Federalism In The United States Essay Best Essay Help

Federalism is a government political system, which has both local units and states and national government. The system has powers to come up with final decisions based on some governmental practices. It is a government system with the national as well as state levels sharing political supremacy. The local units or states and the national government function autonomously.

The power assignments of the national government comprises of both implied and expressed powers. Article I, Section 8 presents the majority of the expressed authorities. The Implied powers permit the central government to come up with decisions, which are not part of the expressed powers.

There is also the Necessary and Proper Clause in Article I, Section 8. Inherent Powers clause under Article I, Section 8 gives powers, which are acknowledged by every sovereign nation. State Governments powers clause was delegated to the national government through the Tenth Amendment. Through this, the national government has extended the capacity of governmental activities on a grand scale (Gerston 234).

There are other clauses under Article I, Section 8, like the Concurrent Powers clause, which provide powers shared by the national government with state governments. These include; the power to generate and implement laws, the police power, the power to levy tax, and the power to establish courts with limitation of extent.

Prohibited Powers at the same time concerns both the state and national governments. For example, there is a prohibition of export taxation for national government. On the other hand, the State governments are restricted from carrying out foreign policy as well as from coining money (Ginsberg, Theodore, Lowi


Pay Motivating Employees Analytical Essay essay help free

There are many ways to motivate employees to perform highly. Amongst the common approaches used to motivate employees perform well is financial incentive. It is the common belief of employers that high salaries and commissions motivate employees to perform highly.

This theory has worked in some cases since pay increases have generated desirable outcomes such as high performance, low turnover rates and high demand in the labor market. When employees perceive that they will be well remunerated for performing in a certain manner, they strive to achieve the targets set by their employers.

The theory that ‘pay generates motivation in employees’ originated from the belief that workers go to work so as to earn money. This means that the primary drive for laborers is money since that is the reason why they go to work. What has been established so far from past studies is that pay indeed motivates employees to perform highly (Cameron, 2006).

Pay does not however guarantee that there will be high performance from all employees since people react differently to stimuli. Whereas some respond favourably to pay packages, others want job security, recognition or improved working conditions. Pay therefore without a doubt motivates employees to perform highly but it does not work a hundred percent on all workers. It cannot be used as the only motivational factor that is applied so as to bring about high performance in the workplace.

Pay does not successfully bring about desired outcomes because it shifts focus from the job to money. If employers make it a rule that high performance is rewarded with increased pay, employees perceive that the only reason why they work hard is to receive high income.

Hence those employees who are contented with their pay get no reason to put in additional effort in their jobs. Pay as opposed to other sources of motivation is money centered and not job centered. Even though pay increases performance in the short term, it cannot be relied upon for long term sustenance of performance.

Eisenberger, Rhoades and Cameron (1999) brought out that if performance reward expectancy is to be relied upon, there must also be high levels of job satisfaction amongst employees. If employees do not show interest in their day to day routines, then only those who desire to remain controlled will respond to pay incentives. This is not desirable for companies that try to instigate employees to practice self leadership.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs can be measured through a three stage action plan that includes: setting standards, measuring employee performance and giving feedback (Neely, 2001). Measuring the effect of a motivational program starts with the setting of objectives and standards against which performance can be compared. Comparing performance vis-a-vis standards should be done regularly and accurately so that the results can be reliable when used for rewarding employees.

Giving of feedback is also particularly important during appraisals. Regular feedback ought to be given to employees so that they can be aware of their progress or weaknesses throughout their performance record. When measuring the motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs, it is important to set challenging standards which are realistic, achievable and related to the company vision.

In summary, the role of compensation plans in the motivation of employees is dependent on the nature of job, employees and effectiveness of their implementation. Pay motivates employees if it is used strategically to boost performance related employee appraisals. The motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs can be measured through setting standards, measuring employee performance and giving regular feedback.

References Cameron, J. (2006). Rewards and intrinsic motivation: resolving the controversy. Charlotte: Information Age Pub Inc

Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L.


Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect Report essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Guess Shadows Play

Hand Shadow Figures

Shadow Puppets

Shadow Tag Play

Shadow Dancing


To bring up a creative and active person, it is necessary to pay attention to the peculiarities of the child’s development from the first days of his or her life. It is known that the most important processes in the child’s development can be observed when he or she just a toddler. Toddler is a child in the age between one and three years, and it is the period of the most intensive cognitive, emotional, and social development of this little person who tries to know as much as possible about the world and his or her everyday surroundings.

It is significant to note that a toddler gains this knowledge while playing different kinds of games and developing any types of physical, emotional, and mental activities. Thus, the playing activity can be considered as the most important part of a toddler’s everyday life which contributes to his or her effective physical, social, cognitive, and emotional progress.

Shadow and light games are a kind of the toddler’s indoor and outdoor activities with the help of which parents and teachers have the opportunity to develop children’s abilities to communicate with each other, to develop their creative skills, to broaden their visions of the world and physical phenomena which are the part of their everyday life.

Shadow and light games can be considered as one the most successful ways to focus on children’s cognitive, social, and physical development with the help of the common things and natural phenomena. Thus, such indoor activities as Guess Shadows Play, Hand Shadow Figures, and Shadow Puppets can be discussed as the effective ways to concentrate on the development of a toddler’s imagination, creativity, and memory.

These games are necessary for the emotional and cognitive development of a child (Johnson et al., 2005). The effect of light and shadow can also be used for the physical and social development of a toddler. Such outdoor activities as Shadow Tag Play and Shadow Dancing require several participants for the game. That is why they are important for the development of communicative skills among children.

Guess Shadows Play Guess Shadows Play is an indoor activity which can be successfully used by parents and teachers in order to play with one person or a group of toddlers with the help of the objects which surrounds children everywhere. This game is helpful for the development of children’s skills to recognition when the situation for it is changed (recognition of the objects according to their shadows).

To play this game, it is necessary to create a white screen for which a large white sheet can be used. It is required to attach this sheet in such a way to make a screen from the ceiling to the floor. The next step is choosing the objects used in the everyday life which can be recognized according to their silhouettes. Then it is necessary to switch off all the lights and use only one light source which should be put behind the screen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The toddlers should be organized from the other side of the sheet in order they could have the opportunity to see the shadows of the objects which the adult holds in front of the light source. The children’s main task is to guess what objects are used for making this or that shadow. It is possible to use any number of objects and to determine the winner among those children who can guess the majority of the objects used.

Therefore, when adults use this play they have the opportunity to develop children’s ability not only to use their knowledge for the recognition of the items and develop their memory and cognitive skills but also to react in the situation of the competition with the other children ant to contribute to their social interaction (Johnson et al., 2005).

Hand Shadow Figures Hand Shadow Figures is one of the most popular games among the children of different ages because of its easiness and the possibility to use creative thinking. This play is also effective for the development of a toddler’s abilities in thinking and imagination. The effect of the game depends on the way it is used by parents and teachers. Thus, children can be just entertained with the demonstration of hand shadow figures used as the part of the shadow theatre.

In this situation they can be passive participants of the game, and it can be considered as less effective for the children’s development. Toddlers can also be engaged in the play when they try to guess what figures are act from the other side of the screen. However, the most effective way to use hand shadow figures is to try to teach toddlers how to create the easiest variants using their own fingers.

Many toddlers use their fingers and hands for entertaining themselves when they are alone. They can examine them and make definite figures. It is the stage of their examining their bodies and physical appearance (Johnson et al., 2005).It is possible to use these toddlers’ inclinations in order to develop their creativity and imagination with the help of using light and shadow.

Children can be involved in the process of creating hand shadow figures in two steps. The first step focuses on the necessity to provoke toddlers’ interest in the activity. Adults can use a white screen made from a sheet and one light source in order to demonstrate to children definite figures (as a rule, figures of animals). Then it is possible to show them how they can make easy figures with the help of their own fingers.

Nevertheless, the main task of the play not the exact and correct making the figures, but the development of the toddlers’ imagination with the help of light and shadow effects. Thus, children can try to make any figures they want and to examine the effects (Johnson et al., 2005).

We will write a custom Report on Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shadow Puppets Shadow Puppets is a kind of the puppet or shadow theatre in creating of which parents or teachers can involve toddlers. To make a shadow show, it is necessary to create the figures and put them on sticks and have one light source. It is possible to use a white wall in order to demonstrate the show.

Thus, such an activity includes two parts of the realization. The first part is the preparation of the figures for the show. It is a chance for a child to express his creativity and improve his skills in making definite figures from paper which develop different kinds of his or her movements.

The next step is the presentation of the show which can be based on the toddler’s favorite fairy plot with using popular characters. Therefore, children have the opportunity to play the scenes which are the result of their imagination and interact with each other. Moreover, it is possible to use the opportunity to play with light and shadow and focus the children’s attention on those changes in the size of the figures which can be observed when they alter the distance between the light source and the object.

It is also important to concentrate on the fact that there are transparent objects which cannot have a shadow because the light moves through them. Adults can demonstrate these objects to toddlers and accentuate their qualities. Such exercises are also helpful for children’ cognitive development and for the formation of their vision of the world which is around them (Levine, 2006).

Shadow Tag Play Shadow Tag Play is a kind of outdoor activities which gives toddlers the opportunity to communicate with each other in the park or a garden and develop their physical abilities because the game is energetic. To organize Shadow Tag Play, it is necessary to form the group of children which can include more than three participants and explain them the rules.

Thus, it is required to determine the child who will tag the other children with stepping on their shadows (Levine, 2006). When the other child is tagged the roles are changed. To provide the game effectively, it is necessary to follow such conditions as the sunshine weather and a lot of the spare rest for children tagging each other.

It is rather interesting for children to focus their attention on the length of their shadows according to a morning time, late afternoon or evening. When toddlers have the opportunity to play the game several times a day or during a long period of time they can say when it is easier for them to play it because the shadows are quite long. Moreover, this kind of activities can be considered as the exercises for toddlers when they can practice their physical abilities and make their movements more accurate.

Thus, a typical tag game which is played by the children of different ages can be successfully used for the development of toddlers as the part of their everyday outdoor activities helpful for their health, social and emotional growth (Levine, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shadow Dancing Shadow Dancing is a kind of the activity which can be considered as an outdoor and indoor one. However, the outdoor variant of the game is more pleasant for toddlers. The most important meaning of Shadow Dancing for toddlers’ development is focusing on the children’s positive emotions and their interactions with each other. The rules of the activity give them the opportunity to interact and change different kinds of exercises several times.

To play Shadow Dancing effectively, it is necessary to choose a fine sunny day when the shadows can be clearly seen and propose children to dance outside with their shadows. The necessary condition for the game is the usage of the energetic music. It is helpful to use those pieces of music and melodies which made these children dance in their everyday life when the adults could observe them. These melodies will be familiar for toddlers and will contribute to their active involvement into the dancing activity.

To play the game, it is important to show the children different steps and movements which they can use while dancing with their shadows. To develop their attention, it is possible to ask them do different kinds of movements when they hear various melodies.

Moreover, the rules for the exercise can change and the children should dance with the other children’s shadows or dance with the partner and his or her shadow (Levine, 2006). This kind of activities not only develops toddlers physically but also contributes to their emotional and aesthetic development.

References Levine, J. (2006). The everything toddler activities book: Games and projects that entertain and educate. USA: Adams Media.

Johnson, J.E., Christie, J.F.,


Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation Essay custom essay help

The Jungle is a book written by a journalist who aimed at bringing out the kind of life experienced by those who had migrated to the United States. Although, the novel was then interpreted and used to expose the situation of the health that was being experienced in the industry (Sullivan 1996).

The book elaborates on the harsh conditions of people who migrated to the United States. The Jungle talks more of the problems that people both employed and unemployed faced out off the high level of corruption in by the leaders in the state. The writer of the book came up with suggestion on what ought to be done to eliminate the issue of minimal salaries among the citizens, hence, improve the living standards of the people in the United States.

The writer of the novel brings out the picture of America as a nation that is experiencing various food problems as a result of fast food cuffs, hence, threatening the lives of many citizens in the region (Cecilia 2004). Despite of their advantage of having numerous food supplies in the region, people in the state continue to suffer instead of enjoying the food resources. The writer feels that this is a problem that people created for themselves due to their unhealthy practices that lead to death as well as severe illnesses.

There were numerous similarities in the United States on the way people were treated by the government as well as their day to day life. Both the state faced almost common problems as well as close kind of hardship despite of the differences in the kind of resources that were found in the two regions (Jacobs 2010). The writers did not only focus on the problems that the citizens were experiencing but also viewed at the possible solutions that could employed to diminish the problems in the two regions.

In the writing, the writer elaborated on the problems that come hand in hand as a result of poor planning by the government, corruption as well as minimal wages among the employed citizen, thus, making the lives of the citizen difficult (Sullivan 1996). With the increased level of poverty in the United States, many people and mostly the immigrants face the greatest challenge in trying to meet their daily needs.

However, there are some people who are concerned with the low living standard of the members of the states, for instance, the writer of fast food nations who went to an extra mile by organizing for supervision on the meat packing facilities but his effort fails to work out as people allocated to perform the duties were so reluctant to notice the poor hygiene in the plants.

This does not help much in improving the already low level of living in the region reason being that the government was not concerned with its people (Tichi 2004). This could have been enhanced by the fact that the government in the region was also corrupt making the situation even worse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In both states, the major cause of health problems came as a result of cattle rearing by the citizen. However, the problem was not alls about the rearing of the animals but the processes that followed after the animals were ready for consumption. For instance, in the United States, the writer discovers that the level of cleanliness in the meat plant was low as those concerned could only clean them only when there was going to be an inspection.

This, therefore, portrays how much the citizen consumed unhealthy meat from the company. Nevertheless, the efforts of those who tried to expose the kind of unhealthy activities taking place in the regions were cut short by those who wanted to hide the true face of the governance in the region. This was done by reporters who said that the information given by the writer were just false allegation and that they were misleading since they were baseless.

As well, in America, the state of the unhealthy conditions was also experience by the citizens. As in the United States, the hazardous practices were also taking place in the meat companies. The processing of meat was found to be unhygienic for human consumption but the people in the states consumed it without their knowledge.

In the United States, the conditions were worse as compared to those in America (Jacobs 2010). The reason behind this was because the carcasses from pigs, chicken as well as from horse were incorporated into cattle feed. Thus, these kinds of practices were the major cause of diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy commonly known by the people in the regions as Mad Cow Disease.

The consumption of the unhygienic meat not only caused diseases in those who consumed it but it also led to introduction of detrimental micro organisms like E. coli in the meat, hence, this could eventually lead to sickness among the citizens. In the same state, there were other diseases like obesity which was also a threat to the health as well as to the lives of the citizens.

Teen labor was also a challenge to the immigrants of the United States as every member of the family was expected to work to aid in supporting the family. This was after the family became a victim of the con men as well as schemes that exhausted their saving.

The situation was even more terrible as it diminished all what the citizens had saved to a point of not being in a position to pay for the cheap accommodation that could be easily acquired in the low standard houses known as slums (Sullivan 1996). This lead to eviction of the immigrants leaving the members frustrated.

We will write a custom Essay on Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The different occupations as well as lifestyle of the family change their lives from that juncture. This was greatly contributed by the harsh condition they faced at workplace. The situation at work place was made worse by the hardships they faced such as accidents that occurred at workplace as well as deaths of the members of their family that with proper conditions as well as planning could have been avoided.

Sexual harassment is also a problem in the two states especially in the United States where the level of security was poor as well as the migrants lacking a government that would cater about their wellbeing (Tichi 2004). Also, the kind of government that was found in the region was so corrupt, hence, no one could promote the security in the region.

Those who could not speak English in both novels, that is the immigrants, were discriminated as they could not acquire good jobs as well as they were not counted as important to the society and hence, they could not associate with the others in the community. This led them be with no choice of the kind of jobs to do, hence, ending up doing the hard jobs which could only afford them minimal salaries thus making their living harder.

Lack of well paying jobs, led to poverty that was elaborated by how people died of simple conditions that could have been prevented if the people earned enough. The writer narrates of how a character by the name Ona died when giving birth due to lack of capital to pay for medical attention. In addition to this their younger son drowned in the streets that were muddy. This elaborates on the low living states the immigrants experienced yet no one was concerned to improve their way of life (Jacobs 2010).

The main characters of the novels are among those who went through these hardships as well as the disappointments in their lives. They were so much into promoting the way of lives of those who experienced similar difficulties. However, their efforts were cut short by those who dominated the region such that ay time they came up with a way of improving the state nobody could side with them making the situation hard for them.

In conclusion, the novels bring out the kind of life that people face especially in a land that is not theirs. The people of the United States as well as America represent a vast number of people who live below the poverty levels. The kind of living they experience as well as the neglect from the government. The novels can, therefore, be used to bring out to the issues that the government ought to look into to improve peoples way of living.

Works Cited Jacobs, Jane. Introduction to The Jungle. NY: McGraw-Hill. 2010.

Sullivan, Mark. The Condemned-Meat Industry. NY: Our Times, 1996.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tichi, Cecilia. From the Jungle to Fast Food Nation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2004.


American Foreign Policies Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Article 26-1 presents the reasoning of General Marshal after the Second World War. The military leader commented that it was not possible for America to live without preparing itself militarily in order to counter any foreign threat.

According to the general, the international system had changed implying that it was impossible for great states such as America to live without any strategies for coping with external aggression. In his analysis, declaring war on another state required careful planning. America had to come with policies that would allow it to respond to conflicts swiftly.

The army general appreciated the fact that America sacrificed a lot to achieve greatness during the Second World War. The general therefore posited that world peace could only be maintained through threats of war. The US should always prepare to enter into if tranquility is to be realized in the global society. Furthermore, states should form organizations that are charged with the responsibility of maintaining peace in the world. This is clearly captured in the following statement:

In order to establish an international system for preventing war, peace-loving people of the world is demonstrating an eagerness to send their representatives to such conferences as those at Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco (Johnson 210)

In document27-5, the former head of state, Dwight Eisenhower, gives an analysis of the American society after the Second World War. The head of state mentions some achievements of the war but goes a notch higher to highlight its threats. The head of state claims in the article that the US had to change its policies, both internally and externally in order to suit the changing international system. However, the head of state warns that policies should always be assessed carefully to achieve success. This is captured in the following sentence:

balance between the clearly necessary and comfortable desirable, balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by nation upon the individual, balance between action of the moment and the national welfare of the future (Johnson 248)

Both articles 26-1 and 27-5 suggest that national interests usually guide states in the international system. This implies that there is no government in the international system that can foster unity and understanding among actors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The international system exists according to the Hobbestain state of nature that is characterized by anarchy, brutality, nasty life and selfishness. General Marshal Advices Americans in article 26-1 that they should strive to form a strong military that would protect their lives and properties in case another war takes place.

The president in article 27-5 observes that the state had to change its foreign and domestic policies to survive in the international system. Even though the general accepts that formation of international regimes would prevent the occurrence of another war, he still holds that the United States should always participate fully in forming those regimes.

From the two articles, it is true that the US changed its foreign policies after the Second World War. Throughout history, the American foreign policies have been determined by either isolationism or interventionism. Before the WWII, the US applied isolationist polices.

This meant that it could not engage in any form of external aggression. The US did not join the First World War until the time when it was concluding.

Furthermore, it was forced to join the Second World War through the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After the Second World War, the US adopted interventionist policies in 1991 and in 2003, in resolving the Middle East conflicts. The US incorporated Truman’s ideas, which suggested that communism was to be contained under all circumstances. The changes and developments in the international system influenced American foreign policies.

Before the World Wars, America applied the policy of isolationism because the system was multi-polar. This means that there were many centers of power in the global system. After the World Wars, the system became bipolar where power was distributed between two powers that is, the US and the USSR. The US had to apply interventionist policies to counter communism.

Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American past: selected historical documents: volume II: from 1865. 4th ed. New York: Bedford, 2008. Print.

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Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Adam Smith believed that the wealth of nations was derived from their division of labor and accumulation of capital goods for the production of necessities. However, his arguments may not be congruent with the conditions and circumstances, which are in the twenty first century.

Division of labor is the sub division of work into smaller portions so that the task being done can become easier. Smith gave an example of nail manufacturing industries where the work done involved cutting a long wire of iron and sharpening it.

When one individual did this work, the artisan could only make a hundred nails a day. However, if this work was subdivided into different portions such that one person cut the wires, another person sharpening, and packaging by another person the number of pins produced would have been four thousand. This showed that division of labor led to increased output (Smith 24).

The subdivided labor called for specialization where an individual had to become a master of particular skills. Before division of labor was invented, an individual could manage to do a set of activities alone. The people in the economy were therefore jacks of trades but they were masters of none. Division of labor called for being a jack of no trade but a master of one trade (Smith 108). One had to be a specialist in one area and in the case of nail industry; one had to be a specialist in cutting nails and be unskilled in sharpening them.

The division of labor also brought about efficiency, which is the percentage of the amount of effort applied compared to the amount of goods or services produced. In the division of labor, more output was produced compared to where there were no divisions of labor. The efficiency also came because of improvement in quality.

The work done by the solo artisan of sharpening the nails after cutting them would be probably of lesser quality. The nail-sharpening specialist whose only work is to sharpen the nails would do the work because; tired people produce low quality work.

More inventions came up during this period of division of labor more than any other time previously. This is because; the individual who is assigned a particular task had to find ways of doing the work faster. If it was the nail cutter, he had to look for ways to cut the nails faster. This involved devising equipment and tools, which were meant to make the work easier. Nail cutters were invented during this period as well as wheat threshing machines and the locomotives (Smith 238).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was low costs of production because of division of labor. This is because the number of laborers employed to do the work was significantly reduced when there was division of labor. Four individuals would produce four thousand nails compared to the one hundred nails produced by one artisan.

Therefore, it could have taken forty artisans to produce four thousand nails in a day. This low cost of production also implied that those who engaged in division of labor had an added competitive advantage because their goods and services were cheaper compared to goods, which were locally produced. This meant that an economy or a country with industries that engaged in division of labor could export their goods to other countries thus increasing their nation’s foreign exchange as well as the gross domestic product (Smith 388).

Before the concept of division of labor was invented people engaged in a number of activities, they only produced enough goods for their subsistence consumption, and there was no surplus. The increased output that came with the division of labor changed the concept of wealth accumulation as people and industries could produce goods in surplus, which they could sell to individuals in different countries.

This surplus was the major source of wealth because; apart from the domestic consumption, it resulted to capital accumulation. The surplus goods could be sold elsewhere and they represented the worth of the industry, the individuals as well as the nation (Smith 450).

The capital accumulation was indeed the way to go in regard to the accumulation of wealth because; other factors of production that led to great wealth such as land were out of reach for most people. Capital refers to the machineries, buildings and other assets that are involved in the process of production. For a company to increase its production it had to increase its capital or its equipment.

For this to be done companies or individuals who owned these companies had to forfeit their ownership and allow other people to own part of the company through the initial public offering, which allowed a private owned company to be held by the public. This was a major source of wealth, as the public had to buy the portion offered in terms of stock (Smith 457). The origin of the term shares means the amount of capital one owns in an industry.

Critical Evaluation. The ideas expressed by Adam Smith in relation to division of labor are still applicable today although not all of them. Division of labor enables workers to acquire a high level of skill in one trade as opposed to many different trades. Skills acquired through specialization enable workers to produce commodities that are of high quality and thus are able to compete effectively with others in foreign commerce.

We will write a custom Essay on Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Smith argues that foreign commerce is an agent for accumulation of wealth for nations. Thus, countries without access to international trade cannot fully exploit the benefits of specialized production and end up being relatively poor (Smith 29).

These arguments are solid and coherent because; the situation in the world market requires economies to invest in productive activities in order to acquire wealth. The accumulation of capital is a significant factor in the ability of economies to respond to changes in the market. Capital accumulation is required in order for economies to enable production and specialization in their productive efforts.

However, in the twenty first century when there have been many cases of down sizing and retrenching in major corporations leaving thousands of people jobless, the idea of specialization has to be reconsidered.

This is especially because with the advent of integrated technology or the merger of technologies where machines are becoming more incorporated such that one machine can do more than one task; individuals who specialize in one area will lack employment. The division of labor is therefore more applicable in corporations and nations more than to the individual laborer.

Labor has also undergone major changes in the sense that the modern world has more skilled labor than it had in the nineteenth century. Labor has become more competitive than it were before. This implies that economies, which will thrive, are those whose labor is specialized in various tasks or else the changes in technology might edge them out.

Concerning capital accumulation, there are other significant changes, which have occurred and may lead to a redefinition of capital. This is because capital is not only quantified in terms of tangible items or equipment but also non-tangible items, which give a nation or company advantage.

These explain why a company like Google is valued at several billion dollars though it has no tangible assets such as buildings or land; it only deals with information technology. We nowadays have more companies, which do not have any tangible item, yet they are valued at billions of dollars.

Conclusion Adam Smith in the “Wealth of Nations” shows the importance of division of labor in enhancing productive capacity of labor. Labor is one of the most influential factors of production.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many countries have realized the need to specialize and divide their work into units that can be handled by different workers. Division of labor has enabled people to become efficient in their work because of increased skills acquisition. The workers are able to increase efficiency by reducing the time spent in moving from one station to another.

The use of machines has enabled people to improve their efficiency and increase the skills required in production of commodities. Capital accumulation is a source of wealth for nations because; it enables production of machinery for manufacturing purposes. Capital accumulation helps imparting of skills and knowledge, which increases the productivity of workers and thus the wealth of the countries.

Works Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: The University of Chicago Press, 1976. Print.


Americanization Essay custom essay help

Americanization was a euphoric movement that intended to integrate immigrant people in America into the American way of life. The subjects of Americanization were coerced into adopting American values and culture. Americanization movement came under criticism for the segregation it seemed to propagate.

Some people claimed that the movement also had a racist nature (Finzsch et al 30). The movement started in early the twentieth century, and was very active during the course of the First World War. The immigrants were enrolled as military personnel in the American forces in the war as a part of the process of Americanization. Some serious social forces were responsible for the inception and the strength of the Americanization movement (Finzsch et al 36).

Government campaigns and support for the movement was the main cause of its rise. The authorities engaged the immigrants in civic education that taught the immigrants American values and responsibility. Obviously, there was a political reason for the movement.

The government in power then feared that the new immigrants who had come in large numbers would not be assimilated into the American culture and social inclination. This was a reason enough for the government to form organizations for campaign and education of the immigrants. In addition, the Native Americans thought that the immigrants would not be able to integrate into the American community quickly (Sollors 61).

This posed a danger of social conflict in the American society. Consequently, private civil movements geared towards promotion of American culture and values among the immigrants were formed. Furthermore, the United States government did not want the influence of the socialist and communist nature that was already taking root in the Soviet Union to take effect in America (Sollors 54). Factors threatening social and political integrity of the United States fuelled the efforts of the authorities towards assimilation of the immigrants.

Native groups, particularly the Indians were also the target of the campaigns. The Americanization movements and the authorities tried to change the Indians from their native way of life to European social values. This was done through European education and technology. Although assimilation of native Indians had started in early nineteenth century, the momentum of the process peaked in the early twentieth century when immigrants were being Americanized (Pickus 60).

Most of the immigrants from Europe were illiterate and did not speak or understand English. The social system felt the need to create a unified citizenry with a common language, preferably English. For commerce and industry to flourish, the industrialist felt that the social system had to be a European model.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Workers unions engaged in programs aimed at Americanizing the immigrants. Furthermore, religious entities such as Christian churches, which were already a cardinal component of the American culture tried to indoctrinate the immigrants in a bid to Americanize them (Pickus 50). Champions of Americanization argued that the process enabled the immigrants to cope with the difficulties of fitting into the new society.

The effort to integrate immigrant and Native Americans into the mainstream European culture is viewed as pervasive in today’s society. Education offered to the immigrants in order for them to learn English was viewed as an undermining the linguistic heritage of the immigrants’ culture (Finzsch et al 29)). The coercion methods used by the authorities and movements did not serve to assimilate the immigrants, but often resulted to resentment of the European culture.

The intended patriotism was not realized in this manner. The only reason that made the immigrants settle and live in America was the pressure that had forced them to migrate from their homeland to America. The Americanization campaign by the government was seen as a political ploy by the government to maintain stability and power through use of numbers (Sollors 40). The issue of Americanization remains a controversial issue to the present day due to its unusual nature.

Works Cited Finzsch, Norbert, and Dietmar Schirmer. Identity and intolerance: nationalism, racism, and xenophobia in Germany and the United States. Washington, D.C.: German Historical Institute; 1998. Print.

Pickus, Noah M. Jedidiah. True faith and allegiance: immigration and American civic nationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005. Print.

Sollors, Werner. Multilingual America: transnationalism, ethnicity, and the languages of American literature. New York: New York University Press, 1998. Print.


Maryland v. Pringle Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background of the Case

Procedural History of the Case


Significance of the Case

Reference List

Introduction In Maryland v. Pringle, U.S Supreme Court convicted pringle on the basis that a probable cause existed when the police officer found cocaine in the car he was travelling in.

The court also held that the drugs could have belonged to any of the three passengers and as such, the police did not violate the fourth amendment when he arrested him bearing in mind that the passengers revealed neither possession nor ownership prior to the arrest. This paper will give brief background information of the fourth amendment; discuss a procedural history of the case as well as its significance.

Background of the Case Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366 (2003) is a U.S case in which a policemen stopped a car that had three passengers (partlow, pringle and smith) and requested for the driver’s (Partlow) registration. The driver reached for the glove compartment which had $ 763 kept in it and this aroused the policeman’s curiosity and as such he requested to conduct a search in the car. The driver allowed him and consequently, the policeman found cocaine that had been packed into five bags and hidden in the armrest.

The two passengers plus the driver denied knowledge and ownership of the cocaine and the policeman arrested them. The three were taken to a police station where Pringle confessed ownership of the drugs and the other passengers were set free. Prior to discussing the above case, brief background information of facts related to the case will be discussed. The fourth amendment protects citizens from harassment by police officers.

According to Humper (2007), U.S constitution (amendment four) states that “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” The fourth amendment requires that a warrant arrest and probable cause of arrest is given to the suspect before he or she is arrested.

Probable cause of arrest has been given various definitions depending on the circumstances but the underlying meaning is just the same. Understanding of the term probable cause is important for anybody to understand why the ruling in Pringle’s case by various courts. Another term that will be discussed briefly is individualized suspicion.

In simpler terms, probable cause implies that there is more evidence in support of the matter at hand as opposed to the evidence against the same matter. Probable cause can be further explained as having more than half (50%) of evidence that justifies the cause of action to take. Practically, courts do not follow the rule to the letter and it is applied depending on the circumstances of the situation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When examining existence of probable cause, courts requires that a test known as the totality-of circumstances be utilized and tries to justify the situation from the perspectives of a prudent objective police officer. The rationale for using the totality-of-circumstances lies in the fact that the courts would find it difficult to arrive at probable cause if it relied on its own independent opinion. As such, the test is preferred despite the rigidities associated with it (Humper, 2007).

Individualized suspicion is a term that is closely related to probable cause since the court requires individualized suspicion for every probable cause. Individualized suspicion requires substantial connection between searches and seizures conducted by the police officers and the circumstances that led to such searches and seizures. This clause therefore limits the scope and circumstances under which the government and police officers may conduct such searches and seizures (Humper, 2007).

In addition to individualized suspicion, the fourth amendment also states that a warrant arrest should be issued before an arrest. However, there are some exceptions to the requirement if there is sufficient evidence that a crime or felony has been committed. It would be unreasonable for police officers to leave criminals to go and get a warrant. It goes without saying that the criminals would take to their heels and this would increase the crime rate (Humper, 2007).

Procedural History of the Case Pringles trial was held at the Circuit Court for Baltimore County where he was found guilty justification being that the five baggies of cocaine belonged to him. Pringles case was appealed at the Mary land Court of special appeals. Pringle was not satisfied by the courts ruling since he felt that the evidence given was not sufficient to give a probable cause of his arrest.

Pringle’s argument was based on the fact that the requirement of individualized suspicion was not met when he was arrested since he was just a mere a passenger in a car in which the contraband was found. He relied on the requirement by the fourth amendment that an arrest should be accompanied by individualized suspicion.

He also relied on the English case law which has the same legal standing as fourth amendment about individualized suspicion. Pringle added that individualized suspicion was a major component of probable cause as stipulated by the United States Supreme Court (Maryland v. Pringle). His lawyer requested to suppress Pringles motion but the court concurred with the previous courts decision of denying Pringle a chance to suppress the motion. The court referred to folk test that was derived from (Folk v. State), case.

According to the folk test, the following factors should be put into consideration while ascertaining whether there is a probable cause. The distance between the accused and the contraband, ownership of the place where the contraband was kept, knowledge of contrabands existence by the accused as well as availability of circumstances from which it can be reasonably inferred that the accused was in partnership with others for common benefit.

We will write a custom Essay on Maryland v. Pringle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Folk v. state, the person who appealed happened to be a passenger in a car in which one of the passengers was smoking Marijuana. Folks attempted to suppress the marijuana’s motion but the court denied him a chance and stated that the appellant “could not be closer, short of direct proof that the appellant herself was in exclusive physical possession of the marijuana .”

Proximity could not be more clearly established” (Folk v. state). Though the court quoted the folks test, it did not make use of it when considering Pringles case and instead assumed that the distance between the contraband and the defendant was close enough to ascertain existence of a probable cause.

The case was appealed again at the court of appeals of Maryland. The court reversed the decision taken by the other courts and held that there was insufficient evidence that Pringle was in possession of the cocaine since he was just a passenger in a car that was being driven by the owner. The court borrowed from Collins v. State, 589 A.2d 479, 480 (Md. 1991) case in which it was held that being close to the scene of crime is insufficient to ascertain the existence of a probable cause.

In Collins case, Collins happened to be among five men that were five feet from an automobile. A police officer came and requested one of the men to pick a film canister that was in the car’s backseat. Five packets of cocaine were found inside the film canister and the police officer arrested the five men. Since Collins was outside the car, the court held that there was insufficient evidence to hold a probable cause just because cocaine was found inside the car.

The decision of Maryland’s court of appeals was reversed by the United States Supreme Court which stated that the police officer had enough reason to infer that the cocaine belonged to all the three passengers since none of them disclosed ownership. The officer’s act of arrest was therefore justified and had not violated the fourth amendment.

The court held that there was enough evidence to reasonably infer that Pringle was guilty of being in possession of the contraband either solely or in partnership with the other passengers in the vehicle. United States Supreme Court had one question: was there evidence enough to support a probable cause that Pringle had committed the offence?

The court argued that if a group of two or more people was suspected to have committed an offence, then one of them is singled out as the criminal, then the others can not be held responsible unless otherwise stated.

The supreme court also held that Maryland court of appeal was not fair when it treated the cash found in the car as a different case as opposed to one of the circumstances leading to the arrest. Pringle was convicted and the ruling was made by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist who had a unanimous agreement with the other judges.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maryland v. Pringle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Interpretation Based on the ruling made by the state of Maryland court, it can be inferred that Pringles case was judged on the basis of probable cause by association as individualized suspicion requirement was not met. Probable cause by association is not included in the fourth amendment and as such, it can be referred to as an additional clause to the Fourth amendment.

This implies that a gateway to convicting innocent people had been opened by the ruling. The court ignored the fact that an innocent person can borrow a lift from a private car and as such, it is not his business to search the vehicle with an intention to ascertain that all the cargoes in the car are legal goods.

Significance of the Case Mr. Howe’s has legal basis to suppress the arrest. Based on the above case, the passengers did not disclose ownership or possession of the drugs. However, at the police station, Pringer confessed that the drugs were his. The police officer could not have allowed the passengers to just drive off after he found the drugs.

Since he did not get any response, the officer had sufficient evidence to infer that a felony had been committed hence arrest all the occupants. However, the court did not apply the individualized suspicion requirement when ruling Pringles case. If Mr. Howe’s client’s circumstances are exactly the same, then there is no need to suppress the motion despite presence of legal basis.

Reference List Criminal Law – Probable Cause (1991). Collins v. State, 589 A.2d 479, 480. Web.

Find Law: Folk v. State (1971), Folk v. State, 275 A.2d 184. Web.

Gordon. R. (2003). You Ride With ‘Em, You Die With ‘Em. A Look at Maryland v. Pringle and the United States Supreme Court’s Implementation of Probable Cause by Association.

Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366, 124 S. Ct. 795. Web.

Humper, G. (2007). U.S Constitution 4th Amendment is dead in America. Web.


Staffing in McDonalds Essay essay help free

McDonalds is a US based food chain company that mainly sells fast foods and hamburgers. The company begun in 1940 as a barbeque restaurant, originally run by two brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonalds. It was subsequently purchased by Ray Kroc (a prominent businessman) who led its worldwide expansion.

Globally, McDonald’s restaurants are available in 120 states. Additionally, these restaurants serve a total of fifty million customers in a day. The super chain operates over 30000 restaurants and provides employment to more than 1.5 million people. Restaurants are either counter service or drive-through service.

The company earns revenue through property ownership, franchising of restaurants and operation of restaurants. The success of the company has largely been attributed to the high level of efficiency and expertise in their staff and good customer service.

Staffing at McDonalds Staffing is the managerial function of employing and developing human resources to carry out the activities of the organization. It entails all the processes that involve staff. Such processes include determining the workforce requirement, methods of recruitment, actual recruitments as well as the training and development of personnel.

The function is indeed an important part of human resource management as it also deals with performance appraisal, remuneration and decisions relating to retaining or retrenching staff (Phillips, 2004). The stages below outline the procedures that are followed when staffing at McDonalds.

Manpower planning

This refers to the process of estimating the labor requirements of the company. Management, in so doing, has to consider the market and demand forces, availability of infrastructure, government policies and so on. McDonalds has a human resource department that lays out the overall staffing strategies and puts all the factors mentioned above into consideration when determining the level of manpower that is required. The level of manpower is usually determined by the number of customers in various parts of the world.

Assessment of jobs

This refers to the elementary determination of the responsibilities and the pre-requisites for a certain job. It also includes the relative importance of the specified job to the business. McDonalds has clearly outlined various job descriptions for different posts in the company. This ensures that the recruitment process of the members of staff is based on analysis of the workload and staff requirements. Clear job specifications are also laid out to outline the abilities and skills that are required for performing a particular job (Bechet, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sources of recruitment

After determining the experience and qualifications required for particular jobs, the human resource department is charged with the task of searching for qualified persons. The source of recruitment has to be determined before asking the suitable persons to apply for the respective jobs. These sources of recruitment can either be internal or external.

Internal sources

It is a characteristic of most companies to consider the available staff for promotion to higher positions in a firm before looking for members outside the company. Management may therefore promote some of the in-house staff to fill the vacant positions. This recruitment strategy is beneficial in many ways, in that, the higher costs of training new members of staff are saved. On the other hand, the employees are already familiar with the culture and practices of the firm, thus, fitting into the system instantly.

However the major disadvantage of this strategy is that the company may not benefit from new ideas from outsiders. Most of the managerial staff members working at McDonalds have been those employees who had probably begun by grilling hamburgers and performing other menial jobs. Given the amount of training and employee the company has invested in, most of the former low level staff members have gained from the acquired knowledge to become skilled in their areas of expertise.

External sources

Seeing that not all vacant posts can be filled by in house capacity, managers tend to recruit from outside the organization. The major reason behind this is the lack of the required skills, motives and qualifications in the internal staff. External recruitment also provides a wide choice from which management can choose the most suitable person(s). It is with these benefits in mind that McDonalds also takes advantage of the external sources of recruitment. External sources of recruitment are outlined below:

Learning institutions

A certain trend has cropped up in many organizations whereby the companies employ college and university students who seem to have passed their interviews. McDonalds is an example of these companies. A large proportion of junior staff in the company comprises of college and university students. The company interviews the applicants in order to determine whether they are good enough to promote their already established entrepreneurial culture of good customer service (Phillips, 2004).

Unsolicited applications

Job seekers may at times apply for jobs without specific reference to a particular post but in the hope that the company may have a vacancy. Management staff at McDonalds keeps away such applications and contacts the applicants when there is a vacancy

Employment Agencies

These agencies register the names of applicants who are interested in particular jobs and organize for interviews within the companies. McDonalds works closely with such agencies and recruit staff who are competent enough to work for them.

We will write a custom Essay on Staffing in McDonalds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Media advertisements

These are advertisements that are placed in various communication media tools such as newspapers, magazines or even on the internet. Detailed descriptions of the job, the qualifications as well as the required nature of the job and how to apply are contained in the advertisements. The company has used the media to advertise for jobs such as placing adverts on their internet sites to attract applicants.


After a satisfactory number of applications of interested candidates have been collected through the recruitment process, the process of selection begins. Selection refers to the process of choosing the most suitable candidate among the interested ones.

Management has to match the skills and qualifications of the candidates with the requirements of the job then choose the most suitable individuals (Grote, 1996). McDonalds has a detailed selection procedure whereby the candidates have to go through a number of steps in a selection procedure.

Screening of applications

The management of McDonalds evaluates all the applications received and then prepares a list of candidates who are to be evaluated further. The process involves checking for the minimum requirements in terms of qualifications, age, skills and experience. Candidates who do not pass this stage are eliminated and excluded from further consideration.

Holding tests

Immediately after screening of applications, a list of candidates is obtained. The shortlisted candidates are called to the workstations or offices to prove their abilities or skills as mentioned in their applications. An example of how this is done in McDonalds is whereby candidates are called to the workstation and given a little task to perform such as welcoming customers in a friendly manner.

All candidates who pass the test are eligible for further evaluation whereas those who do not qualify are eliminated. The company gives out various tests depending on the requirements of the explicit jobs. For instance, if the test was to be carried out on management then the tests would place more emphasis on the personality of the individual and his/her ability to motivate staff members.

Selection Interview

This is a means of checking the information given by the candidate in their application and making an overall assessment on whether the candidate is suitable for the job or not. In the interview the candidate is expected to have a face to face interaction with the employer or the recruitment committee. This will be aimed at judging the ability of the candidate. In McDonalds they even go a step further to find out the motives and background of the candidate which greatly assists in assessing the suitability of the candidate.

Checking of references

Apart from the educational qualifications, skills and expertise, the company usually ensures that the qualified candidates have other qualities such as punctuality, friendliness and the ability to manage their temperament. This information cannot be verified through tests, hence, it is normally obtained from the candidate’s former learning institutions such a colleges and high school. Former employers can also be a helpful source of such information.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Staffing in McDonalds by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Management considers that, for certain jobs such as cashiers and security officials, reliability is a very important virtue. For experienced employees, details from previous employers are usually of great assistance. References cited in resumes and applications may also be contacted to provide such information so as to prove whether the candidate is trustworthy.

Medical examination

Since McDonalds is a food chain, the health status of the employees is very important. A sick employee with a contagious condition poses great risk to both other employees and customers of the company. Candidates who are finally selected for the job undergo medical examination to verify whether they are physically fit for the job.

These examinations are aimed at ensuring that injuries are minimized in the working environment and that high standards of health for the employees are maintained. This move also ensures that the labor turnover, the cases of accidents and the rates of absenteeism are highly reduced. These tests also reveal the suffering of the candidate from any curable ailments since most jobs require physical fitness.

Issue of appointment letter

When all the shortlisted candidates are finally deemed qualified for the jobs, they are offered an official letter of appointment that clearly outlines the nature of the job, the hours of work, payment amounts and methods among other details. A considerable amount of time is then given for the successful candidate to join the organization.


In the event that the candidate decides to join the organization, he or she has to give the consent in writing to the McDonalds officials after which he/she is formally placed to perform the specific job. The appointment of every candidate is then followed by a record of particulars of employment known as an employment record. It is this record that is used by the company when making decisions regarding issues such as promotions, need for training, staff cuts and increments.


This is the introduction of new employees to the organization. The employees of McDonalds are usually given a chance to adjust to the new working environment as well as the company’s structural organization. Rules and regulations, working conditions are also made known to the new employee (Kemske, 1995). The major purpose of this procedure is to reduce the tension and create a warm and welcoming atmosphere. Eventually, most of the employees acquire a positive attitude towards the new job.

Staff training and Development

McDonalds is one of the companies that believe in training of its labor workforce. Each year, it trains about 55000 employees hence dedicating large amounts of revenue for this purpose. This strategy is beneficial to both the company and the employees in that the company benefits in terms of customer satisfaction. The company also benefits from increased revenue due to better service from a skilled workforce. The employee gains advantage from the development of their career.

The company has a staff training program that trains staff to be all rounder’s and competent enough to work in all situations. Reference materials such as videos and guides are offered to trainees to depict the performances of certain tasks. Emphasis is placed on offering good customer care which is the basis of their huge success over the years.

The company has also gone a step further in employee development by having leadership practices. This is a training program that aims at improving the skills of every employee at every level so as to improve their ability to provide comprehensive customer service, proficiency in mathematics and financial training.

In their move to comply with corporate governance and ethics requirements, the company has established an integrated corporate social responsibility department that provides corporate staff leadership, support and coordination for the global social responsibility policies, programs and reporting.

A challenge that the company faces in some of its markets is the negativity that is associated with the term McJob, therefore it tries to distinguish itself as a great place to work both at the restaurants and at the staff level which is a great motivation for current and potential employees (Phillips


Underlying Causes that Push the Youths into Crime Essay college admissions essay help

Juveniles are increasingly getting involved in criminal activities across the United States. Crimes that are mostly reported include assault, homicide, rape, robbery, vandalism and arson. This paper seeks to explain why I am against the state laws that facilitate prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. I will also give my reasons as to why juveniles who commit violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are older enough to understand the consequences of their actions.

There have been a lot of arguments concerning the basis on which juvenile courts were established. There is some belief going around that juvenile courts should be abolished because they were put in place to shield juveniles from consequences of their criminal activities.

Indeed there has been a marked rise in incidences of juvenile criminal activities. I don’t think this problem can be solved by punishing juveniles as adults. Some states have gone as far as creating laws that facilitate the prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. In my opinion, such states are just trying to treat the symptoms and not the disease.

These people should try to understand the real cause of the problem. According to me, juveniles involve themselves in criminal activities due to poor upbringing which can be blamed on the family and violent neighborhoods.

For example, I had a friend whose parents were both alcoholics and t his weighed so much on him. He has been tried for stabbing his father. He was only 14 but I don’t think this could have happened if he had responsible parents. Such a person will not be helped if he is held fully responsible and prosecuted in adult courts.

Questions have also risen as to whether it’s appropriate to try juveniles (regardless of the age) who commit violent crimes in the same manner as adults. It’s imperative to note that people should be made to pay for their mistakes so long as they understand what they are doing.

However, it’s also important to point out that some juveniles, especially younger ones may not be aware of the magnitude of their criminal activities or even understand why they involve themselves in crime. In most cases there are many underlying social problems that can be addressed to deter juvenile criminal activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We all know that juveniles who are prosecuted as adults are often held in adult jails where they might be abused. This can also make them to lose education opportunities in life. Juveniles who undergo this are more likely to be involved in crime again because they will have no other means of fending for themselves when they get out.

In my opinion juveniles who commit violent crime should be given an opportunity to reform and lead a normal life to deter future crime cases. Thus it’s important that they be prosecuted in a manner that will offer them the opportunity to reform. This can be achieved by trying juveniles, especially younger offenders in juvenile courts. However, those who involve themselves in violent crimes and are older (16 years and above) should be tried as adults because they are better placed to understand the consequences of their actions.

This paper sought to explain why I am against the state laws that facilitate prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. I have also given my reasons as to why juveniles who commit violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are older enough to understand the consequences of their actions.

The paper has reviewed some underlying causes that push the youths into crime and has concluded that the state laws that facilitate the prosecution of juveniles in adult courts should be changed. It has also concluded that juveniles who involve themselves in violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are old enough to understand the consequences of their actions.


Impressionism History Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Impressionism, an art movement, was born in France in the 19th century specifically in the period between 1860 and 1880 with its major goal being to popularize the impressionist art style, which was a deviation from and a contrast to the more popular and traditional academic art style that had dominated the French art scene of the time. Before the impressionism period painting was known to be done indoors only, however, this changed with the impressionist art style.

To early impressionists the element of light had to be captured in their paintings and thus, they were inspired to paint outdoors (or “en plain air” in French). The author Oak in his/her article credits these early impressionists as having shown art the outside world (Oak par. 3). A critical examination of Oak’s article reveals that the impressionist art style has three main distinctive features (Oak par. 3).

The first of these features is that the visual angles in impressionist art paintings are unique so because it is in this way that movement is depicted in impressionism artworks. The second feature of impressionist art style is according to Oak the ” prominently evident brush strokes” (Oak par. 2), which according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com are done with pure colours (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 5).

The open composition evident in impressionist paintings, which is mainly because the paintings are done outdoors is the third feature of the impressionist art style. Oak continues and points out that the impressionist art style lays its emphasis on ” the changing patterns of light ” and by doing this a single impressionist work is able to capture multiple instances of time.

The impressionist art form usually gives few details about what was being painted this is because impressionists paint from vivid images generated from glimpses they had of something. Some examples of famous impressionist paintings are Dance at Le Moulin de la Galett done in the year 1876 and Impression, Sunrise done in the year 1872 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet respectively.

Discussion History of impressionism

In the 17th century an informal element of impressionism existed in paintings done by Dutch painters as these works exhibited as Oak points out a “vivid distinction between the subject and the background” (Oak par. 4). This is common with impressionist paintings. The art of Photography was born and it became an inspiration to painters as they were more challenged to capture the different moments and themes that constituted daily life.

With photographers, being able to reveal details and facts through photography painters would interpret these (and other) details and facts in their paintings. Oak, again, credits early impressionists as having been ” the first to bring in subjectivity to paintings ” (Oak Par.4). French and Japanese art are considered the starting point of the impressionist art style.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In mid 19th century, the French art scene was strongly dominated by the traditional academic style, which was pioneered by the Academie des Beaux-Arts. This institution strongly held the philosophy and belief that the use of art was solely for the purpose of depicting historical and religious entities and matters and as a consequence its paintings according to Oak ” lacked vibrancy and brightness ” (Oak par.5).

The Academie des Beaux-Arts was a very conservative institution that was vehemently opposed to new forms of arts, which it considered liberal. These new form of arts were mainly from new, upcoming and young artists. The Academie des Beaux-Arts frustrated these artists by denying them support owing to its conservative views and nature.

The Academie des Beaux-Arts annually held an art show during which a panel of selected judges would review the art exhibits of different artists. At the end of their reviews the judges would compile a list of artists who according to them had the best exhibits and present it to the Academie des Beaux-Arts.

Such like artists would be awarded prizes by the institution. According to Oak, noticeable from the judgements made by the panel of judges was the fact that they were vehemently opposed to paintings that Oaks describes as portraying unconventionality (Oak par. 6).

This attitude by the judges had the resultant effect of suppressing the freedom of expression of some and mainly young artists. This was notoriously displayed in the Academie’s art show of the year 1863 in which lots of exhibits from young artists were rejected to such an extent that Emperor Napoleon III had to commission a huge exhibition known as Salon des Refuses to display to the public those rejected exhibits. The Salon des Refuses was an attraction to mainly liberal artists and inspired a new trend in art.

In 1873 an association of Paris-based artists was formed which included painters (impressionists included), sculptors and engravers to enable them exhibit their work following the failure of the Salon des Refuses to be held twice (in 1867 and 1872) (Oak par. 7). The association put together its first exhibition in 1974, which displayed the work of 30 artists.

Initially, the society criticized the exhibitions put together by the association owing to its background however, this changed later. Internal conflicts threatened the stability of the association a case in point being the break away of one its pioneers and impressionist, Renoir. In the following decade Renoir would abandon and oppose the impressionist art style. Oak notes that, all of the eight exhibitions put up by the association to display the impressionist art form displayed the work of Pissarro (Oak par. 7).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impressionism History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Not only did these exhibitions popularize the impressionist art form but as Oak points out they presented impressionists with monetary benefits as well (Oak par. 8). Impressionists did not do it all on they own but benefited significantly from the efforts of their dealer Durand Ruel who was instrumental especially in popularizing the impressionist art form among the society through the art shows he arranged specifically for the two parties (impressionists and the society) (Oak par. 8).

The determination of the early impressionist and the efforts of Durand Ruel is what popularized the novel art form that is impressionism, which is to-date is considered in the world of art as a major breakthrough.

Pioneer impressionists

One pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Claude Monet who was born in Paris, France in the year 1840. Claude Monet was educated in art. Initially, in Nomandie where is family had moved to, Monet according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com was renowned for his art in charcoal caricature (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 3).

In 1858, Monet met and joined Eugene Boudene an expert in oil paints and out door painting. In Paris in 1862 Monet started working under the supervision of Charles Gleyre. According to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com, it is during this time that Monet made the acquaintance of Renoir, Bazille and Sisley who are also considered pioneers of the impressionist art form (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 4).

The four of them began work on a new art form inspired by a new approach to art. The new art form they developed is what later became impressionism and according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com it was a style in which they attempted to ” paint the effects of light with broken colour and rapid brush strokes ” (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par.4).

During his adult life, Monet is reported to have travelled as far as England and Holland. When Monet got older, he developed a serious eye condition for which he was operated twice in an effort to improve his eyesight. Paintings Monet does after his operations have an unusual reddish tone, a situation which could have arisen from his persistent eye problem (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 6).

Monet married Camille, the model posing in many of his art works like the “Camille” and “ Camille Monet on her deathbed ”. With Camille, Monet bore two children both of them boys. Though he remarried following the death of Camille, Monet never bore children with his second wife.

According to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com Claude Monet died of lung cancer on the 6th of December 1926 in Giverny, France at 86 years of age ( Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 8). One of Claude Monet’s famous art work is the Impression, Sunrise (or in French ” Impression, soleil levant “) done in the year 1872 and which is a sunrise view of the Le Havre harbour in France. The term “impressionism” was coined from Louis Leroy’s criticism of this painting.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impressionism History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Camille Pissarro who was born in the Danish West indies in the year 1830 (A E Television Networks, LLC. Par 1). Interested so much in painting Camille Pissarro moved to Paris in the year 1955 where he did landscapes and pioneered impressionism.

Oak notes that, all of the eight exhibitions put up by the association of Paris-based artists to display the impressionist art form displayed the work of Pissarro (Oak par. 7). Camille Pissarro last works are considered by experts to be part of his best. Camille Pissarro died on the 13th of November the year 1903 at the age of 73. One of Camille Pissarro famous works is the “Boulevard Montmartre” which he did in the year 1897.

Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Alfred Sisley who was born in Paris in the year 1839. Alfred Sisley though greatly faced with poverty took on painting as a career and did it full-time (A E Television Networks, LLC. par. 1). Alfred Sisley is one of the artists who put up the impressionism movement.

Alfred Sisley died in the year 1899 at the age of 60. One of Alfred Sisley’s famous works is the “Lane Near a Small Town” which he did in the year 1864. Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Pierre-Auguste Renoir who was born in Limoges, France in the year 1841 (A E Television Networks, LLC. par 1).

Renoir initially did not start out as a painter but later became a highly regarded artist. Though at one time he struggled with painting, Renoir was instrumental at the beginning of impressionism but he later abandoned and opposed the impressionist art style. One of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s work is ” the Dance at Le Moulin de la Galett” which he did in 1876.

Conclusion Impressionism though faced with grave challenges has succeeded in popularizing the impressionist art form and has additionally inspired other art movements in France. The impressionist art style is described as novel form of art and which to-date is considered in the world of art as a major breakthrough and phenomenon.

Works Cited A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Alfred Sisley.biography. 2012. Web.

A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Camille Pissarro.biography. 2012. Web.

A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Pierre-Auguste Renoir.biography. 2012. Web.

Oak, M. (2012). History of impressionism. 2012. Web.

Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com. (2011). Claude Monet. 2011.Web.


American History X Critical Essay scholarship essay help

Films as any pieces of art always require their proper evaluation and interpretation according to definite principles of the critical analysis of works. To cope with the task effectively, it is necessary to concentrate on the difference between the main peculiarities of evaluation and interpretation.

Moreover, it is also significant to determine the elements which can be discussed in relation to this or that aspects. The factors which can influence the result of the evaluation and interpretation of the film and their specific features can be examined with the help of the study of American History X of 1998.

Evaluation of the work of art in general and of the film in particular is the determination of its special significance and worth. Thus, any piece of art can be considered as meaningful and important for the public.

To determine this significance, it is necessary to pay attention to the main idea of the film, to its purpose and conclusions. In its turn, interpretation is the explanation of the meaning of the work of art. Thus, to evaluate the film, it is significant to understand or to interpret the main elements and scenes of the film which can help to assess its worth and the aesthetic significance.

That is why the difference between evaluation and interpretation is in the quality of the analysis which a critic provides in connection with a definite film. Interpretation as an explanation only focuses on the plot meaning of certain elements of the film contributing to its right analysis. While evaluating the work, critics concentrate on the deep meaning of this piece of art which was provided as the artist’s main idea.

Any film should be discussed from the points of interpretation and evaluation. It is important to accentuate the elements which are required to be interpreted and evaluated in American History X. The evaluation as an approach is necessary for the analysis of the general worth of the film and its significance.

The main director’s idea was the discussion of the problems of racism and supremacy in the American society and the depiction of those dangerous effects which can have uncontrolled violent actions of the people who divide the others in ‘white’ and ‘black’ or other categories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aesthetical characteristics of the film are also decisive. Thus, it is required to focus on the details of the film as an aesthetical piece. That is why, to evaluate the worth of the film, critics should assess the importance and currency of the main author’s idea and those effects which were used for creating the picture.

Nevertheless, to make the successful evaluation, it is important to interpret the film perfectly. For instance, it is necessary to concentrate on such aspects depicted in American History X as the reasons for the narrator’s writing the report on Mein Kampf by Hitler, the peculiarities of Denny’s description of his brother Derek and causes for the fact that Danny idealizes his brother, the causes for Derek’s popularity among the youth, and the causes for Derek’s intention to prevent his brother from entering the supremacist’s organization in order to interpret thoroughly (“American History X”). These details should be discussed in their association with the other aspects which are important for the particular analysis of the film.

The last scenes of the film can be considered as the most meaningful in the film. Thus, critics can concentrate on the details of Danny’s essay and his vision of the brother, Derek’s attitude to the situation with ‘white’ and ‘black’ in the society and his feelings toward Danny (“American History X”).

Evaluation and interpretation are the necessary parts of the analysis of the work of art which help to understand its meaning and assess the aesthetic and cultural significance.

Works Cited American History X. Plot Synopsis. n.d. Web. .


Countrywide Financial Corporation Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents The Government’s Role

The Laws

The Housing Bubble and its Consequences

Countrywide Financial Corporation

Financial Performance

Ethics in Countrywide Financial Corporation

Salvaging Countrywide Financial Corporation

The Government’s Role The United States government had noble intentions in creating Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac. They wanted to ensure that more citizens could afford a home, and thus promote the “American Dream”. The first of these programmes was Fannie Mae.

It ensured there was a secondary market where mortgage loans insured by the government under the Federal Housing Administration could be traded. The creation of a secondary market reduced the holding period of loans greatly. Originators of loans no longer had to wait up to ten years to recover their principal and interest. They could easily transfer them to interested third parties on the secondary market.

This option served its purpose well. The companies risk appetite was increased and they advanced riskier loans. After all, they could always sell these loans to someone on the secondary market, thus transferring the risk of default to them. More Americans purchased homes under this scheme, and the government was pleased.

The downside is that nobody considered the final brunt of these risky loans. Eventually, someone had to bear the burden in case borrowers defaulted. If it were not the originator companies, or the government that insured these loans, then the secondary market investors would suffer. Ginnie Mae helped to achieve Fannie Mae’s goals, thus expanding home ownership in America in its time.

The Government created Freddie Mac to deal with the problem of conventional conforming loans. This refers to those loans not guaranteed by the government. This means that in the event of borrower default, the secondary investors in Freddie Mac would definitely suffer loss. This programme enabled borrowers with higher risk profile than under Fannie Mae to obtain loans from originator companies while transferring the risk of default to third parties. Thus, the US government looked good in the eyes of its citizens.

There were two positive outcomes of these government initiatives. More Americans became homeowners and the underwriting procedures countrywide were standardized. However, the question remains whether the price paid was worth it. This increased risk and demand for homes aided in the creation of a housing bubble.

The Laws The government enacted several laws to support its aim. The first was the Community Reinvestment Act, which addressed issues of discrimination in issuing of home ownership loans. People had begun to complain that the increased home ownership did not benefit the poor neighbourhoods. Lenders were accused of both racial and geographical discrimination. In their defence, loan originators explained this trend by pointing out the high unemployment and crime rates associated with the mentioned regions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To counter these risks, the government enacted the Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act. This allowed originators to create subprime loans for high-risk borrowers. This law increased the access to homes while simultaneously increasing the risk portfolio of the originators.

These laws created a ticking time bomb. In the event of an economic slow-down, the subprime borrowers would be the first to suffer foreclosure. The government created a short-lived honeymoon for the poor. Unfortunately, the cost of this honeymoon was too great for the people to afford.

The Clinton Administration increased the Loan to Value to all time highs of beyond 90%. They did this through the Housing and Community Development Act. Previously, the LTV was 60%. Americans who did not qualify for loans under conventional circumstances could access these loans and thus houses.

However, these subprime loans created additional risk, and since the government did not insure subprime loans, lenders and creditors bore the risk. There was inadequate disclosure regarding the true risk associated with these loans. Investors, especially in the secondary markets were deceived to believe they got a great deal.

The Housing Bubble and its Consequences The rising prices of homes resulted in a housing bubble. Around 1994, there was a growing demand for houses, fuelled by the lax underwriting procedures. This was the beginning of the bubble, which continued to grow until around 2006. High demand compared to supply pushed the value of homes upwards.

People made quick profits from trading in houses. They also obtained refinancing loans pegged on the values of their homes. The government scheme to expand home ownership in America seemed to be a great success during 2006. Everybody was pleased with the results.

Unfortunately, this bliss was short-lived. It is usual for countries to experience trade cycles, and in 2007, America’s trade cycle was headed to a recession. Unemployment and inflation were rising and so was the cost of living. This resulted in a decline in the demand for houses, thereby making supply higher than demand.

We will write a custom Essay on Countrywide Financial Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consequence of this was a rapid decline in the fair market value of homes. The mortgage balance for most was higher than the fair value. Their homes were underwater. Since nobody was willing to buy houses anymore, and Americans could not afford to pay their mortgages on time, majority of the homes acquired under the scheme went into foreclosure.

This was devastating to middle-class families whose dream to own a home drove them to homelessness. Secondary investors who had purchased such mortgages turned to the government and insurance companies for compensation. However, the default rate was so high that Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac and AIG the largest insurer combined could not cover the losses.

Homeowners lost their homes; investors suffered loss on their investment and the entire financial system lost credibility. As a result, many financial institutions had to curtail operations.

Countrywide Financial Corporation Angelo Mozilo founded Countrywide during 1969. He wanted to grow the company’s operations to a nationwide scope. The deregulation and lax underwriting laws benefited CFC greatly. In 1993, the increase in loan originations was around 265%, an all time abnormal high. Between the year 2000 and 2005, the interest rates were quite low, and demand for housing was high. The company advanced many mortgages and increased its profits tremendously.

Government policy influence on Countrywide Financial Corporation’s strategy is evident in the trend in the mortgages originated between 1990 and 2007. Initially, CFC did not deal in conventional conforming loans. After the year 2001, the company started to deal in them, increasing their number by almost 30% up to 2006.

There was also an increase in the proportion of Subprime loans in the portfolio, reflecting the government efforts to get poor people to own homes. Since the government guaranteed subprime loans under the Federal Housing Administration, the company did not hesitate to increase the subprime loans originated. The availability of a secondary market under Fannie Mae also encouraged the origination of these loans.

Freddie Mac also encouraged the trading of Mortgage backed Securities. Credit rating agencies rated these MSB’s AAA, deceiving consumers that they were low-risk. They failed to disclose the fact that the MSB’s were anchored in high-risk subprime and conventional conforming loans.

The market for subprime loans was growing rapidly in America. In 2006, it was approximately 37% of the total mortgages. All financing companies moved to take advantage of the situation. CFC did this through its HELOC programme. This is another evidence of strategy re-alignment due to the government initiatives.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Countrywide Financial Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Financial Performance 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Revenues 7,978,642 8,566,627 10,016,708 11,417,128 6,061,437 % Change 0 7% 17% 14% -47% Compensation expense 2,590,936 3,137,045 3,615,483 4,373,985 4,165,023 % change 0% 21% 15% 21% -5% Compensation/Total Expenses 63% 63% 62% 62% 57% Insurance Claims Expense 360,046 390,203 441,584 449,138 525,045 % Change 0% 8% 13% 2% 17% Stock Price at the end of period 25.28 37.01 34.19 42.45 8.94 % Change 0% 46% -8% 24% -79% The table above shows part of CFC’s financial performance during the 5-year period between 2007 and 2003. There was a constant increase in revenues until 2007 when it declined. The compensation expense also increased steadily, reflecting the increase in performance pay.

However, in 2007, there was a 5% decline, reflecting the financial difficulties facing CFC. The company managed to maintain a stable ratio of compensation/ total expenses. The insurance claims increased drastically in 2007, again because of the defaulted mortgages. During the downfall, stock price suffered the most, with a 79% decline in 2007.

Ethics in Countrywide Financial Corporation Several breaches of ethical guidelines contributed to CFC’s downfall. The greatest of these was the VIP Loan Programme. It allowed friends of CFC’s executives to obtain preferential treatment in relation to mortgage loans. These “friends “were people in positions of power who could influence CFC’s business.

By then, this practise was already outlawed in America. It was bribing in disguise. Most participants in the VIP programmes were senators and policy-makers. The problem with this scheme is that it interfered with the participant’s independence and objectivity when dealing with CFC. However, the executives proceeded knowing what the implications were.

CFC engaged in predatory lending. This means that the company convinced customers to obtain mortgages without full-disclosure of the consequences. As a result, many found themselves trapped in mortgages that they could barely afford. In issuing new mortgages, CFC disregarded its own and industry underwriting rules, thereby increasing the risk profile of its loans.

The company also failed to disclose to its insurer AIG the true nature of the risk associated with its mortgages. This dishonesty resulted in AIG taking on more risk than acceptable. Eventually, the national insurer had to turn to the government for assistance during the financial crisis. AIG sued CFC for failure to employ full-disclosure.

Compensation can be either ethical or unethical. Countrywide had a system of compensation that focused on incentive pay. At one point, incentive pay was 100% of the salary paid to employees. The incentive was based on number of new loans originated. This encouraged employees to advance loans to undeserving customers just to get the commission.

The biggest problem with this system was the failure to reduce pay due to defaults in advanced loans. This would have motivated employees to be careful in the screening process. A good payment system should be well balanced, not constituted of performance pay solely. Like most American firms, CFC compensated its executives handsomely. This ate into the profits further. Roughly, 60% of expenses at Countrywide were made up of salaries. Executive salaries were the bulk of this amount.

Salvaging Countrywide Financial Corporation The Bank of America acquired Countrywide in 2008. Later, the bank had to pay an estimated $8.5 billion to bail CFC out of its legal tussles. In total, BofA spent around $12.5 billion on Countrywide before the end of 2008. The question is, was this investment worthwhile? The bank had to distance itself from the CFC brand, following the bad publicity surrounding it. Further, it had to retire the brand from the market place since it brought sad memories to Americans’ minds.

The strategic decisions BofA needs to make cannot be based on the $12.5 billion it spent on CFC. This money is already a sunk cost. The bank can decide to dispose of CFC now, since the economic climate has improved. It is likely that this option will result in a loss. There is a very low probability that Bank of America will find a buyer willing to pay more than $13 billion for CFC. The better option would be to retain the company, and rebuild it from ground up.

The original idea of CFC was a great one. Though the company has fallen into trouble, it is still possible to salvage its business. When the trade cycle moves to a boom, and unemployment and inflation are low, then Americans will begin to demand more houses. As it is, it is very difficult to purchase a house in cash.

Therefore, the demand for mortgages will also rise. BofA should start preparing for this period. It has taken a right step in retiring the CFC brand. Now it has to create a new brand and ensure consumers associate it with honesty. For this strategy to be successful, an aggressive marketing campaign is necessary.

BoFA must also re-think the underwriting policies of CFC. They must make more stringent and enforce them to ensure employees comply. The company needs a new and improved code of conduct. This code should have top management support. Thus, schemes like the VIP and FOA will be prevented. Finally, BofA may have to downsize CFC if it is to survive. Some employees may have to be laid off. Reorganization could also be necessary. This will aid in realigning CFC to the strategic objectives of BofA.


Reading the American Past, Volume II: From 1865: Selected Historical Document Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents The fundamentals of the postwar period

The importance of Marshall’s Plan

The U.S. economy

Works Cited

The fundamentals of the postwar period While analyzing the Lessons of World War II by Marshall, there is a need to highlight the fundamentals of the period. So, one is to keep in mind that the postwar period was characterized by successful reconstruction of the economies. It seems that representative institutions appearance was the greatest as well as the most successful event of the postwar period.

The Marshall Plan is considered to be the key aspect of the success Western Europe experienced. Thus, this idea is confirmed by DeLong Bradford and Barry Eichengreen. In other words, one can state that Marshall’s Plan was of great significance for the prosperity of Western Europe.

Of course, the fact that Marshall’s program had a great success is recognized to be indisputable; however, taking into account the points Marshall’s Plan included, one can state that the importance of the Plan is evident when analyzing alleviating resource shortages. Generally, the main purpose of Marshall’s Plan was to eliminate hunger, and poverty. There is also a need to add that working economy revival was the key aim of the program.

The importance of Marshall’s Plan It is necessary to point out that fear of financial chaos was regarded as the principal problem in Europe. For this reason, one can make a conclusion that this fear had to be solved with Marshall’s program. On the other hand, nobody can neglect the impact of the psychological affect on people all over the world.

Generally, they say that the reconstruction of Western European countries was much more important than performance of the duties of the East Europeans. Moreover, Cox and Kennedy-Pipe are of the same opinion.

While speaking about Dwight D. Eisenhower’s farewell address, one is to keep in mind that this speech became really legendary. It seems that Eisenhower’s speech had a great impact on the interdependence between the military and defense industry. On the other hand, the role of the universities can’t be neglected. The most important point, which is to be discussed, is the way the power had to be used to protect the interests of the whole world.

So, Eisenhower was sure that crises can’t be avoided; so, for this reason, he recognized the importance of the solutions to resolve various contradictions. The principal aim of the so-called military complex was to establish public policy in relation to American democracy. In other words, the main aim of Eisenhower’s speech was to let know beforehand about dangers of the product of military establishment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. economy While analyzing Johnson’s book and taking into account the above-mentioned points concerning the postwar period, one can make a conclusion that economic state of the USA became more stable. It can sound strange; however, the structural break in the economy of the USA became a necessary step to stabilize its financial state.

When speaking about Marshall’s Plan, one is to keep in mind that Marshall was not the first Western leader who proposed to use American dollars for economic stabilization of Europe. However, he was the only person who led the way. In other words, the peculiar feature of Marshall’s Plan was economic recovery of the whole world. It was obvious, that without his plan, there could be no political stability in the world. On the other hand, without Marshall’s program, peace could be also under the threat.

Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American Past, Volume II: From 1865: Selected Historical Documents, 2008. Web.


Breast Cancer Treatment Essay best essay help

“Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body” (Carlson et al., 2009). Cancerous cells are also referred to as malignant cells. “Cells act as the building blocks of organisms” (Carlson et al., 2009). Under normal circumstances, cells will undergo cell division depending on the body’s needs, and then die once their function ends.

In addition, malignant cells divide very fast and sometimes fail to die. Cancer develops in different tissues and organs of the body. Cancerous cells have the characteristic of spreading from their source to other parts of the body (invasive). Cancerous cells that remain at their source are said to be noninvasive. The breast is one common organ that cancer affects. Breast cancer occurs in two main categories (Carlson, et al., 2009). Ductal malignancy: this is the most common type of cancer.

This type of breast cancer manifests itself in the tubes/ducts which form the channel for transporting milk from the breast to the nipple. “Lobular carcinoma: this type of cancer usually begins in the milk producing regions of the breast (lobules)” (Breast cancer, 2011). Rarely does cancer develop from other parts of the breast. “Breast cancer is known to occur in invasive or noninvasive form” (Breast cancer 2011). Thus, cancerous cells in the breast may metastasize to other parts of the breast from their source.

The prevalence and causes of cancer vary. “Cancer biologists have discovered that most breast carcinomas are sensitive to the hormone estrogen” (Breast cancer, 2011). The hormone causes the cancerous cells to grow. The breast cancer cells that respond to estrogen have estrogen receptors on their surfaces (Breast cancer, 2011).

Cancer biologists refer to these estrogen receptor possessing breast cancer cells as receptor-positive/EP-positive cancer cells. Scientists have discovered a certain gene called HER2 that helps breast cancer cells to multiply and repair themselves. It has also been noted that women with this type of gene have a severe breast cancer than their female counterparts who lack it.

In addition, HER2 bearers have a higher risk of breast cancer reoccurrence. Generally, chances of developing cancer increase with age. The older one becomes, the higher the risk. Women above 50 years have advanced breast cancer cases. Women are twice more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Family history plays a central role in dictating the chances of someone developing breast cancer.

Persons whose close relatives had ovarian, uterine, breast or colon cancer are at a high-risk of developing breast cancer. Scientists have also discovered that women who experience very early periods (before the age of 12), and those who continue to experience periods through menopause (after age 55) have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Moreover, excessive alcohol (for adults) and radiation therapy around the chest area in children present a risk of developing breast cancer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women who have received hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and those that used diethylstilbestrol (DES) are at a higher risk. Child birth has also been found to have an effect on breast cancer. Bearing several children and at an early age, reduces the risk. On the other hand, women who bear children after the age of 30 or those who do not bear children at all poses a great risk of developing breast cancer (Giuliano et al. 2011).

Breast cancer at an early stage does not present any symptoms (Hayes, 2007). That is why experts encourage women to go for regular checkups. However, after it has progressed it may present the following symptoms. A hard lump in the breast or armpit that does not induce pain is an indicator of breast cancer.

The lump has uneven edges. Change in the appearance (size and shape) of the nipple may be another indicator. The nipple may show some reddening, dimpling or puckering. The nipple may also produce a discharge. The fluid could be bloody, clear, and yellow or appear like pus. “Symptoms of advanced breast cancer are bone pain, breast pain and discomfort, skin ulcers, weight loss and swelling of one arm next to the breast with cancer” (Breast cancer, 2011).

The treatment of cancer depends on the type, stage, sensitivity to certain hormones or whether the cancer over expresses HER2/neu gene (Carlson et al., 2009). Doctors usually conduct certain tests before deciding the type of treatment to give. Such tests include breast MRI, biopsy, ultrasound, mammography, sentinel lymph node biopsy or CT/PET scans. Three options may be employed. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy (to kill cancer cells) and surgery to remove the cancerous tissue (could be lumpectomy or mastectomy).

Hormone therapy may be prescribed to women with ER positive breast cancer to inhibit certain hormones that cause uncontrolled cell division. Newer strategies include biologic/targeted therapy and immunotherapy (Carlson et al., 2009). “In targeted therapy, anticancer drugs are used to recognize and inhibit certain changes in cells that may lead to cancer” (Breast cancer, 2009). Immunotherapy utilizes activated immune system cells to treat cancer cells. More research is being carried out to shade more light on the use of immunotherapy.

References Breast Cancer (2009). Breast Cancer. Web.

Breast Cancer (2011). Breast Cancer. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Breast Cancer Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Carlson, R. et al. (2009). Breast Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Journal of Comprehensive Cancer Network, 7(2), 122-92.

Giuliano, A. et al. (2011). Axillary Dissection vs no Axillary Dissection in Women with Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: A Randomized Controll Trial. Journal of the American Association (JAMA), 305(6), 569-75.

Hayes, D. (2007). Clinical Practice: Folow-up of Patients with Early Breast Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(24), 2505-13.


Analysis of Articles by Johnson Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The articles by Johnson are critical in understanding the external behavior of the US during and after the Second World War. In document 26-1, the author uses the speech of one of the distinguished military generals to assess the position of the US during and after the war.

The military chief lamented that the US was ill prepared to engage any state in a military battle since it had limited resources and technological expertise. Though the military general, George Marshall, agreed that the war brought some benefits to many Americans, he lamented that the war exposed the American weakness regarding military preparedness.

Before the Second World War, the US was much concerned about its internal affairs implying that it avoided external conflicts at all costs. In fact, the US was forced to join the Second World after Japan destroyed its Pearl Harbor. Various reasons contributed to American dormancy in the international system. The US considered itself a peaceful country that did not need any conflict to succeed. However, other reasons contributed to this quietness. These reasons are better captured in the following statement.

There is now another disadvantage to a large professional standing army. Wars in the twentieth century are fought with the total resources, economic, scientific and human of entire nations. Every specialized field of human knowledge is employed. Modern war requires the skills and knowledge of the individuals of a nation (Johnson 212).

The general was trying to imply that war is only fought by rich nations, which are endowed with national resources. Therefore, the military leader challenged Americans to support the government in forming a strong military that would counter any foreign power. The general observed that not all Americans could leave their businesses and join the military but they had to sacrifice their finances to fund military projects.

In article 27-5, Johnson uses the speech of the former head of state, Dwight Eisenhower, to assess the achievements of Americans during the 1950s. Even though Americans achieved a lot during the 1950s, they were faced with many threats. Such threats could be facing the state even currently.

The former head of state observed that Americans had many things to accomplish but the changes in the international system affected them. For this reason, both foreign and domestic policies had to be adjusted to suit the changes in the international system. The leader suggested that American policy makers had to come up with balanced proposals to ensure success. For instance, the economy had to be partly privatized so that many people could venture in clandestine investments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The former president concurred with the general’s postulations that America had to prepare itself militarily. For this to happen, the American populace had to fund various projects through paying sustainable taxes. In other words, Americans had to sacrifice in order to achieve greatness internally and externally. This can be well captured by the following statement.

Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties (Johnson 248).

From the two articles, some observations can be made. In formulation of domestic and foreign policies, the actors are surrounded by the international system. The policy maker must behave within the context of the environment. The environment is usually complex because there are many units such as religions, civilizations, economies and regimes.

The environment can therefore constrain, provide opportunities or can affect the willingness of the decision makers to take advantage of the prevailing conditions. In the American context, the international system prevented the actors from making unilateral decisions before the Second World War. After the war, leaders had to change their foreign policies from isolationist to interventionist.

Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American past: selected historical documents: volume II: from 1865. 4th ed. New York: Bedford, 2008. Print.


The Blues Meaning and Significance Essay cheap essay help

What is the blues? It seems that the answer to this question can be easily found while examining its peculiarities as the music style, but this issue remains to be one of the most controversial questions which are associated with the blues as the music and philosophy.

Moreover, the attempts to define the blues as a notion gave the start for the discussions of the blues as the expression of the African-Americans’ identity and the possibility to play this music by white people. Thus, can white people play the blues? To examine the problem and give the reliable answer, it is necessary to pay attention to the blues as the cultural phenomenon and to its ethical significance.

In his work “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Phillip Jenkins gives the answer to the question and discusses the blues from several approaches to it as the cultural and aesthetical phenomenon. Jenkins states that it is necessary to differentiate between two understandings of the blues in order to be right while answering this provocative question.

Thus, he accentuates the blues as “the cultural expression” and as “the musical form”[1]. When people speak about the blues as the cultural expression it is important to focus on the fact that white people cannot play the blues because they do not have those national identity and historical, social, and cultural experience and background which the African-Americans have.

However, when we speak about the musical form it is possible to state that “the blues is really nothing more than sound patterns or forms that require only the ability to manipulate the instruments (including the voice) in the right way”[2]. That is why white people can follow the blues techniques and play it. Nevertheless, is it a real blues?

In their work “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Douglas and Nathaniel Langston argue the first one of Jenkins’s principles and support the second statement about the blues as the possibility of white people to play the blues as the musical form[3].

Their argument is based on the idea that it is unnecessary for people to be black, if they come from the South and feel the blues as the African-Americans do. Moreover, the blues can exist in the world of white people as the specific form known as the white blues[4]. That is why Jenkins’s thesis can be considered as rather controversial.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The blues is the music which traditionally reflects the feelings and emotions of the African-Americans in relation to their state in the country, the peculiarities of their living and visions of their life. Thus, the main ideas of the blues are closely connected with the issues of justice and liberties in the society.

That is why it is possible to discuss the blues in the context of social and ethical significance. To understand this significance, it is useful to refer to Michael Sandel’s ideas about social liberties which reflect some which are typical for the blues. Social justice can be based on individual rights and the freedom of choice[5]. This idea is close to the ethics of the blues because the blues is the music of freedom of will, choice, and desires which are not limited by restrictive social norms.

It is difficult to define the blues as a notion and to develop strict considerations about its meaning and significance because the blues is the music of the souls which freedom cannot be limited by any social, cultural or philosophical norms.

Works Cited Jenkins, Phillip. “The Blues as Cultural Expression”. Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low. Ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather. USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. 38-49. Print.

Langston, Douglas and Nathaniel Langston. “Even White Folks Get the Blues”. Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low. Ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather. USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. 167-176. Print.

Sandel, Michael J. Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.

Footnotes Phillip Jenkins, “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).

Phillip Jenkins, “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011) 40.

Douglas Langston and Nathaniel Langston, “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).

Douglas Langston and Nathaniel Langston, “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).

Michael J. Sandel, Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? (USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010).


Clovis People Origin and Culture Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract


Origin and Settlements

The Pre-Clovis People

The Clovis Life Styles



Abstract The Clovis culture is an ancient Native American society which, according to archeological documentation of North America, initially emerged about 13,000 years ago, during the last part of ice age (kennely, 2005). The culture’s name originated from works of arts found around Clovis in New Mexico where the initial clues were found in 1932.

Most studies have failed to establish the origin and the reason for disappearance of this culture. Most of existing analyses are based only on the assumptions, although there are some discoveries of their remains in some regions of North America and Mexico. Some archeologists believe that their disappearances were brought about by over-hunting of huge animals like mammoths.

There are still debates if the pre-Clovis people and culture really existed, and some consider that if they lived, then they were poorly organized since there are no enough discoveries of their tools found during excavations in Northern America or Asia. Most of the information in this paper was found in books and studies which are available at the internet. This paper will dwell on the pre-Clovis people, their culture, origin, settlement, lifestyles and finally their disappearance.

Introduction The first evidence, the mammoth bones with a spear-point stuck in the rips, was found in Folsom, New Mexico, in 1926 and since then, various related sites have been found all over the North America as well as Central America and Mexico (Deloria, 2010).

Paleo-Indians is another name used to describe the Clovis people who are commonly considered as the first people to reside in North America. Moreover, they are believed to be ancestors of the natives living in South and North America (McManamon


Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Historically, people living with disabilities in the United States were discriminated upon. Glowacki states that before the 18th century, disability was closely associated with witchcraft, demonic possession or sin (5). As a result, people with various disabilities were in most cases hidden from the public, ostracized and victimized (social exclusion) by members of society (Glowacki 5).

Culturally, having a child with a disability was a source of shame and ridicule in most American societies. Despite the significant changes and efforts directed towards the promotion of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, there still remain cultural and social barriers that dampen such efforts.

Retish and Raiter stated that culture played a pivotal role in determining societal attitudes towards given phenomena (130). The authors described attitude as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorably or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” (131). From this definition, it is evident that attitudes affect the way people react to different circumstances.

As such, cultural beliefs influence how we behave or perceive people and event in our societies. Negative feelings harbored by some people regarding particular disabilities are to a large extent as a result of cultural barrier. Therefore, it could be argued that cultural barriers are the greatest obstacles to the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in society.

Research conducted by Heyne, Schleien and McAvoy indicated that fear of disabilities was among the major obstacles in the formation of relationships between individuals with and without disabilities (23). Glowacki states that culture has contributed to the tendency of some societies blaming individuals for their disabilities. In addition, stigmatization, stereotyping and pity have been cited as sources of sociocultural barriers affecting individuals living with disabilities.

Previous studies indicate that cultural values greatly influence how society views disabilities. According to Mcloughlin, Zhou, and Clark, Confucianism is the predominant philosophy behind the Chinese culture (274).

The authors assert that this philosophy classifies people into three intellectual groups starting from people with great wisdom, those with average intelligence and finally, those with little intelligence. While Confucianism encourages tolerance, obedience and courtesy, it has led to the discrimination of people based on their personality and merits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mcloughlin et al state that Confucianism encourages people to be determined and participants in the process of national building, while on the other hand, it has led to the development of an elitist system characterized by social segregation and stratification that ignores the needs and efforts of the people with disabilities.

Buddhism as a core aspect in the Chinese culture encourages people to accept themselves as they are. Such values inhibit the ability of people with disabilities to develop because they have to accept their role in society as a marginalized populace. In addition, Buddhists’ belief in Karma also influences how they view people with disabilities.

According to Hampton, Buddhists believe that bad actions attract bad consequences, while good actions are rewarded (41). As such people with disabilities are often viewed as a sign of their predecessors’ bad karma. Due to such cultural beliefs, persons with disabilities in such societies always question whether they are a burden to their families or whether they are a source of shame to the family.

In regard to American culture, stereotyping, prejudice and stigmatization have been cited as the greatest barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities. Byrne defines stigmatization as “a sign of disgrace or discredit which sets a person apart from others” (65).

In most cases, stigma has led to situations where particular people in society are marginalized and excluded in various activities. In addition, McKeever reveals that stigma can prevent people with ability to participate in society, thereby leaving them dependent on others in society (1).

In addition, stigma leads to stereotyping based on misconception. At some point we are guilty of assuming that a mentally ill individual is aggressive or violent. While this is not always the case, such perceptions make it difficult for persons with disabilities to interact effectively with society.

Stigmatization has social and psychological effects on the victim’s quality of life. Nolan et al states that stigmatization lowers one’s self-esteem and self-efficacy. In addition, the authors assert that stigmatization leads to stress, anxiety, denial and antisocial behaviors among the people with disabilities (24). These issues make it difficult for people living with disabilities to become fully integrated into their societies. This makes them view themselves as beneficiaries in society rather than equal participants.

We will write a custom Essay on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, due to stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice towards disabilities, people living with disabilities are not given equal opportunity when it comes to education and employment. In most cases, physical disabilities have been associated with mental inabilities.

For example, there are instances whereby cripples are denied a desk job simply because employers assume that they are not fully qualified to handle the task. This is a classic example of how stigmatization, prejudice and stereotyping act as social barriers to people living with disabilities.

In an empirical study conducted by McCallion, Janicki, and Grant-Griffin in regard to parental perception to disabilities, the researchers found great disparities between the results recorded between African Americans, Chinese, Korean and Mexican participants. The results indicated that Chinese and Korean parents viewed disability as a source of shame in community and that parents from these cultural backgrounds were more likely to hide children with disabilities in order to avoid public ridicule (354).

Similarly, a study conducted by Zaromatidis et al on the attitude of selected Greeks and Greek-Americans towards people living with disabilities, the results showed that the latter had a positive attitude towards disabilities in comparison to their Greek counterparts (1191).

The results were attributed to societal constructs. Greek society is collectivist in nature. This means that Greeks place more emphasis on group membership and communal benefits. As such, people with disabilities are viewed as a source of shame and a threat to societal development.

On the other hand, Greek-Americans, have adopted the individualistic nature of the American society. As a result, they are more tolerant to disabilities. While the Greek society fails to acknowledge disability as a part of life, the American society makes an effort to embrace disability. This is a classic case of social exclusion versus social inclusion between these two samples.

In Mexico, cultural barriers are not as serious as social barriers. In a research conducted by Skivington, the researcher found out that the government in Mexico had to a large extent failed in the provision of services that benefit people living with disabilities (1).

While the Mexican government promised to consider the educational social, architectural and employment needs of people living with disabilities, literature reviewed in Skivington’s research indicated that for the past decade no concrete action had been taken in this regard (3). This is further supported by findings from a survey conducted by members of the Mexico Child Link organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The study indicated that a large percentage of Mexican street children suffer from various disabilities. In addition, due to lack of specialized care, parents often abandoned children with disabilities. This was attributed to the fact that such children were viewed as a burden and unproductive in a society riddled with poverty.

Other studies showed that children and adult with mental disabilities were mistreated and looked down upon in Mexican societies. According to Moreno, a visit to various mental institutions revealed clear signs of discrimination, lack of concern and mistreatment of patients within these institutions.

The author wrote that “Patients are tied to wheelchairs, walls of shelters and institutions are stained with feces, and pools of urine cover the floor, and children and adults often scream in agony and confusion” (Moreno 1).

In regard to the availability of educational opportunities, a study conducted by Aviles revealed that only 53 out of 457 teachers training institution gave licenses in special education. This would explain why 45,000 out of over one million teachers in Mexico are special educators (1). These examples reveal the sociocultural barriers experienced by people with disabilities in Mexico.

Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the sociocultural barriers that affect people with disabilities. From the literature review presented herein, it has been articulated that cultural and social values, beliefs and practices affect how and why people perceive disabilities. Religion and societal structures have been identified as the major sources of cultural barriers. On the other hand, stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice have been highlighted as the barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities in society.

Results from various studies have been used to explore various aspects of the topic and to compare how similar barriers affect societal views on disabilities across different cultures. It has also been noted that while there are laws and regulations that seek to promote equality and fairness for people living with disabilities, there is need to create more awareness among the masses in order to foster attitudinal change regarding disabilities.

People living with disabilities should also strive to prove that they too can make a significant impact to society. Disabilities should not be used as an excuse to nonperformance, but should be accepted and capitalized on. This will ensure future societies accept the situation and treat people with disabilities as equal contributors to the development of the society.

Works Cited Aviles, Karina. “Fox presume plan de educación especial, pero cada vez menos niños son atendidos.” La Jornada, (2006): 1. Print.

Byrne, Patrick. “Stigma of mental illness and ways of diminishing it Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 6.1 (2000): 65-72. Print.

Glowacki, Robert. Literature review for captivate: local participation for all. Perth: Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and Recreation, 2007. Print.

Hampton, Nan. “Meeting the unique needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with disabilities: A challenge to rehabilitation counselors in the 21st century.” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 31.1 (2000): 40-46. Print.

Heyne, Linda., Stuart Schleien., and Leo McAvoy. Making Friends: Using recreating activities to promote friendship between children with and without disabilities. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, 1993. Print.

McCallion, Philip., Matthew Janicki., and Lucinda Grant-Griffin. “Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on older families caregiving for persons with developmental disabilities.” Family Relations 46.4 (1997): 347-357. Print.

Mcloughlin, Caven., Zheng Zhou., and Elaine Clark. “Reflections on the development and status of contemporary special education services in China.” Psychology in the Schools 42.3 (2005): 273-283. Print.

McKeever, Rosemary. Rethink Anti-Stigma Campaign in Northern Ireland: Public Information Sheet on what is stigma. June 2006. Web.

Moreno, Ivan. Mexico’s disabled live in horrific conditions, report finds. 06 March, 2012. Web.

Retish, Paul., and Shunit Raiter. Adults with disabilities: international perspectives in the community. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print.

Skivington, Michael. “Disability and Adulthood in, Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study.” International Journal of Special Education 26.3 (2011): 1 – 12. Print.

Zaromatidis, Kelly et al. “A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward persons with disabilities: Greeks and Greek-Americans.” Psychological Reports 84.3 (1999): 1189-1196. Print.


Treatment of Somatization Disorder Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


General treatment

Specific treatment


Works Cited

Introduction Abbreviated as SD, Somatization Disorder refers to a medical condition characterized by several physical complaints. It has been found that SD occurs in chronic stages and patients suffering from this condition have a higher likelihood of suicide attempt compared to any other medical condition (Mai 653).

However, Somatization Disorder is not the main cause of suicide deaths reported across the world. The high level of suicide attempts among SD patients is attributed to cases of overdoses of drugs, emanating from the presence of numerous complaints.

Persistent physical complaints are quite often and these may last for years as several body systems are prone to the attack. Nevertheless, most registered cases involve complaints regarding the reproductive system, the nervous and the digestive system. Unlike other medical cases, SD carries a high level of stigma. As such, patients get dismissed by medical practitioners who argue that the condition is usually a manufactured disease in the mind of the patient (Mai 653).

SD presents itself through severe symptoms, capable of interfering with a person’s capability to work and even relate with other people around. Consequently, affected people seek medication from medical experts (Khouzam and Field 20).

Based on gender, Somatization Disorder is more prevalent in women than men. Coupled with other psychological disorders and anxiety, this condition may become fatal and is known to have poor diagnosis (Mai 653). Lowering the impact of SD is quite important with counseling and other psychological approaches being considered.

These help patients in dealing with the condition and augments stress management for better mental stability. Early intervention may further lower the severity of symptoms, which may lead to other harsh complications. This intervention is essential and healthy since most of the complications are uncomfortable and may deny the patient the ability to perform his or her daily chores and may lead to suffering of feelings (Khouzam and Field 20).

The condition is also known to fluctuate in one’s life and complete relief from the complaints is hardly possible. Additionally, Somatization Disorder develops between the age of eighteen and thirty years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to mention that no single method has been identified in the treatment and prevention of SD (Mai 653). This research paper explores the best treatment option for people suffering from SD. It further explains dangers and disadvantages of these treatment options, which have to be known to patients before consideration.

Treatment As mentioned above, Somatization Disorder does not have a single treatment method. Its treatment may comprise of several management methods before positive healthy results can be realized. However, there are several challenges experienced in the treatment of SD among medical practitioners (Mai 657). Most physicians are pessimistic and negative towards this condition. It is believed that psychologists and psychiatrists perceive SD as a chronic condition that only exists in the mind of patients.

This pessimism further ignores the fact that poor management of Somatization Disorder can lead to high severity of complications associated with the disorder (Khouzam and Field 23). This commonly occurs when there is inconsistency in treatment, which dissatisfies most patients. The difficulty experienced by doctors in treatment of Somatization Disorder is highly attributed to ignorance, refuting organic diseases, discomfort of some doctors during the process and the fear by most doctors to miss an organic disease (Weiten 70).

General treatment Treatment of SD requires the efforts of both doctors and the patients in order to realize better recovery results. In this regard, the first general principle of treatment is to ensure that diagnosis feedback is known to the patient (Mai 658). This helps the patient to understand his or her medical conditions based on the findings recorded by the doctor.

However, rejection is common, where doctors consider patients’ symptoms as imaginative and not real. As a result, the patient is denied the ability to positively accept the situation. Empowerment of patients is highly recommended by giving tangible and rational explanation for manifested symptoms to allow self-empowerment and stabilization of the situation at hand (Khouzam and Field 23).

Specific treatment Treatment of Somatization Disorder is mainly through pharmacological and psychological methods. Additionally, a combination of the two methods could be adopted as determined by the doctor in charge. Under psychological therapies, patients are usually exposed to supportive psychotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy.

However, the two can be combined depending on the verdict of the doctor and the severity of the existing symptoms (Mai 658). It is important to note that supportive psychotherapy is best performed by physicians who are sympathetic and understanding towards the medical problem. In this case, the doctor is able to respond to both emotional and physical challenges presented by the patient.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is recommended that therapy sessions be regular, consistent and well structured in order to eliminate several complaints. However, these sessions should not be in excess to avoid dependency among patients. For quick recovery, patients are encouraged to focus on their daily life and not current medical symptoms to avoid worsening of the situation.

On the other hand, CBT is the most effective method of treating Somatization Disorder. This approach merges several therapeutic procedures and is highly recommended for patients who do not respond to simple strategies of SD treatment and management (Mai 658). Under this approach, appropriate behavior of the patient is promoted through structuring of the patient’s physical and social environment.

This eliminates the possibility of being preoccupied with dangerous imaginations and behavior, which may hamper recovery. CBT experts reveal that family members and physicians play a crucial role in the recovery of SD patients and may also reinforce their illness (First and Tasman 385).

Treatment goals are equally important to define the number and frequency of therapy sessions. They also explain the need for patients to be involved in homework such as reading appropriate literature, recoding of feelings and keeping of a diary (Mai 659).

This helps the physician to track the lifestyle of the patient with regard to the prevailing disorder. CBT further allows the participation of family members in modification of the environment, allowing them to monitor the behavior and response of the patient regularly (Khouzam and Field 24). Under this category of patients, relaxation therapy could also be vital as a way of maintaining good health. This has to be done regularly over a long period of time.

Besides psychological therapies, patients suffering from SD can be treated using pharmacological therapies. Nevertheless, there is very little progress that has been realized in exploring medical treatment approach. Antidepressants are the most prescribed drugs especially for patients who do not suffer from dysphoria. The risk of using this method is overdose due to numerous complications.

Conclusion By comparing these methods, I would recommend CBT as the most efficacious way of dealing with SD. This is because it combines all psychological therapies and involves both the patient, physician and family members.

Nevertheless, the disadvantage of this method is rejection from doctors and family members who may not be able to understand SD symptoms being presented (Mai 660). In seeking medical attention, patients can consider community resources like public hospitals, hotlines, clinics, support groups and recreational centers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited First, Michael, and Tasman Allan. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Khouzam, Raoul, and Field Susan. “Somatization Disorder: Clinical Presentation and Treatment in Primary Care.” Turner White, 1999. Web.

Mai, François. “Somatization Disorder: A Practical Review.” Can J Psychiatry 49.10, (2004): 652-662. Print.

Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations Briefer Version. Stamford, Connecticut, U.S: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.


Deforestation Problem Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Deforestation is the cutting down of trees for the purpose of converting the land to none forest use. Deforestation involves cutting down trees and stumps completely or partially for a variety of reasons. The major reason why people cut down trees is for fuel use whereby the cut down trees are used as a source of energy, a phenomenon that is very common in most developing countries.

Deforestation is carried out for agricultural purposes in that the deforested land is used for planting agricultural products or grazing. In this case, the cut down trees are burnt down which leads to the depreciation of the soil nutrients (Margulis, 2004).

Extraction of natural resources and construction of public amenities is another major reason as to why deforestation takes place. Large tracts of forest land are deforested to pave way for the extraction of mineral resources such as limestone, diamond, gold and all other sorts of minerals. Construction of roads, railway lines, buildings and dams are other reasons for deforestation.

Commercial logging is also another major cause for deforestation. In this case, the trees cut down are sawed into timber and pulp for various commercial uses ranging from construction to other industrial uses like raw material of making plain papers.

Deforestation has continued rapidly throughout the world regardless of the grave effects of this practice. Forests initially covered a quarter of the earth planet, but the encroachment of human activities leaving bare fields has continued to be a major threat to forests and has led to drastic reduction of the percentage of earth covered by forests.

According to Spilsbury, (2011), the percentage of land covered by forests has reduced drastically over a period of time. A good case study of this is Brazil where large tracks of Amazon rain forest have been destroyed due to logging.

In most developing countries, over 80% of the wood harvested is used for fuel purposes. Most of deforestation done for the purpose of fuel is done in dry forests where else deforestation for commercial reason is done in tropical rain forests. Wood fuel is preferred by rural and urban populations in developing countries because of its affordability and availability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the rural poor population residing near forests normally uses only wood fuel due to its proximity. In this case, the population cut down trees in the neighboring forests and uses them for cooking purposes. The urban population has contributed to deforestation whereby timber merchants cut down trees for the purpose of charcoal burning where they get their lucrative market in the urban areas.

One of the effects of deforestation felt globally is global warming. Global warming occurs as a result of deforestation as trees uses carbon dioxide during the photosynthesis process. Forests decrease leads to the increase of carbon dioxide in the environment which traps heat in the atmosphere leading to global warming. Other effects of deforestation include desertification due to lack of rains, environmental pollution as well as wildlife human conflict.

To curb deforestation, several measures need to be undertaken. This include reforestation, legislation to ban logging, recycling to cut down the use of forest products and protecting forested areas from human encroachment.

Another major measure which can be taken to stop deforestation is using alternative sources of fuel apart from wood fuel. Alternative fuel sources will drastically reduce the rate at which forests are being destructed. Governments across the world should adopt the use of bio gas, solar and wind energy as an alternative source of fuel energy (Miller, Vandome


Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Infoscape Technologies Infoscape Technologies is a novel technology firm focusing on the hospitality industry in the UAE region. It focuses on providing software solutions to the hospitality industry. Mainly, it provided solutions in Guest Incident Management, HR administration, concierge management system, and Hotel Service Optimization System. Vinod Philip, who is currently the CEO, started the company in 2008. The company has several middle level managers, director of sales, project manager, HR and financial officer.

The CEO is the overall manager in charge of the operations of the company. The CEO is responsible for strategic leadership in the company. The CEO, in collaboration with other senior level managers, has the task of devising policies for implementation within the company.

Since its inception in 2009, the company has grown in many dimensions; this includes an increase in the customer base and an increase in program outputs. The CEO offers guidance in what products the company distributes from other companies and sets targets for the percentage of products the company will market under its own brand. The number of high-level collaborations has increased as well as the output of Infoscape branded products.

The CEO maintains discretionary authority on decisions concerning which products the company markets from outside. The CEO also represents the company in industry conventions, within and outside UAE. The CEO receives reports on the progress of the company form the different departments and charts new course for the company. He also provides decisions on expansions; for example the decisions to expand to India.

The other mid-level manager is the project manager. The project manager is in charge of all projects undertaken by the company. The company deals with installation and maintenances of software solutions in the hospitality industry; consequently, all the functions of installation and maintenances fall under the office of the project manager. The projects manager oversees the implementation of projects related to varied technology products.

This includes presales, execution, training, project management, and support. All the activities pertaining to customer satisfaction fall under this office. The project manager has duties comprising of designing, instituting, and evaluating the progress of projects. She is in charge of monitoring the productivity and motivation of her workers. She also handles customer complains concerning the company products or products marketed by the company.

The director of sales deals with all marketing activities in the firm, which includes both the company brands and external brands. The manager has the charge of overseeing effective collaboration between his company and other company in marketing partnerships. He furnishes the CEO with information regarding the market requirements and recommend solution products. He has to keep the sales personnel motivated and productive. The other managers assume the roles designed for their departments in the same manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First-line managers include the assistant technical consultant, Robson Correa, and the personnel manager. The assistant technical consultant answers to the project director and is responsible for the providing consultation to company staff working in various projects. The personnel manager oversees the welfare of company personnel. This includes workstation transportations, complaints, leave, and general employee issues.

STC STC is a Saudi-based organization dealing in telecommunications. It was established in 1998. It operates through five operations units dealing in voice calls, data, internet, business, and mobile services. It has 21,190 employees and a market capitalization of SAR 79.8 billion (Zawya, 2012).

In 2011, the STC publicized its new organizational structure. The structure comprised of divisions descriptive of KSA Operations, Strategic Operations, and Technical Operations. The Group CEO, Group VP for Shared Services, CEO for Strategic Operations, Group CEO for Technical Operations, and CEO of Saudi Operations provide headship to the company.

The next level of management comprises of VPs in charge of Wholesale, Finance Saudi Arabia, Informational Technology, Home Services, Network, Strategic Affairs, Enterprise Services, Human Capital, Regulatory Affairs, and Personal Services. The third level of managers includes the project managers in all the divisions represented by the vice presidents (Zawya, 2012).

The top-level management consists of four persons proving oversight to all sectors of the company. They provide guidance to the multinational operations on the company. Their functions include setting standards for the company on the three key sectors of the company and making top-level management decisions. They also evaluate the structure of the organization to ensure that is consistent with company orientation.

The second level of management, consisting of the VPs for various subsectors, is responsible for the actual operation decisions in the organization. They cooperatively design strategies for the progress of the company in line with the goals established by the top management and the board of governors.

They have the task of running their subsectors to ensure optimum productivity. The middle level directors consult with project managers to address the issue of motivation, qualifications, and job satisfaction. They interpret the goals of the company in terms of their sectors and communicate them to the first-line managers.

We will write a custom Assessment on Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They receive and evaluate reports on the progress of their divisions and make appropriate recommendations. Finally, they report to the top management on the progress in their sub sectors. The product managers have the task of disseminating company policies and goals to non-managerial staff. They translate these policies into actual tasks that the personnel under them will accomplish. They report to their immediate supervisors. They monitor the productivity of the works and make appropriate decisions.

Advantages and disadvantages of their organization structures Infoscape follows a line-discipline organizational structure. This means that divisions arise from the different roles carried by the middle level managers. Command flows, in most cases, from the top. However, the middle level managers aid in the decision-making by furnishing the CEO with the relevant information. Policies developed from the top management eventually reach the last rank among the employees. This arrangement has several advantages.

It is the simplest method of administration, since the centers of command are easily identifiable and recognizable. Superior-subordinate relationships persist, and the organization follows a top-bottom chain of command, which results in harmony of command. There are fewer chances of miscommunication and conflicts. Since the command flows from only one direction, then all the personnel will be following similar directions, thus, reducing chances of confusion and conflict.

This organizational structure also presents the advantage of instituting better discipline throughout the organization (Murphy


Introduction to Management Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu

Emerging Issues That Will Affect Business in the UAE One emerging issue that businesses in the UAE must deal with in the future is localization. Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) face the challenge of making their business operations local to effectively compete in the UAE business environment. There are laws in the UAE governing aspects of localization for MNEs.

However, their implementation is somewhat ambiguous. Thus, companies rely on the need to realize economic returns as a factor influencing their localization policy. Unfortunately, the present situation allows some MNEs to avoid the localization of their operations. Moreover, those that succeed in implementing localization may not go as deep as it is necessary to maintain their competitive strategies in the end.

Localization differently affects various companies. First, in the UAE, the government through its agencies is the biggest consumer of products and services in the economy. Companies that encourage the employment of UAE citizens and subcontract their work to native companies have a higher chance of doing business with the government.

The lucrativeness of government contracts in the UAE force many MNEs to hire local staffs. Not all MNEs will survive the dynamic market of the country if all they do is hire local staffs. The UAE continues to emerge as a force to reckon in the global business environment. As it rises, its citizens and laws also evolve to provide better control and management the economy.

MNEs that early adopted the concept of localization have an advantage over new companies, which are copying an already existing trend. For the former, their need to realize economic gains prompted them to develop strategic plans in accordance with their strength and weakness analyses. However, the latter only adopt localization policies to copy their competitors.

Copying strategies of another company in the same industry does not guarantee the effectiveness of those strategies in the future. The late adopters of localization have to deal with the emerging risk of becoming irrelevant in the changing market. The UAE is likely to develop professional bodies and associations that will stress the need for the adoption of local practices among MNEs. Thus, the companies that fail to support the localization projects are already jeopardizing their future operations.

Management should understand that the achievement of external legitimization by recruiting native nationals reduces their risks as they compete with homegrown firms (Forstenlechner


Improvement of Communication Strategies Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract This paper is aimed at identifying strategies that firms can utilize to improve communications channels with its employees. The introduction gives a concise explanation of communication process in an organization. It then identifies obstacles faced by employees in firms. Using the theories identified by research recommendations explain viable strategies for organization are given. All this information then form the basis for conclusion that is also given in the paper.

Introduction In organizations, communication is the process by which information is passed from the top-level management that is comprised of the CEO and the Board of Directors down to the other subordinates and vice-versa. The significance of communication is any institution is to ensure that the recipient of data fully understands the information given. The main medium for communication in organization is people i.e. among managers, subordinates, customers etc (Gibson


How to Choose a Major Persuasive Essay a level english language essay help

Choosing an academic major, the students make one of the most important decisions in life. It is a complicated issue which is influenced by a number of aspects where gender one is the most significant. Such issue includes the psychological process of selecting the academic majors from the position of the gender stereotypes. Although gender rights and ability to choose the education and work are equal in the modern society, the gender aspect is still has a serious impact on the people’s choice, including the choice of college major.

Thus, according to the most widely spread stereotypes, girls rather choose humanities than technical majors or math, while boys prefer the sciences, technical subjects and IT. However, I think that the statement that girls and boys have the different ability to study technical subjects is incorrect due to a number of examples of successful women-scientists.

It is the absolutely illogical position, as the present aspect is based on the personal skills and inborn patterns. Therefore, analyzing the current situation within the educational system from the position of the gender stereotypes, it is necessary to develop the solution which should step-by-step improve the situation.

The most appropriate measures are the providing of the seminars for school students when the teachers could emphasize an importance of the personal choice in spite of the stereotyped opinions. As the students will comprehend that the decision-making process should be independent and based on the personal skills and desires, they will choose those majors which can help them to increase the inborn talent.

Therefore, it is necessary to change the stereotypical view of the gender definition of the sciences, developing the governmental programs which would guarantee the equality of every students no matter of gender and to provide the lessons and seminars for students, indicating and unmasking the gender stereotypes as a cause of the significant impact on the process of choosing a major.

It is obvious that the choice of a major is a one of the most important decisions in life. St. John says that “there is, perhaps, no college decision that is more thought-provoking, gut-wrenching and rest-of-your life-oriented – or disoriented – than the choice of a major” (22).

Most of the students make their choice not only because they do not want to study math or languages or, vice versa, they want to investigate the concrete subject. The foundation of the psychological aspects within the process of choosing a major indicates that the gender stereotypes have a significant influence on the students’ choice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, there is a widely spread belief in the society that boys are better in sciences and various technical subjects than girls. As it is a well-known fact that girls have more developed left cerebral hemisphere, while boys have right, many people suppose that girls should choose humanities such as literature, languages, psychology, etc. In every situation when the girl chooses the technical studies, math or chemistry, there are the doubts about an ability of female to cope with such sciences.

On the other hand, there is a stereotype than females are better teachers and psychologists than males due to the natural skills to comprehend the emotions and feeling of others and ability to teach children.

However, the simple analysis demonstrates than this statement is absolutely wrong, as there are different examples of the great male teachers. Besides, the majority of the famous psychologists are males. Therefore, I am sure of the necessity of explaining of this issue for students who are ready to make a choice of a major.

The present issue requires the development of the measures which could reduce the disbalance and stereotypes within the educational area. The research of this problem demonstrates that the issue needs more strict developmental solutions.

Many researchers emphasize that the gender stereotypes and gender equality are the parts of the international promoting programs which claim the importance of parity and the personal rights, including the choice of educational majors, in spite of the stereotypes. Thus, Subrahmanian says that gender parity and equality within the education are the international development goals (396). The author analyses the work of The Dakar Framework for Action, which contains the gender-based goals.

First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the gender inequality on the different levels of educational system, including the primary and secondary education. According to the researcher, a gender perspective within the educational system includes such elements as “learning content, teaching method and process, subject choice, assessment modes, management of peer relationships and learning outcomes” (Subrahmanian 403). Thus, it is possible to notice that subject choice is one of the key elements of the gender equality.

According to Bennett et al., the current situation within the educational system demonstrates the presence of such characteristics as “politicians’ concerns for the country to remain globally competitive through scientific innovation delivered by a skilled workforce; lobbyists’ campaigns for equal rights for women employees; and female academics’ challenges to the cultures and practices of their own science disciplines” (2010).

We will write a custom Essay on How to Choose a Major specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the authors emphasize the feminist perspective, which has a significant support. From this point of view, there is no problem for the students to choose that major which they want no matter of gender.

However, as this situation is typical for United Kingdom and Ireland, a number of other world’s communities demonstrate the different statistics where the gender factor is significant. The researchers suggest the political debates like one of the measures which can improve the problem of the gender stereotypes within the educational system.

All children should have the same access to the educational programs and subjects. Although this problem is not significant in the Western countries, it is one of the major aspects of the Eastern societies and especially in the Middle East, where females have fewer abilities than males.

Providing of the equal access to the scientific disciplines will help students be more acquainted with the subjects and will help them to choose a major. Such problems should be discussed on the various levels, including the ministers and governments and the national and international committees. As the ministries of education will comprehend the problem, they will develop the measures to improve the situation and to change the stereotypes.

I see the development of seminars and lessons in the schools as the major step of improvement of the situation. One of the solutions is the creation of a list of recommendations for students.

This list should include those elements which will emphasize the equality of males and females in the process of choice of a major and an importance of the personal skills and inborn talent as the basement of the choice. Besides, I would like to provide the particular examples, for instance, the successful male teachers and female-physicists. Such obvious examples are more effective and convincing than the theories.

Reading the information about the concrete scientists, the students will feel freer and more assured of their choice of a major. For instance, the information about Sofia Kovalevskaya and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, among many other women-scientists, will demonstrate that students should easily choose chemistry, math or physics as a major, in spite of the gender stereotypes.

At the same time, the information about successful male teachers or designers will help males to follow their desire to study such “female” disciplines as literature or art. Although it is a well-known fact that men are better chefs than women, most of the male students do not want to study this discipline, in spite of the skills and desire.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Choose a Major by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, they are better fashion and interior designers. Although it seems absolutely female deal to teach children, cook and express the emotions, men can get more success as the teachers and artists. However, most of the time, they are scared to be mocked or misunderstood as well as girls are afraid to choose the technical majors and, as the result, to be misunderstood and do not be treated seriously.

The school seminars should demonstrate that both genders have the same rights within the choice of the academic programs and it is not shameful to follow the dreams. Moreover, it would be appropriate and effective to invite the practitioners form the different areas in order to show the students that it is possible to get the success in every field, in spite of gender.

As a result of the seminars, the students will be able to get the feedback from the professionals. Thereby, it is necessary to make those studies more practical than theoretical. As the theory can be good, while doing the research and investigating the problem, the practical examples are more effective and convincing in the process of decision-making.

Considering gender as one of the major issues that has a significant impact on the process of choosing of an academic major by students, it is necessary to provide the measures which should improve this problem. Thus, the possible solution can be found in development of the educational programs by the governments, which will guarantee the equal rights and parity within the educational system for all students.

This issue should be discussed within the political and social debates in order to improve the problem of gender stereotypes as one of the key elements of choosing a major. It is necessary to provide the possibility of choosing any subject no matter of gender of the student. Besides, the school program should include the seminars and lectures where the students will be able to get information about the different subjects which can be chosen as the majors.

Additionally, such seminars will provide an opportunity to learn about the particular examples of males and females who got success in the various fields of science. As the students will get the chance to meet with the professionals, they will comprehend the necessity of the choice of a major, according to their natural talent and skill and no matter of gender.

Works Cited Bennett, Cinnamon, Marina Larios, Louise Norman and Emma Parry 2010, Meta-analysis of gender and science research – Country group report: UK and Ireland countries. PDF file. Web.

St. John, E. “Majors.” Black Issues in Higher Education, 17.4 (2000): 21-27. Print.

Subrahmanian, Ramya. “Gender equalityin education: Definitions and measurements.” International Journal of Educational Development 25 (2005): 395–407. Print.


Personality of Julius Caesar and His Effect on Rome Report college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Caesar’s Personality

Caesar’s Effect on Rome

Kevin Rudd Compared to Caesar



Introduction Julius Caesar is an ancient Roman personality and an influential political figure. Moreover, conspirators, led by a personality called Brutus, assassinated him. Caesar’s role in the play is not immense, though he dominates the play, even after his demise in the third act of the play.

He is enigmatic and represents the focal theme of the play, the moral haziness surrounding his assassination (Shakespeare, 2011). The assassinating leader is an influential political figure and coveted leader who is a brutal and sadistic tyrant. Therefore, the conspiracy against him appears to be dignified and similarly malevolent.

Caesar’s Personality Caesar is undoubtedly domineering. His first appearance depicts scores of admiring followers behind him. He is accustomed to dominion. Caesar depicts his dominance by dismissing the soothsayer when they warn him (Loos


Social Inequalities in American Society Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Tax Avoidance by Billionaires

Have the people banded together against this inequality?



Introduction Social inequalities seem to typify the American society. The federal government is desperately attempting to raise the debt ceiling to cover up for high debt due to insufficient revenues. That notwithstanding, it is now apparent that myriads of billionaires and millionaires rarely pay their income taxes.

This is despite making huge incomes from their investments. Conversely, tax evasion amongst the middle and lower class is an offense that invites horrendous punitive measures (Kourvetaris, 1997). How do the rich avoid paying income tax to the government? Have people banded together to counter this source of social inequality?

Tax Avoidance by Billionaires There are various ways that the rich are able to avoid taxation. In 2009, the IRS revealed that almost 1,500 billionaires and millionaires in the country did not pay a single dollar as income tax (Wilkinson


Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US Essay online essay help

Chronology of employment laws The Clayton Act was enacted in 1914, with the intention of establishing legal protection for organized labor. There was a need to assert the position of labor in the face of antitrust legislations, and this is what the law was intended to achieve. In 1926, the Railways Act was passed. It was meant to encourage collective bargaining among employers, and prohibit discrimination against unions.

The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931, to address the problem of wage payment in the construction industry. Its provisions required a contract for construction into which the federal government entered, to specify the minimum wage to be paid to laborers employed under that contract (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).

In order to increase protection for union activities and collective bargaining, Congress passed the Norris-NaGuardia Act in 1932. The Act legalized strikes and other collective ways of dealing with labor issues, and also prohibited the enforcement of ‘yellow dog’ agreements or contracts through the courts of law. The National Industry Recovery Act was enacted in 1933, and congress intended to set standards of ‘fair competition’, by regulating regular working hours and wages (Federal Labor Laws, n.d)..

The National Labor Relations Act-1935 was passed by Congress in order to regulate labor relations among employees whose activities affected interstate commerce, except those in the agricultural sector.

The Act also established the NLRB, through which labor disputes would be handled, and prohibited employers from engaging in any of the prohibited unfair practices. In 1936, Congress enacted the Walsh-Healy Act, whose intention was to restrict the regular working hours, establish minimum wages and regulate the employment of children and ex-convicts (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).

In order to introduce some limitations to the rights enjoyed by trade unions, Congress enacted the National Labor Relations Act in 1947. The Act introduced measures to delay or avert ‘emergency strikes’ and prohibited the discriminative ‘closed shop’ practices of trade unions.

The Equal Pay Act was passed by congress in 1963 to prohibit the act of paying different amounts of money to male and female employees, only because they were male or female. This law was also enacted in order to protect employees from retaliation, if they filed complaints against their employers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was enacted to protect the rights of individuals, and to prohibit various actions by employers that the law classified as discriminatory (Federal Labor Laws, n.d). This list is not exhaustive, and many more employment laws exist in the US.

In the recent past, there has been a marked increase in the calls for equality and protection from discrimination at the work place. Legislations such as The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Civil Rights Act of 1991, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 all prohibit different types of discriminations.

These legislative efforts have led to the reduction of discrimination at the work place, as these laws prescribe heavy penalties for the commission of prohibited acts by employers and their agents.

Scenario Discrimination at the workplace on the basis of sex is prohibited by employment laws in the United States (EEOC, n.d). There are several options that an aggrieved party can pursue in order to have his/her grievance addressed. These options include; internal dispute resolution procedures at the workplace, filing a complaint with the EEOC, or litigation among others (EEOC, n.d). If an employee files a complaint against the employer, he/she is protected from retaliation by the law.

Smith has a case against the company for retaliation, since the law prohibits retaliatory acts by the employer against an employee who files a complaint against it.

The remedies available to a victim of retaliation include; compensatory damages for expenses or losses that he/she may have incurred as a result of the retaliatory act, and punitive damages to punish the employer especially where the act was malicious or reckless (EEOC, n.d).

Before he can recover, Smith will have to prove; that he exhausted the internal dispute resolution mechanisms laid down by the company before proceeding to the EEOC, and that he suffered damage or loss as a result of the retaliatory act. He will also have to establish the company’s vicarious liability for the acts of the offending party in order to recover against it.

We will write a custom Essay on Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References EEOC. (n.d.). Sex-Based Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sex.cfm

Federal Labor Laws. (n.d.). Web.


The Problems that Lake Tahoe Faces Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Lake Tahoe has not only transformed America, it has also played a major role in the conquest of California. The lake put a beginning to a sexual revolution, was a premise for a ski industry and also led to the launch of Republican Party. The novel Tahoe beneath the Surface by Scott Lankford tells about a hidden history of the most famous residents of the Lake Tahoe. The novel provides tales about Rat Pack, Mafia dons and mysterious legends of Indian tribes.

The novel brings to light the values of Lake Tahoe illustrating why it is one of the hot spots in America. It also traces the steps of authors like Maxine Hong Kingston, Bertrand Russell and Michael Ondaatje. In addition, it reveals the darkest pages of the American history, such as Kennedy assassination and anti-Chinese racism.

The novel also shows how lives of such famous people like Frank Sinatra, John Muir, and Mark Twain were influenced by this lake. These characters both have specific reasons as to why they value Lake Tahoe, for example Sinatra value lake Tahoe because of its glamour and glitz, while Muir values it for its natural beauty and Cousteau values the lake for its natural waters (Scott 98).

However, even regardless of the influence on life of many people, there are several environmental threats that the lake faces making it increasingly vulnerable. There are also Tahoe Blue in the lake, which is a term used by the author Lankford to describe the meaning represented by the lake, its beauty and range of life around it. It is however important to preserve Lake Tahoe since it has transformed America and the people leaving around it.

Lake Tahoe has acted as one of the most beautiful cites in the whole world, however, it is still troubled by numerous environmental harms. Since 1844 when Lake Tahoe was discovered, the lake has acted as scenic attraction site because of its natural beauty and surrounding which is one of the reasons why John Muir, a character in the novel, valued the lake.

On the other hand, Frank Sinatra who is one of the characters in the novel, also valued the lake because of its glamour and glitz. This is one of the reasons why Lake Tahoe needs to be preserved, as its site can act as a source of revenue to America when tourists come to view the place. Many scientists, community leaders and government seek to find ways to preserve the lake and restore its distinctive biological diversity.

Cousteau who is one of the characters of the novel Tahoe beneath the Surface values the Lake Tahoe for its natural waters. Lake Tahoe straddling along the California-Nevada border is well known for its clean waters usually referred to as jewel of the Sierra (Scott 100).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, subsequent development and growth has become one of threats faced by Lake Tahoe since it menaces the clarity of the natural waters. This part of the lake is the centerpiece of ecosystem where many resource managers and scientists have continually been examined. They measure, sample, test and restore the biodiversity and landscape of the lake.

They try their best to ensure that Lake Tahoe restores back its natural waters which has acted as a home for many plant species and wildlife. If the water is endangered then it means that the lives of these plants and animals are in danger too. This is why it is very crucial that the lake be preserved to save the plants and animals and also the clarity of the water. About 200,000 acres of the lake have ecologically sensitive slopes, marshes and meadows (Dylan 110).

Economic development and growth have a negative effect on the environment of the lake despite the fact that it has contributed to the prosperity of the region that is situated near the lake. Nevertheless, there is a great decline in biodiversity in the lake due to the polluted air and soil.

The soil and air around Lake Tahoe need to be fresh to enable survival of living organisms in it and around it. It is therefore crucial to preserve the lake. Regional goals have been adopted by American government to promote and expand bio-logical diversity of wildlife, fish and communities that habit in and around Lake Tahoe.

Landowners around Lake Tahoe have also taken the initiative of reclaiming those parts of the lake that are troubled to see in it that they are well preserved. 85 percent of the land along Lake Tahoe belongs to California Department of Parks and Recreation, U.S Forest Service, California Tahoe Conservancy and Neva da Division of States Parks. However, the remaining part of the land along Lake Tahoe is privately owned (Byron


Different quality services between Asia and Europe Hotels Essay (Book Review) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Asian hotels

Europe hotels

Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture)

Research questions and objectives


Introduction There has been an endless debate among travelers concerning the standard of quality of service in the hospitality industry. It is worth noting that the debate is focusing on whether European hotels offer same level of services as their Asian counterparts.

There is no doubt that different people have different test when it comes to the quality of service they would like to receive from hotels as well as other hospitality industry. There are those of the view that whenever they are out of their country, they expect to receive services equal to what is offered back home while there are those who believe they need to receive a different level of service (Naraya et al., 2009).

Since the world has turned into a global village, travelling has been faster and cheaper, thus people find themselves out of their motherland more often. This kind of travelling has offered hospitality industry with an opportunity to grow. One area that scholars have noted to be of interest and can be successfully used as competitive advantage is to provide customers with very high standard of service; this can be attained through incorporating cultural aspects.

As a result of rising significance of service quality in the hotel industry, scholars in the hospitality industry dedicated their efforts to come up with a framework as well as measurable scales to help determine perception of service quality. As a result SERVQUAL model was developing and up to date it is well known and has been applied in various studies. The model is made up of 5 service quality dimensions and includes the following; tangible, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and reliability (Tse, 2009).

Tangibles are those physical facilities; equipment as well as how the employees of a hotel look, when the expectations of a customer are met this will contribute to satisfaction.

Reliability means the ability to accomplish and provide customers with services initially promised, responsiveness defines the willingness of hotel workers to help customers and give them prompt services, assurance refers to knowledge and courtesy of workers towards visitors finally empathy is the caring and personalized attention that customers are provided with by service providers.

Ideally service quality has been simply thought of as the difference between perceptions of customers and his or her expectations. Therefore service quality is one way to help manage business process in order to ensure that total satisfaction to customers on all levels is attained. Ideally the concept ultimately results in higher level of competitiveness, effectiveness as well as flexibility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Robinson, 2003, he asserts that every nation has realized the importance of tourism and has embarked on efforts to attract more tourists. To match the demands and aspiration of the visitors, hotels are in the forefront to ensure that the visitors are satisfied with everything which will ensure customer loyalty as well as retention.

Asian hotels Asian hotels has the advantage of being considerably less expensive compared to those in America and Europe zone. For this reason, every individual can afford to enjoy the services of the hotel industry.

However in Europe, individual of lower income level can only share room with many other visitors. Similarly, hotels in Asia tend to give much better services as compared to their European counterparts. Additionally the facilities are better too (Tse, 2009).

For instance room are relatively larger in size, they are new bathroom are also newer and larger. Visitors have indicated that they love to spend their holidays in Asian hotels since it is affordable. They claim that they can stay in a hotel in a beach or a block away from the beach at relatively lower cost. Taking dinner every single night is fun and affordable too. Interestingly visitors indicate that they are more attracted to the unique culture of the region.

Europe hotels Hotels in Europe are quite expensive as compared to those in Asian countries. From previous studies, it has been revealed that most of the hotels in this region are smaller; however visitors find it to be charming as well as offer local hospitality. Nonetheless, there have been cases where visitors were of the view that the rooms and bathroom were quite smaller, with poor ventilation. Other visitors were unsatisfied with the quality of linen offered to them as well as lack of view from their room (Akbaba, 2006).

Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture) It has been shown that service quality or customer satisfaction with regards to services in the hospitality industry is dictated by a number of factors. The encountered services, employee training and culture are the three most important factors that lead to quality service.

As suggested by Yi, Marcelo


Robocalls in Canada Elections Essay argumentative essay help

Elections Canada warned the public not to trust any calls that claimed change of polling stations. The announcement was made on2nd May, 2011 by the election agency which went further to inform the public that the automated calls were not made by the agency.

The robocalls which mainly targeted the Liberal and NDP supporters gave misleading information to the public. The pranks and harassing calls asked voters to vote in other polling stations, claiming they were being made on behalf of a candidate.

Among the first people to report the prank calls to Elections Canada was Frank Valeriote, a Liberal candidate in Guelph, Ontario. The robocalls were common in Guelph and Thunder Bay where the people received automated calls or live calls with misleading and mischievous information.

Election Canada has evidence that the calls were from a number in Quebec which is no longer in use. The number is registered under a restaurant name in Guelph-Pierre Poutine. Further investigations indicate that the number was initially used to contact Racknine Inc.

Robocalls are legitimate methods of running campaigns in several countries including the USA. The robocalls are automated calls that help a candidate campaign by giving messages about the campaign and information that is relevant to the voter. However, if the service is used to give false and misleading information then it is declared illegal.

The conservatives agree that prank calls were made in Guelph, but the party did not have any role to play in the matter. On the other hand, the Liberal party and NDP believe that the ruling party may have used the robocalls to disrupt and mislead voters.

Even though, there is evidence that misleading and harassing calls were made to the public, there isn’t a clear indication of the effects. The strategies and tricks did not have a lot of influence on the 2011 election results because voter turnout was higher than the 2008 elections.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ruling party i.e. the conservatives are not treating the issue as a matter of national interest instead they termed it as a lot of noise from the opposition. The conservatives choose to blame the opposition and Elections Canada. However, the ruling party should have involved itself actively to find the source and solution of the problem. In so doing, they would have convinced the public that they are interested in solving the issue. Before the issue is solved the conservatives do not have full consent of Canadian voters.

The Liberal and NDP may be blowing the matter out of context. Though there may be some truth in the issue, the rate at which people are reporting fraudulent calls may weaken the issue. Some people view the increase of reports as mischievous and exaggerated.

Elections Canada the agency with the responsibility of solving the issue is not reporting the process and how far the investigation has gone. The complaints submitted to the agency have not been investigated. No one is sure if Elections Canada has the capability and resources to resolve this issue. When Elections Canada offers the results of the investigation then the public will be satisfied with the elections results of 2011.

Racknine Inc. has offered to cooperate with Elections Canada in investigating the issue. This is because some parties had tried to disrupt elections using their service. With witnesses from Responsive Marketing Group inc. Elections Canada should collect all the necessary information from these groups to find the main culprits, and the reasons for their actions. Elections Canada and RCMP should work together to reach the bottom of this issue.

The conservatives cannot fully govern with the Canadians’ sanction if this issue is not resolved. It’s clear that the elections of 2011 were affected by misleading calls, and the matter has to be investigated. Therefore, without faith in elections there is no democracy.


Discrimination in Labor Processes Essay essay help: essay help

There is a tendency to eliminate the gender differences in al aspects of human life and consider men and women equal in their rights. However, looking at some particular activities it is still impossible to say that the rights and freedoms of men and women are equal there.

For example, talking about labor processes and considering the desire of women to be treated equally with men the practice shows that the gender differentiation still exists. No matter how strong the social opinion about the equality of genders, the labor process is the expression of those considerations in practice.

Many works have been written in the relation to the equality of genders and explaining the differences in gender roles at the workplace. Therefore, studying the works by Lorber (2007), Braham (1996), Williams (1992), and Mullings (1997), the salience of gender in the labor process is going to be discusses as the working process is believed to be the most appropriate aspect in analyzing the gender relations.

Dwelling the problem of division of labor Braham (1996) states that the modern consideration of this notion has changed. Therefore, now, discussing the division of labor race and gender aspects are discussed in most cases. Discussing the labor processes and the role of gender, Braham (1996) has noticed the tendency that women more often choose the part-time jobs.

This is connected with their desire to be mothers, but to show that their professional growth is important as well. The author states that the part-time job does not show that women are not that professional in what they do. The author considers the history of women in the labor process and states that the number of women has dramatically increased since 1940’s. Even though a feminization of labor process occurs, the number of men remains higher in comparison to the number of working woman.

Considering the expression of Werneke in 1985 “women are concentrated in a limited range of occupations and are more likely to be found working in relatively less skilled and lower paying jobs than their male counterparts” (in Braham, 1996, p. 319) and comparing it with the modern times, the change in the labor segmentations may be seen. Nowadays women get high paid jobs and the variety of occupations has dramatically increased.

Even though, the segmentation of the occupation still exists. The desire to make the rights of men and women at the workplace equal, there are “male” and “female” professions even though the number of women in male professions increases as well as the number of men in the female ones.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, nursing, librarianship, elementary school teaching, and social work positions have always been considered as female sex-typed occupations, but the tendency to eliminating the sex factor from occupation has lead to the increase of the number of women in male professions and vice versa.

Nevertheless, the prejudiced attitude and discrimination still takes place. The society is struggling for equal rights at the work place, but people are not ready to accept men at the “female” positions too freely (Williams, 1992). Thus, it appears that men do not feel comfortable and have to leave the places they are interested in. The presence of such discrimination will never allow to equalize the genders at the labor market and make sure that the roles of men and women are equally treated.

Lorber (2007) states that the whole society is divided into two roles from birth, male and female and these roles support people through all their lives. The desire to make men and women equal in the social life does not make any sense as people are distinguished from their childhood.

Lorber (2007) pays much attention to the sports professions trying to state that men are stronger and more powerful, therefore the criteria in sports professions are higher for them. Additionally, analyzing the sports equipment, it becomes obvious that gymnastic equipment is created for slim female bodies, while men’s sports are tougher. Men’s and women’s professional sports are based on the capacities of each gender.

No matter how equal the rights in the society, it is difficult to combat with the physiology. Moreover, the author of the book adds the statement that even though the programming comes from Grace M. Hopper who has written a famous work on programming language, this job is believed to be a male one and those women who choose this profession are not paid too much.

Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the gender differences still exist in the labor segmentation even though women occupy high paid and top positions. The discrimination at the work place has been reduced dramatically, still, there are some particular prejudices in the relation to both male and female positions.

The changes in the position hierarchy have occurred for the previous several years and it is not a surprise to see a woman at the top management position, in politics and at other positions which have always been considered as male ones. Additionally, men begin to occupy the professions usually believed to be female. It says about great changes and the beginning of the process of equalization of the roles at the labor processes.

We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination in Labor Processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the situation at the labor market and the inequalities in the modern world, it is important to check the place of the employees from poor families in the low wage industries. The conditions at such manufacturing are extremely negative.

The greatest representation of the labor conditions at the low wage industries is presented in the documentary film China Blue (2005) directed by Micha Peled. The main idea of this movie is to show the conditions poor people have to work at. Even though one of the main themes of the movie is the dominant role of China as the exporter, the working conditions are also shown in detail.

The working shift is too long, the wages are too low, but people do not have an opportunity to leave the job as this position gives them the room and the food. The work is hard, but people do not have an opportunity to battle for their rights, as they will be left the most important items they have, room and food. Working in terrible conditions, here all men and women are equal, but there is another hierarchy.

Watching this video, I was frustrated and disturbed with the cruel conditions which still exist in this world. Being too civilized, such countries as China where people are at the threshold of poverty have an opportunity to get money on people who do not have another way out but to work in the current conditions.

Reference List Braham, P. (1996). Divisions of labor. In S. Hall (Ed.), Modernity: an introduction to modern societies (pp.308-339). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lorber, J. (2007). Believing is seeing. In B. A. Arrighi (Ed.), Understanding inequality: the intersection of race/ethnicity, class, and gender (pp. 153-160). New York, NY: Rowman


Canadian Politics in the Government Exploratory Essay essay help online free

Each nation comes up with a government that will best suit the governing of people being appropriate for the people of that nation. The government ought to consider the political, social and economic effects of the manner in which they choose to govern the nation. There is delegation of duties and responsibilities where the various arms of government come in.

The arms of government are put in place to facilitate thorough investigation, proper presentation of facts and adequate information from the grassroots level running upwards. The government is to serve its subjects with dedication and truth hence there is the need to relate with the subjects ensuring any relevant information is collected and put into use to ensure proper service is delivered to the people.

As a result, there is equal distribution of resources which in return will facilitate peace and growth of the economy. For the best results to be achieved and for a nation to grow, the various arms of government are to carry out their duties with care and dedication. The various arms of government are then to work together and have a balance of power to deliver accordingly.

When addressing the Canadian government, it is noted that the prime minister is the person who makes all key decisions and, in my opinion, has too much power. The prime minister decides on budgetary matters, election dates and the composition of the cabinet as well as structuring the government. The lack of strong political parties has greatly influenced this fact. The prime minister is a supreme ruler and has too many crucial decisions to make.

As much as this type of leadership enhances stability, it is as well extremely risky for the nation. Each person is prone to make mistakes and at this stage if the prime minister makes a few decisions which are not befitting, it can result in the collapse of an economy and the nation at large. In this sort of governance, the other stakeholders such as the cabinet are shelved in decision-making.

To represent people fairly, political parties need to come up with a way to grow strong. This will ensure their active involvement in the decision making process as well as the implementation phase of legislations. To properly implement the law, being part of the entire process from the problem stage, brainstorming phase and finally the decision making phase are of utmost importance. This is because one understands why some decisions were made and understands the problem at a deeper level.

In the Canadian judiciary there is an element of lack of independence by the judges. The courts serve to ensure the law is adhered to and also are part of the implementation of law. There is great need for the judiciary to be impartial and independent. Favoring a particular class of people can hinder proper law implementation and result in some sort of imbalance between different classes. Judicial selections should be done based on merit and some traditions are worth breaking for the growth of the nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the stability of political parties is not a ticket to ensuring democracy prevails. At times it will even slow down the decision making process but it plays an important role in representation of the people’s needs and ensures that decisions made fit the subjects of a particular nation. This also can facilitate the reduction of powers of the prime minister and encourage delegation of duties to the parties that have been side-lined.


Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Pinchot as Forest Service man

Pinchot as a politician

Pinchot as Governor

Pinchot’s Legacy




Introduction Gifford Pinchot was born in August of the year 1865, to a wealthy family in Connecticut. Gifford Pinchot’s life was centered on religion before he decided to join the field of conservation. He used to engage in widespread evangelism and read widely on religious classics in Protestantism.

He taught Sunday school, and was the class deacon at Yale who was trusted with conducting activities related to religion. From the readings in religion, Pinchot would later combine this moral perspective to institute the development of the greatest conservation movement in America. Gifford Pinchot rallied America to the heights of modern capitalism and democracy through political patronage. As a young man, he loved the woods which would later become his passion and career.

In the history of the United States, he stands out as the first man to be trained in forest management and conservation. After completing his studies at Yale, he went to engage in selective use of forests study in France. Later, he would join politics and ascend to the governorship in Pennsylvania where he acted to bring many changes that are still effective today[1].

This paper will look at Gifford’s impact on modern capitalism and his major contributions that have affected America in one way or the other. As a progressive individual, he persuaded America into the path of conservation and management of resources through scientific means that he strongly believed were profitable in the long run.

In his tactics, he used the market economy ideas to illustrate that the government had a role in determining how resources could be used for the benefit of the nation. He also sought for the delicate balance between use of resources and management. This was in contradiction to people like John Muir who advocated for whole conservation. This is best illustrated in his support for the Hetch Hecthy dam where he supported its construction.

American Capitalism

The years between 1865 and 1920 characterized the height of American dominance in the capitalistic world. These years were characterized by large extensions of industrial prowess, military might, and advanced science. The American profits at this time grew by leaps and bounds, and the government and business almost became one.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businessmen and managers who owned large shares in industries were often elected as mayors and chairmen of government committees. As a result, the business world went unregulated since the private hands used the political power to their own advantage. This was because there were no checks.

This would catapult American economy to the highest heights of capitalism beating the United Kingdom in industrial progress. The era was characterized by heavy monopolistic ventures that arose to curb the serious price-cutting tactics embraced by competing industries. The effect of the 1873-1879 depression had fizzled out leaving the competitive economy booming[2].

The investment bankers exercised enormous control on the economy, as well life insurance industry characterized by political interventions. The economy was essentially macro economic where heavy mechanization and the monopolistic measures led to earnings that were triple of the invested capital.

The capitalistic ventures at all levels of government, as a domination of the whole economy, could not present any advantage to the environment physically and in all aspects. The lumber mining industries consumed forests as a source of fuel and reinforcement to the mining developments. The capitalistic economy led to air pollution from smelting and mining[3].

The contamination of water occurred as a result of massive dumping of industrial effluents. This led to destruction of vegetation and occurrence of wide spread erosion. The environment was littered with debris that accumulated from mining machineries and thus the need for conservation could not have come at a better time than this period.

This environmental degradation had serious effects on some counties like California. Thus, the rise of Gifford Pinchot was a relief to the environment since his efforts and focus was directed to management. His other works in the public domain were through active political activities and engagement. It has to be noted that he also was the first individual to envision environmental conservation.

Therefore, these roles will be analyzed effectively in this paper. What stands out is his influence to capitalism and government. This is well characterized in the historical and economic aspects[4].

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pinchot as Forest Service man Pinchot was a great friend of President Roosevelt and thus his ascension to politics and major impact to American economy and thinking cannot be under-emphasized. In 1898, Pinchot rose to become the Chief of the Forestry Division of US Department of Agriculture.

This department later became to be known as the Bureau and much later, it changed to “Forest Service”. Under his leadership and due to his close connection to the President in the Republican politics, the Bureau gained national control of the forest reserves, and this led to the name Forest Service.

In his work as a leader, he taught the value of diligence and a sense of mission, and thus he laid grounds for his political career at this early period. Pinchot and Roosevelt saw the same great need to use resources wisely in the environment. Therefore, they were both concerned with advancing strategies that would see that the resources helped the future generations of the American people[5].

In this effort, they coined the term “conservation” to mean the use and the movement advocating for management of the resources. In his tenure, America gained knowledge in non-exploitative use of forests, and as a fact, the acreage rose to millions in favor of national forest that were controlled and their use regulated by the government. However, this was a success under Roosevelt’s Presidency because things changed course when Roosevelt was defeated in the elections. This heralded a new era in Pinchot’s life, that of politics[6].

Pinchot as a politician As mentioned above, Gifford was a friend of Roosevelt, and a supporter of the Republican Party. Roosevelt struggled with Taft on the issue of the government owning land meant for forest reserves of which he was a supporter. This led to his breaking away to form the Progressive Party that Pinchot became a staunch supporter.

The party advocated for land reforms among other changes in the American society that were considered radical at the time. These issues included the regulation of child labor, the presence of a minimum wage for women, and the introduction of employment insurance in America. This led to Roosevelt’s defeat and thus Pinchot remained as the man who strived to keep the party moving.

As a mature politician, Pinchot ran for the seat of Senator in 1914 against Boies Penrose of the Republican Party. In his campaign, he advocated for radical changes such as the right of women to participate in a political process; a graduated income tax; and prohibition of alcoholic beverages, and other radical ideas that had been unheard of. However, he was not successful in the end as the progressive members returned to their old party[7]. Although Pinchot joined the Republicans reluctantly, he was in severe opposition to the President.

Despite his loss, it is worth to note that he got married to Cornelia Bryce, a lady who equaled her husband in energy and spirit. She supported him in his campaigns and elections to Congress three times, and once as governor; all which he failed. After this period of loss in his life, Pinchot turned his attention to state politics away from national limelight. This was largely due to his opposition to President Wilson’s neutrality to the European in 1916.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Wilson was re-elected, Pinchot became a state politics sensation. Pinchot was thus one of early supporters of America entering into war. Gifford, a man of much knowledge and experience, gained a position a Commissioner of Forestry after being appointed by Governor Sproul.

In this position, he had gained an effective strategy to be elected as Governor and thus his administrative genius could not rest. Therefore, he believed that by promoting new administrative changes and by refusing to give political patronage, he would achieve his goal[8].

As a result, in his 1922 campaigns, he concentrated on reforms that stirred the greatest support from voters. These reforms would later lead to reorganization of the government and the economy. Also, these reforms prompted the implementation of injunctions and guidelines on public utilities. In his political experience, he toned down his earlier proposals on reform in order to win the support of the President of Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association who had political power in the State.

He won this election closely partly due to the internal succession wrangles of Republican Party after the death of Boies Penrose. After attaining this position, Pinchot dropped his campaign strategy and went full throttle to implement his radical reform agendas. This set him apart from his superiors and supporters since they considered him as having betrayed them[9].

Pinchot as Governor Gifford started his reign with some notable changes in the administration just as he had done during his tenure in the Forestry Service offices. He changed this by putting measures that saw that the spending budget of the state was completely controlled. He used his political persuasion tactics to bring the assembly to pass an administrative code that sought to standardize salaries. These codes also gave the Governor power to reorganize the executive branch of the government.

This process oversaw the establishment of fifteen departments and only three commissions in order to address the problem presented by the close to forty agencies that had duplicated functions. Pinchot ensured the introduction of a pension system that was run by funds from the state, as well as employees[10].

By now, Gifford had garnered enough public support and thus he was ready to push for increased reforms just as he had promised in the campaign for Senate position. He advanced another proposal seeking to prohibit alcohol consumption. In the reforms, only one bill passed, and it had to get funding from Women’s Christian Temperance Union.

This was because the Legislature was not in a position to give the required funding. In his macro-economic target plans to reduce the cost of electricity for the user and prohibit monopolies, he urged the government to pass a Bill that would achieve this. However, his bills were unsuccessful after a big defeat blow came from the utility lobbyists. He sought for a situation where the State would take a firm grip of connected electric companies with combined facilities.

As a man who had enough experience in diplomacy, he managed to solve strike situations in 1923 and 1925. The workers who mined anthracite coal had gone on strike in 1923. Pinchot used decisive arbitration to calm down the workers. The strike lasted only one week as compared to the second strike that lasted for six months. In the second strike, he forcefully mediated between the passive Coolidge government and the striking workers to gain an effective solution that ended the stalemate amicably.

This characterized the culmination of his first term tenure as a Governor. Pinchot’s efforts to rally him as the leader of Republican Party of the US failed. Therefore, he was to stay out of public office until 1930 when he got re-elected. There was an improvement in the effectiveness and economic conditions of the state while he was serving his first term as Governor.

In his second term, he revived his old battles for the bills of public utilities in the Assembly. He envisioned the need of relief for the unemployed, as well as the construction of paved roads that would help the farmers get access to basic necessities. In these endeavors, he fought for two years, backed by the Assembly, to achieve only three Bills passed.

The rest were defeated since the Senate supported the utilities. In this success, the Governor had sought wide support from the people through radio, mail, and newspaper. This can be attributed to the fact that he held that those serving in public positions were to put the public interest first in everything they did unless doing so was against the established law.[11]

As an administrator, statesman, and politician, he became one of the first Governors to push for the relief package in the United States. This was especially exhibited in his personal efforts to help people who had badly been affected by the Great Depression in 1931 at Pennsylvania. He had already formed a committee on unemployment before he had taken office to cater for such needs. However, this was not enough; and since he could help everybody, he realized that State aid was not enough for the unemployed who were suffering.

Therefore, he used his political power and other measures to urge the State and the Federal Government to increase and improve the aids that would see the needy get enough help possible. Through his efforts, President Hoover and the Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

This corporation formed to provide assistance to various business firms and provide direct assistance to states. The State and the Federal funds were distributed on the non-partisan basis in his state. This was done through the Pennsylvania State Emergency Relief Board. In his state, he did not tolerate discrimination and various categories of individuals served in his administration[12].

In his famous quest for the public good, he is remembered vividly in the construction of ‘Pinchot Roads.’ According to him, the need for good roads was supported by the elimination of the barrier between the farmers and consumers.

In this process, he designed plans that would see the construction of 20,000 miles of road without the necessary need of heavy machinery in order to create employment for the many who had been employed. In 1933, Pinchot, supported by President Franklin Roosevelt, forced the U.S Steel Company to recognize the striking workers of United Mine Workers union[13].

As part of his achievements, Pinchot approved a session of assembly that facilitated the repealing of the prohibition amendment. This led to the formation of the Liquor Control Board that acted as a monopoly for selling liquor. In his political role, he supported the President F.D. Roosevelt who had chosen to execute economic recovery programs as a Democrat.

This was a good effort in the eyes of the public. However, to his fellow Republicans, he gained contempt and hate from the annoyed members. This affected his third time campaign for election into US Republican Senate. His attempt for re-election to Governorship in 1938 received a severe blow from Republican voters who had been angered by his support of the Democrats[14].

Pinchot’s Legacy The years of Pinchot as political heavy weight and a pioneer in forestry management were also characterized by scientific observations and recommendations. Gifford was much influenced by his studies in Europe on conservation and democracy. He took the spirit of equality and advocated that everybody should be treated equally.

He observed that those with the capability to use the forests were few when compared to the many that did not benefit from the forest. According to Pinchot, there was no need for a few to benefit at the expense of the many. This formed his future basis on reforms that were mirrored in “new conservationism” efforts[15].

He believed that the only way a nation would become strong was through the provision of equal opportunity for all, as well as protection and preservation of human life. This would mean development of a strong and stable nation. By combining his scientific orientation and political progression, Gifford remained strongly anti-capitalistic.

This led to many of his battles with leaders in the Senate, President Howard Taft, Muir, and Ballinger. At one time, he paid for his views dearly when he was dismissed by President Howard from his position. However, he is greatly remembered for shaping the direction of capitalism in terms of public equality and management of resources[16].

Conclusion Pinchot was one of the greatest visionary Americans who helped the modern America to stand on its ground through environmental conservation. Through his efforts and determination, the concept of sustainability in the management of resources continues to characterize America ahead of many other nations. His ideas on the public good were introduced in years when the world knew nothing except exploitation at all fronts in search of personal gain and profits.

His ideals for the public utilities are issues that have concerned economists all over the world in search of balance between property and the human welfare. Pinchot’s legacy continues to live through the Grey Towers as a center for forest and environmental conservation in his home at Milford. His ideas in progressive politics and sustainability today guide the debate regarding the aspect of global warming. Therefore, Pinchot is a revolutionary hero of modern capitalistic world.

Bibliography Atack, Jeremy. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 29-52.

Gifford, Pinchot. Breaking new ground. New York: Island Press, 1998.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography. [Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877.

Hunter, Louis C. A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter. Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985.

Koistinen, Paul, A., C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Livingston, James. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. California: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Marc, Tool R. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988.

Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation. New York: Island Press, 2001.

North, Douglass, C. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954), 209-28

Penick, James Jr. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Reich, Peter L. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights Since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998), 57–87.

Richardson, Elmo, R. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973.

Richardson, Elmo, R. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.

Robbins, Williams G. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994.

Swain, Donald, C. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Footnotes Char Miller. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation (New York: Island Press, 2001), 18.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography ([Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877), 16

Tool R. Marc. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988), 325.

Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 25

Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 27.

Paul, Koistinen, A. C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 59.

Louis C. Hunter A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter (Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985), 341

Elmo R. Richardson. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), 25

Donald C. Swain. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963), 27.

Peter L. Reich. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998): 59.

Williams G. Robbins. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994), 89.

James Livingston. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913 (California: Cornell University Press, 1986), 33.

Douglass, C. North. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954): 211.

Jeremy Atack. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 37.

Elmo, R. Richardson. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973), 243.

James, Jr. Penick. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 411.


American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

These are protests that came to prominence in the course of 1950s, which raised concern against the incessant discrimination and racial segregation experienced by the American Africans and other marginalized groups in the southern America.

Continued oppression against people of different color, race, politics, or even religion had inspired many young American Africans to join action in the struggle for equality (Chong 23). Some of the prominent figures in the Movement include Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X, W.E.B. Du Bois and Rosa Parks among others.

Although the civil rights mass protest was officially formalized in the 1950s and 1960s, the fight for equality in various institutions of the U.S. had started long time ago. Community leaders in various segmentations of the society had showed resistance to the white supremacy and domination against the African Americans which had been abounded in some states. ‘Everyday’s Use’ written at the peak of the transformational movement, is a perfect expression and reflection of the issue of the aspects surrounding the civil rights movement.

Set at the height of the social issue, the story is a real representation of the key aspects of the day. Here, the writer applies writing to highlight some of the main issues surrounding the Black Power Movement. Walker’s purpose on the story is achieved through the creative formation of characters who symbolize the plight of blacks and women as observed during those times.

The movement was initially facilitated by the progressive efforts of the descendants of African slaves who had always tried to resist the institution of slavery upon them. Regular protests and campaigns of resistance were some of the common characteristics associated with this movement. Civil disobedience and activities of nonviolent demonstrations and protests were also common. Sometimes, these would bear crisis scenarios between government authorities and the activists resulting to confrontations.

Although it took many years for the issues highlighted in the movement to be addressed, the protests had significant impact to the modern world. Many changes were realized owing to the pressure of the movement. For instance, the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were introduced in the years 1964 and 1965, respectively thus granting all American citizens basic civil privileges, regardless of their race and ethnicity.

Alice Walker is a renowned female activist who was born and raised at a time when the Civil Right Movements in South U.S. was taking shape. At the height of the transitional movement, Alice, then a college student at Spelman, was lucky to meet and rub shoulders with some of the prominent players in the movement, such as Martin Luther King Jr. This inspired her to become one of the strongest female activists in the American history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her contribution in the struggle for human rights and equality has continued to raise strong impact to the world. According to Tuten, Alice is a woman with many records in life and her largest contribution in life can be perceived through her countless struggles against discrimination and oppression (126). ‘Everyday’s Use’ is just one of her many writings about race and gender which raised much alert in the civil rights movement.

Racism, feminism and the many issues frequently raised by young American Africans who’d tend to lose respect to the culture that gave birth to them are some of the issue that Alice explores in ‘Everyday’s Use.’

As it would be observed, the story in this essay is Walker’s response to the social discourse of the 1950s and 1960s, when the civil rights movement took place. The writer has vividly expressed some of the issues that continue to plague modern American communities, as expressed through the lives of the characters in the story (Whitsitt 448).

Economic, social, and political issues are illustrated in the story, through the family of the narrator, who is referred by the title of ‘Mama’ or Mrs. Johnson. The story strongly illustrates the big contrast between the narrator and Maggy, one of her two daughters who still share the same conservative life with her, and ‘Wangero’ or Dee, the educated daughter who scorns the culture that gave birth to her.

As observed from this story, the writer has based the two sisters on aspects constituting her own character. Whereby Maggy represents her difficult childhood, Dee remains to be a vivid reflection of her latter life which is characterized by education and success; the two aspects that would enable her to take part in the civil rights movement.

The two different positions represent the culture and the progress of the American Africans in mid-to late-twentieth-century times. The story is set in a time when the lives of American Africans were undergoing a radical transition.

These groups of people were able to gain freedom of civil rights at last, through the glory of civil rights movement, after many years of oppression and discrimination from the whites (Gianturco and Tuttle 18). The final outcome reached on the story, is a representation of the results which succeeded the movement as American Africans started gaining recognition in various segments of the American society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This freedom would see the emergence of a new generation that has contradicting views about crucial aspects of life. As a matter of fact, the writer has used the story to defend the legacy of her family and culture and to pay homage to the initial inhabitants of the South, where she grew up.

Works Cited Chong, Dennis. Collective action and the civil rights movement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print.

Gianturco, Paola, and T. Tuttle. In her hands: craftswomen changing the world, New York: PowerHouse Books, 2004. Print.

Tuten, Nancy. “Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” The Explicator 51. 2 (1993): 125-128. Print.

Whitsitt, Sam. “In Spite of It All: A Reading of Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” African American Review 34. 3 (2000): 443-459. Print.


Ramord Stockwell Case Study essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The problem



Introduction The Benson Metal Company has been a producer of steel in the world for many years now and they have curved out a sizeable amount of the specialized steel market for themselves.

They have for a long time specialized in the innovative and creative management, production and marking strategies to maintain their competitive edge in the market. The company has for some time been identified to have a leadership that invests in vertical sources of power (Jones, 2007).

The bureaucratic nature of their management structures may be identified as an advantage to the managers in regard to their particular authority in the company, but this may be detrimental to the motivation of line managers especially in an industry that relies so much on innovation as well as creativity in almost all aspects of its production and market structures (Thompson


Everything Tastes Like Liquorice Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction In the world we live in there are many things which happen and eventually change the course of life. These things happen in our day to day lives and have a great bearing on the direction which we take. These occurrences have come to be mentioned by authors and writers as they try to bring to the fore the issues which face the human beings.

One of the renowned authors is Hemmingway. In 1927, Hemingway skillfully brought to light issues which affected and still affect relationships. In his book Hills Like White Elephants, Hemingway utilized the setting to enable the reader to understand the theme and the character behind the story. During this time, Spain was a country which was considered to be religious.

This was characterized by many catholic churches which stood to represent the moral arm of the society. It is this setting that Hemmingway tries to illustrate the important of morals in the society that is seemingly dwindling from the moral path, following a path that is characterized by pursing selfish and lustful desires. Symbolism This is a story which can be considered to be deceptive in its simplicity.

The couple opts to sit and drink as they wait for the train to Madrid. During this moment, they talk about issues of life. However, the talk comes to an end even before the train arrives. Yet within this quiet scene is a moral struggle, an investigation of the spiritual barrenness of modern love that is piercing its precision.

Hemingway does not cast moral judgment on the operation itself but on the narcissistic selfishness of the man, his ability to hear the young woman’s voice plea for home and family. Her surrender at the end is no less poignant than the death of a soldier on the battlefield, both because of its inevitability and the powerlessness of her morality and desire in the face of his more modern egotism.

The story opens as the man and the woman sit in the shade of the station café, discussing what to drink to cool them down from the oppressive heat. During a conversation, Jig comments that the hills resemble white elephants. In actual sense, the white elephant is a term which is used to describe or symbolize a situation or a thing which is considered to be useless. This symbol describes the kind of relationship that is exists between Jig and the American.

The man refuses to acknowledge her imaginative view, though, and an argument sparks between them. She changes the subject, asking about the words painted in the bead curtain of the café. It is the name of a drink, Anis del Toro, and after tasting it she says its licorice taste reminds her of absinthe. “Everything tastes of licorice (Hemingway). Especially all the things you have waited so long for, like absinthe.” “Oh, cut it out,” he says, and again it is unclear why they are quarrelling (Hemingway).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only when the reader realizes that she is remarking obliquely that everything she had longed for seems the same, in that it is ruined, does the emotional intensity of the scene make sense. The river in the story reflects life. Ebro River is a river which originates in the Cantabarian Mountains. This river flows into the Mediterranean, which is 550 miles from her source. It is worth noting that the river in this play represents vitality. This notwithstanding, the river also represents time.

That is the passage of time from one era to another. The baggage that is being carried by the travelers can be associated with the issues of the past (Resseguie). The landscape is in a dry and desolate state. This state of the landscape represents death and a sense of wastefulness. On the contrary, the greenside represents newness and a sense of promise. The newness is a representation of a baby and the anticipated new beginning. Jig’s inability to face the real landscape, the brown and dry hill suggests lack of acceptance of the real life ahead.

She fails to realize that the relationship between them is deteriorating as is the case with the parallel railroads, which denotes that they are not likely to meet on the matter at hand. Unfortunately, she opts to hold on to the belief that the American man will commit. She is hopeful that the pregnancy means something to the man. Unfortunately, to the man, the relationship is nothing more than an illicit affair.

The “wind” of the hills simply defines casually and literally what an abortion is: As “the warm wind blew the bean curtain against the table,” he is quick to say, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It’s really not anything. It’s just to let the air in. I’ll go with you….They just let the air in and then it’s perfectly natural” (Bloom 50). The rail road junction represents the decisions that have to be made by both parties. This junction is used as a symbol to represent the quagmire of whether to carry out an abortion or not.

It also brings to the fore the question of changing directions which is sought by Jig and the American. In conclusion, it is quite clear that there are many lessons which a person can pick from this story. First, is the role of men and women in intimate relationships. This is clearly captured by the way Jig and the American are relating especially in light of the pregnancy. Secondly, it brings an emphasis with regard to responsible behaviors in relationships.

This is captured when Jig conceives (Bloom). Following this eventuality it seems that the American is not willing to take full responsibility. Hemingway paints a bleak, amoral world where people are trapped by “the good times.” The story is effective because there is not only a hero, but a credible woman struggling against him, defining his shallow and selfish desire to have only Jig (but not the child) thereby authorizing the abortion as the only plausible solution.

Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Ernest Hemingway, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Everything Tastes Like Liquorice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hemingway, Ernest. Men Without Women, New York: Scribner, 2002. Print.

Resseguie, James. Narrative criticism of the New Testament:an introduction, New York: Baker Academic, 2005. Print.


Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994)

The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference

Opinion on the ruling

Works Cited

Globally, the demand for human and civil rights by all people has intensified with time. Most social groups in society have moved to emphasize on the need to ensure that their demands are neither undermined nor overlooked as a major icon in enhancing acceptability and cohesion in the society. Sexual harassment in prisons today has been a major distressing issue that has caused massive suffering to victims and also great social disharmony.

Olsen posits that sexual harassment is a problem that affects individuals in a community as well as in prisons (199). However, deliberate indifference plays a critical role in disregarding the safety and health of inmates in prison. The latter goes against the provisions of the Eighth Amendment. This paper takes a critical look at the issue of deliberate indifference as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Farmer v. Brennan case of 1994.

Gardner posits that deliberate indifference constitutes a conscious and reckless disregard of the possible effects of an individual’s omissions or actions which can cause harm to another person (429). This lack of disregard goes beyond mere negligence. Over the years, deliberate indifference standards have been applied by law court to determine the knowledge of professionals concerning risks and their negligence of actions performed by others which may cause safety or health issues to inmates.

Gardner continues to argue that it is difficult to determine what constitutes deliberate indifference, but quickly adds that courts have identified ways like factual scenarios which they use to establish deliberate indifference (430). Some of those ways include lack of effective response to an inmate’s complaints and delaying or deliberately not supplying medical care to an injured inmate.

A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994) The above case concerned a male-to-female transsexual by the name Dee Farmer who having been charged with credit card fraud, was incarcerated in a prison with a general male population.

This led to Farmer going through repeated rapes and serious beatings from inmates. The consequences of the events were not only bodily harm, but also health problems as she eventually acquired HIV. In the court, Farmer made it clear that the prison administration neglected the fact that they were exposing her to the danger of sexual violence having put her among men.

The Supreme Court actually agreed by majority that the responsibility was on the prison administration terming their action as a deliberate indifference, an act that violated the Eighth Amendment. However, the prison administration was not automatically held liable to what happened to Farmer since the prison officials might not have known what was happening and abated it through reasonable measures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference The case of Farmer v. Brennan speaks of the need for prison guards to assume the duty of protecting inmates from harm by other prisoners. However, the ruling by the Supreme Court done by Justice Scalia on the objective components that the conditions of confinement of Farmer were fair and that the deprivations of her rights were not sufficiently serious was in reality a denial of justice.

Zangwill indicates the ruling by the court that there was no sexual harassment after the knowledge that Farmer, having a feminine appearance and preoperative transsexual was left at the mercy of male inmates to be beaten and raped clearly incarcerates transsexuals as targets for sexual harassment in prisons (100).

Olsen however differs with Zangwill on the point that the court was fair in its ruling since Farmer had not informed the prison administration that he was not safe. This could have seen prison officials either segregating her from others or securing better protection (199). Deliberate indifference could have therefore arisen if the prison staff had actual knowledge of the threat Farmer faced and refused to take reasonable measures.

Opinion on the ruling The ruling by the Supreme Court on the case of Farmer was indeed unfair and I strongly disagree with it based on the fact that prison officials and professionals were well aware of the fact that sexual harassment is common in prisons.

Putting Farmer in a prison dominated by men without considering her sexual nature and appearance was a clear indication of their negligence of the harm that would befall Farmer. Reporting a threat to prison officials without a clear indication or proof of a threat does not always guarantee an inmate of security. The ruling by the court on the ground that Farmer had not reported the threat was a sure way of protecting the administration from liability.

It is common practice among many inmates not to report sexual harassment for fear that they would be called snitches. Deliberate indifferences in similar cases to that of Farmer v. Brunner will be cited in conscious negligence of prison officials in the status of an inmate. Details of inmates, physical and emotional are normally supplied to prison official, a factor that provides them with information on the various rights of an inmate that needs to be protected.

Ignorance of those details and dependence on a prisoner to report threats to violation of those rights is a deliberate indifference on the part of prison officials. It is the duty of prison officials to ensure the safety of prisoners at all times with or without reporting. Having the background of widespread sexual harassments in prisons, it is upon prisons administration to establish measures that will curb any incidences of rape and sexual assaults.

We will write a custom Essay on Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gardner, Martin. “Rethinking Robinson V. California in the wake of Jones V. Los Angeles: the “Demise of the Criminal Law” by attending to “punishment”.” Journal of Criminal Law


The raise of Taxes at the United States Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Taxation and work incentives

Taxation and the pattern of demand

Taxation and investment decisions

The Rich Should Pay More



Abstract This essay will look at the effect of a change in tax rate in an economy. Based on the current economic and financial crisis relationships with be established on taxation with work incentives, labor productivity, investment decisions, budget and the rich so as to make informed opinion.

When an economy is facing a crisis, it adjusts its tax system as policy to rectify the deficit in the economy. For instance, United States has been hardly hit by the economic crisis and is contemplating on increasing taxes for the rich. The change in taxation has both positive and negative effects.

Introduction The current economic and financial crisis has adversely affected all the countries in the world. Those that have been hard hit by the crisis include the United States of America and European countries. Other countries, especially developing countries are suffering from the spill over effects. In United States, the effects of this crisis have been evident in various sectors of the economy.

The country has been hit by high rates of employment with nearly ten million people registering for the unemployment benefits. The number of people registering in job search centers has increased, with fresh graduates taking the highest percentage. The economy has failed to create new jobs, with jobs lay off mounting by the day. Most industries are streaming their workforce since they cannot adequately meet their needs, such as paying salaries and other benefits.

The situation has rendered a high percent of the populace jobless, with most of them having difficulties in paying their bills. Those who are unable to meet their bills have resorted to pegging in streets so at least to get something to sustain them. The suffering of most Americans has not gone unnoticed, with the President Barack Obama constantly giving an account of government progress on how the crisis is being handled. The most recent announcement by the President is an increase in the rate of tax for the rich.

The tax raise among the rich will lead to an increase in national revenue that can then be used to create jobs at national levels. This move has elicited controversy, with some supporting while others attack the move as inappropriate. It is like taking from those who are rich and distributing it to those who are poor. Despite raising taxes for the rich, taxes for foreign people should be lowered.

Discussion Taxation is a fiscal policy tool that government can use in order to have a balanced fiscal budget. The government to attain certain objectives like full employment, price stability and economic growth normally uses fiscal policy. Other policy tools that can be used include printing of money, sell of fixed assets, internal or external borrowing as well as consumption of fiscal reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a government is facing huge deficits, tax revenue can be raised by increasing the tax rates. Taxation is a tool that can be used to rescue an economy facing difficult times. Proper design of a tax policy can be a panacea to the prevailing economic hard times such as unemployment. United State has sought to follow Germany’s way to rescue its economic from adverse effects of its current debt position.

Economist asserts that the only way in which an economy can reverse a crisis is using an expansionary fiscal policy. This will solve the issue of fiscal budget imbalance, unemployment and ‘crowding out’ effect.

Conversely, high taxes will look out private companies from investing in the country because of the cost of production which will translates to higher commodity prices. It will be hard for businesses to carry out business in countries with high tax rates. This is because it will render most establishments less competitive in the global market.

To encourage foreign investment tax rates should be reduced for them and sometimes coupled with tax havens, allowances and subsidies, this will encourage them to take up their new investment in the economy (Kivel, 2002).

Taxation and work incentives When there is an increase in the rate of income tax, the effect will be that the post-tax income of individuals will reduce. This is because the net income resulting from each hour of work will be lower. The move might encourage workers to increase their number of working hours to meet their target income. On the other hand, an increase in tax might be used as a disincentive to promote less work. The government normally sets a lower income tax rate for low-income employees.

This will act as an incentive for workers to do their job for long hours and earn more money. Low taxes on low-income earners serve as a tool of reducing ‘poverty trap’ risks where individuals will get high net financial benefits from their work. When tax reforms are favorable, it leads to an increase in supply of labor thus a reduction in unemployment equilibrium rate hence, the growth rate will increase.

Taxation and the pattern of demand Demand patterns for goods and services vary as indirect taxes are changed. When value added taxes (VAT) on commodities such as alcohol and cigarettes increase, it is aimed at causing a low consumption among consumers or a substitution effect. The result will be a low demand for such commodities. Indirect taxation can be applicable where there is a total market failure, as well as when the government wants to ensure equitable distribution of resources such as health care.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The raise of Taxes at the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taxation and investment decisions When the rates of business taxes and corporate tax are low, this can stimulate a business to increase its spending in fixed capital investment. An increase in investment will mean that the capital stock of a nation has increased thus an increase in capital stock of every worker employed (Mankiw, 2011).

Government can use incentives such as tax allowances to boost research and development and in encouraging new business developments. A tax regime that is favorable will attract increased inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). This will be a stimulus that will benefit an economy’s aggregate supply and aggregate demand. Low rates of corporation tax will attract huge amounts of private investment.

Tax changes act as a stimulus of investment in capital assets, social infrastructure, and labor force skills as well as in technology. A good tax system will ensure an improvement in infrastructure, which is essential for economic growth through increased production and competitiveness. Government spending can be terms of development of an education system that is skills oriented and technology focused. This will ensure a steady long-term supply of human resources (Dye, 2011).

Company’s risk attitude and corporate income tax are the main factors that are considered by an organization before making an investment decisions, this is because this factors can affect the rate of return on investment. Amount of corporate tax to be paid is an important factor that is taken into consideration before making a financial investment decision. This is because low taxes will mean lower prices for goods and higher revenue generated.

The Rich Should Pay More For equal sacrifice and fairness among citizens, those individuals who benefited from favorable economic times such as boom, rescue packages among others should find it necessary to shoulder the costs that arise from a crisis. There willingness will save the economy from suffering the worst effects of a crisis that a time may spill over to drain resources of the rich. This argument looks at increasing government revenue through an increase in income as well as an increase in capital gains tax.

This was illustrated by Germany’s case after the World War II where legislation was passed which mandated financial compensation to gather for loses that arises during the war. This lead to a creation of tax on property and capital, this law was applicable to individuals who still possess substantial assets after the war. The law required them to pay half of their asset worth to a compensation fund over a period of thirty years.

In case of United States, an increase in tax has no chance any time soon. The reason being the required budget consolidation should occur on the expenditure part. This will imply a reduction in government expenditure and this will have adverse effects on the economy. On the other hand, an increase in income tax disproportionately has an effect on higher earners. The impact of high tax on the rich is minimal because large proportions of their income go to savings while minimal amounts are spent (Blinder


Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the essay help online free: essay help online free

Today the problem of solid waste management is current for developed and developing countries because the hazardous effects of the ineffective solution of the question can lead to influencing the state of the environment and changing the ecological situation at the polluted territories. There are many models and programs developed at local, regional, and governmental levels in the USA and the European countries which are worked out for providing the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management.

To overcome the issue of solid waste management, the USA and the European countries practice the collection, transportation, recycling of the waste at the local and regional levels, with focusing on the competitiveness of the industry, with involving the other countries’ landfills, or with concentrating on the inter-municipal cooperation.

It is necessary to develop the economically advantageous project of the industry’s modernization according to which the spending costs should become lower and results higher. The inter-municipal cooperation can be considered as the most economically effective solution to the problem.

The problem of solid waste is one of the most controversial for the urban territories with the constant growth of industries which provide the highest percentage of the solid waste. Moreover, the problem of municipal domestic waste is also current. Today it is more typical for the USA to use landfills and the system of recycling as the main methods of solid waste management.

Nevertheless, different states focus on various ways of waste management with paying attention to the regional and local programs (Bel et al.). However, the main problem which can limit the effectiveness of solid waste management remains unsolved. It is the problem of the local and governmental costs spent for the management. That is why the most effective solution to the problem must be also effective from the point of its financing.

The discussion on the effectiveness of this or that solution to the problem of solid waste management is still open. If it is possible to accentuate the successfulness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in such European countries as Spain and the Netherlands and in the USA, it is also possible to focus on the regional programs typical for the US counties with involving the citizen information programs, recycling, and depending on waste-to-energy plants, and on the cooperation between two countries (Canada and the USA) because they are used with following the standards of technology and provide definite environmental benefits.

Thus, the example of the realization of the regional program associated with solid waste management in the US counties is the system of waste management in Cheshire County. The main characteristics of the system are the usage of the citizen information programs, the waste stream reduction and recycling, the development of the network which connect the territories with the centrally located county landfill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support the system, many counties can use public and private partnership with the local transport companies. All these factors accentuate the fact that “municipalities are paying too much for solid waste disposal” (Monahan 7). That is why it is necessary to find the more economically effective solution to the problem.

The idea to use the landfills of the neighbor countries, for instance Canada and the USA, for realizing waste management programs can be considered as effective from the point of economy. However, it is important only for those territories which are located close to the countries’ borders. Moreover, there are many aspects connected with the problems of crossing the borders (transportation) and locating the waste in the landfills (Schaefer). That is why this solution also cannot be considered as the most successful one.

To realize the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management in the USA, it is significant to use the principles of the inter-municipal cooperation which also can involve the definite aspects of the public-private mixed policy. This system is more appropriate for the USA because of the high level of the local fragmentation in the country.

Moreover, it can be also discussed as the more developed one in comparison with the typical local and regional programs. Thus, “in the US, inter-municipal cooperation is usually not compatible with private production, although it is seen as a form of contracting out” (Bel et al. 5).

The inter-municipal cooperation allows decreasing the amount of the costs used for the collection, transportation, effective disposal, and recycling of the solid waste with sharing the responsibility for providing the necessary management. Thus, the effective inter-municipal cooperation can solve the challenges of funding and social costs. Moreover, such form of cooperation between the local authorities contributes to solving the environmental issue which is rather difficult to discuss at local levels independently.

Nevertheless, why is the inter-municipal cooperation more effective than, for instance, regional county programs? It is important to note that modern programs used in counties are predominantly based on the successful aspects of the inter-municipal cooperation which is economically beneficial.

The inter-municipal cooperation provides the opportunities to concentrate on the technological modernization of the processes, development of the transport system, to rationalize the division of the budget and involve all the necessary means with increasing the managerial capacity (Wilson and Scheinberg).

We will write a custom Essay on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-municipal cooperation as the solution to the problem of solid waste management is based on the efficient economy balance between the country’s territories and provides the effective developed system (Bel et al.).

In spite of the fact there are many programs which are used in the world for solving the problem of solid waste management, one the most economically effective systems is the inter-municipal cooperation which can be successfully realized in the USA.

Summary Discussing possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management, Matthew Schaefer in his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” pays attention to the relations between the USA and Canada, their integration in overcoming the issue of the solid waste with the help of the landfills abroad; Germa Bel and the group of researchers in their work “Similar Problems, Different solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain” focus on comparison the effectiveness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands; in their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”

David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg concentrate on the necessity of finding the easiest variant for solving the problem which can also be appropriate for implementing in cities and countries with low incomes; Matt Monahan in his “Municipal Solid Waste Study” develops the recommendations for using regional programs in US counties.

In his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?”, Matthew Schaefer discusses the peculiarities of the transportation of the waste between Canada and the USA. The author states that such practice has advantages for the economy of the both countries, but it also requires the solution to the question of the open borders and the creation of definite transnational standards for reducing the waste.

Germa Bel, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda, and Raymond Gradus developed the work in which they analyzed the peculiarities of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands with references to the experience of Great Britain and the USA. It is the most beneficial program from the point of economy for countries with the high level of the local fragmentation.

In their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”, David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg discuss the findings of their prolong research which was conducted on the problem of finding the most effective and less expensive way to cope with the issue of solid waste management which could contribute to the requirements of the developed countries and developing countries.

They focus on the difference in approaches to solving the problem in big cities and low-income cities. The necessary technological modernization of the process should be supported by the authorities and political commitment. Nevertheless, it is also important to pay attention to the modernization of the economically advantageous recycling system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his “Municipal Solid Waste Study”, Matt Monahan analyzes the features of waste management in the counties of the USA and concludes that the current system is not effective in relation to the level of expensiveness and requires the further development. It is necessary to implement the constant system with basing on the cooperative work of municipalities in order to monitor the process of collection, transportation, and recycling the solid waste form the territory.

The articles are similar in providing the analysis of the effectiveness of this or that program depending on the economic factor with the focus on the examination of the benefits resulted from the usage of the mixed (public and private) policy.

These examined articles are different in providing the possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management which depend on various criteria (the involvement of municipalities, governments, integration with the neighbor countries).

Works Cited Bel, Germa, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda and Raymond Gradus 2006, Similar Problems, Different Solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain. PDF file. Web.

Monahan, Matt 2004, Municipal Solid Waste Study. Web.

Schaefer, Matthew. “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” Canada-United States Law Journal 28.103 (2002): 103-114. Web.

Wilson, David and Anne Scheinberg. “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?” Waste Management


Econ of development Essay a level english language essay help

Many global investors have poured their resources in emerging market economies because of the returns accrued, which is higher compared to investments in advanced market economies. The returns are not necessarily high for the emerging market economies. External financing is always accompanied by high social costs to the countries with emerging market economies.

Moreover, volatile external financing may reduce economic growth of such countries because of some uncertainties involved. It is for this reason that government should intervene and place controls on this economic aspect. Too much intervention by the government is not productive because side effects will also arise, e.g., if a government imposes a limit to the amount of cash that can be ploughed into a country for investment, the investor may be limited to a strict budget.

This may deprive the country from gaining other benefits, e.g. infrastructure. Investors sometimes build roads and bridges for easy access and transportation of goods to the locations of investment. These remain the assets of the host country. It is very critical that the government limit their restrictions by formulating favorable policies.

Governments should issue contracts to all investors. These contracts should explain in detail the length of time that the investors will stay. In addition to this, the contracts should restrict pulling out of the investors until a certain stage in the process of market liberalization is reached.

This is better than having no contracts, and allowing investors to emerge markets at will. In so doing, the government plays an important role; they ensure that there is a constant and continuous accumulation of capital within the country. Without contracts specifying the stay of investors in a country, they may decide to pull out their resources and capital as they wish.

This is very dangerous to the economy of any country because the assets in that country may become less valued. The main reason why investors may decide to pull out of a country in the course of their stay is loss of faith in that country’s economy. Since the economic stability of most developing countries is uncertain, it is wise for them to give contracts (specifying the duration of stay, and the time to pull out) to investors.

Capital flight occurs when the capital injected by investors rapidly flows out of the country. This takes place when investors lose faith in the project or when their confidence on the economy of that country is gone. This is mostly associated with the fall in the exchange rate in the deserted country’s currency. One major way of dealing with capital flight is changing of the exchange rates of a country to values more favorable to the direct foreign investors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investors should not lose a lot of money while converting their currencies and vice versa. There are other ways of dealing with capital flight other than adjusting the exchange rate. These methods are equally important in dealing with capital flight. One of them involves reducing the taxation rates on capital. When the government reduces the amount of tax imposed on capital, investors are more likely to stay.

This is because they end up retaining money that would have otherwise have been used as tax. Other than the two examples given, any initiative by the government in strengthening the economy of a country will ensure that investors always remain in that country. In general, it is correct to conclude that maintaining the stability of a country’s economy will win the confidence of investors thereby making them stay.