Introduction According to Langmore, global peace and security remains to be of critical relevance to the existence of humanity. Development cannot be attained without peace.
A cross examination of the conflict-torn regions in the world reveals a low rate of socioeconomic development. It is critical to understand what peace really entails in order to craft a desirable agenda for the cultivation and sustenance of global peace. Peace can be defined as the absence of conflict. Conflict is a broad term, which comes from a wide range of socioeconomic and political developments.
The importance of the sustenance of embracing and sustaining global peace is argued to have emanated from the world wars. The massive devastations that were caused by the war on human life resulted in the reiteration of the significance of peace and security in the world. During the world wars, there were massive killings, physical abuse, forcible displacement of human populations, and massive destruction of property.
These resulted in a number of secondary impacts, which included hunger, the outbreak of diseases and the prevalence of an undesirable social state of the human population. It should be noted that similar impacts are still replicated in any conflict that occurs in the contemporary world. There are a number of issues that need to be given much attention by the organizations that are responsible for maintaining global peace and security.
One critical thing that emanated from major global conflicts like the world wars was the establishment of bodies that were bestowed with the responsibility of pacifying the globe. The League of Nations was the first body to be established. However, the body was weak and failed to attain the goals for which it was meant to fulfil.
This resulted in the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UN), an organization that has been charged with the mandate of maintaining global peace and security. While the organization still exists, a lot of questions have been raised about the capacity of the organization to maintain global peace and security, considering the fact that there are a lot of politics that surround the functioning of the organization.
However, it should be noted that the organization has been critical in maintaining global peace and security through the establishment and sustenance of the global peace missions in different regions of the world. On the other side, there still prevail a number of issues in global peace, which have not been amicably addressed by the United Nations. Notable among these issues is the historical conflicts that have torn a number of regions like the Arab-Israel Conflict.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under the leadership of the Secretary General, the United Nations still has a tough task of executing plans on how to maintain peace and security in the world. This paper presents a five year Peace and Security Agenda for the Secretary General of the United Nations Organizations. Research shows that there are five major areas in which focus has to be given by the United Nations.
These are the reduction of levels of poverty, the embrace of environmental management in order to eliminate the dangers of environmental degradation, the development of long lasting solutions to historical conflicts across the globe, the enhancement of democracy and advocacy for human rights through the cultivation of stronger institutional environments, and the enhancement of social security and the enhancement of economic globalization.
Therefore, these five main issues are considered to be the main agendas that ought to be given attention by the Secretary General of the United Nations Organization. The justification for each Agenda is discussed.
Agenda 1: Reduction of levels of poverty The issue of poverty, especially in the developing world, has been a center of focus in a substantial number of economic, political and even the social forums across the globe. Poverty is taken as one of the major impediments to the attainment of developmental goals in different parts of the globe. It is important to mention that reduction of the levels of poverty has been given attention in the Millenium Development Goals.
The millennium development goal is one of the most comprehensive documents in the attainment of an economic and social order in the 21st century. Therefore, the enlisting of poverty as one of the main issues to be given attention in the development agendas reiterates the criticality of the elimination of poverty since poverty is taken as the center-pin for most of the problems that are facing the globe today.
While a substantial number of people point to the fact that it is quite daunting to eliminate the levels of poverty, more so in the developing regions of the world, most of them agree that the levels of poverty can be brought down through planning and the gradual implementation of development plans.
Before exploring the role of the United Nations Secretariat in the reduction of poverty across the globe, it is important to explain how global poverty endangers the existence of global peace. Poverty is the main source of frustration amongst the global citizens. When the levels of poverty are so high, the likelihood of strife for resources becomes quite high, thus attracting the struggle for resources in the diverse regions of the globe.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Five Year Peace and Security Action Agenda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poverty has been likened to the many conflicts that are being witnessed in different regions of the globe, where diverse groups of people are reported to fight over resources. Some of the regions in which resource driven conflicts are being witnessed include the Horn of Africa, the Darfur conflict in Sudan and the Middle East conflicts, among other civil conflicts in different countries in the world.
A number of theorists have tried to establish a link between the struggles for natural resources in what is referred to as the natural resource problem. The relationship between poverty and civil conflicts in different parts of the world is better explicated through an inner look into the theories of development. One of these theories is the theory of poverty and conflict.
According to Justine, there is a turgid relationship between the levels of national incomes and the prevalence of civil conflicts in a substantial number of civil conflicts-afflicted countries in the world. While the organization and the manner in which attacks and battles point to the political insurgency, the main thing that ought to be understood is that the characterization of the civil conflicts point the deficiency of resources on one hand, and the forceful search and acquisition of resources on the other hand.
An example that justifies the question of poverty and conflicts can be pointed at countries is the developed countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. One reason why these countries do not exhibit poverty driven conflicts is that they have a higher and a desirable level of national incomes, which often satisfy their citizens.
A lot of the commentators of international political economy have reiterated the importance of the refocusing of the response to poverty by the United Nations. It is critical to say that the United Nations, under the leadership of the Secretary General, has been responsive to issues of poverty reduction to most of the poverty stricken regions of the world.
The Agencies of the United Nations, among them UNDP, UNICEF, WFP, UNESCO and WHO have been seen running poverty reduction response programs across the world. The response mechanisms that have been applied by these agencies have been critiqued for being unsustainable.
Therefore the Secretary General of the United Nations ought to improve the nature of the focus of the poverty reduction initiatives for the coming five years in order to attain sustainability in poverty reduction. Sustainability, as used in this context, implies the establishment of more long-term driven poverty reduction programs rather than the responsive direct material aid as has been the culture of these agencies.
Focus on the direct aid driven poverty in the developing economies by the United Nations’ Agencies is argued to be one of the promoting factors for dependency and the extension of the vicious circle of poverty in the less developed world. It is critical to appreciate the fact that the United Nations has already realized the need for the sustainability of their aid and poverty response programs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Five Year Peace and Security Action Agenda by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sustainability is the leeway to the break of the cycle of dependency and the focus on established projects so that people can afford to sustain their incomes, which could help reduce the pressure over the scarcity of resources in the developing world.
According to Downs, poverty reduction by the UN ought to be approached from the sustainable point of view. This includes the encouragement of the populations to invest in agriculture trough the provision of agricultural education and enlightenment of the populations on the latest agricultural technology, and the embrace of investment in education through the provision of support to improve education infrastructure.
Others include the investment in business through the provision of entrepreneurial education to the population, improvement of institutions of research and development in the developing world and the facilitation of the exchange of production technology between the developing and the developed world.
The ultimate goal of the reduction of direct aid reduces the level of dependency on aid and, instead, it encourages the embrace of long-term sustainable economic programs, which reduces poverty in the long run. The United Nations needs to adopt a more integrated approach when tackling issues to do with reduction of economic poverty.
Agenda 2: Environmental management The issue of environmental degradation and its resultant impacts upon the human population has raised a lot of concerns about the need for better management of the environment. Environmental pollution is one of the causes of environmental disasters like desertification and the prevalence of natural disasters, which threaten human security.
The ripple effects of environmental pollution are rising in magnitude; in other instances resulting in the constriction of resources, leading to other secondary security threats to the global population. Most of the concerns that are being raised over the malpractices in environmental management today are caused by the realities of the resulting impacts of environmental damage today. These include climate change and global warming, which contains other disastrous impacts within them.
The question that ought to be asked at this juncture is how the issue of environmental mismanagement can be a threat to the sustenance of global peace and security. There is need to mention that the global environment is vital for sustainability of human life. The failure to advocate for the environment has been the cause of the numerous environmental disasters that are being witnessed in the world today.
Degradation of the environment should be a concern for the United Nations as it endangers human lives. The United Nations has been quite vocal when it comes to advocacy for sustainable development. With the organization of deliberative conferences like the yearly United Nations Conference on Climate Change, the organization provides a platform for discussion on the ways of embracing environmental management.
However, there have been a lot of arguments about the role of the UN in advancing courses on sustainable management of the global environment. A substantial number of commentators on sustainable environmental management argue that the United Nations play a facilitating role, rather than playing an active role as far as reduction of environmental degradation is concerned.
The response to the question of environmental management begins with the inner activities of the United Nations. As a lead global agency, the United Nations has shown its commitment to the minimization of environmental degradation. The commitment has been shown through external projects, as well as internal projects and day to day activities of the agency. All UN agencies have shown their commitment to reduction of emission of toxic wastes to the atmosphere through the embrace of environmental friendly techniques.
This is a positive move towards the embrace of environmental conservation and the resultant minimization of the impacts of environmental pollution. However, the issue of environmental degradation today is quite expansive and can be addressed from two dimensions by the United Nations. These are the embrace of policies to limit the emission of toxic wastes to the atmosphere and the development and deployment of mitigative measures.
However, there is need to attain a balance between the limitation of the release of toxic wastes to the environment and deployment of mitigation measures to minimize the impacts of toxic waste release on the environment. The United Nations Secretary General is charged with a heavy task of ensuring that this balance is sustained over a couple of years to come.
The embrace of policies to reduce green gas emissions
According to Webersik, the debate surrounding emission of toxic wastes to the environment is often volatile. It is often marked with a blame game, where the developing world blames the developed nations for being the main emitters of greenhouse gases and other toxic substances into the atmosphere. With the blame game on, the environmental statistics still point to the fact that the rate of pollution of the environment is still alarming.
This leaves one question: What is the role of the United Nations in the fostering of a balance between economic development and environmental sustainability? The United Nations need to reset its global agenda to see it that countries cut down the level of green gas and toxic substance emissions. The United Nations, through the United Nations Environment Program needs to come up with policies that will see it put restrictions on the continued use of technologies that do not embrace the sustainability of the environment.
The ability of the United Nations to control and, if possible, impose sanctions on countries that are not showing commitment to environmental management is something that should be given consideration by the UN Secretary General. What has come out of the global environmental management conferences over the past few years is that the developed countries top the list of environmental polluters, yet their activities cannot be easily contained by the United Nations.
Mitigation of environmental pollution
The United Nations has been on the forefront in terms of deployment of initiatives that are meant to minimize the damages that are caused by degradation of the environment. One of the main activities under the reduction of the impacts of environmental degradation should be the embrace of technology transfer across the globe.
There is need for the United Nations to ensure that clean technologies are developed and transferred across the entire globe. This is because the pollution of the environment in one region impacts the whole globe. Clean technologies are developed out of investment in research and development. One thing that ought to be done is financing of research that is meant to enhance development of clean technologies.
The other activity that ought to be given focus is pressuring of the developed countries to transfer clean technologies in the developing world since they are the main polluters of the environment. The developed world should also be made to take responsibility of climate change and its resulting impacts by being made to finance environmental pollution mitigation programs in the developing world.
Agenda 3: Pacification of the regions marked by conflicts According to Richmond, conflicts are reported to be the major causes of direct threat to peace and human security. It should be reiterated that one of the main reasons why the United Nations Organization was set up was to ensure that the world was pacified through prevention of any form of aggression by states.
While the United Nations can be applauded for managing to maintain world peace by virtue of preventing the existence of any other world war, there are a lot of pointers to the existence of regional conflicts, which implies that the organization has not attained its broader goal of ensuring global peace and security for the guarantee of safety of humanity.
There are a number of regional conflicts that have been fought for a long time, causing suffrage to human beings in the conflict torn regions. It is evident that the conflicts resonate from several historical issues. While some of the conflicts are simple and can easily be sorted by the application of integrated approaches, there are other conflicts that have been termed as complex in nature because they are based on a combination of factors.
These factors include ethnicity, the struggle for natural resources and political factors. An example of the complex regional conflicts is the Israel-Palestine conflict.
The prevalence of regional conflicts for an extended period in history has raised a lot of questions concerning the capacity of the United Nations to enhance a post-cold war global order through cultivation of global peace and security for the sake of human safety. Part of the plan of the United Nations Organization under the leadership of the UN Secretary General should center on pacification of the regions that have been marked by conflicts.
It is critical to mention that the United Nations has been involved in the launch and the sustenance of peacekeeping missions in different countries that are marred by conflicts in the world. Every year, the United Nation Organization spends billions of dollars in peacekeeping missions across the globe.
Concern been raised about the rationality of the expenditure on peacekeeping missions by the United Nations and to what extent the peacekeeping missions have resulted in the pacification the conflict torn regions or countries in the world. This observation emanates from the concern about a number of conflicts that have been sustained, irrespective of the high costs that have been incurred by the United Nations in terms of sustaining peacekeeping missions in these countries and regions.
Examples of these conflicts are the Congo conflict, the Darfur Conflict and the Israel-Palestine conflict. A lot of money goes to waste in these conflicts because the peace that is attained through the peace keeping initiatives only lasts for a short period. This implies that there are core issues that are not fully responded to by the United Nations, meaning that peacekeeping only acts as a short term intervention to the conflict.
The question that should be posed here is whether there is a better way to attend to and find a long lasting solution to the sustained conflict in the world. A more comprehensive approach is needed in order to attain a longer lasting solution to the regional conflicts, instead of the peacekeeping missions that consume a lot of financial resources and result into other incidences of denial of the breach of human rights by the peacekeeping forces.
There is need to explore the underlying causes of the violent conflicts that occur in different regions of the globe under the leadership of the United Nations. The United Nations needs to be more proactive in exploring conflicts, rather than being responsive to the violent conflicts in diverse regions.
According to Copley, the failure of the peacekeeping missions is attributed to the failure to tackle the main issues that surround the conflicts. Taking an example of the conflict between Israel and Palestine, it has been noted that the main underlying cause is the struggle for land and territory, which emanated from the settlement and the establishment of the Israeli state in the current location. Therefore, aggression between the two countries often revolves around this issue.
As its strategies on its future plans, the UN needs to plan on how to unearth and respond to the core issues that lead to frequent conflicts in different regions across the globe. While this is a comprehensive task, a substantial number of political commentators have applauded such a move, arguing that it is the only way through which sustainable peace can be attained in the regions that are torn apart by historical regional conflicts.
Peacekeeping ought to be used as an alternative for the temporary pacification as the main peace initiatives are negotiated through diplomacy. Diplomacy encourages peace building. It is a comprehensive process that addresses the deeper issues that mark the development and sustenance of regional conflicts.
Agenda 4: Encouraging the growth of democracy and the observance of human rights across the globe According to Maley, the issue of democracy dominates the contemporary discussion on the attainment of social and economic order in the globalized world. The issue of democracy in the contemporary world is highly centered on the need for the development of an institutional environment that favors enforcement of the attributes of democracy within political set-up.
It is critical to point out that the struggle for the attainment of a democratic society has taken a long course and has been mostly spearheaded by the western countries. There are still a lot of incidences of autocracy, especially in the developing regions of the globe. The exercise of autocracy in any country often results in the breach of the principles of democracy, which are critical to the protection of human rights and the guarantee of human security.
The proponents of democracy argue that there is a turgid relationship between democracy, human rights, human security, and the attainment of social and economic order in the globalized society. The importance of democracy remains to be elusive as the world keeps searching for means of ensuring that the safety of human beings is guaranteed in all aspects of governance.
From the struggles and conflicts of governance that are witnessed across the world today, it is apparent that the embrace of democracy is still at levels that are not desirable. This implies that the United Nations and the international broader international community need to pace up the initiatives of broadening the democratic space in the developing world for the sake of the safety and the security of human beings in the world. Democratic governance provides an open space for the citizen participation in governance.
It should be noted that democracy is a system of rule that encourages the direct participation of the citizenry in governance. The question of direct participation in governance implies the presence of a highly institutionalized environment, where the system of ensuring checks on attributes of governance can be easily pursued.
Democracy cannot be easily attained without political change. This implies that the cultivation of democracy, thence human rights and socioeconomic and political order, should begin with political change and the nature of political governance in countries that are presumed to be having a constricted democratic space.
The issue of political change ought to be approached from a dual perspective by the United Nations. The first perspective should be centered on the post-conflict political order. The conflict torn regions are often marked by activities that imply a higher level of breakage of the principles of democracy and the breach of human rights.
Thus, it becomes quite complicated to advance issues of democracy and governance without giving priority to the establishment of stable political institutions. The pacification of conflict zones by the United Nations should be followed by the support from the international community under the coordination of the United Nations, which can see the countries establish political institutions. This is a key step in moving these countries from one condition to the other.
This transition has to be done in an open manner in order to make it easy for the embrace of democracy within the established political institutions. One thing that ought to be addressed by the UN when discharging this activity is ensuring that there is a highly participative landscape, which denoted the first step towards the attainment of democratic governments and the subsequent attainment of social and economic order.
The second perspective of the embrace of democracy is the encouragement of the expansion of democracy in the regions that have not been marked by conflicts. The development of institutions should be the priority of the United Nations. The opening of the democratic space in the world faces a lot of hitches; one of them is the lack of the will of governments to embrace democracy.
The lack of will emanates from the association of democracy with the tendencies of the western countries to expand their philosophies and dominance to other countries. Therefore, the United Nations has to ensure that the globe understands the meaning and essence of democracy and the need of the embrace of democracy and human rights through the establishment of stronger institutions within states. It is no doubt that this is a demanding task.
However, such a course is worth as it will help the global citizenry to understand the meaning and value of democracy, which in turn gives the citizenry a reason to push for democracy. The issues of human rights are attained when there is a wide space and increased citizen participation.
The democratic control of the instruments of power in the nation-states is an affair that needs a systematic approach. This means that the United Nations has to plan and mobilize the required tools for democratizing states across the world. In doing so, the United Nations will be considered to be establishing a world that is free from dictatorship and autocratic governance, which are often the sources of human rights abuses and autocratic governance.
Agenda 5: The enhancement of sustainability in economic globalization Globalization is a broader subject, which cuts across the diverse realms of development in the world. Globalization refers to the increased in the number of businesses and other transactions between countries, which is spearheaded by the limitation of restrictions of transactions between countries. Economic globalization is the most desirable segment of globalization since it encourages the flow of trade between countries, thus expanding the scope of economic development across different countries in the world today.
The issue of economic globalization can be traced from the late years of the 20th century, where countries found it increasingly important to limit the barriers to the flow of trade between countries. However, several issues have emerged in economic globalization, particularly the limitation of the trade barriers. One of the main issues that have occupied trade negotiations concerns the issue of the balance of benefits under a liberal trading environment.
While the liberalization of trade increases the flow of trade between countries, it has been noted that some countries end up benefiting, while other countries end up losing under the practice of economic liberalization. The ultimate gainers when it comes to trade liberalization are the developed countries, while the ultimate losers in economic globalization are least developing economies of the globe.
Several explanations have been given on why the developed economies lose out under the prevailing structures of economic globalism. One of the main explanations centers on the issue of competitive advantage and the ability of the developing nation-states to be positioned the increasingly liberalized trading environment.
This phenomenon can be explained by the argument that the developed world has a lot of advantages when it comes to the production of goods and services, unlike the developing countries that suffer from inadequate resources; therefore, the developing countries often find it hard to produce goods and services.
This can be explicated further by exploring the law of competitive advantage. Nonetheless, the application of the law of competitive advantage has failed to materialize due to the widened gap between the rate of development in the developed world and the rate of development in the developing world. This gap has left a huge vacuum in economic globalization, which is often filled with the exploitation and the economic loss by the developing world.
As a body that is charged with ensuring that there is a global order in the world, the United Nations has to come in and try to strike a balance in economic globalization.
While there are a lot of doubts whether the real balance can be attained in economic globalism, most commentators on political economy argue that there are a number of things that can be done in order to raise the level of economic competitiveness of the developing world in order to increase their earnings from international trade.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council and the United Nations Development Program are critical bodies in the establishment of economic order even amidst globalization of trade.
One of the main initiatives of the United Nations in attaining a balanced trading environment, which leads to the attainment of mutual benefits in international trade, is the embrace of technology transfer from the developed to the developing world.
One of the things that place the developed countries at a greater advantage in international trade is that the developed world has set stronger footage in terms of advancing their production technologies. The advanced production technologies help the developed countries to minimize the strain in production, thereby highly minimizing the cost of production. This is a contradiction of the situation in the developing world.
The United Nations, through its development agencies, needs to empower the production capacity of the developed world through facilitating the transfer of technology from the developed countries to the developing countries. This is already being done. However, the scale at which such initiatives are being undertaken needs to be raised. This is a rational way of embracing the economic empowerment of the developing world, thus reducing the level of dependency.
Economic empowerment also increases the capacity of the developing world to withstand the impacts of natural calamities. This is also another way of addressing the resource based conflicts, which have afflicted a lot of people in the developing world. It can be taken as a component of the integrated process of solving the resource-drawn conflicts.
The other approach of empowering the developed countries so that they can derive a lot of benefits from the globalization of the economy is the empowerment of traditional industries in the developing world. This can be implemented through the United Nations Social and Cultural Organization.
Traditional industries are those industries that are historical, like the cultural arts and tourism among other industries. The positioning of these industries is essential since these industries can act as a source of revenues, thus improving the economic status of the least developed countries.
Conclusion The contemporary world is faced with a growing number of challenges, which threaten the prevalence of global peace and security for human existence. The problems that threaten human security and the prevalence of the peace in the world are interrelated. Therefore, the need for the application of integrated approaches in the pursuance of the activities of the United Nations has been reiterated in the five agendas in the paper.
As an organization that is charged with the responsibility of maintaining global peace and security, the United Nations needs to focus on a number of issues that are posing a lot of threats to the existence of human security. The five security concerns that should form the global security and peace agenda for the Secretary General of the United Nations include: poverty reduction, environmental management, conflict resolution, the promotion of democracy and human rights, and the promotion of sustainable economic globalism.
Bibliography Cogen, Marc and Eric De Brabandere. “Democratic Governance and Post-conflict Reconstruction.” Leiden Journal of International Law 20, no. 3 (2007): 669-693.
Copley, Gregory. “Keeping the Peace or Postponing Resolution?” Defense
Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Problems Facing the Electoral College
The Electoral College and Democracy
The Electoral College and Political Equality
The Risk of Faithless Electors
Introduction The Electoral College plays a very significant role in the United States’ presidential elections. It is the institution that determines who becomes the next president and vice president of the United States of America after every four years (Lipsitz 186). This implies that the United States’ president and his or her vice president never get directly elected by the voters.
The Electoral College is constituted by individuals who have been popularly elected to represent every state; they are referred to as electors (Burgan 17). The number of electors in each specific state is restricted by the number of Congressional members each specific state is allowed to have.
The Electoral College is an electoral system in the United States that was established through the Constitution of the United States; this was subsequently amended through the establishment of the 12th Amendment of the year 1804. Currently, the Electoral College is constituted by 538 electors each of whom has only one vote (Neale 2).
In order for a presidential candidate to win the elections, he or she must get a minimum of 270 of the votes from the members of the Electoral College (Belenky 100). If a candidate fails to get the 270 votes, the 12th Amendment is invoked so as to allow the House of Representatives to determine who become the president and vice president of the United States of America (Belenky 123). In this case, only a simple majority is required for a presidential candidate to win.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that there have only been two instances in which the House of Representatives has had to decide who becomes the president. The first one was in 1801 when Thomas Jefferson was elected as president by the House of Representatives; the second one was in 1825 when John Quincy Adams was also elected president by the House of Representatives (Belenky 149).
The Problems Facing the Electoral College The Electoral College has been faulted on various grounds. Many political scholars have extensively researched and written on the challenges faced by the Electoral College. In this regard, this literature review will consider the problems that the Electoral College faces with respect to the elections of presidents and vice presidents in the United States of America.
Therefore, it is worth noting the Constitution of the United States provides for a presidential election to take place among states and not among individual citizens. As explained in the introduction, each state is assured of a number of representatives to vote on behalf of its members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Electoral College and Democracy It is important to note that the United States of America is in the forefront promoting democratic governance not only within its borders, but also across the world.
In this regard, a number of scholars have examined the relevance of the Electoral College in promoting democracy in the elections of United States’ presidents and vice president. One of the scholars have presented two reasons he perceives as fostering the belief that the Electoral College system of presidential elections is undemocratic; the first is that it is fostered by the understanding democracy relates to what most voters need (Glenn 4).
According to the scholar, this contradicts the opinion of the founders of the Electoral College that “democratic” entails as much as conceivable popular consent with justice and the common good (Glenn 4). The second argument is that it is fostered by the belief that one-person-one-vote for presidential voting in every state is undemocratic since democracy means that there should be one-vote-one-value nationally (Glenn 4).
Many researchers contend that the Electoral College is one of the most criticized facets of presidential elections in the United States. In this case, it is argued that the rules used in determining a winner in the electoral college may be detrimental to the process of democracy.
In this respect, the rule requiring that a winner takes it all and the inevitability of winning a majority in the Electoral College perplexes many since it does not make the basis for elections based on popular voters’ decisions (Bugh 65; Oppenheimer and Edwards 231). In this case, the researchers have a common argument that the Electoral College does not allow for every American’s vote to count in determining who becomes the president.
This is because, as shown by Sanders (49), in some instances where a presidential candidate may get the majority of the popular votes but fails to garner the majority of the Electoral votes; conversely, a presidential candidate may fail to garner the majority of the popular votes but ends up becoming president by winning the majority of the Electoral College vote.
Therefore, it is clear that the foregoing researchers are in support of majoritarianism, which demands that the will of the majority prevails. The majoritarian theory is discussed in the next section.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some supporters of the Electoral College system have hailed its existence with respect to the promotion of the popular will of the people. According to them, the Electoral College makes the popular election process fairer to the interests of the small states; the small states are considered as geographical minorities within the United States. In this case, they argue that the Electoral College elects the United States presidents by wider and more diverse interests than would elections done directly by voters nationally.
Some scholars argue that the Electoral College system produces presidents who are more likely govern the country for the general good of the people. With respect to this, they further argue that the Framers of the Constitution provided the Electoral College system with regard to the fact claim that democracy is not based on the sole perception that democracy can only be preserved by the will of the majority. Therefore, it is argued that the Electoral College represents an amalgamation of the will of the majority.
It is also argued that the Electoral College strengthens the popular choice of American presidents. According to the arguments, this happens by encouraging greater voter support to the ultimate presidential winner. Based on this, the implication is that this approach produces a more democratic outcome than the process of choosing presidents through a popular voting system.
The conclusion that can be drawn here is that the Electoral College system produces a stronger democratic system than the popular voting system; this greatly contrasts with the belief of scholars who think the Electoral System is a distortion of democracy.
Therefore, the existence of the differing perspectives of the Electoral College and its relationship with democracy point to the fact that there is still a need for further studies to determine the role the Electoral College in nurturing and promoting democratic presidential elections in the United States. This is because there seems to be a lack of consensus among political scholars as to whether the Electoral College promotes or thwarts democracy within the United States’ presidential election processes.
Majoritarianism Model Political scientists have established many theories to explain the American democracy. One of the theories is the majoritarianism (Lijphart 141). However, the scientists provide a caveat that there no one single theory that can describe the American political aspects in totality. In this case, therefore, each theory can only describe or deal with a portion of American politics (Lijphart 149).
For the purposes of this review, the focus has intentionally been placed on the majoritarianism. Majoritarianism is the notion that collective decisions are made properly when they are a reflection of the will of the majority. Voting theorists argue that voting rules should satisfy the principles of majoritarianism. This is one of the reasons the Electoral College system has been criticized with respect to democratic presidential elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
Even though the majoritarian theory assumes that the government’s responsiveness to popular demands comes through mass participation in a political process, the theory views the participation within a narrow scope. However, the theory favors conventional voting in elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because, according to proponents of the theory, majoritarianism solely rely on vote counting so as to determine the will of the majority with respect to specific issues, especially the presidential elections. This means that its bias towards political equality is strong (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
However, it is worth noting that the majoritarianism has been faulted on various grounds. It has been criticized due to the fact that it has limited motivation; in this case, it does not allow resourceful individuals to exercise personal or private influence with respect to government actions (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008). Besides, it has also been criticized on the grounds that it limits individual freedom since it focuses on voting as the primary means of mass participation.
This subsequently limits the scope of the conservative political behavior by describing the political actions that can be regarded as logical and suitable. This means that even if a decision may be wrong, the mere fact that the majority voted for it necessitates that the decision is adopted or considered the most appropriate. Critics argue that this may not be good for a country (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
The Electoral College and Political Equality Political equality is one of the grounds on which the Electoral College has been criticized. In this case, the main focus has been placed on rights and equality to participate in the political process of electing a president of the United States. Many researchers have reported that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have high chances of winning (Bond and Smith 345).
The distribution of electoral votes has also been seen as a problem with a significant challenge to the credibility of the Electoral College. Pundits argue that the Electoral College tends to favor the small states. It is argued that the total number of electors received by each state is determined by the number of representatives in both the House and Senate. In this regard, it is generally perceived that the small states are favored, to some extent, due to their statuses as states (Bond and Smith 347).
However, another scholar has argued that since the total number of electors for each state is a combination of the Senate and House representation numbers, the imbalance arising between large and small states is not as extensive as as it is in the Senate. In this case, the scholar argues that a small state with a population of about 600000 people has a similar representation as large states with, say, ten to twenty million (Bond and Smith 389).
Based on this argument, other researchers have noted that this kind of perceived favoritism suggests that some voters may be more important than others. It is noted that voters in the so called battle grounds receive more attention from presidential candidates relative to other voters; this scenario contradicts the commitment to political equality as defined by majoritarianism (Bugh 83).
In addition, there is another scholar who has argued that even in the states known as battlegrounds, the winner-take-all vote allocation is biased to those on the losing end. This means that the votes of those on the losing end do not count as far as determining who becomes the president of the United States is concerned; in other words, they can be described as wasted votes. The proponents of this argument suggest that there should be a proportional system of allocating electoral votes (Drachman and Langran 146).
Another study has revealed that the wasted votes have had the effect of low voter turnouts. This situation has been blamed on the Electoral College (Bugh 50). Researchers contend that the voter turnout in the United States has been lower than other Western democracies (Drachman and Langran 146). The argument in this case is that it is obvious that in more than half of the states where candidates are expected to win, voters have limited incentive to turn out and vote in a presidential election.
Another study shows that presidential candidates spend less time campaigning in those regions thereby reinforcing the claim of low voter turnout. Owing to the fact that the democratic theory places high value upon political participations, this scenario is viewed to be a setback brought about the existence of the Electoral College (Drachman and Langran 146).
Moreover, the other problem that faces the Electoral College revolves around the relationship between the Electoral College and the two-party system. In this respect, several researchers have collectively argued that the Electoral College has the propensity to promote the two major parties while attenuating the influence of third parties (Bugh 215).
In this case, the researchers have looked at the elections of 1992 where Ross Perot, a third-party candidate, garnered 19 per cent of the popular vote while not managing to get electoral votes to prove their argument (Bugh 215).
Furthermore, it has been considered that the “winner-takes-it-all” allocation of electoral vote has also had a significant contribution to the controversy affecting the Electoral College. According to a study, if the electoral votes were to be proportionately allocated, third parties would definitely be capable of receiving electoral votes, particularly in larger states where the threshold for securing electoral votes would be low (Bugh 228).
Another researcher has revealed that in the current system, third parties find themselves in a very difficult position (Bennet 27). This is based on other studies that have revealed that citizens worry about wasting their votes on parties and candidates who, for all intents and tenacity, have no chance of winning the elections.
The Risk of Faithless Electors Sometimes the Electoral College has electors who, for reason or another, may decide to vote against their party designated candidate; these are the electors who are referred to as the “faithless electors.” Available literatures show that there has been 157 faithless electors since the Electoral College was established (Bennet 95).
A researcher has observed that the potential for malice on the basis of an elector’s faithlessness has far reaching implications; according to his argument, this may extend well beyond the possibility that the Electoral College may tie or otherwise fail ensuring the required majority (Bennet 95).
This means that an elector’s faithlessness could result in entirely decisive outcome in the Electoral College. This is because an elector may decide to vote for another candidate or otherwise abstain from casting his or her vote. Political scientists agree that this kind of a scenario makes the Electoral College system to be a complicated election process (Green and Coffey 17).
This is because, according to various researchers, it may lead to the election of a minority president, who might not have garnered the majority of popular votes (Green and Coffey 17). This has been viewed by many commentators as being unfair to the American democracy. Such commentators argue that besides being unfair, the faithlessness of some electors prevents the members of a concerned state from exercising the right to participate in electing the president of their choice (Green and Coffey 48).
Conclusion The literature review process has pointed out a number of issues with regard to the problems facing the Electoral College. First, with respect to democracy, the outcome of the review process has revealed that there is no consensus among various scholars as regards whether the Electoral College promotes democracy or thwarts it. In this case, there are scholars who have argued that the Electoral College does not represent democracy in the United States.
These scholars have advanced the argument that the Electoral College system does not allow for the popular voting process to determine the president of the United States. In this case, they posit that the privilege has been given to the few who constitute the Electoral College. This has been seen to contradict the principles of majoritarianism, which is one of the prominent theories of democracies.
However, the review process has also revealed that other scholars consider the Electoral College system of election as representative of the will of the majority, which they consider as being in tune with the theory of democracy. This group of scholars argues that the electors are representatives who have been mandated by the people to represent them in the presidential election. This implies that the people exercise their democratic rights through their representatives.
In addition, the review process has also revealed that there are scholars who believe that the Electoral College system of presidential elections does not allow for political equality among the Americans. The review process has also revealed that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have chances of winning.
It is also clear that some researchers perceive the Electoral College as favoring the small states. There is also the problem of faithless electors who may not vote according to their party commitments; this has been seen as casting aspersion on the integrity of the Electoral College system.
Works Cited Belenky, Alexander. Who Will Be the Next President? A Guide to the U. S. Presidential Election System. New York, USA: Springer, 2013. Print.
Bennet, Robert. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.
Bond, Jon and Smith Kevin. The Promise and Performance of American Democracy. London, UK: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Bugh, Gary. Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities. London, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Print.
Burgan, Michael. The Electoral College. North Mankato: Capstone, 2007. Print.
Drachman, Edward and Langran Robert. You Decide: Controversial Cases in American Politics. New York, USA: Rowman
Jarir Bookstore Term Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Individual Project
The Major Issues
The Future Implications
Individual Project Introduction The government of Saudi Arabia adopted a new labor in 2012 that compels companies in the private sector to employ more Saudis than foreigners. The government adopted the new law in order to reduce the high unemployment rate in the country. However, the law is expected to have significant effects in various industries in the country because most companies depend on the labor supplied by foreigners rather than Saudis (Hamdan).
This paper will analyze the effect of this law on Jarir Bookstore, which is a leading retail company in Saudi Arabia. The company supplies computers, office equipment, and books among other products (Jarir). In particular, it will shed light on the risks associated with the legislation and the strategies that the company has adopted to overcome them. Additionally, it will highlight the future implications of the new law to the company and its stakeholders.
The Major Issues In November 2012, the government of Saudi Arabia enacted a new labor law that forces all private companies in the country to hire more Saudis than foreigners (Hamdan). This law was adopted against the backdrop of rising unemployment rate in the country. According to the new law, the number of Saudis working in private companies must exceed that of foreigners. Companies that fail to comply with this law are expected to pay a fine of approximately $640 annually for each employee from a foreign country (Hamdan).
Jarir Bookstore is one the companies that were negatively affected by the new labor law. In 2012, the company had more than one thousand employees who were working in its stores in Saudi Arabia (Jarir). 60% of the employees were expats from Asian countries (Jarir).
This means that the company had to pay the fine of $640 per foreign employee in order to maintain 60% of its workforce. In this regard, the operating cost of the company was likely to increase because it was not ready to absorb the extra labor costs associated with the fine.
Since its inception in 1979, Jarir Bookstore has focused on employing foreigners in order to reduce its operating costs. This strategy was based on the fact that expats demand lower wages than Saudis (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77). Thus, it is cheaper to employ foreigners than Saudis. In addition, most Saudis are reluctant to work in the private sector because the public sector pays higher wages.
Since the company operates in cosmopolitan cities within Saudi Arabia, it prefers to employ people with good command of English and other international languages in order to serve its diverse clientele effectively. In this regard, the company hires multilingual foreigners since most Saudis speak only in Arabic rather than international languages such as English. Thus, replacing the expats was likely to have negative effects on the competitiveness of the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resolution Even though the enactment of the law came as a surprise to the company, it had no choice but to comply with it in order to avoid the costs associated with the fine. In order to prevent disruptions in its operations, the company had to replace most of the expats in its workforce immediately. Almost 80% of the company’s workforce consists of frontline employees who are responsible for performing duties such as sales and fulfilling customers’ orders (Jarir).
Even though most Saudis are qualified to perform clerical and supervision, as well as, sales and marketing related duties, the company had trouble in replacing its frontline employees. This is because most of the new hires did not have the commitment that the expats had. Besides, most of them were fresh graduates from colleges and universities. Thus, they did not have adequate work experience that would enable them to fit into the organization without training.
In response to this challenge, the company had to review its staffing policies in order to hire the right people. In particular, the company had to identify the job requirements that new recruits had to meet in order to be hired. This included possession of excellent skills in areas such as communication, negotiation, and leadership (Jarir).
Moreover, the company designed and implemented training and development programs in order to enable the new recruits to acquire the skills that they needed in order to perform their duties effectively. The company has had to change its human resource policies in order to attract and retain the best talent from Saudi. This involved offering attractive remuneration packages, flexible shift schedules, and acceptable work environment.
In addition, the company implemented a performance-based pay system in order to motivate the employees and to improve their productivity (Jarir). A performance-based pay system involves rewarding employees who are able to meet or exceed their targets (Martin 75). At Jarir Bookstore, the employees were paid annual bonuses if they achieved predetermined conditions such as sales targets.
The Future Implications The new labor law has several future implications for the company and its stakeholders. To begin with, the company will have to look for alternative ways of reducing its operating costs. This is because it can no longer depend on cheap labor to maintain low costs. In this regard, the company is likely to focus on the use of modern technologies to reduce its operating costs in the long-term.
This will involve the use of technologies that reduce human involvement in the provision of its services. For example, the company has already established a sales and marketing website that enables it to reach its customers (Jarir). Thus, the company is likely to focus on online sales rather than the store model in future. This will help it to reduce the number of employees that it needs to serve its customers, thereby reducing its operating costs.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Jarir Bookstore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second implication is that the company will have to strengthen its employ retention programs in order to reduce labor turnover. This is because the competition for skilled labor is likely to increase as more companies comply with the new law in future. Labor turnover is often high in markets where companies are competing for the few skilled workers. This is because employees will prefer to work for the few companies that are able to offer high wages (Hartel and Fujimoto 96).
Consequently, the cost of acquiring talent is likely to increase significantly. The company can avoid losing its valuable employees by improving their commitment and job satisfaction. The third implication is that the morale of the employees is likely to reduce as the expats leave the company. Employees usually lose morale in their work when a large number of their colleagues leave the workplace.
This is because existing work relationships are destroyed and the remaining employees might not have adequate sources of support in their work (Hartel and Fujimoto 112). In addition, conflicts are likely to arise if the company is not able to integrate the new hires with the remaining employees. In this regard, the company will have to implement team-building initiatives in order to improve cohesion among its employees.
Finally, the new law will enable the company to improve its reputation in the country by providing jobs to Saudis. Currently, the company has a bad reputation in the country because its staffing policies favor foreigners. However, the company’s reputation is likely to improve as it begins to hire more Saudis as required by the law.
The Risks The implementation of the new labor law was associated with the following risks. First, the company was likely to lose its investments in knowledge and skill development as it replaced its employees from foreign countries. The company had already spent its scarce resources to train the expats on areas such as customer service, sales, marketing, and management.
The benefits of this investment such as creativity among employees were likely to be lost if a large number of the expats left the company. This would reduce the firm’s competitiveness by limiting its ability to engage in product and process innovation (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77).
Second, the company was likely to face disruptions in its operations if it was not able to find skilled Saudis to replace the expatriates. This is because the process of replacing employees who leave the company often takes a lot of time. Third, the company’s operating costs were likely to rise because hiring Saudis would increase the labor costs, whereas employing foreigners would attract high fines. High operating costs was likely to reduce the company’s profits, thereby limiting its ability to expand to other markets.
The strategies that have helped the company to overcome these risks include the following. First, company has implemented training and development programs in order to replace the lost skills and knowledge in its workforce (Jarir). These programs will enable the firm to improve the competence of new hires, thereby increasing its competitiveness in terms of ability to meet market needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jarir Bookstore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Second, the company has focused on reducing labor turnover in order to avoid losing its talented employees. This involves using intrinsic rewards such as promotions, as well as, extrinsic rewards such as bonuses to improve job satisfaction, motivation, and employees’ commitment. Finally, the company has embarked on cost cutting measures in order to absorb the high cost of hiring Saudis. This involves outsourcing processes such as transportation and logistics.
Conclusion The aim of this paper was to analyze the effects of Saudi Arabia’s new labor law on Jarir Bookstore. The new law requires private companies to employ more Saudis than foreigners. Jarir Bookstore focused on employing more foreigners than Saudis in order to reduce its labor costs.
The main effects of the law included increased operating costs and loss of skilled employees. However, the company is also likely to improve its reputation in the country by employing Saudis. The company has not only complied with the new law, but has also implemented strategies to cope with its negative effects. The strategies it has adopted include staff training programs, cost cutting measures, and staff retention schemes.
Works Cited Hamdan, Sara. Saudi Arabia to Fine Firms with too Many Foreign Workers. New York Times, 21 Nov. 2012. Web.
Hartel, Charmaine and Yuka Fujimoto. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Jarir. Company Profile. Jarir Bookstore, 31 Dec. 2012. Web.
Madhi, Salah and Armando Barrientos. “Saudisation and Employment in Saudi Arabia.” Career Development International 8.2 (2012): 70-77. Print.
Martin, John. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The focus of this essay is a business enterprise that would be involved in selling glasses and pitchers. The products can be used for various purposes among them putting beer, juice and water. Most people think that bars only sell beer but there are juice bars. A juice bar is a place where people who do not take beer can go and take different types of juices. One of the advantages of the products is that they are able to keep liquids cold for about one hour.
Location The location of a business is important since it determines its growth. This implies that before starting any business enterprise, it is important to identify a suitable location that guarantees satisfactory business growth (10 reasons to start a business, 2013). Our business would be located in the City of Vancouver. There are other locations where the business could have been established, but the City of Vancouver is the most suitable among them. The City of Vancouver attracts many tourists because of its good hotels and attractive sites.
In addition, tourists are always ready to use a lot of money and this would increase our profits. Apart from tourists, the residents of the City of Vancouver would find the product beneficial. The city is characterized by many bars and restaurants which need a high number of glasses and pitchers. In addition, the local residents like healthy drinks and milk. This implies that our products would fit well with the needs of the local residents because of their high consumption rate of fluids.
The business would be given time to stabilize within the first year before expanding it to other places outside the city of Vancouver. We would first carry out a market research to identify the most suitable locations where other outlets would be established. In the third year, we would spread the business to British Columbia because this would be a viable region where it would thrive well and grow fast.
Market Analysis The first thing in our market analysis would be our target customers. In this regard, we would first apply business to business strategy. Business to business strategy means that we would walk into local stores such as bars, restaurants and juice points where we would do presentations on our products.
This would popularize our business enterprise and provide local traders with adequate information about our products. In addition, we would offer free samples such as table mats with adverts about our products for the customers to get information about the products. Our second strategy would be business to customer strategy (Rodgers, 2001). In this strategy, we would make use of online platforms to reach customers directly. We would advertise through Facebook, YouTube and other online platforms.
The second item in our market analysis would be the image and special features of the products. It would be important to create a good image of our products by enlightening customers about the special features of the products. We would inform our customers about the plastic products that would be selling at reduced prices. One of the products we would offer our customers is tritan plastic which is used to make glass.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tritan plastic has many advantages over other products. To begin with, it has the ability to keep fluids cold for about one hour. It is also clear, a quality that makes it possible for the user to see what is inside the glass (Moore, 2008). Tritan plastic is lighter than glass and this makes it convenient to use. In addition, when tritan plastic is compared with polycarbonate, it is easier to transform into various articles with minimal energy and waste.
Apart from plastic products, we would also provide brosilicate which is used in the manufacture of glass products. Brosilicate glass has numerous advantages over other glass products. The first advantage of brosilicate glass is that it has the ability to tolerate extreme heat and cold. The second advantage is that it has a low level of thermal expansion. When compared with shattered glass, brosilicate glass is easy to clean in case it breaks. Finally, it is not easily affected by chemical corrosion.
Marketing Marketing would be an important activity for our business enterprise because it would inform potential customers about our products. The first marketing strategy would be visiting local businesses such as bars, restaurants and juice points to do presentations in order to popularize our products.
We would also include free samples like table mats with our products in our marketing strategy. The other marketing strategy that we would use is online marketing through Facebook, YouTube and other social sites in order to reach our potential customers. Our initial marketing would start at the City of Vancouver but after the first year, we would move to other places outside the city. The first location outside the City of Vancouver would be British Columbia since it would be a viable market for our products.
In order to reduce costs and shorten the marketing chain, we would apply direct sales. This implies that we would not hire any middlemen since the four members of our business enterprise would be enough to do the work. Our selling strategy would comprise of at least six or eight glasses plus a pitcher. The same strategy would be applied in our online marketing.
Sales Strategy Our sales strategy would be customer oriented selling approach which would start by establishing rapport with the customer. After a rapport has been established, the second step would be to determine situational factors and objectives of the customer. The third step would involve urging the customer to take an action because his objectives would be met by the product.
The last step in our sales strategy would be to obtain a commitment from the customer. The strategy would also emphasize customer advantage for him/her to see the importance of purchasing the product (Ranchhod, 2007). The competitive advantage for the customer must be read because failure to read it does not benefit customers. It should also be specific because this translates into a benefit for the customer. Competitive advantage is also supposed to be appealing in order to promote it to the customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management Our management team would be comprised of a marketing manager, a website manager, an operations manager and a financial manager. The marketing manager would explore available external opportunities, design marketing strategies, handle customer relations, ensure timely product delivery, manage budgets and come up with new marketing guidelines.
The roles of the website manager would include monitoring online marketing strategies, ensuring proper functioning of our website, posting important information on the website and communicating with customers online. The operations manager would supervise all activities of the organization, manage projects, work with customers and serve the role of a resource person in our business enterprise.
Finally, our business enterprise would require the services of a financial manager, who would raise funds for the business, allocate funds for different tasks, plan on how to spend profits and provide insights on capital markets (Role of a Financial Manager, 2013). The duties of the different managers would be clearly defined hence there would be no conflict of interest or misunderstandings.
References 10 reasons to start a business. (2013). Retrieved from https://startups.co.uk/10-reasons-to-start-a-business/
Moore, C. (2008). Managing Small Business. New York: Cengage Learning.
Ranchhod, A. (2007). Marketing Strategies:A Contemporary Approach. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Rodgers, S. (2001). Marketing Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques: A Handbook for Practitioners. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Role of a Financial Manager. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-financial-manager.htm
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Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Essay Proposal
Is price gouging justifiable?
What is the right thing to do?
Essay Proposal Calamities leave terrible and remarkable damages on people who are afflicted by them. Hurricane Sandy was particularly devastating to northeast residents in New Jersey. Apart from the conspicuous financial and personal damages left behind by disastrous emergencies, they also provoked political and bad economic grandstanding.
Any person who follows such grandstanding wonders whether it is fair for businesses- from those dealing with consumables to gas stations- to spontaneously hike their prices to earn windfall profits at the advantage of desperation of disaster-afflicted customers. Many will perhaps say no to the query especially those caught at the middle of the hurricane sandy, as price gouging not only seems illegal but also unethical.
Chris Christie, the New Jersey governor, was concerned that not all people in New Jersey held the above position. He warned that price gouging in the event of a disaster like hurricane sandy was illegal and one that attracted heavy penalties to culprits. Similar to the warnings issued by Chris Christie, Schneiderman, a New York based Antony, lamented that people need to look out for one another during emergencies.
Conceptualization of these lamentations creates an impression that price gouging is morally unethical. Unfortunately, this may not be the position for Keynesian economists. While some people like Chris Christie and Schneiderman may see price gouging in event of a disaster as a wrong profiteering endeavor, to these groups of economists, sudden price hike is merely one of the ways of realizing balance between demand and supply. Hence, price gouging is not wrong since it is simply an application of laws of demand and supply.
Considering the opposing positions of price gouging, this paper proposes to question whether indeed price gouging is right or wrong and whether it is just. Particular focus of the research paper will be dedicated to introspection of the perception of the business owners on the purpose for existence of their businesses especially on aspects of profit making endeavors showing how such perceptions relate to price gouging.
In the effort to deliver a research based on scholarly evidence, discussion of price gouging is based on various scholarly views of people on what constitutes justice. The essay will first lay fundamental grounds of research by discussing first what is right or wrong from the context of Sandel’s work: Justice: What’s the right thing to do? The essay will then proceed to discuss Libertarianism view of price gouging followed by Utilitarianism view of the same. Finally, Kantian perspectives on price gouging will be considered.
Annotated bibliography Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do?. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book lays down Sandel’s political philosophy. The author attempts to engage with difficult political philosophical issues in an open and honest manner. He argues that justice, as a chief determinant of what is rights or wrong to do is concerned with values, which are central to politics of states coupled with the law.
His discussion of justice is limited to pluralistic societies forming western civilizations. He does this through a balanced discussion of a three-facet approach to justice. These facets are communitarian, utilitarian, and libertarian dimensions of justice. Sandel does not contend with the arguments of these alternative justice theories. Rather, he engages criticism and commentaries whenever appropriate.
Criticism is the main methodology used to provide a balanced view of justice from the three theories. Sandel begins by outlining Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism theory followed by its criticism in the context of the refinements to the theory as postulated by John Stuart.
He then proceeds to scrutinize Robert Nozick’s Libertarian’s approach to justice followed by Immanual Kant’s categorical imperatives. Upon discussing the work of John Rawl and the concept of telos, which was raised by Aristotle, he begins to bring into lime light his own views on justice.
He maintains that, opposed to the view of justice as being autonomous, as Rawlsians and Kantians would suggest, it has a purpose and goals. Now, Sandel makes it clear that justice serves to limit certain actions of individual in the society: a view adopted by communitarians.
Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginal Law Journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.
Jonathan Wolff discusses the characteristics of liberaltarianism coupled with foundation that anchors it. He argues that libertarianism is anchored on the ideas of “minimal state, restricted to narrow functions of protecting citizens from each other (and for non citizens), and providing for the enforcement of private contracts” (Wolff 1605).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To him, this argument implies that libertarians presume that freedom from the state rules is accompanied by economic institution driven by perspectives of pure capitalism, which includes strong rights of private property.
This presumption helps to permit free competition among all potential goods and service producers. The article then proceeds to discuss two forms of libertarianism: deontological and consequential libertarianism. Wolff relates these types of libertarianism with theory of justice by claiming that libertarianism is based on “a strict doctrine of natural rights, violation of which is never permitted whatever consequences” (Wolff 1605).
If free market operation encompasses one of the elements that are protected by universal chords of freedom, based on the argument that people have the right to buy whatever on offer at any price or not, it sounds appropriate for price gouging to occur during periods of shortages. This would permit freedom of operation of market forces of demand and supply without state interference as Wolff Jonathan suggests in his approach to libertarianism.
Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education, 28.2 (2009) 391–402. Print.
This article introduces capability approach as a new approach of evaluating justice based on perspectives of individual wellbeing. The author argues that this approach diverges from the traditional approach of utilitarian view. He asserts, “instead of measuring well-being based on the accumulation of wealth and resources by individuals and nations, the capability approach focuses on the opportunities (capabilities) an individual has to choose and pursue a life they have a reason to value” (Hart 391).
She claims that, opposed to the approach of utilitarian which views justice as driven by normative ethics, which hold justifiable actions as those which foster maximization of utility through maximization of happiness and reduction in suffering, his capability approach views actions that foster good life for all and hence enabling human life to flourish as being justifiable.
The question that remains is, ‘Does price gouging promote happiness and reduce suffering for all people afflicted by disasters?’ From the discussion of utilitarian as offered by Caroline Hart, price gouging is nothing less than a mechanism of reducing equality among people. This claim perhaps may justify consideration of price gouging as illegal meaning that it is punishable by law. In this end, the law is a tool for enhancing justice for all.
Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the article, Cheng evaluates and critics Kant’s principles of justice. According to Cheng, “…duty to respect rights of others is the foundation of justice or equity” (345). In this sense, justice accrues from respecting other people’s perceived rights. While maintaining that justice is the foundation of Kant’s theory, Cheng says that generosity is not a requirement for justice nor should it have any role to play in justice.
In the context of the proposed research, price gouging may be seen from the context of Cheng’s work as unjust since it denies some people especially those who are less economically endowed in terms of their rights to consume products when prices escalate beyond levels, which they can afford.
On the other hand, maintaining low prices for products yet their supply is low makes a business owner sacrifice an opportunity for making more profit. Hence, retaining low prices implies that the business owner is more generous. This issue raises the dilemmas of what the right thing to do entails.
The Essay Is price gouging justifiable? The term Price gouging may be used in a variety of ways. In the casual sense, it means the rising of prices of service and goods to levels considered as unfair especially to the less economically endowed persons. In the legal sense, the term refers to the laws against taking economic advantage of people upon the occurrence of emergencies. This kind of price gouging may occur, for instance, when a disaster like a hurricane strikes destroying many business premises leaving behind few of them so that demand of commodities increases.
In the effort to meet the increased demand, business premise owners, for example, shop owners hike prices of the commodities. However, is this strategy the right thing to do? The overall focus of the essay is to provide a response to this query by exploring Libertarianism, utilitarianism views on price gouging, and Kantian perspectives on the same.
What is the right thing to do? Opposing the views of Libertarianism, Utilitarianism, and Kantian notions on justice makes the dilemma discussed by Sandel in his work Justice: What’s the right thing to do even more amplified when the work is interpreted in the context of price gouging.
The idea of dismissal of price gouging during periods of high demand in comparison to supply in the occurrence of disasters such as hurricane sandy as inappropriate is pegged on the perception and premise that people who sale goods at the escalated prices above ‘normal’ are immoral capitalists.
These people focus on taking advantage of people during times in which they are living below their means. From the utilitarian positions, the most appropriate ethical action is the one which “provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm” (Wolff 1611).
In the context of price gouging, the right thing to do is to set and maintain prices of commodities in a manner that ensures that they produce the utmost good and or do the least harm to persons afflicted by disaster-customers. This argument would mean that customers would have to compete in buying products whose supply is limited.
The repercussion of approaching the challenge of price gouging from the above perspective is that some people who have the capability and are willing to purchase certain amounts of products are not offered the right to do so by virtue of the fact that enough products will not be available in the market.
Hence, applying utilitarianism to justify the inappropriateness of price gouging suffers especially if justice is considered a way of ensuring that all people have their rights protected. While the utilitarian would take price gouging as unethical and immoral, libertarians would consider states’ interventions to criminalize price gouging as not justified, and hence inappropriate.
Libertarians “argue for the free market and strong individual rights to property, not based on an antecedent theory of justice, but in terms of the beneficial consequences such as wealth creation and efficiency that such arrangements may bring” (Wolff 1607). Therefore, the right thing to do is to permit free operation of principles of demand and supply.
During the times of need, demand must go up. Prices must also go up to ensure that people have accessibility to products depending on the extent and magnitude they need them. This strategy is perhaps not the right thing to do based on the utilitarian positions since it appears to foster growth of massive exploitation of needy people by capitalist. However, it qualifies to be the right thing to do since it also ensures service delivery to other people who actually need them more.
People inclined to the libertarian perspective of thinking would defend price gouging since, for instance, if the price of gasoline selling at $3 per gallon remains at the same price during the times of shortage, the market would remain open to persons who actually need it less. For instance, a person wishing to power a generator so that he or she can sell other products to needy persons will have to compete equally for the limited supplies of gasoline as anybody else would.
Consequently, failing to permit market to operate freely will lead to influencing negatively other areas of service delivery. This argument correlates with the Kant’s perception of justice as argued by Cheng, “we should Know our rights and rights of others so that we can render to others what we owe to them and let others render to us what they owe to us” (346).
In the example of price gouging with respect to the price of gasoline in the event of an emergency, the right thing to do is to permit the operation of the fuel market in a manner that will ensure that all people benefit. From the Keynesian perspective, this case cannot happen if the balance of demand and supply is interfered with through state interventions.
Raising the prices of goods and services when people are in desperation is considered illegal in many nations. However, looking at it from the angle that the right thing to do is the one, which delivers utmost good to all people, price gouging is necessary. In fact, people being driven by their capitalist interests in the occurrence of disasters will risk taking goods and services to disaster-stricken areas in the quest to earn above ‘normal’ profits.
In the process, supply would exceed the demand. From the economic perspective, prices have to come down. Consequently, price gouging helps to bring normalcy fast in disaster stricken areas. If this case would ensure that people obtain utmost good from the market fast enough, from utilitarian and libertarian perspectives, price gouging is appropriate after disasters strike.
Works Cited Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.
Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education 28.2(2009): 391–402. Print.
Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.
Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginia law journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.