Freedom Of Information Qualitative Research Essay Essay Help Online

Introduction The rate, at which change is taking place in society, as well as the challenges posed by the digital era, forces any government to employ new strategies in order to realize its existing strategies. Based on this, development of strong leadership strategies, instituting strong governance and embracing the culture of professionalism as regards to knowledge and information handling, is critical if the government wishes to accomplish its missions.

This essay aims to evaluate the importance of freedom of information in government. It analyzes the effectiveness of information sharing within three domains: among government agencies, between the government and the public and between the private sector and the public sector.

Firstly, the major aims or objectives of freedom of information will be presented, followed by a discussion on the reaction of the government regarding free information flow. The third chapter explores the new systems of openness, whereby the government has been forced to accept information sharing.

The last chapter offers a succinct conclusion, whereby it is reiterated that information sharing plays a critical role in boosting the security and the economy of the country.

Major Aims of FOI Aims of Policy Makers

One of the aims of policy makers is to develop the value of information and data that is within the public domain (Dawes 2010, p. 379). Information and knowledge found at various levels serve different purposes, hence the policy makers ought to improve them in an attempt to utilize them in the most suitable way.

The availability of such knowledge and information benefits members of the public in a number of ways because it empowers them to take up their roles as citizens. This in turn would affect the economy and bolster the performance of the government. Improved information and knowledge handling enable policy makers to develop evidence-based policies, implying they would engage in research before designing new policies.

Thus, policy makers have the opportunity of evaluating the results of the existing policy by means of information sharing process. It should be noted that efficient utilization of information, namely in decision-making, encourages the drafting of strong policies and superior service delivery (Cartwright-Hignett


Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism Proposal essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Thesis Statement

Background Information

Literature Review



Introduction Shinto refers to the indigenous Japanese religion, which has always influenced the lives of many people politically, socially, and even economically in the country. The Shinto religion has a set of practices that were created in the prehistoric periods, but are still valued. The practices are conducted meticulously in order to ascertain the connection between current events and the precedent.

However, studies show that these historical records do not give the clear picture as to how Shinto, as a religion, established itself in the Japanese society. The writings give disorganized folklores, narratives, and myths. In modern Japan, Shinto is a term commonly utilized to refer to communal shrines, which are used for various reasons including war cenotaphs, crop celebrations, marriage, historical tributes, and sectarian groups1.

A number of historians and analysts give a unified definition of the role of Shinto in the modern society, by using a standardized language and practice, which entails adopting an analogous style in dressing and ritual.

Shinto was derived from the phrase ‘the way of the Gods’. It was a Chinese name that combined the words kanji (shi), implying the spirit and kami (to), meaning a theoretical path or a study. The spirits were usually understood from various perspectives with some believers suggesting that they were human-like while others holding the view that they were animistic.

A majority of believers were of the view that they were abstract objects meaning that they represented nonfigurative forces such as mountains and rivers. Spirits and people are inseparable meaning that they are closely interrelated. In fact, the relationship between human beings and spirits is complex to an extent that the presence of spirits will always determine the behaviour of an individual.

The national statistics of Japan show that over 80 percent of all Japanese practice Shinto as a cultural aspect, but not necessarily as a religious feature2. Studies show further that even though some individuals believe in Buddhism, they also engage in Shinto rituals meaning that it is a cultural practice among the people of Japan.

In this regard, Shinto is considered a cultural belief that influences the lives of many people, both believers and other non-believers of Shinto religion. Studies shows that Shinto is treated as a way of doing things in society, but not as a religious practice, given the diversity of the Japanese society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a number of individuals, both taking Shinto as religion and those believing in Buddhism, tend to celebrate the birth of their loved ones in Shinto shrines.

Thesis Statement It is true that Shinto culture influences the lives of many Japanese in a number of ways, which means that it cannot be separated from Japan, as well as the Japanese. In some point in history, Shinto was declared a state religion, which had a tremendous effect on national values. In other words, it can be noted that Japanese nationalism is attributed to Shinto culture.

As per the writings of various scholars specializing on Japanese culture, such as John Nelson and Scott Littleton, Shinto religion is closely related to the Japanese nationalism. My research would therefore focus on establishing the relationship between Shinto religious practices and Japanese nationalism.

Nationalism is a political concept suggesting that policies made ought to be based on exclusivity whereby the interests of the nation-state should always be given a priority when making decisions at the global level. Whenever the Japanese people make their decisions, they always consider the teachings of Shinto religion, which implies that Shinto religion has always influenced the decisions of policy makers.

Background Information Shinto prodigies suggest that Japanese emperors were always related to each other in blood meaning that they belonged to the same clan. This relationship was in an unbroken line, with Jimmu Tenno being the first emperor who was Amaterasu-Omikami grandson. The kami was the first leader of the Japanese people who contributed to the creation of Japan as a state. Japan is an old country whose leader was known as kami3.

All Japanese are descendants of kami, with Amaterasu being the first leader. The imperial family was the valued family unit in the entire clan, yet it originated from the kami. This shows that Japan is the way it is because the gods liked it.

Moreover, the leadership of the country was selected by god hence the people of Japan had a religious responsibility to support the leadership. Before any state function, all emperors had to worship the kami and offer some sacrifices in order to protect the Japanese populace from any form of tribulation.

We will write a custom Proposal on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, a court liturgical was developed to ensure that god was worshiped before any state function could be performed. In the subsequent centuries, Buddhist traditions seemed to take over, but they contained several Shinto elements meaning that Shinto was more of a cultural aspect than a religious belief4.

Towards the end of the 17th century, Shinto took over the affairs of the government, which resulted to the Meiji Restoration. Consequently, Shinto was made a state religion in 1868. The first leader of Japan, Amaterasu, who was also a staunch supporter of Shinto religion, was promoted to be one of the gods. Shinto religion taught that the Japanese leader was not only a political leader, but also a religious leader.

In other words, the country’s leader was made a high priest. The emperor would therefore rule not only Japan, but other parts of the world as well. Since Japanese were related to god, they had a moral responsibility of ensuring that they offer their skills to other people. Since the emperor was associated with god, her position changed in society meaning that he was also a religious leader5.

Some analysts observe that the Japanese emperor was the powerful figure in the land to an extent that he would not respect the law. In the 20th century, the emperor had inadequate powers mainly because she was both a temporal and a political leader. No one would question her leadership given the fact that she would release the military at will.

Article 28 of the Meiji constitution gave people an opportunity to worship a god of their choice, but the emperor made it illegal for an individual to believe in any other faith, apart from Shinto. Every aspect of life, including political, social, and economic, centred on the Shinto religion.

In the education sector, Shinto religion was made a national core subject, both in primary and higher education. It is factual to conclude that Shinto religion controlled the lives of many in Japan until 1946, just after the Second World War.

Literature Review Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.

The source is very important in explaining the relationship between Shinto practices and the development of Japanese nationalism. The author stated that Buddhism and Shinto religions had coexisted for several years, yet Shinto was treated as a cultural practice. Kami was still respected as the Japanese most important god. The historian traced the origin of Shinto whereby he first noted that it was the way of the Gods6.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the events and festivals in the Japanese culture were worshiped within Buddhism, yet they awere the elements of Shinto culture. He also concurred with the fact that Shinto practices gained momentum during the Meiji Restoration. Through this resource, the rituals and festivals of Shinto religion would be understood better.

Nelson, John A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.

The third chapter of the book on the Kami and the fourth on rituals and customs are critical to the understanding of the Shinto religion as regards to nationalism. The author underscored the fact that the people of Japan valued kami so much since she contributed in the making of the nation7. Many people were of the view that Japan could not be in existence without the kami. Therefore, kami was the national unifying factor.

Even non-Shinto believers conducted the Shinto rituals and practices as a sign of patriotism meaning that people respected the culture of Japan. In the third chapter, the author observed that many visitors were comfortable following the Shinto culture because it was not regarded as religion. The book will therefore serve an important role as far as establishing the relationship between Shinto practices and nationalism is concerned.

Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.

The book is critical as far as the understanding of Japan is concerned. In fact, the author cautioned that an individual could not understand the socio-political and economic aspects of Japan without conceptualizing the cultural practices of Shinto. In this regard, it is evident that a strong relationship between Shinto practices and Japanese patriotism exists.

In the view of the author, understanding Shinto culture entails the study of rituals, ceremonies and sacred architecture8. Once an individual comprehends the Shinto culture, he or she would be in a position to determine its effects on the life of ordinary Japanese.

Since the source claims that Japan cannot be separated from the Shinto religion, it will serve a special purpose of explaining the interconnectedness of Shinto and major Japanese cultural practices, which would further confirm that Shinto has an effect on the country’s nationalistic ideals.

Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995.

The above resource suggests that the Shinto culture has retained its rituals over several years to an extent of making these rituals national symbols. Kagura is one of the oldest rituals, which is related to dance. It has been retained for years in Japan9.

In particular, the above source insists on Izumo kagura, which is indeed the most popular type of the traditional Japanese dance. In many public functions, the dance is usually played as one of the ways of showing patriotism to the ideals of the country. This also confirms that Shinto is closely related the country’s nationalism.

Inoue Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press 2003.

The source suggests that Shinto is no longer viewed as a modern religion, but instead a traditional religion of Japan that is related to culture. This means that people worship other forms of religions as their second option, but the first option is Shinto.

Moreover, the author is of the view that modern scholars relate the Shinot religion to kami, meaning a traditional god10. Since it is treated as a traditional religion, it influences the behaviour of many Japanese, which confirms the notion that it shapes nationalist ideals.

Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

The source introduces a number of cultural practices in Japan. Through analysis, the author observed that a number of these cultural practices, which are valued as national ideals even in modern Japan, have their roots in the Shinto religion. This implies that Shinto is no longer a normal religious belief that an individual may choose to neglect.

In particular, the author discussed the issue of impurity whereby the Shinto religion teaches that certain types of deeds generate ritual impurity, which demands personal cleansing for an individual to have the peace of mind. The wrong actions are referred to as kegare while purity is referred to as kiyome11.

The author was of the view that a normal schedule in an individual’s life is referred to as ke while a season full of festivities is referred to as hare, meaning good. Many Japanese worldwide celebrate whenever they feel that they have achieved their objectives. They celebrate following the teachings of Shinto meaning that cultural practices in the country rely on the Shinto teachings.

Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.

The two historians note that since the time of Nara and Heian, practitioners have been adopting a diversified set of beliefs through language and practice12. They note that the style of dressing and the performance of rituals show that Shinto religion contributed a lot in the development of Japanese culture.

Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

The author supports the writings of other historians by observing that religion contributes enormously to the development of any culture in the world13. In Japan, the development of culture is attributed to Shinto.

Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.

The view of the author is that Shinto religion forms the backbone of the Japanese culture meaning that it influences the life of each individual14. Without Shinto culture, the author observes that there would be no religion in Japan.

Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”. Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.

The resource supports the previous works, which suggested that aspects of culture, such as dance, play a role in extending the influence of any culture15. In Japan, kagura dance has contributed a lot in developing and maintaining culture.

Shimazono Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.

The article talks about the Japanese society after the abolishment of Shinto as a state religion. The authors discuss the way in which Shinto managed to penetrate society to an extent that it was considered a national ritual.

In particular, the authors focus on period ranging from 1890 to 1910 whereby the emperor was the most powerful figure in the country due to her position as a religious leader16. The source reviews three major features including the ritual system, educational structure, and the training system for the priests.

Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.

The author gives some of the reservations that many people of Japan have towards Shinto as a religion. The author is of the view that people are comfortable associating themselves with Shinto as a cultural belief, but not as a religion meaning it plays a critical part in determining the country’s nationalism17.

The western values on religion affected the views of many Japanese regarding Shinto, but many individuals are unwilling to abandon it since it is part of their culture.

Fukase-Indergaard, Fumiko, and Indergaard, Michael. “Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State.” Theory and Society, 37.4, (2008), 343-374.

The source talks about the role that religion played in developing the Japanese nationalistic ideals. In the source, the author is observes that the Japanese were determined to strengthen their culture through implementation of the Shinto rituals and practices. Some scholars had earlier advised that western societies achieved their objectives mainly because of the strong religious ideals.

State Shinto was instituted as one way of ensuring compliance from the locals. The author concludes by noting that, even though Shinto was aimed at realizing modernity in Japan, its path was different from those of the west18.

In Japan, the state was never separated from religion since political leaders doubled up as religious leaders. In this regard, the country was able to achieve nationalistic objectives, as opposed to a number of countries in Europe and the United States.

Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.

The source notes that Shinto shrines (kaigai jinji) refer to the national heritage of Japan since they are not only present in the country, but also in other countries with Japanese emigrants.

Before Japan was defeated in the Second World War, many individuals believed that the Japanese race was the most powerful in the world. The shrines were constructed in various countries to show the presence of Japanese19. This meant that the Shinto shrines were symbols of national unity.

Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.

In Japan, the author is of the view that an individual may not actually differentiate between Buddhist believers and Shinto believers because they tend to have similar set of beliefs20. The article claims that Shinto originated from Buddhism, with believe of the kami.

Bibliography Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance.” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.

Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: Cornell University, 1995.

Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Inoue, Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.

Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Nelson, John. A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.

Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.

Shimazono, Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.

Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.”Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.

Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.

Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.

Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.

Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.

Footnotes 1Irit Averbuch,The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 45.

2Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”, Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 296.

3John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 90.

4Nobutaka Inoue, Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 13.

5Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 45.

6Scott Littleton, Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002) 65.

7John Nelson, A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996), 115.

8Scott Littleton, Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places (London: Watkins Publishers, 2011), 112.

9Irit Averbuch, The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 18.

10Nobutaka Inoue,Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 118.

11Yoshio Sugimoto, An Introduction to Japanese Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 37.

12Richard Pilgrim and Robert Ellwood, Japanese Religion (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985), 94.

13John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 59.

14Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 75.

15Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance,” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 325.

16 Susumu Shimazono and Reagan Murphy, “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 114.

17Shimazono, Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1087.

18 Shimazono Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.

19Kōji Suga, “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 70.

20Mark Teeuwen, “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 392.


Accountability in Public Administration Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Public accountability is one of the noble concepts immensely supported by scholars in the discipline of public administration. In the political discourses coupled with policy documents, the term finds an imperative usage since it portrays an image of trustworthiness and transparency (Forrer, et al., 2010).

These two aspects are crucial since citizens who are also the clients of a state become satisfied that a system of administration is able to meet their anticipations in the public sector without exposing their resources to risks of fraud. In this extent, accountability emerges as one of the key values in the public administration. The aim of this study is to discuss the issues involved in making public organizations accountable.

A consideration is also given to discuss the people whom public officials are accountable to, and the most effective means of ensuring a balance between the demands for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.

Issues involved in making Public Organizations Accountable

Accountability involves making organizations transparent and responsible in their dealing in the effort to enhance their trustworthiness. For them to realize the goal, they need to address a number of issues concerning accountability. One of such issue is the development of the capacity to deal with emerging matters that may impede their efforts to attain their dream of being accountable.

For instance, the advent of globalization presents many challenges to corporations and institutions of public administration, seeking that to be accountable in many nations. Kearns (2003) supports the argument by further adding, “Globalization plays the role of shaping the current trends in the global economic markets and the increasing interactions among nations and people from different parts of the world” (p.76).

Emergence of new interactions driven by the dawn of globalization introduces challenges to institutions of public administration in that they handle emerging new roles and expand their functionality sphere. The more expansive an institution or any system requiring checks is, the harder it becomes to handle all the individual facets of an organization, which may provide loopholes for acts of fraud.

Emerging new issues such as those prompted by globalization also present challenges to accountability efforts of an organization due to “the need to understand the dynamics of global value chains, creating trade facilitation structures, developing partnerships, and the establishment of value chains and networks” (Kearns, 2003, p.81).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Existence of such new challenges means that public administration officials have to constantly change their tactics for enhancing accountability since traditional approaches or styles for public administration cease to be effective in handling all the contemporary situations that may prove to be a challenge to the efforts of becoming accountable.

From the above discussion, it is essential that an organization that seeks to be accountable in a globalized market to consider looking for new approaches of enhancing transparency as opposed to the traditional approaches for enhancing intelligibility in the public administration. In fact, this factor is yet another crucial issue involved in making public organizations accountable.

The history of public administration reveals that the main approach for enhancing accountability is through exercising of control and close monitoring of persons who are mandated to execute certain affairs that are of public interest. This task entails “bureaucratic discretion through compliance with some tightly drawn rules and regulations” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.477).

Alteration of such an approach is critical in the modern world that is driven by hefty interactions so that, rather than using a direct-control paradigm, an organization has to consider implementation of strategies for enhancing accountability. The strategy must be driven by the concerns of delegations as a methodology for breaking down the bureaucratic approaches to public accountability.

The relevance of this issue for an organization that wants to be accountable rests on the platform that, although delegation is an effective way for enhancing accountability, it has its limitations. A challenge facing an organization that is determined to be accountable is the establishing of balance and determination of the extents and permissible thresholds of accountability in the organization.

Thirdly, an organization needs to deal proactively with the issue of balancing levels of accountability anticipated from various stakeholders. In support of this argument, Forrer et al. (2010) reckon, “public managers report not only to a multitude of elected officials, but also to a plethora of interest groups, clientele, media, and other actors” (p.478).

This argument means that public administrators serve many conflicting interests of different stakeholders, both formal and informal, through the deployment of appropriate mechanisms for enhancing accountability.

We will write a custom Report on Accountability in Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The balancing mechanism that an organization that seeks to become accountable must deploy includes hierarchical accountability, public accountability, while not negating deploying of mechanisms for enhancing accountability to impersonal standards.

Organizations that embrace the relevance of accountability as a way of development of trust among various stakeholders must appreciate that one of the important issues they must put into perspective is that they must conform precisely to a myriad of legitimized but also competing anticipations for accountability.

To whom are Public Officials Accountable?

Public officials have to be accountable to various people. Essentially, accountability is a “means through which public agencies and their workers answer to the citizens directly and indirectly for the use of their power, authority, and resources” (Kearns, 2003, p.9).

From this definition, it is paramount to note that, in the first degree, public officials are accountable to the citizens who are also served by other persons and interest groups to whom public officials must also be accountable. Such other persons include city councils, administrators such as presidents, states’ legislatures, media, and professional associations, among others.

With the rise of and advocating for governance approaches that portray the exercise of democracy as the chief mechanism of ensuring equal presentations of all citizens’ concerns and interests in the tools of administration, concerns have been alarming on the mechanisms that can ensure that governments are held accountable effectively.

Consequently, with regard to Kearns (2003), internal means of enhancing accountability, including “official rules, codes of conduct, administrative hierarchy, performance evaluation, organizational culture, and professional ethics” (p.65) have dominated the discussions of public accountability. Some of these mechanisms of enhancing accountability have been pinned in the constitutions of many democratic nations.

All systems of power comprise executives, judicial, and legislative divisions of government. These divisions have the responsibility to keep public administrators on the check to limit their discretion to ensure they are achieving their noble mandates placed on them by citizens.

For instance, in the US the progressive era marked the establishments of “independent government regulatory agencies, public commissions, and corporation to oversee government bodies through the executive branch” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.478).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Accountability in Public Administration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the context of the roles of congress, public officials have a duty to ensure that they meet the requirements placed on them in terms of meeting the demands for accountability as stipulated by organizations for agency oversight and committees for budget appropriations, among others.

Since citizens cannot directly regulate the operations of public officials, such organs exercise control and monitoring of the activities of public officials on behalf of the citizens to ensure that they are accountable to any repercussions of the policies formulated and implemented by the public officials.

Public officials are accountable to legislatures. Legislatures have roles to play to investigate the operations of various public officials and demand to provisions of information on certain aspects that they may believe have comprised the national ethics and codes of practice in public offices, including accountability. Organizations such as GAO can also be employed by legislatures and congress to scrutinize public agency programs.

Consequently, public officials must be accountable to them. Since the goal of accountability is to ensure transparency to all interest groups and stakeholders in the operations of public administrators as argued before, public officials are also accountable to media, professional communities, and client groups.

Client groups are interested in the implications of public policies. Such groups have specific anticipated outcomes from public officials. Should the public officials fail to meet these anticipations effectively or do things at exorbitant and inflated costs, the officials have to be held accountable for the failure or embezzlements of funds.

Conclusion: Balancing the Demands for Accountability and the Need to have High-performing Organizations

Accountability implies that public officials have to evaluate every policy or decision they take to ensure that it does not expose the interest of various stakeholders and interest groups at risk upon its implementation. This argument means that decisions and policies that have high potentials of yielding optimal results but possessing high-risk vulnerabilities may not be implemented.

Measuring performance from the paradigm of the magnitude of returns, for instance, in terms of social benefit, failure to implement projects having high risks of failure, but having high levels of returns means that the performance of a public institution is impaired.

Public officials must balance demand for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.

For instance, considering the experience of hurricane Katrina, it is arguable that the government ought to have invested heftily on strategies and equipment for dealing with aftermaths and or for detection of both the likelihoods and the magnitudes of natural catastrophes in the bid to enhance effective disaster awareness through its established institutions for disaster management.

Such a measure would make disaster management institutions highly performing if the investments turn out commensurate to the anticipated levels of response to human and logistical challenges posed by hurricane Katrina.

However, in the effort to ensure that such organizations become highly performing, the question that emerges is whether indeed public officials charged with running such institutions would be willing to venture into risky decisions that would compromise their levels of accountability in the public domain.

Koliba, Zia, and Mills (2011) support this line of thought by noting that it is important to develop both theoretical and empirical constructs “to identify and assess how and whether failures of accountability lead to failures in performance” (p.210).

Directly congruent with this proposal, it is of paramount importance that public officials be made to account for success rather than just failures. Such a strategy can help to balance demands for accountability and the need for high performing organizations.

Obtaining a balance between accountability and the need for high-performing organizations is a challenge that public officials need to proactively address, especially bearing in mind that the citizens whom they owe the ultimate responsibility while making their decisions do not directly elect them.

Consequently, public officials may consider complying with political accountability roles since, according to Bovens (1998), “public officials are not rigidly constrained in their performance by narrow legal or procedural settings” (p.31).

This case means that the capacity to form and operate public institutions driven by the motive for high performance may be compromised by the need to meet programmed guidelines issued by the appointing authority in hierarchical systems of administration.

This argument is more imperative upon considering Bovens’ (1998) assertion that political accountability “tends to use outcomes as the main parameter for evaluation of performance rather than compliance with administrative rules and procedures” (p.31).

As a repercussion, it is probable that public officials may fail to balance accountability with the need to create highly performing public institutions due to the need to satisfy the anticipations of the elected authority as opposed to direct anticipations of the electorate.

Although in democratic and corruption-free nations, the elected persons may present the interest of the electorate. Hence, the anticipations of the elected and the appointing authority from the public officials have to measure up to the anticipation of the electorate. In the corruption-prone nations, the electorate interests are not presented by the elected persons.

If public administrators appointed by the corrupt-elected persons have to be politically accountable, it means that a balance between accountability and the need to put in place a highly performing organization cannot be established.

Reference List Bovens, M. (1998). The Quest for Responsibility: Accountability and Citizenship in Complex Organizations. Public Administration, 77(3), 455-474.

Forrer, J., Kee, J., Newcomer, K.,


Ethics In American Hospitality Industry Dissertation essay help

Introduction Ethics is important for the wellbeing of an organization. It determines the effectiveness of an organization and its operations. in the hospitality industry, ethical practices help to avoid issues such as racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles and dishonesty among others.

Ethics in the hospitality industries is evolving. Changing values and cultural diversity indicates that perception will likely to occur where things does not argue well. It’s the role of the organization and employees to live and communicate organizational ethics and lead by providing leadership in their management.

One of the rationale of this study was to determine the link between common work ethics. Hospitality industry has a wide permissible beliefs and behavior, hence, Hall (1992) points out that the management and the employees should strive to have a global understanding of what is right and wrong.

Literature Review Stacy (2001) defines ethics in business as a guide in the way a business conduct itself. Acting in a moral way entails distinguishing between “wrong” and “wrong” and coming up with the “right” choice. Though Donaldson (2000) explains it is not easy to fix a good definition of a good ethical practice, an organization should aim at being competitive and treat its employees justly.

Besides, it should minimize harn to the eco-system and devise ways of co-existing with the communities in which it works. Ethics and morals are intertwined. They supplement one another in the workplace. Moral and ethical standards guides the organization as well as improves employees interaction among themselves and with the customers. Several researches have been conducted on the aspect of ethics in the hospitality industry.

The human resource direction has actually recorded several ethical issues in the hospitality industry. They have mentioned a range of problems which include employees being disrespectful to each other, racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles, dishonesty and issues that majorly deal with the differences emanating from the different sexual orientations of the different players in the industry, among others.

This research majorly looked into the common organizational work ethics in relation to employee job satisfaction and performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research therefore aims at looking into the issue of ethics in American hospitality industry.

The research therefore aims to:

Demonstrate if there is a link between common work ethics and employee satisfaction

Prove if common work ethics have got a bearing on employee performance.

Common Work Ethics Collins (2001) points out that the managerial theorists affirm that an organization’s most revered component is its employees. Therefore, organizations have aimed at devising several ways in an attempt to care for them.

For instance, organizations have strived to understand how employees feel, think in relation to the organization’s culture. Striving to understand employees has made some organizations understand the behaviors of employees to determine the ethical implication of the same (Collins, 2001)

Ostroff’s (1993) explains that at the center of the organization is ethics. Ethics has been an important factor in most organizations because it help to establish the degree to which the organization relates with its employees and vice versa. Ostroff’s (1993) point out that an organization management must lead by example in encouraging ethical behaviors in the organization.

According to Ostroff’s (1993), organizations top management are the role models of the organization, thus, they should be at the forefront in setting an ethical tone in the organization.

Ostroff’s (1993) illustrates that ethical leadership encompasses personal competencies and these competencies help to promote ethics among employees; thereby fixing a connection between employee performance and the organization according to Wimmer and Dominick (2006).

We will write a custom Dissertation on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the limitation of literature has been an impediment in understanding the relationship linking the organization behavior and managers leading by example in terms of ethics (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008, p. 44). Whitney (1990) pointed out that employees in the hotel industry require a higher level of ethical awareness compared to other organizations.

Besides, they need to have a stronger conscience to evaluate ethical problems in relation to the organization’s principles. Hotel industry consists of many employees diversities compared to other industries. It is made up of diverse employees with from different backgrounds,race, religion and educational background Kelley and Dorsch (1991).

Hall (1992) points out that the hospitality industry embraces a wide range of ethically permitted behavior and beliefs which makes it maintain its image an integrity. Therefore, he suggested that employees in the hospitality industry need to have a worldly understanding of what is right and wrong (Hall, 1992).

Kelley and Dorsch (1991) explain that though little research has been conducted to show the link between the organization’s ethical environment and organizational commitment, other studies have shown that indeed the connection exists.

Kelley and Dorsch (1991) argued that a positive relationship exists between the organization’s ethical climate and employees’ commitment to the specific rules tied to that organization. Similarly, Ostroff’s (1993) showed that an active relationship between climate facet and the organization’s commitment. Additionally, Hunt et al (1989) affirmed that organization’s ethical tenets are important forecasters of organizational commitment.

Further, Hunt et al (1989) in their study involving 1,246 marketing professionals discovered that ethical conduct was compensated and unethical conduct was castigated in the organization they were working for.

Also, gender plays an important role in hospitality industry (Kelley and Dorsch, 1991). It helps determine how an organization related to employees. Gender has occupied a leading role in many studies centered on business ethics yielding differed results (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008). Some research has indicated that there is a big difference in ethical viewpoints between sexes.

For instance, Alabaum and Peterson (2006) pointed out that men were less favorable than females. Other research conducted demonstrated that females are more ethically sensitive than male this was according to Arlow (1991).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, in a study carried out by Chonko (1995) on marketing management staff, they noted that female marketers alleged ethical problems in their duties than male marketers. Moreover, they also observed that female employees are more dedicated to an organization than male when their favored ethical environment and their definite ethical work climate equal (Luthar et al., 1997).

In another study carried out by Kelley and Dorsch (1991), it was noted that women and men divergent views of how ethical behavior contributed to a positive business result. In addition, their study revealed that an employee being visible to integrative ethical education projected an optimistic approach on how the present ethical climate is and how it ought to be (Luthar et al., 1997).

D’Aquila et al (2004) discovered that female employees had a strong believe than male that ethical benchmark leverages an organization’s competitive position.

On the other hand, men alluded that ethical standards fades an organization’s competitive position. In his study among Turkish students, Akatan et al. (2008) found out that female students had a higher mean score that male in terms acting legally and ethically than exclusively economically.

But it is crucial to note that the organization’s moral standing is usually determined to a major extent by individuals. These could include the top management or the actual owners of the business.

Due to their position, they do come up with certain policies that trickle down to the whole organization, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization runs, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization stands out morally. This brings to the fore the importance of the influential individual in the organization.

If the individual in the organization has a high moral standing, this can impact the organization positively and, if the reverse is true, then the organization tends to have low moral standing. This means that the influential individual should not be one who tells the employees to everything they can as long as profit, work and customer satisfaction are achieved. This is quite a dangerous path to go.

Job satisfaction in the hotel industry Job satisfaction is a term used to assess an employee’s attitude and emotions towards his/her job and the how steadfast he/she is toward an assigned duty.

According to Wolf (1970), the job satisfaction definition has been stressed based on three major perspectives, that is, generality, the extent to which satisfaction and variance between an individual and returns and the required returns are realized and lastly, job satisfaction is defined based on criterion framework.

By embracing generality, Agho et al (1992) point out that job satisfaction labels the emotional reactions to one’s job as the most, that is, a job that guarantees one’s happiness, productivity and success.

The definition based on criterion framework alludes that job satisfaction is where an individual’s independent elucidation and perceptionis based on neutral qualities of the organizationsthat would be subjective by a person’s criterion framework. In some cases, Smith et al (1975) point out that job satisfaction can emanate after an individual interprets the job qualities based on the criterion framework.

Therefore, the influence that an employee receive from a given task can be mirrored to several other aspects such as making a comparison between a good and a bad job, personal competency and past experiences among others (Smith et al., 1975).

In the hotel industry, Cranny et al. (1992, p. 1) allude that literature has pointed out job satisfaction in several ways over the years. Wolf (1970) shares his views by illustrating that the amalgamation of environmental and psychological situations that make an individual to be satisfied with his/her work as one process in which job satisfaction has been determined.

On the same point, other research has pointed out that job satisfaction is a way of pursuing fulfillment through questioning whether the job meets their employee’s psychological and physical needs or not, as pointed out by Cranny et al (1992, p. 1).

Barsch and Lisewski (2008, p. 84) point out that job satisfaction may also be internally derived from mediated rewards such as opportunities enhancing growth, the job itself or success. Also, it can be derived externally by means of intrinsic rewards such as customers or organization policies, promotion opportunities, pay increase and support among others as stated by Walker et al. (1977).

Though these aspects have been vital in assessing job satisfaction; Walker et al (1977) point out that they have proved a challenge to researchers in determining the extent of measuring and calculating job satisfaction. Furthermore, these aspects have contributed to misinterpretation of results or coming formulating wrong judgment according to Walker et al (1977).

Barsky and Nash (2004) cite that many authors have strived to determine the elements that contribute to job satisfaction in the hotel industry. According to Aksu and Aktas (2005), in their study,employee satisfaction on the job was influenced by a strong confidence in their organizations and their emotions.

Similarly, a study carried out by on Turkish managers in first class hotels by Aksu and Aktas (2005) revealed that despite low salaries and long working hours, they were satisfied with their jobs. This was because they liked the job itself and had authority tied to their positions and to them, managing a first class facility in itself was a prestige as indicated Aksu and Aktas (2005).

Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that in the hotel industry, job satisfaction is closelylinked to the organization’s success. This is manifested in aspects such as higher innovation,reduced turnover and employee productivity. Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that the amalgamation of these components also relates to the organization’s improved general performance.

More specifically, Savery and Luks (2001) show that job satisfaction is tied to augmented organization’s performance as evaluated by improved employee productivity. Moreover, motivation also contributes to job satisfaction. However, as Sledge et al (2008) indicate, there has been little study carried out to establish the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation and the effect of culture in the workplace.

Barsky and Nash (2004) in their study, found out that job satisfaction has a positive impact on the employee’s intention to stick with the organization. Moreover, Sledge et al (2008) suggested that employees with high levels of job satisfaction are more productive and tend to stick with the same organization for longer time.

However, Choi (2006) explains that there is a strong negative link that prevails on the level of employee turnover and job satisfaction when individual optimism is in play. In his study focusing on Korean hotel employees, Chiang et al (2005) noted that there was a strong negative link between the intention of a turnover and job satisfaction.

On the same note, Chiang et al (2005) study confirmed that high rate of absenteeism emanated from low job satisfaction which in turn correlated with higher levels of deliberate employee turnover. Furthermore, in their study, Scott and Taylor’s (1985) showed that a negative link between absenteeism and job satisfaction especially the rate of absence exists.

They underlined that satisfied employees demonstrated lower levels of absenteeism than less satisfied employees. In another study carried out to determine job satisfaction on Taiwanese hotel employees, Hwang and Chi (2005) discovered that handling employees as customers of the organization was positively connected to organizational performance.

Similarly, in Florida’s four star hotels, Sizoo et al (2005) learnt that employees with higher rate of intercultural feeling showed higher rates of social satisfaction and jobsatisfaction. These studies showthat culture plays a key role in influencing employee’s perception on job satisfaction.

Yang (2008) cites that culture may play a role in promoting positive commitment, reducing employee’s intention to leave, influences the outcome of the organization and leads to low rates of turnovers.

Lynn (2010) has greatly looked at ethics in the hospitality industry. In this report, which involved a survey on 26 establishments, reflected that there was a relationship between leadership of the managers and the job satisfaction by the employees such that if managers were ethical, there was a marked satisfaction by the employees; hence, a decrease in the turnover.

In another study conducted on, about 788 Korean food service staff in hospitality establishments run and managed through contract to determine whether worker -organization fit would reduce subsequent turnover, it was found that the most reliable fit emerged when the values of the employees did match the company values (Lee and Way, 2010).

It was finally found that the turnover greatly reduced when the values of the employees were in line with those of the organization. When employees are inducted with ethics, they tend to advance the establishment’s image and even reduce the frequency to switch job.

In yet another survey by the same study in which about fifty employees in a casino were surveyed, it was established that distributive justice (that is a case where equal pay, workload, incentives etc.) leads directly to a marked rise in ethical behavior of the employee reduced turnover (Jung et a., 2010).

Further, it was found that frontline employees, who projected ethical behavior to their customers, ended up having a high level of job satisfaction. This means that the employees were able to explain to the customers why certain rules were applied and generally.In such cases, perceptions of unfairness were clearly minimized and this made the employees greatly satisfied.

However, in some related research the study above, one sees that satisfaction of employees has some relation with the nationality. This finding thus serves to be crucial in that this information will help this paper to probably consider the nationality mix of those to be interviewed in relation to the effect on the responses to the questionnaire.

The link between morale and the attendant ethical strategy of the establishment does come to the fore here. Again, this has got much to do with how productive the employees’ job satisfaction and the attendant commitment to the organization. If the employee is not committed to the organization, it loses in both productivity and image.

Ethical issues are varied and come with different expectations. For instance, employee satisfaction differs, some employees are motivated by intrinsic rewards whereas others by external rewards. Hence, a wide range of organizations have implemented far reaching measures to do with empowering their employees to promote job satisfaction among their employees.

This has entailed harnessing and nurturing the best there is in the market and urging the workers to try and implement. Empowering workers have required that they are able to make informed decisions. Marriot has been the champion of implementing this program of empowering its employees. But many players have not been able to implement this program.

The employees are well trained, mentored and authorized to make decisions and these impacts greatly on job satisfaction. With this program, barriers that do hinder employee satisfaction are minimized, hence the employees go out of their way to meet and even exceed customers’ expectations.

In a scholarly erudition entitled Job Satisfaction Among Information Technology Professionals, Ghazzawi (2008), it was found that professionals in the information technology found their jobs more satisfying if the organizations exhibited practical commitment to social responsibility and well-structured ethical standards.

It can thus be concluded that organizations that are ethical stood a higher chance of retaining their staff and hence more profitable in contrast to the organizations which do not consider social responsibility (Holjevac, 2008).

The above study is useful to this research in that on the top of adding to the body of knowledge to this research, it shows the relationship of employee satisfaction and ethics in relation to the American hospitality industry. The researcher is going to find out ethical foundations in relation general success as of the hotels (McGehee, 2009).

Common Organizational Ethics and Employee performance There exists a link between common work ethics and employee performance in the hotel industry. Most organizations take ethics as just any set of regulation. Incorporating common work ethics is in an organization is fundamental in sustaining projected growth and eventual optimal performance of that organization. This may apply to both to private and even public organizations.

Though a lot of literature linking ethics and performance in the hospitality industry is scarce, it is possible to note that there are obvious inter-linkages that show that with proper ethical climate implemented in the hospitality industry, the number of guests will be definitely on the rise.

Of great concern is the fact that absence of work ethics in any organization eats away into its core profitability as most clients will end up shunning the services that are offered by such an establishment.

Whenever there is a strongshared work ethic in anorganization, this is actually projecting a strong message that the establishment holds onto strong values andpride. This therefore shows that the organization deeply believes in the activities it carries out in the market place.

Work ethics, it is acknowledged, does place a responsibility and commitment on whatever any organization sets out to do.

The essence of ethical behavior is shared across cultures of the world. Whenever there are set ethos, it is expected that the employers and the customers will tend to be more receptive to the ideals of that particular organization (Lee


Brand personality on International scale Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Over the recent past, marketing has grown to become a critical part of any organization. This is because of the numerous changes that the business environment is forced to undergo in the quest to survive and/ or thrive in market as it seeks to attain its goals and objectives (Klaus, 2002).

One of the ways that marketing has helped organizations promote their products is by embracing the latest models developed by the marketing gurus in order to ensure that their products remain favorites among the consumers. This paper discusses whether a brand can have more than one personality in multiple international markets.

According to Aaker, a professor and a marketing scholar at the university of California, in order for a brand to undergo successful management, a brand identity for that particular product must be developed. His model incorporates four different attributes that a product identity ought to be built along that ensures the success of that particular product. One of the four attributes is the brand personality.

This seeks to present a brand that is stronger than the product attribute. It also seeks to present a brand as a product that connects to the consumers at a deeper level than the mere satisfying of the needs of the consumers (Knapp, 2000).

A common way that companies achieve this is through the use of personalities and public figures such as celebrities to identify with the brand. In the wake of globalization and the emergence of cross border trade, the question at hand is whether a brand can have the same ‘personality’ in multiple countries.

Globalization has brought both benefits and challenges in equal measure. Multiple international markets have emerged as a result of technology and globalization. Many products enjoy a worldwide consumption and this has been attributed to marketing.

However, an important aspect of promoting a brand the personality attribute of that particular brand. It has been found that the culture attributes of different countries provides a barrier to a brand having one personality across different countries (Upshaw, 1995). This is because of the fact that different cultures have different values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore, impossible for a brand to have one personality in multiple international markets. People have different laws, customs, beliefs, and ways of life that are significantly different from other cultures and as such, even with the world becoming a global village thanks to information technology, the different people will want to relate to a product in a different way.

The need for specialization in personality branding in the world still remains high due to the different cultural beliefs that govern the people’s ways of life (Park


Just-in-time learning approach Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Just-in-time learning is learning that occurs when it is needed by the learner. JIT learning is an important conception in the field of business and it is used mainly by students in honing individual expertise that they require so as to be competitive in the digital age (Harun, 2002). With the superfluity in technology E-learning is an important tool in advancing just-in-time learning.

People can now get information from the internet whenever they need it so long as they have a computer and internet connection. With the penetration of internet into homes and offices most people can now learn when and whenever they want. For instance in Canada most people are now E-learning from their offices and homes when they want to.

E-learning is adaptable hence people can improve their personal skills that they need. Learners don’t have to do full courses but only consume what they need. With E-learning employers can integrate learning with the systems at work for their workers. This is being adopted as the most efficient mode of JIT learning (Brown, 2009).

Just-in-Time learning is a modern approach to learning whereby learning is done only on a need basis unlike in the conventional ways of training. Just-in-time learning is mostly via the internet, E-learning and use of consultants when needed. This is an imperative breakthrough in learning as it has solved many training problems. JIT makes learners seek training when it is necessary unlike when they spontaneously seek learning.

The expenses that would be incurred in transportation are gotten rid of. Time that would be spent being absent from the work place is saved because learning can take place anywhere and at anytime so long as there is internet connectivity.

JIT learning also allows for customized content that will suit the needs of the user of the information. With JIT content is always updated hence one cannot depend on an outdated piece of information. In the long-term JIT is a relatively cheaper form of learning hence should be embraced in every organization (Murray, 2001).

E-learning has been lauded by many as a very effective form of learning; however it also has its own downsides. To start an E-learning program needs a huge start-up cost. There is also the concern of what can be presented using this form of learning. For instance some technical content may need practical learning hence may be unsuitable for E-learning.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More E-learning involves use of ICT hence some places that may not have access to these facilities will be at a disadvantage because they do not have access to E-learning facilities. Another drawback with E-learning is that there is non-existent or limited human interaction because the end-user most of the time interacts with the computer and not the teacher or instructor.

Thus it is not easy for the teacher to determine whether the student got the concept or not. It has been noted that some people in organizations are defiant to change thus may not be willing to appreciate E-learning.

Culture is also an impediment in this aspect as it can play a role in resistance to new ways of doing things including E-learning. Finally it needs personal initiative thus this poses a challenge as there is no one to push people to learn (Clark,


Social Exchange and Expectancy Theory Effects in Human Resource Development Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development

How Expectancy Theory Affects Human Resource Development


References List

Introduction Before looking at the effects of both social exchange theory and expectancy theory on human resource development, it will be paramount to, first, describe what the theories are all about.

Social exchange theory is actually both a social psychology and a perspective of sociology that debunks the social changes and also the stability as a progression in relation to bargained social exchanges between two or more groups of individuals or parties (Rosenberg 1990).

Social exchange theory argues that all relationships between human beings are informed by what is referred to as subjective analysis of cost and benefits; this also involves the comparison of the best available alternatives. Social exchange theory is rooted in the ideologies of economics, sociology and psychology (Schellenberg 1996).

Social exchange theory utilizes some of the assumptions made in both structural and rational choice theories (Turner 2006). Social exchange theorists posit that human behavior is informed by the kind of reward associated with a given behavioral style. This implies that rewards play a significant role in determining a particular manner in which an individual should behave given a specific situation or condition (Rew 2005).

Meanwhile, expectancy theory is major associated with mental or cognitive processes that relates to making of choices or just choosing. It gives an explanation of the process an individual goes through in order to make a choice or choose from available alternatives. Both social exchange and expectancy theories are greatly related to each other. This paper examines the effects the theories have on human resource development (DuBrin 2008).

Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development It is important to note that the personnel of every organization have some minimum expectations to achieve; in case they fail to get these minimum expectations, they are likely to be de-motivated or under-perform in their organizational duties. In the process of human resource development, it is important to realize that the fact the human resource must be assured of their own benefits as they continue to be part of the organization.

The reality is that the more the employees are sure of getting out of their relationship with organization the more their productivity and the more the effort they put into their work (Dalkir 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The performance of individuals within an organization is very much dependent on favors they get from participation towards achieving the goals of an organization. For instance, for every achievement, every employee expects some favors that are comparable to the input they put in order to make the achievements successful (Marcic


The Incorporation of Venezuela into Mercosur Thesis college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Mercosur (Southern Common Market) initially started with the Asuncion Treaty which was inked by Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay in 1991 to establish a free trade province and finally to establish a common market. In 2007, Venezuela joined the forum. (Tondi 353).

The main aim of Mercosur is to offer the probabilities to expand exports, to augment investment and to create a greater economic development among member nations. (Dominguez


Budgets Management Reference to the Budget of Aardvark Company Report a level english language essay help

Introduction The management of any organization is charged with the responsibilities of steering the company or organization for continuing growth prospects. Most of the management activities involve the functions of planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing among others. Budgeting forms a way of controlling the organization’s operational activities as well as the resource allocation through forecasting.

Ideally, the environment conditions determine the budgeting process. Although budgeting is considered a very key function of management for effective control of performance, some opinions are also raised that budgeting focuses more on the past performance basing budgets on comparisons between the actual and budgeted amounts, which does not conclusively consider the dynamism of the business environment.

It is worth appreciating the changes that are diverse in the environment today due to factors of globalization, changes in consumer behaviour and technology among others. Budgeting is worth evaluating in the concept of a changing environment and forms the core part of the organization driving performance and controlling of resources through strategies and the setting of targets.

This report presents an analysis of the budget of Aardvark Company. It presents the standards used, ways in which it can be used for staff motivation for the improvement of performance, its strengths as well as the techniques for producing such forecasting. It also considers the behavioural issues of the budget and offers suggestions on how the negative effects can be averted.

The Role of Management in Budgeting Management determines largely the performance and growth of an organization. The role of management in budgeting is very crucial due to their disposition in making decisions for the organization. Decision making thus influences the growth of their organization.

Managers as leaders have to forge the budgeting process to enable them make crucial decisions that affect the entire organization and would affect the areas of planning, staffing, motivation of staff, performance measurement, and their role of leading and directing (Juchau et al., 2004).

Budgeting is an expensive process that involves the various stakeholders for it to be objective and informed. Management thus has the responsibility of financing the budgeting process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drucker (2001) asserts of the changing environment of the business and as such suggests that managers have the role of considering the changes in the environment such as the technology, consumer behaviours and globalization. He suggests that managers thus have the role of ensuring the budget is flexible enough to deal with such changes and that more emphasis is given to competitiveness.

The other roles of management in the budgeting process include creating a performance climate, devolving performance responsibility for decision making to operational management, motivation of staff, customers and other stakeholders, supporting transparency in the organization, empowering operation managers, organizing for customer orientation, setting goals through benchmarking, forging for streamlining of the coordination of resource allocation and encouraging the need for innovation (Drucker, 2001).

Analysis of Aardvark Company Budget This report analysis covers the format used, standards used, desirable characteristics or strengths of the budget and the behavioural issues addressed. It also offers recommendations of suggestions of how the standards of budgeting can be used in staff motivation for improvements in performance as well as the techniques for the production of forecast estimates and how they can used as standards in budgeting.

In addition, the report considers the behavioural issues that arise from the budgeting process and the ways of averting the negative ones.

Analysis of Budget Format The budget for the company is a cash budget with monthly actual and budgeted amounts of a cash flow format. The purpose of this cash flow format is to enable the company maintain the cash level requirements.

This format takes into consideration the cash changes in the actual sales in cash, accounts receivable, bank income, other incomes, sale of capital investment, payments of income taxes, accounts payable, purchase of merchandise, dividends payable, and other capital expenditure (Cunningham, Nikolai