Table of Contents A description of the Stonehenge and it setting
An innovative henge has been discovered via geophysical study
Outline of previously done archaeological fieldwork
A description of the Stonehenge and it setting A comprehensive laser examination of the Stonehenge in the previous year shows original information and axe carvings on how the shaping of stones was carried out. In the analysis, seventy one new-fangled axed head carvings were found.
These increased the acknowledged Stonehenge number to one hundred and fifteen. Basically, the axed head designs related to a particular epoch in the ancient bronze era possibly between seventeen fifty and fifteen hundred BC. This came about one thousand years subsequent to the erection of the huge sarsen stone loop.
Stonehenge report, which is contrary to media reports, showed that it was hardly a huge gallery of arts (Tilley, 2010). In fact, Stonehenge carving appeared just on 4 stones. See the diagram below.
The above scanned picture similarly divulged far-fetched detailed information on how stone shaping occurred. For instance, there were those who pecked the vertical lines and those who horizontal lines using stone mauls (Tilley, 2010).
The diagram below is an English Heritage publication. It offers decisive information on the amount of harms that guests carving graffiti and memento huntsmen caused when they chipped headstones’ bits off.
One of the seventeenth-century stone architects involved in chipping off stones was Sir Wren Christopher (Gaffney, Woodward
New Technological Advances within the Police Department Essay essay help
Mytown Police Department is one of the beneficiaries of a federal grant. The grant aims at upgrading the equipment and technology used in the organization. According to the parameters used in the grant process, it is obligatory that the organization should use novel equipment in promoting decision making and operations in the organization.
As the Deputy Chief, I am tasked with the responsibility of identifying novel technological advances, which are in agreement with the grant criteria. Moreover, the technologies should enable the organization to develop and grow.
This paper aims at identifying three novel technological advances, which are linked to criminal justice. Moreover, there will be a detailed explanation of the use of these technologies, as well as their benefits. More specifically, there will be a keen focus on how the technologies will enhance and inform strategic and operational decisions.
Technology possesses a huge transformational power within the criminal justice sector. Evidently, the revolution of technology, which is being noted in every sector, is not an exception in the criminal justice department. The criminal justice system cannot avoid technology. The technology is taking place at a relatively fast pace (Pattavina, 2004).
For instance, police officers put on bullet proof vests routinely. Community groups possess the capability of establishing crime incidences via the utilization of complex computerized crime diagrams. This paper will discuss three technologies; DNA technology, information technology, and drug testing technology.
Detailed Explanation on How the Technologies will be used DNA technology
DNA technology has become increasingly significant in the criminal justice system. It has greatly led to escalated levels of fairness and accuracy within the system. DNA is increasingly being utilized in criminal identification. This is achieved with unbelievable accuracy. This is in cases where there is existence of biological evidence, and DNA is the selected option for clearing suspects and exonerating individuals, who were convicted or accused mistakenly for particular criminal activities (Lazer, 2004).
DNA technology has a major role in post- conviction review (the court’s science) and assisting investigators. The biologic centrality involved in DNA ensures that potential and actual forensic applications are exceptionally relevant and powerful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For effective use of DNA technology, it is necessary that there is adequate backing, training, and funding. Support should be given to judges, defense lawyers, prosecutors, victim service providers, medical professionals, police, and local, state, and federal forensic labs.
Creating knowledge to these groups of people will ensure that the technology is used maximally in missing persons’ identification, protecting innocent individuals, and solving crimes. There are numerous cases involving missing people and unidentified human remains, which can be solved effectively through the use of DNA technology.
There are several measures which can ensure a convincing and secure environment for DNA. Majority of the specialists who deal with criminal justice need sufficient support and training, in regard to the utilization and acquisition of DNA evidence. Moreover, there is a need for stimulating research and coming up with novel DNA advances and technologies in the area. Hrechak and McHugh (1990) argue that crime laboratories need improvement for effective analysis of samples.
Information technology advances have contributed significantly in crime deterrence and detection, in regard to criminal activities. There is a need for decision makers within the system to learn the various mechanism involved in information technology. These involve the implementation, evaluation, and acquisition of novel information solutions.
This is an extremely vital aspect in a system, where the public funds’ accountability and effectiveness in IT solutions’ implementation cannot be underrated. Therefore, comprehensive awareness creation is essential so as to avoid unrealistic expectations, as far as equipment performance is concerned.
Information technology is directly connected to cybercrime and its impacts on the society. Policing agencies use fake websites and honeypots to track and catch sexual predators. Moreover, information technology is used to improve retailers’ websites, which hinders hacking.
This is usually achieved without interfering with how effectively customers use it. In addition, there is the aspect of design and utilization of technologically advanced products, for instance Clipper Chip, which can enable the government unscramble encrypted files. It is worth emphasizing that there is need for the balance between privacy and information accessibility.
We will write a custom Essay on New Technological Advances within the Police Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drug Testing Technology
Urinalysis is the key testing methodology in the entire system. Drug testing is carried out in the entire criminal justice system stages. These stages include parole, probation, incarceration, arrest, and pretrial phase. Drug testing is carried out for a number of reasons (Cole, Smith
Theories of Situational and Participative Leadership Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Participative Leadership Theory
The situational leadership theory
Application of Situational Leadership Theory
Introduction From the early twentieth century, there has been a surge of interest in leadership theory. The leadership models, which were been in existence before, paid attention to the character traits that distinguished leaders from followers. On the contrary, subsequent schools of leadership have focused on the other points, such as the level of participation, skills and situational factors. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the participatory and situational theories of leadership.
Participative Leadership Theory This leadership model is grounded on the concept that when the thoughts of different people are combined, the decision arrived is better than a single individual’s opinion.
The leader welcomes the participation of the persons responsible for performing various assignments, given that such an approach is more collaborative and less competitive, and as a result, an organization achieves more commitment from participants. Participants may include managers, patrons, juniors and seniors.
Participatory leadership is all about discussions, independent decision making, sharing of power and coming up with decisions jointly, and empowerment. A participative leader makes all the employees involved in the affairs of an organization or corporation unite their efforts to achieve the set goals (Komives, Wagner
Southwest Airlines Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Grand strategy Analysis
Introduction The success of firms and companies depends on long term objectives rather than the short term ones. Therefore, firms plan with an aim of developing presently as well as in the future. A projection into the future enables the firms to determine their expenditures and income. The United States of America is focused on making long term goals and objectives. The emphasis on the long term objective has constributed to the development of their economy.
As a result, the country has remained economically stable by maintaining economic solvency. The Southwest airlines is one of the main corporations of the USA contributing to the development of the country’s economy. It facilitates local and international trade in the country. Consequently, they apply grand strategies in regards to their long term objectives to realize prosperity. This paper aims at analyzing the grand strategies used by the airlines and determine their efficiency (Banfe, 1992).
Grand strategy Analysis The Southwest Airlines has adopted various grand strategies aiming at fulfilling their long term objectives. Firstly, the Southwest airlines makes partnerships with other airlines. The partnerships allow the Southwest Airlines to expand their market. In addition, partnerships enable them to work more efficiently than when they operate individually (Brown, 2010). For example, the Southwest Airlines partnered with ATA Airlines, which helped them open flights to Hawaii.
However, the ATA Airlines experienced bankruptcy in 2008. As a result, the partnership was abolished and terminated. Also, the Southwest Airlines partnered with Volaris from Mexico in 2008. The partnership enabled them to make low cost flights to Mexico. However, the partnership was terminated in February, 2013. The grand strategy selection shows that the Southwest Airlines enhances market development through partnering and collaboration.
The selection shows that the Southwest Airlines uses the ability and strengths of their partners to market their products. However, the matrix selection shows that the Airlines should make stable and lasting partnerships. It suggests that temporary partnerships impair implementation of long term objectives and goals. Therefore, the Airlines should evaluate companies and access their future solvency before making partnership.
Secondly, the Southwest Airlines has adopted a strategy that ensures employees’ commitment. It aims at recruiting competent staff. This strategy ensures that the quality of the services is high and satisfactory (Luecke
Industrial Engineer Problems Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
A learning curve demonstrates the realistic correlation between the used time for the production of units and the real number of units which can be produced during this time. Learning curves are also necessary to plan the effective corporate strategy in relation to the adequate prices set, capitals and investments used, and costs determined.
Three assumptions are necessary to develop the learning curve. These assumptions are the time which is necessary to produce the definite unit or complete the task. This amount of time should decrease as a result of progressing in completing the task. Thus, the next condition is the obvious decreeing rate of time in production. It is also important to note that this reduction in time can be predicted according to the definite formula used to develop the most appropriate strategy.
The main formula to determine the necessary effort per unit (y) is based on the constant, which is the effort to product the first unit (a), the definite unit discussed (x), and on the slope constant for the unit discussed which determines the decreasing rate.
Thus, the number of labor hours necessary to produce the 50th unit in relation to the learning curve of 90% and standard time for a job of 90 minutes is approximately 49.7 minutes. According to the principle of the decreasing rate the 100th unit can be produced during the time which is approximately 44.78 minutes.
To develop the plan in relation to the manpower loading for the production of 3000 units during the first four weeks, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that all the workers are experienced, all the equipment is available, and workers can work during 7 hours and 5 days.
Thus, the working week for one worker is 35 hours. The 90% learning curve is used to complete the task. It is important to remember that to produce the 50th unit, it is necessary to orient to the time of approximately 50 minutes. Moreover, to produce the 100th unit, it is necessary to pay attention to the 45-minute work.
In order to produce the 3000th unit, it is necessary to have 27 minutes. This time can be discussed as the final possible measure. From this point, during the first week, a person who works 35 hours a week can provide the maximum of 23 units.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the next two weeks, the maximum can be 42 units, if the staff is experienced and all the equipment is available for the work. That is why, the most appropriate plan should be developed with references to the number of employers used to produce units because an experienced worker can produce 46 units to the end of the final week of the work. From this point, the effective plan should be oriented to the definite number of workers involved in the process.
The discussed numbers are the maximum, it is necessary to pay attention to the daily schedule of the workers. Thus, it is possible to state that during the first two weeks the workers should perform intensively, and 40-45 workers should produce units according to the plan. During the next two weeks, the number of the workers involved in the process of production can be decreased without decreasing the rate of the production.
Modern Algeria Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Algeria
Culture and Tourism
Introduction Algeria is a country located in the northwestern part of Africa. It borders Mediterranean Sea to the north. Algeria is officially referred to as the democratic republic of Algeria. It is also the second largest country in Africa. The country is covered by 90% desert. Most of its population lives in the northern region.
The capital city of Algeria is Algiers, which is also the largest city in the country. The name Algeria means “the desert” in the Arabic language. Most of the population is of Arabs and Berbers ancestry. The Arabs who also introduced the Arabic language introduced the Islamic religion.
Today Arabic and Berber languages are official in Algeria. Islamic religion is also the largest comprising of 99% of the population. French is used as a language of instruction in schools and in media although it is not an official language. The population of Algeria in 2010 was 34.9 million.
The main people in Algeria are the Arab Berbers. This paper will cover Algeria as a country from a variety of perspectives. The paper will discuss the geography, history, political systems, economics, and culture of Algeria.
Geography Algeria is a country that is located in the northwest part of Africa. It lies at 28o north of Equator and 3o east of the Prime Meridian. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Tunisia, and Libya to the east, Niger, Mali, and Mauritania to the south, and Morocco to the west (Africa: Algeria Para. 1).
Algeria is the second largest country in size after Sudan in Africa. It has an area of 2,381,741 square kilometers (919,595 sq miles). It has a coastline of 998 kilometers (620 miles). Its highest point is at Mount Tahat, which has a height of 3,003 meters (9,852 feet) while its lowest point is at Chott Melrhir, which is 40 meters (131 feet) below the sea level.
More than 90% of Algeria’s total area is part of the Sahara desert. It comprises of bare rocks and gravel. About a quarter of this area comprises of sand dunes referred as ergs, for example, Grand Erg oriental and Grand Erg occidental are the largest sand dunes in Algeria.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Algeria has one main river called Chelif River. This river rises from Tell Atlas Mountains and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It should also be noted that the southern part of Tell bears no permanent stream that flows. There are also some basins in the south of Tell, which collect water especially during the rainy seasons.
The rainfall is fair on the coast especially on the Tell Atlas coast. This may range between 400 and 670mm in a year. There is also precipitation that increases from the western side towards the north. This may go high and even reach 1000mm annually.
The basins form a large lake in this highlands region. The Saharan Atlas also receives more rains than other regions of Algeria. The Tell region and the coastal plains also receive mild rains during winter. Temperatures may rise up to 50 degrees Celsius.
Orologically, there are various mountains in Algeria for example the Ahaggar Mountains, which are also known as the Hoggar Mountains. These mountains found at the centre of Sahara desert are arid. They are located at the southern part of Algeria. The highest part of these mountains is Mount Tahat at 3,003 meters (9,852 feet).
There is also the Er Rif mountain range, which is located to the western frontier of Algeria. This mountain forms a cliff, which is very stiff and is about 2438 meters (800feet). In terms of climatic features, Algeria is located within the Sahara desert. Therefore, daily temperatures are extreme. There are extreme winds, and the place is very arid.
The country receives an annual rainfall of less than 130mm i.e. (5in). There is a Mediterranean climate in the northern part of Algeria especially on the Tell Atlas and the Coastal plain. This climate is characterized by warm and dry summers and mild rainy winters.
The Tell Atlas and the coastal plains make the most humid region of the country. The Sirocco winds, which are hot and dry, blow in summer from the Sahara towards the north. The southern part of Algeria is very dry. In terms of flora, Algeria’s northern part has been the grazing field to the herders over the years.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Algeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has resulted to overgrazing and deforestation. In the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas, there are only few remaining forests. In this region, trees such as Atlas cedar, Oaks and pine are common. On the other hand, the lower parts of the slopes are occupied with scrubby type of vegetation, for example, the juniper plants.
On the high plateau, the area is barren. There is steppe vegetation that comprises of brushwood and esparto grass. Since this is part of the Sahara desert, plants are very scattered, mainly comprised of the acacia, jubebe trees, and drought-resistant grasses. The cedar and conifers are also common in Algeria.
On the mountains, there are evergreen forests, which comprise of junipers, oak trees, and Aleppo pine. There are also deciduous trees on these forests. Towards the warmer areas, there are forests of agave , palm, and eucalyptus trees. On the coast, there are palm trees and grape vines.
In the wider Sahara, there are acacia trees and olives especially the wild ones. The fauna in Algeria is also limited due to the sparse vegetation. This vegetation can only support a small number of animals. The animals in Algeria include jerboa, fennec fox, ibex, boars, jackal, hare, antelope, monitor lizards, and servals.
The dama gazelle and the oryx have vanished from Algeria although they were common before 1990s. The vegetation of Algeria varies from coastal, desert vegetation, which is grassy, and mountainous. People live in close relationship with some wild animals, for example, the jackals, gazelles, and boars.
Wildlife there comprises of leopards, cheetah, and panthers. The variety of species of birds has attracted many tourists who like watching birds. There are also many monitor lizards and snakes. There are also dangerous scorpions and poisonous insects in the desert.
Some animals that existed some years ago have become extinct. These include bears and Barbery lions. The animal that is most reared is the camel due to its use as a pack animal that are very reliable for transport across the desert.
History of Algeria The first Algerian kingdom was founded by chief Masinissa who was a Berber. He reigned between 202 and 148 BC. He was allied to Ancient Rome. This kingdom was called Numidia. However, Masinissa’s grandson was conquered by the Romans in 106 BC.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Algeria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romans made the kingdom prosper to the level of becoming the source of olive oil and grains for Rome. During this time, the Romans used the military patrols in surrounding roads to garrison the towns. This was aimed at protecting the towns from the nomads.
The towns included Tipasa and Timagad, which also developed into small cities. During the decline of the Roman kingdom in the 3rd century, Rome withdrew its legions that were taken on warfronts elsewhere. The Donatis Christian movement that was previously persecuted by these Romans experienced independence.
The natives also denounced the Donatism sect. For example, Saint Augustine denounced it on his writings. Later on during the 5th century Vandals, a tribe from Germany conquered this region and established its own kingdom.
Emperor Justinian of Byzantine used his army to overthrow the Vandals even before the end of that century. The vandals’ invasion of Algeria had left a mark during the whole of the 5th century (Collins 124). He restored the lost glory of Roman Empire.
During the 17th century, Arabs who overthrew the leadership of Justinian and planted an Islamic leadership invaded North Africa. However, resistance from the Kusaylas, the Barber leaders, and from the Kahina, the alleged Judaism prophesier, faced the Arab invasion.
Nevertheless, Algeria later became Umayyad Caliphate province when the resistant Berbers surrendered to Arabic leadership. Algeria became an Islamic country with the Arabs preferring urban lifestyle. It is also worthwhile to note that the Kabyles Berbers were given an upper hand by the colonial government in a bid to divide and rule (Alec and McKinney 104).
However, the caliphate was seized from the hand of Umayyads by the Abbasids during the 8th century. During this seizure, the Berbers who belonged to Kharijte Islamic sect established their own kingdom. This kingdom was also Islamic with Rustamids as the leading one in Tahert in Algeria.
The Tahert developed during the 8th century to the 9th century. However, it was overthrown by Fatimids people that belonged to Shia Islam. The Berber kingdoms of Almoravids and Almohads led to an autonomous centralized authority in the whole of Northwest Africa during 11th and 13th centuries.
This made the city an Islamic city with Islamic learning centers and schools. Mosques were also a notable part of architecture. Handicrafts were also common. The Bejaila, Algiers, and Annaba ports prospered in trade with Europe. These ports supplied Barbary horses, fine leather, fabric, and wax to the Europeans.
They also captured Christians and sold them as slaves (Hitchens 12). During the Ottoman rule, the Zayyanid took over leadership. When Almohad kingdom collapsed in 1269, the Zayyanid ruled for 300 years. Its capital was at Tlamchen. These people competed with the Muslim and Christians for the control of the seaports.
This led to hiring of pirates who were known as corsairs to seize trade ships and their crew to demand for ransom. During the 16th century, Christian Spaniards captured and took over these ports. They also blockaded Algiers from all external trade and made it pay tribute.
Due to this impact of the Christians, the Muslim requested the sultan of Ottoman to come to their aid. The sultan of Ottoman was the overall caliph. During this time, corsair brothers, referred to as Barberossas, prevailed on the caliph to send them on this mission to North Africa accompanied by a fleet of fighters.
When the sultan sent them, they took over North Africa, overthrew the Spaniards, and took over their possessions. Khayr ad-Din was made the representative of sultan in Algeria. He acquired the beylerbey title. Since Algiers was far from the Constantinople, it was made autonomous.
The corsairs were very effective, as they made Algiers become very powerful. Hence, their pirates became very dominant and controlled the port to the point of forcing European traders to pay tributes for protection of their ships. This money plus the money paid for ransom made them very rich.
The Ottoman janissary garrisons were in charge of internal security. However, the Ottoman Empire declined during late 18th century. This opened an opportunity for Europeans to improve on ship construction and firepower to the point of challenging Corsair’s leadership. At the same time, they entered the international agreements outlawing piracy.
This was followed by a naval squad that was sent to conquer the city by the United States in 1815. In 1816, an Anglo-Dutch war fleet almost destabilized Algiers. Finally, French army took over the city in 1830. By 1834, the French had taken over Algiers and its surroundings. It had already begun the occupation of most of its coast and main lands.
These territories fell under direct leadership of the French governor-general. Since the leadership of the French was incomparable to that of the Ottoman, native tribes began waging resistance. These tribes were led by Abd al-Qadir, a military leader and head of Sufi Muslim goodwill referred to as Qadiriyya.
He trained his militants to use hit-and-run strategies. These tactics were very effective in fighting the French. Al-Qadir remained a hero until 1847 when he was subdued. However, the Barbers continued with the resistance though 1871 when the Kabyle Berbers waged the fieriest resistance that made them weaker.
In 1872, the French forces won and confiscated the Berbers land. It is at this point that France colonized Algeria and allowed its citizens to settle there. French settlers bought land from barbers at very low prices. Others just confiscated it. The settlers developed industries, schools, banks, and agriculture to make Algeria look like their home.
The agricultural products supported their home country with food. Production of citrus fruits and wine for export to France became prosperous just like it was when Algeria supplied grains to Rome. The move to confiscate land and to apply modern techniques of farming added to the available land (Horne and Alistair 32).
French rule made the Muslim disadvantaged to the point of becoming its slaves. Muslims who were the majority were faced with restrictions. For example, they could not be in possession of firearms, hold public meetings, leave home without official permission from the French, and they were to work for them.
However, some Muslims renounced Islamic religion. They were allowed to become French citizens. In fact, by late 19th century, most of those that had renounced Islam were allowed to go and work in France. The French government provided schools in Algeria.
Since the population of the Muslim was growing very steadily, some of them went to school. It is from these educated minorities that the first nationalist emerged. After World War I, some Muslims who wanted equality with the French began the journey of nationalism in Algeria.
The most notable nationalists in France in the 1920s were Shaykh Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis and Ahmed Messali Hadj. Their agitation made the French government come up with a plan of provision of equality right to Muslims. However, their National Assembly frustrated this plan. This made the nationalist more furious.
Messali and Abbbas united and formed an anti French Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty party. This was during the Second World War. When the war ended, the Algerian Organic Statute put in place the first bicameral parliament that comprised of two colleges made up of one wing of the indigenous Algerians and the other wing of the settlers.
However, the powers of this parliament favored the settlers. This parliament was unsatisfactory to both the settlers and the Algerians. This formed the basis of many young Algerians opting for armed revolution to oust the French colonization. The war of independence began with the formation of Revolutionary Committee for Unity and Action in 1954.
It is from this Committee that the National Liberation Front (FLN) was formed. The National Liberation Front then launched its independence bid on 31 October and 1 November. They organized various attacks on military and police posts, government buildings, and centers of government communication.
This was followed by intensive guerrilla warfare to the point of forcing the French to request for 400,000 troops for reinforcement. The National liberation Front used both Abd al-Qadirl’s led guerrilla strategy and intentional terrorism attacks.
They immobilized the French army and the continuous kidnapping and killings of French. Muslims who were not supporting them terrorized Algeria. To counter the situation, the French retaliated by burning of villages and even the urban dwelling that they suspected of supporting the guerrillas.
They also subjected captives from these areas to massacres, forced evictions, and bombings. In 1956, this war hit Algerian cities. For example, schools and shops were terrorized, a cause that drew international attention. The French ruthlessly halted this war in cities and used aircrafts to bomb FLN centers.
They also erected an electric fence on the borders of Morocco and Tunisia to cut off contact between FLN soldiers outside Algeria. Unable to find an amicable solution to this war, the war raised international criticism. Both the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization criticized the French of fighting an unpopular war.
It went on until May 1958 when both the French army and settlers joined their forces to oust the French government due to its vacillation. They formed a committee to check on the safety of all the public and to demand that Charles de Gaulle reoccupy the office.
The committee was for the idea that only this wartime general that fighting for a Free French Algeria that could settle this war. When he was installed in power, he allowed the Algerians to have some self-determinism in 1959. This made the settlers angry. They unsuccessfully revolted against him in 1960.
This was followed by another attempt of overthrowing the government by a group of French armies. A minority army group referred to as Secret Army Organization championed these attempts although majority of the army remained loyal to the government.
Victory became evident in March 1962 when the government and FLN called for a cease-fire. This was announced at Evian in France. In July, a referendum was held with the Algerians voting for independence. This made the settlers to start returning to their homeland. It is estimated that about 500,000 people died with many others maiming as property was destroyed.
After the Evithian agreement, Algeria became independent. However, it had to rely on France for special aid. This cooperation was to help Algeria come out of the devastation because of eight years of war. This agreement also allowed the French government to continue exploiting gas and oil in Algeria.
It also allowed the settlers to remain in Algeria for three years after which they would decide whether to acquire Algerian citizenship or to leave the country. These Europeans left immediately after independence (De Azevedo and Cagiano 25).When most settlers left; Algeria suffered a crisis of lack of skilled laborers.
However, there were internal wrangles within the leadership of FLN, which had declared it the only legal political party. It had also declared Algeria as a socialist nation. In September 1962, Ahmend Ben Bella was elected the first prime minister of Algeria after the chief of Defense forces of the National Liberation supported him.
Ben Bella was one of the founders of FLN. In 1963, the voters approved the first independent constitution, which mandated a presidential government. On the same year, Ben Bella was elected as the first president of Algeria under the independent constitution. The presidential powers were only to be checked by the National assembly.
Due to this loophole in checking the powers of the president, Ben Bella became autocratic and concerned himself with international affairs. This made people detest him. In 1965, his minister for defense Mr. Boumeduenne made the president to be arrested.
He declared himself president in what was seen as a bloodless coup. Boumedianne made the national army dominant and reduced the importance of FLN. He also focused on developing the vast resources in Algeria. Boumedianne remained the president, minister for defense, and the prime minister of Algeria.
He also used the supreme authority of a 26-people council of revolution that mainly drew its membership from the army and his civilian friends. He was undemocratic and autocratic in his leadership. In 1971, he nationalized the oil fields that were formally controlled by the French.
He also made the lands that the settlers had left government property. He also worked hard to develop the hydrocarbon industry. It is also in 1970s that president Boumedienne distributed settlers land to cooperatives made up by peasants in his attempt to exaggerate productivity of the nation.
This president also promoted the Arabic language. He made it used in schools. He also promoted the Arabic culture. However, most of the Berbers resisted this attempt and railed themselves against it. In 1976, Boumedienne was elected as a legal president using the new constitution and the national charter.
However, he later died in1978. Following the death of Boumeddienne, Chadli Benjadid, a colonel in the army, was selected to take over the presidency. He was later confirmed as the president after an official election in the same year. Colonel Chadli pardoned and released Ben Bella the former president in 1980.
Chadli was re-elected in 1984 when he run for the presidency unopposed. He relaxed strict rule policies and liberalized Algerians economy and agriculture. In the 1980s, the prices of oil declined. This had adverse effects on Algeria. This made the government faced a series of demonstrations from the protesting youths.
It used the forces to suppress these rioters. It also initiated changes that won over the public confidence in the president who was the elected to the presidency for his third term. He also allowed for constitutional changes that allowed for multiparty democracy in 1989.
This legalized the political parties for example Islamic Salvation Front party FIS. However, this marked the beginning of the conflict between the military that supported FLN and the Muslim who supported FIS parties. Islamists became persistent winning civic elections in 1991.
When it was evident that they would win the parliamentary elections in 1992, the government counseled them. Benjedid was forced by the army to resign. The Army and civilian officials took over the High Council of State led by Mohammend Boundiaff as president.
This was followed with the ban of FIS. However, Mohammend was assassinated in 1992. This made the government to clash with Islamist militias in Algeria. In 1994, Liamine Zeroul, the then defense minister, was named the president by the council.
He was elected the president in 1995 during the first multi-party elections in Algeria. He was formerly a soldier and a diplomat. This made Algerians’ international creditors reschedule the country’s debt. He championed constitutional changes that banned political parties based on religion, region, gender, language, or race.
In 1999, following the step down and resignation of other presidential contestants, Abdelaziz Bouteflika who was the former minister of foreign affairs won the presidency. He later called for national reconciliation and offered amnesty to Muslim militants. This made most of them stop the infighting.
However, the al-Qaeda-led group refused to submit. In 2004, when he was re-elected, Bouteflika brought stability in Algeria. He has created union with the European nations and the United States besides giving amnesty to Muslim leaders who had earlier rebelled.
In 2007, Algeria conducted another multiparty election. Surprisingly, there was no violence before, during, and after the election. Bouteflika was re-elected as the president in a coalition government.
This government comprised of FLN, National Democratic Rally, and moderate Islamist movement for a Peaceful Society.
Political System Algerian government is a multi party democracy led by the president. The government comprises of the executive, the legislature, which is bicameral, and the judiciary. The executive is made up of the president who is also the head of state, a prime minister who is appointed by the president and who is the head of government, and the council of ministers appointed by the prime minister.
The president is the head of state who can declare war or peace. He is also the country’s representative in foreign matters. The prime minister is the head of the government in Algeria. He has the power to head the cabinet. He is the leader of the government business. The prime minister also appoints the council of ministers.
These ministers are in charge of the management of various government ministries. They represent the government in those ministries. The legislature is bicameral comprising of the upper house with 144 members and the national people Assembly or the lower house with 389 members.
Out of the 389 members, the head of state directly appoints 1/3 while the rest come from municipal councils appointments. The members of the National people’s assembly serve for four-year term of office while the members of the upper house serve for six-year term. The upper house is in charge of legislation.
The officials here make, amend, or abolish laws. They are also a representation of the public interest in the government. The lower house plays an oversight role and checks on the excesses of the upper house. It also has the power to monitor and impeach the president.
This house also approves the national finance and expenditure. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Algeria. The Supreme Court also acts as the high court of appeal that has the power to hear cases from all jurisdictions of the country. It can also arbitrate over political matters and cases of appeal.
There are three courts of appeals, which are located in Algiers, Constantine, and Oran. Other special criminal courts also play a key role. For example, they arbitrate cases of political and economic violations on the state and individuals.
Algeria has also established many commercial courts that have powers to hear business disputes from across the country, and courts of justice and peace, which are responsible for developing and enhancing national cohesion. Political representation in Algeria starts with the president who is elected by the majority.
Presidential elections take place after every five years. Initially, a legally elected president could only hold two terms of office if he or she is re-erected for the second term. However, this was changed through constitutional amendments by the parliament in 2008.
The second level of political representation is at the legislature level. The president nominates a third of the members of the lower house mainly from his party. The upper house is also a political representation function as the members are directly elected by the people for a six-year term.
The municipal councils also select the remaining two thirds of the members of the lower house, which is also highly influence by their political parties. The elected member of councils becomes the head of Wilayat and the communes. This is an authoritarian governmental regime with little or no freedom of the press.
There exists a universal suffrage of all registered voters above 18 years. The most dominant party in Algeria is the National Liberation Front (FLN), the party that led to the country’s independence. In 1992, when multi-party democracy was allowed, Islamic Salvation Front (ISF) was formed and nearly won the 1992 elections.
However, it was banned in 1996 because it was religious based. During the 2002 elections, several other parties came up. These included the National People’s Assembly, National Democratic Rally (NDR), which was pro-government and business and which was linked with president Bouteflika, the Reform Movement, and Islamist Movement for Peaceful Society.
Other political parties are not as vocal as the above-mentioned ones. These include Algerian National Front, Workers party, the Rally for Culture and Democracy, Renaissance Movement, and the Socialist Forces Front.
The National Liberation Front (FLN) has formed the government over the years although it has entered national coalition with other loyal parties due to its inability to win with a majority. The Islamist Salvation Front (ISF) remains the only illegal political party in Algeria.
The national symbols depict the identity of the nation to represent legacy of Algeria. The main national symbol in Algeria is the flag. This flag was derived from the designs of Abdel kadir. These designs were inspired by Turkey’s flag. This flag was officially adopted on third of July 1962 by the new government of Algeria.
The Algerian flag is rectangular and comprises of green and white colored rectangles. The flag has a crescent shape at the centre, which is a religious symbol that depicts that Algeria is an Islamic country. There is also a red star at the heart of the crescent. Every color on the flag signifies something.
The white color represents peace, the green color represents Islamic religion while the symbols that are red colored are a representative of the blood that was shed by freedom fighters in the time of the struggle for independence in Algeria where many people died and others were maimed.
The other national symbol is the national Emblem. This looks almost similar to that of many other countries. The national emblem was officially adopted in Algeria in 1976. The language changed to Arabic from the initial French. This emblem has the Algerian ancient symbol of Fatma inside in the form of an inscription.
This Fatima represents the sun that portrays the coming of another era. There are also some other symbols that represent agriculture and industrialization in Algeria.
There is also a mountain on it that signifies the Atlas Mountains. The third national symbol in Algeria is the National Anthem of Algeria.
Economics The Algerian currency is called the Algerian Dinar abbreviated as (DZD). In 2011, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Algeria was 263.661 billion dollars. The per capita of Algeria was 7,333 dollars.
The backbone of this economy is the prevalence of fossil fuel. This accounts for 60% of its budget, which is 30% of the country’s GDP. This also accounts for 95% earnings from export hence the country’s main export commodity. The human development index in 2010 was 0.698.
Unemployment rate is also high at about 20.1% with agriculture accounting for 14% of the country’s employment. Algeria is an importer of foodstuff and warfare equipments. Among the agricultural products that it exports are barley, oats, vegetables, and citrus.
In 2011, Algeria exports were worth 73.39 billion dollars while the imports were worth 46.45 billion dollars. Inflation rates in Algeria are 4%, the lowest rate in this region.
In 2001, Algeria signed a pact to purchase warfare equipments worth 7.5 billion dollars in exchange for their historical debt of 4.7 billion dollars. In 2006, Algeria paid its debt worth eight billion dollars to Paris Club even before the maturation date.
Culture and Tourism Arabic and the Berber languages are the known native languages in Algeria. These languages are used by 99% Algerians. These languages are also official. French is also used widely especially in education and media.
However, it is not official. The most common Berber language is the Kabyle, which is the most spoken. The Berber language is spoken by 27% with colloquial Arabic being spoken by 72% of the population. The predominant religion is the Sunni Islam, which account for 99% of Algerian population.
Other religions include Christians and Jews. The culture of Algerians is greatly influenced by the Islamic religion. This culture is also distributed to denote Kabyle, French, and Arabic influence. Algeria has some of the most famous novelist in African literature including Albert Camus and Mohammed Dib.
Paintings have also denoted Mohamend Khadda especially in the 21st century. Painters like Pablo Picasso who painted the works ‘Women of Algiers’ are great sources of the Algerian culture. Painters have also preserved the values of the Algerian people.
Music also forms a great part of the Algerian culture. For example, the Chaabi music, which dates back to 1920s, comprises of poems and rhythms from various dialects in Arabic language. The Malouf Constantinois style has been preserved through music by Mohamed Fergani.
There is also the Algerian classical style of music from the Andalusian people, which has also been preserved. There is also the folk music, for example, Bedouin, which has poems on pastoralist, Kabyle folk songs comprising of poetry, and tales. These songs majorly revolve around love, exile, and even politics.
The Turkish culture is also depicted though Turkish food, drinks, and even music. This is mainly by Turkish remnants that had migrated to Algeria during the rule of the Ottoman (Ruedy 22). They are today referred as Kouloughlis. These were children of Algerians native women and Turkish descendants.
The major food is cuisine, which includes cereals at all times because cereals are abundant. It is prepared using fish, meat, and vegetables. Other main dishes include chorba, Berkoukes, and Mthewen. Cakes are also common in Algeria.
Tourist sites includes kabylie mountains, Algiers beaches, Timgad ruins left by Romans, the Sahara, Biskra El-Kantara, Mt. Tahat, which is the highest point in Algeria 3003m, and Gantret El’Hwa in Constantine. Cinema is also part of the Algerian culture.
This can be stemmed back to 1962 when movies began to be produced in Algeria. Films, for example, the Opium and the stick produced by Ahmed Rachedi and The battle of Algiers produced in 1966 are also common in this culture. Algerian films such as Chronicle of the Year’s Fire have won international awards.
Comedies are also establishing in Algeria. There are museums, for example, the Gsell museum in Algiers. Education is compulsory in Algeria especially for the children who are between ages of six to 15 years. It is therefore compulsory for the parents to ensure that their children in this age are taken to school.
This is an official move by the government to promote literacy. Statistics shows that about 5% of all the adults are illiterate. This means that the literacy levels in Algeria are not very low.
Conclusion In conclusion, Algeria is an ancient country, which is officially referred to as People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. The country was formerly known as Democratic and popular Algerian Republic. The earliest inhabitants of Algeria were Aterians and the Capsians.
Before its independence in 1962, the country was ruled by a series of dynasties for example the Numidians, Romans, Carthaginians, Vendals, Umayyads, Byzantines, Fatimids, Almohads, and the Turkish. Algeria is an Arabic country with its capital in Algiers.
This country is a partial presidential democracy with 48 provinces, which are subdivided into 1541 communes. The population of Algeria is about 37 million and is ranked 34th in world most populous nation list. The total area of Algeria is 2.381,741 km. It is the second largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country in the world.
The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president appoints the prime minister who then heads the government. The government has three major branches.
These are judiciary, executive, and the legislature. The major source of economic power of Algeria is the fossils oil, which is also the major export for the country as revealed in the paper.
Works Cited Africa: Algeria. The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010. Web.
Alec, Hargreaves, and Mark McKinney. Post-Colonial Cultures in France. London: Psychology Press, 1997. Print.
Collins, Roger. Vandal Africa, 429–533. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
De Azevedo, Raimond Cagiano. Migration and Development Co-Operation. Europe: Council of Europe, 1994. Print.
Hitchens, Christopher. Jefferson versus the Muslim Pirates, 2011. Web.
Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962. New York, NY: New York Review Books Classics, 2006. Print.
Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. India: Indiana University Press. Print.
Appendices Algerian Flag
Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
Geography of Algeria
Area 2,381,741 sq km 919,595 sq mi Coastline 998 km 620 mi Highest point Mount Tahat 3,003 m/9,852 ft Lowest point Chott Melrhir 40 m/131 ft below sea level Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
The economy of Algeria
Gross domestic product (GDP in U.S.$) $115 billion (2006) GDP per capita (U.S.$) $3,440 (2006) Monetary unit 1 Algerian dinar (AD) , consisting of 100 centimes Number of workers 13,887,214 (2006) Unemployment rate 20.1 percent (2004) Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
Map of Algeria
Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
“Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
The article “Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence talks about the Native people, the way the laws and relationships between the modern world and long standing traditions have changed and shaped the present treatment of a whole population.
It is evident that previously Native people had a much different life and the population of Canada and the United States has drastically changed the lives and freedoms of Natives. Presently, things have changed for the better but there is still much discrimination that is seen everywhere.
There is no doubt that the Native population of Canada and the United States was greatly segregated and deprived of their land and freedoms, at the time of colonization. The white man has taken possession of land as if it was empty of people who lived there for generations. The Natives of North America had established traditions and cultures, which were not considered and abused during the populating of the Americas.
The Indian Act was put in place to regulate and control the Native people and greatly limit their freedom, movement rights, ability to participate in the country’s matters and use the land that was rightfully belonging to Natives (Lawrence 5). It is clear that the Act itself and the actions of people who came to the North America are much discriminator.
The oppression that Native people faced was accompanied with much violence and unequal treatment. Even the word “Indian” itself is politically incorrect and shows how little attention and care people have paid to those they have deprived of rights, equality and deserved ability to enjoy a life free of stereotypical behavior. The land was divided and Native people were placed into Reservations, which were strictly regulated by the government and the necessary laws.
The Indian Act violates the rights of Native people, it limits their movement, deprives them of the rights of possession towards land and the available resources, as well as their reputation and acknowledgement. Gender is another major issue that is present in the Indian Act. A woman of Native descent would lose her Native status after marring a white man. This is ridiculous, as it is unreasonable and is not admissible.
This sort of thing does not happen to people of other races and origins and so, the discrimination is clearly evident here (Lawrence 8). Another article titled “Housing America’s Native People” by Wendy Helgemo, talks about the legal provision of housing that the government has put in place towards the Native people. A large number of Native population was homeless due to the hardships they had to experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has become a significant problem and the government was forced to change several things. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was created to administer changes and provide Native population with housing (Helgemo 10). The policies that are being enacted in the present days are the proof of how much segregation Native population had to face. The change in laws and the life of a whole population have changed the conditions that go back very far in history.
For thousands of years Native people have enjoyed their freedoms unmarred by the forced ruling of others and the “civilized countries”. Staring in the 18th century, the colonizers would use gifts and promises of prosperity to the Natives, in order for them to change into their culture and forget their own.
This was a trick to assimilate the whole population and enforce own rules and government. The Europeans dominated in power and technology and thus, were able to enforce their influence and will. The seeming peaceful relationship that was prevalent at the first stages of the interaction was very temporary.
There were a number of treaties that were based on peace and mutual cooperation and communication. But, it seemed that there was no obligation for Europeans to honor those Treaties and many were ignored and broken. There are many examples of how colonizers used trickery and deviant ways to fool the Native people.
The trading and influence of alcohol was one of the major changes that Natives have experienced in their relationship with the “white man” (Trigger 205). It is outrageous that such a great number of educated people from Europe were able to behave in such a way towards others. The disrespect that was so great that often there would be violent conflict, as Natives had no other avenue to fight back.
Overall, this sort of behavior from colonizers is nothing new. This has been happening all over the world with all the Native people. The colonizers think it is their right to use their technology and knowledge, to discriminate against those of different cultures and way of life. The fact that Native people have different traditions and beliefs that the colonizers cannot understand, does not give people the right to take over and deprive of respect and natural rights, which have existed long before any colonizing took place.
Works Cited Helgemo, Wendy L. Housing America’s Native People. Washington, United States: Poverty
Ramadan in Islam religion Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fasting: An Overview
Significance of Ramadan
Introduction In Islamic religion, a lunar calendar is used instead of a solar calendar. In this calendar, each month starts with the appearance of the new moon (“Celebrating Ramadan”, n.d). Therefore, because of the fact that the lunar calendar is found to be shorter by eleven days as compared to the solar one, the “Islamic months ‘move’ each year” (Stacey, 2008, p.1).
For instance, it is reported that in the year 2008, the month of Ramadan was found to coincide directly “with the month of September” (Stacey, 2008, p.1). In the course of a Muslim’s life, the month of Ramadan can take place in the period of winter when the days are much shorter as well as during summer, being the toughest time for Muslims since days are much longer in summer, so it takes more efforts for a Muslim to withstand the fast.
In this regards, there exist some differences between the Muslims who dwell in different hemispheres of the globe (Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). Similar to any form of celebration existing in any culture and religion, the celebration of Ramadan is associated with joy.
However, it is celebrated in a way that is quite different from the one followed by the non-Muslims. Ramadan is not the time of merry-making and socializing but, it is rather the time to worship through fasting, since fasting during the Islamic month of Ramadan is among the Islam pillars.
Fasting: An Overview Fasting during the month of Ramadan starts at dawn and goes on till sunset. The Muslims wake up before dawn and they take the pre-dawn meal or what is referred to as Sahur, and drink enough quantities of the liquid as a preparation for fasting. In the course of the day, there is no eating or drinking. The Muslims also abide by an Islamic moral code because if one fails to do that, it means not following or violation of some requirements of the proper fast
Fasting during Ramadan is a worship activity which all the Muslims who have reached puberty carry out. However, not all adults take part in fasting during this month. For instance, the women who at the time of Ramadan have their menstrual cycle, or those who have recently gave birth to a child may not follow the fast until the time the period is over or a woman is totally recovered and gets stronger. Moreover, the people who may feel sick or travelling may decide to fast some time later.
The Muslims engage in fasting for the main reason that this is a command from the Most High God. At the same time, they may as well enjoy some other gains that fasting can include, such as exercising control over one’s hunger, thirst, or restrain one’s sexual desires, “training to be a good moral person and testing sincerity to the creator” (Ali, 2007, p.2). In the course of fasting though, the Muslims may engage in carrying out their businesses the same way they conducted them during the whole year round.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Breaking of the fast is carried out in the evening after the sun has set by drinking water and eating some food. Any accepted in the religion drink or food or meal can be utilized in breaking the fast. After breaking the fast, this is followed by a sunset prayer or “the Maghrib salah” (Ali, 2007, p.2). This prayer is followed by a full meal and then a brief rest. After resting, the people then move to the mosque to give the “Isha salah (night prayer) and afterwards Muslims conduct a special night prayer, which called taraweeh” (Ali, 2007, p.2).
Significance of Ramadan The Muslims show love as well as gratitude for God by worshipping and being obedient to Him (Perry, 2005). They worship in line with God’s guidance taught in the Quran and they also worship through the true traditions presented by the prophet Muhammad (Segle, 2004).
Ramadan is an exceptional month during the period of which people engage in fasting, reading the Quran and trying to fully comprehend it. They also engage themselves in special prayers. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who convene to break their fast and to engage in praying. They recite the Quran all through the night, pray together and praise their only true God (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).
In the course of the Islamic month of Ramadan, all the Muslim people who are above eighteen and physically healthy are supposed to engage in fasting. They all know that, they are not supposed to take any food, drink, smoke, or have any sexual contact with their spouses from morning to evening.
However, these are just physical aspects of following the fats. Spiritual aspects observed also exist, such as avoiding engaging in gossips, telling lies, insulting as well as engaging in all behaviors that are in conflict with the appropriate ones (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).
The people try to evade looking at and listen to all indecent and sinful things as a means through which actions and thoughts are made clean. Fasting is as well considered as “a way of experiencing hunger and developing sympathy for the less fortunate and learning thankfulness and appreciation for all of God’s bounties” (Stacey, 2008, pp.1-2).
The Islamic month of Ramadan is considered to be a month during which the Muslims make an effort to either “establish or re-establish a relationship with the Quran” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). It is pointed out that even if this may be viewed as strange for followers of other religions, God’s words are “a guiding light and a mercy” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives in one way or another.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ramadan in Islam religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Quran and the month of Ramadan are intricately intertwined. Possessing the book of Quran, reciting it, reading it, remembering its readings and thinking over their meanings uplift a person spiritually, comforts him or her, and also serves as a source of his or her strength (Asad, 2003).
Reciting the Quran during the whole night is especially of great benefit since the disruptions that occur during the day have gone away and God’s closeness is profound in the calmness of night. In the evening, there is a performance of special prayers during which people recite some sections of the Quran. These special prayers are referred to as Taraweeh. During Ramadan, 1/30 of the Quran is being read every evening so that “by the end of the month, the entire Quran has been completed” (Stacey, 2008, p.2).
Among the last odd-numbered nights of the Islamic month of Ramadan, there is Laylat ul-Qadr. It is also referred to as the “Night of Destiny” or “Night of Power” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). This night is said to be the holiest one during the holiest month of the year. This night is believed to be the one when God initially started to reveal the Quran to Muhammad.
God did this through Angel Gabriel. This is the season for particularly passionate and dedicated prayer on such nights; what is more, there are several rewards that such prayer brings. The Quran teaches the Muslims that engaging in praying all through this single night is far more important than a constant praying for several months. No person can tell exactly which night this is because this is considered to be one of the God’s mysteries (Foucault, 1994).
Moreover, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in various charitable activities. The Muslims strive to show generosity to their neighbors and friends. They also try to carry good deeds only and avoid being sinful at all costs. The simplest charity activity may involve smiling, among other lavish activities.
Charity that is offered in a quiet manner is found to be good for the giver as well as for the one who gives it. Muhammad gave whatever he had to other people with a good heart at all times; he never owned more than what was sufficient for him to meet the immediate needs that he had. Whatever the excess he had, he gave everything out in a generous way to the people around; of course, during the month of Ramadan, he was even more generous in giving food or providing support for the people.
One may think that these are virtues as well as qualities a Muslim person dedicated to serving God, must always display despite the month of the year. The Muslims need portray these virtues all the time all year round. But, on the other hand, all the human beings have their own weaknesses and happen to engage in committing sins and mistakes against other people and Allah. The nature of life makes people tend to forget and fail to remember the purpose in their life.
The purpose of a Muslim in his or her life is to engage in worshipping God and as Stacey (2008) points out, “God in his infinite wisdom and mercy has given us Ramadan” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan, if utilized in a wise manner, can help in recharging a person’s spirit.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ramadan in Islam religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the month dominated by a show of forgiveness as well as kindness when God makes it easier for the human beings to get over their weaknesses and lack of perfections, when He rewards them in plenty. God is a Creator of the whole mankind and he understands very well that we have a lot of imperfections.
When human beings start seeking God, He meets them; when they hold out their hands, He reaches them and forgives their sins and deeds. Muslims have the whole month of Ramadan for their salvation. Muslims stand “shoulder to shoulder and bow down before God as they submit” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).
There is spreading of Ramadan all over the world while the Muslim people jointly commence and end their fast, “one body, one people, and one nation” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan comes softly and the deeds it brings goes up gently to God. It is pointed out that “far from being a trial of deprivation, the month of Ramadan is a joy and a gift beyond compare” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).
Before the month of Ramadan comes to its end, the Muslims start mourning the fact that Ramadan has almost passed and the month has expired, because this is the month they consider as the one which is blessed; they make attempts to prolong the time by staying with the Quran and giving praise to God whenever it is possible (Stacey, 2008).
The end of the month of Ramadan is marked by Eid al-Fitr festival or what is referred to as “Feast of Fast-Breaking” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3). It starts with the appearing of the new moon which comes on the “first day Shawwal, the tenth month in the Islamic calendar, and generally lasts for three days” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3).
The Muslim people participate in the communal prayers and they can do this either in an open space or in the mosque; all the people are obliged to engage in giving charity to the poor people.
This celebration also bears a significant social dimension. The urban centers take up celebratory mood, and people dress themselves in the best way possible. The friends and relatives walk together in the streets, meet in the mosques or visit each other, engage in exchanging presents and gifts, and also embrace and congratulate one another (Poonawala, n.d).
However, there is one question left that a reader may get interested in, namely, can fasting be harmful to the human health, bearing in mind that it may 15 hours for a person to stay without any food or any kind of drinking? (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). This question is answered where it is pointed out that, basing on the studies that have been conducted in the past, it has been found out that “fasting is practically the most powerful of all remedial measures” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
It makes it possible for a person’s body to get rid of the poisonous substances that may have been accumulated during the year; it helps to purify one’s blood and undertake a kind of renovation of the whole body system of a human being (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). As it has been mentioned, fasting, on the one hand, purifies and cleanses the body, on the other hand, however, it adds to the real essential body strength by getting rid of the toxic substances that may make the body nerves and cells weak (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013).
It is also pointed out that skipping a few meals is not similar to starvation. Studies have shown that the energy that is derived from food is not instantly available, in other words “some of this is stored in and upon the body as and when needed at a later time” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
It is also important to underline the fact that during Ramadan some people may lose weight while others do not. It has been recommended that during Ramadan, the meals taken need to be light, however, a larger number of people cannot “resist sampling special sweets and food associated with Ramadan” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
Conclusion As it has been looked in the discussion, the month of Ramadan in the Islamic culture is very important to the Muslims.This is a time every adult Muslim engages in fasting and seeks to have a close relationship with God. During Ramadan, the Muslims engage in celebration and their form of celebrating is found to be very different from the normal celebration in many other cultures. They find joy in this celebration but this joy is not associated with making merry.
They also engage in holding special prayers and reading the Quran. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who come together to jointly break their fast and to engage in praying. The month of Ramadan is regarded as a month during which the Muslims make an effort to renew their relationship.
During the month, the Muslims hold a strong belief that the word of God is ‘directing light and a mercy’. People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives, in one way or the other. The Quran and Ramadan are intricately intertwined. In addition, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in charitable activities.
The Muslims make an effort to engage in giving in a liberal manner and increase the level of the good actions they engage in doing. It has also been found out, basing on research, fasting is not harmful to the human health. It is not a form of starvation and it is interesting to find out that it is an important way of eliminating toxins from the body.
References Ali, A. M. (2007).Ramadan and fasting. Web.
Asad, M. (2003).The Message of the Qu’ran. Bitton, England: Book Foundation.
Celebrating Ramadan. Web.
Foucault, M. (1994). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York, N.Y: Vintage Books.
Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days, (2013). Web.
Perry, M. (2005). Between Muslim and Christian Worlds: Moriscas and Identity in Early Modern Spain. Muslim World 95(1), 177-97.
Poonawala, I. Ramadan. Web.
Ramadan: A guide, (2013). Web.
Segle, Z. (2004). Re-imagining Ramadan: The Significance of Festival Discourse in Pérez de Hita’s Guerras civiles de Granada. Web.
Stacey, A. (2008). Why Muslims love the month of Ramadan. Web.
Training Evaluation: New Techniques and Strategies Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Review of the Literature
Implications of the Literature
Abstract The ineffectiveness of goal-based and systematized evaluation methods has led to development of new training evaluation methods. This paper reviews some of the present approaches used in training evaluation.
It then provides two training evaluation methods developed in Europe and notes features that make the two methods superior. Additionally, it notes the incorporation of technology in training evaluation. Finally, it provides a brief conclusion of the main points.
Introduction Training evaluation is a fundamental component of instructional design models that many organizations use. Evaluation instruments and methods assist organizations to determine the usefulness of instructional interventions.
However, regardless of the significance of instructional training programs, there is indication that many training plans are not consistent and ineffective. Possible reasons for the inconsistency and inefficiency include insufficient time and budget allocations, inadequate expertise and poor training schemes and tools.
Additionally, the complex nature of evaluation methods could be the cause of inefficiency and inconsistency of training evaluations that companies perform.
Training evaluations involve numerous and complex factors. Training evaluations relate to factors connected to continuous and dynamic contacts of various aspects and features of companies’ and training goals, training situations, evaluation technologies and trainees (Blanchard