as possible. Wordsworth spent a great deal of effort in pointing out that the sound of nature is music to his ears. There is nothing like it in the whole world, the sound of water cascading from mountain springs, the tall rock and even the smoke that comes from dwellings hidden within the forest walls.

In this regard Sting and Wordsworth are in agreement. Although the setting for the song was in a field of barley the reader can easily sense that the composer wanted everyone to know that he is a lover of nature. He appreciates the beauty that he sees in nature. This is evidenced by the fact that he simply did not describe his environment as a field full of barley; instead he said that he was standing in the field of gold.

There is another common ground. Both writers express regret over the passing of time and their inability to revisit the place that reminds them of the best time of their lives. In Wordsworth this was clearly evident when he said: “Five years have past; five summers, with the length of five long winters!” (Wordsworth, line 1). In the song the writer said that, “Many years have passed since those summer days” (Sting, line 23). There was an ache in their heart because they allowed the passage of time and by doing so neglected the one they love.

Love for a Woman The major difference in both works is the object of their affection. Wordsworth love nature because of the benefits that it has given to his mind, soul, and body. Sting loved the sky, the wind and the fields of barley because these things remind her of days gone by and the love of his life. He also appreciates nature in the way that it can be used to awaken what was long dormant, not only the love that was in his heart but also the affection in a woman’s heart that needed a wake-up call to arouse her from deep slumber.

Wordsworth love the way nature calms his nerves. He found the memory of his last visit as an effective antidote to the depression and weariness that he felt whenever he was in the city, especially when his senses were oppressed and bombarded by the noise and the stress of urban living.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He beautifully described the way he held on to these memories when he wrote: “As is a landscape to a blind man’s eye” (Wordsworth, line 26) This means that like a blind man who was not born blind he treasures the images stored in his memory before he totally lost his ability to see and he held on to it with a tenacity of a man who suddenly went blind.

However, this is where the similarity ends because Wordsworth focused everything on his love for nature, specifically the visual images and other stimuli he felt whenever he visited that particular place.

He perfectly captured his obsession of Tintern Abbey and the surrounding environs with one phrase: “Thy memory be as a dwelling-place” (Wordsworth, line 142) For the author there is nothing more that can give him so much joy and he is content to freeze that image in his mind and he can survive the rest of his life thinking about this happy thought.

But Sting’s Fields of God was a mere backdrop. Surely he appreciated the beauty of the pastoral landscape; however, there is a person within that image that is more important to him than all the fields of barley.

The composer of the song is not thankful to the “west wind” because it calms his nerves, he appreciates it because it can be used as a memory tool, specifically to remind his woman that he moves with the grace and power like the strong and hypnotic gust of a “west wind” and so she can perhaps be reminded of the promise of true love.

Understanding Wordsworth Sting’s song was a useful tool to provide contrast to Wordsworth’s non-stop worship of nature. Without the lyrics to the Fields of Gold it is difficult to make sense of Wordsworth’s 160 lines of poetry because he goes on and on not giving clues as to where he was going. But when one compares it to the song it became obvious that the poem is different from others because there is no woman involved.

In poems written about the natural environment, the elements of nature is there as a backdrop or tools that the writer uses to express what he felt inside but this time around Wordsworth was not singing praises to a maiden, he was actually in love with the trees, hills, water, wind etc.

We will write a custom Essay on Love for Nature: A Symptom of a Lovesick Heart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion There were similarities and differences in both compositions. What was prevalent was the use of nature as the backdrop or central focus of the author’s work. Sting used the fields of barley as memory guide to remind him of the good old days and to inspire him that a dormant love can be revived.

Wordsworth on the other hand was simply in love with nature, particularly that corner of the planet he calls Tintern Abbey. The comparison highlights Wordsworth’s obsession with nature and made clear that the poem was not for a woman but for himself.

Works Cited Roberts, Edgar. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 9th ed.

Sting. “Fields of Gold.” Accessed from


The Global Compact Report essay help online

Introduction The Global Compact is a strategic policy scheme by the United Nations meant for corporations that are willing to align their business operations and working strategies with ten principles that are universally accepted with regards to human rights, anti-corruption, and environment. The United Nations Global Compact was launched in July 2000 (Tully 2007, 101-106)[1].

The two principles addressed are:

The principle against corruption This was the 10th principle on corruption adopted on June 24, 2004. Corruption is a multifaceted and convoluted issue with a broad scope. Many tools and resources have been established to help firms and corporations to develop and effectively implement policies that restrict corruption activities. In order to stop and check corruption within companies, the Global Compact came up with certain guidelines on how corporations can be made to engage in clean business.

The Global Compact recommended that corporations should incorporate a vivid anti-corruption commitment into their corporate citizenship program. This principle also requires that corporations should avoid all forms of corruptions bribery and extortion (Rasche 2010, 520-563)[2].

The company’s point of view The incorporation of this principle into the operations of the company may not be difficult. However, there is high likelihood that the company may not be able to come up with the appropriate and effective strategic means of tracking corrupt activities since the reality is that corruption takes place secretly and in many cases may involve the top executive officials; this actually makes it potentially difficult for responsible junior officials to effectively investigate any corrupt dealings within the company.

So, as much as the company may be willing to incorporate the principle in its business operations, the outcome may not be positive as expected.

The principle about the respect of human rights Under this principle, business organizations are expected to give support and also respect the preservation of human rights that are recognized and proclaimed internationally. The business corporations are also required to ensure that they are never be involved in the abuses of human rights (Mares 2004, 94-96)[3].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s point of view Respect for human rights is very important both for the reputation and success of the company. It is important to note that any business entity that does not respect human rights is bound to fail. This stems from the fact that the most important part of a company is the personnel.

A company needs human beings to provide labor and also needs customers or clients to consume its products (Stationery Office 2009, 71-75)[4]. Without respect to human rights, the company fears it may lose out in business which is the case with any business entity (Alston 2005, 141-157)[5].

Positive and negative lessons from the company’s perspective and other companies’ experience in the process implementing the practices There are a number of positive lessons that have been learnt in the process of implementing the practices. One of them is that integration of the principle or respecting human rights have given the companies’ workforce confidence and assurance about the protection of human rights.

This has motivated the workforce and hence increased commitment to companies’ business operations. The companies have therefore learnt that respect for human rights is not only important for companies’ reputation and public image, but also to get the commitment of the workforce. The integration of the principle against corruption has managed to lower the level of corruption within the companies even though it may not be possible to eliminate corruption totally within the companies’ business operations.

As much as there are positive lessons to be learnt there are also negative aspects of the principles that have been learn. The companies have learnt that it is easy to incorporate the principle of anti-corruption in their operations but almost impossible to operationalize it due to possible involvement of top executives of the companies. Meanwhile, the companies have also learnt that it could be costly to implement these principles since they add to the cost of companies’ business operations.

Benefits and risks to key stakeholders The implementation of anti-corruption principle is of great benefits to shareholders of the company since the effectiveness of its implementation is highly likely to reduce possible embezzlement of funds which may lead to collapse of the company (National Technical Information Service 2005, 113-118).

The public reporting about the company’s intolerance to corruption passes a strong sign customers and both existing and potential investors about the company’s intention to engage in clean business transactions and possible growth of the company.

We will write a custom Report on The Global Compact specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The risk involved here is that in case the top executives are involved in corruption and lack of respect for human rights, any attempt by junior officer to address the issues of both principles may lead to such an officer losing his or her job and therefore livelihood. The violation of these principles by the company may tarnish the image of the company and hence drive away customers and investors; this has the possibility of affecting the share values of the company. Consequently, the stakeholders may lose in their capital investments.

Recommendations In order to ensure successful implementations of the above principles, the following recommendations are appropriate:

The United Nations Global Compact should come up with a strategy of rewarding companies that are showing positive out come as a result of implementing the principles in within the context of their business operations;

The Global Compact should also come up with a certain framework to punish signatories companies that default on the principles;

The companies should not just be expected to implement the principles simply because they are signatories; the Global Compact should assists companies in implementing the principles by providing consultancy services to the companies;

The accountability should be decentralized and the Global Compact should work in collaboration with governments where signatories operate. This implies that the Global Compact should monitor implementations of the principles through local governments.

Reference List Alston, Philip. 2005. Non-state actors and human rights. Collected courses of the Academy of European Law: 141-157.

Mares, Radu. 2004. Business and human rights: a compilation of documents: 94-96.

National Technical Information Service. 2005. Daily report: People’s Republic of China, Issues 113-118. The University of Michigan: 113-118.

Rasche, Andreas. 2010. The United Nations Global Compact. Achievements, Trends and Challenges: 101-106.

Stationery Office. 2009. Any of Our Business? Human Rights and the UK Private Sector First Report of Session 2009-10: Vol. 2 Oral and Written Evidence: House of Lords Paper 5-ii Session 2009-10: 71-75.

Tully, Stephen. 2007. International documents on corporate responsibility. U.S.: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Global Compact by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes Tully, Stephen. 2007. International documents on corporate responsibility. U.S.: Edward Elgar Publishing

Rasche, Andreas. 2010. The United Nations Global Compact. Achievements, Trends and Challenges: 101-106.

Mares, Radu. 2004. Business and human rights: a compilation of documents: 94-96

Stationery Office. 2009. Any of Our Business? Human Rights and the Uk Private Sector First Report of Session 2009-10: Vol. 2 Oral and Written Evidence: House of Lords Paper 5-ii Session 2009-10: 71-75.

Alston, Philip. 2005. Non-state actors and human rights. Collected courses of the Academy of European Law: 141-157.


Australian Financial Market Report essay help free

The Australian Financial Market is operated by an electronic system referred to as the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX). It was developed in 2006 after the merger between the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange.

The ASX runs under a self regulatory system that is operated by the Reserve Bank of Australia and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission. The Australian securities exchange market recorded a 46 percent increase in its net profits within the first year of its operation. Net profits recorded in 2007 were $313 million and operating revenues increased to $552.7 million.

The major markets in the Australian Financial Market are the bond, share, foreign exchange, interest and money market. The share or stock market is concerned with the trading of equities or shares, trust options and fixed interest securities. The Australian stock exchange market uses an automated system that allows traders to buy and sell stocks in the financial market (ASX, 2010).

Interest Rates The negative effects of the 2009 financial crisis saw the increase of interest rates in the Australian market to 4.25 percent in April from a low of 3.75% in January and February. The interest rates further rose to 4.5 percent in May and June. The high interest rates led to an increase in cash rates and assets trading in the form of cash were deemed to be more profitable when compared to the relative yield achieved from the sale or purchase of shares; the high interest rates also led to poor company profits and revenues.

The high interest rates also led to increased mortgage payments that left an adverse negative effect on consumer incomes as well as their spending patterns (Case, 2010).

The negative effect of the high rates makes sectors of the Australian economy that are sensitive to interest rates such as the Australian Real Estate Investment Trust to be less attractive to investors. Investors are also affected by the high interest rates because of share prices which will retreat into the economy. The credit market will also be affected because the variable rates on using credit cards will go up as well as mortgage payments.

This will affect consumer spending on luxury or basic items that will in turn affect the revenues generated by businesses. A continued increase in interest rates will also affect the amount of money that will be used by businesses to repay their debts each year. This will lead to a majority of the businesses reducing the size of their loans to be used in expansion or growth activities and also limiting the number of loans they take in the future (Case, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shareholders are also affected by the high interest rates in the event that a company is cutting down on its investment or expansion activities because of high debt expenses and a reduction in revenue. This might make shareholders to sell off their shares because of the projected future cash flows; Investors will also sell off their company shares because of the high rates and instead opt to trade in bonds and cash assets such as cash accounts and government bonds which are risk free investments that have higher returns.

Share market returns are deemed to be volatile and unpredictable in an economic environment characterised by high interest rates a situation that makes most investors to be more inclined to investing in cash assets (Cash, 2010).

The Australian economy has however recovered from the financial recession but the interest rates have continued to remain high an indication that the economy is performing stronger. The economy is also performing well because of the decreasing unemployment rate and the strength of the Australian Dollar.

The positive effects of the interest rates have been felt in insurance companies because of the high returns on investments in bonds. Importers are also benefiting from the high interest rates because of the strong Australian Dollar which ensures that there is a reduction on the import prices for commodities. Debt collection agencies have also benefited from the high prices because people defaulting credit cards, personal loan or mortgage payments will have to look for more money to service their monthly payments (Case, 2010).

Share Market Recent information on the Australian share market shows that the yardstick index has gone down to 130.1 points which translates to 4265.3 or 2.9 percent. This is low when compared to the ordinaries index level of 4324.8 that was recorded in June and 4453.6 recorded in May.

March recorded the highest number in the index level with a recording of 4893 for this year. The all ordinaries index went down to 126.5 points to an index level of 42.86 (ASX, 2010). The Australian share market experiences sector rotation which refers to the positive cumulative returns experienced by stocks found in one sector for example the Australian mining industry at the expense of stocks in another sector such as the investment and banking industry (Li, 2009).

Sector rotation is attributed to a situation where investors remove their investments from one sector in the event share prices fall to another industry that is experiencing high share prices.

We will write a custom Report on Australian Financial Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leads to a situation where there are no net fund inflows and outflows. In such a situation, the stock market index moves very slightly either upwards or downwards given a situation where the stock market is experiencing rotational investment activities. Sector rotation regularly occurs in periods in the stock market that experience index range and bound trading.

Traders in the Australian stock market explain sector rotation as a short trading period that could be a few days or weeks in which an industry attracts large investments and buyer interest due to certain circumstances in the economic market such as mergers, or takeovers on particular shares within the industry. This results in a situation where buying interests of stock in the same industry increase because of their vulnerability (Li, 2009).

The increased buying interests are also driven by speculative funds derived from industries that have experienced profitability such as the Australian insurance sector which has continued to experience high profitability despite the fluctuations in the share market. In such a scenario, investments are being rotated between from the insurance industry to the retail, mining or hospitality industry. When the stock prices from either of these industries overshoot, investment money will be rotated into another industry (Li, 2009).

Sector rotation has a negative impact on small stocks because they have thin trading volumes. Sector rotation into or out of these stocks becomes more pronounced causing large price fluctuations that make it easier to detect. The rotation between large and small cap stocks also has a diverse effect on the stock market.

Large cap stocks are usually associated with companies that have experienced and continue to experience diversification while small cap stocks represent small businesses that are viewed as pure plays in the financial market. Large cap stocks are seen to be safer investment options while small cap stocks present a lot of risk to the investor despite the fact they yield higher returns on the investment (Li, 2009).

Money Market The Australian money market rates have been extremely volatile in the past twelve months. The money market rates keep changing on a daily basis and the market has been unable to maintain a constant rate. The fluctuations in money rates have affected businesses such as banks, credit unions and building societies because these companies rely on the rates from the money market to determine the deposit rates that will be used in the retail industry.

The rates as from January to June 2010 were 4.20% in January, 4.16% in February, 4.33% in March, 4.55% in April, 4.80 in May and 4.89% in June (ASX, 2010). The management of liquid assets by Australian Corporations, the government and financial institutions is carried out by informally arranged markets for deposits, loans and short term debt securities. Money market securities have a maturity period of 90 or 180 days.

Banks and financial institutions are involved in the trading of bank bills and discount securities worth billions of dollars everyday in the Australian money market. The country’s money market is a typical liquid market that allows investors and traders to borrow and invest large amounts of money (RBA, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Australian Financial Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The money market however faced some negative effects in 2007 as a result of deteriorating credit quality which placed a greater value on retaining liquid assets. The increase of interest rates due to the economic recession also affected the money market in a positive and negative way.

The interest rates within these markets fluctuate according to the expectations of the cash rate or overnight indexed swap rates (OIS). The interest rates are however higher than the cash rates. The expectations are a small steady premium that is used to reflect the risk incurred by the borrower and the ease of selling or borrowing securities (RBA, 2009).

The global fluctuations between the money rates and the overnight indexed swap rates rose in 2007 after a French bank suspended the redemption of two of its funds as a result of experiencing difficulty in the valuation of assets. From that time, the money spread of the Australian dollar has exhibited high degrees of movement across different foreign currencies such as the US dollar and the Euro.

Bond Market A bond market is also referred to as a debt, fixed income or credit market, The Australian bond market allows trades to buy and sell bond securities in the form of government bonds, corporate or asset backed bonds. Government bonds are the safest and most lucrative investment option for any investor willing to trade in the bond market.

The risk attached to investing in government bonds is very minimal when compared to that of stocks. The valuation of bonds in directly affected by the fluctuations in interest rates. When interest rates go up, the value of bonds goes down and when the interest rates go down, the buying price of the bond market goes up. However, the government’s ability to regulate the increase in interest rates protects the bond market from crashing (Edirisuriya, 2010)

Recent data on the Australian bond market shows that the debt market has faced a positive impact with the succession of bond offers that illustrate the recovery of the bond market. This has been as a result of investors looking for ways to finance their investments from the steady streams of debt by the local banks to borrowing from public debt markets. The resurgence of the bond market has also been initiated by the lower cost of converting investments borrowed in Australian dollars to home currencies.

The issuance of public debts in 2009 amounted to $101 billion. This figure excluded asset backed securities and $3.6 billion of the amount was from companies that were not banks and financial institutions (Curran, 2010). The Australian bond market rates were at their highest during the month of April with a rate of 5.79% and the market experienced low rates during February and March with a percentage of 5.48% and 5.33 respectively (ASX, 2010).

Foreign Exchange Market

The official currency used by the common wealth states of Australia is the Australian dollar (AUD) which was introduced in 1966. The AUD is ranked fifth globally as the most highly traded foreign exchange currency after the US dollar, the Euro, the Japanese Yen and the British Pound. The exchange rates are regulated by the Reserve Bank of Australia (Edirisuriya, 2010).

Recent market information has shown the foreign exchange market experiencing an upward and downward pattern of fluctuations in exchange rates when compared to the US dollar. The market experienced high interest rates during March and April with recorded rates of 0.91% and 0.93% respectively. The exchange rates were at a low in the following months of May and April with the exchange rate recorded being 0.84% for May and 0.85% in June (ASX, 2010).

The global financial recession had an impact on the AUD exchange rate because it created the adverse effect of low demands for export goods. Emerging market and industrial currencies also had an impact on the AUD because of their appreciation against the currency that was deemed to be low yielding. The AUD faced high volatility in the global market in 2006 that saw a depreciation in the currency. The result of the depreciation cost investors eight months of interest rate premiums (RBA, 2010).

References Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) (2010) Stock market information and stock quotes. Web.

Case, T. (2010) Making money as rates rise. Web.

Curran, E. (2010) Australian corporate bond market stirs to life with offers. Dow Jones Newswires. Web.

Edirisuriya, P.


Globalization Theory in Political Economy Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Technology, public policy and the nation-state:





Transnationalization or globalization of financial markets raises key issues in the analization of politics, public policy and the national state of any given country as it constraints the policy makers. Thus, a number of theories have been conceptionalized to explain globalization; technology, globalism, regionalism, and imperialism among others.

Technology, public policy and the nation-state: The technological theory views the global economy in the production, trade and finance sectors. Technology has impacted the global economy greatly: It has also led to domination of the world by corporations and the decline in the ability of states to regulate them and protect its citizens wherein the end results has been increased inequality and economic insecurity as a result capitalism in the global financial markets.

This has affected most countries in that instead of trade being nationalized it has been globalised as most developing countries have been forced to encourage foreign investors as to keep in line with changing global market and business. Their effect on public policy is that the state instead of sticking on to the policies formulated by the government to regulate economy, it is forced to adopt foreign policies which are meant to harmonize global economy.

The national economic policies become weakened and are thereby dominated by international ones. Regulation of all the market policies is hampered with as technology happens to take control in areas of financial markets where a standardized exchange rate is to be adopted by all the countries disenabling the nation-state to come up with their own exchange rate tariffs.

Technology has enhanced transmission of information within a short period of time at low costs and decline in tariffs on manufactured goods. Thus the trading countries, both the low income and high income earners, have to reduce their taxes on all their exports as long as they are members and this is controlled by a worldwide system which is advanced, thus no state can come up with its own tariffs.

According to technological theory, for governments to be able to keep in line with this, they ought to maximize flow of technology which is the basis of global economy in their countries through liberalized measures on trade and investment.

Since globalization is as a result of technological change there is need to develop new forms of governance and policies that would lead to the realization of this goal. This can be achieved by lowering taxes on profits as a way of encouraging firms to operate in a single jurisdiction rather than another, security of property rights, having stabilized monetary order together with a disciplined and ready to work low taxed supply of experienced workers with well structured labor relations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology is shaping and improving the world economy at the same time stimulating the growth of global trade since it is the only simpler way of coordinating all the market functions and operations without having to visit all of them. Nation-state policies regulations have to be limited and operate on ones that are meant to be equal to all market operators.

Globalism: Gobalism as an ideology supports economists and argues that the nation-states are still powerful, in that majority of the production and investment remains at national level and that markets and firms should spearhead the organization of capitalist economies as the states concentrates on its domestic economic developments.

This is policy places the interests of the entire world above those of individual states. It argues that the sole purpose of having a globalised economy is to ensure that market restrictions are to minimized and open trade be encouraged. It places a great interest towards the achievement of this goal as it encourages all the countries to work towards having a globalised economic market where there are no restrictions on the movement of goods across boarders or trading blocs.

In addition, the theory argues that as much as there is need for a globalized production, majority of the production is still carried out by national producers within their own territories. There is the rise of international global firms that produces and sells in the global market whereby they exhibit both the demand and supply sides globally.

However, this argument only remains true to the already developed states as foreign investment is limited compared to the developing ones where most of what is produced is exported to other countries so the state earns little gains.

The reason here is that industrialized countries have stable economies meaning their production at home is high at the same time they seek for investment in other countries that are still developing and the produces taken for market to their countries instead of helping the developing states upgrade their economic output. It has led to emergency of developed imperial capitalist countries that enjoy the benefits of global economy.

According to globalism, most of the global markets are dominated by these capitalists who happen to be the major producers; furthermore they formulate policies which undermine underdeveloped countries on the other hand protecting their interests globally.

We will write a custom Essay on Globalization Theory in Political Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a way of stressing on more partnership in the globalization of economy, they claim the state plays a passive role in decision making on the global market, most of the policy making being those that boost domestic market. The truth is powerful states have opened up markets which are implemented by the international institutions they control for their own benefits, and they have set market regulatory rules which the other states have to adhered to failure to which they are sanctioned.

Regionalism: According to this theory, “economic integration happens when a number of states within a region integrate to make up an economic union by raising a common tariff barrier against the products of member states while making it free trade between members.

The economic importance of this is to form free trade zones by creating common markets and coordinating economic strategies and furthermore, implementing policies to create bigger economic zones with an objective aim of enhancing interregional trade” (Welfens 1999, 23). This theory has had enormous effect on the economic environment of nation-states who are members in a sense that it has put in place “regulatory measures on corporate laws, competition policies and policies involving labor” (Gerny 2009, 80).

The theory stresses on the use of the indigenous factors of production so as to stimulate economic development to the devoid of the exploitation by the capitalist states. Regionalism best captures the complexities and contradictions of globalization, in that it restricts sovereignty of member states thus making it easier for the integration of the states into a global economic system.

It has also led to the “increased specialization and realization of economies of scale through pooling of resources and markets, access to a wider range of markets together with increased competition on goods and services in the global markets” (Bascom 2009, 87).

Regionalism happens to be even more valuable to the world economy as it enables those states that cannot be able to cope with world market policies operate on an integrated regionalized type where formulated policies happen to favors all the members within that region. At the same time for it to thrive it will call for full participation of the members by following stipulated strategies that are meant to boost it as it will be the basis for globalization (Berberoglu 2003, 65; Usher 2003, 106).

The importance of globalization is to benefit all members so the issue of having dominant members controlling the market should be discouraged and also the issue of placing sanctions on those that do not meet the required regulations be extinct as the economic and political development systems are not similar in all states. There should be an export oriented development strategies as well as increased integration of countries into a global production networks and this can be achieved through trade openness.

Imperialism: According to the imperialism theory, some nations take control of the economic market at the expense of others due to their developed economies. These nations act as the main policy formulators which are to be followed by all the members since most of world markets are found within their territories (Caporaso


Strategic Issues Facing the Firm Essay argumentative essay help

Peterson Fan is majorly dealing with an employee attitude problem. Employee attitude problems have a very negative impact on an organization and especially on the bottom line performance. Most often, employee attitude is attributed to poor work conditions, employee inadequacy and a lack of employee appreciation programs.

In this regard, employees at Peterson Fan are not coordinated and often show up to work late. These are clear signs of an attitude problem among employees. This is the main problem Peterson Fan faces and drastic measures need to be taken to ensure the organization doesn’t further slow down in performance and experience low profits.

Firm’s Strategic Options The first option management has is to get commitment from the employees through a consultative approach. Management therefore has the duty to explain its concerns to the employees so they may understand why it needs to change the status quo. The ideal situation in this kind of strategy would be that employees are supposed to exert some form of self-control and improve performance in the long run. This approach is better than blindly carrying out an order which the employees wouldn’t understand why its been employed.

However, this strategy requires mature employees in order for it to work. In a more ideal situation, the employees should see themselves as part of the managerial hierarchy and also be positively motivated for the strategy to work. Though all these factors are not present at Peterson’s Fan, management should use this strategy because it is better than the autocratic approach of giving orders to fire all poorly behaving employees.

The implication of this approach is improved employee performance in the long run. This approach is supported by social studies done by Douglas McGregor which emphasize that controls or punishment are not viable methods of solving employee problems.

The second approach the management could have undertaken was motivating employees into good work performance. Motivation should however be done through many structures such as improving the work environment, increasing the pay among other methods.

Management can also review its company policies to ensure they are flexible enough for the employees to feel motivated enough to work. They also need to equally review supervisory practices and hygienic conditions in addition to improving employee appreciation programs and increasing their willingness to promote them. In this manner, employees will feel there is room for growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The implications of this strategy may involve an internal restructuring of the company; especially if management is willing to consider employees as part of its management hierarchical structure. The strategy may also force the company to introduce new programs aimed at improving the motivational level of employees.

Additionally, this may involve a change in leadership styles and management attitude. This strategy is also supported by the two factor theory that identifies hygiene and the need to motivate employees as some of the most important elements in improving employee attitudes.

Company’s Strategy The company’s management took an authoritarian strategy of firing all poorly behaved employees without any consultations at an employee level. Theory X developed by Douglas McGregor explains this approach but it has been proved counterproductive in most modern practices. This theory is normally based on a fallacy that employees will avoid work at all costs because of their laziness and that typically, employees dislike work. The assumptions to this theory are largely false.

Instead, management should have discussed the poor employee performance with the employees before taking any drastic measure. The confrontational approach the company took was uncalled for because they should have first probed why the employees were behaving the way they were, so as to improve their level of satisfaction in the long run. In this manner, management would have known the root of the problem.

Management should therefore have made it clear to the employees what actions were wrong and which ones were acceptable. The consequences of a continuation of unacceptable behaviors should also have been openly communicated to the employees. In other words, even if management had decided to consider firing poorly performing employees, the least they could have done was to warn the employees and notify them of the consequences of a continuity of their behavior.

Management should also have been straightforward with the employees and refrained from exhibiting any threatening signs. However, before coming up with such solutions and consequences, they should have been willing to discuss their decision with all employees. This strategy is still supported by Theory Y, developed by Douglas McGregor.

Conclusion The management of Peterson fan took a wrong approach. They should have adopted a consultative approach to dealing with disgruntled employees. This strategy has been proved to have better chances of success than the authoritative approach it took.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Issues Facing the Firm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management’s approach is therefore not expected to yield much result in the long run because the strategy they adopted is based on false presumptions that employees are lazy and dislike work. They should have therefore discussed the problem with the employees and come up with an amicable solution.


Criminology: Screen Violence vs. Real Violence Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Popularizing of criminal culture and its implications

Interests served


List of References

Introduction Ferrell illuminates that the media or screen aggression is unswervingly related to real violence. This relationship has extensively affected the current generation, who admire 80% of the movie and print content they are inclined to. There has been incidence of aggression and criminal acts as a result of media or screen content. It is noteworthy that some of these events have not been solved to date.

Popularizing of criminal culture and its implications Ferrell illuminates a variety of concepts pertaining to the popularization of criminal culture as illustrated by the following tenets. First, he highlights the concept of criminal subcultures and their influence on the entire society. They act as magnets consequently attracting persons who had not initially foreseen the circumstances or attractions.

It is noteworthy that criminal subcultures are forged after attitudes and beliefs are shaped by the societal systems (Ferrell, 1998, pp 71). Consider the following example as it pertains to cyber crimes since it brings together people endowed with certain skills and tendencies that ultimately culminate in execution of criminal tendencies.

Media representations of crime are also illuminated by Ferrell since it culminates in the infusion of such tendencies in the society (Ferrell, 1998, pp 71). Ferrell highlights that the media is solely responsible for the formation of definite subcultures that propagate crime in the society. Consider the following example; there are crimes that have occurred as a result of media or screen aggression.

For example, the movie” Natural Born Killers” produced in 1995 and “directed by Oliver Stone”, resulted in two teenagers committing murder. It resulted to the murder of “William savage a Mississippi cotton gin manager and shooting of Byers Ann Patsy in Louisiana who was left paralyzed from the neck down” (Boyle, 2005, pp, 29). Two teenagers admitted to these crimes, Sarah Edmondson and her boyfriend. They testified to have gotten motivation from the movie “natural born killers that was under the steward of Oliver Stone.

This means that the implications of media representation of crime are seen in the increased focus on societal processes. Ferrell also illuminates concepts pertaining to criminalized characteristics of music as illustrated by its cult like following that aims at spreading its ideologies especially to people who are unaware. The implications are evident in change of lifestyles especially among the unsuspecting youth and other young persons.

Interests served According to Ferrell, the interests served range from the producers or rather persons initiating the process “popularization of criminal culture” (Ferrell, 1998, pp 72). It is noteworthy that market leaders in the TV and music industry together with the movie industry focus on coming up with definite cultures that will not only propagate sales but also develop a following.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Entities that have failed in regulations also have vested interests in the popularization process, which have to be addressed in the long run. It is noteworthy that Ferrell insinuates that popularization of such a culture involves persons with diverse interests.

Conclusion Controversies surrounding productions such as music culminate in higher sales. On the contrary, consumers suffer the consequences. It is the victims of these violence and crimes that suffer the most. The best method to curb such productions, which might pollute the minds of consumers, is to administer regulation to such products. These products include computer games, video and Internet.

List of References Boyle, K. 2005, Media and violence: gendering the debates. California. SAGE Publication Inc, pp, 29-35.

Ferrell, J. 1998, ‘Criminalizing Popular Culture’, in F. Bailey


Economic Tourism in Australia Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Employment:


Exchange Currency:

Disposable Income:

Interest Rates:

Global Economic:

Reference List

Employment: Australia is experiencing an influx of tourism from other nations, which is boosting its economy year after year though at a lower. As a result employment opportunities have been created for the locals in the hotels, on beaches and as tour guides. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009), the period between 1997 and 98, tourism was at its highest peak whereby it created the highest number of job opportunities totaling to 551,000 and earned the country high levels of revenue.

However, it has just decreased recently between the financial years 2009-2010 due to the volcanic eruptions that adversely affected parts of Europe. The inbound tourism travel is estimated to grow at an average rate of 1.9% per year compared to the 4.0% outbound what translates to more tourists preferring to visit other nations although creation of employment is experienced but it is at a lower rate what means most people are left unemployed (World Travel and Tourism Council 2010).

This is a result of lack of some of the unique tourist attraction sites readily available in the country that leads even to the locals to travel abroad to enjoy leisure whereby it has been noted that the number of locals traveling outweigh that of foreign tourists visiting their country and this impacts negatively the local economy (Coalter 2001, Dwyer, Forsyth and Spurr, 2007).

Inflation: With the decreased travels it directly reflects that the income is hampered with, and this was experienced by the depreciation of the dollar by US$0.86 by the year 2010 (Kulendran and Dwyer 2009). In a bid to regain the lost revenues, the air travel agencies in line with the government sought ways of increasing aircraft passenger seats in order to double the number of visitors flying in the country thus impacting positively on the economy.

Also it lowered air flight fares to attract more people as much as little will be gained on the part of traveling more will be earned on tourist consumption and therefore curb the deficit incurred. The government will gain more revenue and in so doing stabilize its economy. (Dwyer


Death Penalty Debate Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Similarities between the two articles

Differences of the two essays


Works Cited

Introduction Death penalty has been a serious debate issue both in the United States of America and other parts of the world. There have been those who champion for the abolition of death penalty and there have also been those who want the death penalty to be maintained citing that some criminals cannot be tolerated within the society.

So many nations in the world have been reported to have abandoned the death penalty yet others have continued to use it. It is crucial to mention that death penalty has been used constitutionally by some states to punish political dissidents hence raising the main objectives of the capital punishment in terms of containing felony and other forms of criminal activities all over the world.

Similarities between the two articles The first similarity that is very conspicuous between the two articles is that they both address the issue of death penalty both within the United States of America and other parts of the world. The two articles are cognizant of the fact there are some states within the United States of America that have actually abolished death penalty as a capital punishment; however, they also recognize that of these states have not abolished the corporal punishment and still apply it in punishing specific class of criminals (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Again, the two articles examine the different modes of meting death penalty in the United States and other parts of the world. Amongst the mode of meting death penalty discussed by the articles are electrocutions through electric chair, lethal injection, gas chambers and firing by hidden prison warders. It is important to note that these articles distinguish these death penalty modes into both historic and current; they also cite technological advancements utilized in the process (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

It is also important to mention that the two articles are cognizant of the fact that the execution of those sentenced to state execution have slowed down over the past several years. They both explain that it has been highly possible that innocent people have mistakenly been executed only to be realized letter that they were innocent people.

The slow down has been informed by the fact that there is need for thorough investigations to be conducted before carrying out executions. In the case of the United States of America, the slow down in the execution has been explained by the decision of the Supreme Court to stop the execution until repeals are conclusive on a particular case for which an inmate has been sentenced to death.

Both articles have also addressed the fact that some governments have considered abolishing the death penalty (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2). For instance, one article states that a good number of states are considering putting a stop to death as a capital penalty within their jurisdictions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, another article reveals that the governor of the state of Illinois, George Ryan made of declaration of a suspension on death penalty and further appointed a commission and charged it with the responsibility of studying the system of capital punishment in the state (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Differences of the two essays As much as the two essays have addressed similar themes, there are some differences that can be pointed out. Whereas one essay has addressed the issue of death penalty in general, another is specific din pointing out the specific cases of executions that have taken place in the past.

The essay on the American death penalty history reveals about the studies that have been done on how technological advancement has changed the way death penalty is carried out; for instance, it gives an insight into how death penalty has moved from trap-door gallows to what is known as the “Upright jerker” to electric chair then to gas chambers and finally to lethal injections. The other article has not addressed this issue.

However, it is again important to note that the essay on history of The American death penalty has not addressed some issues that are addressed by the essay on the sow death. The essay slow death gives an insight about pressure to abandon death penalty; for instance, the articles states that in Colorado, one-vote margin was used to put down an uprising meant to go against the death penalty. This has not been hinted by the essay of the history of the American death penalty (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Again, the article on slow death has given statistics regarding death sentencing while the other article has not discussed any form of statistics. In this case, the essay on slow death has systematically given various statistics touching on different issues of capital punishment. For instance, it reveals that in 2009, the state and the federal courts sentenced 37 inmates to execution which it recognizes as the lowest number since the year 1994.

In 2010, it further states that the number of those sentenced to death reduced to thirty. This makes the essay relevant in predicting that soon death penalty may be a thing of the past; this prediction is not possible with the essay about the history of the American death penalty since it is just a general discussion about death penalty in the United States of America (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

The essay on the slow death has revealed the fact that despite the commitment of various states to put an end to death penalty, there are some states that still strongly mete death penalty.

We will write a custom Essay on Death Penalty Debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the states is Texas which is described as amongst the world’s busiest executioners handling almost the largest executions in the world. This is stated that will make the United States of America in general unique with respect to abolition of death penalty worldwide. All these issues are not addressed by the other essay on the history of death sentencing in America (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

The essay on slow death has also discussed about the cost of death sentencing to the state and concerned individuals. The cost is examined in terms of moral cost and the financial cost. For instance, the essay indicates that anti-death penalty individuals have argued that the financial cost involved in death penalty issues could be utilized in taking care of unresolved murder issues that still pending within the justice system.

In terms of moral cost, the essay on slow death posits that the death punishment has been disputed on the ground of it subverting what Pop John referred to as a “Culture of life.” However, the essay reveals that all these cannot be sufficient grounds on which death penalty should be abandoned. All these issues are also not addressed in the other essay that has dealt with the history of death penalty (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Conclusion Death penalty has been debated by so many people amongst who are those who fight for its abolition and those who favor it its retention within the statutes. The two articles have addressed the issue of death penalty. In the process they have some similarities and differences.

Amongst the similar issues addressed by the two articles is the fight by anti-death penalty crusaders for states to abolish death penalty as a corporal punishment and the fact that some states are planning to abolish death penalty and struck it out of their statutory books. However, states like Texas has been described to still strongly cling to death penalty as a way of capital punishment and is not likely to let go any time soon (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Two essays have also discussed certain issues differently. The article on slow death has given statistics regarding death sentencing while the other article has not discussed any form of statistics.

In this case, the essay on slow death has systematically given various statistics touching on different issues of capital punishment. For example, it indicates that in 2009, the state and the federal courts sentenced 37 inmates to execution which it recognizes as the lowest number since the year 1994. This kind of statistics has not been given the other essay (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Nonetheless, the debate about death penalty is knot likely to end soon as long as there are still those who support its statutory relevance and those who view it as an outdated form of punishment and cruelty to humanity, especially with regards to how it is carried out. Even though some states in the United States of America and countries in other parts of the world have started to abolish the penalty other states are actually reinstating it in their constitution (Bole pp.1-3 and Hartnett pp. 1-2).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Death Penalty Debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Bole, William. “A slow Death.” Common Wealth. New York: Common Wealth Foundation, 2009.

Hartnett. Stephen. “The Death Penalty: An American History.” The Journal of American History: New York: Bloomington, 2003.


Strategic Planning Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Strategic planning is a process of making certain choices within an organization. It can be defined as a designed process that is meant to support organizational leaders both locally and internationally in terms of operations methods, goals and objectives. Alternatively, strategic planning can be defined as a management tool used for the purpose of enabling an organization to work effectively and efficiently towards achieving its goals and objectives.

The process of managing the operations of a business is referred to as strategic because it entails how best a business organization respond to the circumstances arising from a dynamic and in other cases hostile business environment.

Meanwhile, Small business is a kind of business entity that is owned privately by an individual or a group of partners and that which operates with a small number of labor forces. Small business may include privately owned partnerships, sole proprietorships and corporations. Nonetheless, it is important to note that the legal definition of a small business varies greatly according various nations of the world; this also depends on the type of industry in which a business entity may be categorized into.

This research paper will examine strategic planning; with regards to this, the essay will examine the strategic planning, practices, importance of strategic planning and the pitfalls of strategic planning amongst small businesses and finally provides a conclusion about strategic planning in small businesses.

Strategic planning amongst businesses It has always been falsely thought strategic planning is only for big and multinational corporations. It is important to note that strategic planning is crucial for every organization, both for profit and non-profit organizations. In this case, strategic planning is very crucial for small business organizations.

Small business organizations require to be more committed to strategic thinking and actions more than the large scale established business entities. In the process of conducting strategic planning, small organizations are preparing to meet future business challenges as they remain focused in meeting their strategic goals and objectives.

Strategic planning prepares small businesses to deal with the future in five steps. The first one is that the firm foresees both potential opportunities and threats in order to meet its vision and mission. The second step is that the small businesses make decisions on how best they can respond to potential business opportunities and threats that they will encounter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third step is for the small businesses to single out the likely sources from which the opportunities and threats will originate from. The fourth step entails examining the viability of an opportunity and the likelihood of the risk occurrence. The last step calls for measures in potential threats alleviation or seizing available opportunities (Center for Management and Organization Effectiveness, 2010).

While performing strategic planning, it is important to review the small businesses’ past performance, the current and the projected or expected future performance. Knowing where the businesses have come from, where they are now and where they expect to go is very important during strategic planning process (Neely, 2002).

An example of a small business entity is Ann Taylor, an American business for a group of women specializing in apparel retail chain stores. The business makes use of its expert personnel resources in formulating strategic planning. In the process, the business anticipates issues, identify latent problems and establishing strategies to address the problems and take advantage of arising opportunities.

The importance of strategic planning to small businesses One of the most important functions of strategic planning is that it assists a small business organization to set the direction of its future. In this case, strategic planning is like a map clearly outlining how a business destination is to be reached (Marien, 1990).

The strategic planning process helps small business organizations to identify their available resources and hence plan on how to appropriately and effectively utilize the resources for maximum benefit of the small businesses. Besides, it provides a framework within which a small business organization can operate so as to realize both of its short-term and long-term objectives.

For instance, compared to those that do not plan, small businesses that engage in strategic planning have been found to register higher sales growth and financial performance; this implies that strategic planning is necessary for accelerated business growth (Hodgetts, 1992).

Strategic planning is also away of communicating information about the small businesses. Through strategic planning, small business entities get to inform its employees and other significant stakeholders on the position of the business and where the business anticipates going in terms of growth.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also communicates the input employees have contributed and hence enable them to understand the role they play in the organization. Moreover, strategic planning also helps the small businesses to set clear strategies on how to tackle the future possible challenges and take advantage of the potential opportunities that are likely to arise. The success of these strategies requires the commitment of all stakeholders who must be provided with necessary and sufficient resources (Hodgetts, 1992).

Strategic planning in relation to improved business performance in small business organization The link between strategic planning and performance of small business organizations has been a theme of rising interests in relation to strategic management. It is important to note that strategic planning is a process that provides a long-range strategic schedule which includes a statement about a business objectives and mission statement.

Besides, strategic pan also entails strategies showing how the business objectives will be achieved. It also provides the yard stick by which all the business performance can be monitored and checked or controlled (Watson, 2007).

Going by the above points, it is therefore important to mention that strategic planning is crucial for organizational performance. Several research studies have indicated that there is strong relationship between strategic planning and the performance of a given small business organization; in fact, more research findings have shown that small business organizations that engage in strategic planning perform more than those that do not do strategic planning. For this reason, the value of strategic planning cannot be wished a way.

The process of doing formal planning forces individuals involved to bring out ideas that are essential in propelling the organization towards its goals and objectives (Watson, 2007).

The importance of strategic planning in improving the performance of small businesses is reinforced by recent research findings that indicate that the more complex the strategic plan the higher the performance of a small business organization; it is noteworthy to mention that these findings are not only applicable to small businesses, but also to any business entity or organization that is involved in strategic planning (Watson, 2007).

However, it is of significance to mention that formulating and putting into place strategic planning process is one thing of its own and implementing it is another. Failure to implement strategic plan may make strategic planning process unproductive.

It is also crucial to mention that the success of strategic planning in improving business performance is greatly dependent on the available resources and whether the stakeholders, especially the employees, understand fully the content of the business strategic plan. Otherwise, the process of strategic planning does not guarantee improved business performance as its positive impact still depends of steps taken by the business organizations in implementing the strategic plan.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Planning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The problems of strategic planning As much as strategic planning has a lot of benefits to business organizations, it is a process that has its own negative side. One of the problems associated with strategic planning is that it is costly, especially with small businesses. The process may require the hiring of strategic planning consultants who may need to be paid large amount of money.

The big problem with strategic planning is that the planning process may not be completed; strategic planning is more detailed and in most cases requires a level of commitment that may prove to fatigue planners (Kerzner


Alain Limited’ Management and Strategy Essay essay help

Table of Contents Company Overview

Information Management use in Alain Limited

Knowledge Management Strategy

Managing Risk

Systems Development

Change Management


Reference List

Company Overview Alain limited is one of the largest retailers in the world specializing in the sale of home appliances. It has been in operation for the last forty years and its products are distributed in major continents including Asia and Africa serving more than four hundred thousand consumers.

Alain marketing strategy is aimed at putting buyers and sellers in touch with each others. Alain Limited is a complex organization, vibrant and goal oriented and therefore there is need to understand its structures, and strategies that make it different from other organizations.

It is among the largest retailers in United Kingdom which handles operations through super centers, and discount stores. It operates in major countries such as China, Canada, Brazil, Japan, and Africa. It has been using information management systems (MIS) to save time on production thereby fostering growth. It also uses in performance evaluation, resource management among others. It has skilled IT experts who are responsible for introducing new strategies and implementing the same.

One of the structures used at Alain Limited is decentralized structure which is believed to improve performance. This paper will give an overview of the use of information management/system within the company, knowledge management strategy, risk management, systems development, and change management.

Information Management use in Alain Limited A management information system (MIS) is a structure or process that provides the information required to manage a firm in the most effective way. MIS and the its generated information are essential components in running a business. New information and communications technologies are being applied successfully in the context of business development allowing for the provision or collection of critical data and imagery and also for the strengthening of communications in hard-to-reach areas.

Access to email and text available on the web over any phone line are some of the information systems used at Alain. It has new software that includes lightweight email and web via-email programs, coupled with dedicated email accounts for Alain workers and tools for the management of personal affairs and lateral communication across the developing world (Higuera


The Relationship between Suggestibility and Self-monitoring Report writing essay help

Abstract This report presents the survey aimed at examining the link between self-monitoring as measured by the Self-monitoring Scale and suggestibility, which is measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS). In this study, it is hypothesized that there is a significant difference in the suggestibility scores between the low and high self-monitoring groups.

The study involved 51 participants aged 17-48 years old. The results obtained in this study suggested that there is a significant difference in the suggestibility scores between low and high self-monitors. Furthermore, these findings support previous studies on the same topic.

The studies suggest that high self-monitors are more sensitive to interrogative challenges or suggestibility when compared to low self-monitors. Thus, they are bound to have high suggestibility scores on the GSS than the later. Therefore, there is a statistically significant difference in the suggestibility scores between the two groups.

Introduction Previous research studies on suggestibility are concerned with investing the factors influencing this psychological concept relative to the results of the two forms of GSS, that is, GSS 1 and 2. Self-monitoring has been identified as the major factor influencing suggestibility in the context of a variety of interviews or interrogations particularly in clinical and forensic interrogative practices (Klein et al., 2004).

Very few such studies have been conducted on university students in order to explore any significant differences in suggestibility among the two levels of self-monitoring.

However, a variety of studies indicate that there is a strong relationship between suggestibility and self-monitoring such that the later influences the various degrees of suggestibility. According to Bain et al. (2006), high self-monitors score highly in almost all the four categories of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 1 (GSS 1) relative to low self-monitors. Therefore, self-monitoring entails the practice of paying attention to various personal, situational, and social factors during an interrogative exercise that requires strict memory recall.

The personal and social prompts include various beliefs and values held by various individuals relative to the society’s concern for the correctness of an individual’s actions. On the other hand, suggestibility refers to the degree to which, an individual in an isolated social context, accepts and comprehends the content of a query, which prompts the subsequent behavioral changes and responses categorized as suggestible or resistant. Therefore, suggestibility is dependent on self-monitoring in many aspects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gudjonsson


Definition of Cognitive Psychology Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The comprehension of how the human brain functions has been a puzzle for many people. Most people begin to think critically about the operation of the mind only after it has failed. For example, when one is not able to get something they had in their hands just a few minutes ago (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.5).

That is when they scratch and beat their heads in a bid to wake it up. For many years researchers have worked tirelessly hard to get detailed information on the working of the human mind. About 200 years ago, the researchers identified theories that could explain the operations of the brain through cognitive psychology.

Definition of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is one of the major doctrines of psychology. It therefore examines the behavior of the internal procedures of the brain. These processes include solving problems, decision making, comprehending languages, memorizing ideas and the other functional duties of the brain.

In actual sense, cognitive psychology focuses on how the brain perceives information, transmission and processing of the input to give the output. Cognitive psychologists usually make two assumptions, the first one being that it is possible to understand and describe the components of the human mental processes.

The other one is that the mental processes of a human mind can be reported using models that are installed with specific rules and formulas. Related to cognitive psychology is cognitive science which gives a detailed look at the mechanisms of cognition (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.9). Cognitive science is however divided into different sub-groups such as neuroscience, psychology, philosophy and physiology.

Key milestones in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline Developing cognitive psychology as a discipline was not an easy task as there were many hindrances during the stages of development. Most of these milestones greatly affected the progress of the initiative to create and develop philosophy of the mind. One of these factors was the emergence of the Christian church.

When the church arose, people turned to it and trusted everything that they got from it. The church however, was so much into the soul other than the studious material from scholars. This negatively influenced the developmental process of cognitive psychology as it was not related to theology (Eysenk, 2000, p.32). More to this was the fact that during that time people could not make intellectual decisions, they instead followed different channels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another hindering factor was the problem of making assumptions. The Greek philosophers had come up with three assumptions. They said that any explanations were to be of the world as it was easy to understand and predict the world. They further said that the human beings were not special.

This meant that it was easy to predict and explain the human body just like the other living and non-living creatures. This cannot be the case as without research, the mystic about the human body could not have been uncovered. The people believed in a kind of brain that could be predicted such that specific rules are applied in specific situations

The idea of applying scientific research methods during the development of cognitive psychology also affected its progress. The people could not understand how the behavior of human beings could be studied scientifically. They in fact made fun of the people who were conducting the research hence derailing the process of developing cognitive psychology.

Lastly, the objection from other great philosophers hindered development of cognitive psychology (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.23). A good example is philosopher Immanuel Kant who argued that the process of the brain or mind could not be measured as they do not occupy any place other than time. He was able to convince a great number of people who therefore failed to support the process of developing cognitive psychology.

Importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology The cognitive theory has been found to be a blend of the human and behavioral theories. The behavioral theory is the most defined and structuredwhile the human theory is the least structured (Eysenk, 2000, p.45). Behavioral data can therefore be used to test cognitive theories and from there make absolute conclusions. This entails getting the concepts that are not observable and manipulating them to behavior which is easy to observe.

Behavior is thus important in cognitive psychology as it makes it easier to understand. Past research shows that the origin of cognitive psychology is in the behavior of a human being. The behavioral psychologists claim that cognitive psychology is not scientific because it is more of a theory other than being obtained from experimental data. It is also difficult to prove the theories behind cognitive psychology hence the inclusion of behavioral theory as a supportive mechanism.

Behavioral observation is further classified into different divisions. Among them we have the naturalistic observation. Naturalistic observation involves keeping an eye on people as they run their normal daily errands as you not down the behavior that matters to you. A good example is watching people in a social gathering; from such a place one is able to observe the activities and draw conclusions related to human cognition hence the importance of behavior in cognitive psychology.

We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Cognitive Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Braisby, N and Gellaty, A. (2001). Foundations of Cognitive Psychology, Web.

Eysenk, M. (2000). Cognitive Psychology. Keane Psychology Press.


Alexander the Great Essay cheap essay help

Introduction History shows that Alexander the great was the greatest commander of his time. The evidence of his greatness is revealed by the massive conquests he made. Alexander succeeded in conquering many kingdoms, thereby presiding over the greatest empire in recorded history.

It is reported that he succumbed to a fever while planning another conquest on the expansive Babylonian kingdom. He took over leadership of Macedonia after the demise of his father and initially focused on stabilizing his reign before rolling out expansion schemes. He was an astute student of Aristotle, the great philosopher. His talents were discovered early in his lifetime, prompting his father to seek specialized education for him. Some of his most notable conquests are discussed below (Duiker


How do service organizations achieve alignment? Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strategic Alignment

How Alignment Can Be Achieved

Culture and Strategic Alignment

Alignment and Competitive Advantage


Reference List

Introduction In the fast-paced, ever-changing world, organizations are continually seeking ways to gain and maintain competitive advantage. Though there’s no single thing that makes an organization successful, no secret element, some concepts do universally apply.

One fundamental is to create a foundation for success by ensuring alignment in organization dynamic relative to strategy, design, actions, culture and results. This paper will give an analysis of how a service organization can achieve alignment in its actions and results as way of ensuring a competitive advantage in the market.

Strategic Alignment The key to uplifting organizational performance is to achieve a strategic alignment. This is one of the intrinsic aspects in the realization of an organization’s objectives and mission. A strategic alignment does not only provide lucidity of direction; it also provides an exclusive market position that enables a company to achieve its goals and missions.

It ensures harmony among the key activities within a company that is culture, strategy, design and processes (Bird, 2010). These activities are responsible for effective production. It is good to note that, a strategic alignment is not a static process but one that varies with time. Therefore, it requires regular assessments of the targets and results to measure the gap that exist between the two so as to look for ways of accounting for the same.

The potential for the overall success of an organization in creating alignment is directly related to the passion of the leader and leadership of the organization. Leaders give life to the vision for the organization, allowing it to inform direction and decision making throughout.

Vision can not be delegated; it must initiate and flow from the top leader to leadership in order to inspire others in the organization. Organizations with engaged, involved leadership are those for which the sense of alignment is obvious, in the quality of its decisions, among its staff and in customer interactions. Alignment must be lived (Anon. “Information Assurance: Strategic alignment and competitive advantage”, 2010)

How Alignment Can Be Achieved The dream of every organization is to achieve alignment that will ensure effective production. Service organizations are not left behind when it comes to alignment and they too aim to achieve it. This can only be successful if the organization has a well designed strategic plan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The global market has been so competitive that without a strategic plan, an organization can not be able to achieve a competitive advantage. It is through a good strategic plan that good decisions are made resulting in a firm’s success. In achieving alignment, an organization has to focus on its unique potentials, resources, and competencies.

These should be in line with market requirements as well as customer needs and values. The organization has to consider and balance its past, present and future demands so that it is able to achieve a sustainable performance (Miller, 2010). The alignment of goals with resources plays a great role in establishing a long lasting strategy that can be used by the organization for successful development.

The route to objectives and goals alignment is not that smooth; it calls for dedication and undivided commitment from the entire management. The nature of organizations and businesses is always changing due to economic development and the ever changing technology.

To cater for these changes, strategic alignment has to be a continuing process with aims and goals linked to the mission of the organization. The purpose of a strategic alignment include but not limited to balancing conformity and dedication within an organization, helping the management ask and answer the appropriate questions, and improving the system of information communication used in conveying information among the major stake holders (Gottschalg, 2006).

Culture and Strategic Alignment To achieve a strategic alignment, one has to define clearly the organization culture, and assess the actions made in relation to that culture. Culture is the organization’s heartbeat, an expression of spirit and soul, an articulation of values. Culture reflects why and how people interact inside and outside the organization. It is the soil in which organizational behavior (group dynamic) grows or dies functions and dysfunctions (Gottschalg, 2006).

It is where commitment and investment reside. Culture is the experience. An organization culture should be designed in such a way that, it is capable of laying a strong foundation for achieving positive results. After defining the organization culture, the next step is to evaluate the actions so as to ensure that, they are in alignment with the results.

Alignment and Competitive Advantage The alignment of goals and actions provides a competitive advantage for the organization in the global market. A competitive advantage is a unique aspect in every organization that helps it compete in the global world. An essential core competency is an organization-wide ability to effectively deal with change and to be comfortable with being uncomfortable.

We will write a custom Term Paper on How do service organizations achieve alignment? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change is not an option. It exists everywhere, in every industry, every social sector initiative. When organizations build expectation around the ability to ride the waves of change into the culture, and manage that expectation, they fundamentally position themselves for success. The interaction and integration of the three critical components creating the dynamic within an organization play a critical role helping an organization achieve its competitive advantage.

When put together in a way that aligns these three components (that is strategy, design and culture), they work together as a dynamic that helps an organization gain and sustain competitive advantage. Alignment determines the organization’s potential for success in the marketplace and creates the internal environment to get it all done. As a dynamic it creates a way of working (Powell, 1992).

Strategy links to vision and strategic intent. It creates where the organization is going and defines the road it takes to get there. Clarity and agreement around what the organization is designed to do is an essential driver to success. Having a common purpose is critical. On the other hand, design involves the tangible elements organizational structure, systems, processes, practices, facilities, just to name but a few. Design creates the framework within which organizations operate. It is the framework and becomes the engine (Miller, 2010).

Conclusion Creating organizational alignment is a journey, not a destination. As the world changes, systems for scanning, measuring and ensuring continued alignment become basic requirements. By developing, accepting and aligning, this dynamic forms the best position for an organization to create sustained excellence and success, resulting in competitive advantage.

The business world is changing drastically requiring organizations to engage in ongoing processes for alignment. One of the key factors to consider while considering strategic alignment is the organization culture. Every organization has a different culture that defines its operation. Failure to understand this culture may result in poor performance due to lack of a competitive advantage.

Reference List Anon. (2010). Information Assurance: Strategic alignment and competitive advantage. Web.

Bird, M. (2010). Modern Management Guide to Information Technology. Create Space. Web.

Gottschalg, O. (2006). Interest alignment and competitive advantage. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How do service organizations achieve alignment? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, S. (2010). Increase competitive advantage with business process outsourcing alignment. Web.

Powell, T.C. (1992). Organizational alignment as competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 13:119-134.


Strategic Issue Facing the Firm Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Peterson Fan is majorly dealing with an employee attitude problem. Employee attitude problems have a very negative impact on an organization and especially on the bottom line performance. Most often, employee attitude is attributed to poor work conditions, employee inadequacy and a lack of employee appreciation programs.

In this regard, employees at Peterson Fan are not coordinated and often show up late at work. These are clear signs of an attitude problem among employees. This is also the main problem Peterson Fan faces and drastic measures need to be taken to ensure the organization doesn’t further slow down in performance and experience low profits.

Firm’s Strategic Options The first option management has is to get commitment from the employees through a consultative approach. Management therefore has the duty to explain its concerns to the employees so they may understand why it needs to change the status quo. The ideal situation in this kind of strategy would be that employees are supposed to exert some form of self-control and improve performance in the long run. This approach is better than blindly carrying out an order which the employees wouldn’t understand why it’s been employed.

This action is supported by Douglas’s Mc Gregory’s theory Y which advocates for a participative management style. A participative management style would be the perfect management criteria because poor employee attitude is no different from work and play. In other words, it is a natural occurrence and imposing artificial threats to improve employee performance, as management did, was a wrong approach. Essentially, firing poor working staff was setting precedent that employees had to work properly or else they would be fired.

Douglas’s theory Y advances the fact that employees will naturally improve self-control and increase performance without the exertion of external control or imposition of threats. The management of Peterson should therefore expect self-direction from the employees if they give them the liberty to make their own decisions (but after providing a good environment for them to operate in). Douglas’s theory also identifies that employees often accept responsibility and can even seek it if they are given the liberty to work without external controls.

In addition, the participative approach if analyzed in the context of Douglas’s theory Y will improve employee creativity, imagination and ingenuity without being forced or initiated.

This expectation is therefore set to solve organizational problems and improve product development because employees will be more likely to chip in creative ideas on how the company can improve their products for future competitive advantages. This conclusion is affirmed from research studies advanced by the Y theory stating that the capacity for employee creativity and innovation is usually partially utilized.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The participative management theory the company should have undertaken is also supported by Herzberg’s motivational theory which states that employee dissatisfaction and poor performance is not attributed to only one factor as was previously thought.

According to the scholar, employees are normally under the pressure of two needs which is to avoid pain and to grow on a psychological level. In this respect, Peterson management should have undertaken the participative approach because their action assumed at least one factor of the motivational theory. It also totally neglected other prevailing factors of employee motivation

Herzberg’s theory further goes on to state that the motivational factor for employees to work can be advanced in two aspects. The first is related to strong ethical management and social responsibility while the other is the strong psychological contract individuals often have with themselves.

Herzberg’s theory is therefore concerned with the general wellbeing of all the employees in the workplace and supports employee views instead of management’s. This approach is correct because the objectives of management cannot be accomplished if employees aren’t performing in the first place. This necessitates the participative approach to management because it is the only way management can bring employees on board and understand their concerns ahead of their own.

Just like the Herzberg’s theory, more humanity and caring ought to be shown in the workplace because that is what Peterson lacks. The company’s management is essentially ruthless and if perceived from a neutral point of view, the employees have no channel to voice their concerns because management doesn’t provide a forum for that. This is what the participative approach to management will bring (a forum for consultations).

Herzberg’s theory was not just developed for the sake of motivating employees at work but also to factor in the interests of everyone in the organization. Part of his analysis was on the fact that people were motivated by hygiene factors though he identifies that management needs to think beyond that.

This is an important factor if Peterson is to adopt the participative approach because Herzberg identifies that it is not only enough to provide a good environment for the employees (which he used hygiene as a factor) because once employees achieve a level of satisfaction, they are bound to slide back to their initial state of dissatisfaction. This happens because they get used to the improved situation. Herzberg identifies that this is the leading cause of failure for poorly managed organizations.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Issue Facing the Firm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This intriguing situation brings us back to the initial factors Herzberg identified in the first definition of his theory. He identified that management needs to comprehensively help employees achieve the two levels of satisfaction which are avoidance of pain (which is equivalent to provision of a clean working environment) and the facilitation of employee growth and advancement.

In this regard, the management of Peterson company need to realize that improving employee performance in the organization is a continuous process and after primarily making the working environment conducive, they should embark on facilitating employee career progression.

Most practically, management should be motivated to offer partial scholarship for the advancement of employee career through extra classes for employees who may be willing to undertake them. This is a good strategy the company can use because as employees advance their careers academically, they will be more motivated to work and also develop some form of loyalty to the organization because it sponsors them to advance their careers.

However, this strategy requires mature employees in order for it to work. In a more ideal situation, the employees should see themselves as part of the managerial hierarchy and also be positively motivated for the strategy to work.

Though all these factors are not present at Peterson’s Fan, management should use the participative management style because it is better than the autocratic approach of giving orders to fire all poorly behaving employees. The implication of this approach is improved employee performance in the long run. This approach is supported by social studies done by Douglas McGregor which emphasize that controls or punishment are not viable methods of solving employee problems.

The second approach the management could have undertaken was motivating employees into good work performance. Motivation should however be done through many structures such as improving the work environment, increasing the pay among other methods.

Management can also review its company policies to ensure they are flexible enough for the employees to feel motivated enough to work. They also need to equally review supervisory practices and hygienic conditions in addition to improving employee appreciation programs and increasing their willingness to promote them. In this manner, employees will feel there is room for growth.

The implications of this strategy may involve an internal restructuring of the company; especially if management is willing to consider employees as part of its management hierarchical structure. The strategy may also force the company to introduce new programs aimed at improving the motivational level of employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Issue Facing the Firm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, this may involve a change in leadership styles and management attitude. This strategy is also supported by the two-factor theory that identifies hygiene and the need to motivate employees as some of the most important elements in improving employee attitudes.

Company’s Strategy The company’s management took an authoritarian strategy of firing all poorly behaved employees without any consultations at an employee level. Theory X developed by Douglas McGregor explains this approach but it has been proved counterproductive in most modern practices. This theory is normally based on a fallacy that employees will avoid work at all costs because of their laziness and that typically, employees dislike work. The assumptions to this theory are largely false.

Instead, management should have discussed the poor employee performance with the employees before taking any drastic measure. The confrontational approach the company took was uncalled for because they should have first probed why the employees were behaving the way they were, so as to improve their level of satisfaction in the long run. In this manner, management would have known the root of the problem.

Management should therefore have made it clear to the employees what actions were wrong and which ones were acceptable. The consequences of a continuation of unacceptable behaviors should also have been openly communicated to the employees. In other words, even if management had decided to consider firing poorly performing employees, the least they could have done was to warn the employees and notify them of the consequences of a continuity of their behavior.

Management should also have been straightforward with the employees and refrained from exhibiting any threatening signs. However, before coming up with such solutions and consequences, they should have been willing to discuss their decision with all employees.

Conclusion The management of Peterson fan took a wrong approach. They should have adopted a consultative approach when dealing with disgruntled employees. However, in the development of a consultative approach to management, the management at Peterson Fan should include the participation of employees in improving overall organizational performance.

There is no practical way that the management of Peterson can achieve this if not through a participative approach. Douglas’s theory Y and Herzberg’s motivational theory also identifies that a participative approach is the best method to curbing employee attitude problems. This strategy has been proved to have better chances of success than the authoritative approach it took.

Management’s approach is therefore not expected to yield much result in the long run because the strategy they adopted is based on false presumptions that employees are lazy and dislike work. They should have therefore discussed the problem with the employees and come up with an amicable solution.


Extent to which the UN can shape order and ensure justice in world politics Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Tensions between justice and order

The UN as an agent for normative integration

Limitations of the UN

Internalisation of international norms advocated by the UN



Introduction An international body like the United Nations has an enormous task with regard to shaping order and justice in world politics. It must balance problems emanating from the actual conceptions of justice and order; it must deal with the needs of these stakeholders and must also look for ways of overcoming its limitations and inefficiencies.

Tensions between justice and order One significant problem that the United Nations must contend with is the divergence of order and justice in world politics. In certain ways, justice appears to compromise international order. This implies that stakeholders need to make a decision on which of the two concepts should be given precedence over the other (Hoffman, 1986, 185).

According to conservative international relations players, minimum order is the only true value that can be achieved and should therefore come before concerns about justice. On the other hand, revolutionary stakeholders in oppressed parts of the world like the Middle East assert that once justice is instated then disorder may come in temporarily but this will be followed by establishment of a new order (Watson


Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

An examination of the phenomenon

Why globalisation produces winners

Why globalisation produces losers



Introduction The global economic crisis triggered a renewed interest in the process of globalisation and an analysis of whether increased interdependence among nations is actually all it has been cut out to be by its supporters.

An examination of the phenomenon Globalisation can be understood in various ways but for purposes of this analysis, it will the process by which technological, cultural and economic aspects of sovereign nations begin converging and becoming interdependent on one another (Burchill, 2008, 5). One of the most prominent depictions of globalisation is the interconnectedness of the world financial markets; a fact that contributed towards the world economic crisis.

In economic terms, globalisation can also be seen through increased use of internet banking, currency trading and the credit card phenomenon. Culturally speaking, globalisation is prevalent through continued Americanisation of the world, the use of the English language in several countries and spread of the Hollywood culture as well. Concepts like social networking websites, emails, global media and mobile technologies are also an important part of the phenomenon.

Indeed exposure to global forces and convergence of distance and time have been one of the short term effects of this phenomenon. Despite these seemingly new additions, one must not imagine that globalisation is anything new. It has been in existence since the 20th century and was analysed or predicted by early scholars such as Karl Marx who asserted that the need to increase the forces of capitalism would eventually result in a unification of world entities.

Globalisation should also not be seen as a combination of events; it is a combination of unrelated decisions made by authoritative entities in various nations of the world (Dickens, 2007, 8). Consequently, this explains why the phenomenon has as many supporters as it does sceptics. Sometimes globalisation can occur in reverse or may be manifested in a totally different way (Burchill, 2008, 189).

Why globalisation produces winners Frieden (2006, 15) explains that the last one hundred years in the world’s history can provide valuable insights on globalisation. Some countries started benefiting from it especially in the first two decades of the twentieth century because at that time the movement of people around the world was prevalent thus facilitating growing times.

Therefore, nations that spearheaded this rapid rise such as Great Britain were the ones who greatly benefited from it (Kampfner, 2005, 103). As years went by, market economics altered and new western nations took over. The United States started winning in this globalisation ‘game’ because they held a central role in the world economy after the Second World War. Their approach to economic management was quite workable because it appeared to benefit both the recipients and initiators of global exchanges (Warren, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, poorer countries would be encouraged to open up their borders to trade with the US and they would in turn benefit from increased aid during war and the like. Most importantly though, Frieden (2006, 237) shows that the United States was able to benefit from globalisation because it was in a position where it could effectively control the global economy through currency exchange.

The dollar had become the currency upon which other currencies were standardised and this gave it an upper hand. Another element that led to the US’s growing benefits from globalisation was the issue of reducing transportation costs. This eventually led to a decrease in the prices of factors of production and consequently, brought about greater prosperity and dependence between nations that traded with one another.

The US alongside its partners from Asia could both grow from globalisation and this led to subsequent increments in their developments (Wolf, 2004, 28). The US was able to ‘win’ in the globalisation tussle because it spearheaded a series of elements that caused convergence. For instance, the use of supply chaining in its organisations led to great returns back in the US. Walmart is one such example; this company has used technology to coordinate shipping, distribution and other supply chains and this has led to its worldwide growth.

Franchising from the latter country has also been responsible for placement of the US in the global map and hence their rapid growth (Friedman, 2006, 57). Conversely, Smith (2007, 154) argues that it is the spread of a hegemonic power that has contributed towards the US’s prominence in the global arena.

In other words, the ideas behind colonialism continue to plague the United States which continues to focus on its need to dominate other societies. American society has always been at the forefront of many political changes in the world. It has a tendency to impose its ideas upon many nations and this creates a situation where it appears to be more prominent than others.

In the last two decades, the United States was gaining from this domination because the world thought of it as an essential caretaker. The US reinforced those perceptions by advocating for human rights amongst oppressed nations, equality for minority groups and other freedoms. The world therefore looked at the US as a ‘big brother’ that was crucial in preserving world peace (Smith, 2007, 98). Its positive contributions therefore led to greater prominence in the world political arena and positive results thereof.

Another state that has grown and benefited from globalisation is Russia. As Friedman (2006, 201) explains, the falling down of the Berlin wall was one of the critical flatteners of the world. In other words, the end of the cold war denoted the fall of communism and also indicated that the former Soviet Union could be open to world interchanges.

We will write a custom Essay on Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Members of the former Soviet such as Russia were now able to access world markets and this eventually led to improvements in their economy. In fact, communism was seen as a threat towards the free flow of capital and factors of production in the world (Bisley, 2007, 94). Since this ceased to be a problem after the cold war, then countries that had not been participating in world trade could now be free to do so and this promoted greater levels of interaction.

One state that has contributed greatly towards globalisation in the past two decades is China. The latter country, alongside other Asian nations became the preferred choices for off shoring and outsourcing among older economies. China was seen as a cheaper production source for manufactured goods and this caused many western based firms to offshore their production to the latter country.

Countries in the west were also able to split costs of producing or delivering goods and services through outsourcing. China was seen as an ideal location for subcontracting. The country’s economy therefore grew by leaps and bounds and these trading activities reverberated across the globe. In other words, it benefited from globalisation because one of the critical drivers for globalisation i.e. cost cutting, could be achieved from China (Friedman, 20006, 79).

Why globalisation produces losers As described earlier, a number of nations have been at the forefront of globalisation and they have therefore appeared to be winning. However, because of the changing patterns of this phenomenon, some countries that were previous winners have started experiencing the downside to globalisation and have therefore lost their ability to benefit from the growth. Smith (2007, 51) asserts that the US’s notion of being an empire has contributed to the latter scenario.

In the past, the US presented itself as a philanthropic entity in the global scenario and this could cover up its hegemonic interests (Baylis et al., 2008, 19). However, when the latter changed, it became clear to the world that the US was propagating a hegemonic agenda that revolved around their interests rather than on human rights issues. A classic depiction of this matter was the war in Iraq (The US led 2002 invasion).

It has been seen that such an invasion sought to advance the US‘s interests as directly and as unashamedly as is reasonably possible. The move to military methods by the US is an indication of a change from neoliberalism which had dominated the nineteen nineties to neo-conservatism (Smith, 2007, 177).

The inability of markets to evaluate fundamentals has also contributed to the creation of losers in globalisation because this has reversed trends. Eichengreen (2008, 67) argues that many emerging economies heavily depended on exports in the twenty first century. They were forced to embrace the concepts of free trade because their economies are heavily relied on other nations. To this end, these nations were forced to rely on monetary policy to control their economies.

The problem with this approach was that it led to vulnerability to currency fluctuations which are quite unpredictable in the outside world. To this end, a country such as Thailand underwent this problem and its currency started going down. Eventually, other currencies in the region like South Korea were also affected (Zakaria, 2005, 7). This susceptibility to foreign currency fluctuations is what has caused a victimisation of nations to globalisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnson (2009, 51) gives a thorough explanation of what has led to the crisis that the US is currently going through. Here, America had entered into agreements within the financial sector with many global lenders. Its overreliance on the financial and service sector also made it very vulnerable (Sirkin et. al, 2008, 57).

Its lenders worried over its ability to deal with its rising debt levels and therefore stopped lending to them. In the end, major financial institutions like the Lehman brothers had to close and this led to greater bankruptcy in other spheres of the economy which were tied to the financial sector. The financial sector was propagated and grown by globalisation and therefore illustrates how globalisation can create a winner at one point and a looser at another.

Rachman (2009, 14) believes that the interdependence of nations caused the economic crisis in one nation to spread to others dramatically. Financial markets are largely interlinked thus illustrating that an alteration in the New York Stock Exchange will be reflected in the Nikkei exchange as well. This means that the bankruptcy that started in US spread to other trading partners of the world (Held and Mc Grew, 2007, 109).

Consequently, some sort of de-globalisation was recorded where nations reported lowering employment rates, reduced investment and increased protectionism. A number of developed nations like the UK and China have witnessed this and are therefore feeling the pinch of this phenomenon negatively (Naim, 2009, 30). Nonetheless, Tett (2009, 17) asserts that the problems of the global crises started with the continued greed prevalent amongst investment bankers who resisted government intervention and acted recklessly.

Their financial gambles trickled into other spheres of their lives and eventually spread to global markets. So developing nations are losing this globalisation ‘game’ (Wade, 2008, 18). Ironically though, marginalised societies that were initially ignored in more successful times of globalisation are not as devastated with the financial crisis as developed nations because their resources were not as directly tied to these influential states as anticipated (Ghemawat, 2007, 15).

Conclusion Globalisation caused immense victories when the world economy was stable and growing; however, after the global crisis, traditional winners have fallen victim to globalisation and must therefore reassess their reverence for this phenomenon.

References Warren, B. (2005). The Great Leveling. Washington post, 6th September

Ghemawat, P. (2007). Why the world is not flat. Growth strategies, 4th June

Wolf, M. (2004). Why globalisation works. New haven: Yale university press

Sirkin, H., Hemerling, J.,Bhattacharya, A. (2008). Globality: competing with everyone from everywhere for everything. NY: Business plus

Kampfner. J. (2005). Inside the new superpowers. Guardian unlimited, May 15th

Baylis, J., Smith, S.


How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? Essay online essay help

Introduction Digital arts incorporate the use of the current digital technology as a major art in a range of its artistic practices and works in the creation or in the presentation of a certain piece of work. There are various terms which are used to describe the art viz: – computer art or multimedia art. It is basically contained in the new media art (Mundloch 2004).

Digital technology has been able to transform many traditional modes of art into newer forms. this has been through the reduction of the manual works into technologcal modes.

For example net art, digital-installation art, and modes like virtual reality (VR), have come to be the most grossly recognized artistic practices. In a more general way, the term digital artist describes an artist who brings into play the digital technologies which is found in the creation of art. in other terms, digital art is an art that has been able to employ mass production and digital media (Samis 1999).

The techniques which are mostly applied in digital arts are in most cases used in the media in such realms as advertisements and also have been extensively used by filmmakers in the production of certain effects which add quality to the film. Another use of the technology though not a direct use of the digital art is desktop publishing.

The acceptance of this kind of technology is rather low and will require time before it has been full accepted as a form of art. This paper will discuss the various ways and means in which this kind of technology has had an impact on the traditional and cultural values that have been the strengthening factor in the art world.

Challenges emanating from the digital art According to most people, traditional art is the real meaning of art. Cases of drawings, paintings, dark room photography, print making, sculpture and lithography and any other form of art which can be done using the hands is considered to be the traditional art. The major contrast of this form of art with the digital form is that digital art can be done using a computer. This ranges from photography to photo editing using specialized software like Photoshop and such other kinds.

One of the challenges that the new kind of art brings to the world is the perception of the artists. Traditional artists are viewed to be people who are angry, sad and have scattered brains.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are left wingers who are radical and have a certain ill feeling towards the outside world. On the other hand, digital artists are people who are viewed to be possessed with technology (Soukup 2005). They are sheltered from the other part of the world due to use of much of their time with computers. They are more than often assumed to be nerdy individuals.

Unlike the traditional artists, digital artists have the extra obligation of keeping in touch with technology at almost all times. The artists have to be more so very emotionally connected to their work and also be very creative.

This plays a great part in making sure that the material they come up with is always interesting. The artists have the tendency of being in a totally new set of ideas and vocabulary which is not common to the outside world, an issue which makes them look different in their conversation with the common fork (Steinheider and George 2004).

Both traditional art and digital art have a mode of principles and elements that have a considerably good composition. They have a link to the color theory in that the work is much determined by the variety of colors that they impose on their designs. Their concepts have to be creative and a good coordination of their hands and their eyes plays a great part in determining the end piece.

there are various advantages that digital art has over traditional art and vice versa. the originality of the latter is determined by a messy nature due to splatters while digital art is precise due to the ability to undo moves.

The biggest challenge that the digital art has is when it comes to preciseness (Muhammad 2001). It is a little way difficult to place a dot or a mark in an exact place using the cursor the way you want it to appear than it would have been when one is using his or her hand. Some programs do not have the ability to accept search marks as compared to others.

Digital art has made the traditional form of art to lose the grandeur that it has had in the museums over ages. Works of art like the famous Mona Lisa by Leonardo has been remembered over ages as the pieces were done by people who had an impact in the society due to their masterpieces.

We will write a custom Essay on How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, digitization of the art has made it with only a little experience to produce works which have grown to be remembered by many. The major and useful role of film productions have been made easy and simple to manipulate. This has resulted to a greater sophiscation in the production of the images which has also proved to be very interesting; this has led to many people being oriented towards this mode of art.

However, according to most traditional artists the reason as to if this kind of work could be referred to as “art” is still very doubt. This has created a debate amongst a big group of artists who doubt whether the upcoming artists will in future have the ability to use oil-based colors to create the magic found in most traditional artistic impressions. The main challenge here is whether the digital artists have the ability to create their images in oil.

This brings about the need for extra training in the art for production of better masterpieces. Digital art is further involved with more than just basic computer skills; it is composed of an integration of some artistic talents and also an advanced knowledge of computer technology. If an artist has the mandate of making a great painting in a digital format, there is no difference between this and doing it on canvas.

The artist is required to be as skillful and as passionate as if he were doing it on canvas. A painter must have the integration of the extra needed computer knowledge in which he can make use of in transferring his work from the canvas to the computer if it were to be in digital format. Such a skill can be a simple scan of his final piece of work followed by the necessary editing (Taylor and Joe 2005).

Digital artistry has been seen to be ruining the traditional mode of art. It has also been viewed as to be ruining the desire to create the traditional art pieces. This is due to the large amount of time that a person sits before a computer thus has the uncontrolled urge to copy and paste pieces thus discarding originality, undoing unwanted works which on the other hand does away with the interesting messy bit of the traditional art (Weil 2002).

Arguments have been raised concerning the time and effort that the traditional artists take in creating their artwork which should be praised by the digital artists as it is basically a revolution of the traditional ways. Looking at a traditional piece of artwork, it is impossible in all ways to reproduce it (Macko, 1997).

This is irrespective of the material and technology that was employed in trying to do so search as serial graphs, color correction, offset lithographs, scanning and any other type of current technology that may be employed.

For a digital artist to be perfect and produce good work, the challenge ahead of him apart from being good in computers is to have the basic knowledge of traditional art production. This includes the knowledge of shadows, lights, shapes, lines, forms, color and anatomy of the mediums in which traditional art is based on. As much as it is easy to reproduce a digital piece in terms of the effort spent and the time involved, it is the mandate of the person doing so to be a good artist if the work is to be considered a good piece of art (Weil 2002).

Not sure if you can write a paper on How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is evident that digital work is highly likely to suffer if the artists involved in the work do not have the traditional techniques of the culture involved in the other forms. There has been cultural erosion in the way that the artwork was previously viewed when digital art is compared to the traditional art. Before, art was taken to be something that one can understand and relate to in real life (Mondloch 2004).

Nowadays anything from a blank canvas with an accidental ink splatter is referred to as art. This does not necessarily mean that art should be beautiful in all ways but should have some exceptions like being intriguing, evocative and one that draws you to it. As much as this is possible with the current use of the new software that are always emerging in the market, the real question is whether there is a conflict between talent and tools in the market.

The traditional aspects of painting that go missing with the overuse of technology are the lack of paint tainted, smell of turpentine all over and pint splatters all over the body of the painter. This are some of the tell tale signs that depict a real painter from just any other software user.

The uniqueness of the traditional paintings has been lost of late. This would have been possible to note from the imperfections in lines, color and forms. In traditional art works, the painter or the artist does not use a computer to create these unique and aesthetic intrigues (Steinheider and George 2004).

Digital art in its true and real form has a bit of handwork in it though it gets incorporated with technology with time. There is a bit of inferiority that is considered when dealing with the digital artwork. In the traditional work, the artist is familiar with making the work very interesting as compared to the digital formats where he does not necessarily have to be grossly experienced. This has the effect of making the digital artwork a bit less brilliant as compared to the traditional format.

References Macko, N. (1997) A View of the Intersection of Art and Technology. Art Bulletin 79.2: 202-205.

Mondloch, K. (2004) An Invitation to Think Again: Digital Media Revisited. Art Journal: 98-100.

Muhammad, E. (2001) Race in Digital Space: conceptualizing the Media Project. Art Journal: 92-95.

Samis, P. (1999) Artwork as Interface. Archives and Museum Informatics 13.2: 191-198.

Soukup, K. (2005) Artists in Webby Wonderland: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer interviewed by Katarina Soukup. ISEA Newsletter. The Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts. 10

Steinheider, B. and George, L. ( 2004) Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Digital Media Arts: A Psychological Perspective on the Production Process. Leonardo 37.4: 315-321.

Taylor, H. and Joe, R . (1995) Museums and galleries on the Internet. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 5.1 80-88.

Weil, B. (2002). Art in Digital Times: From Technology to Instrument. Leonardo 35.5: 523-526.


Large-scale universe to Milky Way Essay essay help

Table of Contents Modern cosmology

The big bang theory

The Milky Way


Modern cosmology Different communities hold different views about the initiation of the universe. The ancestors explained the universe using various unsubstantiated myths and misconceptions based on their everyday observations.

Biblical view embrace nature while cosmologists put it that the universe begun by an explosion called Big Bang. Modern cosmology gained popularity around 1918 following the discoveries of Robert Einstein as it pertains to relativity theory. Previously it was thought that the earth was unchanging and remained as it were before. The scientists held a debate in the US to discuss the structure of the cosmos.

The advent of the modern cosmology is based on extensive evidence supported by full observations and theories. “The cosmology of today attempt to explain the commencement, the current state and eventual end of the universe” (Scott 2003). The modern cosmology can explicitly explain the Big Bang Theory using the greatest particle smasher. It explains how different galaxies erupted when the universe came into being like the Milky Way.

The big bang theory There are moments when the universe was not there and the time when it came into being. The Big Bang Theory explains all the scenarios which took place during that time span. The universe erupted from one minute substance. This took place fourteen years ago. The grain had extremely high pressure, density and intensity. Ideally the source of this singular thing is not known.

It reached a time when it expanded and finally cooled down thus present circumstances. It is presently controlled and gigantic in size. This theory is surrounded by some myths. Some people claim that the tiny feature blasted like a bomb blast. The best experiment so far was performed in Geneva support the Big Bang Theory. It is the greatest experiment which used massive particles smasher and branded the world’s dominant experiment.

This giant smasher gave an insight to many scientists. It involved two streams of particles travelling at astonishingly high speed towards each other. The speed was commensurate to that of light; furthermore, there was an unusually high temperature in the tunnel. The protons colliding at elevated energies gave an insight on the atoms and forces which could answer the origin of the universe (Bivek 2010). This enabled the atoms to melt into a unique form. They could not take diverse variety of matter.

The Milky Way One form of the galaxy, which houses the solar system plus other numerous stars, is estimated at three billion. The Milky Way compromises of planets together with their stars. This group is vast and estimated at approximately 900 billion solar masses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the most enormous galaxy; however, specie of the galaxy called Andromeda is also immense. It is the group of the stream of light that streak out on the sky at night. A shadow may be formed when viewed from quite dark places. The hub of the Milky Way is exceedingly bright thus is usually called the Scorpius area.

There are two bright stars towards the right where the dark valley lies. These stars are called Beta and Alpha. The Lyra and the Vega are to the left of the structure. It consists of a base region usually surrounded by a mass of stars, gaseous and solid particles. The whole structure is a four armed structure spiraling out in a logarithmic nature. The distribution of mass is closely related thus forming loose arms.

References Bivek S. (2010). Big Bang experiment successful. NDTV Web.

Scott D. (2003). Modern cosmology. California: Elsevier.


The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction The field of organizational learning entails knowledge about theories and models in an organization which are learnt and afterwards adjusted to. In the field of organizational development, learning is taken to be a characteristic of an organization which is adaptive. According to Argyris and Schon (1978), organizations involved in these kinds of task should be quick in pointing out which changes are occurring in the environments within and without them and so be able to acclimatize as fast as possible.

This paper is a critical evaluation of a human resource development program and its subsequent intervention basing on the theory of action research as developed by Chris Argyris.

The paper will start with a discussion of the concepts of adult learning followed by an insight into the theory at hand. Another theory which will be idealized in practice is the Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. The paper will also consider in brief, the application of Kolb’s theory to some students as it has happened in a past real life process (Mezirow, 1975).

Learning is relative and permanent change in the behavior of a person which results from the experiences a particular person undergoes. This results to a change in the in the way a person thinks, perceives issues, and reacts to his current environment. This is in no way affected by his genetic make up or resulting from naturalization.

The overall process of learning makes the person increase in sophistication, flexibility and creativity. Learning is not a fixed entity but is a process through which concepts are derived and through experience, these concepts get modified with time (Argyris and Schon 1978).

Adult learning falls in three domains which can be classified as emancipatory, instrumental and communicative. The instrumental learning domain involves learning which results in manipulation of the environment. This type of learning is task oriented and consists of solving problems.

Once a person has learnt using this kind of method, it is possible to know the resulting changes through the productivity of the person, his performance or his behavior. Communicative learning on the other hand deals with the dynamics of how people understand each other. In this type of learning, a person knows the other person means through the use of writing, art, speech or drama. This domain does not determine truth but attempts to establish the justification or validity behind beliefs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For adults, learning is a complex affair which does not merely occur in the three domains but occurs in stages (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2003). This makes the learning process not instantaneous and has a time delay which can be exemplified in four levels as shown below:

Not aware

Aware but post facto

Aware post facto but does not act in time

We will write a custom Essay on The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aware and consequently acts

From the above discussions, to deliver a successful human resource development program in organization A, the adult learning process should then go hand in hand with the stages of human resource development which are discussed below.

The investigative stage comprises the strategies and tools for investigation which are needed to be selected and then devised when the concerned person has the level of learning required in his mind. This stage can use survey questionnaires or apply the use of interviews and focus groups.

The design stage brings together all the aspects than are involved in adult learning. These aspects include basic types of learning in modification of behavior and modeling, learning principles, rational discourse and the challenging of Para-dynamic assumptions.

The implementation stage is when the developers of the human resource programs must have the appropriate and the required skills which are necessary for the development of the learning strategies. The three learning domains that is the instrumental, the emancipatory, and the communicative approach have a strict requirement of professionalism and competence in a certain set of skills which are required for the comprehension of the values that underpin each of them (Delahaye 2005).

The evaluation is if looked at in the view of a legitimate system completes the cycle where all the issues that were raised in the investigative stage are solved. Communicative and emancipatory learning require more active research strategies as compared to instrumental learning due to the fact that the latter method is more susceptible to cost benefit analysis methods which are mechanistic while on the other hand are indicators to the former methods.

According to Argyris and Schon (1978), Action Science starts with a study of how human beings design their mode of actions in various situations. A predefined set of economic variables usually have consequences which they govern therefore triggering the actions. The design difference in the variables acts as the gap separating single and double loop learning (Bontis and Serenko 2009) (a).

Single loop learning is involved with the sole achievement of the results which are needed whilst as much as possible try to have fewer divergences. A combination of both the discussed cycles of learning occurs when there is an inquiry into the sources of the disagreements together with an achievement of the same.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In simple terms, double loop learning can be termed as learning about the first mode of learning that is the single loop learning. These two cycles have been made practical by Argyris in both personal and organizational behaviors in his various works. The difference between this and experimental research is that in experimental research, environmental variables are controlled and the researchers attempt to look into the cause and is usually effected in an environment that is isolated (Bontis and Serenko 2009) (b).

In an organization context for instance, learning is comprised of the traditions in human resources. In this case the people involved or else the adults in organization A get to increase their skills and experience as they get more formalized education. For any organization to be deemed as successful the determining factor is the knowledge of the employees within that organization and so it entirely means that the learning process must go on.

This therefore means that an organization should be ready to improve its human resources through facilitation, promotion and rewarding of collective learning. For ones knowledge to be useful to an organization, then this knowledge must be captured. This is made possible using the normal methods of primary data acquisition like interviews.

In a classroom where the Kolb’s experiential learning theory was applied, the class was divided in groups where a quarter of the students got divided into divergers, another quarter used the assimilator whilst the remaining two quarters were equally divided into convergers and accommodators.

The divergers group consisted of people who focus on concrete information and observations which are reflective. Such kinds of cases are found amongst mathematicians who deal with abstract numbers. Assimilators dealt with experiences and learnt in a way that they had to get the logic behind their information. The learning mode subjected to accommodators was that which had much focus on experiments and the teachers involved them in learning new experiences (Kolb, 1994).

In an experimental research later conducted in the same class, most students said that Kolb’s style was very effective in that it encouraged most people to work in groups and so they were able to help each other. Personal experience through this theory showed that learning was faster amongst the student community one would fit into their styles with much ease having the option of the four. In this method of experiential learning one can easily be able to gather new skills with ease.

Argyris (1990) claims that in model I of learning, one should infer about the behavior of someone else. In this case, on a real life basis the teacher did not check up the validity of the behavior and then advocate his/her view in an abstract manner which did not seek to explain how the person reasoned.

The theory which was in use in such a case was that the person was implicitly disposed to winning. Students who engaged in this mode in the classroom could easily be told out from the ones in Kolb’s theory due to their protective nature of reasoning. The strategy which has been primarily put in place is the control of the environment in a unilateral manner and also for the protection of one’s self and also for the others (Argyris and Schon 1978).

This model has entrenched itself into deep defense actions and routines. The end result of this model is that it seen as a way in which the person is moving away from some truth and thus the reaction which is posed is not one that is governed by the person but one that is judged by whatever the person is moving away from. In an organization, this tends to hide the person from in-competency by being defensive towards what he cannot do (Bontis et al. 2002).

This model is operationalized by people advocating some courses of action which tend to discourage inquiry, people treating their views with absolute confidence of correctness and not stating facts which would lead to eventual embarrassment.

Model II has values which include giving of valid information, internal commitment and freedom of informed choice. There is evidence of strategies which are shared and individuals participate the design and consequent implementation of actions. This eventually leads to an increase in the likelihood of double loop learning.

When a different theory is experimented in class, a different output is generated. This will be deduced from a case study of Mezirow’s theory. Teachers applied the use of emotions in class and in some other group, the use of critical rationalism. This methods required the students to behave in a receptive manner where they had to be ready to learn something and at the same time, be open to the issue at hand be it a belief or otherwise.

This method proved to be more of psychological oriented and hard to implement as compared to the others. The existence of this mode required a lot from both the teachers and the students where the teachers had to incorporate themselves into the learning environment and showcase their willingness to adopt the changes. The learners on the other hand had to be ready, though complicated, to transform. The complication comes in because the method has to incorporate the use of someone’s feelings and also emotions.

To the organization, it should adopt a strategy of intervention which can be formulated and implemented in some steps. In the beginning, the intervening person should map the problems as the clients see it.

At this stage, one should have an idea of the determinants of the problems together with how they relate to organization A. from that step the person involved should have within him a map which will be in line with the needs and commitments of the clientele. After this step, the model should be tested by looking at the predictions in the model which have the capability to be tested. If these predictions do not stand for themselves by looking into history, then the model should consequently be modified.

The other important phase in intervening the model so as to make it improve is invention of solutions. These are solutions to the model which should then be simulated so as to test their possible impacts (Imants 2003). After these the person should go ahead by producing the intervention. After this step one gets to study the major causes of errors so that when the novel model is created, things work out better. If at this stage everything works correctly, then there is no disconfirmation for that particular map.

Following model II in this sequence, then it is very possible to have human resource and organization development in the organization. According to Common (2004), clients need to give their full dedication towards this phase. By this, risks will have been minimized and all parties have to agree on the starting point.

In action research, the process of change goes in three processes starting by unfreezing, changing and then refreezing. Unfreezing occurs is when people or the human resources get aware that there is need for change. Changing involves diagnosis of the situation and exploration and testing of new models. Refreezing is the adoption or the application of the new behavior (March and Olsen 1975). Thus action research can be viewed as a series of three phases which are planning, transformation and then view of the results.

Other interventions are interpersonal interventions which aim at the development of the individual skills. In this case group dynamics can be utilized whereby; people are gathered into small meetings and then they decide on the subject matter. This subject should be within the list stipulated prior by the facilitator of the meeting.

This helps the members to understand each other better and improve on their behavior. Group interventions on the other hand try to assist teams in making sure that organizations are more effective (Common 2004). They usually assume effective communication between groups and ensure a good balance between personal needs and group needs. Their functionality is through consensus with no majority rule or autocracy.

Inter-group interventions are very important in that they make sure that all parties within the organization work as team. This helps in making sure that here is interaction within departments in the organization (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2003). Such interventions can be conflict resolution meetings. In search meetings, teams meet and discuss feelings that they might be having concerning other departments and therefore solve any issues arising from such.

Comprehensive interventions enhance change throughout the organization. This can be through the use of surveys to get information. In such surveys, the attitude of the employees in the entire organization is gathered and a comprehensive report on the collected data is disseminated (Garvin 2000). If the so stated interventions and others are incorporated into the system of organization A, then the model will improve and in the end, there will be a gross improvement in the human resource program.

References Argyris, C. (1990) Overcoming Organizational Defences: Facilitating Organizational Learning, Allyn


Should public schools be required to restore physical education classes to the curriculum? Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction The occurrence of obesity prevalence in children, in the U S, can be associated with the removal of physical education courses in public school curriculum. These courses were serving a lot in reducing the numbers of children suffering from obesity and obesity related illnesses.

This was so because the students were passed through a curriculum that worked out their mental and body strength. They were able to burn the extra calories that would have other wise accumulated in the body causing obesity. Currently the students are not involved in any physical course. As a result, there is a high rate of obesity prevalence in children, in America. It is estimated that of all children under the age of 12 in America 30% are obese. This is an alarming signal to the authority concerned (Axelrod, Cooper


The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evaluation of African Beliefs

Western Africa: From Past till Present

The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa, Kongo in Particular

Voodoo people: Western Vodun

Symbols of the cult of the dead


Works Cited

Introduction It is always very interesting to investigate cultures, traditions, and religions which are inherent to different people and compare the ideas people prefer to choose in their lives. Each continent and country introduce a number of new perspectives concerning how people should demonstrate their religious preferences and what customs they have to follow.

Western Africa is the region where more than 15 countries are united and eager to demonstrate their own interests, religious demands, and traditions. Due to numerous historic migrations, the representatives of different cultures have to link their interests in order to achieve success and satisfaction with the chosen activities.

A historical perspective has to be mentioned because its impact on cultural and religious aspects of Western Africans is considered to be great. The cult of the dead that is supported in the vast majority of countries is one of the traditions appreciated, and the Kingdom of Kongo (now it consists of the Republic of Congo, Angola, and Cabinda) is one of the central points where the cult of the dead was developed.

The cult of the dead is considered to be a kind of basis for many African religions that enhances people’s understanding of life and the life after death; an Nkisi that is close communication with dead people and Western Vodun are the powerful means to support an idea of dead powers and the cult of the dead itself and to prove that a life is not the only possibility to teach and improve personal knowledge, but there are many other sources where information is gained.

Evaluation of African Beliefs West African spirituality in the Caribbean where the above-mentioned region is located undergoes considerable innovations from time to time. Its rich history, relations with other cultures, and religious improvements influenced the way of how African people lived and what styles of life they prefer today.

Thought the cult of the dead was highly appreciated between 15-19 centuries, its signs are noticed in the form of the Day of the Dead that was annually celebrated. The vast majority of African citizens define the cult of the dead also known as veneration of the dead as a possibility to communicate with dead relatives and believe that all those people who died continue their existences in some other place and may influence the life of those people who are still alive.

In Africa, ancestor worship is rather prevalent and provides people with a chance to admire the fact that some supreme power may assist them, show the right way, and help to make right decisions. Some people even believe that “God himself may send sickness which leads to death” (Middleton 79) in order to demonstrate his power and help other people in supernatural.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In comparison to Egyptian religion where huge pyramids were built and the dead were mummified because a soul survives only in case a physical receptacle is available, the Africans accept an idea of spiritual existence without an importance to save bodies. Vodun is the religion of the Africans that centers on the spirits that are side by side with people to assist them.

Western Africa: From Past till Present West Africa is not the largest region on the continent, still, its influence on different religions and traditions remains to be rather huge. In spite of the fact that there are a number of different cultures on the region, there are still certain similarities in the traditional architecture, cuisine, music, and even dresses which are crucial for the development of the cult of the dead. Robert Farris Thompson made a magnificent attempt to evaluate the impact of African traditions on the New World.

Though Mande-influenced textiles as well as its musical paradigm and architecture fails to explain the ways of how the Africans shared their traditions with other nations. “The Mande diaspora did not diminish their cultural identity. Such was the Mande strength of ethnicity that the cultural focus of the civilization was maintained” (Thomson 196).

Western Africa spreads its ideas and suggestions all over the world, and America was one of the first countries who was eager to accept the ideas and define the chosen style as a separate approach to creativity:

“Variable of Mande and Mande-related cloth-making remain indelibly intact in these Mande, West African-influences regions of the New World. The recombination of these variables to form novel creole art – also embodying European influences – is an autonomous development in the history of Afro-American visual creativity, especially in Suriname. Nevertheless, the vibrant visual attack and timing of these clothes are unthinkable except in terms of partial descent Mande cloth, a world of metrically sparkling textiles.” (Thomson 209).

The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa, Kongo in Particular A great variety of African traditional religions are usually orally or spiritually practiced. There are three important terms in the Western African traditions to be mentioned: Nganga, Nkisi, and Vodun. Each ritual provided by the African people has to be “accompanied by the chanting of scared songs, mambos, intended to bring down the divine power in the form of a spirit, simbi” (Matibag 162).

With the help of the ideas and traditions offered by the representatives of the Kingdom of Kongo, the cult of the dead and the possibility to appreciate the afterlife extended considerably in the New World and spread over the whole West Africa region. The cult of the dead was a successful mix of Roman Catholic religion, Christianity, and tribal animism which were so popular among the African people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “When the Yoruba religious system, under the conditions of slavery, was made to coalesce with the Catholic religious system, the resulting Reglas Lucumís retained the notion of aché as that metaphysical substance inspiriting and consecrating matter in accord with ritual properly carried out. Such investment of powers, marked by the appropriate signs, plays its part in determining the critical difference between the sacred and the profane.” (Matibag 11).

The cult of the dead in Kong, based on the ideas offered by the Yoruba religion, Christianity, and animism, may be traced in such rituals connected with Nkisi, Nganga, and Vodun religion.

Nkisi. On the territory of Central and Western Africa, and in Kongo in particular, the idea of Nkisi is supported by the citizens. Kongo cults emphasize the necessity to work with spirits of the dead people, and the Nkisi is one of the possible mediums to rely on. “The Nkisi served as refuge or prison to the soul of a returned ancestor or of some spirit attached to this world” (Matibag 162).

Due to the cult of the dead spread over Kongo, people got used to think that any kind of exceptional human power is a result of communication that happened between those who are alive and those who are dead. The Nkisi may be in the form of some ceramic vessels, various shells or bundles, or even animal horns because these objects aim at containing spiritual substances and providing people with a chance to communicate.

There is no necessity to save human bodies because it seems to be enough to have a symbolic object where a human soul can be found. Numerous functions of Minkisi (plural form of a Nkisi) are of divine nature. To appreciate the cult of the dead, Kongo citizens could use the Minkisi for healing purposes (in comparison to Greek and Egyptian cultures, animal horns were used while hunting or trading).

With the help of worship of the dead, a number of Minkisi were used to support order and follow an appropriate style of life. Eugenio Matibag admits that “Nkisi means ‘charm’ but also ‘positive magic’” (162), so, the idea of the Nkisi can never be regarded as something harmful for people or something with a negative impact on human life. The necessity to communicate with gods and dead people is regarded as an integral and rather helpful part of life.

Nganga. Talking about the spiritual life in Kongo, and the cult of the dead in particular, it is necessary to mention and evaluate the role of Nganga, a spiritual healer or a herbalist who is responsible for proper communicate with the world of the dead. One of the most significant roles of the Banganga (a plural form of an Nganga) is to protect the cult of the dead against witchcraft and religious impacts that may come from different countries and regions.

According to Matibag, “the name of Nganga refers either to the small cauldron that holds the spirit or to the spirit itself… the Congo Nganga itself is therefore a figure of ‘multiple representation’” (162). So, the Nganga can be of different forms, and many historians and writers are ready to prove their own positions and give various definitions to the term.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though, if an Nganga is considered to be a person, the cult of the dead requires the necessity to communicate to the dead and find out the secrets of afterlife and the methods to improve the current life and make right decisions.

If an Nganga is another significant object of a ritual where the cult of the dead is supported by the citizens of Kongo, this object remains to be a divine means of communication with the dead. Another important detail about the cult is that the Nganga aims at doing what its owner orders. In some cultures, the use of Kongo’s Nganga is similar to a game: owners of Banganga are playing with their spirits and make their do what has to be done.

Voodoo people: Western Vodun Voodoo religion is popular in many countries on different continents, however, its origins came from Kongo. Haitian Voodoo has a number of characteristics, and one of them is the development of the cult of the dead.

As the already discussed ideas, Voodoo representatives also made numerous attempts to provide proper veneration of the dead and protect communication with the dead against witchcraft. However, some historians still have many doubts concerning a true nature of the Voodoo craft and believe that some portion of evil magic and witchcraft is present.

Many people still believe that Haiti is a true origin of voodoo people, however, it is not actually true. At the beginning of the 17th century, Americans and some European countries knew a little about Vodou and African beliefs. These beliefs “seem to be fused with the national history and culture in Haiti more than in any other country in the Americas” (Galembo ix). It is well known that West Africa underwent considerable changes because of slavery present.

This region was a famous Slave Coast because many transatlantic traders had an access to African people who, in their turn, were able to share their religions with other nations. Within 400 years, the lands of Brazil and Haiti were full and West Africans who introduced new beliefs and abilities. Voodoo people used a number of objects to arrange rituals and communicate with the dead. They truly believe that life is a constant struggle, and dead people had to assist their generation to achieve success.

True Vodun came from Kongo, the land of slaves, and as many other supporters of the cult of the dead, it was closely connected to animism, Christianity, and even Catholicism. Vodou is more than just a religion. It is the way the vast majority of Africans prefer. They believe that it is possible to improve their lives with the help of communications with the dead and practice transmigration of souls to gain better understanding of the essence of life.

Symbols of the cult of the dead Blackened stool: This was mythical symbol honored annually by the Kumasi and was associated with the Odwira festival. The honoring of the stool was designed to appraise the spirits of the ancestors (Murrell 40).

Masks and charms: according to Murrell, carnival type masks were worn during gleeful occasions. The masks were made of fabric layers of dark color and it was believed that whosever wore the egungun attire will be possessed with spiritual power of the ancestors he or she represents (Muller 40).

Yams: The feast of the yams was festival dedicated to the return of the patrilineal ancestors, which was conducted annually and was also known as egungun (Murrell 40).

Drums: The drums were used during the mourning period whereby, the men were entitled with the task of beating the drums throughout the night (Murrell 39).

Mountains: The Mountains were considered to be the dwelling place of the ancestors. During the rituals, the ancestors would be petitioned and invited from the mountains by the priests (Murrell, pg 40)

Conclusion West African natives performed a variety of cultural traditional rituals, which were later incorporated in Europe. The western African religious cultural practices were characterized by various components including the use of music, dancing, and textile industry development.

An individual was considered to possess different personalities according to the cultural traditions of the Western Africa. Kongo was the place where a number of traditions like Vodou or Nganga were originated, and due to the transatlantic trades, Africans were able to share their traditions and religion with other people.

The cult of the dead was widely spread over the African people. In spite of the fact that communication with dead people may lead to some negative outcomes, the main purposes of Vodou and Nganga remain to be protective, so that any witchcraft or evil magic cannot spoil true educative intentions of the believers and supporters of the cult of the dead.

Works Cited Galembo, Phyllis. Vodou: Visions and Voices of Haiti. Berkley, CA: Ten Speed Press. Print.

Matibag, Eugenio. Afro-Cuban Religious Experience: Cultural Reflections in Narrative. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996. Print.

Middleton, John. Lugbara Religion: Ritual and Authority among the East African People. Oxford: LIT Verlag Münster, 1999. Print.

Murrell, Nathaniel S. Afro-Caribbean religions: an introduction to their historical, cultural and sacred traditions. PA, Temple University Press.

Thomson, Robert, F. “Round Houses and Rhythmized Textiles.” In Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1984, 193-225. Print.


Ethical and Social Obligations Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Practicing ethical integrity

Work based ethics

Personal ethics

Familial ethics

Ethical and social obligations

Optimal ethical Decision making processes



Abstract Ethical integrity means possessing principled character like empathy, honesty and loyalty. Each person possesses ethical character that he or she exudes on a regular basis. They can be personal ethics, work based ethics or familial ethics. Ethical integrity is when people implement these ethics and stick by them regardless of the consequences. Individuals with apt ethical integrity will always stick with their preferred choice of action consequently taking responsibility for such actions.

Ethical integrity is a vital quality that individuals should possess. Ethics is also called moral philosophy as it describes what is morally apt or inapt. Whether an individual considers him righteous or not does not pass. This is so because, at any particular time, everyone must think in ethical ways. We all think about what is good or bad, what being fair means and justice accorded to everyone.

Practicing ethical integrity Ethical integrity is an essential quality in everyone’s life. Thus, it must be practiced in everything we do. Ethical integrity is practiced at every aspect of life. This includes at home, at work and in personal life.

Work based ethics Ethical integrity is important at work as it results in many actions that enable an individual to perform, and relate well with their colleagues and clients. Ethical integrity is not about what we tell others or what we want to do. It is what we do, or the actions we perform. The best way to show integrity at the work place is to be consistent in ethical principles and practice. Some scholars refer to ethical integrity as a measure of character.

In any organization, there must be a set of ethical values that the employees understand and adhere to, in accordance to their responsibility, in that organization. Ethical integrity at work mainly refers to the loyalty and commitment of employees and clients. In my view for employees and clients, to be completely loyal and committed they must be contented that their organization has ethical practices.

The employers have the responsibility of presenting employees and clients with labor practices, policies, fairness, integrity and values. They also have to ensure that all employees are contented with the presented moral practices, and follow up their implementation.

The organizations should always put the client interest at heart. For instance, James Burke who is the previous CEO of Johnson and Johnson displayed his moral integrity when he addressed consumers’ interest before the company’s objective. He recalled all Tylenol, which was manufactured by the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The initiation charge of these drugs was $ 100 million, but to James Burke the consumers’ health was paramount (Guy, 1990). Currently Johnson and Johnson has benefited from an apt reputation arising from application of ethical integrity thus, earning public trust. It is not forgotten that in any business organization, nothing is preferred more than an apt reputation. The long-term trust between the organization and clients is vital to profitable business in the future (Guy, 1990).

Personal ethics Personal ethics refer to how an individual wants to live his life thus; it constitutes self regarding and other regarding ethical practices. Self regarding includes immorality and grounds of survival, self concern and rational anticipation. Other regarding includes mainly interpersonal-moral relations.

Some scholars refer to personal relations as morality. They argue that it represents the expectation of an individual in a society. The main concern, in personal ethics, is the way an individual conducts his life. Those ethical integrity values that an individual possesses constitute the personal ethics. Personal ethics are the moral commitment to do the correct thing, and it might include financial, emotional and social cost. It is noteworthy that ethical principals be used as the foundations in decision making.

There are various principles of personal ethics which an individual must posses. One principle is an individual’s interest in the well being of others. One must make decisions in life while considering the well being of others. Another principle is the respect for others freedom. An individual must revere the independence of others by not interfering or obstructing.

One must also be honest and trustworthy. An individual must always say the truth; furthermore, it is vital to comply with the law and be fair in his judgment. One must refuse to take unfair advantage over others. Personal ethics also constitutes the ability of an individual to prevent harm. Individuals, who never want to accept a loss, must engage in strategies that foster success (Schminke, 1998).

Familial ethics Family affairs are recorded as ethically momentous. This ethical character spawns familial compulsion. In view of the fact that, the family is considered a social unit that involves a passionate, long-term, supportive, cooperative and protective relationship among its members. We usually think of family affairs as necessarily including some basic mutual sharing, company, aid and care.

This scenery of family affairs obliges one to make suitable retort to family members’ interests, problems or needs. Familial integrity involves the developing of family traditions that are translated to the other family members. Familial ethics majorly involves the relationship within a family. It highlights how the family members relate with one another. A family with good familial ethics encourages well and better living conditions. In such a family, there is always tranquility and affluence.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical and Social Obligations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a family, ethical decision making always take the center stage for the development of a good family relationship. The conduct, especially that of the head of the family serves as a model to the family. Decisions must be made by the implementation of ethical integrity (Schminke, 1998). For example, the sex scandals about Tiger woods that were recently in the media were against familial ethics. However, he applied ethical integrity when he apologized to his family and fans and accepted his mistakes.

The implementation of familial values is the most outstanding way to nature ethical integrity within the family. The ethical principles in a family will help nature the family off springs in to responsible adults. The family is the bed rock for the foundation of all the other forms of ethics. The way one relates to the family will affect that person’s relation at work and any other place (Schminke, 1998).

Ethical and social obligations There is the need for ethical and social obligations in the society which result in good moral and interpersonal relationship. It has been evident that it is always difficult for an organization to put in place ethical standards and then comply with them. Whether the ethical principles of an organization are set or not, employees should stand by their personal ethics.

This helps in bringing about unity and understanding in the organization. It requires consciousness and audacity to take action in that instant thus clasping out for a preference. This is in configuration with the affirmed ethics of the organization and the integrity of those involved. Ethical Integrity provides the motivation to translate awareness into action. There is fundamental fulfillment in accessing courage at times when ethical integrity is tested (Wolfe, 1989).

Ethical and social obligations examine the need for appropriate action. There are various factors that bring about the need for appropriate action. The chief motive is to bring about steadiness within a society. There are various ways that result in the satisfaction of ethical and social obligation. When one is, open to feed back, he will interact well with the society as he will provide opportunities for others to comment on his deeds thus accepting criticism.

This will bring out the need for appropriate action. In order to examine, the need for appropriate action an individual should accept personal responsibility. This helps in the establishment of fine interpersonal relations. Essence of appropriate action is also portrayed when one balances his needs with the needs of others. Here, the individual considers others in his actions. This brings understanding and apt relations.

Need for appropriate action comes out when one practices understanding and compassion. When one posses this ethical integrity trait he avoids conflict with colleagues who have divergent views as evident at work or home. This brings unity among individuals working together or living together as a family thus, the need for appropriate action. Seeking advice from others enhances the need for appropriate action (Wolfe, 1989).

Since, consultation strengthens relations as people are free with one another. This portrays the need for appropriate action as it results in better understanding and communication. Being respectful of views that are different is a clear indication of the need for appropriate action. It streamlines the relationship among individuals and encourages prosperity especially at work and at school. This shows that appropriate action brings prosperity at the different levels of life (Wolfe, 1989).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical and Social Obligations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More So as, to reflect the need for appropriate action an individual must act with integrity even when it is inconvenient. This shows the care one has for his colleagues or family. This builds strong familial units or an excellent reciprocated relationship at work. The need for appropriate action is portrayed when an individual keeps agreements he has made with other people. This establishes trust between individuals in an organization or at home.

Establishment of trust amongst individuals reflects the importance of appropriate actions. The essence of appropriate action comes out when one knows the difference between humor and hostility. This enables and individual avoid offensive statements and actions that may necessitate appropriate action.

Optimal ethical Decision making processes There are three main ethical decision making processes. These include dictatorship, democracy and consensus decision making. In dictatorship, only one individual is involved in decision making as no one’s view is considered. In most occasions, those individuals are normally the head of such organizations or departments.

This ethical decision making process has merits and demerits that come with its implementation. One major merit is that the decisions are made quickly and in time. A major demerit is that a wrong decision may be unnoticed which hurts the organization or family in days to come (Brown, 2005).

The other decision-making process is democracy. In a democracy, the stakeholder’s views are considered before a decision is made. This involves a wide range of consultation that comes with the decision made. Everyone is given the chance to air their views before the people present (cannon, 2003).

It suits a situation where many people are involved. Its merit is that a consultative and appropriate decision is made about an issue. Its demerit is that it takes a long time to arrive at a decision that suits the entire stakeholder. It is one of the processes preferred by many individuals and organizations.

The last decision making process entails consensus. This is a process that involves few people. Here, the individuals indulge in a round –table-discussions (cannon, 2003). Each presents his decisions and discussion begins thus assessing the tabled ideas. A decision is reached when all the ideas are merged to form one decision that suits all the parties involved. The demerit of this process is that it takes time before a pronouncement is reached. It has a merit which is, it results in a consultative-effective and appropriate decision (cannon, 2003).

These decision-making processes have to be improved so as to suit every one involved. My first suggestion is the abolishment of the dictatorship process. This is so because it mostly results in wrong decisions, as they only suit the decision maker. This decision-making process also brings conflict whenever a wrong decision is made.

My other suggestion is the improvement of the consensus process since the parties involved should strictly constitute of experts and not people interested in the decision. This will enable the process to take a shorter period, and the decision will be comprehensive.

Decision-making and deeds among the customer and the professional are altered by the influence of the organization. Each organization has a diverse way of managing the decision-making process; furthermore, organizations decide the way it will work with reference to the ethical behavior. An individual’s principles and morals are dissimilar to others thus the way they interpret social regulations or expectations is different. Professional restrictions and behavior plays a major role during decision making.

These factors might influence someone to act dissimilar to others if put in the same situation. In actuality, all of these factors and others not stated are factors that affect daily professional work. The present economic and political situation contributes to the complexity of this concept. It is hard to make excellent decisions without being questioned as a result of ethical positions or suitability (cannon, 2003). Professionals at work must do their best in making apt decisions.

If an individual encounters ethical dilemmas, decision-making steps are used i.e. concerns explanation, principles acknowledgment, addressing opposition, issue resolution, stakeholder investigation and decision accomplishment. Many ethical decision making methods exist; most of the methods constitute comparable steps in unraveling ethical dilemmas (cannon, 2003).

Conclusion Ethical integrity is essential in one’s life. It constitutes how one conducts himself and makes a decision. Work based ethics are the ethical behaviors at the work place thus bring efficiency and productivity at the work place. Familial ethics are ethical integrity principles in the family; they mainly enhance unity and understanding.

Personal ethics pertain to the manner in which an individual wants to live his life. It constitutes self regarding and other regarding processes. Ethical and social obligation helps realize the need for appropriate action by viewing the results of an individual’s positive, ethical integrity behavior. There are three main ethical decision making processes thus totalitarianism, democracy and consensus decision making.

References Cannon, B. (2003). One Sigma Decision in a Six Sigma World. The Cannon Advantage. Web.

Brown, M. (2005). Corporate integrity: rethinking organizational ethics, and leadership. New York. Cambridge University Press.

Dorrien, G. (2008). Social ethics in the making: interpreting an American tradition. Oxford. Wiley-Blackwell.

Guy, M. (1990). Ethical decision making in everyday work situations. New York. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Schminke, M. (1998). Managerial ethics: moral management of people and processes. New Jersey. Lawrence Erlbaum associates Inc.

Wolfe, A. (1989). Whose keeper? Social science and moral obligation. California. University of California Press

Wesley Cragg. (2005). Ethics codes, corporations, and the challenge of globalization. Massachusetts. Edward Elgar Publishing


Analyzing International Marketing Environment and Foreign Direct Investment Essay essay help free

Introduction Marketing entails making products that are desired by a certain section of the target population or consumer. Marketing in special fields include the marketing of services, agricultural marketing and international marketing.

International marketing which entails marketing across political boundaries, as well as the marketing activities of an enterprise that sells and/or manufactures goods and services within a given country when that organization is a subsidiary or is affiliated to another firm which is located in another nation (Kotler, 2006).

Multinational enterprises are involved in international trade since the business represents a major share of gross domestic product (GDP). This implies that these international corporations have multiple operation points that report to one headquarter, thus powerful enterprises that have an influence in the domestic economies.

Going multinational is deemed to bring some diversification gain to the corporation, and these can be elaborated as the company diversifies across “product space” and geographical space (Caves, 2007). This paper discusses the international marketing environment in relation to factors such as the cultural, political-legal, and economic forces that affect the selection of a potential market for foreign direct investments. The main concern of this analysis is in reference to Zimbabwe as a non western country.

Market Research Market research involves identifying or analyzing opportunities that are available in the marketing environment. This research is performed in a view to identify customer’s needs and taste which forms a foundation for the production of an optimum marketing mix. In an international perspective, when analyzing the market there are some issues to be considered in relation to the marketing environment.

Forces both internal and external to the organization can affect its performance. The environments for international marketing include the political-legal, economic, social-cultural and technological environments; also known as PEST Analysis (Bogozzi, 1991).

According to Perner (2009), before entering international marketing, a firm needs to take into consideration the following decisions:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 1. whether to go abroad – does the firm possess the economic and marketing power? The marketing managers should be well informed of the opportunities in abroad markets.

2. Which markets to enter – this requires proper market research on the current growing industries in the target market, competitors and culture.

3. How to penetrate the market – a firm can opt to enter the market through exporting, joint venturing or direct investment. This depends on the knowledge about the local market and control over it.

4. On an appropriate marketing mix – this phase involves implementing the correct marketing mix including straight extension, communication adaptation, product adaptation, dual adaptation and product invention.

5. On a suitable marketing organization – a firm can be an export department, international division or a multinational organization.

Through exercising research, information about consumer behavior in the target country can be obtained in several ways. Kotler (2006) asserts that the study of consumer behavior enables a firm to determine how consumers make decisions to spend their resources.

Information about consumers is gathered through observation and interviews with them on an official (use of structured questionnaire) or informal (guided interview) arrangement. Such information includes customer perceptions about their needs and the likely future purchases. This can be intensive in case of international market analysis.

We will write a custom Essay on Analyzing International Marketing Environment and Foreign Direct Investment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another method is the focus group, in which a group of customers in a certain culture, region, age group or education level are analyzed to come up with information about their preferences and buying behavior. However, a firm may opt to perform an observation of the target market; how the consumers behave in relation to their buying decisions. Thus, a company can be able to enter the international market after a systematic market research.

International Marketing Environment The marketing environment of an organization consists of the elements that affect the way the marketing functions are carried out. These forces also influence the domestic and international marketing decisions made by marketing managers in regards to making products that are desired by consumers in the targeted countries. In reference to Zimbabwe, forces that affect direct foreign investment include social-cultural, political-legal, economic, demographic, and technological.

Economic Environment

Since markets involve the purchasing power of buyers and sellers, the economic conditions must be analyzed in a view to make the right marketing decisions. Economic circumstances influence the way in which a firm performs its marketing operations; bad economy leads to negative impacts on the organizational strategy.

Marketers should be able to forecast on the economic conditions in the domestic and international markets in the nearby future. The issues to consider here are the levels of new industrial growth, impact of fluctuations on exchange rates and the major economic indicators of a country; for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation and employment levels, global economic interdependence and trade agreements (Bennett and Blythe, 2002).

The level and distribution of income and industrial structure varies among nations. Income distribution of a country can be considered as very low, mostly low, medium, high, or very high. In the case of Zimbabwe, the rate of economy is very and there is a high inflation rate. Investing in Zimbabwe requires a larger profit that can sustain the business uncertainties.

Knowing the income distribution enables companies to produce goods and services that can be affordable in various market segments. Consequently, companies need to know the consumer expenditures and their spending patterns. Consumers spending are influenced by funds, debt, and credit accessibility.

For instance, the saving rate for the Japanese consumers is over 10% as compared to that of the U.S consumers, which is less than 10%. This implies that banks in Japan can offer loans to companies at a lower interest rate as compared to U.S, hence faster business expansion. Thus, marketers must take into consideration the main changes in cost of living, interest rate, incomes, and savings patterns because they can help in positioning products according to the level of income.

Furthermore, the global economic interdependence enables companies to have access to markets of different countries. This is due to the regional trade agreements that are set by organizations such as Word Trade Organization (WTO). Trade agreements like the European Union (EU) and the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ensure that companies falling under the member countries are able to enjoy free trade. In this regard, companies are forced to produce and market products that satisfy the conditions set by the agreements. It is essential for companies to realize that the world is moving towards a global economy, thus there is need to take advantage of global economy through international marketing (Peter


Platonic Literature about the Later Days of the Socrates Essay online essay help: online essay help

The essay focuses on Platonic literature about the later days of the Socrates who existed in Athens, Greece during the early centuries. Plato, an Athenian, was born on 427B.C. to an elite family that was greatly involved in the politics of Greece during the rule of Pericles, who was his step-father. Plato studied under the Socrates whom he developed close friendship though when they were executed in 399B.C, he distanced himself from the Athenian politics and ventured into Western philosophy.

As a teacher, he extended Socrates inquiries to his students, one of them being Aristotle. He founded an educational institution, the Academy, which focused on philosophical studies.

Furthermore, Plato wrote several works including the famous one, “The Republic,” which was edited by two authors, Hugh Tredennick, who was a professor of classics at London University Faculty of Arts, Royal Holloway College, and Harold Tarrant, who was also a professor of classics and head of the School of Liberal Arts at University of Newcastle, Australia. What were some Plato’s ideas concerning the Athenians focusing on Socrates?

Plato’s ideas focused on education, poltics, religion and legal systems of the Athenians. Socrates was born between 470-469BC, ten years after the conclusion of the Persian wars, at a time when Athens’ economy, military and education sector were recovering. Born in a family where his father was a stonemason, he was not able to get good education.

Socrates made strongly efforts to ensure that the Athenian youths were well educated, his point of focus being the quality of their souls. Most of the education that existed was basically practical skills that were geared towards transformation of the life of the young men. Socrates concern was mostly on the young men of Alcibiades and Charm ides who were most sought-after at that time though his feelings were much erosious leading to an unusual course (Plato 27).

Plato, just like Socrates, had a great passion for knowledge, although he lacked finances to fund formal courses, he preferred engaging the professional intellections in conversations. It is the lack of formal education that portrays him as having not acquired wisdom what could lead to him being famed by it (361d-e). Plato vividly points out that it requires philosophical experience in order to be able to arrange the universe and this philosophy is got through the formal education that one gets in school.

This is seen when he points out that “Socrates is in charge of a weird school of philosophy” (Plato 28), yet in real sense such school never existed. Most of Socrates guidance was intelligent governing principles that are why he was seen as being very clever. Acknowledging Plato, the Charmides and Protagoras painted an outstanding youthful picture of him having a conversation with Charmides and he is portrayed as being much contentious and headstrong.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plato views the Apology as a struggle between two centers of piety where one overlooks the others religious duty which are fused with ones duty to the traditional values of the city.

Thus, for an individual not participating in religious ceremonies but giving respect to the political institutions and social principles, could have a social breakdown if he or she keenly follows it. The dispute between Socrates and Athens is looked at by Euthyphro as the piety that preserves both private household and the cities and that the results of impiety were felt by both families and the cities.

Socrates believed that trespasses can cause harm to an individual and that divine law does not permit the better individual to be harmed by the worse (apology 30b-c). He says that laws of justice should not be used to suppress and oppress guilty individuals especially on the Socrates like him. Plato exemplifies this to Georgia’s view 474d-480d, he says that punishment is due for an individual who has broken the law as it relieves him injustice and that it is this justice that determines the individual will act justly (Plato 33).

Though he did not like the Athenian laws, he was forced to adhere to them as because higher law calls for obedience to just agreements, and that by one deciding to reside in a given city means that he or she has agreed to abide by the laws stipulated. Apology 37 further points out that the higher authority associated with God and individuals’ perception precedes the derived authority of the city laws. It is this that leads to the Socrates following the Athenians and even supporting them in everything that came about.

In conclusion according to Plato, education is a key element in an individual as it invokes ones thought and actions, and this is what that thrives a nation. By being a philosopher one is able to understand the laws and interpret them effectively thus preventing a conflict from the centers of authority.

He demonstrates this practically when the people vehemently resisted to follow the Athenians laws due to misconceptions of the law, but they finally accepted to abide and work closely with the authority after being taught about the law. Intelligence is an important tool in a human being as it gives him or her knowledge and experience to act with respect to the law.

Works Cited Plato, Tredennick. The last days of Socrates. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Platonic Literature about the Later Days of the Socrates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Long and Short term Memory Research Paper essay help

According to psychology, memory is the ability of a human being to store, retain, and recall information and experience that characterize life. Although Lewandowsky, et,al,(2004) notes “ several intermediate states are less well understood, short-term and long-term memories are accompanied by different biological states and mechanisms of retention and therefore there are two distinct forms of memory”. Human beings have two types of memory to hold information: the long term and short memory.

Long-term memory (LTM) stores information for a longer time than short memory: It is different from the STM in structure and function. “Biologically, short-term memory is a temporary potentiation of neural connections that can become long-term memory through the process of rehearsal and meaningful association” Parmentier, et al (2005). There is no researcher who is sure of the process but they say that it results in the transformation of the configuration of the neurons but the time that it takes is also debatable.

The short term memory is also referred to as active or primary memory as it holds minute quantity of data at a particular time and it only remains obtainable for a short duration. The duration is estimated in seconds and research has it that the short term memory keeps information for 7 seconds plus two or minus two depending on an individual because its length is about seven bits.

The memory works like a computers RAM memory; it provides a operating space then transfers the details to the other memory or discards it if its not necessary and the information is also vulnerable to interruption and interference. “Biologically short term memory involves the firing of neurons which depletes the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals.

The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals represents the long term memory trace and the depletion itself is the short term memory” (Nairne, 2002).

The short term memory

The short term memory has three major operations: the iconic memory, the acoustic memory and the working memory. The iconic memory memorizes the visual images, the acoustic grasps the sounds and it more effective that the iconic.

Information can be easily recalled by this memory depending on the length, phonological effect, semantic categories and words familiarity. Short-term memory relies generally on an acoustic code than the visual code for accumulation of information because People always find it difficult to remember a series of words that are acoustically similar for instance, dog, hog, and log).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Davelaar, et, al, (2005) notes “short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe (especially dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the parietal lobe”. The working memory stores the information until it is used and not until it’s moved to the long term .For example, when memorizing a telephone number it keeps the digits until one dials the numbers. It therefore keeps information for immediate use and not for latter use.

The procedure of conveying information from STM to LTM entails the encoding and consolidation of information: it is not a task of time; the more the data resides in STM it increases the chances of it being transferred into the long term memory but multifaceted data is sorted out in the STM ahead of it being programmed into LTM.

The Long-Term Memory

Information is stocked up on the origin of sense and significance and it also has a huge capacity. Information from the short term memory is transferred to it through rehearsal and also information learnt over a period of time is transferred to the long term memory and can only be removed by interfering with it or through decay .

The information we store in it has to do with our understanding and views concerning issues around us. Significant information gained is also stored there and is retrieved according to need; for example learning new technology and applying the knowledge every time one needs it. Information is stored in mental models known a “schemas” the schemas are arranged in a manner that they are related through networks depending on the information that each contains.

One schema therefore activates the other which also does so to the next hence creating a link and therefore enabling people to remember the required information when similar data is presented. The schemas guide our minds to the relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant .Therefore for one to easily remember something it’s advisable to use questions or graphical presentations to activate the schemas.

The brain does not put everything together in a single compartment like it is in computer’s hard disk drive but instead there are different parts for storage. The long term memory is divided into two main regions: declarative memory and implicit memory also known as procedural memory. “Declarative memory comprises of all memories that are consciously available such as: the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex, but consolidated and stored elsewhere in the cortex” Scruggs,


United Nations Global Compact Report essay help online free

Introduction The United Nations Global Compact being an initiative which has played a major role in making sure that business organizations subscribe to policies which enhance social responsibilities has enacted some principles which have been able to bring companies together in ensuring a global sustainability. In addressing the integration of Hewlett Packard into the United Nations Global Compact, this paper will basically consider two principles.

The first principle will principle number six which focuses on labour standards and seeks to ensure that in all types of occupations and employments, discrimination should totally be done away with (Utting and Zammit 2006, 16). The next principle in focus will be the 9th principle which entails precautionary measures to be taken as companies approach challenges posed by the environment (UNGC 2010, 155) (a).

Business approaches Hewlett Packard, in its undeterred ambition to providing cutting edge technology to the populations all over the world became a member of the United Nations Global Compact initiative in a bid to be in support of the ten principles. Some of the practices and approaches that the company can and has tried to follow concur with the principle of equity in labour distribution (Kell 2005, 33).

This has been a sad case in many companies who have been discriminating amongst color and origin. To incorporate this into the business system, the company must integrate transparency in its human resource system such that all workers feel respected. This too has to consider that the process of hiring and/or firing falls in under the same conditions where meritocracy is respected irrespective of skin color (UNGC


The Divine Comedy Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Durante degli Alighieri, shortened as Dante, was an Italian poet born in the spring of 1265 in Florence. Of his works, The Divine Comedy is the greatest literary statement in the medieval periods of the Europeans. It marks the foundation of the Italian language. The comedy explores the greatest unreciprocated, distant love story between Dante – the author, and Beatrice. Dante is almost nine years when he first meets Beatrice, who is a few months younger.

Dressed in crimson attire, she completely obsesses him. For nine years, he remains captivated by her from a distance. It is not until 1283, when she speaks to him as they pass each other on the way. After marrying Beatrice and enjoying three years together, sorrow strikes him. His 24-year-old wife dies! Though short, the time they spend together, significantly influences the rest of his life. Though dead and forgotten, her principal inspirations speak volumes of Dante’s works.

Firstly, after Dante meets Beatrice for the first time, her dressing forces him to fall in love with her in the first sight, mistaking her for an angel with divine and noble characteristics.

Though they hardly speak, it is from this first encounter that makes him write the poem Behold, A Deity Stronger Than I; Who Is Coming, Shall Rule Over Me. One afternoon, they meet along the Florentine streets, when Beatrice greets him. She says, “Love prompted me, that love that makes me talk…” (Lawall 1841). This greeting is enough to make him retreat to his room where he falls asleep, only to experience a dream that becomes the subject of one of his greatest romantic poems-The New Life.

Next, he frequently tours parts of Florence, his home city, looking for just a glimpse of Beatrice. His words, “You with your words have so disposed my heart, into longing for this journey…” (Lawall 1842) induces nervousness. These shows how much influence Beatrice words have on his decisions.

They are so powerful, that he has to pay her visits. His efforts to privatize his thoughts about Beatrice force him to compose poetry to a woman, to use her as a “screen for the truth.” Her influence is far from a straightforward inspiration, Dante makes her a character in his greatest works.

The book, The New Life, is almost full of poems of his praises to her. The Divine Comedy book shows how much she has influenced his spiritual life. She is the one who directs him to heaven For instance, “You are my guide, my governor, my master” (Lawall 1842). Owing to the fact that their relationship has no contact, their personal terms conversations is just Dante’s imaginations. The Beatrice on study is his mind’s creations. He calls her “The glorious lady of my mind.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, truth and beauty seem inseparable. Through an animation, Beatrice goes to the purgatory for Dante where he greets her. His journey from the purgatory, through inferno to paradise parallels a change of his relationship to Beatrice. In his journey with Virgil through the inferno, he depicts Beatrice as his only reassurance.

She says, “When I had risen from flesh to spirit and beauty and virtue and increased in me I was less dear to him and less welcome and he bent his steps in a way not true…” (Lawall 1843). Beatrice here asserts the fact that she is different from all the women Dante has met and for him to love any other, is unholy.

In conclusion, the author influences men’s imaginations, touching their hearts so that they can turn to righteousness. To the author, this truth reveals the divine wisdom. Being a poet with divine commission, he wants to familiarise men with this revelation. From his experience of a man on earth, this design is practicable.

Though Dante cannot be explained beyond this earthly plain, from the love that cropped from the sight of a beautiful girl, he has produced great works of poetry earning him the title “Father of Italian Literature.” As a lesson, the readers should be worthy of these heavenly gifts when they bestow their hearts on those they love.

Works Cited Lawall, Sarah. (Ed.) “The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. A: Beginnings to A.D. 100, 2nd Edition, 2003.


The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City Essay college admissions essay help

In the modern world of competition it is essential for hotel business to understand the needs and preferences of customers and provide them with the best possible services (Hall and Page, 1999, p.97). Thus, the majority of international or regional hotel companies start investing in training and development programmes (Olsen and Zhao, 2008, p.171). Hudson Hotel (New York) pertains to one of such regional hotel chains, Morgans Hotel Group (“Morgans Hotel Group”).

Admittedly, hospitality is the key consideration for every respectful hotel (O’Fallon and Rutherford, 2010, p.30). Hospitality presupposes that hotel staff will provide “the flexible delivery of hotel services” (Bardi, 2006, 309). Fortunately, nowadays flexibility has become accessible due to technology which assists in addressing “the training needs” and the needs of providing good services (Wallace, 1993, p.62).

As far as training is concerned, various visual aids have proven to be very effective in development training (Pike, 2003, p.63). Fortunately, Hudson Hotel has the opportunity of implementing various training strategies using technology since it is designed to become an example of the boldness and diversity of the city” with numerous conference halls and other accommodations suitable for training (“Hudson New York”). Thus, technology assists in implementing various development programs.

As well as many successful hotel companies Hudson Hotel uses various training techniques which can be divided into three major groups: “vocational training, professional education and executive development” (Jafari, 2003, p.176). Vocational training plays the essential role since it helps to develop the key consideration of hotels, hospitality (Weber and Chon, 2002, p.80).

This kind of training is preoccupied with such areas as skills (bad making, vacuuming, bathroom cleaning, using equipment, industrial safety), attitude (meeting standards, appearance, personal hygiene), and knowledge (hotel layout, knowledge of rights and benefits, grievance procedure understanding) (Jones, 2007, p.159). Executive development also plays a significant role in Hudson Hotel training programs. This training is aimed at developing new (modern, innovative) skills in management personnel.

To develop skills and knowledge mentioned above various training techniques are used in Hudson Hotel. For instance, demonstration and skill practice are very effective techniques (Malhorta, 1997, p.265). Demonstrations consist in sharing experience when a person who possesses definite skills shows (demonstrates, teaches) them to a newcomer, and the latter tries to repeat the same gaining the necessary knowledge.

Talks, lectures and seminars are also very effective in terms of employees’ development (Malhorta, 1997, p.266). As for such kind of training it is necessary to mention that one effective technique of organizing lectures (conferences, talks) is used at Hudson Hotel, i.e. the seating arrangements are organized in the “lecture theatre or classroom layout” (Rae, 1995, p.109).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This strategy helps to involve all people in discussion and lead to very positive results. Admittedly, the most effective training can be reached if it is a voluntary process (J, p.45). Thus, at Hudson Hotel various benefits for employees exist, and this forms a positive tendency of eagerness to self-develop. Thus, self-education is another effective technique used by Hudson Hotel (Hayes and Ninemeier, 2008, p.227).

Thus, Hudson Hotel implements various training techniques which are aimed at the employee’s development. These training techniques include talks, lectures and conferences. The training programs are mainly concerned with developing skills and knowledge in employees which will create the necessary atmosphere of hospitality, since it is hospitality which is the key consideration for any hotel chain.

Bibliography Bardi, J.A. (2006). Hotel Front Office Management. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.

Hall, C.M., Page, S. (1999). The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place and Space. New York, NY, Routledge.

Hayes, D.K., Ninemeier, J.D. (2008). Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons. “Hudson New York”.

J, David. (2005). Textbook Of Hotel Mgmt. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.

Jafari, J. (2003). Encyclopedia of Tourism. New York, NY, Routledge.

We will write a custom Essay on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, T.J.A. (2007). Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.

Malhotra, R.K. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Hotel Management and Tourism. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.

Morgan Hotel Group.

O’Fallon, M.J., Rutherford, D.G. (2010). Hotel Management and Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.

Olsen, M., Zhao, J. (2008). Handbook of Hospitality Strategic Management. Burlington, MA, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Pike R.W. (2003) Creative Training Techniques Handbook: Tips, Tactics, and How-To’s for Delivering Effective Training. Amherst, MA, Human Resource Development.

Rae, L. (1995). Techniques of Training. Brookfield, Vermont, Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Wallace, P. (1993) Multimedia Boosts Holiday Inn’s Training System. InfoWorld, 15 (24) June, p.62.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weber, K., Chon, K.S. (2002). Convention Tourism: International Research and Industry Perspectives. New York, NY, Routledge.


The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Abolitionists’ Views

The Need for Capital Punishment


Works Cited

Introduction Capital punishment has otherwise been referred to as death sentence or death penalty. It can also be used to refer to legal execution of a convicted individual or through a judicial process.

The capital punishment has always been used in situations where an individual or criminal is judicially convicted of a capital offence or capital crime (Milhorn 401). It is important to examine the origin of capital punishment. The capital is a term that was coined from the Latin word “capitalis” which actually, in its literal sense means “gaze at the head.”

So it means that initially, capital punishment was a situation where a convicted criminal had his or her head judicially severed. Nonetheless, it is important to note that capital punishment, in the past, has virtually been utilized every society (Milhorn 401). However, available literature indicates that only 58 countries of the world still practice capital punishment; this represents only approximately 5% of all countries in the world.

The meaning of this is that about 95% of all countries in the world have turned away from using capital punishment to contain crimes. In many countries, capital punishment is still a subject of hot debate in many countries, including the United States of America, and standpoints can vary within a given singular cultural religion amongst a group of individuals or political ideology (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).

Amongst the nations that do not recognize capital punishment as a form of deterring or terminating the commission of capital offences are those that are found within the European Union. This is well spelt in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

Even though the Transparency International consider most countries as abolitionists against capital punishment, research findings indicate that more than 60% of the worlds population reside in countries where capital punishment is still an option for punishing or deterring capital offenders. Example of such countries where capital punishment is still an option are the United States of America, the People’s Republic of China and Indonesia (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).

However, looking at the contemporary society, the global distribution of death penalty has been varying greatly with some countries and states abolishing and reinstating capital punishments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the end of the Second World War, the global tendency toward abolishing the death penalty has been on the rise. According to available information, there are countries that have abolished death sentencing completely; some have only allowed it under special or specific circumstances while others are yet to make their decisions and take a stand on abolishing it.

Even though death penalty is still being practiced in a significant number of developed nations, it was widely practiced in developing countries most of which were under the control of repressive, dictatorial or totalitarian governments. With regard to this, it will be accurate to argue that that capital punishment has some times been used for political reasons to contain political dissidents.

The death punishment in America is varied depending with jurisdictions. Practically, death punishment in the United States of America is only applicable in cases of motivated murder and more remotely for felony assassination or what is otherwise referred to as indenture murder. The (capital) punishment is believed to have been there even at the time of the earlier colonies of the United States; it as well continued to be in force within the states that came to form afterwards.

In the process of judicial execution, the methods are different and depended on the type of criminal activity committed. The first to be sentenced to capital punishment in America was executed in 1608; the person was judicially executed after being convicted of spying on behalf of the government of Spain.

Afterwards, the capital punishment in the United States have been abolished and reinstated for a significant number of times. Nonetheless, several states within the United States apply capital punishment for differently in relation to crime committed (Clarke and Whitt, pp.03-68).

This positional paper will argue in favor of death penalties. To this effect, the paper will examine the various reason death penalty is still appropriate and important towards containing certain types of criminal activities. Moreover, the paper will utilize the ideas such as DNA evidences and other forms of evidences as they relate to death as a penalty. The various impact of banning death as a penalty will also form part of the themes in this paper.

Abolitionists’ Views In order to get the basis on which to understand the significance of capital punishment, it is important to start by looking at arguments against the judicial execution.

We will write a custom Essay on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that even though death penalty has gained support from various individuals, private organizations and state institutions, the subject is still hotly detested; there are a significant number of people or group of individuals who cannot see the positive side of capital punishment. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.

The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. Meanwhile, it was Cesare strongly campaigned against capital punishment the world over. Beccaria hypothesized that the state does not encompass any validation to take away life either for a group of individuals or an individual.

The work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. In fact, the influence of this theory achieved some grounds worldwide where some countries actually abolished death penalty as a way of judicial killing.

The ideas of Beccaria on death penalty had great influence on the American intellectuals who fought for its abolishment except in extreme cases like treason and crimes of murder. The abolitionist movement has argued, borrowing from Beccaria’s arguments, that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent to crimes for which it is meted.

During the early part of the 19th century, abolitionist movement gained momentum in the United States of America and consequently some states revised their statutes in relation to capital punishment. Even so, more states maintained their capital punishment statutes. By the time the United States was facing the First World War, capital punishment was reinstated; this could be interpreted as a blow to the anti-capital punishment crusaders.

As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of incontrovertible arguments that are worth acknowledging. They have argued that there exist nothing like humane method of judicial execution irrespective of what crime the convict might have committed to warrant death sentence. These people state that execution is torturous to a convicted criminal and that it must be realized that the criminals are also human beings with human feelings and fear of losing their families.

Moreover, an argument has been advanced that the mental conditions of the convicted as at the time of commission of capital offense is not usually given the attention it requires; besides, it is noted that from the time capital punishment is pronounced on a convict upto the time when execution takes place, the convict undergoes a lot of psychological torture and mental disturbance. This causes more suffering to the convict than the commission of offence may warrant.

The most important point raised by those arguing against capital punishment is the virtual conviction that there may be a miscarriage of righteousness where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this takes place. Due to this uncertainty, many individuals have petitioned and pressurized states to consider abolishing death penalties in their judicial systems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another argument advanced by anti-capital punishment crusaders is that the families of the convicts should not be overlooked. They say that the families also feel pain when they realize there loved ones are to be judicially executed; the families of the convicts are said to go through hell during the time starting from the pronouncement of death sentence to the actual execution of the convicted criminal.

Racism has been linked to unjustified death sentences where members of a given race are more likely to be handed death penalty than others. For instance, it is estimated that black capital criminals are highly likely to get death penalty where the victims are mostly whites; in cases involving black victims, white capital offenders are most likely to escape death penalties.

Meanwhile, there are so many reasons the anti-capital punishment crusaders have advanced against death penalty. However, maintenance of death penalty in the penal code is still very important in terms of certain crime prevention.

The Need for Capital Punishment As much as there have been oppositions to death penalty by human rights and activists and other abolitionists, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences.

In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention (Council of Europe, pp.3-13).

The argument between those for the death penalties has been going on for sometimes now in the United States of America. There are many people who have tried by all means available to them to push the state to abolish death penalty.

However, the fact is that death penalty is necessary in cases of certain crimes like serial killing, abduction and rape of underage children and other forms of felony. Those opposed to death penalty base their arguments on the possibilities of convicting and subsequently executing an innocent person (Council of Europe, pp. 15-25).

The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.

One striking fact is that before someone is convicted of a felony and sentenced to death, through investigation must be conducted; the process of conducting such investigations includes the use of scientific techniques like DNA tests even though this has been faulted to have possible errors of proof just like any other means of determining the guilt of a criminal offender.

Most important to note is the fact that the conviction process does not only utilize one means of determining whether one is guilty or innocent, a combination of methodological techniques is used so that one technique is highly likely to examine what is beyond the scope of another.

It is important to note that those arguing against the death penalty have advanced some arguments that are both logical and realistic. However, they seem to be oblivious of the fact that the process of conviction is so elaborate and effective that the chances of convicting an innocent individual is actually close to unlikely (Council of Europe, pp. 15-30).

Moreover, it is still wrong to argue that death punishment may condemn an otherwise innocent person to death. There is absolutely no proof for this claim; before anybody faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed.

Therefore, the likelihood of any innocent individual being executed by mistake is actually limited. Given the perpetually improving forensic science, the chances of judicial execution of an innocent individual is nearing zero. It therefore implies that the fear of executing an innocent person judicially should not now be amongst the reasons anti-capital punishment crusaders use against the death penalty (Gershman, pp. 107-117).

The inappropriateness of capital punishment has also been widely propagated through the various media. The fact is that the media has always confused the true distinction between the terms “acquittal” and “innocence” as they are used in the justice system.

It is this confusion in the media’s judicial reporting that present the public with the belief that those who escape convictions are actually innocent individuals who would otherwise be executed for a given crime. The clear characteristic is that innocence suggests that the individual did not indulge in the offense although being exonerated does not imply innocence.

The fact is that the court is likely to acquit a suspect in cases where the defendants are not able to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the accused actually committed the offense. It is in such cases where the court has acquitted an individual, irrespective of whether he or she committed the crime or not, due to lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt that the media has taken it as if the court has found the individual innocent.

In summary, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. This is also a proving ground on which capital punishment should not be abolished (Gershman, pp. 131-140).

The possible conviction and subsequent execution of an innocent individual is unfortunate by all standards of justice available. But, it is noteworthy that the unfortunate scenario can not only be avoided through abolition of death penalty. Instead, the immense role played by death penalty in terms of criminal deterrence should appear in the bigger picture. Even if innocent people can mistakenly be executed for crimes they have not committed or abated, their number may not match those offenders who qualify for death penalty.

This implies that the probability of executing an innocent person is immensely insignificant and hence should not be a reason for which death penalty should be abolished. Besides, in the recent past, there has never been heard of a situation where and individual has mistakenly been convicted and sentenced to death. This reinforces the argument that the chances of executing an innocent person are very limited and almost unlikely (Gershman, pp. 202-213).

Looking at the bigger picture, it is important to acknowledge that there are some career criminals whose existence means perpetual threat to social tranquility besides creating social disorder. For example, a career criminal whose presence in any setting is always defined by violence and even death might have been in and out of jail. This implies that such as criminal cannot be rehabilitated through jailing and hence the need to eliminate him or her from the society.

In this case, death penalty may not be considered as a punishment to the offender, but should be seen as a way of ensuring that a single individual or few people do not threaten the overall social peace within a given society. In relation to this, it will be noted that judicial execution is an effective way of stopping capital offenses. There may be many criminals who carry out capital offenses, but the judicially executed ones will never commit such crimes again.

The victims of criminals vary in terms of gender and age. In many cases, there are vulnerable groups which suffer in the hands of certain offenders. For example, children and women are the most likely victims of sex offenders. Sex offenders are normally handed more severe punishment than other offenders.

This is acknowledgeable, but the fact is that punishment should not be seen in terms of what kind of offence is committed; it should be viewed in the light of what effects or impacts it is likely to have on the general public, especially with respect to right to life and other fundamental freedoms.

In this case, it will be defeating to logic to let an individual whose behavior has proved heinous to the general public to continue living amongst the members of the society; this will simply offer such an individual more opportunities to continue with is heinous act. If left unchecked through death, such individuals are likely to remain threats to the neighborhood of their residence. So, the only way to ensure they do not continue with their socially threatening undertakings is sentence them to death (Gershman, pp. 231-137).

Generally, punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. In view of this, it is worth mentioning that death sentence is a unique its own capacity as a deterrence to reoccurrences of particular crimes. Unlike other penalties, death is not meant to teach the convicted a lesson. It performs two levels of functions; one, it simply puts an end to heinous criminal activities by a specific individual.

This implies that there may be other criminals committing similar crimes but the actions by the executed individual are completely terminated. Two, it is a fact that many people fear dying; and the constitutional provide for death as a penalty to deter an individual from committing certain crimes. Therefore, in situations where a convicted individual is executed, the message is not to the executed but to those who are yet to commit a similar act. This is what is referred to as general deterrence or indirect deterrence to crime.

According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.

The study findings further indicate that each death sentence pronounced resulted into 4.5 reductions in murder crimes while each execution led to reductions in murders by three. Research studies have also been conducted within the United States of America and the findings shows that the rate of homicide increased by 91% in the states where death penalty was abolished. Meanwhile, 70% of the states are reported to have experienced a decline in homicide after the states had re-introduced death penalty (Espejo, pp1-15).

Data collected from the general public are in agreement with the sentiment that capital punishment should not be abolished. Many of the surveyed public members of various countries have expressed their sentiments that retribution for the criminal activities committed against them, their relatives and friends is more significant to them than deterrence. An important point to take into consideration is that many criminals have been executed since death penalty was introduced several decades ago.

This means that the justice system has actually not been sufficiently equipped to handle the criminals and hence failed to reform their behaviors. For instance, different sex offenders have been caught severally in different cases. The fact therefore is that the threat of death has not deterred them, so the focus shifts from rehabilitating the criminals to protecting the safety of the general members of the society; and this is through legally eliminating them by execution.

The argument here may be that death penalty has not succeeded to deter such heinous criminal activities; nonetheless, it is better to have new people committing the crime dealt with rather than let individuals to live and repeatedly commit there heinous acts. This makes sure one does not perpetually commit the offence (Espejo, pp.34-38).

Death penalty has been limited to certain age. In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United State of America made a ruling that adolescent individuals are not subject to capital punishment. The ruling was premised on the research done by the American Psychological Association.

The research findings claimed that adolescents are less mature than the adults and hence are subject such factors as peer pressures, difficulties in restraining their impulses and the general underdeveloped sense or responsibility. This research made the Supreme Court to rule that people under the age of 18 years old cannot be handed death sentence.

The Supreme Court ruling on this matter is not sustainable in terms of ensuring justice for all citizens, especially the victims whose only hope is retribution for criminal acts committed against them. It implies that victims of heinous activities committed by the less than 18 years old criminals can never get justice yet the state is mandated to ensure justice and safety for all.

The fact is that, in terms of development, there is a thin line between an 18 year old and 17 years old individuals and thus adult age may not imply. The 17 year old averagely thinks just like an 18 year old individual. In this case, age should not be a factor in determining who gets death sentence and does not. Every behavioral activity should be considered with respect to its danger to the members of the society (Espejo, pp.132-146).

Death sentence should apply to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. For instance, the victim of rape by a less than 18 year old teenager will have the same horrible experience as the victim of rape by some who is 18 years and above.

The death penalty should therefore be applied for the safety of all members of the society. The rationale here is that the magnitude of pain inflicted through heinous act is totally independent on the age of the offender and that is what should actually inform the justice process.

It has also been argued that death punishment is cruel an unusual to both the convict and the convict’s family members and friends. Those who pose this argument are oblivious of the fact that the victim and his or her families and friends also have the same experience.

To argue on the cruelty about the cruelty of capital punishment meted to a convict and remain silent on the side of the victim actually defeats the logic of justice. One thing that is important to be borne in mind that the convicted criminal must have been aware of the consequences of committing capital offenses. This is reinforced by the fact that the consequences of crimes are well spelt in the statutory books and have been in existence for very many years.

Again, it is worth recalling that every judicial execution taking place now, especially in the 21st century, is not the first ones; the executions have been going on since over a thousand years ago. It is therefore a common knowledge that every criminal should know the most probable consequence of every criminal act. In addition, the law is very clear on the kind of people who can be tried and convicted before the court (Espejo, pp.156-162).

There are those who are exempted from judicial proceedings; such are those who are mentally ill or have mental disorder, the minor children who are statutorily underage amongst others. In view of all these, it is important to realize that a convicted criminal is always aware of the consequences but went on to commit the crime anyway.

Again, the convict must have been aware of the potential harm and pain to the victim, the victim’s family and friends but went on to commit the crime anyway and also, the convict must have been aware of those who have committed similar offenses and actually convicted and judicially executed.

So, it is justified to say or assume that a convicted individual sentenced to capital punishment had sufficient information at his or her disposal to enable him make a rational choice, though this may not always be the case. It therefore implies that in the presence of all these overwhelming information, that is also common in the public domain, the convicted individual still chose to go a head commit a capital offense; this may be referred to as crime by impunity.

For this reason, it justified to judicially execute the convict irrespective of whether he or she feels the pain or his or her friends and family do. The idea here is that in case of pain felt by family members and friends of the convict, the convict failed to think of that before committing capital offense.

In support of the forgoing argument, it is suitable that the mode of an eye for an eye is utilized. Many people who support capital punishment are highly likely to see this as cruel, but this will be very effective in terms of deterring capital offenses and protecting the general innocent public members. The issue is that the victims of capital offenders are, in most cases, innocent; and in cases where they die from heinous acts of offenders, it cannot be argued that they will ever get justice.

So, judicially executing somebody who has killed does not necessarily afford the dead victim justice, but it is ensuring that as many capital offenders as possible are eliminated from the society. In terms of moral grounds, anti-capital punishment crusaders have argued that death penalty does not have moral standing; but it is important to state that if that may be true, then the activities of capital criminal offenders are also not morally acceptable in the society.

Nonetheless, the question that may be asked is that of how the perpetually or dangerously immoral behavior can be eliminated from the entire society if not by judicial execution. If this question were to be answered, then the response will be none, hence leaving capital punishment as the only means (Mandery, pp.1-9).

One other thing that has not been given much of attention in the debate about the appropriateness of death penalty is that every prisoner or inmate would like to escape from prison should an opportunity arises. In fact, there have been several reports indicating that many prisoners have escaped from prison premises. In particular, those on long-term jail terms are most likely to escape from prison given that there lives are at stake due to the jury’s approval.

In this case, if capital offenders were to be given long jail terms, they are likely to escape and find their ways back into the society where they are likely to continue committing the very capital offenses they had been convicted of. In order to avoid such incidences, it is important that those found guilty of capital offenses be handed death penalty and thereafter be executed within the shortest time possible (Espejo, pp. 260-167).

Again it is important to recognize that laws are very dynamic and subject to change with time. In situations where a capital offender were to be jailed for life without a parole, the change of law may grant such an offender some minimum level of parole which may beat the logic of justice for the victim or close relations of justice.

For instance, a capital offender may be sentenced to life in prison but after some times, the law may possible change in such a way that those who are on life imprisonment jail term may be eligible to release if they meet certain requirements like changed behavior or showing remorsefulness. The consequence of this is that this kind of statutory change may be misused by the inmates through pretending to have behavior change but once released may again go back into committing similar capital offenses for which he or she was jailed.

This imprisonment may be considered to be the most appropriate alternative to capital punishment, but laws change and people also tend to forget about the past. In this scenario, life imprisonment may be abolished and capital offenders may be allowed back into the society after a given period of imprisonment. For this reason, it serves no good the society to abolish capital punishment and this may even lead to upsurge in the number of capital offenders (Yorke 283).

The cost of judicial execution has been fronted as one of the reason capital punishment should be abolished; it is explained that the process of running a case of capital punishment demands a lot of money from the state and also the family members of convicts who may be engaged in several court appeals.

It is true that going through the process of issuing capital punishment is complex and requires time and financial input. However, the cost is justified; first to ensure that the due process is thorough to avoid convicting an innocent person and also to ensure that it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect is actually guilty.

The processing of executing a convict requires exhaustive evidences which should be ensured are as accurate as possible since everything at that time revolves about lives; first, it revolves around the life of the suspect who may unjustifiably be executed for a crime that might attract lesser sentence and second, in case of murder, the life of the members of the society who may continue to be victims if the accused is released on account of insufficient proof. It is clear that the cost of the whole process is to ensure justice for both the suspect and the victim and potential victims (Yorke 283).

Conclusion Death penalty is a capital penalty used in punishing criminals who engage in serious criminal activities that may even go far as causing real or perceived threat of life. The death penalty has been a serious debate topic in the United States of America.

The existence of execution as a form of meting punishment to serious offenders and criminals has over the past drawn mixed perceptions. It is important to note that the differences in opinions are significant reasons for which some states within the United States have abolished death penalties while some still maintain it in their statutes (Milhorn 401).

As much as capital punishment is still relevant, there has been heated debate about it with a significant number of people arguing against it. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.

The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. However, it was the work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice.

As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of undeniable facts that are worth acknowledging. They argue that capital punishment is cruelty against humanity, offenders might have not been sound mind at the time of commission of a capital offense and that execution puts the family of the convicted into pain and agony (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).

The most central point raised by those arguing against death punishment is the virtual certainty that there may be a miscarriage of fair dealing or honesty within the court system where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this happens. Because of this, several human rights group have petitioned various governments in the world to drop capital punishment from their statutes.

Despite the opposition to it, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment.

This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention. The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.

In order to avoid executing an innocent individual, anybody who faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed. However, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt.

Death punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.

Capital punishment should be applied to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. Moreover, capital offenders seem to be always aware of the consequences of their criminal act before they commit it yet choose to go ahead (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).

Again, in case capital punishment is commuted to life imprisonment, there is high possibility that if the long-term serving inmates escape out of prison, they will still continue to commit the very crime they were convicted of and hence place a mockery on the justice system for the victims and potential victims. Besides, the laws may change in such a manner that the capital offenders get an opportunity to go back into the society and may possibly not be cowed by the lesser consequences (Espejo, pp.156-162).

Works Cited Clarke, Williams


Seeking Philosophical Problems Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Philosophical Responses


Works Cited

Abstract Philosophical problems are solved by thinking critically, unlike scientific experiments and mathematical equations, which give the undisputable results and solutions to their respective problems. In this essay, the writer argues whether all varied philosophical responses to a philosophical problem or question are valid or if a solution can be preferably accepted more than others can.

Philosophical Responses There are different ways of solving problems or questions we encounter in life; the scientific questions need laboratory experiment result to answer the question, mathematical questions need mathematical theory to solve and give result, while philosophical questions can be answered by just thinking.

The philosophical approach to problems by thinking begs more questions as to whether our minds are very similar in response to similar problems in same or different environment, whether we have duplicate thoughts, and what standard of thoughts can give preferred solution among varied responses?

There are broad philosophical questions that are answered by many philosophers with all different kinds of evidences in support of their answers. However, how do they get these answers? What kind of experiments and thoughts make them give the probable answer to a problem? They say it is the conception analysis that determines the philosophical answer.

The first step that we should know about to answer the philosophical question is the basic concept. The meaning of basic concept is what we learned from experience in our lives and the knowledge gained from the people. Novak and Canas define concept as “a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label” (Para. 1).

In the simple philosophical question “Does God exist”, first, we have to know what God is. The meaning of God from a dictionary says is “The creator and ruler of the universe.” Now we have basic concept of what God is, we can now think the God exist or not. However, the answer could not be the right answer because the evidence is not absolutely coming from the mathematical calculation or a laboratory experiment (Clayton Para. 3).

If God does not exist, what are the evidences and proofs that makes us so? If God does exist, what are the concrete arguments that support our thinking?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The start point of the argument is the word “God”. Human being came up with the word “God|” as a name of their creator and ruler of universe. Do they have a picture or seen the God who made the universe? If God exists why does not He/She shows up in front of us? Do they ever hear God’s voice? Have they touched God before?

They probably answer is no, hence this could be the evidence and support my answer that God does not exist. This answer did not come from any laboratory experiment or a mathematical calculation. The assumption of the thoughts is that all the questions were negative (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Para. 1-5).

If the answer to the question is not right, why should we answer it? Should we also think all science experiments, mathematical theory, and the other questions do not need answers? Human beings have to think and determine their own future by their experiences or analysis of the collected data, which help them in solving problems.

The world is full of problems, for example; human being solves technologies, fire, cars, nature, and variety of tools that help in our living. If they did not have minds to think and knowledge from their experiences, we could not exist in this world.

Conclusion Most philosophical problems cannot have evidence like science and mathematical but are just solved by using basic concepts of thinking and life experiences. Philosophical answers are not right but are very subjective since many people have different thoughts and knowledge, which justify varied responses to be valid in their own right.

Works Cited Clayton, John. “A Practical Man’s Proof of God. Does God Exist?” 27 Aug. 2007. Web.

Novak, Joseph,


Employment Relations Essay a level english language essay help

I would advocate for a minimization of the state’s role in regulating employment relations. Most workplace matters should be left in the hands of employers and employees. However the complexity of employment relations in many states tends to make it hard to comprehend this argument.

The areas of interest between the parties in employment arrangements, which take centre stage are: “typical and flexible work arrangement; disagreement settlement procedures; job security, anti-discrimination and gender equality; acknowledgment of unions and employers’ associations; regulation of collective bargaining; parental leave and childcare directives; the capacity of individual agreements to override or not override collective agreements; and minimum wage rates among others”.[1]

Every company or industry has its own code of regulations that are to be adhered to by its employees in all the activities being coordinated by the employer. It is the employer who ensures that a harmonious coexistence prevails between the organization and the employees so as to have smooth running of activities.

The role of the state should be to enact laws that will have to be followed by the employers and their employees, but the role of implementing the laws should be left to the labor organization within that given country. By looking at employment relations, it involves interactions between the employer and the employees at a workplace meant to boost the firm’s performance.

All actions taking place within a working environment concerns the employers and their employees, so any actions or decision making matters pertaining the place of work is within their jurisdiction. The states full involvement in employment matters happens to paralyze the activities as it may impose laws which may act as a barrier to the performance of the organization.[2]

For the implementation of laws regarding workers and their employers, an institutions within the government known as trade unions are formed which link the company and the state, although the powers of the union are independent and do not allow for government interference. However, looking from a Marxism point of view it is undeniable that the state plays a vital influence over the conduct of employment relations.

The state is largely involved in providing an environment in which capital can flourish at the expense of the labor interest by setting up measures, such as progressive legislation for instance, designed to protect employee’s consciousness and assist legitimize the exploitative nature of the employment arrangement.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In support of this argument, we will discuss the various theories have been developed to explain this interaction. The most common theory is individualism, which bestows the management of the employees solely on in the employer. It majorly focuses on safeguarding the interests of the employer over the employees at the workplace.

The state and the labor organization tend to play a passive role, although they act as watchdogs to ensure the rights of the employees are not violated in areas of remuneration and how they relate with their employer at work at work. In Australia individualism has taken center stage in the labor market where the federal has established the Workplace Relations Act that ensures all the stakeholders in the employment system work under good conditions.

According to individualism, human resource is a key factor in a working environment. Individualism theory argues that there is need to develop high trust and promote a sense of common purpose between the employees and their management system. So in the absence of labor unions things like open communication networks, team work, incentive compensation and the dissolution of status barrier have been easier to implement.

Individualization here refers to “formalization of management’s power to determine terms and conditions unilaterally rather than rather a shift on emphasis towards mutual trust and shared power”[4]. Although it encourages smooth running of activities without external interference, the employees are denied the chance to present their grievances to the union incase they are not well attended to because it has been excluded from decision making in company matters.

The best thing that employees ought to do is to adopt a strategy that will benefit them and their staff what is commonly known as collectivism where both the state and trade union have a say in the decision making of the employees at a working place. However, the state’s role should be limited to overseeing the adoption of best policies.

Furthermore, the prevalence of market individualism and laissez-faire principles provide the foundation for the development of ‘collective laissez-faire’, and argues that employers should handle employment arrangements matters, and with unions, themselves, without direct intervention by the state[5]. This framework enables employers to handle union activities in ways that do not undermine their objectives.

Another important theory is the welfarism theory that mostly addresses issues to do with industrial relations of employees and their employer. In Australia it was meant by the employers to increase productivity and control from external challenges (Balnave 36). The importance of welfarism movement is to create a scope of good and quality workers from which the management can emulate.

We will write a custom Essay on Employment Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also it is a strategy by managers to enhance control of their workers and their productive effort as a way of building worker consent to managing system.[6] This increases worker dependency on the company thus minimizing individual or collective resistances at the same time strengthening managerial authority.

Industries pose a great risk on the life of employees as they are deemed to work with machines that happen to pose a risk to their lives, so the managers should understand and listen to their grievances incase any are raised. Democratic principles ought to be incorporated so as not to hamper with the industry operations. If these institutions are established, they should either be freely offered or low costs are charged on the workers who are meant to be the core beneficiaries.

The achievement of this can be done through the introduction of programs such pension schemes, company sponsored recreation, provident funds, health and accident schemes, company housing, in-house medical care and company libraries and if possible schools for the children’s of the employees, all aimed at boosting the morale and loyalty of the workers.

Mostly employers will not be ready to incur extra costs on establishment of institutions that are meant to care for the employees thereby lowering their productivity as their performance is minimized due to management services they are offered.[7] Attending to your employees in a very cruel manner by establishing strong dictatorial laws that they are bound to follow, usually results into a state of tension in the company, it may result into a strike that may hinder the functions of the company thus making it run a great loss.

Every employee is entitled to enrolment in a labor union that is mandated for fighting for their rights while at the work place. A number of factors tend to interfere with employment relations at any given firm one of them being management style and attitude towards Trade Unions Recognition.

Some firms and their managers tend to neglect the role of the trade unions in the welfare of the workers in a way that they stop their employees from joining them, or if they are enrolled, the unions are not usually recognized in the area of collective bargaining or consultation. Some will even try to persuade employees not to join the union citing that they are in their best interests, just as a way of maintaining their authority without interference from external sources.[8]

According to the theory, the management should restore the confidence of its employees on how it executes its duties by allowing them to join trade unions. It should also be sensitive and attend to the employees’ needs so as to save the firm from incurring losses as a result of strikes or boycotts. The management style adopted by the firm’s stakeholders is also vital and it should encourage a harmonious working environment with the workers.

Regulations that are stipulated as the firm’s guidelines ought not to be oppressive, and those coordinating them should act accordingly, not administering autocratic kind of leadership. What they should note keenly is that human resource is most important at a workplace, and by showing that their presence is much recognized boosts their morale of working even extra hard in order to ensure the company objectives are achieved as well as their own welfare and needs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Upgrading of workers from one position to the other is also vital and should be done with a lot of transparency and integrity[9]. An employee working in the same position over a long period of time feels that he or she gets little or no attention from his employer, and by developing such a feeling it totally destabilizes his performance.

When a worker is moved from a lower position to a higher one his morale of working extra hard is increased as he will be fighting to ensure that he is moved to an even higher position, and this creates a healthy competition among the employees at the same time production being increased hence high profits.

Learning opportunities should be encouraged as a way of helping them acquire new skills and improve on their working and also their salaries.[10] This can be done by establishment of things like study leaves where they are given time off to go and study and then come and take on new position. This is a good idea although most employers do not value it as they cite it increases the cost of production as the company will be forced to hire extra staff to take care of the vacant position for the time being.

Another good way of conducting knowledge acquisition and skill improvement without incurring extra costs is by organizing in-service programs.[11] Here the workers can improve their knowledge at the same time executing their duties what leaves the amount of money spent on salaries remaining at the same rate. All this are contributing factors towards good relations between the employer and their employees within a given work place.

Time specifications should be spelt out as to when the workers will be reporting to work and the time they will have to leave. Incase any employee is not able to report at the work place within the specified time, a friendly interaction should coexist to establish the reason why and be able to reach an agreement without conflict arousal.

A situation where an employer becomes the overall authority leads to conflicts every now and then because they believe workers have no role in decision making concerning matters of the workplace. Bonuses should be given to the workers as per how well one has performed his or her duties and according to how long he or she has at the company or institution.

This bonus should not be part of the net salary of which one earns but should be seen an extra boost on the usual salary as a way of recognition for service offered. Incases where there is need for overtime working, there ought to an agreement reached between the two parties and not being the decision of management. This should be followed by an extra pay on their salaries reflecting the extra hours they dedicated to work.

The use of scientific system of management should not at all be used within a workplace as it puts a lot of pressure on the employees on the amount of work that they perform. This involves the use of things like stop watches top record the time one has worked or use of a card recording system as it was introduced in Australia, but it was welcomed with a great resistance as it was characterized by the great strike that called for government intervention to control it.

This a clear indication of lack of efficient management principles that can encourage good service delivery but it only deals with individual interest, which is of the employer.[12]

Workers are supposed to work at free will and that they should know that they are working because they are after earning an income. Everyone should do his work with interference from the other and that they should love their work so that they may do it without much hindrance. A big problem that happens to affect most employees is the manner in which they take decision without consulting them.[13]

A decision like retrenchment of workers as a way of cost cutting to save the company from making more losses should be discouraged completely. One thing is that activities will be interfered with at the same resulting into a major strike that will at long last ruin everything. Other important measures such as reduction on input cost in order to maximize output profits can be used to substitute the retrenchment process.[14]

The overreliance on personal regulations that are quite stringent is what normally calls for government intervention in order to control events.[15] A situation where a worker is involved in sort of an accident in the line of duty should be treated as a company expense as for the treatment. This makes the workers to carry their activities without fear as they are sure of their safety incase they get injured.

This is a measure that should be included in codes of regulations governing industries they working conditions pose a big threat to the lives of employees as they are the ones exposed to the tough working conditions.

In conclusion the participation of the state in employment relations should be minimized; instead an emphasis on ‘free’ collective bargaining between employers, or employers’ associations, and trade unions.

An organization should be allowed autonomy to operate within its parameters in achieving its objectives, though the state can set standard measures, which address the labor market as a whole.

However, the abstentionist role of the state in the employment relations should not advantage the employer, because as others have argued the removal of the state from employment relations would allow unbalanced effects of the functioning of private law, so that collectivized labor can engage with capital, on a par basis, in the independent economy.

Bibliography Allan, C., Bamber, G. J.


Principles and Practice of Information Security Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Security threats in computer networks Computer security is an issue that has grown to be of gross concern in the present years. Individuals and companies have suffered major losses as a result of the vice. Many people have spent quite a lot of money on the same though at times information insecurity has gone on to rise.

This paper aims at identifying threats posed by viruses and security tools which can be used to protect computer data from inadvertent usage and for maintenance of confidentiality within persons and organizations. At first the paper will focus on the security issue in general as guidance to the rest of the paper.

There are very many security threats that exist in any particular system in the organization. Some of the most serious threats include intrusion by hackers, terrorists, spies, corporate raiders, professional criminals, military forces and vandals, and viruses.

Due to the way the current generation has become technology savvy, there are various tools that the attackers have specialized in perfecting their trade. Some of the most common methods are using user commands to gain entry into computer systems, using special scripts and/or programs, making use of autonomous agents, toolkits, data taps and distributed tools.

The attackers then pose various vulnerabilities to the system which includes implementation, design and configuration vulnerability. In order to make sure that their efforts are fruitful, they either infiltrate into the computer systems using unauthorized use where a person uses data or information which is otherwise supposed to be limited to him and unauthorized access to some systems.

After various series of processes, the person or persons can be able to access files stored in the computer or other information which may be in transit like data, objects and invocations. This paper will be specific in its focus and will clearly go through virus attacks with a special concern on poison Ivy.

Poison Ivy is a computer virus that started showing up in the year 2006. When it attacks the computer, it makes firefox.exe to appear in the task manager without the consent of the user. According to experts, the factor that leads to this behavior is a malicious Trojan which is based on Poison Ivy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is tools which has been used for bypassing a firewall and remotely administer a system. When the tool is in the system, it tends to create up a server kind of a file on the system it is occupying. It alerts a maker of the Trojan of the presence of the system when it is online.

When this happens, the maker is given the rights to access, monitor and completely control the system which has been infected. Among the critical information which can be made available to the user is system passwords and usernames, banking information, credit information, and private data which might have been accessed on screen either through typing or just viewing for the instance that the system was infected.

The settings for this ‘server’ entail it to infiltrate itself into the browser’s memory of the system which is being targeted. After this, it runs as a duplicate process of the browser thus being able to bypass firewalls installed in the system and router protection. On securing itself safely any other actions go ahead unnoticed (MozillaZine, 2009).

This mode of sophistication has been the reason that the virus has been able to go undetected by many antivirus software and also other detectors. In the recent past, the virus has been detected by some common antivirus like nod32, avira, bit defender and others.

The worst case about this utility is the way that it is undergoing constant development and also the fact that it has been able to be developed by the hackers without being noticed. The virus has been said to be spread through emails and also in most instances through online games which mainly attacks through the cheats (Mozillazine, 2009).

Some of the symptoms that are evident when a computer has been infected with the virus are automatic loading of fire fox as the default browser ones the systems loads the OS. In the task manager, there are two instances of the web browser though one is open. After closure of the browser, it still persists in the processes. At times, the browser becomes so slow or at times alerts that a certain un-requested port is being accessed, and at times some uncontrolled movement of the mouse which falls in when the hacker has control over the mouse.

The virus has quite a lot of impacts to the system. Some of the files get renamed, executed and even deleted. At times the hacker can download files from the system or upload files to the system without notice. The hacker has the capability of viewing and editing the windows registry. He has such powers in the system such that it is possible to view and consequently kill or suspend processes that are currently running in the system. The person gets permission to view and control services in that he can start or stop them. It is possible to view the installed devices and also to disable them. Programs which have been installed in the system can be viewed and uninstalled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Looking at the above possibilities not forgetting the ability to record voice or web footage, it is very dangerous to have the system exposed to this virus. Financially, it is a killer virus. Once the person has been able to access saved passwords and password hashes, the person can simply get the banking information for online bankers and be able to directly interfere with the banking system to such an extent as exhausting someone’s accounts.

Access of someone passwords can lead to various other security breaches which can cost companies a lot of money. It is possible to get into the deep secrets of a company and sell the information to enemies or malicious traders who may want to sell back the information or pose the company a risk of exposing it. People can be able to interfere with bankroll details posing more financial drains.

From this information on the presence and the capability of the risks that can be posed by poison ivy, it is necessary for all IT personnel to be aware of the dangers that can occur due to some of these risks. The main thing that should be taken into consideration is the way technology is being used as a tool against others. Poison ivy does not just get into the computer through sheer luck or guess work, but it is a tool that has professionally been made to achieve some objectives (MozillaZine, 2009).

With this in mind, the management of all companies irrespective of how big or how large need to equip the IT department with constant updates and refresher courses so that they can march with the incoming technologists who are proving to be more equipped with the latest in the books. The question of security should bypass physical security at the door but also should incorporate IT security as a whole.

Threat classification for the threat being averted Human made threat → intentional fault → interaction fault → deliberate

Data is insecure in a variety of ways which range from storage, transmission and even when in custody of the right people. When the right person has the right information, attackers can easily get it through social engineering processes which makes the companies vulnerable to all kinds of threats. This means that the management should always seek to block all the vulnerabilities so as to minimize the attacks. Apart from sealing the vulnerabilities, which might not be enough, measures should be employed through which data is protected in all means whether during storage or transmission (Dawson and Wong, 2007).

In conclusion, security in all areas of IT is under threat and it is upon the relevant authority to be cautious enough of the possible attackers. This paper has focused on security as an issue and deeply looked at the poison ivy virus, what it does and the dangers it poses to users of the internet and intranets. It has winded up with some of the lessons that the people in charge of security should learn as they undergo the duty of securing all the systems (Volonino and Robinson, 2004).

References Dawson, E. and Wong, D. (2007). Information security practice and experience: third international conference. New York: Springer.

MozillaZine (2009). Firefox.exe always open. Retrieved from:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Volonino, L and Robinson, S (2004). Principles and practice of information security: protecting computers from hackers and lawyers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Australia and international relations challenges Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction In the 2000s, the concept and understanding of security in Australia has dramatically altered. What was once considered a self defence issue has now been redefined to encompass economic issues, social factors and environmental concerns associated with the well being of the nation. Therefore, trade, political relations with other nations, immigration and diplomacy are all critical contributors to the challenges faced by Australia in its international relations.

Whether there is a challenge to Australia given that it faces numerous international challenges (China and the US) in the areas of potential great power conflict

Armed forces as a form of national defence in Australia have been critical in assessing the perceived challenges in international relations. In the cold war era, Australia along with the world did not shy away from the use of military power because the war was seen as an ideological battle that would assist in the end of totalitarianism.

The continued existence of such a phenomenon (Totalitarianism) would have been a threat to world peace and it was therefore justifiable to act militarily at such times. Later on, in the 1990s and into the 2000s, perceived threats to Australian security were seen through events in New Guinea, East Timor and Fiji. Therefore, events occurring around the Australian region prompted the country to act accordingly in order to protect its interests in this regard (Ravenhill