Financial Management In Nonprofit Organizations Essay Essay Help Site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Financial management

Budgeting

Asset management

Cash flow

Fund accounting

References

Introduction Financial Management is simply the management of finances in an organization so as to meet all the financial goals of the organization. The key objectives of financial management would be to: create income for the business, generate profits, and provide adequate returns on investments. These key objectives are achieved bearing in mind the risks that the business is taking and the resources invested.

Three key factors are to be considered in the process of financial management: financial Planning, financial decision-making and financial control.

Financial management Even though financial management of non-profitable organizations is similar to financial management in profit organizations, there are many key highlights that make it different. In a forprofitorganization, the focus is on profitability and maximizing shareholder value.

A non-profitable organization focuses on reducing shareholder value and increasing the likelihood of satisfying the targeted clientele as per the requirements of the organization.Moreover, a non-profitable organization lacks the financial flexibility of a commercial enterprise. It largely depends on donors that do not engage in an exchange transaction (Ruppel, 2007).

Non-profit organizations ought to account for its donated resources. It must be able to show that the donation was utilized for a specific purpose. The purpose of the funds should be stated in the organization’s mission statement or specified by the donor. In a non-profitable organization, there is a strong emphasison externalfinancial reports on donor restriction. As a result the uses of fund accounting systems have been made even more critical.

In profitable organizations, the main focus is ensuring that the overall benefits of the stakeholders are capitalized. Simply translated, this means aiming to achieve the maximum profit possible for the organization. A profitable organization has various stake holders. These stake holders include: share-holders, fund lenders, employees, customers, suppliers, and the government. In order to attain the maximum profit possible, the profitable organization has to first find a balance between the needs of these stake holders and the organization.

If all operations of the organization are to run smoothly then there has to be a proper balance and clear definition of the long term and short term objectives and opportunities. In the process of setting the short term goals and opportunities it is important to evaluate all possibilities that may jeopardize the long term sustainability of the company. Should the organization manage to balance all these factors, the end result will be maximizing the shareholder value (McKinney, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Budgeting Budgeting and cash management are two areas of financial management that serve significant roles in non-profitable organizations. The organization has a duty of ascertaining that there is adequate cash back up that will enable it to continue offering services to its customers. However in a profitable organization, the pursuit of such needs could be detrimental to the shareholders. This is because the funds that go into satisfying customers could be utilized in other areas of the business that need to be improved.

Cash flow in a non-profitable organization can prove to be quite a challenge. The organization largely depends on funds from donors. These donors donate their resources without expecting to receive the service provided by the non-profit organization. For this reason, expenses in the non-profitable organization have to be controlled.

In a profitable organization, stake holders expect their needs to be met and therefore, the organization has to maintain a steady cash flow. Just like the non-profitable organization, funds may be depleted. However, the organization does not rely on resources from donors; rather their resources are determined by how well the business performs. The wealth of the shareholder is based on the current value of the organization’s future cash flows (Atkinson, Kaplan

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The Extent to which Media Images of Families Reflect the Diversity of Families in Relation to Issues of Culture Gender, Size and Composition Essay essay help online: essay help online

Media shapes the early childhood learning environment to the extent that it highlights ethical issues, gender roles and cultural concerns. Popular media, in particular radio, television, newspapers and popular magazines play proactive roles in constructing the perceptions of how families need to look like.

The “ideal image” of a family has immense impacts on “real” families upon bearing in mind that different families comprise of people with differing personalities. The impact is the development of differing cultural identities among people right from the earliest stages of physical and cognition development (Maples, 2001, p.67).

Media associates certain races and or cultures as being more superior to others in terms of finance and portrayal of familial roles that people regard as “ideal”. Sexualisation of certain familial roles creates images of reservation of certain duties for a particular gender among children (Lumbay

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Explaining a Concept Research Paper best essay help

Sociological theories are the key components of sociology as a discipline. They function as guides for researchers and also guide practitioners who conduct intervention strategies. Sociological theories are defined as a set of concepts which are interrelated. They explain, describe and predict the relationships among different parts of the society.

The theories are made up of ideas and concepts that have close relations and are scientifically tested and brought together to expand, clarify, magnify and enlarge how human beings understand people together with their unique behaviors and the society in general. The theories assist sociologists to perform different types of studies with particular questions that examine the assumptions in the theories (Ritzer 110). This is a concept explaining paper that focuses on the concept of sociological theories.

In the following example, two researchers, Henry and Cumming conducted a study that focused on the process of aging. They developed an aging theory that comprised of assumptions. In the theory, they assumed that once elderly people realize that they are about to die, they stop their youthful actions.

At the same time, the members of the society shift their focus from them. The researchers tested their theory by using a large number of aging people and found out that the generalizations and findings they had devised resulted did not support the theory. The theory was therefore abandoned since the findings did not support it. This showed the importance of research in determining the validity of sociological theories.

Theories are used to study millions of people in societies and even at other levels. When they are used to study large groups of people, they are referred to as macro theories.

On the other hand, when theories are used to study small groups of people such as families, couples or teams they are known as micro theories. The macro theories are basically comprised of functional and conflict theories while the micro theories include social exchange and symbolic interactionism theories. In most situations, most theories are used at both the micro and macro levels.

There are two broad categories of theories. The first category is referred to as the grand category of theories and focuses on universal qualities of social issues or problems. Its basis is abstract concepts and ideas as opposed to specific evidence. Such theories include symbolic interactionism, conflict, and social exchange theories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second broad category of theories is the middle-range category of theories. These theories are formed on the basis of scientific findings which are specific and centre on the interrelation between or among concepts in a specific social problem or process.

Conflict theory is an example of a macro theory. A macro theory is used to study issues that affect larger groups of people. The founder of the theory was a German economist, philosopher and a sociologist known as Marx. He was disappointed because the educated people in the society mistreated the less educated and the poor.

He could not tolerate the capitalist ideals that allowed the powerful individuals in the society to exploit the poor and perpetrate inhumane acts on them. The theory was later developed by Max Weber and took a moderate ground. In the development, he conducted a thorough study of capitalism but did not agree with Marx on rejecting the theory.

Conflict theory is very important when trying to understand poverty and wealth, war, revolutions, slavery, child abuse, domestic violence and political strife among others social issues. The theory asserts that the society is constantly in conflict and people always compete for scarce resources.

It assumes that individuals who have wealth in the society strife to earn more of it at the expense of those who do not have. It is usually a power struggle that favors the elites and the wealthy while the poor become the victims of hard situations. Power is the capacity of individuals to seize whatever they want even when they face strong opposition.

The second type of grand theory is the structural functionalism or functionalism. Functionalists argue that society must sustain a state of balance as the different components of the society perform their functions. This theory has a relationship with ecological and biological concepts.

The functional and non-functional systems in the society are analyzed the same way the human body is analyzed to detect problems. Some of the processes that express functionality in the society include romantic relationships, growth or decline of the population, socialization, religious practices and friendship among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Explaining a Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Functionalists agree with proponents of conflict theory that the society experiences some breakdowns and that mistreatment of the poor in the society is a reality. The societal breakdowns are referred to as dysfunctions and threaten the stability of the society. However, functionalists exhibits a more positive and optimistic attitude than the conflict theorists.

They acknowledge the fact that societies experience problems just like the body does. Functionalists study the parts and processes of the society to find out how societies maintain their stability in the wake of factors that make society unstable.

The third type of theory is symbolic interactionism. Interactionism takes place as either social exchange or symbolic interaction. Symbolic interaction theory argues that people in the society interact with one another on a daily basis.

It is a useful theory that is used to improve communication, understand people, and impart skills among individuals of different cultures and foster good relations in the society. Generally, the theory is used to understand most of the aspects that make up the society. It is a theory that provides a magnified understanding of meaning.

The fourth type of theory is called the social exchange theory. This theory argues that in the society, individuals constantly interact as they try to maximize rewards and incur minimal costs. Its assumptions resemble those of the conflict theory.

Human beings exhibit rationality since they have the capacity to differentiate between the good and the bad after they have learnt the advantages and disadvantages of every choice. People look at the available options in every situation and figure out how the rewards can be maximized and costs minimized. One of the most outstanding features of the theory is its equity concept (Axelrod and Cooper 10).

All the sociological theories are applicable when it comes to conducting studies on collective and individual behaviors. However, some theories are best suited in some circumstances because they handle certain issues better than other theories. A particular issue may be studied through several theories in order to establish certain aspects of the issue. Sociological theories are important since they are used by researchers to establish various societal facts and solutions to specific problems.

Works Cited Axelrod, Rise and Charles Cooper. St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. New York: Bedford Books, 2007.Print

Not sure if you can write a paper on Explaining a Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ritzer, George. Sociological theory. New York: McGraw-Hall, 2000.Print

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The Individuals with Disability Education Act Coursework college essay help online: college essay help online

A Summary of the Six Key Components of the Original 1975 IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) The Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) was signed into law in 1975; however, it was originally called 1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act (EHA) or Public Law 94-142. Before the development of the act, many disabled children were denied access to education and very few schools allowed in public schools.

Under the Act, the US has a goal of ensuring that all youths develop into independent, responsible, and respectable people in the society (Gargiulo, 2010 p.33). Therefore, the Act was developed to protect the rights and meet the needs of disabled children and their parents, as well as ensuring that all children got equal opportunity in education in the United States (Lain, 2006, p.1).

This original IDEA had six key components, which include free and appropriate public education(FAPE), individualized education plan(IEP), nondiscriminatory evaluation and Identification, the least restrictive environment(LRE), procedural due process and parental participation(Lee, 2005, p.259).

The first important component of IDEA 1975 is free and appropriate public education (FAPE). FAPE implies that all the children with disabilities should have access to the special education and special services that they need irrespective of the severity of their disability conditions. This special education should be provided at the public cost and should equally meet state’s education standards (Tenor865, 2009).

It requires a proper definition of the educational placement, services and setting that are most appropriate for students with disabilities (Lee, 2005, p.259). FAPE ensures that parents of such children do not pay for the special education and services that are offered to their children.

The other component is nondiscriminatory testing and evaluation. This provides that, an unprejudiced assessment criterion should be applied to decide if a child qualifies to be provided with special education services (Lee, 2005).Not all disabled children qualify for services offered under the IDEA act, those with mere disabilities are usually left out.

Only children with visual impairment, mental retardation, auditory impairment, language and speech impairment and those with severe emotional disturbance can qualify the services offered under IDEA. It also defines the kind of placement that can be used for a given child, depending on the type of need recorded. The assessment should be done by trained and qualified staff before a child with disability can start receiving special education (Tenor864, 2009, p.2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is aimed at ensuring that children are not prejudiced based on their cultural, racial, or language differences. It avoids overrepresentation of a particular group of people in the institutions that give these special needs services. This is particularly essential since most districts find high number of minority children enrolled in the special education schools (Lee, 2005, p.259).

The individualized education plan (IEP) is another important component of the IDEA. Children have differing disabilities and different children will require different learning services and needs. Moreover, each student has specific learning goals and will require specific learning modifications and this should be put in consideration.

The development of the IEP is required to optimize learning for each student and requires a joint work by a team comprising of parents, educational personal, and students in certain instances to develop a student education plan. The motive is to find the type of services needed by a particular student (Tenor864, 2009).

Least restrictive environment is another component, which is concerned with the establishment of an independent and friendly learning environment for students receiving special needs and services where they can realize their full potential. This component of IDEA makes sure that handicapped children are educated along their fellow non-disabled children (Tenor864, 2009).

The component provides that the children should have access to independent environment and be subjected to regular lessons as far as the disability condition can allow. The children can be subjected to residential treatment or they can be subject to full inclusions depending on their needs (Lee, 2005, p.259).

The procedural due process is another component that ensures that the principles outlined in the act are completely followed by schools. The section provides for the rights of people concerned to be involved in the entire program. This includes the disabled children and their families, teachers, psychologists and other pertinent persons.

The component “allows the parent to be represented by legal counsel, and to ask for an impartial trial if there is a disagreement about their child’s educational plan” (Tenor864, 2009, p.2). With this component, parents of children with disabilities have the right to reach the records of their children and make sure that the records are confidential (Tenor864, 2009).

We will write a custom Coursework on The Individuals with Disability Education Act specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The parents have the right to take part in IEP and should also be informed of any possible changes in the services, for instance, a change of the individualized education plan, a change in placement, or a shift in educational class of the child (Tenor64, 2009). It has the legal provisions for solving the differences between families and schools providing these special needs and services. Procedural safeguards are very important because they protect the rights for both the children and their parents.

The other component is parental participation, which provides for the inclusion of parents in educational decision-making and setting of the learning objectives for children with disabilities and generally in IEP development (Lee, 2005, p.259). Much of the intervention to help a child with disabilities should follow the consent of parents or any other people responsible for the child.

Parents should be informed more often of their children’s situation in schools and they must be consulted before any action about their children like new placements or change of services is taken. In addition, this component of IDEA ensures that parents are consulted before any disciplinary action is taken on their children.

Summary of the Key Components of the Later IDEA Reauthorization The IDEA has had several developments since its inception. Changes have been necessary to understand how laws can be put into practice and the necessary adjustments that can make them efficient and effective (LD Online, 2011).

Public Law 99-457 (1986)

One of the major changes that followed the 1986 amendment of the Education for all Handicapped Children Act was the addition of the infant and toddler component. This was characterized by provision of more services to infants and young children with disabilities from birth to the age of five.

This was made possible by incorporation of a new pre-school program grant program which increased the money allocated to disabled children between three to five years of age by threefold (Cengage Learning, 2011a). Two parts, B and H, had the particular provisions on these interventions.

The developments included an establishment of interagency council on early intervention which lead to the establishment of Early Intervention Program(EIP), the development of individualized family service plans(IFSPs) which join families in nurturing their handicapped children, promotion of public awareness programs on possible interventions, and putting families as the center of focus in these programs (Cengage Learning, 2011a).

There were also concerns on safeguard rules and effective transition of families between different systems and reduction of the likelihood of putting disabled children in various institutions while at the same time nurturing their potential for independent living in the society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Individuals with Disability Education Act by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Public Law 101-476 (1990)

Amendment in 1990 saw the change in the name of the law. The law was there before known as Education for all Handicapped Children Act (EHA) and was renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990, its main aim being recognizing the child with disability (Cengage Learning, 2011b). Under the new provision, the term handicapped was removed and victims were termed as “children with learning disabilities.”

The other important amendment was on the eligibility criteria. In effect, autism and traumatic brain injury were introduced as other exceptionally categories (Cengage Learning, 2011b). The amendments also provided for transition planning between systems and services for disabled children at the age of sixteen.

Another amendment to the act at this time was the definition of Assistive Technology Devices and Services (ATDS) for the disabled children which can be included in the Individual Education Plan (IEP). Lastly, there were also concerns to extend the least restrictive environment so that children are educated along non-disable children (AT Laws, 2012).

Public Law 105-17 (1997)

This amendment yielded the most important changes for the IDEA, with the law being restructured from nine to four subchapters (Cengage Learning, 2011c). Other developments included much emphasis on the roles of the parents and families, students and other education stakeholders in promoting IEP programs for the students with disabilities.

The amendment provided clarity on the extent to which the children with disabilities can be disciplined by the teachers in schools (AT Laws, 2012). The access to general education was also emphasized under the amendments.

On the use of Assistive Technology and Devices and Services to aid in IEP, amendments were made to allow these devices to be used in various setting like at homes to make sure the students get fair and appropriate education. In addition, the act emphasized that teachers should include orientation and mobility services to specific students particularly those with visual and auditory impairment when using assistive technology and devices in IEP (AT Laws, 2012).

IDEA 2004: Public Law 108-446

This amendment marked the final regulations on IDEA being the last amendment that has been made. The IDEA 2004 has four sections – A, B, C, and D. The first section defines the terms as used in the law and section B outlines how to source funds from the federal government to aid the eligible students with disabilities (LD Online, 2011).

This defines the eligibility criteria and mechanisms for evaluation. Section C entails early intervention programs for the infants and toddlers with disabilities whereas the last section focuses on how educational agencies can work effectively with these children with disabilities indeed the amendments on the act at this time allowed the disabled children to take part in various operations and programs under the IDEA(US Department of Education, 2008).

IDEA amendment in 2004, allowed local government agencies to conduct child find activities and make sure that there is fair distribution of resources among the handicapped children in their locality.

In addition local government agencies were allowed to deliver special services to private schools and to decide the right amount of money to spend on the disabled children in their area. Lastly, the amendments of the act in 2004 lead to the corporation of new consultation rules for private schools which host disabled children (U.S Department of Education, 2008).

Summary of IDEA Guidelines of Referring Students with Suspected Disabilities The first step involves identifying a child needing special education and services. This can be done through child find which consists of government agents who identifies disabled children in each state and through referral by a parent or other people who wants a child to be evaluated for disability.

Secondly, the chosen child is then evaluated for the disability. The consent of the parent to a child suspected of disability is necessary in the initial evaluation of the child. Evaluation is a vital step in referring children with suspected disabilities because with this it is possible to know whether the child is eligible to special needs and services. Parents are can call for reevaluation of their child if they are dissatisfied with the results obtained (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).

The third step is to decide whether the child is eligible for the special education and services based on the evaluation results. A certain level of disability is required for a child to qualify for the special education and services under IDEA. As a result not all disabled children are eligible for the special education and services but those with extreme disabilities.

At this stage, parents may be summoned to hear eligibility decision made on their children. After determination of eligibility of the child, within a month a team is selected to focus on the child and set up Individual Education Plan for the child. An IEP team meeting is then organized; this meeting is attended by teachers, psychologists, special teachers and other pertinent persons who have knowledge about the child.

The meeting is then held and the IEP team determines the best services to offer to the child. All this is done with the consent of the parent and if they disagree, their mediation and options may be considered.This step culminates with a well written IEP for the child (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).

Provision of services to the child then follows; special education and services are provided to the child based on the IEP. All the parties involved are given a copy of the child IEP for them to know their responsibilities which include: modifications, accommodations and support.

The parties include; parents, teachers and special service providers who have the responsibility of supporting the child daily through various means. Services are offered to the child for a given period after which a progress report is filled by IEP team. Reports are prepared and presented to the parents and other concerned people occasionally to determine effectiveness of the IEP to the child. With these reports, the IEP is reviewed and amendments can be done on it for the benefit of the child.

Normally, IEP review is done on annual basis unless parents request for frequent reviews. The last step is to review the child to know how he/she is progressing. This review is usually done after every three years although the review can be done more often if situations demand that or on parent or on teacher request (National Dissemination center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).

Some Other Intervention Concepts In accomplishing the above procedures, certain procedures also need to be followed as interventions to help the children with disabilities. The referral process may be detailed and time consuming; however, there is enough evidence indicating eligibility. In this case, an intervention can be given while the evaluation process is underway – this is termed as pre-referral interventions.

The identification of disability, evaluation for eligibility, and the subsequent delivery of the special need services involve the participation of different people including educational professionals, parents, students (in possible cases) and other education stakeholders. If the child is found eligible, parents and educators have to meet to arrange for individualized education program to help the child (National Dissemination center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).

Meetings are held between the parents and educators to discuss the conditions such as placement of special services. There is also a need to cascade service delivery options. This intervention is necessary due to the different needs met by children with disabilities. It involves developing a learning environment that accommodates all children by ensuring that the instructor provides special attention to the students with special education needs.

Early intervention concepts should also be put in place by use of early education programs which are useful in identification of children with disability. Young children are unable to speak and due to that, they only express themselves by crying, pushing or even gesturing. Some children have a challenging behavior which does not respond to efforts of early educators and parents who find it hard to meet the children needs.

This lot of children may need an individualized plan where they will be monitored closely to find out their problems in time. This is very important for social and mental development and can be used to identify children with special needs who can benefit from the provisions of the IDEA (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).

Early intervention services are also referred to as part C services provided under the IDEA act. These measures are there for infants who are handicapped or have developmental delay. Such children are evaluated to decide their eligibility to receive early intervention measures.

References AT Laws. (2012). Special Education Laws and Legislation. Web.

Cengage Learning. (2011a). The Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457). Web.

Cengage Learning. (2011b). The Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1990 (PL 101-476). Web.

Cengage Learning. (2011c). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (PL 105-17). Web.

Gargiulo, R. (2010). Special Education in Contemporary Society: An Introduction to Exceptionality. Fourth Edition. Thousands Oaks: SAGE

Lain. (2006). IDEA: A Breakdown of Its Components, Amendments, and Referral Process. Web.

Lee, S. (2005). Encyclopedia of school psychology. Thousand Oaks: SAGE

LD Online. (2011). IDEA 2004. Web..

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2011). 10 Basic Steps in Special Education. Web.

Tenor864. (2009). A Look at the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Web.

U.S Department of Education. (2008).The Individuals withDisabilities Education Act: Provisions Related with Children with disabilities Enrolled by their Parents in Private Schools. Washington DC. Web.

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Architector Giotto di Bondone Essay online essay help

Introduction Giotto di Bondone was one of the first greatest personalities in architect and Florentine painting of his time. According to Pioch (1), during the Italian renaissance Giotto became renowned as the first genus of art. His greatness in the field of art is attributed to two factors.

Firstly, he brilliantly got to the heart of every sacred history event he was representing by breaking down the episode to its fundamental, dramatic core, as well as his ability to design compositional means through which he could express the deepest spiritual meaning of the sacred history episode and its emotional effects in terms of uncomplicated area of paint.

The second factor is that Giotto’s art is outstanding for its simple, grave, and clear solution to the central tribulations of an attempt to represent the human figure, volume and the space, solitary and structure of three dimensional forms. The solutions that he came up with helped in solving fundamental dramatic narrative problems, as such, these solutions have never been surpassed and in many ways, they have consequently been elaborated (Wolf 29).

Discussion Tactile imagination

Giotto’s deep understands of other sculptors’ achievements such as Giovanni Pisano, Nicola Pisano, and Arnolf di Cambio is seen as the greatest inspiration of his success in his representation of the basics of human psychological and spiritual reaction to events as well as human form.

The aforementioned sculptors were very keen in tackling the fundamental problems of representation particularly in a physically three dimensional medium. Giotto’s paintings do not only appeal to the tactile imagination which the objects of the art possess and represented by the human figures, his paintings also depicts a keener sense of reality, with a more likeness of life than the objects.

His paintings are therefore intensely real in that they deeply evoke the tactile imagination of the audience thus compelling them to everything that stimulates their sense of touch while observing the objects (Williamson 15).

Movement and action

Another peculiar aspect of Giotto’s painting is his treatment of movement and action. In all his paintings, the gestures and the grouping never fail to convey the intended meaning. Giotto used the significant shade and light, significant line, the significant gesture, and the significant look up or down, to convey an absolute sense of motion in his work such as Paduan frescoes of the Ascension of our Lord, of the Resurrection of the Blessed, of the angel in Zacharias Dream.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Or of the God the rather in the Baptism. Giotto’s ability to convey action and movement in his work is indeed a claim to perpetual appreciation as an artist (Gillet 6). This genius appreciation enabled him to represent objects in a representation that is more complete and quick, subsequently giving the audience the opportunity to confirm their senses of capacity that in turn bring into being a great source of satisfaction.

It is argued that in every piece of Giotto’s work the audience feels its real connotation and he conveys as much of his art work as the general confines of his own skills and art permit regardless of the painting theme (Williamson 47). In instances where the theme of his painting is sacred story, Giotto’s paintings are endowed with careful sacramental intentness, processional gravity, as well as hieratic dignity.

He used several symbols to depict an individual dominated by a given vice. This is evidence in his work such as Arena at Padua, at the Injustice, the Avarice, and the Inconstancy, while painting Inconstancy Giotto paints a woman who has a blank face, with aimlessly held out arms, with her feet placed on a wheel side, and her chest falling backwards (King 37). Consequently the painting makes the audience giddy to look at the woman.

In the painting injustice he uses a man who is powerfully built in his prime years, the man is clad in a judge costume while grasping a lance that is double hooked in his clawed right hand and clenching his sword hilt with his left hand. The eyes of the man are firmly on the watch, with an attitude that suggests his readiness to devour on his victim.

He is seated on a rock that is higher that the trees. It therefore goes without saying that in the aforementioned paintings, there is a clear caption of each of the vices as Giotto has perfectly presented and extracted their visible significance.

Conclusion Giotto was greatly concerned with the human figures presentational problems as well as their actions pragmatically on a flat surface which was to embody 3 dimensional spaces. In the earlier times artists used the Byzantine tradition flat forms. They also disregarded what was around them and often imitated each other.

Unlike the earlier artist Giotto carefully considered human body and nature and he realized that the two aspects were endowed with deep emotions, humanity, and great dignity (King 58). He therefore placed his human figures in albeit shallow, free space. This led to his acceptance and recognition as one of the greatest artist of his time.

We will write a custom Essay on Architector Giotto di Bondone specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gillet, Louis. “Giotto di Bondone.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. Print.

King, Margaret. The Renaissance in Europe. NY: Laurence King Publishing, 2003. Print.

Pioch, Nicolas . Giotto di Bondone. Web Museum, Paris 2002. Web.

Williamson, Beth. Approaches to Giotto. A journal on Art History, Vol 34, (2011): 1061 – 1065.

Wolf, Norbert. Giotto di Bondone, 1267-1337: the renewal of painting. NJ: Taschen, 2006. Print.

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How is Narco-Governance Related to Political Liberalism? Essay essay help

How is narco-governance related to political liberalism? The emergence of narco-governments has been favored largely by the thriving trade in illegal drugs. Countless of reports from numerous agencies have implicated many senior government officers of many states in drug dealing. There are governments whose budgets and public spending are bankrolled by the dirty money from illegal drug trade (Taussig, 1994).

In return, the rich drug dealers get unlimited access to the various sectors of the economy, security and protection. These drug dealers carry out their illicit drug deals with the blessings of the government (Jimenez, 1990).

The impunity displayed by these drug lords goes beyond just controlling the government spending; the government is always at their beck and call and any disgruntled voices are either intimidated into silence or killed, in most cases, the mercenaries that they own while the government officers including the president in some cases looking the other way.

Strangely enough these governments consider themselves politically liberal; they claim that their actions are for the common good of all citizens. Such kinds of governments are common in Latin America where drug lords are literary running a number of governments by virtue of funding them. Like in the case of Mexico, such drug dealers have executed many civilians and government officers opposed to their activities and considered as their enemies using their mercenaries (Gootenberg, 2008).

Such governments call themselves politically liberal; to them they are serving the best interests of the citizens. Liberalism, while aiming at protecting individual liberties and private properties, it should go beyond just looking at the intra-state relations and focus also in the international relations. This is because governments do not operate in vacuums but rather, they operate in an international environment which determines it affairs to a great extent.

However, it must be noted that different states will either use liberal or non-liberal means to achieve these components of liberalism. To be considered completely politically independent, a state should be able to act autonomously, and with equality and neutrality. Thus, liberalism goes beyond just the name, it is the component, the action that qualifies the name. The name should be defined by the actions and not the name defining the actions that ought to be associated with it (Hindess, 2004).

These components of liberalism and the numerous different arguments in the philosophical world point give credence to the existence of a relation between narco-governance and political liberalism. The very nature of political liberalism; it is almost amorphous and has many facets, gives the society to define it in their own terms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An autonomous state capable of self governance is considered to politically liberal. Such states may or may not prohibit certain activities even they might be harmful to the general public. Narco-governments would be considered to be politically liberal as they permit drug dealing and illegal drugs usage even though they are harmful to the general public. A politically liberal state would exhibit neutrality in its actions and decisions; never imposing ideas, rules or regulations on its subjects (Hinojosa 2007).

The subjects of such states have the freedom to choose what is good or bad for them. Contrastingly, citizens of narco-governments usually lack this liberty in most cases as the drug lords usually have the final say for the citizens’ choice of life should always favor their drug businesses (Guattari, 2006). The concept of equality is one of the three pillars of political liberalism as champions for the equal treatment of all citizens as equals.

This is a right that usually protected and spelt out in the laws governing those states. Narco-governance works on the premises of creating an unequal society by creating an economic vacuum. Thus, citizens of such states rarely enjoy the equality, a state propagated by law.

Since autonomy and equality are antagonistic, most narco-governments usually go for autonomy over equality. Hence, while these narco-governments would argue that they are liberal, they are only using a sprinkle of liberalism concepts. These show the relationship that exists between narco-governance and political liberalism.

How and when have U.S. domestic politics, rather than Latin American security problems, shaped narco-governmental geopolitics (narco-geo-politics) in Latin America? Most people would cite Latin America countries’ security problems as the major player in the narco-geo-politics in Latin America. While this is true to some extent it is important to note that the problem of narco-geo-politics of Latin America is also influenced by other external factors such as domestic politics in the United States of America.

Due to their foreign policies which govern and determine how the United States government relates with her neighbors and the global community at large, the domestic politics and political parties’ policies and ideologies in relation to foreign policies have for a long time shaped the narco-governmental geopolitics of states within Latin America including Colombia and Mexico.

Between 1998 and 2000 the United States government used billions of dollars in Colombia as donor’s fund aimed for economic development with the mutual agreement that Colombia would lay down effective policies to curb drug trade (Walker, 1997). Such actions usually infuriate the local drug lords who feel their country is being dominated over.

We will write a custom Essay on How is Narco-Governance Related to Political Liberalism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, when such countries fail to honor their pledge of cooperation in dealing with drug trafficking, the funding is withdrawn leaving the government dangling precariously and at the mercy of drug lords.

The drug dealers may form rebel groups such as FARC to fight the government which they view as puppets of foreign powers (Marsh, 2004; Hinojosa, 2007). Such foreign policies and aid if withdrawn leave the countries at the mercy of the drug dealers who may take over or even decide to fund the government budget while favoritism in return.

Americans have been accused of insubordination and violation of sovereignty of other Latin American countries like Mexico where they have organized secret sting operations. Such operations are usually organized against drug cartels by the United States government and are usually carried out by their personnel.

These operations curtailed the cordial relationship between the United States of America and Mexico as the Mexicans felt disrespected. This lack of trust opens a leeway for the drug lords to warm their way to the heart of the government promising economic assistance to fill the void left by the withdrawal of American aid.

This causes a shift in the narco-geo-politics of such countries. The United States of America applied a seemingly selective treatment of captured drug dealers where they only extradited foreign nationals to their countries where they know they will face more harsh punishment than in their naïve countries.

On the other hand, their citizens or citizens of would be friendly states would leave to serve their sentences in countries where they were arrested as the sentence would less harsh. This would shape the narco-geo-politics in Latin America as the drug cartels may take advantage and seize the government (Youngers

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Development is No Longer the Solution to poverty Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Development Serves First World Nations Not Third World Nations

Illusions of Poverty Reduction

The Development Problem Lies in the Favoured Economic Models

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Prescribed solutions from societies that do not experience lack in its absolute sense will not work for the world of third world counties anguishing in poverty. Historically, such prescriptions have led to increased dependence on hand outs and or a complete breakdown of institutions necessary to fight poverty at an indigenous level (Dos Santos 1970). This essay is a critical assessment to the phrase below, made by Sachs (1992) while referring to the worthlessness of development as a solution to poverty.

The impression of development stands like a decay in the scholarly scene (Sachs 1992, p. 1). The same author proceeds to say, “delusion and disappointment, failures and crimes have been the steady companions of development, and they tell a common story: it did not work” (Sachs 1992, p. 1).

“Moreover, the historical conditions, which catapulted the idea into prominence, have vanished: development has become outdated” (Sachs 1992, p. 1). The author finished by stating that “but above all, the hopes and desires, which made the idea fly, are now exhausted: development has grown obsolete” (Sachs 1992, p. 1).

Development Serves First World Nations Not Third World Nations The differentiation-integration model of development theory uses various components of societies to define development. However, it falls short comprehensively offering the universal depiction of development as an end means to solve the poverty problem.

Even after bringing forth the question of taking into account social, psychological conditions, and concomitants of productive development, it goes on to narrow the focus to a question of transitioning from backwardness to advancement in the economic status (Bernstein 1971). The problem here is that the advancement refers to first world countries. Thus, the notion of modernization is simply a quest to transform third world into first world without offering a lasting solution to the cause of the poverty (Banuri 1990).

The first-world countries became economically superior by relying on the abundance of raw materials and cheap labour from the world. It has also been having international market access that fosters trade. On the other hand, modernization theorists expect third-world countries to replicate similar situations, and become economically advanced, when the conditions do not allow them. While they may have abundance in raw materials, they lack the freedom and capacity to exercise their capacity of resource exploitation (Peet

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The Process of Formulating Policy Case Study college essay help online

Table of Contents Lindblom’s Incrementalism

Kingdon’s Streams Model

Baumgartner and Jones’ Punctuated Equilibrium

Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith’s Advocacy Coalition Framework

Works Cited

Lindblom’s Incrementalism Incrementalism is the process of formulating policy by aggregating the minute units of the policy to come up with comprehensive policy. Lindblom used the example of a manager who is supposed to formulate policy on inflation (79). The manager would have to aggregate all the values that affect inflation and then come up with policy using these values (Lindblom 79). The manager would then analyze the policy available and take advantage of the available policies to come up with a comprehensive framework (Lindblom 79).

The barrier to significant policy change in Lindblom’s incrementalism theory is the fact that policy makers and analysts limit their scope to what is comprehensible to the users. They aim at simplifying the policy for the users rather than coming up with comprehensive policy that may be difficult to understand.

Lindblom intimates that the policy makers in the western democracies use incremental methods to formulate policy for the purpose of remaining relevant as well as simplifying the process of policy formation. Therefore, policy makers aim at coming up with policies that will not affect the ability of the users to understand.

However, in this paper analysis of policy, Lindblom says that whatever might be seen as a minute change by one person may be seen differently by another (298). In this light, the other barrier to significant policy change is the view of policy users. Change in policy is dependent on the public attitude (Lindblom 85).

Political scientists are of the opinion that the survival of democracy in the United States is dependent on fundamental agreement on sensitive issues (Lindblom 85). Therefore, if the users do not accept a change in policy, there will be no change in policy.

For policy to change significantly there must be a great passage of time. Policy changes are gradual and occur over time. This is because the policy makers use old policies to formulate new policy. Lindblom explains that policy analysts and policy makers compare the existing policy with the old policy to come up with policy that is relevant over a given period (79).

In the process, policy makers end up changing only a fraction of the policy available since most of the policies remain relevant over a long period time. Users of such policies may only notice a small change in the general policy but for the users to realize that a significant amount of change in policy a great deal of time must have passed. Therefore, for significant changes in policy to occur and be noticed by the users, a significant passage of time is necessary.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kingdon’s Streams Model According to this theory, the barriers to significant policy change include goal specification and changing goals. Problems and preferences are relatively not well known by the policy makers (Zahariadis 75). Therefore, policy makers find it hard to select an alternative that would yield maximum benefit (Zahariadis 75). The major challenge under the concept of ambiguity is that policy makers do not know what the problem is (Zahariadis 75).

The definition of problem is always shifting and vague (Zahariadis 75). Policy formulation is extremely complicated due to various reasons due to the differences in understanding among individuals. Sometimes these differences may contribute to lack of clear goals thus leading to shift in goals.

Due to these problems, the policy formulated may be vague in terms of language, ambiguous, and contradictory. Policy makers also have the responsibility of filling gaps in policy. These gaps may or may not align with the intentions of the policy maker. If the gaps to be filled do not coincide with the intention of the policy maker then there is likelihood that the goals will not be specific.

According to Zahariadis, for significant policy changes to occur, there must change in time (75). Time is unique and scarce and the primary objective of decision makers and policy is to manage time effectively (Zahariadis 75). It is reasonable to pursue policy-making decisions that may be irrational but can last through time (Zahariadis 75). Therefore, with this in mind the only way that policy can change effectively is through change in time.

As time changes the interests of the people may also change. Therefore, changes in interest may also account for significant changes in policy. Kingdon’s adaptation of the garbage can model has incorporated ideas-versus-interests dilemma (Zahariadis 78). Therefore, changes in interests of the policy users may account for significant changes in policy.

According to Zahariadis, the big political events are usually connected to the small/ narrow sectional development in specific way (78). In this light of events, we can notice that significant policy change is highly dependent on the narrow or small ideas of users in different sectors of an organizational unit.

Baumgartner and Jones’ Punctuated Equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium as used in policy is a theory that advances the notion that most policies will exhibit little or no changes for an extended period of time. In case the changes in policy occur, it is generally restricted to specific areas in the policy thus creating new policy that is completely different from the first.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Process of Formulating Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The barriers to policy changes in this model are the conservative nature of organizations, the restricted cognitive nature of human, and vested interest. The conservative nature of organizations explains how organizations and states are unwilling to change their policies over a given period of time.

The policy makers remain sticky for a continued period of time until something happens to change their culture. In case of vested interest, the policy may remain stagnated for a while because it serves the interest of several people or groups. Baumgartner and Jones in their article “Punctuated Equilibrium in politics” explained this concept using the idea of policy monopolies (6). Every individual group and entrepreneur has his or her personal interest.

Therefore, a monopoly in politics deals with policy of personal interest since no one likes competition (Baumgartner and Jones 6). Due to these interests, significant policy changes are hard to come by. Another reason for lack of significant changes is due to the limit in human knowledge. Policy will remain in the same stagnant stage until human gains knowledge or recognizes a need for change in policy.

For policy to change there must be humongous shifts in societal views or changes in government. It is logical that without change in societal views the policy may remain the same since they would have no qualms about the existing policy. The policy would be serving its purpose because the knowledge of the society is limited. However once the views of the society changes and they see that the policy is no longer serving its purpose significant changes are bound to occur.

Another factor that may lead to significant changes is the shift in governance. Once the policy makers change policy is bound to change due to the fact that the new policy makers will want to serve their personal interests. If the previous policy does not serve, the interest of the new policy makers there will be a shift in policy thus a significant change to accommodate the interest of the new policy makers.

Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith’s Advocacy Coalition Framework Advocacy coalition is the process where a group of individuals come up together to support specific policy change.

According to Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith’s the idea of policy change is influenced by political scientists (14). Scholars have clearly demonstrated that the political scientists are not necessarily as neutral as they may be viewed neither are they indifferent to policy changes; instead these political scientists are members of coalitions that may or may not support policy changes.

The degree of their support and the level of coalition determines how the policy changes. Therefore, policy changes are affected by cognitive limits of the political scientists. Significant policy changes may only occur if the political scientists recognize the need to change the policy and act in a collected effort to change the policy. Otherwise, changes in the core of matters of the policy are not susceptible to changes unless there are serious anomalies in the policy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Formulating Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Major policy changes occur in the core aspects of policy in case of very great anomalies in the policy. Where the policy experiences great anomalies, the political scientists may at as a unit to ensure that the policy is changes to suit its purpose. The levels of agreement among the political scientists needed to institute policy change vary across different governments. Hierarchically superior systems and coalitions may try to change the policy core of subordinate coalitions or levels.

Policy core may change substantially in cases where the fundamental perceptions of the policy makers change. For example, a change in basic priorities of the policy users may institute changes in the general policy core. Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith’s believed that the increase in support for environmental pollution lead to passage of the 1970 policy amendment (14).

Moreover, serious problems in the policy may cause the policy makers to reconsider their stand on certain policies and change them. Deep core policies are hard to change it takes a lot of effort to change the deep core policies. Changes in deep core policies may change due to changes in beliefs of individuals and the political scientists. Like religious beliefs deep core policies are rooted in the systems and changes can only occur if the masses agree that the policy need to be changed.

Therefore, for deep core policy to change there must be change in human nature, change in the priorities of the ultimate values, and a change in the socio-cultural identity of the community. Changes in the secondary aspect of policy may occur significantly if there is a problem in the specific aspect.

The political scientists must view this problem as serious enough in order to support significant policy changes. In addition to this, secondary aspects of policy may change due to administrative decisions. The administrators may collude to change policy n order to serve personal interests.

Works Cited Baumgartner, Frank and Jones, Bryan. Punctuated Equilibrium in Politics. Colorado: Westview, 1999. Print

Lindblom, Charles. “Analysis of Policy.” Public Administration Review, 19.2 (1958): 298-299. Print.

Lindblom, Charles. “The Science of Muddling Through.”Public Administration Review, 19.2 (1958): 79-88. Print.

Nikolaos, Zahariadis. Ambiguity, Time and Multiple Streams in Theories of Policy Process. Colorado: Westview, 1999. Print

Sabatier, Paul and Hank, Jenkins-Smith’s. Advocacy Coalition Framework: an Assessment. Colorado: Westview, 1999. Print

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Discuss why food services are the most commonly outsourced function in the business Community Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Food services are the most commonly outsourced functions in the business community for several reasons. To start with, it is important to appreciate the fact that the preparation of food is a very involving task and if at all businesses are to provide their employees with nutritious and healthy meals, then they need to leave this work to professionals. In addition, once the business community has outsourced the food services function, it can now be able to concentrate on its core business activities.

This helps to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business functions. Moreover, food service departments in organizations are required to adhere to various federal nutritional guidelines and because of the lack of professionals in the business community, businesses risk failing to comply with these rules. This means that the business community can face prosecution by the federal government for violation of the rules. In order to avoid such problems, outsourcing becomes the most logical thing to do.

Describe the advantages of outsourcing food services to a management Contractor

When a business community decides to outsource its food services function to a management contractor, there are a number of benefits associated with such a decision. To start with, such a decision will more than likely reduce the operational costs of the business in question.

This is because a lot of resources usually go to the process of acquiring, processing, preparing, and serving food. Such process requires money and when the company outsources these functions, it can save on some of these expenses. In addition, food services do not constitute a core process of a business community, unless it is in the hospitality industry. Therefore, the company is likely to record improve efficiency in its operations because all the resources of the firm are directed towards achieving its core objectives.

The business community is also likely to save on the money that would otherwise have been spent in the purchase of new food equipment, as well as in replacing other equipments. In this case, the outsourced company has to assume this new role. This also goes for the salaries and wages of the employees working at the food services department in a business entity.

Once a management contractor has been tasked with the responsibility of providing food services functions to a business entity, he has to pay his own workforce. Therefore, the company is able to save on employee salaries.

Explain the unique aspects of food service operations that drive these Advantages

Unlike the production of other products, foodservice is characterized by certain unique characteristics and these can affect the decisions made regarding production and services. To start with, there are certain peak periods when the demand for food tends to be high (for example during lunch, supper, and breakfast).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In between the demand is somewhat erratic. Also, the demand for food can be affected by competitive events or time of the year and this can result in the modification of food production to suit the demand. We also need to note that food production is by and large, labor intensive, often requiring unskilled and skilled labour.

At the same time, the perishable nature of food means that there is need to have professionals handling food during production, while preparing it, and during serving. A change in food production can also affect the menu planning. The aforementioned unique aspects of food service operations are therefore the driving force when a business entity decides to outsource the food services function to a management contractor and in the process, it can benefit from the associated advantages.

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Managing Product and Service Innovation for Kodak Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Innovation is an object, idea or practice that is regarded as new by individuals or units for adoption (Rodgers, 1983). It is the invention of more effective or better ideas, services, processes, products or technologies which are readily accepted by the target market, the society and governments. In regard to innovation, the target market is the most important.

Innovations act as the catalysts for growth in the increasingly competitive business field. Irrespective of the field a company operates, firms must continually transform structures of the economy from within by being innovative in products, services and processes.

Companies must also seek for improved ways and methods to enchant their customer base with improved and better quality, price, service and durability. These are the products of innovation which might be realized through the integration of organizational strategies and advanced technologies.

Innovations will not only add value to the customers, but also make business economically feasible (Tushman

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How postmodernism can be used as a theoretical approach to the Humanities Essay essay help

There are myriad of practices, methods and ideals that encompass the concept of postmodernism, especially in regards to humanities. As a matter of fact, this concept entails quite a number of theories attached to critical thinking and philosophy, contrary to the belief that it is a philosophical movement. Some of the most common theoretical applications of postmodernism have been witnessed in humanities, post-structuralism and feminism.

In other words, postmodernism is apparently another perspective through which traditional ideologies can be approached in non-conventional ways by deviating from the mode of superculturalism that has been pre-established. Owing to this complexity in defining postmodernism, the concept has been treated and debated with lots of controversy.

For instance, this concept gained a lot of prominence during the 1950s before it could eventually be discussed alongside humanities such as art and literature during the 1960s. In any case, the origin of postmodernism is largely believed to have been developed through humanities.

On the other hand, Humanities include all those study disciplines that involve the human race but at the same time void of science or scientific origin. Most branches in literature, theology or philosophy studies lie under humanities. Theology and musical and visual arts are also studied in humanities. English, among other languages form a strong basis in humanities as a medium of communication. The liberal studies, as well as general human artistic works, are all embraced in humanities.

Needless to say, it is definite that humanities can be theoretically approached from the concept of postmodernism. For example, theories that attempt to explain metaphysics, formalism, constructivism, realism, relativism, as well as positivism, are firmly grounded in postmodernism in spite of the slight departure. In a sense, the western civilization has been critiqued through its intellectual pillars, traditional practices and the enlightenment legacy.

According to postmodernism theory, most of those elements that are considered to be realities are merely social constructs. As a result, they are prone to transform at any given time. This conforms to philosophical thinking of certain theorists of the 20th century.

For instance, Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) argued out that there are currently so many signs that reality seems to have disappeared. Moreover, the concept of postmodernism theoretically emphasizes the relative importance of motivations, power relations and language when formulating ideologies and belief systems. This coincides with most tenets in humanities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, the sharp binary classification has been attacked by the postmodernism concept. Some of the classifications that have been disputed include colonial versus imperial, black versus white, gay versus straight and female versus male. Such strict classifications are disputed in postmodernism. As a theoretical explanation towards humanities, studies in sociology and political science tend to benefit a lot from this standing point.

The concept continues to argue out that any form of reality should be treated as plural. In addition, realty depends on the interpretation of the parties involved as well as the nature of what is being addressed. Indeed, this can be used as theoretical explanation to the theory of truth as portrayed in philosophy. The concept of postmodernism is also quite categorical that since people’s perception of the world is subjective, absolute truth is non-existent.

To date, it is evident several fields in humanities have been influenced by postmodernism. Some of theories derived from postmodernism have been used either directly or indirectly in music, visual arts, anthropology, history, architecture, linguistics, sociology, literary criticism as well as religion.

While postmodernism has been discussed at length in various pieces of literature, it is profound to note that modernism has also vastly contributed to most humanities while the intrinsic difference between the two is minimal. Moreover, postmodernism has also changed various perspectives in the interpretation of the law as well as in business and marketing.

It has also been considered to be an academic movement by far and large since it depicts some form of reactivity to modernism in as far as the entire field of humanity is concerned. In particular, theories derived from postmodernism are often closely related to skepticism, textuality and plurality. Hence, humanity is the key beneficiary of such theoretical platforms.

In yet another description of postmodernism by Fredric Jameson, who was a literary critic, it is evident that this concept was also understood as part and parcel of the economic theory of capitalism that was cultural-based and dominant as well. This took place during the historical period of late capitalism. The latter has also been conclusively expounded by Ernest Mandel, who was a Marxist theorist.

According to the latter theorist, the concept of postmodernism took shape during the late capitalism years and was largely associated with consumer capitalism, multinational capitalism and globalization. Nonetheless, globalization seems to be a recent development in the field of humanities, although aptly fitting within the confines of postmodernism. Furthermore, the postmodern philosophy, such as the concepts of objectivity and subjectivity are purely developed from the theoretical application of postmodernism.

We will write a custom Essay on How postmodernism can be used as a theoretical approach to the Humanities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To recap it all, it is vital to reiterate that the development of postmodernism theory has largely influenced the ideological assumptions in the field of humanity. Therefore, it can be used as a theoretical approach to humanities.

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Research Methodology: Data Collection and Analysis Essay essay help online: essay help online

Research Methodology This chapter discusses the methodological approaches used by the researcher to collect, analyze and present its research findings. In this case, the study followed a positivist and phenomenological paradigm. The selection of the paradigm determines how the study expresses the underlying research perspective toward how things are connected (Brenda, 2003).

The study’s choice of a positivism and phenomenal approach remain appropriate to the study. This paradigm succeeds in investigating the study scenario in its natural setting to deal with the existing factors affecting children because of the “No Child left Behind Act.”

Data Collection The researcher used a mixed research design in the collection, and analysis of data. The study shall collect quantitative data by administering a survey questionnaire. The survey instrument shall enable the researcher to collect and analyze empirical data to investigate the effect of “No Child left Behind” Act on children. The collection of quantitative data is appropriate to determining the existence and extent of the relationship between the Act and several strategic effects (Brenda, 2003).

The researcher’s choice of a qualitative research design remains appropriate to the study scenario because it allows a researcher to examine the phenomenon in its natural setting during the study. Phenomenological approach enables the researcher to explain factors influencing the factors in the research topic to enable a plausible explanation of the study theory.

Instrumentation The researcher collected qualitative data by using focused interviews to assess the effect of the Act on disabled children (Brenda, 2003). The interview shall consist of open-ended questions to give a general insight into the possible effects of the programs under the guidance of “No Child left Behind” Act.

The use of open-end questions is to help the researcher to win first hand confidence of the respondents, and objectivity of the responses (Merriam, 1998).

Sampling technique The study utilizes a random sampling approach in selecting the sample of the study. This technique ensures that the research cushions its results from errors of biased source of data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data Analysis Qualitative Data Analysis

The researcher’s use of thematic analysis to analyze interview findings helps to analyze data drawn from interviews (Merriam, 1998). This approach is based on fundamental trends, patterns of behavior or life exhibited by individuals within their environment. After interview data, the researcher developed patterns related to the data.

Later, data cataloguing was used to identify and formulate themes. Pattern grouping was finally done and relationships between groups determined (Merriam, 1998). This gave room for a general assertion that could explain and clarify practices of “No Child left Behind” Act on disabled children.

Quantitative Data Analysis

Quantitative research on the other hand, deals with collecting and analyzing numeric data. This form of research entails the use of relatively large-scale data in order to examine or ascertain a social phenomenon through statistical analysis. In this research, the researcher selected a qualitative research design with the view to answer the research question under review. According to Merriam (1998), qualitative research studies things in their natural way or setting, in which the researcher is an integral tool in data collection.

Under this approach, data collected is in the form of words, or pictures and the outcome are used as a process and not product. The application of qualitative research method in this study was to enable the research to find and develop theories that would explain the relationship between variables through elements of qualitative research (Brenda, 2003).

References Brenda, L. (2003). Design research: methods and perspectives. New York: MIT Press.

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass Publishers

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John Wilkes Booth’s life and his assassination of Abraham Lincoln Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Career as an Actor

Business Ventures

His Interest in Politics

Assassination of Lincoln

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction John Wilkes Booth was born at Bel Air in Hartford County, Maryland on May 10, 1838, to Junius Brutus Booth and Mary Ann Holmes. Who had come to the United States from England in June 1821(Clarke, 79). He was shot dead on April 26 1865, at the age of 26. He secretly married the daughter of Senator John Hale of New Hampshire. As a young boy, Booth was athletic and popular. He went on to become a skilled equestrian and fencer.

He attended Bel Air Academy in 1850-1851. He was intelligence, though he was not interested in education, he loved horses, fencing and entertaining people. He later attended Milton boarding school for boys at Sparks Maryland, were he nurtured his love for acting classical work (Wilson, 113).

He later joined St. Timothy’s Hall an Episcopal Military at Catonsville Maryland. Were he was under strict supervision and as a result, he later on sympathized with the South’s Confederation Army and gave them support. Due to the sudden dead of his father, Booth dropped out of school a year later after joining the school. At the age of sixteen Booth was interested in theatre were he went on and became a leading actor.

Career as an Actor Although inexperienced Booth made is first debut on August 1855 as a supporting actor, at Earl of Richmond at Baltimore’s Charles Street Theatre. Afterwards he joined a Stock Company at Arch Street Theatre at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1857. However, he was not as good as his half brother in elocution.

He nevertheless captured the imagination of his audience, by growing into an outstanding and accomplished actor (Townsend, 55). He played his part with such great enthusiasm that the audiences admired him. He made his first acting appearance in New York City in May 1862, he made his Boston debut, playing nightly at the Boston museum in Richard III Romeo and Juliet May 13, the Boston Transcript‘s review the next day called Booth;

In January 1863, Booth’s acting career was looking bright, when he returned to Boston.

Business Ventures He invested in varies ventures like land speculation at Boston’s back bay section also invested in 31.5 acre farm were oil had previously been discovered and by early 1864 they had drilled a 1,900ft well yielding 25 barrels per day at Allegheny river. The Civil War in the South was getting complicated. With Lincoln’s re-election, it was clear that there was no end in site. Booth abandoned the oil business on November 27, 1865

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was no much know about is business venture, this was because he died young and he devoted most of is time to acting and enjoying the fine things of life, and the involvement in politics, did not allow him to concentrate on his business.

His Interest in Politics In April 12 1861, a civil war broke out, his admiration for the South’s secession had become an obsession, and he publicly advocated for South’s secession in November 6 1860. Later on during the civil war, 11 states seceded from the Union, but home state of Booth favored joining the Union, at the same time, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and imposed a martial law (Rhodehamel, 58).

That saw Maryland remain with the Union, which lead to the arrest and imprisonment of pro- secession Maryland political leader and the stationing of Federal troops at Baltimore. Booth was against the abolition of slavery and the right of the former slaves to vote that he wrote a letter criticizing the Union Government for wanting to abolish slavery. He cooperated with the South’s Confederation Army by smuggling quinine for them.

Assassination of Lincoln The prospect of re-election of President Lincoln angered Booth so much that he regretted having promised his mother for not joining the military. He was disappointed, to the point of regret as to why he never acted before to put to an end the life of the Union main supporters.

This gave him more reason as to why he should kidnap Lincoln with an aim of exchanging him for the South’s prisoners. He recruited Samuel Arnold and Michael O’Laughlen to help him carry out is plan. After a landslide win, President Lincoln advocated for the rights of former slaves to vote.

That man’s looks, his coarse low jokes and anecdotes, his vulgar similes, and his policy are a disgrace to the seat he holds. He made the tool of the North, to crush out slavery.

When the President stated his desire for giving the former slaves an opportunity to choose their leader and participate in the nations building process, at a gathering at, white house. This speech disappointed Booth so much that he decided that that would be last public appearance of Lincoln. In April 14 1865, Booth went to Ford’s theatre to get is mail, while there he was informed that the President and his wife will be attending the play at the theatre that evening.

We will write a custom Research Paper on John Wilkes Booth’s life and his assassination of Abraham Lincoln specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This presented a perfect opportunity to carry out is assassination attempt (Smith, 120). He therefore immediately went on to make plans to assassinate the President. As he had access to the Lincoln box, later that evening after confirming the presence of the President, he slipped into the box at 10pm and shot the President. Booth as a fugitive on April 26, he was tracked and shot dead at Garrett’s farm, just south of Port Royal, Caroline County, Virginia.

Conclusion There is some controversies surrounding the death of Booth, with some historians indicating that Booth had escaped to Japan, and there was an attempt to cover up, till to date it can’t be authoritatively be proven whether he was the one indeed shot died at Garrett’s farm. Therefore, there is a need to conclusively, lie to rest these theories by performing a DNA test on his remains to prove his identity for the last time.

Works Cited Clarke, James. A Sister’s Memoir. USA: University Press of Mississippi, 1996. Print.

Rhodehamel, John. The Writings of John Wilkes Booth. USA: University of Illinois, 1997. Print.

Smith, Gene. The story of America’s legendary theatrical family. New York: 1992. Print.

Townsend, George. The life, crime and capture of John Wilkes Booth. New York: 1977. Print.

Wilson, Francis. John Wilkes Booth. New York: 1972. Print.

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Military Fascism in pre-WWII Japan Essay cheap essay help

Fascism represents a kind of a political system whereby the state possesses total power. As such, every citizen is required to work for the country as well as the government. The head of state for such a state is a dictator or some other powerful individual who uses police force and strong army to maintain law and order. Fascism was first seen in Japan during the period in which it used to export most of her goods, mostly silk and luxury items (Tsutsui, 2009).

At the beginning of the great depression, luxuries were foregone and this left Japan incapable of fueling her factories. In order to put a stop to the depression, Japan had two choices to make; invading China for some more resources or closing down their factories. During this time the Japanese government was being ruled by Emperor Hirohito and his army referred to as ‘a diet’ that was slowly becoming fascists.

This permitted the military together with the factory proprietors to have great influences over the decisions of the country; thereby opting to invade China and Manchuria. It was at a later time that the Japan’s government began to closely conform to the Army Nationalistic objectives. Thence, as time went by, military fascism developed in japan (Tsutsui, 2009).

With control over the government and, essentially, the whole country, the army pushed Japan further and further into the pacific war and ultimately led to more war with the west. A number of other reasons contributed to this Japans military fascism and one such reason was thirst for power.

The Meiji restoration unleashed massive changes in Japan. This was a period of revolutionary modernization and as a motivation from these, came forth the desire for prestige, power and wealth as a way to redress the enforcement of unequal treaties placed upon them by the western powers during the past (Tsutsui, 2009).

Moreover, the Sino-Japanese War victory, gave Japan a first real bridgehead on the continent of Asia, forcing China to acknowledge the independence of Korea and giving up Taiwan and Liaotung peninsula (Tsutsui, 2009). However, Russia, Germany and France dissented that the intrusion of Japanese to Liaotung would stage a constant jeopardy to China thence, forced a deeply chagrined Japan to desolate the peninsula.

Furthermore, the Japanese exertions to incorporate their economy into a liberal global order became futile earlier on in the 1930’s when the economies of the west that were depressed placed a hindrance upon the Japanese trade so that they could guard against the markets of their colonies. The structure of international peace that was substantiated in the League of Nations was thought of by the Japanese to have favored the nations of the west who were controlling the resources of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the west had played in a hypocritical way when they barred Japanese out-migration via the anti-Asian in-migration laws of the 1920’s. These series of events caused the Japanese to deflect from democracy and indorse fascism and its extension to the japans empire (Tsutsui, 2009).

In conclusion, the slowly burning aggression of Japan was steered with frustrations with a world whose governance appeared inclined in preference of the west. The military fascism was a way of expressing the Japanese economic, power and policy dissatisfaction by the west, and it hence contributed in some ways to the rise of World War II. They charged their hardship upon the western countries and the incompetent government.

Most citizens of Japan likewise conceived that the government did almost nothing to help them, despite the fact that it stood for democracy. They therefore began to buy into what the Nationalistic patriotic societies were embracing- military strength, reconstruction and respect for autonomy. They started to join these patriotic societies and the army, consequently resulting to the rise of military fascism in pre-WWII Japan.

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Market Structure during Post-Mao China: Capitalism or Socialism? Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The words Capitalism and Socialism are distinct in usage and have been used in the Maoist regime and the Reform Era, which is commonly known as the post-Mao regime. This happened after the death of Mao in September 1976. Deng, the chief architect of change who explicitly rejected Mao’s “politics in command” which brought about certain undesirable aspects such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution replaced it.

His economic objective was to do away with the all the aspects that made China poor especially peasant backwardness. One of the key economic sectors that needed to be reformed were national defense, agriculture as well as science and technology. The aim of this change is to transform China into a socially and economically highly developed country within the next 30 to 50 years.

China is no doubt in a capitalistic economy after going through an unsatisfactory “halfway house” which was neither capitalism nor socialism that brought about bureaucratic intrusion in the economy. This yielded very poor results in the economy. The Chinese economy has seen undergone a sweeping economy.

Most of China’s retail stores and service shops are currently under private ownership. Privatization of property has also extended to other sectors such as the real estate and the agricultural sectors. This has led to the permeation of a great sense of division of labor in the agricultural sector. Despite the increasing trend of the cost of living in China, a great proportion of the Chinese population appreciates the freedom of choice within the Chinese markets.

Most of the retail stores offer a variety of products with varying consumer friendly prices. The communist ties of the Chinese community have lost their strong ties paving way for a new approach to the economic affairs of the nation. This has led to a great improvement in the standards of living for most of the citizens especially those are not financially stable.

In the traditional setting, capitalism refers to the control of the means of production in an economy by the affluent class- capitalists. The class of capitalists is able to control a large proportion of a nation’s economy because of the favors they receive from the political system in the country in question.

In the contemporary society, it refers to the privatization of the means of production in a country’s economy. On the other hand, socialism refers to the phenomenon whereby the ownership as well as the major means of production is under the control of the state. All the people in the society have substantial control over the available means of production. It is applied to an economic system in which property is held in common and not individually and a political hierarchy governs the most important relationships within the economic system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The economy in the post-Mao era has undergone some changes. One of the major changes is the increase in the gap between the rich and the poor in the Chinese community. The housing market and consumerism have undergone drastic changes in the recent past. Additionally, most of the economic sectors have undergone privatization.

There has been an increase in the number of people in the Chinese community as well as a similar increase in the number of the affluent in the society. The poor are getting poorer whereas the rich continue amassing wealth. Capitalism makes it hard for the Chinese people to adapt and live to tell the tale.

It makes it hard for the people to identify with what they were used to such as their traditional culture, family background and ones surname. In essence, identity of the majority in the Chinese population is continually becoming a problem. Today, socioeconomic status and the struggle to be rich are choking them to death for the mere purpose of identity in the society. It is very clear that while some are gaining, others are losing pushing socioeconomic classes in opposite directions.

Getting a job has become a painful experience for many unlike before where people had work units. Most of the jobs are under privatization. Much effort is on the peoples’ abilities to produce quality products and work effectively. They are now competing to get a job and finding new identities as they work on their own, which proves to be vicious and difficult.

Greed too has changed the way people relate and conduct their lives. Due to the hardships associated with the capitalist market, many people have to work for longer hours to be able to access most of the basic consumer products. During the Mao regime, the people measured their wealth in terms of children, land as well as their homes.

They also acted as a form of their identity. The earlier Chinese population would know ones socioeconomic status and their identity if they mentioned where they lived. This too changed during post-Mao era where housing was privatized. “The demise of public housing regime and the rise of commercial real estate industry have opened up new opportunities for the people in the urban centers to seek differentiated lifestyles, status recognition and cultural orientations” (Zhang, 2008, 24).

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Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Focal Liver Lesions Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Contrast‐Enhanced Ultrasound of Benign Focal Lesions

Contrast‐Enhanced Ultrasound of Malignant Lesions

Contrast‐Enhanced Ultrasound of Traumatic Lesions

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Biopsy

Merits of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound

Demerits of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound And Their Solutions

Conclusion

List of References

Introduction Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is now gaining popularity as a key a tool for demonstration and detection of focal liver lesions. It has replaced the normal medical ultrasound as an imaging technique. A normal medical ultrasound as an imaging technique has generally been the gold standard diagnostic imaging technique for the liver across the world.

Its pros lie in its affordability and availability. However, one of its major pitfalls is its reliability in demonstrating focal lesions despite the advent of Doppler. This has often been a major challenge because of the grey scale appearances of the sonograms causing blurring patterns. Small lesions with diameters >1cm and iso-echoic lesions too pose great difficulty in this diagnostic modality.

The sensitivity is poor with a false-negative rate of > 50 % (Wernecke et al 1991, p. 731). In addition, inaccessibility to the eighth of the liver is a major setback in detecting lesions in the segment.

With the advent of Doppler ultrasound, more insight in the diagnosis of liver lesions has been added by the use of the arterial patterns whose abnormality may be characteristic of certain pathology e.g. the spoke wheel pattern observed in focal nodular hyperplasia.

Contrast enhanced ultrasound involves intravenous injection of contrast media (microbubbles) prior to the ultrasound procedure. The microbubbles remain in the systemic circulation for a given duration of time during which ultrasonic waves are directed to the anatomic site of organ pathology. An echo is then reflected by the microbubbles which are then converted into contrast-enhanced image by the ultrasound system.

The operator needs to familiarize himself with the ultrasound equipment and its ‘contrast’ settings, which is dependant on the type of machine. The contrast agent is prepared according to instructions provided. 20 ml of normal saline should be given following the administration of the contrast. An intravenous cannula is placed away from the side of ultrasound examination.

A stop-watch in the machine is used for accurate interpretation of the phase of imaging (Arterial, venous and late phases). Scanning is then done for a period of at least 5 minutes. The examination may be video recorded for later review. Still images are also taken at points to help highlight the pathology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some focal lesions in the liver not demonstrable on ultrasound may not be suitable for demonstration with contrast agents. Small lesions <1 cm, may be difficult to characterize especially when deep within parenchyma, generally.However, liver metastases, even those < 0.5 cm, are normally demonstrated using slow infusions through the liver in the later portal-venous phase or the late phase.

The characterization of focal liver lesions forms a key element in the majority of radiological practices. Although the normal medical ultrasound imaging is useful for the identification of focal liver lesions, accurate demonstration and characterization of a lesion is often difficult even with the use of colour Doppler (Nino-Murcia et al., 1992, p. 1195).

Microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has proven diagnostic accuracy in focal liver lesions (Bleuzen et al., 2006, p. 40). It can also be used to augment other imaging modalities like plain abdominal X-ray, contrast enhanced ultrasound guided percutaneous biopsy and B-mode ultrasound. It does not use ionizing radiation and is non-invasive unlike angiography or biopsy. It is well tolerated, affordable and relatively time efficient.

LIVER LESION Sensitivity Specificity Haemangioma Focal nodular hyperplasia

Liver abscess

Liver metastasis

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma

88.9% 83%

66.7%

77.3–90%

94.1%

57.1%

100% 98%

95%

100%

93.2%

100%

Table 1: The quoted sensitivity and specificity for the detection and demonstration of some common liver lesions using microbubble contrast (Source: Berry

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World Regional Geography Report: London and Paris Comparison Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free

Map comparison assignment Both London and Paris represent primate cities of their respective states- England and France respectively. London is synonymous to Paris with respect to spatial structuring and land use patterns. On focusing the map of London (figure 1-9), it is apparent that the city is located centrally enhancing its influence on the entire state with ease.

To bolster its influence the city is served by radial rail and road networks that spread to its rich hinterland. The core of the city otherwise the CBD that is characterized by congested neighborhoods transition outwardly to sparsely populated suburbs. To date, the evolving business centers around London are competing with the CBD.

Akin to London is Paris which is characterized by its central location vis-à-vis other cities within the state. Paris forms the core and, sits at the helm of power influencing the entire state. Even though it is located in less productive region, its hinterland, rich agricultural land is the reason behind its success.

Road and rail network which spread radial from the CBD facilitates its influence. However, just like London emerging urban centers on the peripheral of the state rival Paris. One such city is Lyon which is still being dwarfed by Paris in terms of population density (Kimble 492).

Both figures (fig. 1-3 and G-10) are meant to locate the modern European geographical realm and its origin. However, the accuracy of the information given about the origin of the states by both maps does not coincide in some aspect and, to some extend differ in the actual boundaries.

With regards to the origin, while figure G-10 owe the existence of powerful western European states to a rich agricultural hinterland, figure 1-3 owe this to accumulated minerals. With regards the boundary, while the absolute location of Europe is defined by high and upper-middle economies that stretch to Eastern Russia, the relative location of Europe (fig. 1-3) is limited to few states.

According to figure 1-3 the Arabic realm stretches deep within states located towards Iberia. To this end, it is evident that with varied views a map projection meant for the same location can differ in many aspects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The boundary of Europe’s core area cuts across several states that include Southern Norway, Sweden, Poland, Slovakia, Austria, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Ireland and United Kingdom. The boundary encompasses states that fall within regions defined by high income economies.

This is depicted by map G-10 that defines states and economies. Also, as portrayed by figure G-9 these are regions that are well endowed with industrial minerals and hence support large populations of persons. With regards to climatic condition (figure G-8) this core area is characterized by short dry season with average rainfall between 100-200 mm per annum as portrayed by figure G-7(Schaefer 279).

Europe as a geographical realm is a composite of many languages that fall within several groups. However, the discrete components of the groups are not mutually understandable. In turn, this has been an impediment to efforts geared towards unifying Europeans. However, on focus to United Kingdom English as a language spoken by the three states of Scotland, Ireland and England is the reason behind the existing peace.

Similarly, Switzerland enjoys a peaceful co-existence with its neighbor the Germans for the reason that they both speak Germanic language. This also applies to the Belgians of whom majority speak Germanic akin to its neighbors. The Polish who fall under Slavic group have pockets of Indo-Iranian groups that initially differed with both the Russians and the Germans to form an independent state- Poland.

Finland enjoys a peaceful co-existence with its neighbors thanks to a common language apparently spoken by most of its neighbors. Finally, Romania, an Island, is characterized by a single language- Komi vital in enhancing unity (MacLeod and Jones 507).

Map construction Map 1: showing Europe’s physical geography

Map 2: political-cultural geographic information.

We will write a custom Assessment on World Regional Geography Report: London and Paris Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Map 3: Economic-urban information

Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 492-512. Print.

MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-695. Print.

Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 226-245. Print.

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China Mobile Limited Coursework best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction In the economic hard times, firms are confused on whether to reduce their marketing budget or continue investing more on brand building hoping that they could possibly gain a competitive hedge over other companies. Most companies are aggressively increasing their marketing expenditures so as to increase their sales.

The annual ranking that was done by BusinessWeek in 2008 showing the 100 Best Global Brands showed that US firms are keeping their marketing budgets steady and as a result have a steadily increasing income (BusinessWeek 2008).

However, no Chinese firm appeared in the top a hundred brands globally. Most Chinese companies have put in place strategic considerations to their brands while engaging little in global brand development as part of international marketing strategy.

China Mobile Ltd was ranked first in 2007 Best Chinese Brands (Interbrand China 2007, 7). According to China Mobile Limited (2011) in 2007, China Mobile had a brand value of 313,000 RMB millilion an increase of 11% from its brand value in 2006. Its operating revenue in 2010 was 485,231 RMB million, an increase of 7.3% from its 2009 operating revenue.

In 2010, it made a profit of 119,640 RMB million. According to Interbrand China’s Chief Executive Officer, Frank Chen, the brand value shows the discounted cash flow of the firms total earnings that it is expected to fetch to the shareholders in the coming fiscal years.

This implies that brands are among the company’s economic assets and therefore need serious management. A positive change in the company’s brand value comprehensively reflects an increase in performance that has been achieved by its management team through the application of various strategies.

Branding has become a major focus for Mobile China and it has produced abundant returns. The company estimated its customers to be about 584 million in December last year. In 2011 alone, it has had an increase of customer number by 16.824 million in the months of January to March to reach the 600 million mark (BBC 21 April, 2011). The company has voice business as well as new businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its voice business provides its customers with the opportunity to make as well as to receive calls using their mobile phones within the regions of its network coverage. Its services range from local calls to international roaming. The new businesses include data business as well as value-added services.

China Mobile Group provides its GSM international roaming service is in 237 countries while its GPRS roaming services is in 186 countries (China Mobile Limited 2011). China Mobile has put much emphasis on attributes that differentiate its brand from those of other companies as well as strengthening its relationship with its customers with an aim of ensuring present and future earnings.

Quelch’s seven features of a Global Brand Brand development requires various marketing strategies. In order to achieve a global brand status, the company must have achieved the benchmarks which are considered universal features for the world’s top brands. Quelch (1999) considered seven features as being the benchmarks of the top global brands.

Strong in home market

China Mobile Limited has a very strong market base in China which has mostly supported the growth of its brand value. Its strong market base has made it occupy the top position in terms of the best brands in the Chinese market for the past few years. According to Quelch (1999, 5) companies have to be strong in their home markets so as to be successful in the international market.

According to China Mobile Limited (2011) the company’s is China’s leading mobile services provider. It has many subsidiaries which it refers to as Group which operate in China. The company has been doing well in the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited since its incorporation in 1997.

It also entered the Shanghai Stock Exchange in early 2004 and has since established itself in the Shanghai stock market. In 2010, the company received awards for Best Overall Investor Relations which were awarded by Large Gap, Sector, Asia Pacific and a Hong Kong Company.

In 2009, it was awarded for Best Corporate Social Responsibility as well as Most Committed to a Strong Dividend Policy. In 2010 for example, the company’s dividend per share was HK$3.014 (China Mobile Limited 2011).

We will write a custom Coursework on China Mobile Limited specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to China Mobile Limited, achieving large customer base in China and its other countries of operations has involved improving network quality and customer service, expanding its 3G business and promoting cost efficiency as well as effectiveness of its operations. China Mobile also has special services that it offers specifically in the Chinese market.

According to Panda Phone (2007)Shenzhen Mass Card was introduced by the company to serve the Chinese population. The system is a pre-paid card that allows customers to recharge money through scratch cards or other means such as electronic recharge tickets and aerial recharge. It is applicable around China particularly in Hong Kong, Macao and Beijing China.

In 2010, the Groups overall customer base increased by 11.8% to reach 584 million (China Mobile Limited 2011). It has continued to maintain its leading position in terms of market share with net additional customers of about 61.73 million in 2010 (China Mobile Limited 2011). Its major market segment focus has been the rural as well as the migrant markets in China.

It offers information which particularly targets the rural population. Some of these services include Agricultural Information Service through the use of the internet as well as mobile phones. Its corporate customer base in China has also continued to grow. Its corporate customers have included government as well as various industries in China such as manufacturing, energy along with the finance industry.

As a result of China Mobile’s huge market share that it has been able accumulate in the Chinese Mobile Communications Market, it has been able to achieve considerable economies of scale that enables it earn significant returns while providing great value as well as service to its customers.

Geographical/balance in sales

Mobile China is an international company that boasts of having the largest market share among mobile phone services providers in the world. In terms network scale, China Mobile is ranked first. Mobile China has several large brands which include M-Zone and Go Tone which are leading GSM digital mobile service brands; Shenzhen Mass Card among others.

China Mobile provides international roaming services in 237 countries and GPRS roaming services in 186 countries (China Mobile Limited 2011). According to China Mobile (2011) the company has the most sophisticated GSM International Roaming Services.

According to Quelch (1999, 6) an international company must have a minimum level of global recognition, awareness as well as sales in order to achieve the status of a global brand. The company entered the New York Stock Exchange back in 1997 and has had an average performance since then.

Not sure if you can write a paper on China Mobile Limited by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Investors in the US who are interested in the company business are therefore able to invest in it by buying shares through the New York Stock Exchange. The total number of China Mobile’s customers in the US is about 1.9 million. The company also operates in Pakistan.

China Mobile has launched two major joint-ventures aimed at expanding its market shares in other countries. China Mobile has agreed on a joint-venture with Nokia Corporations and Siemens AG to develop a mobile internet technology which is faster than the present 3G network.

They also agreed a partnership with South Korea’s SK Telecom which is the largest telecommunication firm in the country in order to develop modern wireless technologies. These joint-ventures and partnerships helps China Mobile increase its sales by using other brands as well as their marketing network to make sales. China Mobile today uses Nokia and Samsung brands.

Address similar consumer needs worldwide

According to Quelch (1999, 6) the physical products and services that a company with a global brand offers should be the same throughout the world so as to serve the widely-held human needs. Mobile China provides voice and data services, it has introduced the use of broadband in mobile communications, mobile internet, promotes mobile handsets and also integrates mobile handsets in the daily lives of people.

It also promotes mobile TV as well as other businesses. The company standardizes its marketing throughout its various markets. It develops brands that adapt its marketing across cultural as well as socio-economic settings. Mobile China provides standardized services and products to its customers worldwide.

For example, the company has developed standardized internet products like Access Card for Machine as well as Remote Video Monitoring Service. In addition, it has developed Access Module for Sensors as well as other industry application templates.

The company has also established International Information Hubs which have standardized centralized operations aimed at achieving economies of scale (Duffy

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Evaluation as a Important Part of the Educational Process Coursework a level english language essay help

Evaluation is an important part of the educational process. It is crucial for future success of the educational process and educational program. It shows what kind of work has been done, what objectives were accomplished and what are the benefits for participants. In education, evaluation is a basis for decision making that allows defining the alteration for the existing educational program.

There are approaches how to perform evaluation of the educational program, one of them is “program theory” which can also be represented in different ways. In this paper, we are going to provide a model of the future evaluation on an existing innovative program aimed at improving students’ proficiency in spoken and written English through writing English drama scripts and producing drama performance.

First of all, we should distinguish between evaluation, assessment and measurement and define what a program evaluation is, and what its benefits are. Thus, assessment and measurement are the components of evaluation. Assessment is a data-gathering and measurement “refers to the process by which the attributes or dimensions of some physical object are determined” (Kizlik 2011).

Assessment and evaluation can be distinguished according to three criteria: purposes, objects being assessed and steps in conduction. Thus, the purpose of assessment is to define the opportunities for learning and mane a diagnosis of the students’ performance, the assessed objects are students (class, group or course), the steps are taken in assessment are a number of targets (the results of instructions).

“Evaluation is more that a judgment of ultimate success or failure” (Frechtling 2007 p. 3). The purpose of evaluation is to improve the existing practices of educational program and provide results for future decision-making. As opposed to assessment, the objects being evaluated are particular programs, projects or few teachers that take part in projects.

Major steps taking when evaluating a program or a project are description of the program, providing a theory on how to input the outcomes and conducting a research on how to test the theory provided. According to Muraskin (1993), “evaluation can be an important tool in improving the quality of a program if it is integrated into the fabric of an educational program rather than added on after the fact.”(n. p.).

In this regard, evaluation can provide considerable benefits for the educational program. The program evaluation clearly articulates goals and objectives and strengthens the program design in such a way. Second, it serves a basis for decision making for improving the quality of the project. Third, it provides a contribution to making constructive changes which enhances the effectiveness of the project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Next, it helps identify successes of the outcomes. Finally, it ensures connection between school program strategies and student outcomes (“Program Evaluation” 2009).

There are many reasons to conduct evaluation, among them are the possibilities to determine the effectiveness of programs, document of objectives that have been met, provide information about service useful to program staff and students, enable staff to provide changes to improve the program’s effectiveness (Muraskin 1993).

In order to create an appropriate strategy for program evaluation, it is necessary to know its logic. Weiss (1997) provides logic of evaluation analysis that consists of the steps that follow: describing program (input; activities; outcomes; causal links ),making comparisons (intended versus observed; pretest versus posttest; experimental versus control), developing and modeling the causal processes, locating unintended effects, examining deviant cases, ruling out alternative explanations, interpreting implications of findings, fashioning recommendations for changes and providing policy analysis that findings suggest.

This is the way the evaluation should be modeled and provided. Davidson (2005) suggests that “evaluation need to be designed and conducted in ways that address the information needs of program staff and other upstream stakeholders” (p. 23).

Evaluation of the program is usually implemented through the program theory. According to Patricia J. Rogers (2000):

Evaluations that are based on program theory have two essential elements: an explicit model of the program (in particular, the mechanism by which program activities is understood to contribute to the intended outcome and an evaluation which is guided by this model (p. 4).

There are minimum three component of the program theory: program activities, the intended outcomes, and mechanisms that lead to the intended outcomes. Program theory can be represented in different ways. There are four broad approaches that can be used to represent it: outcomes chain logic theory, pipeline logic models, realist matrices, and narratives.

We will write a custom Coursework on Evaluation as a Important Part of the Educational Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We will focus on logic models that “show a sequence of results leading to the ultimate outcomes or impact of interest” (Funnell

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The initiative by Christian Alliance College to enhance teaching Coursework essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction Assessment is very effective in as far as enhancing learning is concerned. This is especially so when learning is characterized by a cycle of feedback and adjustments. It is very important to understand this concept on assessment because education assessment ought to be applied in the most suitable way as possible to cater for all the needs of the students.

Poor application of assessment method during learning affects the learning process and jeopardizes learners’ achievement. There are various kinds of assessment methods, which if professionally and appropriately implemented, are associated with various benefits.

This paper aims at bringing into light the models behind assessment thereby giving insight on how assessment should be adeptly put in place to enhance effective learning and students’ achievement in the classroom.

Discussion The initiative by Christian Alliance College to enhance teaching and learning through assessment is workable. This is because assessment is very useful in identifying gaps present during learning and teaching, and in bridging these gaps. The need to enhance teaching and learning is due to the fact that the students lack the confidence required while reading and making presentations.

In addition, the current learning culture does not allow the students to improve because they are under negative pressure from their peers. They also are unable to improve based on self-assessment. Teachers fail to engage in interesting assessment strategies due to lack of time, and too many responsibilities.

Regardless of this fact, constructive alignment is the initial step where curriculum goals are defined and learning assessed against these goals. The program by Christian Alliance College is cost-effective in that it is flexible enough to avoid redesigning of a new programme in future. This is because the programme’s design can accommodate expansion and upgrading of content (Project details).

The different kind of assessment intended to be put in place are very useful in covering the diversified needs of students/learners. Peer assessment is effective when a predefined assessment criterion is available. It is very important for teachers to ensure that learners are able to effectively use assessment criteria and properly take part in peer-assessment activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is after successfully achieving this that teachers should introduce the self-assessment task. It is the manner in which the two are employed that matters, as well as the definition of the assessment criterion for such methods of assessment. It should be an objective process that does not criticize but, identifies gaps that require filling (Jones, 2005; Popham, 1998).

Lesson planning and analysis is an initiative that is very essential in identifying and determining the most feasible learning /teaching activities that would help achieve curriculum goals and objectives. Before conducting lesson planning, there is need for both the students and teachers to be fully aware and understand the curriculum goals so that all decisions are made with reference to these goals.

Lessons are prepared in accordance with exam syllabus or CDI documents. This helps to teach students that which is relevant to the assessment criterion. During lesson planning, it is very important to examine resource materials that are relevant in achieving the intended learning outcomes (Lecture 1 notes; Lecture 2 notes).

Students have different perceptions for different kinds of assessments and it is these perceptions that greatly influence the effect of the assessment process. Therefore, this further justifies the use of diversified assessment strategies.

The move by Christian Alliance College to employ peer, self and teacher assessments, as well as online discussions is commendable. In addition, the incorporation of technology enhances the assessment process and especially in the current contemporary computerized world (Earl

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Neuro-Scientific Research Findings and Recent Discoveries: How the Brain Learns Research Paper essay help free

Educational neuroscience is an upcoming field of science that brings together scholars and researchers in educational psychology, cognitive neuroscience, education theory, and developmental cognitive neuroscience among other related disciplines in exploring the various interactions that exist between education theory and biological processes.

Neuroscientific research is arguably one of the major areas of study which have continued to draw increased human concern and attention in the world. According to Goswami (2007), Neuroscience plays the key role of bridging the gap between the two disciplines, through a more direct form of dialogue between educators and researchers who work together to bring light in the understanding of how the brain functions.

Educational neuroscience plays the significant role of emphasizing the overall understanding of the various codes of neuroscience as it is applied in the modern world of scientific study of the human mind and the brain. In that case, the discipline has presently continued to receive great support and concern from both educators in the field and cognitive neuroscientists.

As a result of this heightening concern, various academic institutions from allover the world have expressed their willingness to play an active role in supporting the study of educational neuroscience. The contents of this paper reveal how findings in neuroscientific study and recent discoveries on the functions of the brain impact differentiation in the classroom.

It is obviously clear that educators ought to be informed about developments in the brain research and the recent big concern of neuroscientific study meets this requirement in a more realistic approach, thus forming an impressive potential at increasing human understanding of learning and teaching.

However, educators should always try to be cautious about the current explosion of neuroscientific research, and they should go for only those findings and observations that are well established. Neuroscientific research offers a diversity of findings on how the brain learns and these insights, even though not all of them would be close to perfection, helps educators to strengthen their knowledge, thus establishing positive grounds for further learning (Sousa

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Effects of domestic violence on children development Coursework college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Emotional development

Childhoods and teen violence

Child behaviour development

Self-esteem

References

Introduction From conception, children are continuously learning; learning does not end with childhood but it is part of human life. Through learning, children develop socially, emotionally, and their personality is shaped by the experiences they face.

For an appropriate child development, a child needs love and care from both parents. In case of families experiencing domestic violence, the social and emotional development of children brought put in such families is adversely affected (Emery, 1989). This paper discusses the effects of domestic violence on children; it will concentrate on building a table of dependent and independent variables.

Emotional development Children need to grow in environments that reinforce good behaviour and grow their emotional well-being; however, domestic violence has been an issue in many societies in the world but considered as a family matter, it is only of late that legal proceedings can be taken on an offender.

Since women movements in 1970s, domestic violence has become a legal matter calling for police, courts and judicial process intervention. In cases where children are exposed to such violence, then they become emotionally troubled:

In the above, case them the dependent variable is children emotions while the independent variable is domestic violence:

Emotions (E) = f (domestic violence (D.V.))

Childhoods and teen violence When one is talking of domestic violence, what comes in mind is wife or husband violence; in most case women are on the receiving end, they are subjected to physical, psychological and emotional violence. However the scope of domestic violence extend far beyond this believe to include child abuse and the effects that such abuse have on a child. The most common types of violence within the family are wife abuse and child abuse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Violence in this sense may include slaps, pushes, sexual abuse, battering, and use of abusive words. A research conducted by in United States of America, shown that each year over 3.3 children suffer from domestic violence. The recognition of this is affected by lack of data that can be used for the analysis. The effect is mostly psychological, emotional and sometimes physical.

The most noted one is physical and thus emotional and psychological remains not recorded (Carretta, 2008). Children are sometimes the subject of war and they suffer from beatings and physical injury; when such a case happens, then the child is more likely to become violent at his later stages in life; this creates another relationship of domestic violence and violence of children and teens:

Violence among children and teens (V.C.T.) = f (domestic violence (D.V.))

Child behaviour development The environment they are brought up in shapes the behaviour of children; in case his families are violent, the behaviour that the child will develop is likely to be inclined to that angle (Fantuzzo, Fusco, Mohr

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Myer Human Resource Management Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Globalisation

Technology

Conclusion

References

In every organisation, whether service, goods, public or private, human resources are required for an effective operation; the human management department is mandated with the role of ensuring that their organisation has the right number of employees at the most appropriate cost (Renckly and Renckly, 2003).

In the wake of globalisation and technological companies need to adjust their people management skills to benefit from the changes; Myer is an international merchandise store specializing more on apparels, to remain competitive, the company needs to have an orchestrate team (Myer Official Website ,2011).

This paper discusses how the company has responded to issues brought about by globalisation and technological development as far as people management is concerned.

Globalisation Myer has identified the need to have human capital from different parts of the world; diversity in the company has assisted in bring people with different cultural backgrounds in the company in the efforts of serving their customers better. For instance, a fellow Muslim can better handle a Muslim customer than the case would be if the attendant was a Christian, this has facilitated the growth of good customer relation.

With diversity, the company is able to get more inputs in decision-making regarding stocking that they need to have for a competitive business; it is the company’s policy to involve staffs in decision-making and their input is high valued. When there are people from different areas of the world, the company is able to make sound decisions regarding different issues.

Not all is good with diverse employees, the company has to make mechanisms that facilitate the growth of teamwork with people of diverse culture, different standpoints and people who see things differently, and it uses many funds in culture intelligence programs (Swamson, 2009).

Technology The use of technology in today’s business is not evitable; the company has acquired massive computer hardware and software to assist in its operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the old employees, who might have not had a chance to train in computers, the company has embarked on lessons to train them on simple operations using the gadgets; none of them who have ever been sacked for lack of the expertise. The company acknowledges that they have pool of knowledge that the company can use for competitiveness.

When recruiting, it is mandatory that the recruit should have some people skills; this assists the company to reduce the cost of training new entrants on computers.

Depending with the department that an employee is recruited to work in, his/her computer skills vary; for example those working in the computer department need to have accounting software knowledge while those working in research and development need to have data analysis software knowledge and experience.

The company has used computers to develop a virtual team; virtual team work across time, space, and geographical area, they have information that assist in making sound decision on issues facing a company. The teams are particularly crucial when Myer is making marking strategies and policies (Anthony, Kalmar and Perrewé, 2002)

Conclusion Myer’s human resources department has the mandate of ensuring that adequate employees are available at all times; it has the role of planning, deploying, employing, training, retaining, and dismissal of employees. In response to growth in globalisation, the company recruits from different countries and embarks on measures to blend the human capital to the mutual benefit of the company and the employees.

References Anthony, W. P., Kalmar, K. M. and Perrewé, P. L. ,2002. Human Resource Management, A Strategic Approach. South-Western: Thomson Learning.

Myer Official Website.,2011. Myer [online] Available at: https://www.myer.com.au/ .

We will write a custom Report on Myer Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Renckly, B. and Renckly, G. R.,2003. Human Resources. New York: Barron’s Educational Series.

Swamson, R. ,2009. Foundations of Human Resource Development: Easy read Large Edition. San Francisco: https://www.readhowyouwant.com/

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Closed Circuit Systems Ltd Essay essay help online free

Introduction Closed Circuit Systems Ltd is committed to empowering its clients with technology to provide security solutions to their organizations and business premises. Our organization is among the leading providers of technology based security to organizations in business across different fields of operation.

Our company has vast years of experience and operation and has become a household name in regards of provision of closed circuit television remote monitoring (CCTV).

Our history and reputation is wholly pegged on the successes the company has enjoyed in its seventy years of existence for delivering to its clients as its mandate states “empowering its clients with technology to provide security solutions to their organizations and business premises”(Collins 2009).

The provision of all services offered by Closed Circuit Systems Ltd through its staff requires awareness, sensitivity and understanding of the basic principles of equal opportunities and equality in order to develop an understanding of the effects of prejudice and discrimination and denial of equal opportunities to all persons. With this in mind the company seeks to retain the best of professionals amongst its ranks (Collins 2009).

Mission statement

Closed Circuit Systems Ltd is committed to empowering its clients with technology to provide security solutions to their organizations and business premises through the use of modern advanced technology.

To provide integrated security surveillance today for a better and safer tomorrow. Closed Circuit Systems Ltd’s solutions to client need to be tailor-made to ensure that each and every client’s needs are addressed and solutions unique to their particular needs are formulated.

Policy

Closed Circuit Systems Ltd has adopted the following policies and codes of practice because it approves of the fact that service provision rests not in good intentions but rather in actual actions (service delivery).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company will ensure that no service user, client, employee, or job applicant and so forth are favored any less than others.

This action will ensure that everyone gets equal treatment or services regardless of the basis of “sex, race, age, ethnicity, tribal background, social status, disability, marital status or religious belief or is disadvantaged by circumstances or qualifications that are not substantial or justifiable” (Collins 2009). Closed Circuit Systems Ltd is committed to conduct its business in accordance to all laws that may apply to its position.

Each and every employee is expected to be informed of the code of ethics that the company is based on and should meet its requirements in doing their duties.

Queries pertaining its interpretation about the members of staff and officers should be brought to that individual’s superior or mayor for interpretation of this regulation, and “subjected to any collective bargaining agreement; any action concerning contravention of this regulation concerning officers and members of staff shall be ruled by the firm’s board of directors” (Schwartz, 2009).

Our policies are reviewed at each management review

Guiding principles (code of practice)

The following are the responsibilities of all our staff:

To ensure the equality of opportunity for all

To report to managers any apparent breach of policy to co-operate in measures introduced by the management

To undertake available training as per company requirements

To work within the law with honesty and integrity

Not to allow discrimination by them or others in matters such as decisions on work, reviews, recruitments section, training and reporting.

Not to subject anybody to behavior, whether thoughtless or malicious, which offends, insults, hurts or puts them at a disadvantage through discriminatory behavior

Will adhere to the company’s confidentiality policy

Will openly provide relevant information to authorized persons when required

Will agree to acceptable strategies for dealing with certain events and ensure continued good practice

Will attend staff meetings regularly

Will protect the welfare of the government and staff alike

Confidentiality policy

The company will utilize the guidance on consent and confidentiality as outlined above. This states that, any personal information about individuals in the company’s database is subject to legal duty of confidence and will not normally be disclosed without the consent of the subject, your organization and the government other than as directed by law.

We will write a custom Essay on Closed Circuit Systems Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Closed Circuit Systems Ltd will ensure that the policies regarding sharing of personal information will be available to your organization and the government only.

The company will operate a clean desk policy given that, client information or files are not left out when not in use and will be locked away and secured in a filing cabinet by the senior officer on duty. All staff will be required to sign a policy compliance form in accordance with this (Collins 2009).

In obtaining consent to seek information from other parties or for the company to disclose information about certain individuals under the data protection Act the explanations required will include:

clarity about the purpose of approaching the company,

what information will be sought or shared

details of individual seeking information

reasons for disclosure of any information

what is hoped to be achieved

consent and approval from the relevant authorities concerning the above

In all cases, no information should be shared without express authorization from the government (Schwartz, 2009).

Purpose of the code

This code of ethics main purpose is to create a crime free environment at the work place by using the most modern technology available. Ensuring of maximum input in the business premises by the workforce through monitoring of employee performance, and performance training are also a major purpose of the code.

In addition to this, the code will provide a means of successful execution of services and a success at prosecution through recordings in court (Henn 2009).

Training and education

Training will include induction; health and safety measures; camera systems; risk assessment; conflict management; safe systems at work; diversity training; customer relation service; radio procedure; use of radio systems; emergency procedures; when to notify the authorities; equal opportunities; fault identification and repair; investigation; evacuation handling; basic fire fighting report writing; data protection Act; court procedures; witnessing in court; information technology; and communication.

The training and education will be carried out as per the company’s regulations and requirements and each employee is expected to be present as required (Henn 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Closed Circuit Systems Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Employees it covers

The staff will each be appraised monthly and supervised in carrying out of their duties. All employees of Closed Circuit Systems Ltd will be required to attend pre and post training brief meetings as required and set out in their employment contracts. The company will take on appraisal review meetings every six months and team meetings will be held monthly so as to increase the employee spirit.

Management and stakeholders meetings will be duly arranged by the management of the company or appointees of the management to undertake the task (Henn, 2009). The company will make available practical guidelines and emergency procedures to the staff.

This will be in form of a guide book and all members of staff are asked to always keep one at hand so that they are well versed in this requirements and safety measure.

The company will ensure that it does all it can in its power to protect its staff from harm and violence. In addition to this, there will be implementation of lone working policies and procedures for staff (Stanwick

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Business Corporations and their Role in the Industry Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of the author’s overall view-point

Discussion on the major issues presented in the case

Questions for thought

References

Introduction Business Corporations define objectives that are used to help in reinforcing the position of business Companies; this leads towards strengthening of some respected positions within the industries which establishes the business above existing competitors. Business ethics and regulations are observed for the purposes of realigning business institutions towards their respectful positions.

The corporate and financial ethics revolves around the company’s key strengths and opportunities, and at the same time assist in preventing any form of weaknesses as well as protecting the company against threats. However, there is a possibility that a company could create competitive advantage through the implementation of appropriate business models (Camardella, 2003, pp. 103-107)

Summary of the author’s overall view-point The author focuses on the current moral ethics and lifetime decisions which require address in the life of businessmen. The issues pertaining to work place ethics are explicitly addressed within the case study. The author focuses on Tyco’s policies which require revision as a result of numerous scandals experienced annually.

This is since formal auditing used by the company results into some of the harmful implications which incorporates various negative publicity and disastrous results on the side of top management. According to the author, management should be capable of scrutinizing various cost structures within the company for the purposes of settling for less expensive and trusted auditing methods.

Hence, the benefits of bylaws, including clear lines of accountability and long term effects should also help in solidifying the Company’s choices.

Due to some disorganization within the Company’s management and employees it was necessary that instead of using corrupt formal audit report to keep the staff accountable to their duties, the process of reorganizing the staff could more importantly assist in establishing clear rules on accountability (Deming, 1986).

Discussion on the major issues presented in the case Several issues are presented in the case study all of which focuses on financial management ethics, compensation processes and means, at the same time fraudulent cases facing the company’s top management team. There is also the essence of power struggle amongst the employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central problem in Tyco case revolves around the nature of disconnect in power and authority; this is whereby small group of employees including the CEO and some board members assumed the role of managing various sectors of the Company and maintained control of the staff and policies.

The nature of control of this core group from the top managers, CEO and CFO, determined the outcome of every process within Tyco; this brought lots of conflict within the Company’s management team.

This nature of dominance led to easy articulation of fraudulent activities including customer related services, of which corrective attempts could not be made since even investigative bodies such as PWHC were involved (Chan

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Public policy project Coursework essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Abstract The XYZ Company’s Think Beyond taskforce was convened in Minnesota with the aim of developing public policy on youth gambling. The policy would serve as a guideline in combating challenges posed by youth gambling in United States of America. This project paper commences with a brief introduction of the company behind this policy development. A brief overview on youth gambling is also revisited.

In order to support facts presented in the paper, relevant statistics have been incorporated throughout the essay project. Furthermore, themes and goals that acted as guidelines for policy development have been fully explored in the paper.

On the same note, identification of goals and themes has been pointed out as one of the success determining factors when exploring positive and negative trends that may either promote or hinder the policy development process.

Finally, several recommendations have been arrived at based on discussions that were conducted in an open and democratic manner. These recommendations, also referred to as action plans, were designed to facilitate smooth implementation of the policy.

Background Information of the Company XYZ Company is a provider of specialized behavioral health care services in United States. The company specializes in rehabilitation of mostly young people who have been ravaged by drug and substance abuse, eating disorders, learning differences among other behavioral problems.

They reach out their clients across United States through myriad of clinics and academies spread across various states as well as through seminars that are usually conducted on a regular basis. They also carry out both empirical and theoretical research studies which are used as important informative tools in the entire rehabilitation and treatment program.

In designing their programs, XYZ understands that being youthful stage in life is proving to be more challenging than it was some decades back. The company clearly understands that young people are highly vulnerable to drugs, exposure to violent gangs and the new wave of cyber crime.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world today is very fast paced with everyone rushing to keep with globalization wave. In any case, the level of neglect among young people is rather high since there are no well defined structures that have been put in place to catalyze their smooth transition to adulthood.

XYZ Company is more or less like a model academy programs. It target vulnerable youth by addressing individual and group issues affecting them while transiting to adulthood. The organization prefers tackling youth related problems using an insight-oriented therapy as compared to behavior modification therapy. The model has proven to be successful and has been embraced by other organizations.

The key target of both therapies is to increase awareness among participants on how their emotional and behavior habits affect their well being alongside offering guidance towards positive change. The company has been in business for well over 20 years.

They have made use of research as core method of devising scientific solutions in behavioral health issues identified among youth. Their programs have been a success. Five years ago, XYZ entered into contractual agreement with United States government to carry out research on public policy regarding youth issues that are emerging and need to be treated with urgency.

Description of the policy issue Medical statistics obtained from XYZ Company shows that quite a significant number of adolescent’s patients were being admitted to the academy with mental health symptoms that had not been common in recent past. They recorded an increased number of adolescents with sudden alcohol and substance abuse complications, suicide attempts, anxiety complication, poor unexplained health and higher rates of depression symptoms.

Further investigation by the organizations’ therapist confirmed that most of the adolescents who were diagnosed with above symptoms had been involved in online gambling. Most of them also confirmed that they were addicted to gambling hence the mental health related symptoms.

Gambling industry has been expanding at a rapid rate on a global scale. The advent of the internet or information superhighway alongside increased use among adolescents has lured innocent young people into the highly addictive habit (Campbell

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General Motors as Multinational Organization Coursework college admission essay help

Introduction Multinational organizations are those organizations that have globalized their operations. Such organizations have branches in many countries around the globe. Some of the branches are given some aspects of autonomy although they are still answerable to the headquarters. A good example of such organizations includes the General Motors Company.

This company has branches in almost all continents on the globe and also enjoys a good fraction of the market share. Intercultural management is a style of management that is sensitive to the different cultures represented by employees from different countries and languages (Information Resource Management Association 2002).

Due to the large extent of its operations, the company, just like any other company has personnel who come from different countries. These personnel speak different languages and also have a different culture from that of Americans. For these reasons, the company is forced to deal with issues typical of an intercultural organization.

This is because various forms of misunderstanding usually arise in such kinds of workplaces as a result of differences in culture and language interpretation. It is worth noting that such kinds of language and cultural differences are the main factors that cause international alliances and mergers to fail (Holstein, Not Dated).

This is also because there is no corporation that can operate in an environment full of misunderstanding caused by language misinterpretations and differences in culture. This paper discusses how several issues cause misunderstanding and subsequent failures of globalized business organizations.

A case study of General Motors is given as a good example to show how the culture of the business management, misunderstanding and cultural differences in the factories overseas caused the failures of the automobile company in the year 2008 (Adair 1997).

Managerial situations Managerial situations require exceptional skills that are actually aimed at controlling, predicting and adapting to particular situations. Traditional planning techniques are important in any managerial situation because it helps an organization to become more prepared and more responsive to changes that are hard but the organization can go through if it is well prepared.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managerial situations require a leader to plan on how to deal with practical circumstances that rock an organization. The four orientations of planning are therefore very important when a manager is faced with challenging situations. These strategies include reactive, inactive, preactive and interactive. A reactive strategy is a sought of flashback whereby things tends to return to previous state.

This strategy deals with things separately. The inactive strategy tends to deal with issues at the current or prevailing situations. In this kind of situation, the management seems to be satisfied with things as they are (Rossiter 1998). The management therefore tends to muddle through the situation. The preactive strategy is one that believes in change. This strategy has the ability to predict the future.

Prediction of the future allows the management to be more prepared for the situations. Last but not least, managerial situations require an interactive gesture.

This strategy has a perception that the past, the present and the future are different although they are quite inseparable. This suggests that for any bad situation that happened in the past, the organization will feel its impacts both at the time of its happening, in the present and even in the future (Krolicki 2011).

Conceptual framework The conceptual framework of this paper tries to give a master plan of the way intercultural management can be achieved in a globalized organization. This is a good starting point because it acts as a guideline to effective management. Communication is one of the most important aspects of management in any organization.

It is coincidental to find out through a study done by Joshi and Lazarova, that an average of 97.5% of leaders and team members highlighted communication as the most important thing that makes leaders competent (Spencer-Oatey, Not Dated). This is why some of the biggest problems in an organization are caused by poor communication. Most of the communication problems arise from the lack of a shared language.

This is especially so in a multicultural globalized organization. For instance, an American copyrighter will experience difficulties in interpreting the meaning of some aspects of Japanese language when working in a Japanese company. This can happen even when his manager is pretty good in English (Sypher 1990).

We will write a custom Coursework on General Motors as Multinational Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This situation suggests that there are various misunderstandings that may arise when a person tries to explain something to people who are not natives of the language that person is using. Such situations will cause subtle differences especially during communication and may make people to have various interpretations of the message which may vary in context and even in the meaning.

Although this situation is more common in multicultural international organizations, it also occurs to some substantial levels between native speakers of the same language. Communication is therefore very important in developing a good relationship, mutual understanding and intercultural competence.

Communication also helps in adjusting to language proficiency and in understanding the importance of intercultural management in a globalized organization (Spencer-Oatey, Not Dated).

The case of general motors In the year 2008, General Motors was faced with a managerial problem that was related to financial issues. These financial issues arose from decades of abuse of power by the top management. Analysts proposed a $25 billion bailout in order to keep the automobile company afloat the market.

Other analysts were however skeptical with this bailout because they though that it will only take care of the financial issues and yet the roots of the problems that the company faced emerged from a cultural trend (Transcultural Synergy 2011). This is because the problems are believed to have developed for the past fifty or more years as a result of money minded Chief Executives.

Thus, the $25 billion bailout will only make the company stay in the market until when the money runs out. General motors opted for expensive health care programs for their personnel instead of looking down on the union. This is because the management thought that staring down the union will cause strike among the employees.

The option that the management took was however detrimental because it brought the company to its knees in terms of competitiveness. As a result, the market share of General Motors has continued to decline over the past forty or so years (George 2008).

The lack of a competitive General Motors is therefore attributed to the high employee costs as well as inflexible work rules. For this reason, it needs a new leadership with new culture (Adair b. 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on General Motors as Multinational Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many analysts have come up with new proposals aimed at helping the company to improve its competitive nature in the market (World- Traveler 2011). Some of the analysts suggest that dividing General Motors into two companies will help it diversify its products and make them more efficient. Others suggest that a new management needs to be installed in the company.

The new management will help bring in a new culture for all the employees that will empower them and make them become more independent thinkers and hence more innovative. New employees also need to be negotiated so that the company can use a new wage scheme that will help it continue to operate effectively in the market.

A new culture will also help the company’s management to embark on an aggressive development of new products out of innovation. It has also been suggested that the company should only retain those factories that are most productive both in the United States and foreign ones.

All the above factors should help the company to operate with cash balances that are enough to make it stay afloat the international market (Zeromillion.com. 2011).

In relation to innovation and culture, the company needs an all time effort to manufacture different kinds and shapes of automobiles for the market. The cars should range in size from small to large according to market demands. GM also needs to come up with a different plan for their products.

This plan should take care of various aspects in the motor industry such as fuel efficiency. For instance, Chevrolet, one of the lightest cars with the smallest engine had poor fuel efficiency. Such kinds of mistakes in the automobile company should be reviewed with an aim of improving the fuel efficiency.

In addition, the company needs to borrow a leaf from the Japanese automobile industries whereby General Motors should build batteries in the U.S. This is to help them gain independence from battery making companies that are always rocked with troubles. Some of the problems of the battery companies include manufacture of defective batteries.

At one time, a battery company that was being outsourced by the General Motors was forced to recall six thousand battery units. A good solution to this could be a joint venture with a first rate battery manufacturing company like one from Japan (Flint 2008).

General Motors needs a complete overhaul of the century old corporate culture. This is because the current corporate culture is dominated by managers whose main focus is to chase the next deal in order to reverse its market decline. There is also a problem in the middle management sector.

The problem is that most middle managers are still operating with comfort and they are not dedicated to offering extra efforts to the company. This situation of the middle managers staying in their zone of comfort has been there for quite a while thus, prompting the need for change.

The management of General Motors has helped bring up a lot of bright minds. However, among the people the company has developed, there are those whose minds are uncultured. Such kinds of minds are the ones responsible for dragging the efforts of others. The management should therefore set up a mechanism that will check and minimize the number of individuals who have uncultured minds (Adair a. 2007).

The other thing that General Motors should be wary of is the conception that it is a big company and that it is a proxy of the world. As a matter of fact, such kind of thought is one of the reasons that make the company suffer from the troubles it is currently experiencing.

Achieving understanding The process of achieving a mutual understanding between people is actually based on the way senders and receivers of communication can encode and decode signals respectively, exactly in the same way. Miscommunication therefore is as a result of a mismatch between the messages sent and those that are received.

This means that there must be a sort of familiarity of the language between the senders and the receivers of that language (Aurifeille 2006). This is the reason why some books describe communication as a way in which the meaning of a message is transferred from the sender to the receiver.

The case of General Motors is not an exception to this because in this scenario, various aspects of communication are responsible for the decline of its market share. Correct interpretation of information from the company’s top management to the middle managers, both in the local U.S. factories and foreign factories would help the company stay afloat in the market (Fine 1969).

Barriers to communication can cause difficulties in understanding the message being conveyed. There are so many barriers to effective communication. Some of them include physical barriers such as location of the sender and the receiver and faults in the system design. Attitudinal barriers are also deterrent factors for effective communication (Arnott

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The Potential Causes of the Financial Crises in South East Asia Essay essay help: essay help

The collapse of the financial systems of Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia has its roots in the fundamental and structural foundation of the international capitalist system which unavoidably will contribute to its crushing, under its own weight (Rahman, 1997).

“The financial crisis was transformed into a full-blown recession or depression, with forecasts of GNP growth and unemployment becoming more gloomy for affected countries” (Khor, n.d.). “The threat of depreciation spread from a few countries to many in the region, and also to other areas such as Russia, South Africa, and possibly Eastern Europe and South America” (Khor, n.d.).

The Potential Causes of the Financial Crises As far as the causes of the financial crises in these countries concerned there is no single opinion. They vary from economy to economy. The Asian Tiger economies were growing and were open to foreign investments, goods and services, capital flows and relying heavily on dollar markets (Nanto, 1998).

“There has been a great debate over the causes of this depreciation as weather the domestic policies and practices or the inherent and unstable nature of the global financial system were responsible for it” (Garay, 2003).

In the first phase of the crisis , the international establishment (represented by the IMF) and the G7 countries placed the blame directly on domestic ills in the East Asian countries as it spread from Thailand to Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, then to South Korea (Garay, 2003).

Source: Garay, 2003. The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-1998 and the Behavior of Asian Stock Markets

But soon another view emerged which put the blame on the developments of the global financial system: the combination of financial deregulation and liberalization across the world; the increasing interconnection of markets and speed of transactions through computer technology and the development of large institutional financial players” (Garay, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “A developing country opens itself to the possibility of tremendous shocks and instability associated with inflows and outflows of funds when it carries out financial liberalization before its institutions or knowledge base is prepared to deal with the consequences” (Garay, 2003).

“A total of US$184 billion entered developing Asian countries as net private capital flows in 1994-96, according to the Bank of International Settlements” (Garay, 2003). “In 1996, US$94 billion entered and in the first half of 1997 $70 billion poured in” (Garay, 2003). “With the beginning of the crisis, $102 billion went out in the second half of 1997” (Garay, 2003).

“From the above mentioned figure it is evident that the flows (in and out) can be so huge; the shifts can be so unpredictable and sudden when inflow turns to outflow and the huge capital flows can be subjected to the tremendous effect of “herd instinct,” in which a market opinion or operational leader starts to pull out, and followed by a panic withdrawal by large institutional investors and players” (Garay, 2003).

Source: Garay, 2003. The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-1998 and the Behavior of Asian Stock Market

To maintain foreign investors’ confidence transparency on the business and government level is highly required. In the absence of transparency on such key economic variables as foreign reserves and policy directions, herd instinct prevails, which can make the situation uncontrollable (Kihwan, 2006).

“In the case of East Asia, although some of the currencies were over-valued, there was an over- reaction of the market, and consequently an ‘over-shooting’ downwards of these currencies” (Garay, 2003). “It was a case of self-fulfilling prophecy. The financial speculators, led by some hedge funds, were also responsible for the original ‘trigger action’ in Thailand.

The Thai government used up over US$20 billion of foreign reserves to fight off speculative attacks” (Garay, 2003). “Speculators borrowed and sold Thai baht, receiving US dollars in exchange” (Garay, 2003). “With the falling of the baht, much less dollars were needed to repay the baht loans which made large profits for them” (Garay, 2003).

We will write a custom Essay on The Potential Causes of the Financial Crises in South East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “According to a report in Business Week in August 1997, speculative attacks on Southeast Asian currencies in July 1997 contributed to big profits for the hedge funds.

According to Business Week, in July (the month when the Thai baht went into crisis and when other currencies began to come under attack) As a whole, the hedge funds made only 10.3 percent net profits (after fees) on average for the period January to June 1997whereas their average profit rate jumped to 19.1 percent for January-July 1997.

Therefore, the addition of a single month (July) made the profit rate so far this year to almost double” (Khor, n.d.). “In some countries, the depreciation in the currencies was due to the outflow of capital by foreigners as well as local people who feared further depreciation, who were concerned about the safety of financial institutions” (Khor, n.d.).

The East Asian financial crises are considered to be the result of over-investment on the part of the bankers and businessmen within the region as well as by the international bankers and businessmen. The market participants argue that “there was too much money chasing too small an investment outlet” (Rude, 1998).

Surplus money was flowing into Korea and Southeast Asia to be profitably placed. The potential causes of the Southeast Asian financial crises can be distinguished between long-term secular developments, the medium-term economic conjuncture, and any immediate (efficient) cause (Rude, 1998).

The market participants advocate that a decline in the profitability and a rise in the riskiness of the underlying investment projects, a deterioration of local balance sheets, and a rise in the magnitude of the foreign exposures were the relevant long-term developments and that these trends created a financial structure that made a financial crisis in East Asia both possible and unavoidable.

Changes in the economic conjuncture in 1996 and early 1997 pushed what was

both possible and inevitable toward becoming a reality. The exchange rate attacks that began mid-1997 were the immediate trigger. From this perspective, deterioration of the underlying economic fundamentals and financial panic caused the crisis (Rude, 1998).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Potential Causes of the Financial Crises in South East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The low-wage, export-oriented, foreign-financed growth strategy that the countries in Southeast Asia and the Republic of Korea were following ahead of the crisis became the victim of its own success. The underlying investment projects that both local and foreign capital were financing in the region were profitable and productive at one time.

But because of the additional productive capacity created in one country after another in the same or similar industries, problems like rise in wages, decline in profit margins in the export industries, and the flow of funds toward the non-traded goods sector and into more speculative activities in the local real estate and equity markets were mushrooming (Rude, 1998).

On the other hand, the relevant cash flows were becoming increasingly problematic, leading to a gradual deterioration in the balance sheets of local financial and non-financial institutions: increase in the liabilities to foreign and local creditors, decrease in the asset quality, rise in the leverage ratios.

The gap- and duration-related interest rate exposures were escalating due to an increase in the maturity mismatch of assets and liabilities. Meanwhile, foreign capital continued to flow into South East Asia and the Republic of Korea from Europe, the United States, and Japan.

An accommodating monetary stance and low inflation, contributed to low interest rates in the major industrial countries. The rise in the equity prices in the United States and Europe appealed investors to find sizeable exposures in highly valued, if not over-valued, securities in companies in the industrialized nations whose earnings potential may have fallen below those available in the Pacific Basin emerging markets.

Compelled by a competitive search for higher yields to take on the Republic of Korea’s and Southeast Asia’s greater credit and country risks, international creditors increased their exposures to local banks and corporations, both directly through loans and indirectly through local and international bond markets.

Japanese lenders were particularly eager to extend credits to the region, due to the poor investment prospects at home, especially to the foreign branches and subsidiaries of Japanese corporations. Equity investors in the United States and Europe were also driven to increase their exposure to the region’s greater market risks, both for diversification purposes and to search for even higher capital gains (Rude, 1998).

Once profitable and productive these foreign investments, like the domestic ones, took on an increasingly speculative tone, their asset quality declined, the associated leverage ratios and interest rate risks increased, and the maturities were shortened. The aggregate market exposures became increasingly complex and obscure as well (Rude, 1998).

It can be illustrated evidently by the two notorious off-balance sheet/derivative strategies used in East Asia. Special purpose vehicles (SPV) were set up to direct fund into the region and particularly into the Republic of Korea by the U.S. banks.

In these arrangements, some of the stock was transferred by the banks to the SPVs which in turn issued short-term paper in the international markets using that stock as security and used it to make investments that were considered advisable by the banks. In reality, the banks had assumed a foreign exposure, but it never showed up on their balance sheets (Rude, 1998).

“Total Return Swap” (or TRS) was another strategy in the same direction. These were a series of triangular transactions between international investment banks, Korean banks, and Indonesian companies. Double swaps were set up between the Indonesian companies and the investment banks, on the one hand, and between these banks and the Korean banks, on the other.

Under these arrangements, the Indonesians, who did not have the Korean’s high credit ratings, were able to borrow, and the Korean and investment bankers made a high rate of return. The setback was that the Korean banks had to compensate the investment banks for any losses if the Indonesian companies went bankrupt, which ultimately happened (Rude, 1998).

Three major changes in the economic conjuncture took place in 1996 and early 1997. First, due to developments in the general international economic environment and other factors, export growth rates, and hence, domestic growth rates in the region began to slip.

Second, Official interest rate increases in the United States (March, 1997) and Germany (October, 1997) proposed that lending in the less risky Western industrial countries would become more profitable.

Third, the economic and financial situation in Japan worsened. Japanese bankers and institutional investors began to consolidate their exposures not only at home, but in the Republic of Korea and Southeast Asia as well as Japan’s banking problems began to intensify (Rude, 1998).

Local and foreign investors in the East Asian emerging markets were now reluctant to extend further credits and other moneys and soon began searching for ways to actually lessen their exposures (Rude, 1998).

So, the extent and depth of the crisis should not be attributed to deterioration in fundamentals, but rather to panic on the part of domestic and international investors (Zhuang

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The UN and Global Security: Is It Able To Tackle New Threats? Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The UN’s response to Terrorism

The UN’s response to Nuclear Proliferation

Weaknesses of the UN in addressing terrorism

Weaknesses of the UN in addressing Nuclear Proliferation

Recommendations

Conclusion

References

Introduction The United Nations (U.N.) was born on June 26, 1945 after fifty nations from around the world including the U.S., U.K., USSR, France and China signed the Charter of the United Nations in San Francisco.

Official ratification by the five states which were also permanent members of the U.N. Security Council occurred on the 24th of October, 1945 and this marked the official formation of the U.N. The League of Nations which had previously held the mantle of ‘world peacekeeper’ subsequently dissolved itself to pave way for the newly created body.

From the UN Charter, we draw conclusions that the intention of the founder members of the U.N. was to form a body that could effectively address all global issues related to peace and security.

However, from 1945 to date, the world has never been completely at peace with all manner of strife and conflict beginning from the cold war to the current Middle East versus the West conflict. New threats such as terrorism and civil strife keep the U.N. occupied and sometimes overwhelmed such that some conflicts have received less attention than they deserved.

The UN Charter mandates the Security Council to be the sole decision making body on all matters concerning peace and security around the world. Article 24 of the Charter states that the signatories grant the Security Council power to act on their behalf on all matters regarding global peace and security.

It further mandates the council to act within the U.N.’s powers and principles and to submit annual reports to the U.N. General Assembly on the progress made in terms of its mandate.

The Council, according to Article 24 should consist of fifteen members, five of which are the veto-wielding countries- France, UK, US, USSR and the People’s Republic of China. The other ten non-permanent members are to be elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years (Norman 2005, 6).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Charter in Article 39 envisages that “the Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of peace, or act of aggression… and shall decide what measures shall be taken….(UN Charter)”.

Article 42 then gives the council the green light to “… take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and operations by land, sea, or air forces of Members of the United Nations.”

In addition to the Security Council, the U.N., with the aid of ‘specialized agencies’ such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has come up with several pieces of legislation in the form of conventions that deal with particular threats to international peace and security such as terrorism and nuclear proliferation.

These treaties are twelve in number and they all relate to acts that aid or are closely connected to terrorism. Interestingly, all the above protocols and conventions were completed before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S. (Norman 2005, 5).

The Security Council, together with these U.N. bodies and affiliates together form the U.N.‘ collective’ security system. The emphasis on collectiveness is based on the fact that all member states are expected to participate in the security apparatus.

Despite, the collective security and the provisions of the UN Charter, the reaction of the U.N. to transnational threats has been lukewarm at best. The U.N. seems to be plagued by numerous problems that have prevented its ability to counter new threats such as nuclear proliferation.

Part of its weaknesses is caused by its inability to adjust to the changing global arena, which has seen a bust of globalization, centralization of trade and increased diplomatic ties between member states. In the words of Sir Robert Jackson in 1969,

We will write a custom Essay on The UN and Global Security: Is It Able To Tackle New Threats? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The [U.N.] machine as a whole has become unmanageable in the strictest sense of the word. As a result, it is becoming slower and more unwieldy like some prehistoric monster. The lumbering dinosaur is now 40 years older and certainly not better adapted to the climate of the twenty-first century (Weiss 147).

This paper shall look into these new threats, what the U.N. is doing about them and how it should be dealing with them.

The UN’s response to Terrorism Since the September 11 attacks, there has been an increased focus on the threat of terrorism and the access of nuclear materials to terrorist organizations and ‘rogue’ states. The body mainly responsible for much of the legislative action has been the General Assembly (G.A.) (Rosand 2003, 333).

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) which runs the U.N.’s social and economic policy has taken the mantle from the assembly and has played a key role in counter-terrorism.

The U.N.’s Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ) has also played a key role in forming the ‘U.N. system’ (Norman 2005, 7). Together, the three have helped formulated multilateral legislation to counter terrorism. Though the G.A. cannot compel members into action, the recommendations made are influential in the shaping of national and regional counter-terrorism policy.

The 40-member UNCCPCJ and the 400-member U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) have been credited with their action against transnational crime such as trafficking of persons and drugs, corruption, organized crime and terrorism (UNODC 2004, 4). The UNODC has a special Terrorism Prevention Branch which has helped coordinate state efforts in counter-terrorism through the Global Programme against Terrorism.

Through the above system, the U.N. has worked to provide both peaceful and coercive solutions to the threat posed by terrorism. While the Security Council responded aptly to the September 11 attacks condemning them as a threat to global peace and security, the response was not targeted to the particular act of terrorism but to international terrorism as a whole (Norman 2005, 4).

Though the immediate remedial action was targeted at Osama Bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda terrorist network, the overall action in setting up bodies and legislation was aimed at achieving a multifaceted counter-terrorism framework (NACTAUS 2004, 9).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The UN and Global Security: Is It Able To Tackle New Threats? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, the U.N.’s response provided universal legal norms that guided both regional and local legislation and policy on terrorism and related acts. The pillar of these norms is contained in Article 33 of the UN Charter which states that in dealing with a threat whose remedy can be achieved through peaceful and coercive means, peaceful means must be considered first.

This strategy informed the U.N.’s response to the 2001 attacks and led to the development of the policy of ‘dissuasion’, ‘denial of means to act’ and ‘sustainable cooperation’ as the three main counter-terrorism tools (PWG 2002, Para. 21). However, the above three-pronged approach is just but one out of a myriad of strategies that the U.N. has adopted.

In the 1990s period, counter-terrorism strategy adopted by the U.N. through concerted effort was at most punitive and severe since it involved wide economic and diplomatic sanctions against terrorist-supporting states. A good example of this is the U.N.’s response to Muammar Gaddafi’s Libya after the government prevented the prosecution of Libyans involved in the 1993 Lockerbie bombing.

Another such example was the placement of sanctions against the Sudanese government for its alleged support of Bin Laden and his network of terrorists.

Perhaps the most stringent response by the U.N. to terrorism was the invoking of sanctions against the Afghan Taliban regime through Resolution 1267 (popularly known as SCR 1267) which involved the formation of a special “sanctions committee” to oversee the compliance of states to the sanctions.

Placing of sanctions is done in accordance to Chapter VII of the UN Charter which provides that action shall be taken “with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression”.

Interestingly, four days after SCR 1267 was passed, the twelfth convention on counter-terrorism (Convention on the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism) was passed. This marked a change in U.N. policy since the focus now was the speedy adoption of these protocols and conventions with an aim to cause a universal legal framework to prevent both domestic and international terrorism.

In light of all these efforts from various organs of the U.N. towards a legal counter-terrorism framework, only Botswana and the U.K. had effectively acceded to the twelve conventions by September of 2001 (Ward 2003, 289). In particular, only two other countries; Uzbekistan and Sri Lanka had passed the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.

This lukewarm reaction by the international community coupled with the shock that came with the 2001 attacks led the Security Council to blame non-ratification as the cause of the proliferation of the terrorism threat (Szasz 2002, 901).

The mobilization of state actors to cooperate in fighting terrorism was cited to be the main U.N. strategy to defeat the vice. The Security Council consequently developed a two-pronged strategy that involved increasing state capacity to implement counter-terrorism measures and the monitoring of state compliance with universally accepted legal norms.

Resolution 1373 placed focus on this strategy and it aimed at obliging states to sign and ratify the U.N. conventions on terrorism and related acts.

It also required states to cooperate in international counter-terrorism by sharing intelligence, proper screening of seekers of asylum, addressing terrorism loopholes and links, battling organized crime, reporting on any nuclear materials found in suspicious hands and eliminating exemption clauses in extradition laws (SCR 1373, para 4).

Another major contribution of SCR 1373 was the establishment of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), which was annexed to the Security Council as a “committee to monitor implementation of this resolution (para 6).” The committee operated in stark contrast with the sanctions committee of Resolution 1267.

The CTC was given an open-ended mandate which indicated that the U.N. appreciated the threat posed by terrorism and thus continuous obligatory monitoring was and still is a necessity (Norman 2005, 12).

The CTC’s mandate under Resolution 1373 is threefold; first, it works to ensure that all states have legislation that supports counter-terrorism.

Secondly, it looks to strengthen existing state machinery for counter-terrorism and finally, it looks to ensure compliance with other aspects of the Resolution such as capacity building, border screening, international policing, intelligence exchange, extradition and tracing and seizure of proceeds of crime (CTC 2004, 34).

Despite, its efforts, the U.N. is still ill-equipped in its fight against terrorism. Weiss (2009) states that the global body is crippled by four individual and collective problems (146). The first of this is what he terms as the ‘Westphalian system’ whereby the narrow interests of individual states have blurred the global agenda.

Secondly, there is ‘diplomatic burlesque’ whereby states have aligned themselves in interest groups that rarely agree even on mundane matters. The first two problems affect the decision-making capacity of the U.N. The other two problems are structural in nature.

First, there is the problem of agencies with overlapping jurisdictions and lacking in centralized command and coordination. The other problem is bureaucracy and low productivity among the employees of the U.N. yet staff costs account for the largest share of the U.N. budget (146).

The UN’s response to Nuclear Proliferation The issue of nuclear proliferation is not unrelated to that of terrorism. Nuclear proliferation began in the later part of the 1940s after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan which brought World War II to an abrupt end.

The devastating consequences of the use of nuclear weapons were laid bare for all to see and if that was not enough, the Chernobyl accident of 1986 confirmed that nuclear weapons were not the only threat; nuclear material was equally dangerous.

During the Cold War, the U.S. and Russia were in an arms race, the result of which was that they both have more than 28,000 nuclear warheads in their stockpiles which is enough to destroy the world as we know it (Cooper 2004, 301).

With time, other countries such as India, Pakistan, China, France, UK and Israel built their own stockpiles though this was mainly for defense purposes. Through the doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction, states agree that they would not use nuclear weapons against each other due to the effect of retaliatory attacks.

However, the doctrine is only theoretical in the sense that ‘rogue’ states such as Iran, Iraq, North Korea and Syria have at times alluded to their intention to acquire and use nuclear weapons. In addition, terrorist organizations have also attempted to lay their hands on nuclear weapons which increase the threat of nuclear proliferation (Cooper 2004, 301).

The U.N. has established the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as its watchdog against the unlicensed proliferation of nuclear material. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was passed in 1968 and it sought to prevent the non-nuclear states from acquiring nuclear weapons while prohibiting nuclear states from increasing their stockpiles.

In addition, the hugely popular treaty provided that the nuclear states would assist non-nuclear ones in developing nuclear power for peaceful use as long as they would forgo their intentions to acquire nuclear weapons. To date, the NPT and the IAEA are the only hope against nuclear proliferation (Cooper 2004, 303).

Weaknesses of the UN in addressing terrorism Initially, the Security Council in combating terrorism used sanctions as the preferred method as evident in Resolution 1267. However, this approach (which seemed to work better in deterrence) was watered down by SCR 1269 which substituted the hard-line stance on terrorism to a more ‘timid’ strategy (Norman 2005, 6).

However, the reason for the change in approach was to include more countries into the counter-terrorism strategy. Nevertheless, there is no special obligation placed on member states to comply with set universal legal norms and the Security Council cannot compel a state to accede to a law (Szasz 2002, 905).

Looking at the other U.N. options, it is clear that the Terrorism Prevention Branch lacks the necessary framework to fight terrorism on a wider level due to limitations in personnel and legal support. The legal deficiency was witnessed when the U.N. Office of Legal Affairs’ Action Plan for the year 2000 failed to include terrorism in its Strategy for an Era of Application of International Law.

The plan blamed the poor penetration of international law on poor follow-up by individual states. It states that “many multilateral treaties of potential global application remain unsigned by a large number of States or, though signed, unratified.

The objective of creating a global framework of binding norms in the areas concerned is consequently frustrated, particularly in those cases in which the treaties are prevented from entering into force” (UNOLA 2000, 2).

Norman (2005) states that though the U.N. is objective about state cooperation in counter-terrorism, practical capacity-building and the necessary support to ensure compliance was absent (6).

He finds that in acting against a particular threat the Security Council showed political will in diffusing it such as the Lockerbie and Sudanese incidents but in binding members to come up with a comprehensive legal framework, political will is hard to obtain (7).

The best example of the lack of consensus on these legal norms is the lack of a universal definition of terrorism. In addition, there has been no progress on the initial intention to have a single comprehensive convention on terrorism (UNGA 2000, paras.13-18). The reason behind the lack of a clear definition lies in the fact that many states are reluctant to accept definitions that might hinder them from adequately dealing with ‘political threats’.

Instead, these states have preferred to keep municipal legislation that legitimizes use of brutish force against activists and political actors (SGA 2002, paras.11-13). This has prevented the U.N. from coming up with a definition that is both acceptable and inclusive of the elements that involve terrorism.

As a summary, it is evident that the U.N. suffers from the lack of political will by member states to fully commit themselves to counter-terrorism. The reason for this has been mainly the obsession with the West, particularly America, to introduce a whole raft of changes that seek to take away the sovereignty of states in the name of counter-terrorism.

States have also been concerned with the zeal with which particular groups have been targeted in counter-terrorism, which has led to suspicion on the real intent of the fight against terrorism.

Naturally, the nations with Islam as a major religion have been majorly concerned about these endeavors, especially because terrorist purport to act in the name of Allah and so counter-terrorism measures might aim at suppressing Islam. Since the U.N. cannot compel member states to comply with legal agenda, the U.N. remains captive to political forces, thus limiting its capability to deal with the vice effectively.

Weaknesses of the UN in addressing Nuclear Proliferation Cooper (2004) finds that the U.N. is actually very poorly equipped to handle the threat of nuclear proliferation (297). First, the NPT is an optional protocol, and being the only piece of international law seeking to prevent proliferation, the non-compliance with the treaty is to be expected.

In addition, nuclear states such as India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea have either refused to sign the NPT or pulled out of the convention, thus putting global peace into jeopardy. The IAEA remains the only hope for non-proliferation, but it remains ill-equipped and powerless. First, member states have to give permission to IAEA inspectors and this being voluntary; there is no way to monitor the nuclear activity of a particular state.

The only hope for non-proliferation has been the control of trade in nuclear materials, but even this has been dashed by the discovery of a thriving nuclear “black market”. Apparently, it is only possible to monitor 90% of the nuclear material produced; thus, the other 10% is at risk of being acquired by ‘rogue states’ and terrorists.

After 1991, the world learnt that Iraq had been secretly making nuclear weapons following the Gulf War and an additional protocol was added to the NPT which gave the IAEA more power to conduct investigations at weapons facilities but only 38 states have ratified it (Cooper 2004, 299).

In the words of the former Director-General Mohammed El-Baradei, there is “need for a complete overhaul of the export control system. It is not working right now (Cooper 2004, 301).”

The best examples of the U.N.’s ineffectiveness against nuclear proliferation are the cases where the U.N. has failed to stop the acquisition of nuclear material by rogue states. The most recent of these cases is the Iran case where the Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s government has been enriching uranium against IAEA and U.N. directives.

Another peculiar case was the confession by A.Q. Khan, the ‘father’ of the Pakistani nuclear bomb that he had been illegally peddling nuclear technology to Libya and other rogue states.

This led President Bush to state that “…these terrible weapons are becoming easier to acquire, build, hide and transport…. Our message to proliferators must be consistent and must be clear: We will find you, and we’re not going to rest until you’re stopped” (Cooper 2004, 209).

Part of the reason why it has been had to control proliferation has been the argument that allowing certain states to have nuclear weapons while preventing other access to the weapons amounts to neo-colonialism. In fact, most states feel that Western states have not taken measures to get rid of their own stockpiles and thus their monitoring of other states is in itself an attempt at dominion.

This is why the non-G8 nuclear states have refused to sign the NPT. Another reason why these states have distanced themselves from non-proliferation attempts are the unique problems of individual states. In the case of Israel, there is need to protect itself from its ‘hostile’ neighbors.

For India and Pakistan, tension between both states has made them acquire nuclear weapons. It remains to be seen what steps the international community shall take to prevent proliferation since this is a sensitive issue that might threaten peace and security.

Recommendations Jolly et al. (2005) make various suggestions to improve the U.N. to meet new transnational security threats. They state that the current structure of the U.N. and its approach to security as a whole is flawed and needs to be reconsidered. First, they suggest that collective security should be reconsidered outside the ‘traditional compasses of national and military security (61).

Instead, a collective approach should be postured on globalization and instead of depicting terrorism and nuclear proliferation as threats to nations; they should be marketed as threats to trade and good relations which countries can easily identify with outside their political interests (62).

These researchers further suggest that the U.N. should address global inequality and unresolved political differences so as to gain the necessary consensus needed for action.

Weiss (2009) suggests that the U.N. should focus more on the concepts of global citizenship and international responsibility to eliminate the threat posed by nationalism and narrow-minded interests that are the biggest setbacks to its capability to combat terrorism and nuclear proliferation (148).

Lastly, he adds that the U.N. structure should be reformed based on performance, leadership, integrity, and talent just like any other 21st Century body with a mind for success (151).

Conclusion All in all, the U.N. has made various attempts to meet threats of peace and security in the globe. For particular threats, the Security Council has met and provided solutions to the problems which have in one way or the other, helped solve conflicts. However, just like any other regional or international body, the UN has been the victim of political back and forth between states.

As such, it is necessary that the U.N. adjusts itself to rid itself of these weaknesses that have stifled its effectiveness in eradicating global insecurity. This would involve reviewing legal frameworks, especially on nuclear proliferation, taking tougher stances on terrorism and fighting the politicization of the security debate.

In addition to these measures, the UN should be re-invented to reflect 21st Century practices such as centralization of trade and command, performance-based contracting, global citizenship and less fascination with national sovereignty. This way, it can equip itself to solve 21st Century problems.

References CTC (2004) CTC Programme of Work. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/ .

Cooper, M.H. (2004) Nuclear Proliferation and Terrorism. The CQ Researcher, 14 (13), 297-320.

Jolly, R., Emmerij, L and Weiss, T. (2005) The Power of U.N. Ideas: Lessons from the First 60 Years. New York: United Nations Intellectual History Project.

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks on the U.S. (NACTAUS) (2004) Overview of the Enemy. Staff Statement No. 15. Web.

Norman, P. (2005) The United Nations and Counter-terrorism after September 11: Towards an Assessment of the Impact and Prospects of Counter-Terror ‘Spill-Over’ Into International Criminal Justice Cooperation. Portsmouth: Centre for European Studies Research, University of Portsmouth.

Policy Working Group on the United Nations and Terrorism (PWG) (2002) Report of the Policy Working Group on the United Nations and Terrorism. UN General Assembly /Security Council, A/57/273-S/2002/875. New York: United Nations.

Rosand, E. (2003) Security Council Resolution 1373, the Counter-Terrorism Committee, and the Fight against Terrorism. The American Journal of International Law, 97(2), 333-341.

Secretariat of the General Assembly (SGA) (2002) U.N. General Assembly 57th Session: Summaries of the work of the Sixth Committee. New York: U.N. General.

Szasz, P.C. (2002) The Security Council Starts Legislating. The American Journal of International Law, 96(4), 901-905.

U.N. General Assembly Sixth Committee (UNGA) (2000) Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism. Report of Sixth Committee, A/55/614.

United Nations Office of Legal Affairs (UNOLA) (2000) “Strategy for an Era of Application of International Law: Action Plan [Electronic version]”. Adopted by the Senior Management Group and Approved by the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2004) Global Programme against Terrorism: Momentum for increased international action against terrorism. Vienna: UNODC.

Ward, C.A. (2003) Building Capacity to Combat International Terrorism: The Role of the United Nations Security Council. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 8(2), 289-305.

Weiss, T.G (2009) Toward a Third Generation of International Institutions: Obama’s U.N. Policy. The Washington Quarterly, 32(3), 141-162

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The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts Essay college essay help online

Introduction Structural violence is a fundamental concept in the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. The contents of structural violence include disputes, where comprehension between two parties does not come to a point of consensus because of differences in their social setting. The failure of distinct entities in an ecosystem to comprehend each other acts as an instrument of causing conflicts in the international scope.

The international conflicts arise from societal setting, affecting people around the world. The comprehension of the influence of structural conflict has a rationale of enhancing the analysis, as well the comprehension of the scope of the international conflict. The understanding is also vital in the creation of a path for strategic implementation of ample methodologies that would prevent or eradicate the conflicts.

A vast theoretical literature has also been presented in regards to the importance of structural violence in comprehension enhancement, with some authors arguing that conflicts have been a major drawback to economic, social, and political triumph over the years, owing to the state of misunderstanding distinct takes of different individuals and groups (Burchill, et al, 2005, p. 291).

The recent decades have seen researchers, academicians, scholars, as well as psychologists develop enthusiasm in the area of the effects of violence on the international relations. The discussion in this paper seeks to establish the usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts.

The comprehension of this is enabled by comprehensively analyzing the concept of structural violence as well as the international conflict. The theoretical approach towards the same is critically discussed, in addition to the provision of rationale and impacts of the study at hand.

Analyzing the concept of structural violence

The form of violence whose basis is on the social structure or social institution that harms some populace and prevents them from fulfilling their essential needs encompasses structural violence. Structural violence is product of the organization of political, social, and economic settings and systems in ways that have both negative and positive effects on the immediate community.

The rationale of the impacts is portrayed when some segments of the population in existence are oppressed, intimidated, and dominated, while other segments are privileged in one way or the other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflicts that have their fundamentals on the societal structures deprive part of the population their peace, food, security, healthcare etc, while others still enjoy the abundance of the same in similar setting. For instance, movement of large numbers of rich people into a community may lead to the increment of housing costs, affecting people that lived originally in a similar place under low costs.

In addition, structural violence is mostly recognized at the level of a society due to life quality shortfalls that occur in certain societal groups. The accomplishment of structural violence mostly occurs via the existence of political repression in a society.

This entails the presence of many groups in power concentrating the societal resources for their personal gain in expense of people who are not in power. The most pronounced examples of structural violence are inclusive of racism, elitism, classism, sexism, adultism, ageism, and nationalism in addition to heterosexism and ethnocentrism (Lipsky, 2010, p. 31).

Structural violence is characterized by poor societal settings that allow room for existence of more than one class and clusters of individuals depending on the societal niche that they hold. An imbalanced state as well as international realm is established when structural violence takes preeminence.

This is in regards to unequal resources distribution among the existing populations. Discrimination also finds its way in such a society where some people appear more important than others do, in terms of wealth and health. The systems of structural violence are dominated by numerous justices in all realms, and unjust arguments prevail in place of justice requirement.

Oppression of high quality is experienced whenever structural violence is evident, for instance, the deprivation of widows and orphans of the inheritances by corrupt governments. Increased death rates are also associated with those that live at rung positions in any society setting as opposed to low death rates for the higher in a contemporary society with poor settings.

Most countries in the have had such structural violent systems, posing great troubles for those living in them. The rationale of these poor structural systems is experienced when considering the rate of international conflict today that has drastically increased.

We will write a custom Essay on The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The understanding of these conflicts is also important in performance of the analysis of the levels of the international conflicts that thrive today. Various pronounced effects are experienced in presence of structural violence, which is inclusive of pain infliction on the victims when war and terror etc incidents occur due to structural distinctions.

It is always in the accompaniment of the deprivation of essential needs that are fundamental to the life of an organism in the ecosystem. The freedom of human is taken away for there is no room for addressing their grievances in case of the structural problems.

Moreover, the creation of non-identity society with racial, material, and all-round differences results from the cultivation for the structural violence (Mansfield and Pollins, 2003, p. 97).

An analysis of International conflicts

The recent years have seen concerted efforts directed towards international peace relations in a bid to counter the rampant international conflicts. A conflict is regarded as a level of difficulty where parties cannot understand one another, resulting into an avoidable chaotic situation. The accomplishment of a conflict is done via stage performances whose possible outcomes are undesirable, and may not be beneficial to any party.

The international conflict describes those critical incidents in which no human entity is exempted from the effect of a particular happening, and every human race is a liable object of experience. The most flabbergasting conflicts in the worldly realms are inclusive of wars, terrorism, and political clashes among others.

The causes of the international conflicts range from human to situational causative factors that become so overwhelming to an extent of causing tremendous outcomes.

The outcomes never choose a particular path to follow; rather, they affect a large number in the international realms including fresh waters, oil, other resources and so on (Westing and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and United Nations Environment Programme., 1986, p. 10, 28 and 58).

Johan Galtung’s literature classifies conflicts into three categories, which are inclusive of direct conflicts that entail direct pain and suffering infliction on individuals or groups. The second type is indirectly imposed on a group of individuals due to poor structures in the societal set up. International conflicts are mostly caused by structural violence as a result of the instabilities and disorganizations that are caused by their rampancy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects of the international conflicts are inclusive of economic inflations due to poor methodologies of spending a country’s resources. The political crises are also experienced everywhere in the international scope due to power wrangles that thrives in the hearts of many. The poor and the oppressed have a tendency to rise up against the unjust regimes and these reactions are transformed into conflicts.

Cultural conflicts are also internationally evident due to people’s take of others in regards to their background (Bercovitch, 1996, p. 6). Indeed, cultural conflicts have been known as causative factors to the structural and direct conflicts in many cases since the disregard for one another is a causal factor for promotion of jealousy, as well as the oppressive nature evident in most societies.

More over, most social structures in the world have acted as causal factors for international conflicts due to poor organizations and structural arrangements. Political and economic structures are also known to be major causes of conflicts in an international scope.

The international conflicts have often led to the prevalence of negative peace; indeed, alleviation of peace on the parties involved in disputes at a particular time is a rationale for international disagreements. The magnitude of international suffering is measured via the impacts in experience to the parties internationally.

For instance, massive deaths and concrete conflicts that are not liable for recovery are the extreme magnitudes for international conflicts. In addition, there are incidences of countries fighting against each other due to economic, structural, and cultural failures. In addition, leadership and governance structures are also considered as main causal factors of international conflicts.

Major international conflicts have long been portrayed via terrorism attacks, massacres, wars, deprivation of rights, and other methodologies that are deemed crucial in the fulfillment of such laws (Likosky, 2002, p. 393).

Usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts

Structural violence is an excellently significant tool when it comes to the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. The concept of structural violence explains the fundamentals on which international conflict emerges, as distinct groups interact with others in social setup.

The fact that structural violence entails deprivation of people’s rights and freedoms, as others enjoy privileges and honors makes this form of violence be considered vital in international violation explanations provision. Theoretical explanations of international conflicts rebuke the violation of social theory via the utilization of structural violence in available human settings.

The current world is largely affected by international conflicts that emerge repeatedly, with research findings proving that most of the happenings in the international realms are products of structural violence. This majorly entails social, cultural, political, and economical and the overall human set up within an inclusive ecological system (Ohlson and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 1988, p. 7).

The concept of structural violence is normally viewed as a hypothetical instrument that provides supposition that is considered tentative, with the intention of gaining comprehension of facts that are legally acceptable. Therefore, it creates a rationale for the understanding and analyzing international laws, as well as being considered a fiction.

This implies that structural violence entails making mistakes with a conscious mind in its take that armed conflicts are used in the deprivation of other people’s rights and privileges. Therefore, it gives an ample understanding of the operational international law, as well as a prediction of what just laws would mean in the society.

The understanding is also boosted in the fact that individuals or groups affected or infected by structural violence face it indirectly. They therefore advocate for close monitory and supervision in the promotion of the effectiveness of international law (Jacoby, 2008, p. 26).

Structural violence is a long-term cause of system’s instability. Instability means that no system can be subject to human trust, since it does not amply cater for the available humanity desired satisfaction. The instability-affected areas are inclusive of political social and economical stands. Normally, the state of instability in any realm leads to the creation of emotions on those affected or infected by the causal factors.

The deprivation of privileges from some people, as others enjoy, creates a rationale for the instability complement to act as a stage-setter for international conflicts.

Moreover, instability is an ultimate cause of physical, emotional, and psychological wars among people as well as states. The structural instability analysis also proves it as a ground for human suffering, rendering a lot of dissatisfaction among individuals involved (Jacoby, 2008).

Additionally, structural violence paves way for undesirable human aspects, which finally lead to conflicts. The aspect of militarily arises from international conflicts due to poor structural settings.

For instance, countries from European and American continents have to concentrate on weapon building strategies in a bid to counter any international attack, reason being that the structural setup of every country is a source of structural violence due to poor settings.

The understanding of the world wars that took place in the 19th century is enhanced by the presence of people superseded by hunger for power prosperity, in regards to territorial control and proprietorship. The wars created a structural environment that enabled some countries to be in possession of powerful arms and ammunitions, thus looking down upon others.

The perception that other countries are weak entities by the American continent, and eventually causing war is a rationale towards understanding international conflicts.

The recent rampant terrorist attacks that prevail in the international scope are also as a result of the presence of countries that are more favored in military wealth than others. Moreover, the desire to exercise military power, while ignoring human dignity is a long-term rationale for international conflicts (Lawler, 1995, p. 67).

The existence of extreme poverty cases in human life is an indication of the preeminence of structural violence. In most cases, some countries have a common trend that has rampantly taken preeminence. Every country is marked by an interaction of extremely rich persons, who adversely interact with extremely poor persons, though living in a similar environmental context.

Those people associated with the leadership of any country in the international realms are always found in possession of wealth, while those far from power are in most cases poor. A recent environmental scanning study concluded that poverty has become a major problem in the world.

Similarly, refugees that move to countries for the sake of their safety are said to suffer due to the fact that host countries do not easily recognize their presence. Those people afflicted with chronic diseases are said to live in chronic poverty due to lack of support from the neighbors as well as the government.

Thus, international conflicts are known to occur rampantly, as campaigns for such poverty controversies arise for the sake of protection of the common person (Waart, et al., 2001, p. 325).

Structural conflicts are known to have offered an ample ground for exploitation and oppression, as well as intimidation in every realm of the society. The understanding of these fundamentals is best explained via structural violence existence. The international conflicts have rampantly arisen due to the prevalence of the expletory and oppression nature in human realms.

Many countries have been recently faced by rampant pre and post-election violence and conflicts, owing to the existence of unfaithful regimes. The service to the general society by governments has been today converted to the attendance to personal needs since social structures are already paralyzed.

This is a causative factor for exploitation and intimidation to most people in a societal setup. The oppression and intimidation factors are known in history as the main causes of societal aggression and ultimately leading to international conflicts (Kent, 1993).

Structural violence is also useful as an instrument for indication of difficulties associated with change acquisition. For instance, recent years have experienced dramatic shifts in all reams, and every international entity needs adopting new ideas. However, the employment setup is already violated by poor governance and monitoring of the international structures, leading to aggression.

Land disputes have also been sources of international conflicts, where poor ruling structures are in control and denying room for dialog to maintain peace. The effects are peace alleviation and overriding international conflicts. Moreover, poor ruling methodologies that do not provide room for the weak and the oppressed in the society are factors that lead to the structural violence occurrence.

However, structural violence resulting form unequal resources distribution provides a better comprehension of international conflicts. The fact that wealthy and prosperous regimes are always entitled to privileges causes international aggression, leading to international conflicts (Kent, 1993).

Theoretical approach to international conflicts on the basis of structural violence

The recent decades have seen large numbers of theorists arise in their bid to provide explanations of the international conflicts on the ground of structural violence. The main theory that leads to the realization of denial of human satisfaction to some individuals or groups is the human needs theory by John Burton in 1915.

The frameworks of the theory advocate for meeting of human needs as an instrument of peaceful human interactions and relations. The conflict theory is also important in explanation provision of international conflicts. This relates to the incompatibility of distinct parties in their presentation as the main causal factor for conflicts.

The structural violation in any society leads to a negative interaction nature between the two theories, leading to conflicts between parties.

The structural violence is viewed in disregard for some people in the society, leading to the violation of the requirements of the human needs theory, and paving way for the preeminence of the conflict theory. The correction of situations thus requires the intervention of conflict resolution theoretical approach (Juma, et al., 2002, p. 134).

Kurt Lewis model of management plays a vital role in addressing the need for ample societal management strategies as a step towards combating the structural violence extremes. The social theory that was early developed is very crucial in addressing the importance of a good societal interaction.

It requires that all social entities in a setting recognize the importance of each other as an ample weapon for fighting societal conflicts. The social theory propositions entail the need for societal construction on the basis of the available entities’ requirements to create a satiable nature. The most recent research has also come up with international relations theory that advocates for compatibles in accordance to the international laws.

Compatibles are considered as vital in fighting the spirit of intimidation, oppression, as well as discriminatory societal rules. The international law is useful as a tool for stabilization of structural and physical systems via the application of the best possible ideologies. Therefore, international conflicts solution has long been developed via the requirements of international law.

The normative theory is very useful in assisting the execution of international law. It requires that appropriate norms be followed in the understanding and prevention of international conflicts caused by structural violence (McEvoy and Newburn, 2003, pp. 6, 7).

The rationale and impacts of Understanding international conflicts and Violence

The comprehension of international conflicts and violence creates a ground for the enactment of peaceful attributes. The understanding is especially essential to those in the peace and conflict studies, since a ground for positive peace is easy to establish. It is always considered worthy where prevention takes the first position instead of cure.

Whenever this understanding is available, government regimes and policy-makers gain a better understanding of the common structural violence problems that their immediate society is facing. It is therefore easier to address the problems in better ways that can counter international conflicts.

The laying of foundation for peace rebuilding is facilitated by the analytical understanding of influences of structural violence on international conflicts. The realization that international conflicts are rampant in the society makes many to rise up in advocating for peace in the society. The campaigns conducted play a pivotal role in societal restoration.

The interference of the undesirable human acts that sometimes take preeminence in the society is easy, with the understanding of the paths they take. It is also easy to set frameworks that are necessary in addressing diverse magnitudes of international conflicts, as well as violence that may hinder the overall international development (Keenan and McDonagh, 1996).

Combating international and local conflicts is possible when there is clear information of the impacts of the structural violence on the society. The effect of the psychological and physical systems of the people that have been deprived of their positive peace by the structural violence is eased when there is understanding.

The government systems find it easier to lay grounds for advocating for a hopeful future whenever they analyze possible causes of international conflicts. The balancing of races, and background differences is duly addressed in understanding that races distinctions are major causes of structural violence that cause international conflicts.

The comprehension of violence relationship with the international conflict acts as an ample tool for stabilization of the economy, politics, as well as the social structures. This is done via the employment of ample strategies that would enhance the compatibility of all systems. Cultural differences can be easily solved with the understanding of the problem that arises from the structural violence.

Moreover, the rampancy of issues like sexism, health facility accessibility difficulties, and other impacts of structural violence can be easily addressed in the comprehension of their causal factors. The moderation of the international law above all is enabled through the comprehension of international conflicts on the basis of structural violence (Keenan and McDonagh, 1996).

Conclusion Structural violence is a fundamental concept in the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. Structural conflicts arise from the creation of room that benefits and privileges a certain group in the society, while the rest suffer inadequacy for their desires. International conflicts occur due to incompatibility of different parties in regards to a matter of concern, and at a particular time.

The usefulness of the structural violence in the understanding of the international conflicts lies in its comprehensive nature in addressing negative issues that affect the society indirectly.

However, the understanding of this usefulness is crucial in the construction of a stable society in all realms of human interaction. Nevertheless, more empirical and theoretical studies should be conducted to enhance the importance of structural violence in understanding the international conflicts scope.

List of References Bercovitch, J., 1996. Resolving international conflicts: the theory and practice of mediation. NY: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Burchill, R., et al. 2005. International conflict and security law: essays in memory of Hilaire McCoubrey. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Jacoby, T., 2008. Understanding conflict and violence: theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches. London: Taylor

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A.A. Bronson’s Through the Looking Glass: His Personal Identity as a Canadian Artist Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

When one views and analyzes some of the specific art work of noted modern artist, A. A. Bronson, it is easy to see that his art is indeed a microcosm of an integral, unique, and discrete part of the Canadian artistic identity. The particular piece chosen here for consideration is his installation entitled, Through the Looking Glass.

This selection consists of twelve pieces, each one being a representation of the dozen chapters of the 1871 Lewis Carroll’s sequel to Alice in Wonderland. Initially, this work of art was a web project, primarily rendered for the October 2000 Vienna Secession exhibition. In 2009, the artist accompanied his work with a book, a new volume, called AA through the Looking Glass.

This itself, is a collection of twelve silver-coated frames with various Carroll quotes, published by Michele Didier. (Bronson 2009). Thus, his work Through the Looking Glass is the one of the best works that reflect the author’s vision of reality and the one that reflects the author’s sense of Canadian identity.

Most noteworthy is the first one, a very striking photograph of Bronson’s previous partner Felix, soon after his demise. In Faking Death: Canadian Art Photography and the Canadian Imagination by Penny Cousineau-Levine, this art critic spoke of the selection as well, on page 63.

She stated that “Animating the Canadian photograph, of every conceivable situation or thing, is the constant parsing as what is seen into two dimensions, here and there- and very often, life and death” (Cousineau-Levine 2003, 63).

Surely, it is no simple feat to categorize A. A Bronson’s artistic accomplishments of more than 30 years, nor is it so simple to readily and easily delineate his significant Canadian artistic contributions. Diana Nemiroff describes this on the website for the Canada Council of the Arts, in her piece, AA Bronson: Reflections on the Person.

She observes that his art has evolved in many directions, and that his identity as a Canadian artist has actually shifted, over time. This, she says, is mostly because he was expressly challenging various modes of thinking and performing, as he lived his life and published his art. (Canada Council for the Arts – The Governor General’s Awards in Visual and Media, n. d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This tendency of Bronson to consistently decry and challenge preconceived notions on artist identity took place during much of his 25 year tenure as one of the three individuals, within the General Idea group.

For Bronson’s work, both as a solo performer, and as a General Idea participant (1969–1994), have led the way in both a cultural and topical manner. Although Bronson is Canadian, and an artist, his reputation and performance transcend his country’s boundaries. This also, has appeared entirely intentional.

Bronson has certainly proven himself true to the idea that modern Canadian and world art is realistic, gritty, and innovative. He is solitary and personal, but also collective and universal. Also, consider that his recent work has been influenced also, through his former associations and relationships with the two other members of the General Idea.

He has experimented with the experiences of AIDS and the gay lifestyle in some of his pieces. Now, as earlier, he’s been involved in prolific and varied media, like performance, publishing, sculpture, and painting. Also, past and present, he’s been concerned with popular culture.

The works by the author revolutionized together with his personal and artistic growth. Works created in collaboration with other artists reflected his Canadian identity, however, his individual works, such as Through the Looking Glass, reflect not only the authors’ national identity and personal vision of reality, but his development as a single personality with the major focus on his inner world.

This tendency of Bronson to consistently decry and challenge preconceived notions on artist identity took place during much of his 25 year tenure as one of the three individuals, within the General Idea group.

For Bronson’s work, both as a solo performer, and as a General Idea participant (1969–1994), have led the way in both a cultural and topical manner. Although Bronson is Canadian, and an artist, his reputation and performance transcend his country’s boundaries. This also, has appeared entirely intentional.

We will write a custom Essay on A.A. Bronson’s Through the Looking Glass: His Personal Identity as a Canadian Artist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Exploring his art as a representation of his personality, we can conclude that his works provide a great contribution to the evolution of the Canadian art. He deals with problems that “touch his heart” as a personality and Canadian. What is so significant about his works? First of all, as any contemporary artist, Bronson explores historical and social dimensions that influenced the development of the Canadian nation.

However, he did it from the perspective of his own personality. He explores subjects that are crucial for the world in which he lived and are universal for humanity. He interpreted his Canadian identity as part of the global society. Indeed, Canadian art was shaped by different traditions from around the world.

Thus, in can be considered that his Canadian identity is a mixture of different visions and cultures. At the same time, he tries to define himself as an individual.

Through the Looking Glass is a great demonstration how the artists attempts to express understanding of the Canadian identity. The work consists of twelve pieces of glass.

Each piece symbolizes different dimension of human soul which is described by citations taken from the book by Lewis Carroll, for example, one of the citations is “unless – unless we’re all part of the same dream. Only I do hope it’s MY dream…” (Caroll 2010, 73), which means that the artist associates himself and his Canadian identity with the rest of the world.

Thus, he hopes that he is a part of the world as he shares the problems of modern society and he cares about future. However, at the same time, the author tries to provide the idea that he is an individual and, as any individual, he is not going to lose his identity, he hopes that his life is in his hands. Another significant citation is, “You see, a minute goes by so fearfully quick” (Caroll 2010, 68). The issue of time is in focus in this passage.

What is time and how it changes personality is another theme considered by the author. In this piece, he provides that time is relative substance, every individual has his/her personal perception of time. Thus, this piece of art is very philosophical.

The author not only addresses cultural traditions of his country, he focuses the audience’s attention on the fact that his Canadian identity, as well as identity of all Canadians was formed under the influence of different factors, such us, culture, society, interaction with other nations. The “collectiveness” of his Canadian identity is represented through the techniques used to create the work.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A.A. Bronson’s Through the Looking Glass: His Personal Identity as a Canadian Artist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Different pieces represent different aspects of the authors’ life and psychology. The pieces are different from each other, however, when put together, they form a single reflection of a single personality. Thus, living in a diverse society, the artist absorbs everything that happens around him and these events influence his personality, which is as a broken class stick together in a single piece.

Presently, A.A. Bronson continues to work on his own and to show internationally. He’s been the recipient of many awards, along with his deceased partners, and later, as a sole artist. Peter Gallo touches on this in his article, “The enduring ephemera of General Idea,” in Art in America, Mar. 2005, on pages 80-83. (Gallo 2005, 80-83)

However, in viewing Through The Looking Glass, the art student must not only understand the precursor General Idea movement, but also what came before. Next, although his identity was mostly one of loss when his two close associates of the General Idea passed away in 1994, he finally broke away from this tendency, to some degree.

This fact is evident in viewing his Through The Looking Glass, as an artist composing his Secession, and through his display of the photographs of his dead friend. Here and elsewhere, he thus displayed a degree of moving on, and of separateness.

Therefore, as varied as is the Canadian landscape and its peoples, so is the artistic identity of A. A. Bronson. He, too, exhibits elements of disparity and diversity.

Unconventional, gay, not afraid to touch any subject, to include decay and death, he expands his horizons well beyond the poetic and the sublime. Surely, for many who view his epic work, Through the Looking Glass, they will find the collection as concrete evidence of his artistic identity.

Works Cited Bronson, A. A. 1994. Felix, June 5, 1994. A. A. BRONSON. Web.

Bronson, A. A. 2009. AA Bronson: life and works. Brussels: mfc – michéle didier.

Bronson, A. A. 2009. Felix, June 5, 1994. Secession. Web.

Caroll, Lewis. 2010. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. New York: Cosimo, Inc.

Gallo, Peter. 2005. The enduring ephemera of General Idea. Art in America, 2005. (March): 80-83.

Levine-Cousineau, Penny. Faking death: Canadian art photography and the Canadian imagination. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.

The Canada Council for the Arts – The Governor General’s Awards in Visual and Media Arts 2002. Web.

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Social Enterprise in Context Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Social enterprise

The impact of social enterprises on the society

Major achievements of social enterprises

Challenges faced by the social enterprises

The Social economy in relation to social enterprise

Critics associated with social enterprises

Recommendations

Conclusion

References

Social enterprise According to Price (2008, pp 1), “social enterprises are businesses with primary social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in business or in the community, rather that being driven by the need to maximize profit for shareholders and owners.”

Social enterprise is mainly associated with non-profit organizations, mainly privately owned, which sell goods and services with an aim of yielding a return on investments, with the accumulated profits being ploughed back into the business or they are directed to social purposes.

The profits of these organizations are not maximized to benefit the shareholders. In addition, social enterprises may be developed with an aim of fulfilling needs that are rare, such as providing employment to the less fortunate communities and the disadvantaged individuals. Such groups of people include the disabled, low education candidates, and ex-offenders, among others.

These social enterprises also operate in the less attractive locations for other businesses; such places include locations with low level of education, rural areas, and social housing areas among others.

Social enterprise activities mainly revolve around the developing of countries, and they include recycling, renewable energy, and fair trade. Social enterprise mainly aims at the social challenges of poverty, unemployment, disablement, and underdevelopment, which may occur in some locations and communities; they address such challenges via aid and social work (Kerlin, 2009, pp xiii).

Just like other businesses, social enterprises compete in the market, but the difference comes in where profits made are reinvested in social activities. Social enterprises are also viewed as a response that is innovative and is directed into funding socio activities by the non-profit organization (Nyssens, et al, 2006, pp 4).

According to Kerlin (2006, pp 249), social enterprises are characterized by the continuity of producing goods and services, the aim to benefit the community, low amount paid in terms of work, the initiative to take up risks, and the limitation of profit distribution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kerlin (2009, pp 6) further explains these characteristics; first, the continuity of producing and selling of goods and services, with the social enterprises being known for their productivity of goods and services. Secondary, high degree of autonomy involves their creation by a group on individuals who govern these enterprises and they are not controlled by the government; hence, they make their own decision.

Thirdly, the important level of economic risk allows their employees to determine their financial stability by how well they secure sufficient resources. In addition, the minimum amount of work that is paid shows that most of their workers are volunteering while only a small portion of them are fully employed.

Their aim to benefit the community entails serving of specific people in a community and promoting social responsibility.

Moreover, these enterprises represent an initiative formed by a group of people with the same aims and objectives, while the decision-making process involves voting, thus incorporating all ideas of the stakeholders. Lastly, the limited issue of profit distribution requires that profits be distributed on limited basis with the aim of minimizing profit maximization motive.

The impact of social enterprises on the society Despite social enterprises playing a major role in the employment of the less-advantaged groups, in some countries like the United Kingdom, it lacks full control of this factor. According to survey, only 2% of the United Kingdom population is employed by the social enterprises. However, this could be due to the fact that the social enterprises pay less as compared to the public sectors.

Nevertheless, these enterprises contribute greatly to the marginalized communities and groups of people (Teasdale, 2010 pp. 95). Teasdale (2010, pp 101) further explains that social enterprises can be of various purposes including providing a social space for the marginalized groups of people such that they are able to develop bonds with others who have a similar situation as theirs.

An example of supported housing enterprise is in the United Kingdom whereby the enterprise accommodated those who suffered from bipolar, as one of the victim shared that he feels much safer at the center other than in the community as he is always harassed and he had no close friends.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Enterprise in Context specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When he compares his life in the supported housing enterprise, where he is able to make friends and bond, he feels much safer since there are people with similar situation as his who love and understand him. Hence, this enterprise is a perfect example of a social enterprise from the marginalized groups of people.

Individuals are excluded from activities in the community but are included socially in a group. For instance, a person who has relied on the state’s benefit for some time and then he is finally excluded from such benefits, but within a community enterprise, he is not excluded and was involved even in decision making. Such a person will feel less isolated in the community enterprise as compared to his country.

These enterprises have an aim of creating a paying employment, this is evidence in the case of community times a social enterprise in the United Kingdom that provided employment with a salary to the management team of the organization. Social enterprises involve hierarchy decision-making, tending to fill in, in terms of goods and services, where the state has failed.

Therefore, it is evident that a social enterprise is business aimed at changing the society for the common good. An evident case is that of China, where, despite the social entrepreneurs investing in two projects, they never aimed at profit maximizing, but rather, on strategies that focused on the community (Gunn and Durkin, 2010, pp67).

Social enterprises mainly focus on social responsibility; this is evident when they take up the role of rehabilitating offenders, in which they change the lives of such people for the benefit of the society, since the rate of crime will reduce.

According to Myers and Stocks (2010 pp 267), “the social economy encompasses a range of non-profit and social enterprise organizations that put people before profits, by solving social needs rather than amassing financial profits.” This statement makes it clear that social enterprises sacrifice their private aims and objectives and focus on social needs of the communities.

According to newstatesman (2002, pp ii), social enterprises are seen as organizations that are neither answerable to the government nor have an aim of profit maximization.

This article further explains that the social enterprises are mainly concerned with quality of life of the common people, which involves health, conducive environment, and opportunities for a better education among others. This is summarized by newstatesman (2002, pp. vii) by stating that, “social enterprises are hybrids mixing social values and goals with commercial practices.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Enterprise in Context by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is evident as they prove to be unconstitutional, as their main driving force are social goals, which include provision of education, support to the incapable families and childcare support; however, to attain such goals, they have to participate and compete in the market through selling their goods and services.

An example can be extracted from the furniture resource centre located in Liverpool, which has a workforce of one hundred and fifty repairing and selling furniture. This business not only sells its products, but it creates a common good to the society by providing employment.

The main aim why the social enterprises make profits is to attain independence and avoid relying on government for support. They therefore focus on communities and customers who have been shunned away by the government.

According to Munoz (2010 pp 59), Tommy Hutchinson made an impact on the society and on social entrepreneurs when he implemented an online social network company named i-genius which operates in over 90 countries.

The network is involved in collaboration of social entrepreneurs and non-governmental organizations; this way, the social enterprises can make international impacts through this website. Using internet, social enterprise is deemed to grow, as the internet creates social collaboration.

According to Leadbeater (2007), the social entrepreneurs had no name ten years ago, but today they are recognized due to their effort to accommodate the written off and laid-off people from schools and workplaces. He further explains that this sector has provided over 40milion employment opportunities and 200 million volunteers worldwide.

For instance, in the United Kingdom, the government created a legal entity, which is the community interest company aimed at incorporating those enterprises that direct their profits to social activities. Social Corporation’s main role is to enhance social entrepreneurship, which entails smoothening the way for employment of the deprived groups and promote training and education (Thomas, 2004, pp 251).

It is evident that a social enterprise consists of corporate social responsibility in its operations, in which social responsibility is the commitment of an organization to improve the well-being of a deprived community via business and social practices; such practices may range from health care to education (Kotler and Lee, 2005, pp 3).

Organizations are expected to impact the society and the communities positively with their activities that are directed towards the welfare of the society and further assume responsibility (Sims, 2003 43).

Therefore, corporate social responsibility entitles one to being a steward of the society’s needs; therefore, it is clear that the social enterprises engage fully in social responsibility unlike other organization who engage partially to the community’s responsibilities.

According to Munoz (2010, pp 30), social enterprises are striving to reach out to the international communities; this is evident in regard to the green work organization which has aided countries like Sudan, Ghana and Sierra Leone among others.

This has left a positive effect worldwide and promoted social responsibility. Social entrepreneurship arise from social enterprise; its main aim being the provision of solutions and aid to social problems facing the society (OECD, 2010 pp 188).

Major achievements of social enterprises According to Kerlin (2009 pp 76), social enterprises in South Asia have been a major aid to the Asian poverty problem which affects approximately 50% of the Asian population. The corrupt government rarely focuses on eradicating poverty; rather, it enhances unequal distribution of resources.

However, social enterprises have focused on poverty eradication and creating jobs in Asia. One example of such an enterprise is the La Frutera Corporation whose operation involves a banana plantation and work with an aim of improving the quality of lives in the Philippines.

The Maireang farmer’s group involves the poor and landless farmers in Thailand and engages them in the processing of rubber, hence increasing the farmers’ income. According to Yunus (2007 pp, 3), poverty around the world is usually uneven, such that, some communities suffer more than others do.

Relying on the government can be frustrating sometimes; this is because it is slow in acting, hence leading to the emergence of non-profit organizations mainly concerned with the welfare of the needy and desperate. However, theses charitable organizations rely on donations and if the donations cease, they are incapable of assisting the needy.

The author adds that in countries like Bangladesh, where social needs are on high demand, when there are no sufficient donors, some social needs are not catered for at all.

According to Kerlin (2007, pp 77), some of the social enterprise like the entrepreneurs school of Asia promotes entrepreneurial education in which students are molded into becoming social entrepreneurs who focus on profit in business, as well as social impact to the needy communities. The mirror foundation in Thailand enhances education to the remote areas.

Challenges faced by the social enterprises According to Kerlin (2006, pp 259), social enterprises face challenges just like other organizations and businesses. For instance, in the United States, social enterprises challenges have been identified that include, “exclusion of specific groups, the weakening of civil society and lack of government involvement” (Kerlin, 2006, pp 259).

The author further explains that social enterprises may be leading to the rising rate of exclusion of the marginalized groups.

For instance, in the United States, members of the enterprise are required to pay a certain fee, however, some of the poor beneficiaries cannot afford to pay, hence being excluded from receiving any benefits. Secondly, some of the social enterprises generate a lot of profits, thus they concentrate more on their clients rather that on the social responsibility for the communities.

Thirdly, social enterprises are seen as a potential risk to the civil society in that, these organizations might abandon some programs such as the volunteer programs due to the demand in other practices. These enterprises may also stop relying on donations and volunteers, hence diminishing the aims of promoting social capital.

According to Kerlin (2006, pp259), Western Europe faces the challenge of limited number of services that are supported by the enterprises as compared to the United States, hence, these social enterprises end up being underutilized. According to Leadbeater (2007), many social entrepreneurs run small firms hence limiting the spread of such schemes. Some lack managerial skills, which are relevant in the growth of an organization.

According to Ducci et al (2002 pp 79), social enterprises faced a number of challenges in France, among them being the incapability of creating an organization with many stakeholders, the difficulty in engaging in economic activities for the social enterprises, and the impossibility of the social enterprise to acquire capital.

According to Marks and Hunter (N.d, pp 7), social firms aimed at reaching out to the needy such as education and health care face a range of queries when it comes to their stability, continuity and their sustainability due to the uncertainties that face them.

When a non-profit organization seeks to establish itself, it is faced by a major challenge of distraction from the charitable objective, such that the organization may end up operating like a normal business by loosing focus of its main mission, which is charity (Crutchfield and Grant, 2008, pp 74).

The Social economy in relation to social enterprise Social economy is referred to as a part of the economy that is not public or private; it consists of non-profitable organizations inclusive of volunteers whose activities are aimed at a community benefit, for instance, for the deprived groups in the society.

The social economy mainly consists of three sub-sectors; the voluntary sector which consists of organizations that govern themselves and do not rely on the government, operate without a profit maximization motive and involve in volunteer work mostly. Such organizations may include charities.

The second sector is the community sector in which these organizations depend on voluntary and do not pay for these efforts, as they are small support groups. Third is the social enterprise sector that involves businesses whose objectives are to support the community and not on maximizing profits for its shareholders (Social Economy, 2011).

In Northern Ireland, the social economy employs approximately 48,000 workers, while in the European Union, a total of 10 million people are employed. This sector can be differentiated from other sectors through its non-profit aim, the low wages and the voluntary services, its involvement with the community and its reinvestment in profits as opposed to sharing it out to the stakeholders.

Nevertheless, the social sector outweighs other organizations through the following advantages;

they are normally situated near their customers, and hence respond fast to their clients needs.

They have the capability of reaching out to the deprived groups in the society.

Due to their charitable work, they attract many charitable organization and volunteers who come to their aid in terms of money and labor.

Since their existence, they have contributed to social capital in the country (Social Economy, 2011).

The main aim of the social economy enterprises is to provide a quality life to individuals and the economy at large; hence, they aim at promoting mutuality, equal opportunities, worth employment opportunities, co-operation, and social benefits to the communities among others.

In addition, these social economy enterprises operate under the influence of social aims, which vary from training, job creation, and provision of services among others.

Secondly, they are involved in the production of goods and services in the competing market, hence benefiting the communities through the acquired profits. Therefore, social economy consists of the charitable sector, non-profit sector, and the voluntary sector (Uluorta, 2009, pp14).

Critics associated with social enterprises According to newstatesman (2002, pp iii), “social enterprises are seen as a government device to open avenues for local authorities to contract out services such a childcare, leisure and transport.”

However, social enterprises are a savior to many as they take up the “left overs” from the government, such as, the laid off employees, neglected citizens and the marginalized communities, thus remodeling them to being better off. According to Leadbeater (2007), social entrepreneurship is seen as a fake idea and that has developed to its capability to adapt and due to its ambiguous nature.

Recommendations Social enterprises that are successful should aim at promoting productivity and competition in the operating environment. They should also be able to create wealth socially and promote co-operation and cohesiveness in the community. Social enterprise should work towards developing a new way of operating in terms of delivering of goods and services.

Nevertheless, social entrepreneurs should ensure that their enterprise is leaving a positive impact on the community by enhancing their mode of living. A social enterprise should be aimed at developing the potential of the deprived groups, either by providing employment to them or training them into managing their own businesses.

In addition, an effective social enterprise should be competitive in order to enable its survival in the market by attracting several customers. Finally, social enterprises should enhance delivery of public services by collaborating with the government in areas such as health sector, recycling, adoption, and transportation among others; therefore, social entrepreneurship should be promoted in all countries.

Conclusion Social enterprises are key players to social responsibility worldwide; therefore, this sector should be supported by the government with no strings attached. This way, they can continue enjoying their independence and at the same time have enough funds to support the less fortunate in society. Social enterprises lead to social entrepreneurship, which aims at providing innovative solutions to unsolved problems in a society.

Hence, it is more concerned in alleviating problems other than maximizing profits. Therefore, with social entrepreneurship in place, deprived communities and marginalized groups are well catered for and have a place to call home.

The social enterprise topic seems like a narrow subject, but it has really challenged me due to its depth and content, hence leaving me thirsting for more knowledge. It is however, an important discussion with a variety of references and during my assignment, I have learnt also on matters that seemed confusing at first.

Having acquired this sufficient knowledge, I am in a better position to tackle and understand any matters related to social enterprises.

References Crutchfield, L. and Grant, H. (2008). Forces for good: the six practices of high-impact nonprofits. NJ: John Wiley and Sons Publishers.

Ducci, G. et al. (2002). The social enterprise in Europe. International journal of mental health, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p76, 16p. Web.

Gunn, R. and Durkin, C. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: A Skills Approach. NY: The Policy Press Publisher.

Kerlin, J. (2006). Social Enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and Learning from the Differences. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary

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Critique of SRA Open Court Reading Curriculum for 3rd grade in light of Second Language Learners Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Teachers need to understand that students, who are usually in their classrooms, come from different cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the learning process should cater for the different needs of the different students.

The SRA Open Court Reading curriculum for students in their third grades entails vocabulary, spelling, phonemic awareness, explicit phonics, writer’s craft, fluency, listening, grammar, usage and mechanics, writing process strategies, speaking and viewing skills, award-winning literature, text comprehension and penmanship.

Supplemental materials obtained online, encyclopedias and related sources are used when a theme calls for wider exploration. Science and social studies are also integrated throughout the curriculum.

This curriculum is adequately diversified but, there is need to bridge cultures by ensuring that each and every student is fully involved in the learning process. This paper aims at doing precisely that, describing how teachers can incorporate a multi-cultural approach into the SRA Open Court Reading curriculum to enhance the learning process.

The presence of students who are not within the mainstream of American culture and who speak English as their second language calls for a multi-cultural approach in learning. Those within the mainstream American culture are the Caucasians or the White who values American cultural traditions and values, and speaks English as the first language.

It is evident that the Open Court Reading Curriculum adopts the set-up of an American mainstream class. In addition, students are given the opportunity to practice what they have learned on an individual basis and this is only suitable for the American mainstream students.

The importance of integrating a multi-cultural approach in the Open Court Reading curriculum is to ensure that all students are exposed to the same educational opportunities. The OPC curriculum is associated with academic failure amongst certain ethnic minority groups hence the need to incorporate a multi-cultural approach.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is quite obvious that students from other cultures different from the American mainstream face certain kinds of learning handicaps where American mainstream values dominate. These learning handicaps prevail from the fact that students experience discordance between home and school values.

Subsequently, the learning capacity of the students is affected leading to poor performance (Gibson, 1984). The school should be a versatile place that can transform anytime in as far as the interests of the students are being catered for.

The notion of minority and majority groups with regard to cultural diversity in America is inevitable. Both educators and parents need to undergo some form of training with regard to diversity of cultures and associated values. Both the educators and parents need to understand each other’s cultural values and practices so as to avoid conflicts that may jeopardize the achievement of the concerned students.

Schools should ensure that they have training sessions to create awareness to their educators, who are mainly from the individualistic American mainstream. This helps the educators to adopt an integrated approach while teaching the students. Teachers therefore should embrace both the individualistic and collectivistic cultural approaches while teaching.

The understanding of the dominating American culture by parents leads to the development of more explicit discussions with teachers on school practices and policies, and the rationales for them in a cultural context.

The creation of awareness for both parents and teacher helps the students to acquire a dual cultural perspective, which enables them to accommodate school and home cultures. This enables the students to distinguish between the two cultures and develop a more open-minded approach to life in general (Trumbull et al. 2001).

Trumbull and others talk about bridging cultures in schools by using an individualism/ collectivism framework. Some students come from collectivistic cultures, whose values are inclined towards inter-dependence and sharing and helping one another.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critique of SRA Open Court Reading Curriculum for 3rd grade in light of Second Language Learners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the American mainstream students are from individualistic cultures that values personal autonomy, self-expression, self-determination, independence and personal achievement. It should however be noted that despite the fact that there are individualistic and collectivistic cultures, the converse of these cultures are also prevalent within these cultures.

This is to say that, an individualistic culture also values collectivism and the collectivistic culture also values individualism. The difference is in the prioritization of values within the different cultures. Therefore, an integration of both cultures would augur well for both of them since none would be imposing on the other (Trumbull, Rothstein-Fisch

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Critique of SRA Open Court Reading Curriculum for 3rd grade in light of Second Language Learners Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Teachers need to understand that students, who are usually in their classrooms, come from different cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the learning process should cater for the different needs of the different students.

The SRA Open Court Reading curriculum for students in their third grades entails vocabulary, spelling, phonemic awareness, explicit phonics, writer’s craft, fluency, listening, grammar, usage and mechanics, writing process strategies, speaking and viewing skills, award-winning literature, text comprehension and penmanship.

Supplemental materials obtained online, encyclopedias and related sources are used when a theme calls for wider exploration. Science and social studies are also integrated throughout the curriculum.

This curriculum is adequately diversified but, there is need to bridge cultures by ensuring that each and every student is fully involved in the learning process. This paper aims at doing precisely that, describing how teachers can incorporate a multi-cultural approach into the SRA Open Court Reading curriculum to enhance the learning process.

The presence of students who are not within the mainstream of American culture and who speak English as their second language calls for a multi-cultural approach in learning. Those within the mainstream American culture are the Caucasians or the White who values American cultural traditions and values, and speaks English as the first language.

It is evident that the Open Court Reading Curriculum adopts the set-up of an American mainstream class. In addition, students are given the opportunity to practice what they have learned on an individual basis and this is only suitable for the American mainstream students.

The importance of integrating a multi-cultural approach in the Open Court Reading curriculum is to ensure that all students are exposed to the same educational opportunities. The OPC curriculum is associated with academic failure amongst certain ethnic minority groups hence the need to incorporate a multi-cultural approach.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is quite obvious that students from other cultures different from the American mainstream face certain kinds of learning handicaps where American mainstream values dominate. These learning handicaps prevail from the fact that students experience discordance between home and school values.

Subsequently, the learning capacity of the students is affected leading to poor performance (Gibson, 1984). The school should be a versatile place that can transform anytime in as far as the interests of the students are being catered for.

The notion of minority and majority groups with regard to cultural diversity in America is inevitable. Both educators and parents need to undergo some form of training with regard to diversity of cultures and associated values. Both the educators and parents need to understand each other’s cultural values and practices so as to avoid conflicts that may jeopardize the achievement of the concerned students.

Schools should ensure that they have training sessions to create awareness to their educators, who are mainly from the individualistic American mainstream. This helps the educators to adopt an integrated approach while teaching the students. Teachers therefore should embrace both the individualistic and collectivistic cultural approaches while teaching.

The understanding of the dominating American culture by parents leads to the development of more explicit discussions with teachers on school practices and policies, and the rationales for them in a cultural context.

The creation of awareness for both parents and teacher helps the students to acquire a dual cultural perspective, which enables them to accommodate school and home cultures. This enables the students to distinguish between the two cultures and develop a more open-minded approach to life in general (Trumbull et al. 2001).

Trumbull and others talk about bridging cultures in schools by using an individualism/ collectivism framework. Some students come from collectivistic cultures, whose values are inclined towards inter-dependence and sharing and helping one another.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critique of SRA Open Court Reading Curriculum for 3rd grade in light of Second Language Learners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the American mainstream students are from individualistic cultures that values personal autonomy, self-expression, self-determination, independence and personal achievement. It should however be noted that despite the fact that there are individualistic and collectivistic cultures, the converse of these cultures are also prevalent within these cultures.

This is to say that, an individualistic culture also values collectivism and the collectivistic culture also values individualism. The difference is in the prioritization of values within the different cultures. Therefore, an integration of both cultures would augur well for both of them since none would be imposing on the other (Trumbull, Rothstein-Fisch

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Unemployment Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Unemployment can be defined as the condition where citizens of a country are jobless and have in the recent past been involved in searching work without a success. Unemployment rate can be defined as the prevalence of unemployment opportunities in a country. The unemployment index is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by the number of individuals in the labour force (Arestis

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The Confederation of Ontario University Staff Associations and Union Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Background information about COUSA

Legal issues and obstacles facing COUSA

Bargaining process

References

Background information about COUSA The Confederation of Ontario University Staff Associations and Union (COUSA) is an umbrella union that was formed in 1974 by a group of unionized employees working at Ontario University in Canada. COUSA is made up of workers from clerical jobs, administrative, technical and professional occupations. There are different types of groups under the COUSA umbrella.

They include employees from Ontario University- from independent, non-unionized groups, provincial groups and international unions- are members of COUSA.

All member unions under COUSA shared a common aspiration: that all employees of Ontario University need a common platform to collect information and work together with the government. In addition, the umbrella organization does not rival other unionized organization; on the contrary, it is willing to collaborate with them to the benefit of workers (COUSA, 2011, p.1).

There are many benefits one can get by joining COUSA. For example, members of the Confederation attend three seminars organized by the umbrella body every year to network and share valuable information about emerging issues in labor unions.

COUSA offers avenues where non-academic employees at Ontario University can share knowledge and experience about trends or activities that touch on employment issues. In addition, COUSA organizes workshops where members discuss and share knowledge on crucial topics for example: pay equity; reforms on labor laws; lobbying approaches; negotiating skills; and benefits costing.

The Confederation also lobbies and advocates on behalf of Ontario University staff to the public and government. It also offers a platform that enable member groups to collaborate on a short term basis (COUSA, 2011, p.3).

Legal issues and obstacles facing COUSA There are a number of legislative reforms in Canada that are likely to impact on the way COUSA runs its affairs. For example, in 2004, the parliament enacted Labor Relations Bill 144 that altered a number of labor relations laws in Canada. COUSA has several trade unions that are registered under the Ontario Labor Relations Act.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the introduction of Labor Relations Bill 144 is bound to have an effect on the activities of the trade unions under COUSA. In addition, the new regulation will have a negative impact on academic workers hired on a part-time basis by the Ontario University.

For example, the Bill requires unionized organizations to submit the income disclosure requirements. This is one of the new changes introduced by the law and contradicts the public view about the objectivity of labor law (Slinn, 2003, p.367).

The effectiveness of COUSA is also constrained by lack of a strong financial base. Labor unions are denied financial aid from the government under the new law. COUSA does not have enough financial resources to mange cases related to violation of the Labor Act. A swift decree is the only viable cure to the adverse effects of the Act on the union.

Also, lack of ample financial resources has limited the ability of COUSA member unions to access reconciliation services. This has severely limited the ability of the COUSA to bargain on behalf of its member unions (Slinn, 2003, p.369).

Bargaining process COUSA has a number of elected representatives that bargain on behalf of its members. For example, the COUSA Salaries and Benefits Committee is mandated to negotiate on behalf of staff at Ontario University on matters related to compensation (David

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Substitute Goods Research Paper essay help site:edu

Substitute Goods; Pens and Pencils

Substitute goods can be defined as those goods that customers views as alternative. They can also be seen as those goods that give consumers similar benefits. In other words, these goods satisfy the same needs. In most cases, the buyer takes several things into consideration before making their final decisions on the choice of the goods to buy more so in the case of substitute goods.

In this case, pens and pencils can be considered as substitute goods. This is because they yield same benefits to the consumer. For instance, both pen and pencil are used for writing. They can be used interchangeably. Consumers may either decide to write using pen or using a pencil. Therefore, pens and pencils are perfect substitutes. This is because they are both used exactly for the same purpose, which is writing.

Impacts on supply of pens of a technological breakthrough which reduces the cost of producing pens

Substitute goods usually offer a high level of competition in the market. This is because buyers can easily substitute them any time. This aspect creates competition between these products.

In this case, if a technological breakthrough reduces the cost of producing pens, then the minimum price levels which pen producers can offer in the market will fall accordingly. This will lead to a fall in prices of pens. However, the prices of pencils will remain constant.

The quantity of a product supplied in the market is directly proportional to the prices of the product in the market (Forgang and Einolf 171). In other words, the higher the prices, the higher the quantities of a specific product that producers will be willing to provide in the market.

In this case, technological advancement has led to reduction in the cost of production of pens. This implies that the producer will be willing to supply a larger quantity of pens at the prevailing price levels. Therefore, the quantity of pens supplies in the market is more likely going to increase.

As a result of reduction in the production cost of pens, producers may decide to lower the prices. As a result, pens will become cheaper compared to pencils. Since the two commodities are substitutes, some buyers will shift from using pencils to pens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this statement is based on the assumption that the consumers are behaving rationally. A rational consumer will tend to choose an alternative that maximizes their benefits and minimizes their costs.

Figure 1: Supply curve for pens

A technological breakthrough in pen manufacturing will cause the supply function of the pens to shift outwards. The quantity of pens supplied will increase significantly. This is as a result of increase in the quantity demanded as a result of a fall in prices.

Impacts on the price of pens and the quantity demanded for both pens and pencils after a technological breakthrough which reduces the cost of producing pens

Since substitute goods can be used interchangeably, they exert competitive pressure in case the prices or the quality of one of these products changes. In this case, a technological development has led to a significant reduction in the prices of pens. As a result, the quantity of pens demanded will increase.

Figure 2: The demand curve for pens.

From the graph above, it is clear that the quantity demanded is inversely proportional to the prices. In other words, the higher the prices, the lower the quantity of a product demanded and vice versa. From the graph above, the original price of pen was p1.

After a technological breakthrough, the production of pens falls significantly. As a result, the prices of pens fall from p1 to p2. At price p1, the buyers are willing to buy Q1 of pens. At price level p2, the buyers are willing to buy Q2 of pens. Therefore, it is clear that the quantity of pens demanded will increase significantly after a fall in prices.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Substitute Goods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the quantity of pencils demanded will fall significantly. Since pens and pencils are substitutes and that they serve the same purpose to the consumer, most of the buyers will turn to buy pens because they will be cheaper.

The substitute goods usually have positive cross elasticity of demand. This implies that an increase in price of one of these goods leads to an increase in prices of the other good. Consequently, the quantity of pencils demanded will fall significantly.

Figure 3: Demand curve for pencils.

From the graph above, a decrease in the prices of pens will cause the demand curve for pencils to shift in. This leads to a reduction in the quantity of pencils demanded significantly.

How managers for pen-makers and pencil-makers should decide given the above answers

From the above discussion, it is clear that the technological breakthrough in production of pens will favour pen manufacturers while it will present a big threat to the pencil manufacturers.

This is because the quantity demanded of pencils will tend to fall as more people shifts from using pencils to pens which are now cheaper than before. Therefore, there is a need for the managers of pen-makers and pencil-makers to take appropriate actions in order to retain and improve their performance respectively.

For the pencil-makers manager, it is advisable to take appropriate actions which can reverse the trends of demand for pencils arising from a fall in prices of pens. One of the actions that the managers can consider is differentiation. Differentiations play a significant role in increasing the sales of substitute goods which tends to compete in the same market (Piana par 6).

According to Forgang Einolf, differentiation will also help the pencil makers from reducing prices to unprofitable levels (170). Since pens and pencils do not have exact identical features, it will be easier to differentiate the two products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Substitute Goods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This can be through improvement in the quality and also introducing a wide variety of pencils. As a result, buyers will tend to buy the product to enjoy the unique features which are not present in the other substitutes. As a result, the demand for pencils will increase.

On the other hand, the managers for pen-makers need to apply appropriate measures in order to maximize their profits. Since the level of demand for the pens has increased, the managers should take necessary measures to increase their production in order to satisfy the increase in demand.

This will help in reducing shortages of peens in the markets. This may require expansion in their production capacities in order to satisfy this demand.

Works Cited Forgang, William and Einolf, Karl. Management Economics: An Accelerated Approach. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.

Piana, Valentino. “Substitute Goods.” Economics Web Institute, 2005. 24th June. 2011.

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