Fayol’s Theory Of Management Essay Essay Help

Introduction Management is based on the notion that all organizations have similar elements. It is observed that management contradicts the notion of organization whereby small units of a large organization are created.

The definition of management is said to be grounded on two notions. The first notion was engineered by French industrialist, Henry Fayol, which is to the effect that management is to be viewed in top down perspective.

His definition states that, management has similar elements and managers have common duties and responsibilities. According to Fayol, management must be manned by professionals, and they must get training as to be equipped with such skills (Fells


Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Proposal argumentative essay help

Implications and limitations The sample in the research was a proposed study in the National Football players’ league. The players interviewed suffered from head injuries, causing the Chromic Traumatic Encephalopathy. The sample for the research is the players with head injuries. In a research, the proposed sample should reflect coverage of the represented population.

There are implications posed by the sample used and the instruments available in measuring the sample. First, the research deals with an investigation of the case and control groups.

The empirical measurement of the research entails the exclusion and inclusion methods, which may not be helpful in ascertaining the exact number of players who have suffered from Chronic Traumatic Enephalopathy (Boston University, 2009).

The proposed sample used in the research is not only small but highly restrictive. The sample is highly constricted because the research is retrospective, and hence has numerous implications. It means that few players will be selected, and hence they may not fully represent the entire population.

In the course of the research, follow-ups on the participants is required, which is exceedingly costly hence the sample is reduced. The reduction of the players means that the research is restrictive and cannot be relied to give valid results.

The proposed results will have certain implications to the players. The researcher may dispel with different requirements, hence requiring different variables to complete the research study (Nelson, 2012).

The comparison of the interviews taken will include many assumptions and the decisions made may be marred by assumptions. The statistical distribution of tables to analyze the correlation factors and the interviews has an error margin and has a low level of accurate data processing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The limiting factors present a possibility of errors in the research. The greatest limitation is the fact the sample of retired football players with head injuries is extremely limited. The implication is that fewer players in the National Football League have suffered from head injuries.

The disease is said to occur after the retirement of the players, which means that a lot of time may be taken in establishing the right sample. In addition, most of the players who have retired have not tested for the disease (Holbrook, 2009).

The measuring methods in the research are likely to be interfered with by other factors and may be highly affected. The testing of their reliability will occur after the research is finished. Therefore, the internal and external consistency may be lost in the time of making the measurements.

Though the use of inter-observer tests will be applied in measuring the validity, there are many errors which may not be detectable. Hence, the research may rely on assumptions only (Boston University, 2009).

Appendices and References The research will take approximately two years to be concluded. The period proposed will be enough to select the sample to be used in the research. The first three months of the two years will be spent in preparing the required documents, such as the consent and authority to conduct research.

Five months will be used in selecting the sample using the purpose method, and three months will be used in preparing the questionnaires and formulating the questions to be asked in the interviews. It is within the three months that participant permission will be sought.

The research assistants to assist in the research will be recruited and trained within two months. Rehearsal on how to approach the respondents and the collection of data will take one month. Once the training is completed, the research assistants will take four months collecting data from the respondents.

We will write a custom Proposal on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data will be collected using questionnaires and interview sessions. The interview sessions will be recorded by the research assistants. The questionnaires may be answered by the respondents or the research assistants may assist the respondents (Nelson, 2012).

One month will be used in submitting the data by the research assistants for analysis. The same month will be used to analyze the data and make conclusions. Compilation of the research and the conclusions reached will also take one month.

At the end of the data collection, if it is established that the time framework has not enhanced gathering of enough data, then time extension may be sought (Health Day News, 2009).

The researchers will require two personal computers and six laptops. The two computers will be left at the center and they will be operated by two research assistants. A data collection center will be created. The computers will have stable internet connection to monitor the communication between the assistants in the center and those taking part in data collection.

Consistent feedback and monitoring of the data collection process in the field will be highly encouraged. It means that the two assistants at the center must be present up to the time the people collecting data return from the field. The computers at the center will be installed with the SPSS to analyze the data (Holbrook, 2009).

The printed copies of the questionnaires and interviews will be done at the center. Therefore, a printer will be needed. Having a printer controlled at the center will save time and will facilitate proper coordination. The research assistants collecting data will require pens to give to the respondents so as to enter answers on the questionnaires.

A consistent internet and power supply will be a key resource if the research is to be a success. The monitoring of the entire research and data collection will require internet connection (Schwartz, 2009).

All the personnel required in the research must be fluent in English and should be computer literate. They should also demonstrate high standards of interpersonal communication skills. Two of the assistants must have knowledge in statistics so as to assist in measuring the data, drawing the graphs and checking the validity of the data using SPSS software.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More High observance of research ethics will also be a substantial requirement, which must be maintained by the research assistant at all material times. The professionals will need to be paid well since well paid professionals will be motivated. The research assistants will be divided two at the center and others will be collecting data (Holbrook, 2009).

The budget of the entire research will include the money spent on the hiring of the research assistants to the amount used in buying the computers and their installation. The assistances will be hired on a contractual basis and hence they will be paid at the completion of the research.

High salaries of 2,000 US $ will be for each research assistant. There will be allowances totaling to 1,000 US$. The high salary concept will be aimed to motivate the assistants hence delivering quality results. The computers, laptops, pens, power, internet, printers and the installation will cost 7,000 US $.

In addition, 1,000 US $ will be used by the research assistants to commute to where the response are. Extra 1,000 US $ will be set aside to cater for miscellaneous expenditures incurred in the period of the research. The total budget will be 12,000 US $ (Schwartz, 2009).

References Boston University. (2009). Nfl players association to support brain trauma research at boston university. State news service. Web.

Holbrook, E. (2009). Brain trust: a medical study confirms what too many have feared–the sport of football can cause brain trauma. what can the nfl do? Risk management, 10. Web.

Health Day News (2009). 3 NFL stars to donate brain tissue for trauma research; program studies affects of repeated blows to the head. Last consumer health News (English). Web.

Nelson, R. (2012). Evaluating football. EE – evaluation engineering. Web.

Schwartz, A. (2009). Case suggests safety risk goes beyond the nfl. The New York Times, B14 (L). Web.


Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Background

Structural mitigation

Non-structural mitigation


Background The practice of elimination and reduction of loss of property and life due to catastrophes have become common in areas prone to natural disasters. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation.

Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. Besides, participatory mechanism, public commitment, knowledge development, policy formulation and awareness among other non-structural mitigation methods are necessary to reduce the impact of disasters.

Structural mitigation Physical constructions have been used as elements of mitigation and have been helpful in reducting and protection against potential impacts of hazards. Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that structural mitigation through construction of protective infrastructure and hazard resistant structures has been relied upon by many nations and communities for defensive and shielding purposes.

These nations have set up legislations which are geared towards ensuring the effectiveness of both structural and non-structural mitigation activities. The legislations have basically been observed in seismic areas where building codes and land use regulations have been set in place.

In addition, Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) argue that the collapsing of buildings and subsequent damage on infrastructure and structures commonly occur in the event of landslides, floods, earthquakes and other disasters.

These are some of the factors that call for the effecting of structural mitigation practices purposely to save lives and property by reducing damages. Countries in seismic areas have embarked on construction, maintenance and designing of their structures to ensure safety of their citizens.

Through their civil engineers, they have retrofitted and strengthened old structures. In addition, they have designed canals, roads and new buildings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the model of mitigation and adaptation highlights that there are diverse ways through which disasters can be alleviated. This is largely due to the presence of technology, detectors and experts on climate change and environmental management.

Predictions on possible threats due to climate changes and other related catastrophes based on scientific investigation are critical for setting up strong and protective infrastructures. The enormous arrays of resources within governments set up to warn and protect are critical in developing structural mitigation capabilities.

Figure 1: A diagram illustrating a mitigation and adaptation model

Non-structural mitigation Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that non- structural mitigation practices aimed at minimizing the consequence of disaster are cost effective. They include provision of information on reduction of risk, participatory mechanisms, public commitment on ensuring safety, creation of awareness and better policies.

Many nations have set up regulations that control the activities which individuals, groups and industries undertake. Besides, the use of temporary restriction methods such as avalanche warning signs and flood barriers to limit risks to admissible levels has been common.

Planning, land use regulation, determining locations of human activities and settlement as ell as trainings on hazard have been set up as non-structural mitigation methods to reduce risks.

In seismic zones, non-structural mitigation has been a practice that involves anchoring and bracing household, industry and office items to prevent falling, injuries and damages. Items that are normally used include support systems, brackets, anchors and tie-downs.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) highlight that activities related to non-structural mitigation are generally inexpensive, easy to apply and effective in saving lives.

Figure 2: A diagram illustrating non-structural mitigation

To sum up, it is imperative to highlight that both structural and non-structural mitigation activities are necessary in minimizing risks, safeguarding lives and property from damages. However, non-structural mitigation has been a common practice due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.

Most structures constructed in disaster prone areas use non-mitigation strategies to effect safety. Even so, there is still need for governments to set up effective policies on environmental management to curb the rise of disasters due to climate change.

Reference Perry, R.W., Prater, C.S


Church best college essay help

30 External Factors of Economy Affecting Businesses There are numerous external factors of economy that affect businesses in various countries. They influence different business aspects. In this context, the first one is GDP. The total value of commodities a country produces in a given period (GDP) indicates the income rates of the concerned citizens and their buying trends.

Consequently, this economic factor is able to influence the establishment, ratification, and propulsion of any business in the concerned country as indicated earlier. Church


The Role of Technology in Linking the HRM with Organization Goals and Vision Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Strategic HRM

Role of Technology in Serving HRM

Human Resource Information System

Company Example

Writer’s Opinion


Reference List

Strategic HRM The integration of information technology into the HR development leads to newer capacities for an organization. This includes a definition of the information interface among staffs, an exchange of their contributions and their participation in virtual enterprises (Wang 2005).

Rapid organizational restructuring needs are calling for new ways of HRM to stimulate administrative change. Technology enables HRM to focus more on value addition in its activities for full realization of the business’s strategy (Wang 2005).

Gong and Chow (2010) show that for technology-intensive industries, knowledge and skills embodied in human capital directly raise productivity. Their research supports the need to integrate technological innovation and HRM to achieve directorial performance.

Organizations existing in performance-oriented cultures prefer formal procedures within the HR department. These include standardized selection methods, systematic performance appraisals, official job evaluations and formal recruitment channels (Panayotopoulou, Galanaki


E-Marketing Plan Recommendations Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Functional Team Framework Great Cup of Coffee Company

E-marketing involves building friendly partnership and working relationship with a market segment without necessarily having physical contact with it. In fact, the main source of exchanging information and advertising products is through written words in a social media such as company website.

Reflectively, success of e-marketing is deeply entrenched in the principle of keeping reliable and professional reputation in exchanging ideas and convincing customers in online selling.

Thus, the key conceptual idea of this reflective treatise is an in-depth and explicit analysis of recommendations for an e-Marketing plan on the periphery of functional team orientation for Great Cup of Coffee Company.

Besides, the paper is specific on values surrounding e-marketing and checkpoints that translate into sustainable, profitable, and relevant business engagement.

In the contemporary society, over fifty percent of companies use internet in research and promoting their services and products. Besides, the same percentage of people has access to internet and other social media.

Therefore, e-marketing is the ‘next big thing’. In order to have a successful e-Marketing plan in Great Cup of Coffee Company, structural planning is essential especially in locating target market and actualizing through execution of preset plans.

With proper planning, messaging, and market objectivity, comprehensive implementation is achievable at optimal level.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to achieve structural planning, the same should labor to build a visible campaign for brand awareness which dictates the magnitude of acceptance and time frame for the same. Besides, the campaign should include strategies meant to expand and gain audience in the target market.

Another key recommendation in e-Marketing plan for Great Cup of Coffee Company envisions creation of a simultaneous but independently functioning cost balancing matrix that keep the firm in the competitive edge.

However, before implementing this recommendation, market research should expand into the territory of acquiring knowledge on prevailing market price especially when dealing with a product that is already in the market. Price research creates conducive environment for functionality and sustainability despite market swings (Kalb, 2002).

Essentially, success of e-Marketing plan depends on proper alignment of a functional team who is responsible for creation of flexible but quantifiable measurement tracking tools for reviewing results periodically. Reflectively, this team should have essential knowledge in social media and tools used in marketing via the internet.

Besides quality in service delivery and customer satisfaction depend on the support team. Therefore, customer retention is achievable through creation of reliable, informed, and passionate support team.

In addition, the plan should include a monitoring matrix that maps out potential competitors and identify online weaknesses and strength of clients. Moreover, the reporting criteria should reflect success of marketing calendar and set target periodically generated (Kalb, 2002).

The above recommendations depend on creations customized search engine and page which supply referrals to clients in order to affiliate sales. Therefore, it is necessary to develop simple and self explanatory market expedition since e-Marketing rely on exchange of information between parties.

We will write a custom Report on E-Marketing Plan Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the marketing site should give room for recommendations from clients on level of satisfaction (Kalb, 2002). Data from these recommendations are vital in reviewing future progress tracking devises and determining the magnitude of success within a period of time.

Conclusively, success of e-Marketing depends on execution of the above recommendations and transforming them into reality. Successful execution solely functions on inclusiveness, creation of quantifiable tracking devises for results, and recreating an informed support team.

Generally, these recommendations should be practiced flexibly since online marketing environment is characterized by constant dynamics that may make previous designs irrelevant.

E-Marketing Recommendations for Great Cup of Coffee Company

Reference Kalb, S. (2002). E-Marketing: What Went Wrong and How to Do It Right. Los Angeles: K


Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom Research Paper best college essay help

Introductions An organization strategic position is very important in determining how the organization is going to deal with changes in the local and global market. An organization that has well defined and specified strategies is likely to succeed in maximizing profits and in promoting innovation.

Competition among organizations in an industry can be quite detrimental to an organization’s success. In order to overcome the various challenges in the business sector, a business should have well defined strategies and objectives in order to fit in the dynamic business world (Sherif, 2006).

Business strategies are wide and encompass a wider scope. The main scope of a business strategy will encompass areas which include but not limited to the following: legal position of the business, social and economic environments, management structure, and the financial position of the organization (Sherif, 2006).

The following research paper is going to evaluate and find out the various strategies taken by Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom in order to realize its goals.

The various environments include the legal environment, management structure, operational and financial issues, social and economic environments and the impact of potential change factors.

Background information

Vodafone is a leading multinational telecommunication company in the United Kingdom. The company has its headquarters in London, UK. Vodafone is the world’s largest telecommunication company in terms of revenues.

The company is the world’s second largest company in terms of subscribers, coming second after China Mobiles (Books Llc, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has its operations in over 30 countries and has partners with over 38 networks in other countries worldwide. Vodafone has operations in various regions around the world. These regions include Africa and the Middle East, The American region, the Europe region and the Asia- Pacific region.

The company deals in a variety of products and services. The main product and services being offered by Vodafone include mobile money transfer services, mHealth solutions, voice calls, data calls, internet services and sell of mobile and related accessories (lbbot, 2007).

Discussion The legal environmental

The legal environment will always dictate the limits of operations of a business. Various countries have various legal policies, restrictions and guidelines that dictate how an organization should conduct its activities. Any non compliance to these legal policies and guidelines is considered a breach of law which is punishable in courts (Ibbot 2007).

Also, various countries have various legal requirements for registering a business organization. These requirements ensure that a business conducts the legal business activities it was registered for. For any business to be legally recognized, it must meet the set requirements in the region of its operation.

In the United Kingdom where Vodafone has its headquarters, there are various legal requirements and policies a business must observe and adhere to. Some legal requirements of a business in the United Kingdom include compliance with paying taxes, conducting the legal business a business was registered to do, protecting the customers from product and services fraud (lbbot, 2007).

Like any other company in the United Kingdom, Vodafone UK adheres to the various legal requirements in the United Kingdom. The company has been able to fulfill all the needed legal requirements for registration. The company has also, on several occasions, been named the best tax payer and tax compliance company in the United Kingdom (Books Llc, 2010).

All the above scenarios indicate the company has a good legal structure and system. It also indicates that the company follows and adheres to various legal policies, requirements, regulations and guidelines. The company has various ways and measures that ensure customers are not exploited and that they get the best services and products.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through advertisements and forums, the company is able to enlighten the consumers about their products and services. Also, the company has a well structured complaint system where customers are able to login air their complaints.

The complaint systems enable the company to have continuous improvement in their products and services. This eventually leads to the creation of products which adhere to the legal quality standards.

The company has also received some ISO: 9001 certificates and recognitions. These recognitions indicate that the company is adhering and is at the forefront in promoting quality products and services to consumers.

The company has a faster feedback response system when a customer reports a malfunctioning in a particular product. In some cases, the customer is refunded their money or the product replaced. This is done by the company in a bid to adhere to consumer protection legal policies (Books Llc, 2010).

Management structure

The management structure may be defined as the arrangement of hierarchy of power in an organization. This structure will largely determine how organizational activities are going to be managed.

Managers are the people who are mandated with the task of managing various functional areas within an organization. Managers perform various duties which include planning, controlling and directing among others (LexixNexis, 25).

The extent to which these activities are managed will depend on the competence of the managers. If these activities are well managed, then the company is going to perform well in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.

Vodafone UK success in terms of revenues and clientele base has been attributed to its well qualified management team. The managerial team is made up of highly qualified and specialized individuals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company management structure is in such a way that it fosters and promotes interaction between the various functional areas. This interaction increases mobility as well as dependence among various functional areas (Flood, 1997).

The organization structure is also structured in a way that information flow is two way. The structure fosters information flow upwards and downward the organization chart.

The bi-direction flow of information ensures that the managers are furnished with the operational information which they can use to make decisions. The bi-directional flow also ensures that the operations staff is furnished with information about the business policies and decisions (Slaa


Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Childhood is the period which is meaningful for every person because it is the start of a life-long journey. In his Moll Flanders, Daniel Defoe concentrates on many controversial social issues. Moreover, the childhood theme is also masterfully described in the novel as the key point for understanding the persons’ actions and the peculiarities of their further lives.

Thus, Daniel Defoe reveals all the worst features of the world’s reality and discovers all the hidden details of the persons’ souls in the work. He also accentuates the seriousness of the harmful surrounding which a child can undergo in his life and its influence.

The effects of childhood follow persons during their whole lives. Furthermore, people have the opportunity to observe the peculiarities of children’s everyday life as the part of the society anywhere.

To discuss the peculiarities of describing the concept of childhood in the novel, it is necessary to focus on the actual substance of childhood as it is and on the impacts of childhood on the life of the main heroine of the novel. Thus, in his novel the author presents the notion of childhood as a stand point to watch the heroine’s destiny and present her further development into a young lady with her own hidden psychological troubles.

Defoe opens his novel as a really strict narration that derives conclusion right away saying that Moll is going to continue her mother’s destiny, as well. This is what life did to her: born in dreadful conditions, not having an opportunity to meet mother ever, and raised by gypsies, Moll is not as bad as she could have become.

The peculiarities of Moll’s situation make her act as a grown-up. This situation can be considered as typical for that period. It was the eighteenth century – the time of nobilities, good manners, and dismissal of poor from any worthy life sphere.

Moreover, women could not have any rights except being a seamstress, if she wanted to work. Therefore, a girl who could possibly get to that atmosphere was doomed to lead a very modest life when she is a grown-up. A boy, however, had slightly more chances to achieve success and work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those children who were growing without their parents’ treatment in streets began to act and behave as grown-ups in order to survive in dangerous surroundings. They did not know that childhood as it could be with the parents’ care and without the needs to work since the age of eight as Moll worked.

However, those children who were born in rich families had the opportunity to enjoy all the pleasures of living with parents, even in spite of the fact that they were brought up by nurses. Thus, the memories about her childhood followed Moll during her life. That is why she tried to do all possible to pay much attention to her own child.

In some of the situations Moll states, “I was greatly perplexed about my little boy. It was death to me to part with the child” (Defoe 77). And furthermore, “If I was but sure my little baby would be carefully looked to, and have justice done it” (Defoe 107).

It is important that those people who bring up children have an extreme influence on their lives. Thus, the nurse Moll lived with was a very good example to follow. And, maybe, due to such a nondurable experience Moll turned out to have her own children ultimately.

The nurse is described as the following, “…she bred up the children she took with a great deal of art, as well as with a great deal of care… [she provided her children with] a plain diet, coarse lodging, and mean clothes…we were brought up as mannerly and as genteelly as if we had been at the dancing-school” (Defoe 8).

It is necessary to mention that although Moll is presented to very harsh conditions throughout her childhood, Defoe still brings in an element of an invisible helping hand as if supporting the idea that there is an angel that every child has.

Nevertheless, the theme of abandoned children can be observed on many pages of the novel. In Defoe’s novel childhood is depicted as the period for the fight for better conditions for life. Thus, Moll often meets beggars on her way.

We will write a custom Essay on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They are described as dark shadows of London’s streets. There are charity programs for such children in society; the authorities try to influence their lives. However, who would like to be a subject of charity? A child raised in conditions of condescension is likely to grow up having no respect for him. Is it possible to avoid the life of purposeless people, miserable drunkards, thieves, criminals, or murderers?

Daniel Defoe depicts childhood in the darkest colors that could ever be. He accentuates that Moll Flanders tried to escape her destiny, but she could not. Moll, being the central figure, makes the reader sympathize with her troubles, though at the same time wonder how in the world she could make it to a relatively good future.

Yet, she had a chance. And there are a number of such children who became unhappy and sad adults because they did not have a chance to change their life.

In his novel Defoe also reveals the theme of children’s aloneness. It is rather difficult to survive in the world where people have no support and understanding of their relatives and friends. What is the destiny for an orphan?

A child cannot possibly grow up as a rich and self-conscious personality. No one is ever able to have a rich inner world without friends or anyone to rely on. Streets and bands create the conditions for growing up as a severe and rough personality. This is, unfortunately, a side effect of self-sufficiency.

Being independent takes effort. A person faces challenges and life makes him bend down to earth, whereas some stand up back straight and some break. When speaking about simple survival, it is hard to consider decent childhood conditions for fostering main virtues.

And so, Moll was presented to the following being: “…even before I was capable either of understanding my case or how to amend… [she was] brought into a course of life which was not only scandalous in itself, but which in its ordinary course tended to the swift destruction both of soul and body” (Defoe 1).

Childhood can be thought of as the most essential part for fostering ideals and habits in a child. Moll in Moll Flanders is the splendid representation what poor childhood conditions may lead to. Completely disoriented and lost in her life, Moll is an example of what can possibly happen to a child who finds him in the same milieu.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. USA: Signet Classics, 1996. Print.


Hurricane Andrew Case Study custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew

Results of the Disaster

Lessons Learned



Introduction Disasters are a reality in human life and while some are avertable, others have to be faced. In the event of a disaster, preparedness, response, and recovery to the incident determine the extent of damage. Waugh (2000, p.34) points out that disasters invariably create unstable work environments for both the victims and the relief workers which makes it hard for emergency efforts to be implemented without prearranged plans.

As such, disaster planning and management play a major role in recovery from a disaster. To underline the role that planning plays in disaster response and recovery, this paper will review Hurricane Andrew which is one of the more significant natural disasters ever to occur on the US mainland.

A review of the response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 will demonstrate that a lack of elaborate recovery planning for a disaster leads to inefficiencies and additional damages.

Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew Hurricane Andrew occurred on August 24, 1992 in the Floridian coast resulting in huge human displacement and a colossal damage of property. As of that time, Hurricane Andrew was the third most powerful storm to every strike the United States mainland (Sirkin, 1995, p.1).

The increasing coastal population was responsible for the significant property costs associated with the Hurricane. While the Floridian coast is subject to hurricanes, it is a favorable location and people still want to live there.

Sirkin (1995, p.4) estimates that the property damages resulting from the hurricane were in the range of $20billion making it the most expensive and devastating storm as of then.

Before the Hurricane hit the US coast, Satellite pictures had tracked it crossing from the west coast of Africa and into the Atlantic as early as August 14. With the use of radar and reconnaissance, the Hurricane Center was able to issue a 12 hours in advance warning to the inhabitants of Florida giving them time to evacuate the coastal areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the warning, massive evacuations were carried out along the Florida coast with about 1.2 million coastal residents being evacuated. The evacuation efforts before Hurricane Andrew are deemed as one of the finest coordinated in the US history and they enabled over 1 million residents to move to safer grounds.

Sirkin (1995) confirms that the evacuation efforts saved many lives which would have been lost if an evacuation had not been ordered.

Results of the Disaster Hurricane Andrew had been preceded by Hurricane Hugo which had occurred in 1989 and resulted in some changes in the Federal government’s responses to natural disasters. While there was a Federal Response Plan (FRP) in place, the level of Federal-State coordination and planning in Florida was still at an infancy stage (FEMA, 1993, p.33).

Most of the concepts advanced by the FRP were not understood by local government elements in Florida. The emergency preparedness plan of the Dade County ensured that over 84,000 people were offered emergency shelter by Red Cross as well as the numerous public buildings and schools that were allocated. However, this plan proved to be insufficient considering the fact that 250,000 people were in need of shelter and food.

There was lack of disaster recovery planning and this fact became evident within hours of the storm’s passing. After the storm had passed, no federal or state plan was in place to provide relief to the disaster victims.

FEMA (1993, p.33) notes that the Federal government waited for requests from the State for assistance instead of availing it beforehand. This proved to be ineffective as aid was not delivered in a timely fashion and people continued to suffer unnecessarily and more property was damaged.

The plan therefore failed to fulfill the core objectives of disaster management which are to save lives, alleviate suffering, and prevent further loses after a disaster.

We will write a custom Case Study on Hurricane Andrew specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a huge communication breakdown following the Hurricane which destroyed most of the communication infrastructure. Effective communication has to occur so as to coordinate the disaster management efforts.

Due to the heightened levels of psychological pressure and a break down of infrastructure such as telephone lines and mobile base stations, the normal forms communication proved inadequate in the case of Hurricane Andrew.

Haddow, Bullock, and Coppola (2008) note that in the first few days following Hurricane Andrew, FEMA (which is the Federal agency responsible for coordinating responses to huge disaster in the US) was unable to disseminate the needed information to communities and coordination of efforts among volunteer organization was poor.

Lessons Learned A number of valuable lessons can be learnt from the disaster management and recovery efforts during Hurricane Andrew. Hurricane Andrew brought it to the attention of the government that better proactive planning is necessary for relief and recovery afterwards.

The planning and preparation activities that had been undertaken before the disaster were crucial since they led to the saving of lives. The importance of accurate damage and needs assessments was also highlighted by this incidence since the initial estimates by local officials proved to be grossly understated.

FEMA (1993, p.35) states that well trained personnel should perform damage and needs assessment within 24 hours of the event and develop a response plan which identifies the needed resources.

The Hurricane revealed the need for more proactive measures to tackle disasters. Sirkin (1995, p.4) states that there was lack of an aggressive Federal support for the disaster victims with government agencies making promises of support without providing any meaningful resources.

It took 10 days for adequate supplies and manpower to be availed to the disaster victims. The delay led to more damages to property and unnecessary suffering by the victims of the Hurricane. The high cost in damages from the Hurricane could have been mitigated if prompt action had been taken.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hurricane Andrew by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Hurricane also highlighted the importance of better coordinated recovery efforts after a disaster. From the Hurricane, it was clear that for most disasters of a major magnitude, relief efforts have to be undertaken through the joint efforts of various organizations.

Hurricane Andrew overwhelmed the local and state resources and it was apparent that outside help were needed to contain the situation. During the occurrence of Hurricane Andrew, there were various plans put in place by the government for effective coordination of Federal government’s response to natural disaster.

The most notable of this was the FRP which was to act as a comprehensive framework through which various disaster response agencies and organizations are able to coordinate their efforts and therefore provide a unified response to disasters. FEMA (1993) notes that the FRP was based on the premise that a significant disaster would require the collaboration of Federal, State, and local emergency response and recovery operations.

Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the plan needed to be fine-tuned since despite its presence, the local government personnel in the affected areas were overwhelmed and unable to communicate specific needs.

Hurricane Andrew demonstrated how poor communication and coordination could be a major hindrance to response and recovery efforts. From the Hurricane, it became apparent that a well established Federal presence in the disaster area both before and/or immediately following the disaster (FEMA, 1993, p.32). Haddow et al (2008) state that after Hurricane Andrew, FEMA moved on to become the lead agency in emergency and disaster management in the US.

The Hurricane also brought to attention the inadequacy of existing communication systems in the event of a disaster. Waugh (2000, p.32) reveals that during disasters, communication lines can be damaged or become overwhelmed due to a spike in communication volumes as huge numbers of people try to communicate simultaneously (Federal Emergency Management Agency 1993).

Alternative channels of communications are therefore necessary to ensure that disaster management personnel can communicate unhindered during the disaster.

Conclusion This paper set out to review the destructive Hurricane Andrew which struck the Floridian coast in 1992 with devastating effects. Special attention has been paid on the lessons that can be drawn from the disaster recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew.

This paper has revealed that despite the advanced warning of the impeding disaster, the federal emergency response team did not come up with an effective recovery plan.

This resulted in greater damages and disruption of the lives of the people’s whose homes had been damaged by the hurricane. From the analysis of Hurricane Andrew, it is evident that better proactive planning and rapid response is necessary for relief and recovery following a disaster.

References Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1993). FEMA Evaluation of Federal Response and Recovery Efforts. NY: FEMA.

Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A.,