Fundamentals Of Abnormal Psychology: Anxiety Disorders Term Paper Essay Help

Introduction Throughout our lifetime, we often find ourselves in situations that challenge us physically, mentally or both. How we perceive and subsequently react to these challenges differs and in some cases, our reaction may have detrimental health implications to our lives. Considering that life is full of unknown, everyone is bound to get anxious or stressed out at one point in time.

Both these conditions pose a serious threat to the mental as well as the physical well being of a person. This being the case, it is a worthwhile endeavor to take some time out to explore the causes effects and solutions to these conditions. However, this paper shall specifically shed some light on anxiety disorders. Under this topic, the types, causes symptoms and possible solutions to this disorder shall be duly addressed.

Anxiety disorders: A brief overview

Imagine a situation whereby you suddenly feel as though your heart is pumping faster, every muscle in your body muscles is tightening, surrounding walls are closing in on you and everything around you is falling apart. You experience shortness of breath and start perspiring rapidly.

This is a classical example of an anxiety attack. Bernstein (2010) defines anxiety as a situation/state of discomfort, worry, fear or nervousness that results from the anticipation of a potentially risky or threatening situation. According to Bernstein (2010), anxiety disorders have in the recent past been classified as being among the most prominent psychological disorders in the United States.

This bleak reality can be attributed to the fact that most people experience compromising situations in their lives. For example, during a job interview, giving a speech in an unfamiliar or crowded place, or even meeting a long lot friend after a long time. While such situations may seem as moments of weakness, they are life threatening to a person suffering from an anxiety disorder.

Types of anxiety disorders It should be noted that while it is not uncommon for a person to feel on edge or be afraid and uncomfortable in different situations, anxiety disorders often represent different experiences to the person suffering from them.

According to Comer (2010), common symptoms of anxiety disorders include but are not limited to chronic and exaggerated levels of fear and uneasiness that in hinder an individual from leading a normal life. In his book, the author sheds some light on the four main types of anxiety disorders. They are; generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks, Phobias, and obsessive compulsive behavior (OCD).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generalized Anxiety disorder (GAD)

GAD can simply be described as a frequent and continuous form of anxiety that lasts for a month or more. According to Comer (2010), people with this type of disorder are always uneasy, worried and in most cases, preoccupied with feelings that things are about to go wrong (feelings of doom). In addition, the author states that such people often worry about everything even without having a logical justification for such worries. As a result, they experience high levels of stress and are unable to function normally.

Some of the physical reactions attributed to this psychiatric condition include but are not limited to dizziness, moodiness, isolative tendencies, jitters, and trembling among others. Some of the documented symptoms of this disorder include, tension of the muscles, uneasiness, inability to concentrate, irritability, sleep disturbance and fatigue. Weiten Dunn and Hammer (2011), state that most people will have three or more of these symptoms.

So the question that is left begging is: how do you know that it is GAD? Consider this, most people experience stage freight, others find it uncomfortable to start conversations and a majority of people get jitters whenever they are faced with a new and potentially challenging situation.

To answer this logical question, Comer (2010) states that in GAD, these symptoms persist for a period of six or more months, regardless of the situation. In addition, Comer (2010) sheds some light on some specific perspectives that can help psychiatric experts understand GAD more, all the while enabling them to trace the causes, effects and treatment of this condition. The perspectives as outlined by Comer (2010) are:

The sociocultural perspective

According to the author, social anxiety refers to a situation whereby a person is incapable of functioning normally in a social setting. To put this statement in context, imagine a situation whereby your mind is always preoccupied with thought of how other people perceive you.

This is the case with social anxiety disorder SAD. The sufferers of this condition have an acute fear of scrutiny from the people that surround them. Considering the fact that society is as a result of our day to day interactions, people with SAD are often depressed, suicidal and are more likely to indulge in alcoholism and other anti-social tendencies.

The psychodynamic perspective

This perspective tries to relate GAD to human behavior in regard to conscious and unconscious mind processes. Comer (2010), states that in his view, GAD emanates from an indication of danger which can only be explained by thoroughly analyzing the personality and life experiences of the sufferer.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology: Anxiety Disorders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Humanistic perspective

This perspective views abnormal human tendencies as a result of an individual’s inability to find meaning in his/her life or, failure to achieve his/ her greatest potential. According to Weiten, Dunn and Hammer (2011), mental health and personal development come naturally to human beings. As such, the authors argue that human beings have an innate drive towards self-realization, self-actualization and fulfillment. In this view, a person is therefore mentally ill when circumstances in his/her environment block this drive.

Cognitive perspective

This perspective holds that psychological problems are brought about by maladaptive and dysfunctional thinking (Comer, 2010). As regarding to GAD, Comer (2010) states that this condition comes about as a result of an individual developing unrealistic silent thoughts and then interpreting them as imminent danger.

This statement is true and applicable in real life situations. For example, a person may go to into an elevator and as soon as it starts moving, he/she becomes anxious or nervous. This is mainly due to the fact that they think bad things will happen in the elevator and as a result, he/she view the elevator as a dangerous place to be in. consequently, he/she exhibit the symptoms of GAD.

Biological perspective

Some psychologists and behavioral analysts believe that human behavior is in some instances inherited from blood relatives. This assumption is supported by many family pedigree studies which indicate that close blood relatives are 15% more likely to inherit GAD as compared to the 4% that represent people from the general public (Comer, 2010). In addition, GABA inactivity which is biologically inherited can cause GAD since the inhibitor cannot effectively stop neurons from firing.


Phobias can best be described as unrelenting and unexplainable fears for objects, activities or events. Statistics presented by Comer (2010) indicate that on average, 10% of adults across the world have a phobia and 14% of the total population in America, develop a phobia in their life. In addition, Comer (2010), states that phobias are twice as common in women as they are in men. Phobic people have a tendency to avoid their phobias and strive hard not to think about them.

For example, I am afraid of spiders and small rodents, in as much as people tell me that they do not pose any imminent danger to my life, I cannot shake the feeling that they are always out to get me as well as gross. Over the years, I have tried to justify my fear towards these creatures but I cannot explain it verbally. However, I always feel nervous and unsettled whenever I encounter them.

There are two main types of phobias: social phobias and agorophobias. According to Comer (2010), social phobias refer to severe fears that arise due to social interactions and public situations in which the chances to get embarrassed are high. The author further states that this type of phobia affects normal functions and often starts during childhood.

In addition, many people develop two or more phobias in their lives. Comer (2010), states that most phobias are as a result of imitation, classic conditioning and a continuous avoidance to the object or situation. For example, if you have never boarded an airplane, chances are that you will develop a phobia for flying in later years. This can best be explained by some Africans who fear flying simply because they do not understand the dynamics behind the airplane, as well as the fact that they have never flown before.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology: Anxiety Disorders by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Panic disorder

This is another form of anxiety disorders. Panic attacks refer to sudden, recurrent and unexpected bouts of intense fear that arise as a result of an individual’s anticipation that something bad will happen (Bernstein, 2010). They are often followed by physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, heart racing, and tremors.

Consider this scenario: you are relaxing at home when suddenly; a friend calls you and tells you that an important meeting has been rescheduled and is presently being held at your office. The aforementioned physical symptoms always set in immediately, and your mind is unable to process information as fast as you would like. This is a good example of a panic attack and it happens more often than we would like to believe.

However, it should be noted that people suffering from panic disorders have this feeling constantly and are less likely to control these bouts regardless the intensity of the situation. As Comer (2010) suggests, panic attacks can be caused by biological factors such as reduced levels of Norepinephrine which affects our brain’s capacity to respond and be attentive.

In addition, the author states that there may be cognitive causes such as misinterpretation of bodily events. For example, some people are too sensitive to touch. As such, when you touch such a person, his/her brain views that as a threat thereby throwing him into a panic attack. However, panic attacks are curably through therapy and antidepressant drugs.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

OCD can be defined as “an anxiety disorder and is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) (NIMH, 2011, p.1).” as a result of these obsessions, the sufferer often results to repetitive behaviors such as counting, cleaning, hand washing among others, in a bid to divert their attention from these thoughts.

However, performing these rituals offers a temporary solution and if the sufferer does not do them, his/her level of anxiety increases. As a result, you find an individual performing these rituals repetitively and more frequently so as to avoid these unwanted and recurrent thoughts.

Comer (2010), states that OCD differs from other anxiety disorders in the sense that the battle does not occur in the unconscious but rather, it manifests itself through explicit thoughts and actions. Similarly, the author further contends that there are psychological perspectives that explain the causes of this disorder.

The psychodynamic perspective implies that anxiety disorders come into play when children fear their id impulses and as a result, use their ego as a defense mechanism to reduce their anxiety levels (Comer, 2010). From a behavioral point of view, situation in life force people into compulsions.

For example, in a fearful situation, an individual may find that washing his/her hands relaxes and lessens his/her anxiety. When the situation passes, they end up associating the progress to the action that helped alleviate the situation. After doing this several time, they end up believing that the random act (hand washing for example) changes the situation. There are several therapeutic and medical treatments for OCD. Behavioral therapy, which focuses on treating compulsion, has proven to be a success in the recent years.

Conclusion This paper has gone on to reiterate the fact that anxiety disorders are indeed a reality in life and as such, we should brace ourselves for their occurrences. The motivation of this paper has been to document various problems that stem from these disorders.

To this end, the various problems that can emanate from different types of anxiety disorders if left unchecked have been outlined. It is hoped that in light of this information, one need no longer look at anxiety disorders bleakly since they are not terminal in nature and real solutions do exist to the problem.

References Bernstein, D. (2010). Essentials of Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning.

Comer, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. California: Worth Publishers.

NIMH. (2011). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD. Retrieved from:

Weiten, W., Dunn, D.,


The Wabash Watershed Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Climatic changes are as a consequence of both natural and man-made factors. Natural factors may relate to floods, epidemic, warming as well as rising in sea-level.

On the other hand artificial factors may concern pollution including the green-house emissions. In the above mentioned instance, diverse climatic aspects are considerably altered either seasonally or equally permanently. It ought to be noted that climatic variations are a major issue of concern. Both plant and animal life depends on the dynamics of climate to breed or survive. Exploring the issues surrounding Wabash Watershed in regard to the 1961-1990 periods, it can be argued that a lot of disparities can be detected.

During the wake of 1960s the concept of global warming was not a serious issue. As the date testifies the period was in essence clean and free from massive climate changes. As is evidenced by the areas topographical consideration, the population was equally moderate. However, as the region became more and more exposed to increased human activities, the regions weather patterns assumed a new dimension which is testified by the unstable, rain and temperatures.

Thus the data stands as the key indicator of climatic patterns before the effect of global warming began to be experienced. Floods, flash floods, heavy rains and animal immigrations can be said to be some of the effects of mounting rate of climatic changes. Hence, the data wrapping around the scope of maximum temperatures ranging from 1960-to-1990 exposes a trend that shows that from 1960 to 1982 began to increase considerably.

This was followed by disrupted rain patterns and this is also illustrated by the unstable temperatures variations both in short and long term observations. What this shows is that the changing climatic variations are hazardous. Consider the fact that changing temperatures may increase the instances of drought, low water levels, increases floods as well as influx of diseases and diseases resistant organisms. Therefore, the trend is in essence a negative pointer that can be attributed to global warming.

Looking at the entire data presentation it can be said that the environment was gradually giving in to warming. This can be linked to the available data which indicates that in the wake of 1970s the temperatures were deep low, while the subsequent years shows the great deal of variation with an increase in temperatures. And this shows why at some point the region had the coldest season as is evidenced by the wake of January 1977. Thus, it can be established that the issue of environmental warming was affecting the climatic patterns gradually.

With each impact on temperatures so did the variation took place. Hence, the scope of precipitation, moisture, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration and surface runoff took a new dimension. This can be allied to the fact that decreased moisture on the surface, low precipitation as well as increased temperatures played a role in altering the environment as well as the natural buffers that checked the abnormal climatic changes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Climatic changes Though, some theorists envisioned that we would see a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. This might result in a reduced range of temperatures.

This trend indicates that if global warming persisted so do the abnormal climatic changes that equally affected the natural dynamics of water retention in the atmosphere, where evaporation increased including unstable moisture deficit. In essence, the scope of differing temperature ranges indicates that the global warming is in reality playing a role in reshaping the established climatic patterns.

Thus, in regard to reduced ranges of temperatures, it is evident that the region experienced some of the harshest conditions in the wake of 1970s as well as the dawn of 1980s. More so, this paints a vivid picture of how these changes allied to fluctuating temperatures affected the range and instances of precipitation and evapotranspiration within a duration of 5 years begin from 1980s.

Also the tens years range establishes that in the wake of early 60s some instances of reduced temperature ranges were witnessed. Equally, examining the gradual temperatures recorded an imminent trend observed regards an increased peak from the 1970s and is a pointer that this was the emerging common trend. Many theories that look at global warming envisage more drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations.

Diverse trends in precipitation can be witnessed along the random instances of specific amount of precipitation And this could be fatal to both animal and plant life. Also incase of low temperatures this may cause droughts as well as an increase in animal migration not to mention an increase in water in the moisture and this may cause freezing.Exploring the dynamics of global warming, we are left with two pertinent challenges, an increase in temperatures, or a drop in temperatures. In both cases drought is pertinent in some regions, it ought to be noted that an increase in temperature may result in shifting sea levels and more so causing flash rains as well as floods.

Generally, what this indicates is that with escalating global and local temperature variations evaporation is expected to increase. Hence, the eventual change would entail having increased moisture which could result in more instances of fog and subsequently result in higher minimum temperatures and this would affect apposite climate for animal and plant reproduction. Therefore, the trend shows that global warming as is explained by climatic theorists could cause fatal crisis in regard to food security in days to come.

Argument The way both maximum and minimum temperatures seem to fluctuate suggests that these changes have deep effect on global climate. In reference to actual evapotranspiration, surplus/deficit conditions and runoff/streamflow, we might expect to get more instances of drought, heavy rains, flashfloods and equally long spells of winds. This can be attributed to the global warming theory that posits that increased instances of greenhouse gases would eventually result in earth’s atmosphere being impacted.

We will write a custom Essay on The Wabash Watershed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason is minimum temperatures are increasing rapidly than global and local maximum temperatures. According to the available data this can also result in an increase in precipitation and this would be precedent by an increase in temperatures and evaporation.

The clear-cut answers to the trends being witnessed can be provided by having well established policies designed to curb greenhouse emissions as well as stop massive deforestation. This would help in controlling the changing instances of temperatures. It ought to be noted that with reduced instances of greenhouses the witnessed climatic abnormalities could be checked.

Also, it is crucial to note that the primary features of greenhouse gases which are water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide could be controlled by having environmental friendly greenhouses and this would entail planting more trees and using less farm chemicals which are released to the atmosphere.

Basically, what this study shows in regard to carrying out studies on environmental issues like global warming is that it is essential to understand what surrounds us. Examining the data it can be stated that the study has provided a new window for human race to understand that mans survival depends on stable environment.

Also it would be prudence to argue that the study shows that stable maximum and minimum temperatures plays a central role in our lives. However, with the emergence of global warming the study makes an informed proposition that global warming is one of the foremost threat to global and local climatic conditions. The study has established that global warming do affect diverse aspects of our very own survival from availability of water to food security.

Thus, it would be instrumental to note that earth’s resources do considerably rely on the balance between maximum and minimum temperatures. The studies do indicate that researching on diverse aspects of the environment would be instrumental in establishing the apposite measures of tackling both natural and man-made features affecting the environment.

Concerning the study on environment and is established by this research it would be also important to examine data regarding crop and animal production. Also examining the information surrounding instances of animal migration, instances of severe drought, heat waves as well as changes in rain patterns would provide a solid insight into how climatic changes are effected by abnormal temperatures, evaporation, surface run off, as well as moisture.

The information from such observations would help in establishing critical measures of controlling global warming or any other instances affecting the temperatures. As the studies depict temperatures plays a considerable role in the manner global climate is sustained or manipulated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Wabash Watershed by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The proposition of this study can be correlated to the fact that global warming is major threat to both animal and plant life. This can be allied to the fact that the established changes could and will continue to impact on the environment if unchecked.

Looking at the implications of the study the foremost thing is to understand that human activities are the core factors in regard to global warming. More so, as the study offers the apparent changes can be controlled and the current status be rectified. As is apparent before the wake of 1980s the global temperatures had not fluctuated as such.

However, with each passing year we have noted in the provided data that moisture deficits increased as the greenhouse emissions mounted. According to the data provided and the critical analysis of the diverse aspects of climatic changes, it obvious that setting the record straight in regard to implications of global warming is core implication of this study.

It is from such observation that the future studies may be based upon in order to establish the apposite strategies of dealing with this issue or a similar one. Thus, to the environmentalist, the research has provided a new dimension of addressing climatic changes. While to the scholars and the government the study has provided a critical insight in regard to the best climatic variations can be managed to avert disasters (Adabashev,1966).

The current trend which can be linked to global warming has a played a global role in creating escalating instances of food shortages as is being witnessed today in Africa. The impact of global warming can also be linked to the random flash floods being witnessed in regions surrounding the Pacific Ocean.

Such issues do have a direct link to climate changes. Examining the manner food security has been compromised over the years or from the wake of 1960s, it can be alluded that climatic changes have played a central role in decreasing food production globally. When we examine the impact within the local scope it is evident Wabash Watershed has exposed instances of decreased water levels as well as high temperatures.

Such instances have in certain quarters resulted in explosion of drug resistant diseases or as is with the tropics the emergency of pests resistant to pesticide. Therefore, the current trend which is predominantly linked to global warming has a critical impact on the entire scope of climate. As is evident climate changes do determine if a particular region would be inhabitable or not.

A good example is the recent tsunami in Japan as well as swam attack in Chad and Niger in northern Africa. If the trends continue in their current direction, the people living within Wabash Watershed may find themselves warped in unexpected cold seasons as well as instances of extreme heat waves. This can be allied to the fact that as the temperature fluctuates so do other features allied to the environment such as water.

Thus, if the trend goes unabated it is likely that in days to come the region may experience instances of dryness or equally frost. Not mention that the available results do establish that the way the region temperatures have fluctuated stability cannot be attained without considering the effects of global warming. The region is no exception, its rivers are running dry, and while the animal life stands endangered this is a pointer that anything can happen.

Some of the major effect the people of this region may encounter may include loss of native and drought resistant plants. Also the instances of extreme cold as was witnessed in the wake of 1970s cannot be ruled out.

On a similar note the people may face a challenge from explosion of epidemic due to decreased temperatures thus giving raise to the growth of disease causing organism. Also proliferation of parasites, prolonged cold and dry seasons, delayed rains, acid rains as well as increased moisture deficit are some of the people of this region may encounter if the trend persists.

This can be as a result of abnormal water loss due to extreme evaporation, random precipitation as well as low forest density. Thus, the people ought to be informed and be sensitized of the dangers correlated to climate changes. As a number of scholarly have established climatic changes do alter the pace of environmental harmony and this in most instances results in catastrophe.

In conclusion, climatic changes due to global warming can be destructive. As the information provided depicts, diverse environmental agents are destroyed where such are allowed to flourish. Therefore, implementing the apposite structures to deal with greenhouses emissions would be a major step in sustaining the normal level of temperatures which are suitable for normal precipitation, moisture levels as well as evaporation (Bonnett, 2008).

References Adabashev, I. (1966). Global Engineering. Moscow: Progress.

Bonnett, A. (2008) What is Geography? London: Sage


American Art and 1920 Jazz Age Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Art during the War

American Art during 1920 Jazz Age



Introduction American art includes the historical paintings and other visual artistic expressions. Realistic paintings of portraits and landscapes are some of the art types produced at the onset of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the height of the industrial revolution in America, the America craft movement which began as a response to the industrial revolution was one of the major developments taking place.

Exhibitions that were done in New York City such as the Armory show of 1913 are examples of modern art that started penetrating America. Before this show, artists from America concentrated on western paintings and arts from European countries. When the First World War ended, Paris was used as the center of art in the world. Since this development, movements have sprung in America that have completely changed modern art.

Art during the War The period during the war in America was characterized by a negative attitude towards fine arts. Most of the art that was produced during this period included paintings from famous painters like Washington Allston. This caused the painters to become disillusioned with the status of the art.

Apart from paintings, portraits were another form of art that received much popularity. These portrait paintings exhibited the kind of energy possessed by builders of the American nation and the confidence that was in them. During this period, there was also a remarkable emergence of genre painters. They were involved in painting the American scene. For example, Audubon provided detailed and impressive paintings of birds alongside other paintings of other figures that were regarded as legendary (Henkes, 2001).

In the first half of 19th century, the first school of American landscape painting came into existence. This school of art painted landscapes with descriptions of the American people. Their work of art was a show of appreciation to nature that has continued to define American art.

In addition, the Americans passion for objects was depicted through paintings. Portraits of sculpture are also another form of art that was prevalent during the war period in America. Though artists like John Frazee had not received intensive training in producing art, they produced original and excellent work from wood and marble. The sculptors of America were highly influenced by neoclassicist personalities from Denmark.

American Art during 1920 Jazz Age With the end of the war and its characteristic art of paintings and sculptures, American art started to change in the 1920s with the arrival of the Jazz movement. This period was characterized by the emergence of jazz music accompanied by dance. The movement was sparked by the advent of radio after the end of the war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arrival of jazz movement brought about totally different cultural practices and art. The most instrumental pioneers of Jazz music are the African Americans although it was later suited to white Americans. African Americans only used the white Americans to make the jazz culture popular. The jazz culture made it possible for African Americans to share their cultural ideals. Places like New York were often used by African American artists as centers for playing jazz.

The jazz music introduced by African Americans played in most radio stations causing youths in the 1920s to shun the traditional cultures that were being propagated. During this period, there was also a complete shift in art after the introduction of fads and radio concerts.

Throughout 1920s, jazz music was very popular despite stiff competition that was coming from other forms of music. Common dances that had been developed by the African Americans became popular as part of American art among other white Americans. The radio stations embraced these new forms of music so the Americans were given a chance of enjoying new artistic forms (Infoplease, 2011)

Conclusion The Jazz age was truly a turning point for the American art from the art that existed during the period of war. During the war, American art was characterized by paintings and sculptures that represented the Americans aspirations and their love for culture. However, there was a complete change in art after the introduction of the jazz music. It initially originated from the African Americans but later spread to other white Americans.

References Henkes, R. (2001). World War 2 in American art. Carolina: McFarland.

Infoplease. (2011). After the Civil War. Web.


Understanding Media and Communication Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



“Form of realism”

“Modes of representation”


List of References

Introduction Films are lengthy plays recorded on electronic devices, which focus on telling factual, mythical, tradition, scientific and fictional stories. A film results from the creative skills of the producer who writes the script that the actors follow while acting. Most films attempt to replicate real situations, which have transpired in the past. Conversely, music is a composition that consists of lyrics. However, visual images as evident in the presence of images and sounds lack in music.

Evidently, such media platforms pass information to the mass in an extensive manner. Nonetheless, they make use of different styles thus translating the intended messages. This paper aims to contrast the two media platforms based on certain aspects that include ideology, realism and audience. Transmedia narratives are story narrated over different media platforms. A story falls into this category once it conforms to three or more media platforms.

The exponential developments in the media world have facilitated the growth of transmedia narratives. Diversification of media platforms will be the predominant factor driving the growth of transmedia narratives by creating more platforms. The discussion below compares two media platforms thus music and film. The discussion exemplifies the techniques and devices used in storytelling in music and films (Abba 2009).

Ideology Ideology is a general term that describes certain ideas or values that people follow. Overtime, mass media has been an avenue that fosters definite ideas. This means media platforms can lead to changes in ideologies. Films have the capability to tell lengthy and complex narrative because they can accommodate a dynamic cast. In addition, they make use of sound and picture in messages. Film uses different techniques to suggest its significance.

On the contrary, music uses few techniques since it faces limitations. Music only makes use of sound. Therefore, it cannot integrate all the techniques and devices into sound. However, films can integrate the techniques and devices into sound and images. The visual ability in films means that they have the capability to influence persons. Music can influence ideologies due to its rhythms and creatively used lyrics.

Essentially, both are influential; however, films seem to exude significant influence. With the digital advancement, a filmmaker can now film complex pieces. In order to enforce certain ideologies, films use devices such as rhetoric techniques. Music and film have applied rhetoric relatively equally. Evidently, rhetoric refers to any part of the story where the storyteller asks a question yet the artist comprehends the answer. The style is evident significantly in film than music (Post and Gold, 2006).

Audience Transmedia narratives exude diverse story lines. Transmedia narratives require fanatical audience that will endeavor to follow the variety of stories that exist. These narratives capture a wide range of audiences because they are present on numerous media platforms. It worth noting that music commands a large crowd than film because it is cheaper.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A vital element of transmedia narratives is that they bring the audience on-board. Once the audiences participate, they can adjust the storyline making it linguistically and ethnically suitable for the industry. This means that the audiences have a certain level of responsibility to add to the entire plot. This makes transmedia narratives more acceptable. The level of participation in altering the plot would be minimal since film involves diverse issues that include cast and resources.

Conversely, altering the plot would be easier since it involves lesser people and resources. This means the flexibility of music gives it an edge over films, which are rigid. Transmedia allows a single story telling on a multitude of ways. With the technological advancement, transmedia will help to explore previously untapped market. Indeed, it would suit audio oriented stories while film would be suitable for graphical and audio oriented stories.

“Form of realism” Realism involves making a representation of real life situation in literature of arts. It fundamentally involves replicating a real situation. In contrasting the two media platforms with regard to realism, it is imperative to analyze their capability to replicate situations and scenarios. Films are competent of replicating situations exemplarily since it has both visual and audio capability. When they have a trained cast, they can bring out any story magnificently well.

However, films require a substantial amount of resources to support the crew and equipment. Story telling on film requires an assortment of skills. This is because a film requires a script, which captures the basis of the story. Conversely, the process of storytelling in music is considerably simple but requires a gifted person. Telling a story in a song requires the singer to blend in the ideas, which is not an ordinary fit.

However, storytelling through music is much simpler and inculcates fewer techniques and devices. On the contrary, storytelling through films involves many devices since it can accommodate a larger cast. This means that it can have antagonist protagonist, narrator, foil, and confidant. The antagonist, narrator, and antagonist represent the varying views, which may exist due to a certain story.

The use of such a cast gives depth to the story telling in films since the story has to give space to allow the varying speakers to assert their views. Such diverse thought brought about by the cast will trigger the audience to pay attention. This means that the audiences are not just ordinary listeners. It is challenging and impractical to integrate such a cast in a song because it would lose certain aspects such as rhythm.

Indeed, films have the capability to replicate a situation given the right cast and resources. These are attributable to the sound and visual aspect of films. In addition, film allows the audience to see the narrators and members of the cast. Music integrates poetry into lyrics to create rhyming words and thus improve rhythm in the song. Poetry represents the most incorporated style in music (Khlentzos 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Understanding Media and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Modes of representation” These modes present model of film making utilized in the past. These modes represent the patterns that film production engaged. These modes apply in film making by providing guidance to the filmmaker on the procedures to follow. This reveal an aspect of film making that is procedural (Isaken


Personality and Emotional Development Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Personal development of every child is as important as acquisition of scientific facts and learning of the basic laws of the universe. Ability of a person to apply social-emotional skills in adulthood can be considered as a positive contribution of the system of education to it. Positive social development in a wider range of social roles and responsibilities of an individual can be reached through such personal skills and capabilities as leadership, respect to others, non-abusive behavior, and ability to negotiate.

An individual should respect others, be able to negotiate over certain issues, avoid verbal and physical abuse to persuade a person or display his/her emotions or ideas, and try to succeed in all activities he/she participates in. as such, all abovementioned skills can be analyzed in complex with regard to their close connection to each other.

Family environment can be as encouraging as discouraging in terms of development of social-emotional skills of children. As such, the best qualities of the family environment that can positively contribute to the development of social-emotional skills in children include the following:

Encouragement of initiatives and leadership skills in children can make them be more independent and active in their activities;

Respect for decisions of children as well as other adults in the family is the key quality to developing of respect and non-abusive behavior in children;

Discussion of problems openly is aimed at making children not afraid of having their own ideas and making decisions in accordance with the viewpoints of other members of the family. If parents notice some changes in the behavior of their children, they should be ready to discuss it openly within the family and with the teacher.

At the same time, family environment can have negative effect on development of social-emotional skills. In this respect, the qualities that can inhibit the child’s development for a range of roles and responsibilities in society include lack of respect in the family to the opinion of other members.

This can be seen through prohibitions and denial of a child’s own will when parents tend to decide what is ‘better’ for their children. Existence of this quality in the family may prevent a child from obtaining such social –emotional skills as leadership and ability to negotiate because he/she is taught at home to have no personal viewpoints.

On the other hand, such quality as verbal or physical abuse can prevent a child from respective adults in general and those who can resemble the one who makes the child suffer from abusing. Moreover, a child can treat abusing as a norm of behavior and use it as an argument when he/she can see no chance for peaceful negotiation. In addition, physical and verbal abuse can be the reason for a number of other problems in a child’s development.

Classroom environment can be really encouraging for students in terms of development of their social-emotional skills that can be further applied to a wider range of roles and responsibilities. For instance, a teacher can introduce group activities so that children could practice their leadership skills and show respect in reaching an agreement while working on the assignments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As suggested by Slaving et al. (2003), “cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn” (cited in Slavin, 2009, p. 46). Besides, a teacher can “create rules in the classroom that recognize positive behavior, such as co-operation, caring, helping, encouragement and support” (Elias, 2003, p. 8).

At the same time, another positive quality of the classroom environment that can contribute to development of social-emotional skills is relationship between students and attitude of the teacher toward interest groups and encouraging students to make friends.

Classroom environment can become the reason for problems a child encounters in terms of social-emotional development. For instance, if a teacher does not care about the relationship between classmates, children can behave in a negative manner affecting others and preventing each other from making progress.

Besides, a teacher can negatively affect children in case he/she show disrespect for one of student or another teacher thus showing a vivid example. Probably, students would follow such an example and disrespecting people with no reason and abusing them verbally or physically to show them superiority would become a norm.

Such theorists as Erik Erickson and Maurice Elias have contributed greatly to understanding the necessity of developing social-emotional skills of children.

For instance, Erik Erickson introduced a number of virtues that can be developed in a specific age; as such, competence is one of the virtues that can be developed in the age of 6-11 years and a teacher should make sure that no child feels inferior when comparing himself/herself to other children in class. At the same time, Maurice Elias presented explanation of emotional intelligence, a concept that can be seen when people try to respect each other and negotiate to reach and agreement.

References Elias, M. J. (2003). Academic and social learning. Brussels, Belgium: International Academy of Education. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Personality and Emotional Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational psychology theory and practice (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Indigenous people in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Prior to the arrival of the Europeans in the Australian continent in the 19th century, the land was inhabited by a group of people who are today referred to as the Aborigines. According to Lydon (2005, p. 201), archeologists have estimated that these people have been on this continent for about 60,000 years. In addition, he notes that these people had managed to develop their own social, political and economic system although when the European landed on the continent, they regarded these systems as backward and archaic.

Indigenous history of Indigenous peoples in Victoria


The housing crisis Term Paper best essay help

The housing crisis is an economic bubble affecting many areas in the United States. House prices were high and peaked in 2006. Gradually, the prices began to decline in 2006 and 2007.

They’re still lowering to date. As this picture unfolds, it emerges that any form of the housing bubble of the United States leaves a ripple effect which directly hits not only the valuation of homes, but also the states home builder’s, the home supply retailing outlets, the real estate industry as a whole as well as the mortgage markets. The crisis has posed a very huge risk to the American economy.

As Randel stated, “the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates during the period of 1995-2000 which created easy credit for banks to make loans. Rates were extremely high by 2006 hence lowering demand and increasing monthly payments for adjustable mortgages” (Randel, 144). This increased supply and consequently ended up in further lowering housing prices.

Popular belief that houses as opposed to other investments do not fall in value sparked the huge number of Americans to buy homes. However this is not the case.

Furthermore, it’s also widely believed that homes result in above average returns on investment. It is therefore only reasonable to take for granted that the price of houses only just manage to top price increases over the elongated term.

In the years of 2005 through to 2006, there were copious advertisements as well as shows on television which were aimed at enhancing investment in the real estate sector. Books on real estate investment were being marketed and sold all over. This sparked investment in the housing industry.

Clarey observed the fact that, “as home prices began to rise in early 2000-2001 following reduced interest rates, purchase of homes was on the rise” (Clarey, 256). Speculators bought houses in large numbers with an intention of selling them back for a quick profit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the undertakings occurred well over twenty years ago, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were considered responsible for the credit crisis that resulted after the housing bubble of 2001-2007 burst. The two companies had a huge government backing and were both chartered by the US government as government sponsored enterprises (GSE’s).

The treasury department of the United States of America has been widely criticized for going out of their jurisdiction in the field of spending taxpayer’s money. This authority is preserved for congress only and this is held in the constitution of the United States of America.

The treasury also stands accused of overstepping boundaries that are put in place by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. The two companies operating as monopolies had more disadvantages than benefits. Scrutiny by Sowell revealed that “the two companies made huge profits because they purchased and invested in mortgages and mortgage based securities with lower capital requirements than other financial institutions and banks” (Sowell, 213).

In 1977, the (C.R.A.) Community Reinvestment Act was passed. The act offers a scaffold for organizations that deal with finances, institutions of the community as well as local and national governments to be able to mutually encourage banking services geared towards the entire people of a society.

The C.R.A. basically ruled out lending of money in biased ways with consideration to factors such as race; this is referred to as “redlining”. The Community Reinvestment Act also gives confidence to efforts to fit the credit requirements of all categories of people in a society. These include inhabitants of modest to lower income areas

The US congress, being in charge of the government regulatory authority largely contributed to worsening of the housing crisis. In the year 2008 alone, the government of the United States of America apportioned well over US $ 800 billion to extraordinary credit as well as salvage that was relation to the housing bubble in the United States of America.

More than half of that money was directed to the quasi- governmental organizations of the Federal Housing Administration as well as the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Furthermore, the treasury department on December 24, 2009 went ahead and made an unprecedented pronouncement stating that it was going to support Fannie Mae as well as Freddie Mac by giving them unending financial aid for a period of three years from there henceforth.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The housing crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was against a backdrop of their recognition of the fact that they had incurred losses of much more than US $ 400 billion till then. During the large number of house buying, some brokers handed low interest mortgages to parties that were not qualified to handle large debt.

Lenders did not factor customers’ claims of income and promoted adjustable rate mortgages as they promised greater returns than fixed rate mortgages. Currently uninformed house buyers are unable to meet the terms of their respective contracts and are defaulting on their payments. Many Americans have already lost their houses to foreclosure. It is the laxity in government regulation that has greatly affected the mortgage industry.

By signing the 2008 housing and economic recovery act into law after it had been passed by the congress of the United States of America, President G. W. Bush made wider the ability of the institution FHFA to control Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that had spiraled out of control.

The law also enabled the treasury department of the United States, the clout that would lend finances to the ailing institutions of either Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. This would be bordered by the sole fact of the quantity of liabilities that the federal government as a whole is allowed to obligate to by the law.

The law that was signed on July 30, 2008 by President G. W. Bush, pushed up the maximum of the treasury departments debt by US $ 800 billion, adding up to a whopping grand total of US $ 10.7 trillion. This apparently was in the hope of the latent want for the treasury department to have the elasticity that would enable those help the Federal Home Loan Banks, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.

In a synopsis, avoiding a repetition of the housing predicament hardly deserves an overhaul of the financial or any other structure. What would work better is an acknowledgement that the key policies on housing in the United States are highly flawed and need to be restructured.

The first step in correcting the situation is to straighten out the United States government policies on housing. Strict requirements may be enforced so as to regulate lending and borrowing activities. Added to that, rules that promote fair, easier and responsible lending practices should be strictly adhered to by the stakeholders. This will be of benefit to both borrowers and lenders in the economy

Works Cited Clarey, Aaron. Behind the housing crash. South Carolina: Book Surge Publishing, 2011. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The housing crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Randel, Jim. What every homeowner and homebuyer needs to know: The housing crisis. Connecticut: Rand Media Co., 2009. Print.

Sowell, Thomas. The housing boom and bust. New York: Basic Books, 2010. Print.


Why slavery is wrong Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Frederick Douglass condemns the act slavery. This is revealed from his arguments and examples he has given that condemn this act.

In his work, Douglass recounts the manner in which slaves were prevented from getting knowledge by their masters in order to keep them ignorant. When Douglass wrote his work, slavery was seen as a normal thing in the society that could not be eliminated. Black people were perceived to be incapable of participating in economic and civil rights activism and thus should be held to work for white people.

Douglass narrates ways through which the whites strategize to keep black people in a state of slavery from birth time and throughout their life time. They do it by not telling them their place of birth and hiding them from their parents. When slave children are growing, they are denied education because they know they would be empowered to live on their own. Slaveholders deny slaves the art of writing and reading so that their story would never be told. According to Douglass, this is an inhuman act.

Despite the fact that slaves are held hostage and deprived of the opportunity to get an education, they should use all means to get knowledge as a means to be liberated. From Douglass story, “he gets to know that the only means to freedom is through education when Hugh Auld warns his wife not to teach slaves because it would ruin them.”

When Douglass heard this story, he got the idea of how whites manage to keep blacks in a state of ignorance so that they cannot come out of their captivity. Douglass sets an example of self education when he learns to read and write using his personal means.

Thereby, freeing himself from slavery and using it to fight for the rights of fellow slaves. According to the book, “Douglass got freedom as a result of self education, but he does not guarantee that education itself gives freedom in itself.” It is a means through which slaves can understand injustice done to them and their colleagues; they get to know that they are equal to their masters in all ways.

In the context of the book, Hugh Auld foresees that this awareness brings suffering and a sense of guilt among slaves. Once slaves are aware of injustices done to them by their masters they live with pain and if they try to escape, their lives will be in danger. This reveals how damaging slavery is to the slaves if they are made aware of their rights.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his book, Douglass reveals how damaging slavery can be to the slaves themselves and their masters. He wrote that, “The moral health of slaveholders is in question when they assert their authority and power on slaves.” Douglass revolves around this theme and depicts it as unnatural act of humanity.

He describes some characteristics of slave masters in order to reveal the negative impacts of slavery. He writes that, several slaveholders have been tempted to commit adultery, rape and even bore children with slaves. These behavior patterns such as adultery threaten to split families of slave masters.

According to Douglass, some men who bore children are forced to intimidate their own children by selling them or punishing them while their wives become nasty. An example is given of Thomas Auld who develops distorted religious ideologies so that he can forget the sins he has committed. As a result of slave holding, Sophia Auld is transformed from a perfect woman to an evil lady. Hence, Douglass argues that slavery should be abolished for the good of all people.

In his narration, Douglass brings out a characteristic of correct and false Christianity. His distinction is that true Christianity is the “Christianity of Jesus” while false Christianity practiced by slaveholders is the “Christianity of this land.” He continues to say that Christianity practiced by slaveholders does not show their goodness but a sign of hypocrisy to hide their brutality.

In summary, Douglass tries to convince his audience that slavery is wrong as seen from his arguments against slavery, and examples he has given. He has proven that it is wrong to enslave others because it is inhuman and against Christian ideals.


The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ignorance or New Literacy


Works Cited

Introduction Ever since the agrarian, industrial and scientific revolution, the world has been experiencing a lot of changes that have affected the lifestyles, cultures and beliefs of every society in the world. It is due to these changes that people started to fight for human rights, democracy, equality and so on.

Ever since its early days of establishment, USA has been known to be a nation that contains intellectual and rational individuals. These individuals conatin the knowledge and skills required to make a great nation. As a result, the nation has been renowned for its excellence. The main basis of this excellence has been the sustainable education system of the country coupled with favourable social structures that aimed at developing the cognitive capacity of individuals to a great level.

However, with the rapid advancement in technology that has been experienced in the last few decades, the level of rationalism and intellectuality of the people of the United States has become questionable. Is the country losing its intellectual and rational ways? This is the question that many people keep on asking themselves.

Some believe that the citizens of the country have become ignorant while others believe that the country is in the middle of a literacy revolution. These claims have come about due to the changes that are being experienced in the print and visual media. Initially, people used to utilize a lot of print materials. Students used to read poems, books, novels, journals and so on within and outside the class.

This trend has however changed and now individuals are doing more of watching than reading. At the same time, the internet, especially the social media has changed the manner in which individuals interact, think and write. Due to this fact, a study should be conducted to determine the effects of this advancement of the intellectual capacity of the nation. This essay therefore explores the effects of these developments on the intellectual and rationality capacity of individuals of the United States.

Ignorance or New Literacy Severalarguments have been raised pertaining to whether Americans are becoming ignorant to literacy or they are undergoing a great revolution. Several scholars have come up with their theories and opinions pertaining the issue. In her book, The Age of American Unreason, Susan Jocoby states that Americans have changed the manner in which they think and perceive things (Jacoby 1).

According to her, much of the problems that the nation is facing have been due to the ignorance that has risen from the public. This ignorance has come about due to the changes in that the society is experiencing. There has been a rapid decline in the use of print media by the public for the last three or so decades (Jacoby 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People are not reading as much as they used to back in the day. Instead, the spend much of their time watching television, playing video games and surfing the internet. The number of 17 year olds who read nothing other than their course material has doubled between 1984 and 2004 (Jacoby 6). Due to this fact therefore, these individuals do not have the relevant knowledge and skills that are required to build and sustain a great nation. Susan therefore blames technology for the problems that the nation is currently facing.

On the other hand, Thompson and McKean believe that the nation is undergoing an intellectual revolution. According to them, the intensity of this change is so great that it will result to the creation of more rational and intellectual individuals that the nation had never had before. All this can be attributed to the introduction of new technology. Through the use of the internet and social media, individuals have had the chance to read and write about a lot of issues (Thompson 3).

This has in turn developed them into great writers. At the same time, social media and networks such as tweeter and facebook has given them a chance to easily associate and socialize with one another. This has made it easier for them to share information and ideas. These changes have thus made them understand life in a better perspective by being able to define the problem and come up with solutions (McKean 5).

Personally, I tend to believe that technology has increased the thinking capacity of individuals. It has enable people to view issues from a different perspective. At the same time, the flow of information and ideas is much easier. People are now exposed to a lot of things than before.

This has made them to be more intellectual and rational individuals. The state should therefore put much emphasis on the use of technology. A lot of studies and research should therefore be conducted to ensure that technology is used in a way that will bring about positive change to the people of the United States.

Conclusion An intellectual revolution is going on in the United States. This change aims at producing rational individuals who are more learned and ready to face the challenges of life. This change has resulted to a decline in the utilization of print media and an increase in the use of visual media. The nation is therefore not suffering from any intellectual problem.

Works Cited Jacoby, Susan. How Dumb can we Get? Incurable-Insomniatic. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McKean, Erin. Redefining Definitions. Web.

Thompson, Clive. The New Literacy. Wired Magazine. Web.