Overview of the expectation states theory In the society, people seek to accomplish tasks or goals that are set. They do these in different formations or hierarchies. Therefore, the Expectations States theory explores how states hierarchies emerge in different societal situations where actors are seeking to accomplish goals collectively.
The theory seeks to explain how different factors affect the accomplishment of goals by the actors. It also explains how the different states of the actors affect the expectations as they orient themselves towards the task which they are handling.
Task orientation and collective orientation are the key foundations of the conditions on which the theory bases. Differences in performance among actors are derived from status characteristics, which are the social attributes of individuals who are performing the task.
Among the most notable status characteristic, is gender. Different characteristics are likened either male or female. Status features can be either diffuse or specific.
Diffuse status characteristics bear generalized expectations, which are integrated on the expectations for any level of competence in a specific task. Certain status characteristics bear cultural expectations for specified competences; competencies assigned to the performance of specific tasks (Delamater, 2006).
A lot of social psychology experiments have been performed which have subjected the expectations states theory to empirical evaluations. Most of the empirical studies have been focusing on how the status characteristic especially gender plays out in group roles. Competences about the tasks to be performed in groups are affected by perceptions on gender (Delamater, 2006).
Gender has been cited as one of the best examples of diffuse status characteristics. Cultural believes on gender which is widely shared carry the expectations that men are more competent in doing most things.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are also widely shared assumptions; that men do perform better in certain tasks like mechanical work while women do better in other tasks for instance nurturing. All these status characteristics play out in different group roles which are assigned to groups bearing all the genders.
Status beliefs results in stereotyping of groups. The behaviors of individuals in groups are affected by beliefs on status characteristics, which are transformed to performance expectations. This forms the basis of the status generalization theory which is one of the min sub-theories of the expectation states theory (Delamater, 2006).
Gender differences impact on interpersonal behaviors in different ways. This has been explored in many social researches. Many relatively ancient theories expounding on gender differences in performance of groups have been basing on theories related to sex roles.
However, according to the research that was done differences in gender is not consistent in task groups as has been explained in different sex role approaches. The evaluation and the characters of actors of a similar gender often pay out differently when the actors are subjected to differing situations.
The behavior of males as well as females ranges with the social circumstances facing them. The evaluation of both males and females are the same when they are both subjected to a similar situation. Males and females portray unilateral forms of behavior when they are exposed to similar social circumstances. Status characteristics theory is a fairly recent explanation of gender differences in different tasks and roles (Delamater, 2006).
Gender in interpersonal task roles The argument behind the primary status characteristic is that evaluation and behavioral task differences have to be observed mostly when gender is considered a diffuse status feature. The supportive argument is that gender differences in performance expectations have to result to variations in behavioral profiles between men and women in mixed-sex groups.
Behavior can be treated as being a function of performance expectations is impacted upon by the nature of the task that is being performed. This is because tasks are identified as either being masculine or feminine with only a few tasks being considered to be neutral; they can be performed by either gender (Wagner
Great constructions of the world Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Yoyogi national stadium Yoyogi national stadium is sports arena located in Tokyo, Japan. The stadium was designed by architect from Japan Kenzo Tange to house a gymnasium, basketball court and an Olympic standard size swimming pool as mentioned by James Turnbull. The stadium is a grand example of modern architecture in japan. (Kenzo Tange 1964)
Pictures of Yoyogi national stadium from Wikimedia commons.file: Yoyogi stadium jpg
Materials used and its special features The Yoyogi stadium consists of a 1st stadium and a second which hosts aquatics and basketball games.Above it is a suspension roof structure which is similar to a bridge.The suspension roof has two main cables span 126m in between, the two main columns and 65 m outside them in the longitudinal direction. Also the roof above it covers a circular plan of 120m diameters.
The second stadium also has a circular plan with a diameter of 65m.It is looks similar to the first stadium the only difference being that it has only one column from the top of which the main pipe runs down in a spiral like shape to the anchorage.
Kenzo Tange erected a central structural supporting spine from which the piece of work and the roof originate. The suspension roof top has two large steel cables which are of approximately 14” in diameter are (Kenzo Tange 1964).
Architect Kenzo constructed the gymnasium with a combination of steel, aluminum, glass and concrete blend which he mainly used. The stadium design gave an idea to the architectural design of the 1972 Olympic park in Munich.
It has been considered as one of the 10 most beautiful stadiums in the world.The main gymnasium hosts a capacity of 13,291 in the first gymnasium while in the second gymnasium a capacity of 3,202. (Kenzo Tang)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Igloo in Greenland Julian Ogina describes an igloo as a type of shelter built of snow, originally built by the Inuit. The construction was originally built mainly to insulate the house.The igloo was also used as a hunting ground by the Eskimos. The snow acts as an air insulator as a result temperatures are warmer than the outside due to the insulation.
An igloo is not only restricted to snow but can also be built by even tents. Joan oglin mentions three types of igloos, the smallest which was a temporary shelter for one night.
The second one is intermediate sized which was for accommodating the family and then the largest igloos which was mainly modeled from several smaller igloos attached by channels and had an exit.The large igloo played as a host to traditional dances and community celebrations.( Igloo 2012. Encyclopedia Britannica Online)
Picture and research.
An igloo’s snow brick laying method. The fine snow used, must have enough physical strength to be cut and piled as required.
Materials used and its special features The igloo in Greenland is mainly constructed using snow.To build one the builder takes a heap of fine grained snow and makes them into block shapes. Each block which is rectangular in shape. The first row is laid then additional blocks are added continuously on top of the first row in a spiral form inwardly, till it forms a dome like shape at the top.
We will write a custom Assessment on Great constructions of the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A hole is left at the top which acts as a ventilation and ice on the wall inserted as windows. Also at the entrance there is a narrow semi symmetrical passage which is almost 10 feet. There is a low platform of snow covered with twigs topped by caribou furs that is used for sleeping.
Phaeno science Centre in Wolfsburg Architect Zaha Hadid describes a phaeno as a hall like structure and looks like a landscape with craters and halls and cave like structures.Its description is of an architectural playground.It is one of the top most high end chain of cultural buildings in the world designed by British architect Zaha Hadid.
The structure provides a view to one of the most creative natural structures ever created in the world and considered as Germanys largest playing ground for ambitious innovations.
Phaeno science Centre shows how close together science and fantasy have been connected. It has also described by zaha hadid as looking like a mysterious object which has over the years given rise to curiosity and discovery
Pictures of Phaeno science center in Wolfsburg Germany
Picture source: architectural.com /phaeno sciecnce center
Materials used and special features The building is mainly made of self compacting concrete on all of its walls.The structure boasts features like a spaceship.The building is raised above the ground on a concrete ground.
At its entrance the museum has an staircase the persons use as an entrance to the main floor others include a bookstore and a concert theatre which are situated in the cone shaped halls.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Great constructions of the world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the design Hadid also created a crater like landscape ,which enables variuos diagonal views to the different levels of exhibition scope. Zahi also developed an inner sections which has crater like cones which acts as a connection the outside and the mysterious dynamic landscape.(arc space.com/phaeno science center).
Hadid attibutes the phaeno center to opening up a new approach to the world of architecture in relation to natural science and technology and reawakens the desire of making discoveries.The building is considered as the largest self compacting concrete(scc) till date in europe.
Sydney opera house The Sydney opera house is found in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is believed to be a true representation of Australia having been opened in the year 1973by her royal majesty queen Elizabeth 11.It is one of the most recognizable features in the modern world.
Jon Utzon (1918-2008) the architect and designer compares this building to the pyramids in Egypt and also the Coliseums of Rome.Having the ability to host over 3000 events annually ,it is believed to be one of the busiest places in Australia.(Tom Fletcher 2008)
Source: Wikimedia file Sydney opera house.jpg
Materials used in construction and the special features The building is mainly made of concrete material. Its shell like roof is made of fungus ceramic tiles which were imported from Sweden and is made up of 1,057,000 tiles on the roof top.
The walls of the opera house are built using laminated glass and it has a size of 6223 square meters.The laminated topaz green glass were originally designed and imported from France. (The morning herald).
The concert hall believed to be the busiest in the world has a capacity of over 2,690. On the other hand the smaller opera hall has a capacity of 1547 and operates 24 hours a day and 363 days a year. (The herald 2008).
The building is used for functions such as ballet dance acts and opera musical concerts. Jorn Utzon designed the interior with pink granite and additionally made it with brush box poly wood.
Tadao Ando modern millennium museum. Tadao Ando designed the museum that was originally known as Fort Worth public gallery. It was then later on opened to the public on December 2002 as an attraction. The museum contains pictures from the post- world war, which are found in the library and the art gallery.
Here the gallery covers over 53,000 square feet. (Picasso Pablo).The modern museum mainly has a feature of diffused and reflected natural light on the gallery spaces. This originates from the water plaza outside the restaurant which has a mirror like surface and reflects the light into the entire building.
Tadao Ando describes the museum as a combination of nature and technology and is a great example of green revolution. This is due to using the light reflected from the water for lighting the building. He also describes as an example of modern art work technology.
Source: File: Wikimedia Fort Worth Texas Modern Art Museum 2003.jpg
Materials used and special features of the museum Tadao Ando mainly constructed the building using glass walls which reflect natural light from the large pond outside. The pond acts as a mirror and reflects the light onto the transparent walls which reflects on the gallery surface. The roof above is made of thick concrete slab which is supported by Y shaped columns.
The walls are made of transparent glass which emit light reflected from the large pond. The museum has over (4900meter square of gallery space and in these gallery space has over 2,600 works of art.
In these works of art are pictures from post-world war 2 events. (Arc space. com/ modern). Art works included are from people like Jackson Pollock, Susan Rothenberg, Richard Serra, Andres Serrano and many more. (Wikimedia.com /the modern).
Industrial Relations Vs HRM Descriptive Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Human Resource Management (HRM) and Industrial Relations (IR) play a significant role in the management of employees-employers relationship. However, nowadays, industrial relationship has become very sensitive and complex to manage.
Progress in industrial relations is difficult because of lack of cooperation and harmonious relationships between important parties. The term industrial relations define the association that exist between employees and management, which results from the prevailing union-employer relationship.
Initially, industrial relationship entailed all the existing relationships, as well as interactions between employees and employers. It represented all elements of employment relationships that entailed HRM, employees’ relationship, as well as union-management relations.
Currently, the great development of HRM and its proliferation has made industrial relations to specialize in studying and practicing trade unionism, collective bargaining, as well as labor-management relations.
Whereas industrial relations use unions in the management of people within organizations, human resource management is a nonunion employment approach that engages in the recruitment, management and development of policies in the workplace. Human resource management is an upcoming field that is highly effective in hiring, performance management, employees’ motivation and training of personnel.
It is a very effective approach in managing people, as well as workplace culture and environment. An effective human resource management involves use of comprehensive and strategic methods for managing employees to effectively contributing in efficient production process. Effective and efficient productivity is important in enhancing a company’s overall production, as well as enhancing achievement of its goals and objectives.
Industrial relations were more instrumental in the past and especially in ensuring collective bargaining and in disputes and grievances settlements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, with the current great development and propagation of human resource management that encompass hiring, training, performance management and employees’ motivation, many organizations prefer to embrace HRM, rather than industrial relations for managing employees-employer relationships (Ackers, 2002).
Whereas writers like Daver (2001), Carpenter
Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Matanuska-Susitna Borough is a region found in Alaska State in America. There are a total of 88,995 people in the area according to 2010 census conducted in United States. Wasilla is the largest city in Matanuska-Susitna Borough while Palmer is the region’s seat.
This paper is a research on Matanuska-Susitna Borough Emergency Operation Plan’s Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities.
Emergency Operations Plan purpose is to guarantee a customized or modified disaster emergency response that demands coordination among the jurisdictions, departments and agencies.
Each time there is a tragic calamity that can radically menace human surrounding, wellbeing or belongings, emergency operations plan is usually stimulated. After an emergency has been determined, those people who are designated as response for managing the situation are always authorized to consign necessary resources needed to conduct and provide the plan.
Emergency operations schedule is normally schemed to convene all the basic constraints of emergency scheduling of the state, and national agencies, and departments in the capital city Borough. It has jurisdiction beyond these issues. Disaster emergencies should be effectively and efficiently managed in regional, municipal and industrial areas.
Emergency Operations Plan should be revised and updated on a regular basis to enable it reflect cultured lessons obtained during actual incidences and drillings. The plan does not having imply any form of guarantee.
This is why Matanuska-Susitna Borough can only thrive by putting extra efforts while reacting to the circumstances at hand. In this phase, you may discover that Borough systems and belongings are all wiped out, beleaguered or smashed in case of emergency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Emergency Operation Plan’s Organization Matanuska-Susitna Borough Emergency Operation Plan’s Organization is linked to National Incident Management System (NIMS) structure for emergency operations schemes in the society.
There are four parts whereby the first section contains the major plan which address the main requirements for National Incident Management Systems for amenable emergency operations plans. It centers majorly on governmental policies and systems for scheming of emergency in Borough.
The second component of the organization includes a vulnerable-explicit reaction checklist that is used to recognize all the dangers that Matanuska-Susitna Borough is confronting.
For every risk found, there are explicit checklists alienated into three response stages namely: recuperation, admonition and retort. Within the checklists, exploited items are placed in the remote parts of the organizations and an IMT location is usually marked.
The third part of the organization includes Functional Annexes whereby the annexes deal with discrete module of emergency response operations. Its other roles are to assign responsibilities and duties necessary for emergency operations to be carried out.
It also describes the operational concepts that are to be used in the process. The forth component contains the guidebook for resources which outlines the strengths of emergency retort and supplies of Borough agencies and those of other national, regional and state bureau including freelance workers of private organizations. Lastly, the fifth section encloses the appendices as well as lexicon, handset index and acronyms.
There are numerous emergency operations plans and policies both in the regional, national and state which are in conjunction with organization of the plan and ensuring its success.
We will write a custom Report on Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is National Infrastructure Protection Plan which is responsible for enabling effective and efficient response to unpleasant events occurring within Matanuska-Susitna Borough. They also protect critical infrastructures and other major resources available in the region.
On the other hand, National Contingency Scheme is responsible for stipulation of the methods used in emancipation and discharge of harmful oil particles in Matanuska-Susitna Borough. Mat-Su Borough All-harmful Mitigation Scheme main intention is to minimize the catastrophe and effects of emergency.
On the other hand, Mat-Su Borough Department of Emergency Services is accountable for emergency scheming and positioning of resources for the bureau within Borough. Mat-Su Borough School District Emergency Operations Schemes is accountable for all the activities taking place in School District Administrative Offices.
It mainly outlines the process and strategies for countering and managing calamity rates that negatively affect District School. Mat-Su Regional Medical Center Emergency Operations Plan outlines emergency procedures in the hospitals while Matanuska Electric Association (MEA) Disaster Management Plan outlines emergency plans for managing electric utility in the region.
Assignment of Responsibilities Matanuska-Susitna Borough as a region utilizes all emergency management system for hazards that includes different kinds of disaster emergencies. Each government in every level has the power to integrate resources from the private sectors with that of public agency under National Incident Management System/Incident Command System.
This scheme integrates and optimizes all government ranks with the trained workforce, classified sectors in the emergency department. This practice is normally crucial for realization of successful scheme. This is why it is normally promoted. The following are different roles assigned to government officials in Matanuska-Susitna Borough.
Borough Mayor and Assembly
The Borough Mayor and Assembly are accountable for stipulation of legislative control during crisis periods. They offer appropriate funds essential for recovery and response to disaster emergency in Borough. They also act as direct liaison with elected government jurisdiction officials and the public.
The Borough Manager is Matanuska-Susitna Borough agency administrator. He has the authority and the ultimate mandate to control and direct how resources are being used in Borough during emergency periods. The Borough Manager has the authority to declare emergency to the public.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, Incident Commander and some other authority normally declare emergency in Matanuska-Susitna Borough on daily basis. The Departments of Emergency Services in Borough usually ascertain control over emergency using Incident Command System.
The Borough Manager can also perform the Incident Commander responsibilities if given the chance to develop emergency operations by vindicating on what to accomplish. The lead agency/department is responsible for operational control of emergency prospects.
Department of Emergency Services
The Department of Emergency Services in Matanuska-Susitna Borough is a crisis management bureau responsible for creating advancement in calamity response by formulating recovery schemes in Borough.
He also synchronizes calamity management between Borough and other revalorizations and response divisions in the institution. This sector is also accountable for synchronizing and categorizing concerts with classified industries and bureaus in Matanuska-Susitna Borough while making an effort to espouse and build up schemes for organizing crisis calamities which normally takes place in the area.
The Department of Emergency Services usually stimulates these schemes and proclaims regional disaster and crisis affairs under AS 26.23.140 terms (Craig 2010). Emergency management will be provided under all emergency action plans under the ICS format.
This normally provides an oversight necessary for making inter-jurisdictional verdicts by Multiple Agency Coordination (MAC) structure. This structure grants representation from the affected jurisdiction.
Director of Emergency Services
The Director of Emergency Services manage disaster programs and activities in Borough as they relay mitigation of, response to, recovery from and preparedness for disaster emergencies.
This service is however under general supervision and direction of Borough Manager since he controls all their actions and gives them command. The Director of Emergency Services grants direct connection between regional boards, Borough Manager’s Office, Borough 911 Advisory Boards and Borough Local Emergency Planning Committee (Fritz
Steve Jobs’ Role at Apple Report (Assessment) best essay help
Abstract The field of management is intriguing. Business entities often look for ways to dominate in the industries they ply their trade. Such underscores the idea that competition is inherent in the world of business. As a result, business owners seek the best talented individuals to manage or lead their organizations.
Although a difficult task, organisations hire the individuals that meet the qualifications that are set. However, people move or step aside from leadership/management positions due to various reasons. Such presents a dilemma as replacing top leaders is even more arduous. Based on this evidence, management is an important field to review.
This paper focuses on the role of Steve Jobs as the leader of Apple. Steve Jobs is highly regarded based on his role in the rise of the company. However, Steve Jobs stepped aside due to health reasons before eventually succumbing to cancer. His exit from the company elicited divided opinion on the future of Apple.
This paper responds to the question whether Apple would decline in the absence of Steve Jobs. In the end, I conclude that Apple had structures that protect the company from declining. Precisely, although Steve was phenomenal to Apple, the success the company enjoyed was not solely attributable to him as an individual.
Introduction Leadership is a critical attribute in the world of business. Every keen observer appreciates the influence of a leader regarding the success or failure a business venture registers. Since the business environment is overly competitive, different leaders develop various approaches that they perceive would give the business entities they lead a competitive edge.
The leadership style leaders adopt may endear or distance themselves from the workers. Such notwithstanding, the role of leadership in business is indispensable. As the case of Steve Jobs reveals, leadership heavily influences success.
Purpose of the work The main purpose of this paper is to highlight whether the loss of Steve Jobs would lead to the decline of the Apple Company. As the paper progresses, it becomes clear that Steve Jobs was a great talent who aided the company from confines of extinction to its current position.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this observation, the paper captures the important personal attributes that made Steve Jobs stand out and in the process propel the Apple Group to its dominant position.
By doing this, in a way, the paper underscores the view that certain individuals have abilities that are difficult to match. In connection to that, the paper proceeds to review whether once a company has gained a strong presence in an industry, there are chances of such a company crumbling immediately the main leader exits.
Towards getting a clear view on how leadership influences progression in business, the paper reviews literature on leadership in general. Such reviews are critical as they help in creating an understanding on how the leadership fraternity affects organisations. The same review also helps in assessing the worth of individuals who are assigned leadership duties.
Since the paper focuses on how the loss of Steve Jobs would affect the Apple group, the role of institutionalisation also takes a peripheral stage. If the Apple company is to progress, such would rest on appointing an able successor or the level of institutionalisation the company has. Thus, the paper underlies the need to put power in institutions rather than individuals.
Nature of the problem Leaders or managers occupy important positions in business organisations. While the leaders do not guarantee success, the extent to which an organisation goes towards attaining its goals is a function of leadership.
Hence, the value of leadership is that critical such that when a phenomenal leader dies or retires organisations often struggle to find able replacements. Death or retirement of the leader could potentially undermine the success of an entity. In most instances organisations struggle initially before establishing a right candidate for the job.
As it becomes clear, leaders hold different attributes. As the case of Steve Jobs depict, strong leaders often work hard to enforce the way they think into the workforce. Since leaders are different, there is a possibility that replacing one leader with another would hinder the progress of a business.
We will write a custom Assessment on Steve Jobs’ Role at Apple specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such hindrances may however be short-lived or inexperienced in instances where the organisations have well crafted structures. A well structured organisation does not need a strong leader in order to succeed. This does not however imply that well structured organisations do not need strong leadership.
The implication is that institutionalisation is critical in the leadership of organisations. However, some leaders such as Steve Jobs have different personal characteristics that make them difficult to replace.
It is not surprising that the return of Steve Jobs proved the turning point for Apple. In this regard, reviewing leadership and the personal leadership contribution of Steve is an important step towards unravelling whether his death would herald the end of Apple.
Justification The role of leadership is critical in business. Thus studying it is invaluable. The dynamic nature of business implies that leadership must change. Failure to change would not augur well with the development agenda of businesses.
Hence, a study that highlights how changes within the leadership fraternity affect business is of indisputable value to business. Closely connected to the issue of leadership is the role of individual leaders. In some instances, individual leaders have single-handedly produced success for business entities.
Such assertions are questionable. As such, reviewing the influence of individual leaders is important in a bid to establish how individuals lay grounds for success. In the same breadth, it would be clear if the leadership organisations enjoy under given leaders is based on individual attributes or if the success is attributable to prevailing circumstances.
How businesses manage the issue As already observed, leadership is central to the success of businesses. Consequently, the loss of mercurial leaders poses serious concerns to concerned stakeholders. Although business entities often dislike being in situations of replacing top leaders, replacement is mandatory.
Such is especially necessary when a leader passes on. In the case of Apple, Steve Jobs had already stepped aside due to health concerns. Hence, the company had a chance to find a replacement. Based on this observation, when business entities lose their leaders, the only option is to replace them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Steve Jobs’ Role at Apple by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Replacement is either done by appointing individuals from within or outside the company. When replacements are done from within, companies have a better chance of progressing since such individuals have prior knowledge on operations within the company.
More precisely, internally groomed leaders already have a good grasp of company culture and work ethos. However, if the company has no ready replacement from within the institution, then outsourcing a leader is commendable.
Relevant literature review In order to understand whether the death of Steve Jobs could negatively influence the levels of success that he guaranteed while working at Apple, reviewing his role and leadership style is critical.
Back in 1987, Steve Jobs was a hated figure at Apple (Imbimbo 2009). Even the senior management at the company had to deal with Job’s temperament. Jobs created resent amongst employees by converting some into stars while taking issues with others regarding the conduct of business.
The rough approach Jobs took left him bruised as he occasionally rubbed shoulders against top management within the company.
Imbimbo (2009) observes that after two decades, Jobs had changed the way people viewed him. As once remarked by Michael Wolff, Jobs had become more mercurial as exhibited in his tantrums, long working hours, issuance of dictator-like speeches, etc.
These characteristics contributed to the success of Jobs, as he was able to transact business deals with improved ease. The rise of Jobs was clear since after the two decades at Apple over ninety seven percent of the workers approved his work ethic (Imbimbo 2009).
Unlike most Silicon Valley CEOs, Steve Jobs was different. Steve Jobs did not possess technological skills as a high number of technology-based companies’ founders did (Imbimbo 2009). Jobs dropped out of college only after one semester. At the first time in the company, Steve Jobs did not occupy the CEO role.
Instead, he worked as an assistant to executives and investors. In particular, Steve was instrumental in hiring John Sculley as CEO in 1983. Two years later, John Sculley dismissed Jobs from the company. Jobs then watched as John Sculley brought the company down (Imbimbo 2009).
After the debacle, Jobs learned that to succeed, paying attention to personal values, instincts, beliefs and trust was important in achieving success within any business. As such, one should disregard conventional views regarding how a company is managed.
Based on this perspective, Steve Jobs delegated most duties to the executive team. Such delegation allowed executive members to use individuals’ talent and skills in taking the business forward.
Managing people is one of the most difficult aspects. Leaders of business entities are charged with the duty to guide workers. Unlike other tasks such as managing inventory provision of work facilities and controlling books of accounts, leadership offers a different dimension (Hill 2008).
Such views hold in regards to the idea that managers find difficulties in attempting to force workers to carry out activities as desired.
In the technology industry, various barriers may weaken the pursuit of goals. Such would include physical barriers, time barriers, wherewithal barriers, expertise barriers, etc as observed by Hill (2008).
Hence, the leadership can only succeed if its leadership is able to separate legitimate from illegitimate barriers. Such ability to draw a distinction is essential as it helps leaders to determine why some workers are able to attain set targets when others fail to meet desired objectives.
This underlies the point that leadership is a decisive component in the search for success within business organizations. Equally valuable, a leader needs to understand the barriers that lower productivity by allowing a free flow of information. Communicating freely permits the led to express what they feel is important to help to improve productivity.
Leadership/management in business organisation
Closely related to the above point, workers who enjoy such freedom are in vantage points in reference to innovations. The role of innovation in the technology industry is of unquestionable value. An innovative approach in business offers assurance of growth and expansion as Hill (2008) notes.
Since businesses pursue growth and expansion, providing workers the freedom to participate is necessary. This holds in respect to the notion that freed workers offer innovative ideas to leaders and in the process they help businesses expand.
When workers make these contributions, business leaders also need extend rewards as such offers encouragement that paves way for improved performance. Put differently, the leadership guides in the elimination of barriers to success and therefore encourages free communication in organisations.
From time to time, employees outgrow their usefulness to organisations (Foster 2004). Technology-based organisations are not exceptions. Consequently, leaders should closely monitor the performance levels of workers and separate those who deliver from those who do not.
This underscores the appraisal element in business organisations. Appraising performance is a role of the leadership. Using appraisals, leaders are able to establish which workers are discharging duties of an organisation in the expected way.
After establishing the appropriate workers, leaders also need to know which workers should face replacement. Replacing workers is a major challenge that leaders are obliged to handle. In spite of the possibility of displeasing a section of workers, leaders should desist from the temptation of letting slack workers continue offering services to their organisations.
Such actions are crucial as they aid business organisations since a combination of committed and dispirited employees do not bode well with organisational endeavours. More precisely, disinterested employees are likely to demoralise other workers.
Therefore, each organisation should eliminate those workers seen as contributing to demoralisation in order to protect organisational goals.
Leaders teach those individuals working under them (Foster 2004). In regard to this, leaders, regardless of the place or industry of work should mould their followers.
Using more precise terms, leaders should assemble a team that has a winning mentality. In this regard, strategising takes centre stage. Strategies often differ from one leader to another the same way they do from organisation to organisation.
Sometimes, observers question the methods a leader employs in a bid to attain set objectives. As a leader, remaining focused and firm after making decisions regarding the strategies to use in pursuing business goals is invaluable. Nevertheless, the leader must be convicted that at the end of a given period, the results attributable to such decisions vindicate the leader’s position.
Leadership supports the development of competence and allows for higher levels of individual devotion to organisational goals among the led. Foster (2004) correctly observed that by broadening and uplifting employee interests, transformational managers guarantee generation of awareness and acceptance of the goals of a group.
The amalgamation of improved capacity and commitment paves way for further effort by the employees. As a consequence, improvement in productivity is possible (Foster 2004).
Good leadership is obliged to design strategies that people readily employ (Foster 2004). In instances when the followers are not persuaded by the strategy as anticipated, the leadership should take steps to ensure that the employees understand the necessity to observe the organisational or business requirements.
Nevertheless, the leadership needs to allow the led an opportunity to voice any concern they have. Permitting the led to share the views they possess is valuable as it prevents potential conflicts associated with disagreements.
In addition to that, allowing the workers to raise opinions facilitates a participative approach that guarantees that workers own the leadership resolutions. The ability of a leader to unite the workers is perhaps one of the biggest assets that an organisation needs.
As already observed, businesses organisations pursue specific goals. Such places big responsibilities on the leadership. Put differently, a good leader ensures that all stakeholders’ demands are satisfied in reference to goal attainment.
Towards that end, the leadership erects a long-term arrangement that aids the attainment of organisational aims. In regards to stakeholders, in the technology industry, focus is on customers, business owners and workers.
Porter’s Generic Strategy Term Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Cost Leadership Strategy
Was of Implementing the Cost Leadership Strategy
Preconditions for Cost Leadership Strategy
Preconditions for Differentiation Strategy
Preconditions for Focus Strategy
Introduction Firms operating in a competitive market can only succeed if they create competitive advantages in their industries. Firms can create competitive advantages if they are optimally positioned in their industries. In order to achieve optimal positioning, a firm must leverage its strengths.
This involves adopting one of Porter’s generic strategies namely, cost leadership strategy, differentiation strategy and focus strategy. These strategies are considered to be generic since they do not depend on either the firm or the industry. This paper aims at evaluating these strategies as well as giving examples of business sectors that can adopt them.
Cost Leadership Strategy For a firm to pursue this strategy, it must aim at attaining the lowest cost of production in the industry. This will enable it to maintain competitive prices in the market. Due to the low production cost, the firm can sell its goods at the prevailing price and realize higher returns than other firms.
Alternatively, it can set its prices below the equilibrium price in order to increase its sales and market share. This strategy enables firms operating in markets characterized by price wars to remain profitable as their competitors incur losses. The strategy is suitable for businesses targeting the broad market.
Was of Implementing the Cost Leadership Strategy The cost leadership strategy can be realized as follows. First, the firm can focus on improving process efficiency. This will help in lowering the overall cost of production and turnaround time.
Second, the firm can obtain its supplies from a large source associated with low cost materials in order to reduce the price of the final product.
Third, it can focus on vertical integration or outsourcing some of its operations in order to minimize operating cost. Examples of operations that can be outsourced include logistics and transportation. Finally, the firm can avoid costs that are not necessary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Preconditions for Cost Leadership Strategy In order to pursue the cost leadership strategy, the firm must have the following strengths. First, it must have the capital to acquire production assets. This acts as an entry barrier if the firm’s competitors lack capital to invest in the production assets.
Second, the firm’s workers should be skilled in product design in order to facilitate efficient production. Besides, they must be experts in engineering manufacturing process in order to promote high efficiency. Finally, the firm must have an efficient distribution channel. This helps in lowering distribution costs.
Despite its advantages, the cost leadership strategy is associated with the following weaknesses. Other firms in the industry are also likely to achieve low cost in production thus lowering their prices as well. The competitive advantage attributed to efficient production can be eliminated as other firms adopt better production technologies.
Cost leadership strategy is mainly used in the retail industry. This is because, firms in the industry serve a broad market and their customers are price sensitive, hence necessitating low prices.
Differentiation Strategy Firms pursuing this strategy aim at developing products associated with superior attributes that are valued by customers. Due to the superior attributes, customers perceive the products to be better than those of competitors.
The firm can charge a high price for the product due to its superior attributes. If the price of supplies increases, the firm can transfer the additional costs to the customers especially if substitutes are not readily available. Thus this strategy enables the firm to be associated with high product quality.
Preconditions for Differentiation Strategy First, the firm must be able to make significant investment in research and development in order to produce high quality products. Second, the firm should hire highly skilled and creative employees in order to develop products that meet specific needs of the customers.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Porter’s Generic Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can be achieved through strategic talent acquisition. Third, the firm’s sales team must be able to convey the perceived superior attributes of the product in the market. Finally, the firm should have a reputation of high quality in order to distinguish itself in the market.
The differentiation strategy is associated with the following demerits. The unique attributes of the product can be imitated by competitors especially if the intellectual property rights are not protected through appropriate legislation. The product might become less attractive as customers’ tastes change. Besides, other firms might be able to achieve greater differentiation.
Differentiation strategy is mainly pursued in manufacturing industry. For example, manufacturers of electronics such as Sony depend on high product quality to maintain their market shares.
Focus Strategy In this case, the company focuses on a particular market segment. Some firms pursuing this strategy serve their segments through cost leadership strategy while others normally adopt a differentiation strategy. The rationale behind this strategy is that the needs of the segment can be served better by focusing on it.
Firms pursing this strategy are associated with high customer loyalty and this prevents potential competitors from joining the market. Firms pursuing this strategy have low barraging power since they focus on a small market segment which leads to low sales volume. However, they can transfer high production costs to customers through a differentiation-focused strategy.
Preconditions for Focus Strategy The firm should have excellent knowledge of the market in order to serve it well. It should also be able to produce a wide range of products that best meet the needs of the customers.
The focus strategy is associated with the following limitations. The products of the firm can be imitated by competitors especially if they have superior attributes. Changes in tastes in the market can also limit the firm’s sales. Besides, other firms might be able to identify sub-segments which they can best serve.
Focus strategy can be used in the service industry. For example, a consultancy firm can target a specific group of clients and offer tailor made services for such clients.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Porter’s Generic Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The above strategies enable firms to create competitive advantages in the market. Consequently, they are able to compete effectively and remain profitable. The generic strategies include focus strategy, differentiation strategy and cost leadership strategy. The selection of these strategies depends on the firm’s ability to meet the preconditions associated with them. Despite their benefits, each of these strategies has its demerits as discussed above.
Over-Exploitation of Resources Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Improperly designed property rights
Imperfect market structures
Presence of public goods and common property resources
Divergence of private and social discount rates
Introduction The deterioration of the environment has now become a significant global and national problem. In the past, people were never concerned about how they exploited the existing resources and they have just come to realize that with the current rate of resources usage, in a few decades to come there will be nothing to exploit.
The problem of overexploitation of resources has been aggravated by the increasing population. As the population increase, the basic needs for human beings also increase and as a result, it is natural for human beings to meet their basic needs.
It all started with the agrarian revolution after this the revolution which brought much of these problems has been the industrial revolution.
With the man needs becoming insatiable due to the increasing population and the existing scarce resources, man has sought all the available alternatives to satisfy his needs and this has resulted in exploiting of resources in a selfish manner leading over exploitation and a threat in that if the current rate of resources continues, future generation might be left with nothing.
There is a need for man to allocate the resources available in a sustainable manner if the future generations are to enjoy the same products we are. Allocation of minerals in a sustainable manner means that at minimum, future generations should not be left worse off than the current generation.
However, it is important to note that this sustainability criterion does not usually indicate that exploiting of more resources at the present is dangerous or selfish as long as the future generations remain at least well off as the current generation.
Unless human activities on our environment are reduced and we start relying on renewable resources rather that the overreliance we have shown on the non renewable resources then the problem is bound to continue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem of over exploitation has been investigated, tackled and analyzed by different experts in different fields including sociology, engineering and the economic aspect.
In this essay, we shall tackle the problem of over exploitation through the economic aspects which are related or are known to be the main causes of over exploitation in our planet.
Economic experts have investigated the problem of over exploitation of natural resources for quite a period now and they have described some of the aspects which lead to over exploitation of natural resources to include improperly design property rights, presence of public goods, imperfect market structures and the divergence of social and private discount rates. We shall try and cover the above and see how they contribute to over exploitation of resources.
Improperly designed property rights The manner in which people use the natural resources heavily depend on the property rights one has over these natural resources. In the economic aspect, property rights refer to the bundles of benefits which an individual enjoys or which an individual is entitled to for use of the resources and whether he has security for those benefits (Teelucksingh
CSR Ltd., an ASX listed company Report college essay help
Introduction CRS Ltd is a company that engages in the manufacturing business. Its operations are carried out in all over Australia. In addition to operating in Australia, the company also operates in such regions as Asia and New Zealand.
The most important activities that this company currently engages in are raw sugar milling from the sugarcane and the production of ethanol. The company also is involved in the production of “refined sugar products” and it also distributes these products in New Zealand and Australia CSR Ltd., 2011, p.1).
In addition to these, the CSR Ltd Company is also involved in the manufacturing and distribution of building products. The company’s basic business segments include “sugar, building products, aluminium and property” (CSR Ltd., 2011, p.1).
This company has been seen to keenly engage in various business operations in an effort to increase value for its shareholders. For instance; in the year 2006 during the month of December, CSR Ltd Company got involved in the acquisition of “Fricker Ceiling Systems” (CSR Ltd., 2011).
“Fricker Ceiling Systems is a supplier of suspended ceilings to the Sydney commercial building market” (CSR Ltd., 2011, p.1). In the year that followed (2007), the company engaged in the acquisition of “Don Mathieson
How Saint Leo Core Value of Respect Relate to the Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The socio-cultural impact of tourism
Introduction The ability of the society to thrive and develop depends mainly on the diversity of its members, their collective unity as well as members’ interaction in terms of, thoughts, education, livelihood, and pleasant operation.
In this essay we will focus on the core value of respect in Saint Leo University which, with a focus on doing the will of Jesus Christ, every person is considered valuable. This also applies to their talents, dignity and commitment for excellence at work and at all times.
Tourism Tourism is a rapid increasing business and a precious division that contribute considerably to the nation’s wealth. Tourism directly affects financial system and this is reflected to the life standards of people among other development parameters that depend on funding to implement.
There is however some negative impacts associated with too much undertaking in tourism just like in any other departments. Tourism in the recent past has been noted to have various impacts some of which are classified into either positive impact or negative impact.
These must however be compared with the positive impacts that tourism brings in the society. Negative impacts come along when tourism alters important systems or behavior which could lead to intimidating the original identity of the society.
These alterations regularly take place in society arrangement, family relationship, communal customary life styles, rituals and integrity.
Tourism has also been noted to produce constructive impacts as it provide a helpful strength for stillness, promote pride in civilizing society members and keeping them away from city rearrangement by creating local jobs. However these social jobs are sometimes considered vague because the jobs do not benefit all people but some (Cook, Yale
Ways in which girls are disadvantaged in School Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Science and mathematics stereotypes
Lack of motivation
Gender related stereotypes
Introduction The debate regarding gender differences in learning has been going on for a long time. Researchers have tried to identify ways in which one or both genders are disadvantaged by the current education systems. This paper seeks to specifically describe how girls are disadvantaged in school by reviewing literature.
Science and mathematics stereotypes The most worrying thing that is bedeviling the girl child is the stereotype that girls are naturally weak in Sciences and mathematics. Many young girls who could otherwise excel in the subjects often fall victims to stereotypes that they can’t excel in particular subjects.
Studies carried out in European and some Asian nations have shown that girls succeed in math just as good as their male counterparts when the social stigma is avoided. Countries that are affected can achieve better female results in math and sciences if the educational, cultural and environmental factors are made to be favorable(Brannon 107).
Lack of motivation Most of the subjects taught in school, especially physics and mathematics have not been tailored to appeal to the girl child. Studies indicate that that number of females taking engineering causes has been falling steadily in several countries including the United States.
For instance, A survey was conducted whereby by top performing were asked whether they could pursue engineering causes after high school. The responses were almost a unanimous no, implying that even the top performing girls did not have any interest in engineering.
A similar question to boys with top grades in math and physics gave a unanimous yes. This is due to the way the two subjects are taught in school. Single sex schools in other countries such as New Zealand and Australia have identified ways in which physics and mathematics can be made to be more appealing to the girl child.
Gender related stereotypes Different societies across the world stipulate what they expect from the girl child. The cultural messages are always clear about what is expected from either a girl or a boy. For instance, a girl child cannot freely do such as things as woodwork without raising eyebrows in her family and friends alike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gender related stereotypes are often perpetuated in different ways from an early age. Boys are usually allowed to pay in the sand and have access to more choices of toys than girls who can only have the dolls. Different materials to be used for learning are also used to perpetuate the stereotypes.
For instance, the primary colors for boys have a picture of a boy who is dressed like a train engineer while those for gals have a picture of a girl dressed like a nurse.
These stereotypes play a major role in the subject or career choices that are made by girls. It’s unfortunate that the gender related stereotypes find their way into classrooms whereby teachers tend to view girls differently in terms of capabilities in different subjects (Brannon 130).
Conclusion This paper sought to identify ways in which girls are disadvantaged in school. It has been identified that there are different ways through which girls may be at a disadvantage in the learning institutions. The established ways through girls may be at a disadvantage include gender related stereotypes, science and mathematics stereotypes and lack of motivation.
Work Cited Brannon, Linda. Gender: pyschological persepectives. Lake Charles: McNeese State University, 2007. Print
How is health a sociological issue? Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Health and sociology
Introduction Health is a very critical aspect as it affects almost every individual irrespective of age, gender, social status or any other factor. Health can be termed as the condition of an individual’s mind, body as well as spirit. Being healthy means that a person does not suffer in any of the above areas or else he or she is not ill or in pain.
It can also be defined as the state of general physical, mental as well as social well being. Sociology on the other hand entails the study of individuals or the society especially in regard to the aspect of welfare.
It is a very broad discipline encompassing areas like religion, social stratification, law, social mobility, military, and health among others1. This piece of work gives an in depth investigation of the relationship between health and sociology or rather why health is considered to be a sociological issue.
Health and sociology Sociology is a very broad concept and incorporates a lot of aspects including those associated with natural sciences as well as social sciences. Sociology being the study of the society and its well being, it deals with a variety of social issues that in one way or the other interferes with the well being of an individual be it in physically or even mentally.
When a person is healthy, he or she is considered to be physically, mentally and mentally well and the absence of either of this aspect makes him or her unhealthy. Sociologists engage in activities of social context that in one way or the other affect the well being of human beings. Health is one such aspect and much has been done in this area2.
Health and illness are concepts that have for a long period of time been considered to be purely medical related issues but it has found their application in other fields like sociology.
This has in a way made it easy to deal with the aspect of health and illness through the application of various principles and strategies that are not included in the medical field. Sociology is a field that has contributed a lot in the understanding of health related issues through the perception and handling of health as a social issue.3
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various social factors that have been associated with contributing to health patterns in terms how health problems come up and how they can be dealt with in a social manner for instance through provision of psychological advice in the form of counseling.
Health and illness falls under various fields for instance medicine and sociology. It is an aspect that has been faced with a lot of controversy on where it should be classified or the fields which should deal with the ordeal which affects every individual in the world.
Sociology of heath and illness is a very essential discipline although for a very long time, different individuals and agencies have doubted where the ‘social’ aspect comes in when it comes to health and health care.
With the advent of various research studies, the concept of how health is a sociological issues has not only been understood but also the sociology of health and illness has been appreciated very much due to the contribution it has made in regard to dealing with the problem.4
Health is a social behavior. It is influenced to a great extent by the societal aspects that affect the general human behavior for instance stress and lack of satisfaction or rather an inadequacy in a certain aspect that is necessary for an individual to be fit and healthy.
It is also affected by the specific behavior patterns that are endangered by various institutions more especially healthcare facilities. Sick people who suffer form various health problems tend to exhibit certain behavior considered to have some social attributes.
Despite the fact that healthcare is highly technical in nature with strict rules of conduct, it is also true that the social factors play a critical role in health behaviors that are seen in sick people. According to Thomas (2003), the rules and guidelines used in healthcare institutions are derived from social circumstances, are set by social beings and are also stipulated for use upon human beings5.
We will write a custom Essay on How is health a sociological issue? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Health is considered to be a social behavior and sickness as a social condition that is linked to various social factors. Social considerations play a great role in determining the health of a person or what sickness is considered to be.
Social meaning is also attributed to various health conditions for instance menopause and pregnancy among others. Some of the health issues could be perceived to be medical and medical intervention could be sought while others are just taken as social issues and left to take place without any need for any medical intervention.
Most of health conditions are associated with social stigma that could take a considerable amount of time to heal. This can be clearly seen in most of the sexually transmitted diseases for instance HIV and AIDs. The diseases have much more social concerns as compared to the medical concerns due to the image they create upon the affected persons and those around them6.
The social significance that is associated with health and illness can be clearly seen in the effects it has on social relationships that exist among people. This can be seen from simple health issues like some form of disabilities to major ones like HIV and AIDS which causes disruptions in social ties either voluntarily or involuntarily.
The affected individuals usually fail to perform their social responsibilities for instance in their day to day work or career, school related duties like learning as well as church and other community based activities.
This makes it to be more of a social issue as opposed to medical issue. The change of personal perception of the affected individual as well as that of the other people in his or her social group changes automatically7.
Health and illness are considered to be a social issue and various strategies have been put in place in an effort to curb problems related to health. Poverty reduction is an example.
This is because poverty is a major contributor of illness or unhealthy conditions among individuals. Poor people become vulnerable to various health conditions due to the inability to have an appropriate nutrition and also to cater for their health problems in terms of visiting health centers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How is health a sociological issue? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Poverty leads to a lot of suffering and diseases. It may also cause premature deaths. Health of individuals is affected by various social factors and the existence of inequalities an hence the concern for sociologists in this field. Health care and the delivery systems involved can be viewed as a social system. This is because they deal with the issues that affect people’s health more especially those that are social related8.
Diseases or illness affects the particular individual suffering from the certain sickness, the family members and the society at large. Sickness affects the proper functioning of an individual and therefore affects the capability of achieving much on a personal as well as a societal level.
Illness is in most parts of the world, particularly in the United States of America, viewed as an aspect associated with some form of incapacitation. The sick are considered to be a burden to the society since they do not contribute any positive move but rather necessitate use of the economy’s resources in an effort to improve their status which could never be achieved.
Various diseases affect different parts of the body and affect different individuals differently according to the health status in regard to the resistance which in turn is affected by aspects like age and environmental factors.
Apart from affecting the physical and psychological well being of an individual, illness also affects the social well being of the affected person and the people involved for instance the family members.
This makes it a sociological issue and it has contributed to a great concern of sociologists as opposed to leaving the aspects to the medical practitioners like the doctors and nurses who may deal with the physical and mental attributes of health but fail to consider the social element hence leaving the problem half solved9.
Most diseases have their roots to social factors and lifestyle behaviors whereby healthy lifestyles leads to healthy life while unhealthy lifestyles are a leading contributor to diseases and illness.
Aspects surrounding health and health care for instance the activities of the doctors, the medical staff and the patients are also governed by social considerations. Social support is also an aspect of essence when it comes to health an illness. Social cultural factors influence health and illness.
Persons with inadequate social support in their general lives tend to face health problems more often, suffer adverse effects of the diseases and even endure the situations for longer periods of time as compared to those individuals who have sufficient social support10.
Conclusion It is evident that health and illness is a social behavior with most of the factors surrounding it and general health care being more of a social nature as they are determined by some social considerations. Sociology has advanced greatly to encompass almost all aspect related to life and health has found an appropriate application in this discipline, sociology, due to the sociological attributes associated with it.
From this research, It is evident the health is a sociological issue. To understand and deal with the issue of health effectively, it is important to take it in various dimensions for instance as a biological, mental as well as a social aspect. This is because it affects the well being of an individual.
There are various social factors that produce patterns related to health and the application of sociological principles have proved to be very useful in the in making positive moves in regard to solving health problems.
The recognition of health as a sociological aspect has also made a lot of improvements in the well being of individuals and hence it has now been taken seriously. For this reasons, the sociological essence of health can never be underemphasized.
Bibliography Andersen, L.M.
Theory of Effective Demand Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Keynesianism and the global recession In the recent studies by economic researchers on economic equilibriums, it has been revealed that effective demands play a crucial role on global economics. The needs and desires of traders to engage in trade in specific markets considering that some of their trading activities in other markets are constrained is referred to as the theory of effective demand (Green 1980).
The theory, also referred to as Keynesianism, proposed by a renowned British economic expert John Maynard Keynes highlighting regulation of market as well as increasing government incentives to trade as well s the financial sector as a result of short fall of created by constrained markets. Keynesianism has been proposed as one of the effective ways of mitigating any economic turbulence that may arise.
This theory has also been proposed as one of the solution of the global economic downtown by a number of economists. However, Keynesianism has had shortfalls in a number of times in the history of the evolution of the world economy. The failure of this theory can be traced back during the Great Depression in the 1930s American.
Despite the government efforts to provide incentives to the economy, low productivity still affects the rate of economic growth. During the global economic melt down several economists suggested Keynesianism as a way of circumnavigating the crisis. However, this did not provide solution due to a number of factors. The government intervened and provided incentives to manufacturers.
As such manufactures tended to increases their production levels. Meanwhile the fear that the global economy was at its knees created panic amongst manufacturers who opted to lay off workers to cushion against the productions costs. Many of the workers resulted to saving thus reducing spending either in anticipation of loosing jobs or after loosing jobs.
Therefore overproduced goods did not finds ready markets. Therefore Keynesianism other than providing a solution was a catalyst that aggravated the global economic crisis by reducing normal effective demand and creating a state provoked demand (DiLEO 2009).
However, Keynesianism is not a total failure in addressing matter of global economic concern. This theory has been effective in addressing and supporting recovery from the global economic down turn. Keynes suggested government intervention has been adapted in more creative ways of mitigating the effects as well as aiding counties as well as the global economy come out of the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the problem identified from the shortcoming of the initial application of Keynesianism, consumption and not production became the key towards sustained economic growth. Governments as well as financial institution such as the World Bank and the IMF engaged to measured intervention at two levels.
To begin with, government as well as the financial institution supported and provided funds for investment in infrastructure, reduced interest rates as well as providing credit to support further investment in the manufacturing industry. Governments with encouragement from the World Bank and the IMF created the necessary framework that made its easy for manufacturers to access credit.
This was seen as the incentive to provide rescue to the manufacturing industries already at its knees. In addition to this many of the leading world government have embarked on efforts to strictly control of inflation rates. This is aimed at stabilizing liquidity in these ceconomies and thus provides a stable economic recovery environment.
Secondly, the government embarked on what was seen as Keynesian social security method of sustaining an economy. Governments were encouraged to redistribute wealth in terms of income especially to the low income earners. This notion was not infirmed by the empathy that Keynes had on the low income earner but on the inability of the economy to sustain optimum consumption rate. Actually the situation was called the under consumption of the economy.
This had to be done in two ways. One of the ways was to avoid all efforts to cut wages of the lower income earners. Secondly the governments had to pursue full employment of its citizens as a way of curbing the rate of inflation. This as aimed at creating what Keynes called the aggregate demand aimed at boosting consumption of the already produced goods.
These moves have been seen in countries such as USA with very consistent efforts done to reduce unemployment rates (Ge and Liu 2010). However some economists feel that the unemployment the rates of inflation have to be kept at equilibrium as seen in the figure below.
Source: Claar and Klay 2007
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of Effective Demand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The return of Keynesianism Keynesianism was first put to test during the 1930s Great Depression. It largely failed to counter the effects of that financial crisis in America as well as the ripple effects in many parts of the world lead by Europe and Japan. Furthermore the busting of the economic boom in the 1960s, the theory failed to provide any sufficient counter measures.
However in the current economic situation especially focuses on the period during and after the global economic recession, Keynesianism is slowly finding a comeback.
However it is a more moderated form of the initial Keynes theory of effective demand. In this case therefore, governments are almost involuntarily applying the theory especially in efforts to pump in more cash into their economies to contain negative effects of their economies such as the fall in global trade from 2008 to 2009 as seen in the figure below (DiLEO 2009).
Source: Crowley and Luo 2011
From the late 2007, most of the government especially in the developed world had instituted efforts to instigate massive government interventions to the effects of the global economic recession. This had seen the return of Keynesianism to ply in the world economic affairs.
China, the World fastest growing economy injected about $580 billion input into its economy, as did Germany amidst the cynism from the country’s executive, injecting about 50 billion Euros. France, Britain and Japan followed suit by injecting 26 billion Euros, 12 trillion yens and 20 billion Euros respectively.
When the current US president Barrack Obama came to office, and much to the chagrin of the republicans he proposed and successfully implemented about $786 billion dollars as economic stimulus. In total the entire G20 had proposed a $5 trillion fiscal bailout and expansion plan.
It was hoped that this expansionist efforts would lead to at least 4% global economic growth rate. Such efforts were especially targeting to cover interest’s rates cuts, tax cuts as well as providing new credit to improve liquidity of these economies (Smith 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Effective Demand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such approaches are informed by the notion that if the economies had to improve from the current crisis create by the global economic downturn, there had to be an improved system of money supply in all sections of economies.
If the credit supply system is affected then it means that there was to be a deflation which would largely affect the manufacturing industry in that the dramatic fall in prices of the manufactured goods would have meant greatly reduce income, profits, salaries and balance of trade.
The economic fathers of the current generation, in full knowledge that constrained credit supply system had lead to some of the historical economic hardships such as the Great Depression in America, hoped to avoid such an occurrence and as such sought to maintain a stable money supply system at all costs.
Such efforts had reflected Keynesianism in a number oaf ways. To begin with, the government through their central banks were concerting efforts to stimulate the manufacturing industries by avoiding any scenarios where low prices.
The global manufacturing industry avoided the crisis in that there were not any closures or winding up of any manufacturing industries in any of the countries the policy of expansions was instituted. Keynesianism seemed to work up to the extents.
The tax cuts as well as interest rates cuts had an impact in the income of the lower income earner as reduced tax mean that the earner had a little bit more money to spend. As such it boosted the spending power and as such the market for manufactured goods was maintained at a comfortable level.
The $5 trillion fiscal expansions project was a well calculated financial tool aimed at addressing an economic problem. However, to the global financial industry it was not very effective as many of the global financial institution such as banks and other credit institutions crumbled even after the plan was released.
In the US, Lehman Brothers collapsed even after the US government released the $ 786 billion financial package. Furthermore the G20 plan did not address the balance of trade as Keynes suggested as the way to overcome any instance of economic peril.
Actually by bailing out the economies of the develop countries this plan left the mid level economies as well as developing economies in great peril. While trade was stimulated in the first world, trade was in peril in the second and third world where such governments had no financial power to provide any economic expansion projects. This in effect created imbalances of global trade.
Moreover, by okaying the bail out plan the G20 members had dug deep holes in their financial coffers and as such were inadvertently creating their national current account deficits.
From this perspective the plan therefore was just a short term and an almost blind financial solution to a matter that was largely above the global economics. Due to the fact that the plan highlighted the realties of Keynesianism, some economies viewed it with a lot of skepticism as it did not provide any long term solution to the global economic crisis.
Reference List Claar, V.,
Money Laundering In Russia Term Paper online essay help
Introduction. Money Laundering Money laundering is defined as the process of disguising or “cleaning” money that has been obtained illegally and incorporating it into a financial system of a country (Hopton 12). It is also defined as making money that has been obtained illegally to appear legitimate.
Money launderers use a variety of methods to carry out their illegal business. There are varied sources of dirty money and these include drug trafficking, corruption in government offices and other organizations as well as activities related to tax evasion.
Other sources of dirty money include money from illegal trade or the black market and this depends on legitimacy of the trade in different countries. For instance, commercial sex work is illegitimate in most countries. Thus, money generated from this trade is dirty.
Money laundering can be done using various techniques, which range from simple ways to complicated methods.
Money laundering is a three-step process that involves introduction of cash into the financial system of an economy or placement/layering, which is making efforts to ensure that the original source of the money is hidden and then making use of the funds to generate income or wealth.
Various methods used in money laundering include structuring, smuggling and other banking-related methods (Truman and Peter 32).
Many governments have been in the war against money laundering and this has seen development of various anti-money laundering bills. Despite these bills, money laundering remains a challenge to most economies due to the complexity of the techniques used in money laundering and the inability to stem out the illegitimate sources of money (Stessens 23).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have also been in the forefront to fight against money laundering. In 1989, member countries of the G7 formed a body named Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), which is an intergovernmental body.
The body was mandated to bring to force measure to combat money laundering. These two organizations have formulated policies to help economies fight money laundering and ensure a combined effort to stem out the vice.
Scholars have however admitted that it could be impossible to estimate the amount of money laundered hence the figure released by the International Monetary Fund could be higher or lower (Demetis 73).
Money laundering in Russia Russia ranked third in the twenty country origins of laundered money with money laundering making 15 per cent of the Russian Gross Domestic Product in Walker’s estimate of money laundering in 1998.
This, together with the fact that Russia does not have proper anti-money laundering policies made the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering (FATF) to black list the country as a tax haven in 2000 (Leach 5).
Money laundering in Russia has been a big problem in the recent years like in many other economies in the world. In 1990s, there was a money laundering scandal in Russia that almost crippled the Russian economy.
Since that time, the country has been struggling to get back on its economical grounds but this has been greatly undermined by several money laundering scandals. In the 1990s, the Russian economy collapsed due to capital flight (Lane 52-77). This scandal was perpetuated through transfer of funds out of the Russian economy through Bank of New York accounts to a shadow company.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Money Laundering In Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There have been numerous accusations of money laundering in Russia. In 2011, Swiss prosecutors opened criminal investigation into a case where Russian tax officials were allegedly involved in fraudulent activities carried out by Swiss bank accounts.
In 2002, a suit was filed by depositors of Inkombank alleging that top bank officials of the bank collaborated with Russian mobsters and the Bank of New York to transfer money out of the Russian bank to another account, an action that made the Inkombank to fail (Leach 45).
These two cases are just but examples of how serious and rampant the money laundering scandal is to the Russian economy.
Techniques Used to Carry Out Money Laundering in Russia
There are various methods or techniques used to carry out money laundering in Russia as well as in other parts of the world. It is said that in Russia, there are more than 120 methods of perpetrating money laundering. Due to this fact, the fight against money laundering is difficult (Lane 23).
All these methods or techniques can be broadly categorized into smurfing bank related methods, currency exchange and double invoicing.
Smurfing or structuring is a term used for methods, which involve depositing of cash in form of small amounts in order to eliminate suspicion of the source of cash. Other methods involve smuggling cash into another economy and having the cash deposited in a bank with the help of bank officials to prevent detection.
People in Russia also use businesses, which deal with lots of cash in order to deposit both legitimate and illegitimate cash into their accounts. These businesses are used as a cover up and they do not have legitimate activities (Stessens 95).
The other method used by Russians in money laundering is over – valuing or under-valuing invoices in the course of business in order to disguise the amount and movement of money. Some people establish trusts and shell companies because these do not disclose the real owner of the business in order to disguise people and hide laundered money (Truman and Peter 33).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Money Laundering In Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A common method also in use in Russia to conduct money laundering is to buy majority shares in a bank in order to acquire control over the bank and enhance movement of money through the bank without scrutiny. This method is known as the bank capture method (Lane 39).
Casinos are also used for purposes of money laundering because players can buy chips, play for some time and then cash the chips for a check, which is deposited in a bank account as winnings from gambling hence being in a position to cleanse their ill-gotten income. Most casinos in Russia are owned and run by organized criminals and they help to perpetrate the crime of money laundering.
Money launderers also make use of real estate business to carry out their activities. They buy assets using illegitimate money, resell the property, and deposit the money as proceeds from sale of the property.
This is of course accompanied by undervaluation of the property in question in order to justify the source of the money (Truman and Peter 134).
Terrorist financing is a method that is becoming of more interest to many countries. This method is also used in Russia and it conceals the source of money. Black salaries where banks pay out salaries to nonexistent employees using illegitimate money are also a method in use to facilitate money laundering.
In Russia, organized crime is very rampant and this is the most common method of perpetration of money laundering. There was a scandal in 2002 about money laundering implicating the Bank of New York and this manifested that the famous Russian mafia is not a local operation but an international racket.
This group of organized crime is famous for carrying out of cross-border money laundering. These groups involved in organized crime have increased day by day because of political impunity in Russia and lack of enough legal reforms. According to the interior ministry of Russia, the organized groups had increased from 785 to 8,000 in 1996 (Leach 102).
This Russia mafia controls most businesses in the country and abroad and they receive certain percentages of profits made by international organizations. The history of these rackets dates back to 1964 and they have now increased in numbers.
Examples of these rackets include names such as Vory Zakone who are also known as Thieves in Law, the Dolgopruadnanskaya and the Solntsevskaya (Leach 114). These groups are involved in illegal trade of luxurious goods drug trafficking, gun smuggling and extortion.
Due to bad political leadership and corruption in Russia, these groups enjoy a substantial amount of protection and support from the top officials in the government. Some of the groups are even known to have police officers as members to the groups.
Like other parts of the world, money laundering in Russia makes use of technology in the process of laundering money. The money laundering techniques involve the use of simple ways and complicated methods such as of electronic payment systems.
The Financial Action Task Force on money laundering has identified several ways, which are used by money launderers. One method commonly used is the electronic or the wire money transfer technology in money laundering.
In Russia, most payments of unities are transferred from the payer to the payee over telecommunication networks. To facilitate money laundering, the sender and the receiver are the same person and this method is used to hide the identity of the people hence the true origin of money (Schneider and Dominic 83).
Money launderers in Russia often use illegal money transfer systems, which are also known as parallel bank systems in order to transfer money. Most of these money transfers are also based on several systems that support trust connections to send money hence making audit trail difficult.
People also use other methods such as providing false information on their identities when opening accounts in Russia with the intention of using these accounts for money laundering.
Money launderers use the good reputation of religious leaders or other people with good reputation for purposes of money transfers across borders. These people give money launderers unlimited access to their bank accounts and this facilitates money laundering since the transactions of these banks elicit little attention to regulators and investigators (Hopton 55).
Use of shell companies for money laundering purposes is also very common in Russia. Money launderers establish and control various organizations across borders with the aim of using them for transfer of huge sums of money. These companies do not have a business activity and do not have assets and liabilities.
They are purely used for money transfer purposes and they usually have several bank accounts. Some of the organizations established are in the form of charitable organizations and financial regulators do not monitor money transfer transactions with these organizations.
In Russia, technological advancements especially use of electronic payment systems such as SWIFT, EFT and TARGET or the involvement of virtual cash are all in use to carry out money laundering under the unsuspicious investigators and prosecutors.
The money launderers also make use of financial instruments like life insurance policies, share certificates, bonds and other derivatives to clean dirty money. Most of trading in the financial instruments is done online with offshore companies (Lane 133).
Prevention of Money Laundering in Russia After being put in the black list of ‘tax havens’ by the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering (FATF) in 2000, the Russian government made great efforts to combat money laundering in the country. This is because the country was most hit by the effect of discriminatory measures that the black listing had on the Russian financial institutions.
Russia has made various milestones regarding the fight against money laundering. One of the major milestones includes the ability of the country to ratify the Council of European Convention on Money Laundering.
The council is responsible for various duties such as finding out money laundering tracks, seizing the involved culprits and confiscating any income earned from the illegal act (1990 Convention). The Russian government ratified this convention in 2001 and this led to the development of anti-money laundering legislation (FATF XV Report 49).
Russia developed the Federal Law No. 115-FZ in 2002 on ‘Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism’ also known as the Money Laundering Law. This law gives guidelines to banks on ways of preventing money laundering and gives the required disclosures that banks should make to the government (Leach 155).
One of the provisions is that banks should monitor closely and report to the government any transaction that is equivalent to or exceeds 600,000 Roubles (17,500 Euros) in relation to cash payments, legal entities in countries that do not participate in anti-money laundering efforts.
Deposits into banks, trade in precious stones and metals should be reported. The Money Laundering Law also requires that that all organizations in Russia should disclose transactions of individuals put in the list of extremists. Financial institutions and banks in Russia are prevented from creating and maintaining bank accounts without proper identification of the real owners.
Another law implemented to combat money laundering in Russia was the amendment of the Criminal Code, which sought to make a definition of money laundering and provide penalties.
According to the amendments of the Criminal Code, money laundering was defined as “financial operations and other transactions with money or other property on a large scale obtained by criminal means for the purpose of giving lawful character to ownership, usage and disposal of the indicated money and other property” (Minaeva and Aksenova 1).
This was a good measure to ensure criminal prosecution of those involved in the vice of money laundering. The Russian reforms also saw the legislation and enaction of Banking Law and the Securities Law, which provide a framework for operation of financial institutions in the country.
The Russian government also established the Financial Monitoring Committee (FMC), which was to act as a new supervisor of activities aimed at monitoring cash transactions (Lane 24). This body was later renamed as the Federal Service for Financial Monitoring (FSFM).
The roles of this body are to collect process and analyze financial information about financial information with the main aim of preventing money laundering and financing of terrorism activities. The FSFM works hand in hand with the law enforcement agencies to ensure that all suspected transactions are investigated and the culprits are apprehended.
The information that is analyzed by the FSFM comes from the Central Bank of Russia, which is the supervisor of all credit and financial institutions in the country.
Other information is obtained from the Federal Insurance Supervision Service (FISS) and the Federal Service for Financial Markets (FSFM). The FISS is charge with the role of supervising the insurance companies and the FSFM manages players in the securities market.
The Russian government has been in the forefront of the fight against money laundering over the recent years. Russia became a full member of FATF in 2003 and it took up a leading role in the fight against money laundering in Russia.
The country also started the Eurasian Group on Combating Legalization of Proceeds from Crime and Terrorist Financing (EAG). The membership of the group includes regional nations such as Russia, China and Belarus among others.
The group has many members including Russia, China and Belarus among others. The role of this group is to observe the status of performance of the FATF in the fight against money laundering. Russia is also a member of the Council of Europe’s Select Committee of Experts on the evaluation of Anti-Money laundering Measures (MONEYVAL).
In order to get a good insight into measures taken by the government of Russia to fight money laundering, it is important to review the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force against Money Laundering (FATF).
FATF has 40 recommendations and 9 special recommendations. Some of these recommendations aim to prevent money laundering while others focus on prevention of funding of terrorism activities and drug dealings.
Of importance to this term paper are those recommendations that deal with prevention of money laundering. These involve recommendation 5, 6, 7 and 8 and they all provide guidelines on wider issues such on money laundering. It is the basis of these recommendations that Russia has developed several anti-money laundering laws.
Russia has joined efforts with other nations in order to put itself in a better position to fight money laundering and financing of terrorism activities. The main reason for these agreements is that money laundering is usually carried across countries thus the efforts of a single country are not effective to combat the crime.
It is for this reason that the FSFM has signed international agreements with various countries and organizations such as the United States, Czech Republic, Ukraine and many other countries. These agreements have gone a long way to exchange information between the parties and thus be able to prevent cross-border money laundering.
The repercussions for breach of any of the established laws and regulations to combat money laundering in the Russian economy are severe.
Examples of consequences of failure to adhere to the Money laundering Law and other anti-money laundering laws are revocation of the license of the bank or the concerned financial institution, imprisonment of officers found guilty and fining of the bank. In Russia, persons found guilty of the crime of money laundering or financing of terrorism activities face a sentence of 7 to 15 years imprisonment.
The Efficacy of Russian Rules and Regulations in Preventing Money Laundering The anti-money laundering efforts by the Russian government are not efficient. Despite the enactment of strict anti-money laundering measures, the government has not registered a substantial reduction in the crime.
One of the impediments of the efficacy of the efforts to combat money laundering is the exemption of financial institutions from the legal requirements to disclose information to the government.
Though the Money Laundering Law allows the financial institutions to disclose information to the government on suspicious activities, most of the institutions hide in the legal responsibility they have for breach of contract on confidential information of customers (Minaeva and Aksenova 1).
The President of FATF, Professor Kader Asmal recognized and praised the efforts made by the Russian government to fight money laundering in 2005 (FATF XV Report 25). The president of Russia unveiled a national strategy to combat Money Laundering and Terrorism financing in 2005.
The FSFM also came up with a five-year plan of improving the anti-money laundering legislation, which was based on four principle strategies. These strategies were improvement of anti-money laundering law, training and retraining investigators and prosecutors in money laundering cases and strengthening of bilateral and international cooperation.
Using bilateral and international agreements with other countries and other international organizations such as the United Kingdom, Russia has been able to prevent money laundering across borders. The country is able to exchange information with these countries and organizations and combine efforts with the countries to fight money laundering.
This has gone a long way to increase the efficiency of the fight against money laundering across borders. Despite these developments, the efficiency of the Russian government to fight money laundering and financing of terrorism activities is greatly hampered by the failure of the country to sign the new Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Tracing, Seizure and Confiscation of Proceeds from Crime.
In addition, the country also failed to signs a pact on the Council on the Financing of Terrorism, which is an update of the 1990 convention. Without signing of these updates, Russia cannot be effective enough in the fight against money laundering and financing of terrorism activities (Schneider and Dominic 83).
Various obstacles that are basic in nature also hamper the efficacy of the fight against money laundering and financing of terrorism activities in Russia. One of the obstacles is lack of a good framework to counter the basic issues of corruption and organized crime. Another obstacle is the shortcomings of the Money Laundering Law itself.
The regulation provides for a low threshold for interested parties to report on the FSFM operations hence the overworking of financial institutions with excess workload (Leach 147). This is because this requires them to make a report on many operations on a daily basis. Another shortcoming is the ambiguity in the definition of a ‘suspicious transaction’.
The definition of this term is left to financial institutions and other players. It is therefore imperative that most transactions will be improperly qualified as suspicious transactions or non- suspicious transactions and this is a big impediment to the efficacy of the Money Laundering Law.
Most of employees in the financial institutions and other governmental offices lack the training and experience to analyze information in order to detect money laundering. Most of these employees are also ignorant of the provisions of the Money Laundering Law and other legal provisions, which aim at preventing money laundering.
This has created the rise of improper qualification and application of the Money laundering Law making most money laundering transactions to go unrecorded. This reduces the efficiency of the Money Laundering Law in combating the crime (Truman and Peter 68).
The software used by most financial institutions to report transactions is also another impediment of the efficiency of fight against money laundering in Russia. Money laundering methods involve the use of technology and for the government to be able to fight the vice, it needs to use more advanced technology than that used by money launderers.
In addition to lack of technology, there is lack of coordination of efforts between the organizations, which are involved in the fight against money laundering. There are communication barriers between the financial institutions, supervisory agencies and law enforcement agencies, which makes exchange of information on suspicious transactions difficult.
For Russia to be effective in the fight against money laundering, it should ensure that all the parties involved well coordinated and they are able to share information freely. All information regarding supervision and prevention of money laundering should be put in a database that is accessible to all players in the fight.
Corruption is also another factor that has led to lack of efficacy in the anti-money laundering efforts. A recent report by the Transparency International (TI) ranked Russia in the league of the most corrupt countries worldwide.
Corruption in the country has led to difficulties in creation of ways to apprehend the perpetrators of organized crime in the country. The political and the economic climate prevailing in Russia do not provide an ample environment for the fight against money laundering.
The significant reduction in money laundering that has been realized in the Russian economy is due to the enactment and enforcement of the Anti-Money Laundering Law. Since the enactment of the Money Laundering Law and other anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing activities, many people and institutions have been charged with the crime in Russia.
In 2003, fourteen people were found guilty of money laundering crime, in 2005, 419 people and in 2006, 532 people were found guilty of the same crime (Minaeva and Aksenova 1). Many cases related to money laundering were brought to the Russian courts in 2009 and this prevented money laundering of close to 289 Roubles.
In the same year, the Central Bank of Russia inspected 779 banks and revoked trading licenses of 51 banks. 343 of the inspected banks were found to have activities that could lead to money laundering and these cases were prevented.
FATF carried out a survey in 2008 that investigated the anti-money laundering efforts employed by the Russian government. The outcome of the survey that included efforts on the war against terrorism financing was weighed against the set recommendation of the task force that conducted the survey.
The FATF has 40 recommendations and 9 Special recommendations on anti-money laundering measures. According to the report, Russia had fully complied with 10 recommendations, partially complied with 21 and had failed to comply with 3 FATF recommendations. Two of the recommendations were not applicable in the country.
The survey also established that the Russian government had put in place a legal framework for identifying, investigating and prosecuting money laundering practices. The report however emphasized that the effectiveness of this legal framework could be enhanced by sealing the loopholes existing in the framework.
Some of the loopholes identified in the report were lack of proper and clear legal framework regarding beneficial ownership of property, failure of the Russian law to ban the maintenance of existing accounts in fictitious names and lack of proper guidelines on due diligence.
After this report, the country strengthened the Federal Law No. 115-FZ to prohibit financial institutions from opening accounts without proper identification of the account owner and maintaining anonymous accounts without proper identification of owner. Customer database is vital for any organization including the state.
Due to the efforts to fight money laundering, regulatory authorities have required financial institutions to make a three-year update of client details.
About recommendation 6 on politically exposed persons (PEP), the FATF report noted that Russia had not made any legislation regarding PEPs. Law No. 121-FZ was implemented in 2009 to ensure that recommendation 6 on PEPs had been adhered to.
The Russian Banking laws and regulations have not been able to provide specific guidelines to banks on information required to be able to understand the nature of the bank they wish to enter into correspondence with. The Federal Law No.
129-FZ requires that banks should keep comprehensive records on transactions and maintain them for a period. Despite the efforts of the government to enforce this law and comply with special recommendation VII, full compliance has not been realized. This is another indicator of the lack of efficacy in anti-money laundering efforts.
This is because most financial institutions visited by FATF in the evaluation in 2008 had little knowledge about money laundering and activities that constitute money laundering. Russia was also rated as partially compliant to requirements 15, 17, 22 and 27 on various issues on anti-money laundering.
The fact that the country had partially complied with most of the FATF recommendations and had totally failed to comply with others shows that the fight against money laundering is not efficient and more needs to be done.
Effects of Money Laundering on Russian Banks Credit Risk: this risk is associated with the inability of a borrower to repay his/her loan or the inability to meet the contractual obligations of the loan. Under the risk, the borrower is unable to repay the principle sum or the interest or both.
The risk is common in cases in which a borrower depends on expected cash flows in future to repay the pending debt today. Investment and commercial banks usually charge higher interest rates for borrower whose perceived credit risk is high. Calculation of credit risk of an individual is calculated depending on the ability of the borrower to service the loan.
Liquidity risk: The risk results from the inability of a security being marketed in appropriate time to reduce the expected loss.
Exchange rate Risk: exchange rates are not usually constant especially in a flexible exchange rate regime. An exchange rate risk is effect of fluctuation in the exchange rates on the assets and securities.
The fluctuations in the exchange rates especially for foreign investors could either reduce or increase the value of money and the investment hence realization of either a loss or profit. Although the risk affects businesses, it could also affect individual international investors.
Inflation Risk: this is the danger that inflation poses on the security. The risk results for increased inflation in an economy. Long run effects of inflation risk could be erosion of the value of a given asset. Securities that bear interest could be devalued, purchasing power reduced and the activities in the financial market disrupted.
Conclusion Russia is one of the most active participants in the fight against money laundering in the European region and in the world. There are still inefficiencies in the fight. The inefficiency is brought by obstacles such as corruption, poor financial framework, lack of transparency in the operations of the financial institutions and poor political and economic climate (Hopton 62).
The efficiency is also lowered by the fact that there are more than one hundred ways to perpetrate the crime of money laundering in Russia. However, it is clear that Russia is committed at preventing money laundering due to the measures the country has put in place. These measure need to be reviewed time from time in order to keep up with the current trends in money laundering.
In generally, the efforts of the Russian government to fight money laundering has proved to be ineffective in meeting the objective of preventing money laundering, detecting money laundering activities, prosecuting perpetrators of money laundering and generally eliminating organized crime in the country.
The limitation in the fight is due to lack of a culture that promotes and upholds regulatory compliance by financial institutions. There are also deep-rooted weaknesses in the banking system in Russia, which reduces effectiveness of the measures taken to combat money laundering.
Politicians and other powerful individuals in Russia also use the anti-money laundering measures to advance their own personal agenda thus reducing the efficiency of the efforts to provide money laundering.
It can therefore be concluded that Russia is not badly off in the fight against money laundering but much needs to be done. It is also difficult to evaluate the efficacy of the Russian government in combating the crime due to lack of data and evidence concerning money laundering in the country.
This is because such data on cases of money laundering are treated with confidentiality in order to protect the reputation of the involved financial institutions and government agencies (Leach 183).
Works Cited Demetis, Dionysios. Technology and Anti-Money Laundering: A Systems Theory and Risk-Based Approach. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010. Print
FATF XV Report. Report on Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Typologies 2004-2005, FATF-XV (Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), 10 June 2005, May 30 2011. Web.
Hopton, Doug. Money Laundering: A Concise Guide for All Business. Burlington: Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Print.
Lane, Stuart. Russian banking: evolution, problems and prospects. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002. Print
Leach, James. Russian Money Laundering: Congressional Hearing. Moscow: DIANE Publishing, 2001. Print
Minaeva, Tatiana and Marina, Aksenova. Anti-Money Laundering in Russia. Moscow: White
The opportunity to succeed for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia Research Paper essay help online free
Abstract Women play a momentous role in facilitating change and development in our society. Their daily contribution to socioeconomic well being of the society cannot be overstated here. One of such areas of importance where women play an integral role is in the private sector through the establishment of Small and Medium-sided Enterprises (SMEs).
While the Saudi Arabian society has not had a place for women especially in the business cycles, this situation has stopped women entrepreneurs to compete favourably and stiffly with the male counterparts. It is interesting to note that in spite of the challenges experienced by women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia, there are still a host of motivating factors that keep them going as observed in this research study.
For instance, it has been noted that women form a huge chunk of university graduates in Saudi Arabia in the sense that most of them are indeed well educated, a scenario that put s them into favourable competing ground with the rest of the business community.
This is especially so considering that they are the majority in the society, making up about fifty one percent of the world’s population. This being the case, it is important to note that empowering of women in the society will go a long way in helping everyone there.
Up to now, the women in countries that are already industrialised with strong and vibrant economies seem to have made significant gains in the business world. It is estimated that women run and control about a third of all business enterprises in this society.
Women entrepreneurship, as a result, has continued to attract the attention of scholars in the society. There is interest in analysing how this historically discriminated segment in the society is fairing on in a field that has been controlled by men for a very long time now. To this end, several studies have been conducted, addressing various attributes of this field. This ranges from the challenges that women face in their businesses, their rate of success and such other factors.
Business women in Saudi Arabia have especially attracted a lot of attention from these scholars. This is given the fact that the women of this region are especially known for their subordinate role in the society, considering the fact that men have traditionally dominated many spheres of life in this region for a very long time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this research study, it was found that both the Saudi and British women who engage in SMEs are largely inspired by the knowledge and skills in business that they have acquired mostly from their previous working stations.
In conclusion, this empirical research has attempted to prove it wrong that the place for the Arabic woman is the home. Her life does not just revolve around her family; her children, her husband and generally keeping the home habitable.
Women can also excel in starting and managing businesses enterprises just like their male counterparts. In addition, SMEs owned and managed by women are playing a very significant role in the economy of these countries, and their impact in the whole society in extension cannot be downplayed.
Findings Small Business for Women in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
When the Saudi women were asked about their age, majority (39%) belonged to the group of 21-30 year olds followed by the 31-40 (28%) and 41-50 (24%) respectively. There were only a few respondents (9%) above 51 years (Fig. 1.1, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked their marital status, the majority that answered were married with children (46%), with the remainder being single (31%) and married but without children (24%) (Fig. 1.2, Appendix 1).
Majority of the respondents received bachelor’s degree (54%) followed by those who obtained master’s degree (21%) while small proportion (14%) of those who received secondary education. Very few respondents (10%) acquired PhD qualification preceded by negligible proportion (1%) of those who have primary qualification. (Fig. 1.3, Appendix 1).
When the working women were asked about their position at work, the majority (54%) belonged to the group of other while some of the respondents (13%) are of the executive position followed by those (10%) who are managers. (Fig.1.4, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked about their preferred business, the majority (45%) was intended to invest in educational sector followed by a large number of women (35%) willing to invest in beautician shop. A small number of the respondents (26%) preferred to open a small manufacturing enterprise preceded by those who were willing to open a hotel. Only a few (13%) showed the willingness to start the business of publishing (Fig. 1.5, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to more income, majority (55%) were agreed to the statement followed by several (24%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents (12%) were neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement while few (10%) disagreed (Fig. 1.6, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to convenience for person ambition, majority (54%) were agreed to the statement followed by a little (28%) who strongly agreed. Not many respondents (12%) were disagreed to the statement while few (6%) were neither agreed nor disagreed (Fig. 1.7, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to flexibility to work, majority (55%) were agreed to the statement followed by some (22%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents (18%) were neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement while few (5%) were disagreed (Fig. 1.8, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked if there are many job opportunities available for women in Saudi Arabia, majority (73%) answered Yes whereas, the remaining (27%) answered No (Fig. 1.9, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the lack of business skills which impede business women when they start their own business the majority (54%) agreed followed by those (21%) who disagreed. Some of the respondents (19%) were strongly agreed to the statement while a few (6%) were neither agreed nor disagreed (Fig. 1.10, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the work life balance between home and work which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (56%) agreed followed by those (30%) who disagreed. Some of the respondents (10%) were strongly agreed to the statement while a few (4%) were neither agree nor disagree to the statement (Fig. 1.11, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the problem of funding the project which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (54%) agreed chased by several respondents (29%) who strongly agreed. Some of the respondents (10%) were neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement while a few (7%) were disagreed (Fig. 1.12, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the cultural issues related to the acceptance of women starting their own business which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (49%) agreed followed by those (31%) who disagreed. Some of the respondents (15%) were strongly agreed to the statement while a few (5%) were neither agree nor disagree to the statement (Fig. 1.13, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the problem with government regulations and requirements which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (51%) agreed followed by those (34%) who strongly agreed to the statement. A small number of the respondents (8%) were neither agree nor disagree to the statement while, a few (7%) were neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement (Fig. 1.14, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked to rate the encouragement of Saudi women to set up their own business majority (83%) answered Yes while the remainder (17%) answered No. Those who answered Yes were further asked to rate the stakeholders who effectively encourage them to set up their own business. A vast majority (79%) rated families as effective followed by those (58%) who rated their partners as supportive. A reasonable number of the respondents (46%) rated friends as supportive while some (24%) rated the government as helping followed by the others (13%) respectively (Fig. 1.15, Appendix 1).
When the respondents were asked whether the Saudi women are capable to manage their own business as good as Saudi men, the majority (51%) strongly agreed chased by those (32%) who agreed to the statement. A small number of the respondents (14%) were neither agree nor disagree to the statement while a few (3%) were disagreed (Fig. 1.16, Appendix 1).
Questions for Saudi Business women only
When the Saudi business women were asked to rate the reason of choosing the line of business due to personal interest, the majority (30%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, while some (18%) strongly agreed followed by a few (7%) who agreed to the statement (Fig. 1.17, Appendix 1).
When the Saudi business women were asked to rate the reason of choosing the business because it is easy to set up and there are no cultural constraints, the majority (31%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, while some of them (15%) were agreed followed by those (9%) who strongly agreed to the statement. An insignificant proportion of the respondents (1%) disagreed to the statement (Fig. 1.18, Appendix 1).
When the Saudi business women were asked to rate the availability of funding as a prime reason to start a business, the majority (30%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, while a small proportion (15%) agreed followed by a few (9%) who strongly agreed to the statement. A negligible proportion of the respondents (1%) were disagreed (Fig. 1.19, Appendix 1).
When the Saudi business women were asked to rate if they were already having a plan to choose the line of business, the majority (30%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, preceded by several (13%) who agreed, while some of the respondents (12%) strongly agreed and a negligible fraction (1%) disagreed to the statement (Fig. 1.20, Appendix 1).
When the Saudi business women were asked to rate the previous learning about the specific line of business as a primary reason to adopt it, the majority (33%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, followed by a similar proportion (10%) of the respondents who strongly agreed and agreed, while a few respondents (3%) were disagreed (Fig. 1.21, Appendix 1).
Small Business for Women in Britain
When the British women were asked about their age, majority (45%) were of the group 21-30 year olds followed by the 41-50 (18%) and 31-40 (17%) respectively. Only a few respondents (5%) were of the age above 51 year (Fig. 2.1, Appendix 2).
When the British women were asked their marital status, the majority that answered were single (47%), followed by various respondents (21%) being married but without children while the reminder (19%) were married with children. A small proportion of the respondents (7%) were found to be in partnership (Fig. 2.2, Appendix 2).
A large proportion of the respondents (44%) received master’s degree followed by several women (30%) who obtained bachelor’s degree. A reasonable percentage (18%) was found of those who obtained diploma while, a small fraction (5%) was found of the respondents who obtained GCSE/A Level or equivalent qualification. A negligible proportion (1%) acquired PhD qualification (Fig. 2.3, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked about their working position, the majority (53%) belonged to the group of other while some of the respondents (27%) are of the manager position followed by many (19%) who are executive (Fig. 2.4, Appendix 2).
When the British women were asked about their preferred business, the majority (32%) was willing to invest small manufacturing enterprise followed by several respondents (30%) willing to invest in restaurant. Various respondents (28%) preferred to invest in a hotel while several other were interested to open a beautician shop. Only a few (9%) showed the willingness to start the business of publishing (Fig. 2.5, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to more income, majority (52%) were agreed to the statement followed by some (29%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents (15%) neither agreed nor disagreed while; a few (4%) disagreed to the statement (Fig. 2.6, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to convenience for person ambition, majority (51%) agreed to the statement followed by some (36%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents (11%) neither agreed nor disagreed, while a few (3%) disagreed (Fig. 2.7, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked whether the private sector is preferable to the public sector due to flexibility to work, majority (55%) agreed to the statement followed by a small fraction (22%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents (18%) were neither agreed nor disagreed while; a few (5%) were disagreed (Fig. 2.8, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked if there are many job opportunities available for women in the UK, majority (90%) answered Yes whereas, the remainder (10%) responded as No (Fig. 2.9, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the lack of business skills which impede business women when they start their own business the majority (36%) agreed followed by some (26%) who neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement. Some of the respondents (21%) disagreed to the statement while, several others (18%) were strongly agreed (Fig. 2.10, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the work life balance between home and work which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (36%) agreed followed by many (27%) who neither agreed nor disagreed. Some respondents (21%) disagreed to the statement while a few (16%) strongly agreed (Fig. 2.11, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the problem of funding the project which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (49%) agreed while several others (30%) neither agreed nor disagreed. Some of the respondents (14%) strongly agreed while a few (7%) were disagreed (Fig. 2.12, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the cultural issues related to the acceptance of women starting their own business which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (51%) disagreed followed by numerous others (23%) who agreed. Some of the respondents (15%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement, whereas a few (11%) were strongly agreed (Fig. 2.13, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the problem with government regulations and requirements which impedes business women when they start their own business the majority (45%) disagreed followed by numerous others (27%) who neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement. A similar proportion (14%) was found of those who agreed and strongly agreed to the statement (Fig. 2.14, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the encouragement of British women to set up their own business, an overwhelming majority (88%) answered Yes while, the remainder (12%) answered No. Those who answered Yes were further asked to rate the stakeholders who effectively encourage them to set up their own business. A vast majority (67%) rated friends as effective followed by several other (48%) who rated the government as supportive. A reasonable number of the respondents (45%) rated family as supportive while, some (36%) rated the partner as helping (Fig. 2.15, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked whether the British women are capable to manage their own business as good as British men, the majority (48%) strongly agreed chased by numerous other (36%) who agreed to the statement. A small number of the respondents (14%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement while a few (3%) were disagreed (Fig. 2.16, Appendix 2).
Questions for British business women only
When the British business women were asked to rate the reason of choosing the line of business due to personal interest, the majority (21%) strongly agreed followed by those (16%) who agreed to the statement. A small proportion of the respondents (5%) were neither agreed nor disagreed while a negligible fraction (1%) disagreed (Fig. 2.17, Appendix 2).
When the respondents were asked to rate the past experience in specific type of business as a reason to choose it, the majority (23%) agreed followed by some (10%) who strongly agreed to the statement. A small number of the respondents (8%) neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement while a few (3%) disagree to the statement (Fig. 2.18, Appendix 2).
When the British business women were asked to rate the reason of choosing the line of business because it is easy to set up and there are no cultural constraints, the majority (23%) agreed followed by those (15%) who strongly agreed. A small number of the respondents were neither agreed nor disagreed while; an insignificant proportion of the respondents (1%) disagreed to the statement (Fig. 2.19, Appendix 2).
When the British business women were asked to rate the availability of funding as a prime reason to start a business, a similar proportion (15%) was found for those who neither agreed nor disagreed and for those who agreed to the statement. A small proportion of the respondents (8%) strongly agreed followed by a few (5%) who disagreed to the statement (Fig. 2.20, Appendix 2).
When the British business women were asked to rate if they were already having a plan to choose the line of business, the majority (22%) agreed to the statement preceded by several other (11%) who strongly agreed, while some of the respondents (7%) neither agreed nor disagreed and a negligible fraction (4%) disagreed (Fig. 2.21, Appendix 2).
When the British business women were asked to rate the previous learning about the specific line of business as a primary reason to adopt it, the majority (22%) agreed to the statement, followed by various respondents (14%) who strongly agreed. Only a small proportion of the respondents (7%) neither agreed nor disagreed while a negligible fraction (1%) disagreed to the statement (Fig. 2.22, Appendix 2).
Discussion and Analysis The research findings is unanimous about one factor; that Arabic women are indeed inspired to start and run their own businesses bearing in mind that the formal sector is largely dominated by males and few women find employment opportunities there (Dhaliwal
Family Communication Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Survival Story of my family:
Introduction Family communication necessitates the expression of one’s feelings about someone else or something through both verbal and non-verbal communication among family members. Effective family communication is central in the creation of healthy families and strengthens the bonds of love among family members.
Communication within family members helps in early detection of family differences among members and offers an immediate solution to any conflict, which might occur. Healthy communication in the family creates an enabling environment in which members not only pass information about their wants, needs, feelings, or admirations, but also listen to what others have to say.
Effective family communication therefore, cannot be complete without effective listening internalization of the spoken words then giving of response (Gottman, 1994, p.46). Listening is as critical as talking in a healthy communication. Good family relationships including marriages count on good family communication where people express their love and friendship through the exchange of their feelings to each other.
Furthermore, the only efficient way of passing family information from the elder generation to the younger generation is effective communication between the source of the information and the recipient of the information.
Openness in family communication and honesty propagates trust among family members and therefore, creates an atmosphere whereby individuals can express their thoughts without fear of contradiction and intimidation.
According to Graham, “In order for effective communication to take place within families, individual family members must be open and honest with on another” (1996, p. 24). Trust creates strong relationships among family members.
Survival Story of my family: As narrated by my mother
The story about our family survival stretches way back before I was born, as my mother puts it to me. Through the family linage, this was the only time in history that our family went through a survival stage. Opposition and rejection was what our family went through for not less than five consecutive years.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As my mother puts it, the issue started shortly after our first-born completed her high school education with an excellent performance therefore calling for proceeding to higher education. To the disbelief of my mother, her daughter had performed better than what the entire family expected.
She says, “…out of all the poverty and recurrent sent offs from school for fees, she managed to perform better than any other student in the area.” Mum confirms that at that moment when the family was undergoing tough financial constrains, our father worked as a casual laborer in a farm for the whites with meager payment, which could hardly satisfy the ever-increasing family demands.
Even though the awesome academic performance of my sister brought joy to the family, it was short lived. The struggle to get the huge colleges fees set in. According to mum, everything possible had to be done to raise the amount required for the college fees including borrowing from friends and well-wishers.
With or without money, our family stood for education for its members and the only hope that mother had, was her persistence help she had extended to the surrounding community. “Despite my poverty and lack, I have been supporting others in the society and community around so I believed they would show their appreciation by supporting my daughter too” mother posits.
On the other hand, dad had to continue working hard even though very little came out of his sweat. Things did not happen as anticipated; as mum continues, it emerges that none of those she helped came to her rescue when she needed them; instead, what she got, as a reward was a turn down of her request for support from the surrounding community.
Therefore, to get the required money, my family organized a fundraising function. To my surprise as my mother puts it, very few people showed up during the planned date and therefore, little was collected out of the planned fundraising. With very little hopes of getting enough money for the college fees, my mother and the entire family remained optimistic that their daughter would still get good education and achieve her dreams in life.
The neighbors who claimed to be sincere family friends, they turned out to be “family enemies”. According to my mother, “…none of all these neighbors showed up for the fundraiser and those who did were reluctant to offer any financial support.”
We will write a custom Essay on Family Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the state of confusion on what to do next, my mother approached a local non-governmental organization working in our area and presented her request for fees sponsorship for her daughter.
The NGO accepted the request and offered full sponsorship towards my sister’s education. She did a bachelors degree in telecommunication and finally got employment with the national telecommunication corporation where she works even to date.
Story as narrated by uncle
My uncle narrates the story about our family survival to me from our well-vanished living room where he compares the current state of our family and what it was fifteen years ago. He says, “… I remember very well some years back when everybody in the family struggled to collect money for college fees and none of the community around us showed up to help us.”
My uncle felt disappointed by people who pretend to be with you when in problem but in real sense, they do not care what happens especially when things are badly off.
According to my uncle, the community in totality rejected our family’s proposal for financial aid. Even during the fundraiser, very few people showed up for the occasion and the few who showed up had little to offer. This was a big disappointment warranting one to lose hope in life.
With everyone turning away from you, you feel thwarted and this was the state of my uncle. He says, “At the center of the frustrations and disappointments, a good Samaritan the form of a sponsor showed up and cleared the frustrations and disappointments by paying the full college fees for your sister.”
The family survived a tough financial crisis then with little hard-earned resources, but still out of that little, we are able to support others even those who never helped us at a time when we needed them, as my uncle observes.
Analysis of the story
During the financial survival period of our family, we had both enemies and good people. First, the whites who continued giving our father employment even though little was paid, but at least the basic needs were met; second, the sponsors from the local NGO who accepted to pay for my sisters college fees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Family Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the burden of college fees payment lifted from the shoulders of the family, every member of the family felt relieved and the future of my sister looked brighter.
On the other hand, there were ‘enemies’ including our own neighbors who willingly decided not to support in raising the college fees when requested to.
They turned down the invitations to the fundraiser and thought that, without them my sister would not attain higher education. Their rejection and opposition was open to all and despite of my family participating in community activities, our request for financial support received a turn down.
How the story helps us cope in the world
This story instilled in me the understanding that other forces of nature predetermine the fate of everyone in the world other than what people around us can offer. This understanding helps me to cope well with all the situations coming on my way with a strong belief that, all will be well.
The fate of my sisters’ education as seen was predetermined and no other forces could have objected that. Trusting in people could also be dangerous especially in the event when they turn down on you when you seriously need them as was the case in our family.
How the family maintained dignity and respect
During the entire period of financial survival, my family maintained dignity in the sense that, after the society turned down our request for financial support in the form of a fundraiser, no one from our family questioned them.
Instead, people were busy looking for other means of soliciting for the funds to achieve the intended goal of my sisters’ education. Not only was there dignity maintenance by our family, but also our respect in the all survival time. After my sisters’ education and subsequent employment, the family dignity and respect increased many folds.
Moral lesson of the story
Putting trust and hope on people surrounding us may lead to disappointment in the event people fail to turn up for our help when we desperately need their help; nevertheless, that should not destroy our ambitions and the inherent spirit within us to achieve our goals in life.
Maintaining a positive attitude in all situations and not giving up can bear good fruits after the hard situation if only we uphold the values of endurance and persistence.
Every member of our family endured the hard economic time and today, things have completely changed; happiness and satisfaction underscores our lives. Persistence in looking for any possible source of money landed my mother to the sponsors who willingly offered to help us all through.
If the family had lost hope due to disappointment, then the vicious cycle of poverty in our family could have continued.
Conclusion Good communication among family members helps in creating good and healthy families while on the other hand, poor communication in families defines family breakages and violence. Good communication helps in revealing hidden secrets of the family to the young generation shedding some light on why things are the way they are.
From the stories narrated to me, it is clear that, not all has been well as I thought. At some, point our family went through financial crisis difficult to come out of.
From the stories, my ways of perceiving others who pretend to be real friends has sharpened and no longer do I trust everyone, because people can desperately let you down. The unity exhibited by all the family members during the survival period, strengthened love, respect, and togetherness in the family and as it is today, our family relationships continue to be strong.
Reference List Gottman, J. (1994). Why marriage succeed or fail. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Graham, E. (1996). Too much to do, too little time. Wall street journal, 1 (4), 24.
The Pros and Cons of Regulating the Food Business Essay online essay help
The statistics by the Center of Disease and Control gives an alarming view about the existing circumstances as far is obesity is concerned. The fact that there has been an increase in obesity in both adults and children raises concerns of what can be done so as to ensure that the number of obese people is kept down.
The fact that the scenario has come to a point that it has become a national epidemic means that the government has the responsibility of doing everything possible to ensure the issue is well handled.
The question of whether the government should regulate the food business should be answered after weighing the pros and cons not regulating the food business.
It is clear that though the resultant of not controlling food business has brought about an epidemic, there is also the benefit to organizations of an available market of work out DVDs, gym memberships and also dinners that are frozen.
In terms of financial contribution, it only means that the organizations that are offering these services are also contributors to the economy and through the activities some obese people are also benefiting. The government also needs to access the successes of the solutions that these organizations have so as to know whether there is need to regulate the food business.
For what would be the reason of regulating the business if there are more financial benefits and the people who engage in the solutions are getting the help they need?
Economically, if the government decides to regulate the business and success to reduce obesity, these organizations may be forced to lay off the workers or even close down. If that happens, there would be economic Implications on the people who were dependent on these businesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the fact that grocery stores have stickers that enlighten the people about the food that enables one to maintain a healthy body also has a benefit it offers of the public. It means that people are aware of the food that would not render their bodies to be obese.
In turn, they have a contribution in ensuring that obesity of among the citizens is reduced. However, it is notable that the food that is preventive of this epidemic is more expensive than the others. The meaning of this is that the poor in the society mighty not afford it since their financial income mighty not permit.
It is also notable that the low income earners may not afford to enjoy some of these preventive measures that have come up that aim at stopping the epidemic.
At this point, it is where the government comes in and needs to ensure that the epidemic is prevented from escalating since there are also other dangers that are to the epidemic. Some diseases are likely to come up due to obesity and there is also likelihood of death coming up.
Whether there exists a financial benefit to both the organizations and the government, the health of the people should be the primary consideration in deciding whether to regulate the business or not.
The government is meant to work for all the people, the ones who can afford the provided services by the various organization and the ones who cannot afford them.
It should therefore exert a regulation that aims at ensuring that even the people who cannot afford the services that the various organizations are offering are also catered for when fighting the epidemic. However, regulation should also be such that it is not so strict to drives some of these organizations that are offering solution to obesity out of business.
We will write a custom Essay on The Pros and Cons of Regulating the Food Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Endorsement and Advertising in “Sex And The City” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Any cosmopolitan woman, or at least one who likes fashion and beautiful things will be entranced in watching both Sex and the City movies.
Women with a wide range of tastes will be educated on the latest pieces from designer labels, but most of all, will be entertained while subliminally brainwashed by the indirect marketing of such labels. Long-time fans of the television series version live as successful, glamorous, sexy and very attractive New Yorkers vicariously through the characters of Carrie, Samantha, Miranda and Charlotte.
Constantly dressed in fashionable clothes, possessing the finest of things and dining in the most upscale restaurants, the characters exude sophistication and poise and embody different personalities of modern women. They empower women to be strong and effectively deal with the challenges in their careers and family lives.
Sex and the City (SATC) has become a goldmine for advertisers who are eager for the characters to endorse products by wearing, holding, looking at or verbally mentioning the product name.
Giving the audience a visual of the product or the logo also goes a long way in creating a memory that is easily retained in the audience’s mind, and possibly, lead to purchasing such items.
Aside from being viewed as a marketing tool, SATC’s emphasis on women being fashionable and beautiful sells an ideology that that is how women should be in order to feel fulfilled as a person and to be able to attract men.
The advertisers of the movie prey on women’s insecurities and their intense need to be accepted, admired and loved. Having very attractive actresses does not only create more insecurity about readers’ looks but also a more passionate desire to achieve the characters’ look by purchasing the cosmetics and fashion they used to look that attractive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several brands have partnered with the producers of the movie for advertising purposes. These brands have met with the producer earlier on so that they are included in the film in ways that range from being mentioned in some lines in the script, or appearing on the screen.
On their part, the brand owners will do their share in publicizing the movie with their own “commercials, posters, sweepstakes, viewing parties, events in stores, contests, ticket giveaways and even products with labels inspired by “Sex and the City” (Elliot, 2008, para.4).
The lead character of the show is Carrie Bradshaw, a writer who is beloved by the audience as they witnessed her Cinderella story from being a struggling writer who had difficulties getting by with her finances, but is consumed with an overwhelming desire for signature shoes, mostly by Manolo Blahnik and Jimmy Choo, both labels known for their steep price (Elliot, 2008).
A Macintosh Apple Laptop computer became synonymous with Carrie’s work. Over the years, she has progressed from having her own newspaper column to being an author of several books and writing for the fashion magazine, Vogue.
She has had a string of romances with different men, but her one great love is known as Mr. Big, who fleets in and out of her life until eventually, they both end up together in the movies.
Being connected to Vogue, Carrie had the opportunity to pose for a spread in the magazine wearing designer wedding gowns under the labels of Vera Wang, Carolina Herrerra, Christian LaCroix, Christian Dior, Oscar dela Renta and Vivienne Westwood. These designers are considered crème de la crème of the fashion industry. Eventually, Carrie wears a Vivienne Westwood creation on her wedding day.
Samantha is the character who is very liberated and unashamed of her obsession for sex. In the television series as well as the movies, she was portrayed as a sexually aggressive woman who goes after any man she wants to have sex with, no strings attached.
We will write a custom Essay on Endorsement and Advertising in “Sex And The City” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She is a very successful publicist who handles the business affairs and image of her high profile clients, one of whom is a young, handsome and popular actor who became romantically involved with her for five years. Being single, she freely goes on trips to various locations and answers to no one.
She has the financial freedom to sustain a luxurious lifestyle. In one scene in SATC 2, some men ran after her thinking she stole one of their imitation Hermes Birkin bags and as they pulled it from her, they realized hers was genuinely hers (as well as genuinely Hermes!) because her things were inside it.
Samantha yelled, “You broke my Birkin!” may have been deliberately inserted in the dialogue to advertise Hermes’ newest addition to their line of handbags.
Miranda epitomizes the full-fledged high-powered career woman who is torn between her successful law practice and spending quality time with her husband and son.
It came to a point when her husband resorted to having a one-night stand with another woman because Miranda refused to have sex with him due to her heavy work schedule.
For sure, there’s a multitude of working women who can relate to Miranda’s character and would stay tuned to what she does in her difficult work-life balance situation. Fashion-wise, Miranda is mostly dressed in fastidious corporate suits with a flair that reflects her smart personality. Otherwise, when she is at home, she is the plain jeans and shirt type of woman.
Last but not the least is Charlotte, the romantic type of woman who has it all – elegant beauty, a kind heart, a happy and complete family living in an opulent home. Charlotte’s high breeding reflects in the classic pieces she wears and owns.
She is a cultured woman who used to work as a museum curator, but now shifted to being a full-time mother who tends to tag her equally well-dressed children along. With her girlfriends, Charlotte blends well in terms of sophistication and serves as their moral compass, as she is outspoken of her traditional principles of integrity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Endorsement and Advertising in “Sex And The City” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the surface, viewers will be captivated by all the charms of the characters donning beautiful clothes and shoes and despite the consistent high standard of beauty they uphold, they do not fail to show that they also have human frailties.
More than being able to imagine themselves wearing signature labels, expensive jewelry and flawless make-up is being able to relate to the characters as women facing ordinary everyday dilemmas and life-changing situations – Carrie’s relationship issues, Samantha’s struggle with Cancer and feelings of emptiness despite having everything money can buy, Miranda’s work issues that conflicts with her marital life, Charlotte’s adjustment to being a hands-on mother after several years of just dreaming of children, and so many other relatable issues that women face in their lives.
The various forms of media that cater to women may best be understood when viewed from the perspective of women themselves (Stevens, Maclaran
Suzlon Energy INC. Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Economics analysis of Suzlon Company Market share valuation
Vestas wind is a leader in this business a fact attributed to its significant presence both on local and global scale. Diversification into the two main segments is associated with big economies of scale allowing enterprises to diversify further in production and concentrate on venturing into new markets (Watts and Chapman, 1982).
Figure 1: Global Market share held by wind power companies.
Cash flow analysis
Suzlon Company seems headed for robust financial times; the above analysis indicates that generally, for the past five years the company has been experiencing a growth rate of 23% in profit before tax figures. This could be attributed to the fact that over the past few years the company tried maintaining low level of expenditures and increasing income (Watts and Chapman, 1982).
Figure 2: Cash flow analysis.
Table 1: Analysis based on Technological, Organizational and Personal perspectives
Perspective Technological Organizational Personal 1. Use of wind as a source of energy. Wind is perpetual in supply capability. Cost of producing electrical energy from wind is reduced significantly. Wind provides an alternate cheap source of power compared to other means. Wind is a source of energy that has less pollution effects to environment. Increased sources of financial revenues to the business. Citizens enjoy increased standards of living due to available cheap power source. 2. Local production of wind turbines. Wind turbines are suited to local wind conditions. Increased levels of business transactions. Greater customer satisfaction for services offered. High efficiency in power production. Realization of big Economies of scales. Increased Gross Domestic Product value for local economy. Increased market share to the business More job Opportunities avenues available. Less costs incurred in goods sold. Increased mark up values for business. 3. Diversification of services by the wind business. To cater for both global and local specific needs of customers. Increased efficiency in business performance. Less time needed to break even in business cycles, results to increased profitability. Introduction of dedicated personnel in management. Increased operational efficiency to business. Efficient implementation of strategies Increased revenues to the business. Consolidation of market share and customer satisfaction. 4. Global Account Management system To cater for global customers with diversified needs. Leader in solution provisions to array of challenges to consumers. High business ethics is embraced by business. Easy access to capital financing. Low interest rates offered on loans. Facilitates expansion strategies. 5. Hindrance to Global Account Management system Introduction of new managerial skills in transition of business. Changes in personnel management are inevitable. Work culture changes to new business dimensions. Gap of this case study
The case study is deficient in provision of adequate briefing about organizational culture at Suzlon and how it would be affected when the organization goes global. Culture could be referred to as an integration of human societal beliefs and knowledge. Work culture is a great compliment to business operation and performance.
It is believed that good work culture is a critical prerequisite for an improved organizational development. Management of organizations which are in the process of transforming towards global scale is usually faced with tasks such as adoption and integration of inherent work culture on global level for performance driven business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is stated clearly that in the ever dynamics of the business world, flexibility in work culture has to be embraced for the purposes of meeting local specifications so that it could not act as a hindrance to company’s performance (Bruno and De Souza, 2009).
The current problem at the institution is flexibility in embracing demands of both local and global clients through provision of dedicated central management accounting system.
Locally, the organization has thrived due to their strong association with social values, tradition and systems of the immediate environment. Application of six sigma principles in organizational culture is recommended for (Fontaine, 2007) business which is undergoing transformation process from local to global status.
The purpose is provision of training solutions with large avenues of transforming duties in management structure, being largely driven by diverse consumer needs. It is critical for a transforming company to make decisions based on analysis of site, specific conditions of a market, offering efficient management strategies used in driving profits and revenues towards new levels.
The solution for this is selecting competent management personnel as future leaders, who are capable of integrating systematic new work culture change without causing shocks within business operations through well laid transformational process.
Delegation of a global account at suzlon
In designating a Global Account Management, suzlon requires a three tier framework. The first tier comprises global accounts (Customer orders and payment, Customer support and care and Personnel management) managed according to categories related to Global markets, so that customers are categorized to achieve economies of scale (Watts and Chapman, 1982).
Second tier comprises regional management of accounts while third tiers have site specific accounts for specific areas of business operations as shown in figure 3 below.
We will write a custom Report on Suzlon Energy INC. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 3: Proposed Global Account Management for Suzlon Company.
Management at GAM
The GAM should be headed by a Chief Executive Officer whose functions are to direct and implement strategies for the business as provided for by the management board.
Directly under him/her are the global account managers whose mandates are coordinating and executing management of global accounts to whom regional mangers report to. At the very end are site managers who are critical in providing tailor made solutions for local customers.
In resolution of conflicts, personnel managers at each tier will be mandated to execute settlement of conflicts specific to each area of operation (McNeill, 2009, pp 12-29).
Rolling out GAM
GAM should be rolled out limited to specific customers, covering more of them over time. This provides time for management to be tandem with the use of the system gradually and also to cultivate new work culture among the employees avoiding the unnecessary burden of shock in work culture. Lastly this process will allow feeding of relevant data at specific tier of GAM management (McNeill, 2009, pp 12-29).
References Bruno, F. C.,
Foundations Management Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Basic information on Strategy and Environment
Relationship between the External Environment and Strategy
Influence of the External Environment on Strategy
Introduction The external environment of an organization plays an important role when it comes to the strategic management of an organization’s activities. While many managers focus on the various internal dimensions of an organization, they rarely place the same emphasis on the external environment which is usually at times dynamic, fast-changing and volatile.
The external environment of an organization is usually made up of the political, economic, social and technological factors which in one way or another affect the functions and operations of an organization (Witcher and Chau 2010).
An analysis of these factors is important for an organization as it will allow the managers to develop strategies that will allow the organization to deal with any changes that might exist in the external environment.
Strategy which is an important part of a company’s operations refers to the means used by the company to achieve the long term objectives and goals that have been set.
Strategies are the actions which are used by managers to direct the functions of employees so that the goals and objectives of the organization can be achieved. Strategies are important for an organization because they affect the long-term prosperity and functionality of the organization (Goldman and Nieuwenhuizen 2006).
Managers have to develop strategies that are future oriented to ensure they reflect the vision of the company. Because of the multifunctional consequences they have on business operations, the internal and external factors have to be considered when developing suitable strategies for the organization (Mason 2007).
Many studies have been conducted on the factors that make up the external environment of an organization (Canzer 2006) as well as strategic management for company managers (Sadler and Craig 2003). There however exists limited research on the relationship between these two aspects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current research will seek to review previous and current research that will shed more light on the relationship that exists between an organization’s external environment and the strategy developed by the organization to achieve its long term goals.
The study will provide a review of the existing research conducted on the relationship between external factors and organizational strategy.
Basic information on Strategy and Environment Based on the classical Chandlerian view developed by Chandler in 1962 on organizational strategy, structure and the environment, Chandler was able to note that the environment of an organization determined the strategy that would be formulated by the organization’s players which in turn determined the structure of the organization.
Chandler basically proposed that environment, strategy and structure were concepts that were directly related to each other. However this line of thought changed with modern researchers such as Hall and Saias and Whittington et al (1999 cited by Wiegl 2008) who noted that strategy, structure and environment were different constructs.
The above mentioned researchers were able to note that the existing inter-organizational structures determined the type of capacity an organization had to develop specific strategies that would reflect the conditions of the external environment.
The researchers noted that both strategy and structure were usually influenced by the external environment. Managers therefore had to adapt their decisions to reflect the goings on of the external environment thereby ensuring that the internal environment of the organization was able to respond to the external environment of the organization.
Miles and Snow, Pfeffer and Salancik, Mintzberg and Starbuck who all conducted their studies on the relationship between the environment and strategy in the 1970s were able to argue that the environmental conditions of an organization had to be taken into account when investigating the types of strategy that existed within an organization (Weigl 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Foundations Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scholars in the field of strategic management have been able to conceptualize the external environment of an organization as one of the major constructs that can be used to understand the strategic management activities of an organization.
According to Hall and Tolbert (2005 cited by Weigl 2008) the environment of an organization is referred to as any external or internal phenomena that influences the performance of an organization.
The external phenomena include factors such as political, socio-cultural, economic and technological factors while the internal phenomena included factors such as the employees, organizational structure and managers of an organization. These phenomena according to Hall and Tolbert played an important role in strategy decision making within an organization.
Hall and Tolbert noted that the internal and external factors that affected the performance of a business pointed to the fact organizations in general do not exist in a vacuum.
The factors that existed in the organization’s environment were usually used to develop the strategy of the organization and these factors fell into the three environments of an organization which include the macro-environment, the operating environment and the internal environment (Wiegl 2008).
The factors that exist in the macro environment include economic, social, political and legal factors while the factors that exist in the operating environment include regulatory agencies, competitors, customers and stakeholders of the company.
The factors that exist in the internal environment include trade unions, board of directors, employees and the managers of the company. These factors have proved to be important when developing strategies and strategic decisions that will be used by the organization in its operation.
Previous documented research from scholars such as Ansoff, Lawrence and Lorsch who all conducted their studies in the 1960s have been able to reveal that there is a contingent relationship between the environments of an organization and strategic decision making (Weigl 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foundations Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic management scholars such as Lenz and Engledow (1986 cited by Weigl 2008) were able to note that the type of strategic plan adopted by an organization had the ability to influence the external environment in which the organization operated in.
Such a theoretical perspective meant that the creation and alignment of strategic decisions was a recurring process for organizations that were directly in contact with their environments.
According to researchers such as Tan and Tan (cited by Weigl 2008), the recurring interaction that took place between an organization’s environment and strategic adaptation was conceptualized as a continuously evolving cycle of the interdependence between environment and strategy.
Relationship between the External Environment and Strategy As mentioned in the introductory part of this discussion, there exists abundant research on the external environment of an organization as well as strategy and strategic management which are all important concepts to an organization.
There have been however limited studies that have been conducted to explain the relationship that exists between the two. The most recent research conducted on this relationship is that done by Mason (2007) who was able to analyze the effect an organization’s external environment had on the development of strategy and strategic operations that would guide the business performance of the organization.
Mason (2007) primarily focused on the impact of the external environment on the choice managers made when developing strategic management activities.
The findings of his study revealed that companies which operated in dynamic, volatile and rapidly changing external environments normally developed fast and radical strategies that would respond to this type of external environment.
In the case of organizations that operated in less turbulent external environments, Mason (2007) was able to note that organizations developed adaptive and less disruptive strategies that would respond to such an environment.
Wong (1991) who is among the few researchers to conduct a study on the relationship between the external environment and organizational strategy focused on how organizational strategies developed for manufacturers in the United States could be adapted to reflect the external environment.
Wong (1991) focused on the marketing, production, financial, distribution and logistical operations of the companies to ascertain whether the strategies developed for these functions were adapted to suit the external environment.
The findings of his study revealed that these operations were mostly affected by a dominant factor that existed in the external environment which was competition from foreign manufacturers.
The companies understudy were able to develop organizational strategies that would be able to accommodate foreign competition. Wong (1991) was able to note that while the manufacturing companies operated in the same industry, they had differing perceptions on the factors that exist in their external environments.
They all however maintained that the external environment affected the strategic operations and activities of an organization. Voiculet et al (2010) were also able to conduct a study on the impact of the external environment on the organizational development of strategy.
The researchers were able to note that the actions of factors which make up the external environment had a direct and indirect effect on the formulation of strategy within the organization. They were also able to note that an analysis of the external environment provided important information on how strategy formulation within an organization could be conducted.
Vioculet et al (2010) identified the two important external environments that affected how an organization’s managers developed their strategies and these were the macro environment and the operating environment of an organization.
As mentioned earlier the external factors that exist in the macro environment include economic, social, political and legal factors while the factors that exist in the operating environment include regulatory agencies, competitors, customers and stakeholders of the company.
These factors according to Vioculet et al (2010) proved to be important when developing strategies and strategic decisions that would be used by the organization in achieving organizational objectives and goals.
Influence of the External Environment on Strategy Prescott in his 1986 study was able to provide important evidence on the way the external environment of an organization influenced strategy formulation and strategic management within organizations. Prescott (cited by Burke 2011) was able to note that the perceptions that most organizational executives had of the external environment directly affected their strategic decisions.
For example if the managers had a perception that the external environment was going to be volatile at a future date based on current conditions, they would develop strategies that would allow the organization to adapt quickly to these environmental conditions.
They therefore had to incorporate external conditions when making important strategic decisions that would determine the direction the organization would take in the future.
Plohart et al (2006) noted that how an organization perceived its external environment with particular focus on its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats influenced the type of strategy that the organization’s managers were likely to pursue in that type of environment.
The researchers focused on how the external environment affected the staffing needs of organizations where past research revealed that staffing was a by-product of the strategy formulation process.
According to research conducted by Snow and Snell in 1993 (cited by Plohart et al 2006), organizations that operated within fast-changing and dynamic environments were forced to develop strategies that would allow them to adapt quickly to the prevailing conditions.
Based on Hall and Tolbert’s 2005 study, the interdependence that existed between strategy and the external environment demonstrated the type of mutual and dynamic relationship that existed between these two concepts.
Scholars such as Weick (1969 cited by Weigl 2008) explained the strategy-environment relationship by calling it the environmental enactment relationship meaning that organizations had to respond to the external environmental conditions for them to generate suitable strategic choices.
Such a reciprocal perspective offered an assumption that change within an organization was not an outcome of managerial adaptation or environmental selection, but it was rather a result of the external environmental and also the strategic adaptation chosen by the organization (Weigl 2008).
Consequently, scholars of strategic management noted that the strategy and environment of an organization were constructs that were related. Recent studies such as those done by Chan et al in 2006 on the strategy-environment relationship were able to reveal that alignment within an organization played an important role in adapting an organization to the external environment.
Chan et al were also able to note that organizations that operated in transition economies saw the influence of the external environment as an important asset especially when developing highly constrained and complex strategic decisions.
The external environment played an important part in influencing the type of strategic decisions that would be made by managers and other decision making authorities within an organization (Weigl 2008).
Conclusion This review has focused on determining the type of relationship that exists between the external environment of an organization and its strategy. The review conducted on various literature and academic sources has been able to reveal that there exists a direct and indirect relationship between the two concepts.
The review has revealed that when formulating strategies, the strategic decision makers of an organization have to analyze the conditions that exist in the internal and external environment to ensure that the organization is able to adapt its operations to reflect those in these environments. The strategy-environment relationship is therefore important for an organization when it comes to making strategic choices.
References Burke, W.W., (2011) Organization change: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Canzer, B., (2006) E-business: strategic thinking and practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company
Goldman, G., and Nieuwenhuizen, C., (2006) Strategy: sustaining competitive advantage in a globalized context. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta and Company
Mason, R.B., (2007) The external environment’s effect on management and strategy: A complexity theory approach, Management Decision, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp.10 – 28
Plohart, R.E., Schneider, B., and Schmitt, N., (2006) Staffing organizations: contemporary practice and theory. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sadler, P., and Craig, J.C., (2003) Strategic management. London: Kogan Page Vioculet, A., Belu, N., Parpandel, D.E., and Rizea, I.C., (2010) The impact of external environment on organizational development strategy. MPRA Paper No. 26303. Available at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/26303/1/MPRA_paper_26303.pdf
Weigl, T., (2008) Strategy, structure and performance in a transition economy. Frankfurt, Germany: Gabler-Verlag Springer Science.
Witcher, B.J., and Chau, V.S., (2010) Strategic management; principles and practice. Hampshire, United Kingdom: Cengage Learning
Wong, Y.Y., (1991) Adapting organizational strategies to evolving environment: a multiple-case study of United States apparel manufacturers. Paper AAI9219393, Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Rockefeller Drug Laws History Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Sentencing structure of the law
Changes of the law through the years
Community impact of the law
Its impact on children
Immigration on Rockefeller drug law
This drug law name comes from an American governor Nelson Rockefeller, who was the governor on the chair during the enactment of that law. Nelson strongly supported the law and signed it on May 1973.
The government and the citizens of New York thought that this law was the toughest among all other laws of that kind, and gave New York fame and recognition in the whole of United States (Feldman
Government Regulation of the Food Business Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction With the cost of living rising, more Americans have more than one job and as a result, they have less time to eat or even prepare a decent meal. Most of them operate under tight schedules moving from one job to the other as they try to cope with the economic hardships.
As a result, more and more Americans (from children to adults) are now taking fast foods which are not healthy and this has led to complains that Americans are becoming fatter and fatter as years move on.
As a result, health conscious people have been advocating for the government to regulate the food business an issue which has faced both support and opposition from different sectors. The question which rings in many discussions are “Should the government regulate the food industry”?
From my own opinion, I don’t think it would be advisable for the government to regulate the food business. Americans live in a free land where they are free to choose what to do as long as it does not harm other citizens. If someone chooses to visit a fast food joint to go and take his or her food, eat and then go to work, where is the problem there?
The individual does not have the time to go and prepare a decent meal since as the cost of living rise, many citizens have opted to multiple jobs in an effort to save and also pay their debts. May be if he had enough time he could have taken or prepared a decent meal.
As long as the government advises its citizens on the advantages of taking decent balanced meal, what ever they choose to take should be their own problem. They won’t become obese because they were forced to eat from a fast food they will become obese because it was their choice to eat from the fast food joint.
It’s their freedom and whatever happens to their bodies should be left for them to live with the consequences. Take for example of a person who works in four different jobs in a single day with the breaks from one to the other just being enough to allow them move from where they are working to the next.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What will make them not pass through a fast food joint and take something to eat before they can reach the other place of work? If the government regulates the food industry will this person not either lose the job by being a routine late comer and if he doest take the food will his productivity not go below the expected levels due to hunger resulting in losses or even being fired.
On the other hand, the US is a recognized capitalist country which allows markets to rule themselves freely without any government interference. The fast food is a big industry in the country and if there is nothing unhealthy that the industry is practicing, the government should then allow the theory of Laissez Faire to take control of the market.
The consumer is always right and knows what he or she wants to take and if it is their choice to take fast food, why should the government be concerned. What makes the government think that the consumer does not know the consequences of eating the food, don’t people smoke with the health warning on the packet staring in their eyes and informing them that smoking kills?
It is for the companies to decide either to make healthier foods but not for the government to interfere with their businesses. Let the markets rule themselves otherwise if the government regulates the food industry, some people will go jobless.
Conclusion Whether the government should regulate the food industry or should not is an issue of discussion but from above we can conclude that the government should not regulate the food industry as in doing so it would be interfering with the lives of its free and independent citizens who have chosen fast food as their way of life.
Government interference with the food industry could lead to unemployment of its own citizens thus regulation by the government should be avoided and people should be allowed to choose what they eat no matter the consequences. It is their bodies and they know what they are doing.
Comparing Silverstein and Greenfield Essay cheap essay help
Writing for children can prove to be a daunting task especially for an artist unarmed with the necessary skills of handling his or her work. The claim follows because childhood is a very sensitive stage in the development of human beings and it is one of the stages in human development where one gets to learn a lot.
Shel Silverstein and Eloise Greenfield are two poets who have excelled in writing poetry aimed at developing the young minds of children. The two poets appear similar based on the way they portray the issue of childhood in several ways. For instance, the both focus on the role played by imagination, as seen in their depictions of children in their poetry.
The two poets portray children as having minds that are active and able to get new concepts introduced to them with ease.
The fact that their poetry aims at introducing these new concepts such as the theme of love in Greenfield’s poem and the meaning of sadness and other emotions in Silverstein’s work is clear indication that according to these poets, the child’s mind is ready to receive new concepts when they are able to read poetry.
One can introduce weighty matters of social concern to children through poetry as revealed in the works of the two poets. The child’s mind is ready at this time to receive the new knowledge considering that some of the poems by the two poets have taught children advanced lessons such as philosophy.
For instance, the nature of motherhood as a subject seems introduced to children using the poem ‘Karen” by Greenfield. In the poem, the little girl’s mother is not present to put her to bed a role that is taken by her sister who gives the persona “mama’s kisses” when she wants to sleep (Greenfield 45).
Both poets write in free prose, which makes it easy to the children of that age to identify with the narrators in the poem. In order to understand clearly the happenings in the poem, the child readers need to identify with the persona such as to break the barrier that may exist in between them as suggested by the poets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The child reader easily discerns the messages conveyed in the poems upon the communication of matters in a manner that he/she understands well. Since children are not conversant with the complicated conventions of poetry, the use of the free verse by the two poets conveys a clear and informed understanding of the children’s minds, which help the poetry to serve its purpose effectively.
There is a fear of the unknown that is prevalent in children as portrayed by some of the poems by the two poets. For instance, in Eloise Greenfield’s “Buddy’s Dream”, the young boy has fear emanating from his dreams in that in the dreams he sees four other children who share his identity.
In other words, he sees four other ‘Buddies’ (Greenfield 140). Shel Silverstein’s “A light in the Attic” shows several fears portrayed by children.
For instance, “What if I flunk that test…What if green hair grows on my chest…What if nobody likes me…What if a bolt of lightning strikes me” (Silverstein lines 5-8) shows the fears that children have at that tender age of their development.
The poems of these artists therefore play a great part in dealing with the fears that children have at that age by helping them to deal with them as well as to differentiate the real fro the surreal.
Therefore, through effective use of imagination, the two poets, Greenfield and Shel Silverstein succeed in the purpose that they attribute to their works: Introducing new realities into the minds of the young children. Using a child persona in the poems, the children audience gets to identify with the persona whose experiences they identify with.
Works Cited Greenfield, Eloise. Honey, I Love and other love poems. New York: Harper Collins, 1986.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing Silverstein and Greenfield specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Silverstein, Shel. A light in the Attic. Ed. Moyer, Larry. New York: Harper Collins, 1981.
Salesforce-Customer Relationship Management Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Saleforce’s target customers
Salesforce’s customer success with Dell
Salesforce’s customer success with Symantec
Introduction Salesforce is one of the leading business information companies specializing in offering business solutions through application services to various companies. It provides on-demand software and several other application services that facilitate online sharing of customer information by different organizations (Round Rock 2009).
In simple terms, the company specializes in offering customer relationship management services to any business entity requiring its services regardless of its size. The operational areas of the company are United States, Asia Pacific and Europe.
Over the years, the company has succeeded in helping organizations launch their products in the market and offers the relevant business advice to the concerned parties (Anon, 2000). The success of the company can be analyzed as described in the below brief report.
Saleforce’s target customers As pointed out earlier, Salesforce Company provides on-demand software and application services to its clients. The latest revelations about company’s customers indicate it has over 72500 customers worldwide.
Once a customer has been provided with the desired product, he/she makes up down payment or professional fee that is followed by regular periodic subscriptions as long as the customer continues enjoying the company’s services (Round Rock, 2009).
The company’s target customers comprise of clients willing to use online mode in the management of their customers’ accounts, tracking their sales leads and provision of after-sales service. All customers interested in assessing AppExchange, an online directory that enables the clients to surf, test and if need be, install applications created on the Force.com platform can access these services from the company (Anon, 2000).
While developing any product, the company conducts thorough market survey to establish customer needs that match customer demands based on modern technology and changing consumer needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The geographical areas where the company offers its online services have reliable clients well known for extensive use of web and online-related services. The customer satisfaction can be confirmed from the increasing number of customers in the past few years, an indicator that their demands and satisfaction are adequately met (Kroenke, 2009).
Salesforce’s strengths The company has already secured itself a significant market position. It is among the companies recognized worldwide for the provision of on-demand Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions. The company has succeeded in provision of sophisticated, integrated and beneficial business applications to many organizations.
In the entire industry where the company operates, it has earned itself a reputable image due to efficiency provision of major CRM technology providers in larger capital markets (Round Rock, 2009). Salesforce.com provides excellent product strategies and execution.
In the year 2009, Salesforce.com won four different CRM market awards based on achievement and success from four different company perspectives. The company’s position in the market as a leader in the on-demand CRM increases its brand image as well as increasing the market competitiveness. Another strength of the company can be viewed in terms of its research and development (Kroenke, 2009).
The company has invested and devoted its resources substantially in technological development in the past few years.
Reconstruction and Deconstruction of the World through Cultural Studies Essay essay help free
Introduction Learning involves critical reading, clear conceptualization of ideas, understanding and appreciation of others’ ideologies. The study of social and cultural disciplines provides a unified platform for the analysis of different cultural activities in the context of reconstruction or deconstruction of the world, as we know it.
The major spheres of the world’s reconstruction and deconstruction include societal, cultural, economical and political aspects and remain a major area of focus in the cultural studies and therefore calls for critical understanding of the different cultural backgrounds and cultural activities of the world generally found in cultural and social books and films.
The study of cultures continues to propagate the deconstruction of the world as it is. Learning of the old cultures, clinking on to them, and believing on these olden cultural myths and history bars development and progress politically and socially among citizens across nations.
Misinterpretation of cultures plays a critical role in destroying the world through conflict of cultures in learning institutions, places of work or even in places of worship. In the cases of cultural misunderstanding and conflicting societies, there is little or no progress economically, politically, and socially.
Moreover, some cultures have no ‘respect’ for nature; here nature comes at the bottom of priorities but human life and sustenance comes first and this phenomenon confirms outright deconstruction of the world by cultural studies.
On the other hand, cultural studies disseminate information, ideologies, and interpretations of cultural activities and action important in the development and creation of health societies and communities across countries of the world. Understanding of cultural myths and exchange of ideas through sharing of experiences in a social class destroys autonomy of cultures and encourages communism of cultures.
Cultural studies in deconstruction of the world The concept of culture industry and its social and political effects
The concept of culture industry involves the centralization of cultural masses to one marketplace where the best pieces of art or popular cultural activities succeed. This concept largely destroys the autonomy of one culture given that, the integration of masses of culture gives each piece of art whether high art, or low art, an equal opportunity of expression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Politically, the concept of culture industry destroys the spirit of capitalism in cultural activities where each culture enjoys cultural expression and presentation individually and independently to the now collective and centralized cultural mass presentation (Adorno 482).
By the political disturbance of the initiation of the cultural industry, societies lack freedom of cultural expression and presentation and appreciation of their cultural creativity simply because perhaps their pieces of art did not succeed in the centralized marketplace and therefore, genuine happiness decreased in the society.
Controls in production and distribution exist with prices dependent on the utility of the piece of art to the customer. Affecting freedom of cultural expression affects societal and political aspects of ‘world construction’ and progress therefore propagating deconstruction of the world.
Effects of Myths and History in Deconstruction of the World
Myths and history play an important role in deconstruction of the world; in his book, ‘the great family of man’ Barthes portrays man everywhere across the continent to have similar sequence of events throughout one’s life and places nature at the bottom of history (Barthes 345).
The argument comes from analysis of several photographs of people taken from different parts of the world and shows men to be universally the same with similar characteristics and behavior.
The interpretation of the photographs attributes man to undergo similar conditions regardless of his or her geographical location. According to the myth and history here, men are born; they work, play, and die. History gives meaning to each human condition through which the entire family of men passes especially death.
The myth and history do not give recommendation on improvement of facilities of the world to prevent misfortunes like injuries and death but after death, myths and history will hold that, ‘once born ought to die’ even if the death resulted from high child mortality caused by lack of basic human necessities.
We will write a custom Essay on Reconstruction and Deconstruction of the World through Cultural Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firm belief on such myths and history learned from cultural disciplines implicates continuous deconstruction of the world.
Racial Policies and Deconstruction of the World
Cultural studies propagate moral decay across the societies and communities of the world through the publication of literature materials, magazines, and branding of commercial merchandise and clothing with information advertising or spreading sexual immorality such as gay as is the case with Abercrombie and Fitch branding company (McBride 567).
As a marketing strategy, these brandings target the white youth from upper class families. The company practices employment discrimination based on race, color, and nationality. Employment policy favors the whites only at the expense of the other races.
Employment remains purely for the whites even requiring submission of current photographs by every employee to the management in order to maintain the ‘A
Week 7 Discussion Essay essay help free: essay help free
For this week I want you to explore either a major earthquake or a volcano. First choose either an earthquake event, a specific volcanic eruption, or an actual volcano. Next do a little research on what you chose. If doing an event/eruption discuss where it was, the magnitude or extent of the event, do you know what type of fault it occurred on, how many affected by it, on what scale was the damage (localized, remote area, a region, or did it cause worldwide complications — tsunami? Ash into the stratosphere?), and anything else you find interesting or wish to share. If you are doing an actual volcano then discuss its history (this can include cultural context too, not just its stats), does it have violent eruptions, is there farming on the slopes or at the base of it, is it used for tourism (hiking and exploring the volcano), and anything else you think we should know about your volcano.
Should The Endangered Species Act be strengthened? Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Arguments for strengthening the ESA
Arguments against strengthening the ESA
Introduction The main reasons why the endangered species act (ESA) act should be strengthened in United States are the act is the only piece of legislation that is responsible for the protection of flora and fauna and their habitat in addition to their genetic diversity (Easton, 2009).
Secondly, the ESA is a clear and uncomplicated act that provides a concise approach to achieve its goals when there is adequate funding and the will to do the same. Thirdly, the ESA offers the flexibility required to resolve conflicts arising out of diverse interests. Moreover, the act serves as a good example of endangered species protection for the rest of the world.
It offers protection of endangered species, which is a public good and therefore contributes to the betterment of the social welfare. Even thou many species have disappeared despite the adoption of the act, the rate of disappearance has been checked, otherwise more species would have disappeared by now.
This paper argues that the problem of the endangered species act does not lie in the weakness of the act but in its implementation mainly hampered by inadequate funding. More funds need to be appropriated for implementing the act with a special recognition of the economic cost that private landowners encounter in their efforts to comply with the act.
Arguments for strengthening the ESA The ESA seeks to control the four main factors responsible for the demise of endangered species. These are overexploitation, destruction of habitat, invasion of alien species because of their introduction into same localities with endangered species and disease spread mostly by the alien species. In addition, pollution is also a major cause for extinction of species (Cunningham
Lessons from Fredrick Douglass’s Life Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lessons learnt from Douglass’s narrative
Introduction Fredrick Douglass born some times between 1815 and 1820 in Tuckahoe in Talbot county, Maryland, suffered many years of slavery from his childhood into adulthood in Maryland in South America before his escape to the North in 1938.
He was separated from his mother while still one year old and never knew exactly who his father was. As he grew up, he came to believe that the increase in number of incoming slaves into the south would one day create an end to slavery in the content. The power of the people would one day overwhelm that of the masters.
Lessons learnt from Douglass’s narrative Douglass believed that the greatness of the master could not be transferred to the slaves (Douglass 3). Being a slave was already bad enough and a human rights violation and therefore unity among the people would be the only possible way of redeeming themselves from slavery.
People should find the need to come together due to the mutual hardships that they often undergo as a result of their condition as slaves. Black or white, people should work together without considering the race just like it used to be initially at Mr. Gardner’ ship building firm (Douglass 10).
Fredrick Douglass witnessed many horrible events and crimes against humanity while still a slave in Maryland. People were whipped till blood poured from their bodies and farm overseers as well as other white men and women committed some of the most horrid murder yet such crimes were considered as normal in the community.
The justice system should protect everyone whether slave or master or whether black or white. The justice system should treat people selectively and should protect people from crimes against humanity.
Treating people selectively increases the level of crime against humanity especially by those who have an upper hand in the justice system. Watson Esquire could not order an arrest warrant on the white carpenters who beat Douglass up almost destroying his eyeballs since he had to find white witnesses to the case (Douglass 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Douglass narrative teaches about self-determination and courage. Despite the suffering he underwent under different slave-masters including in Covey’s hand, he did not lose hope. He was determined to escape whether it meant losing his life. It is this determination that would help slaves overcome the unending slavery.
People should be ready to lose their lives in order to end slavery. People should be ready to meet the worst in efforts to achieve respect from slave masters. Freedom is not easily attained; people have to struggle for it.
It takes the courage and boldness of both men and women to confront the slave masters whenever they feel oppressed. According to Douglass (10) his boldness to fight with Mr. Convey saved him from frequent whippings. He believed that he would rather be killed than to remain a slave in hands of the slave masters.
Douglass came to learn that education or being able to read and write is the key to overcoming slavery. Education could help enlighten the people and expand their understanding of contemporary issues such as their human rights.
According to Douglass (6) the only way to challenge the power of slave-masters over their subjects is through education. Douglass says that Mr. Auld, a slave master, believed that an educated slave was unmanageable (Douglass 6).
This therefore means that slaves or those under the oppression of rulers and dictatorship leadership have to struggle to attain education no matter the cost. Douglass (10) says that slaves who attended his Sabbath school were likely to be given thirty-nine lashes afterwards.
Education would empower the people to fight for their rights and overcome any form of slavery (Douglass 7). According to Douglass (7) slaveholders and dictators uses the subjects lack of education to shut them up in mental darkness and therefore always keep them loyal to their masters.
We will write a custom Essay on Lessons from Fredrick Douglass’s Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Education would enable slaves to gain the power of truth surrounding slavery over the conscience of slave-masters. Through education, slaves would be bold enough to denounce slavery and fight for their human rights. Education would help them share their views with like-minded anti-slave campaigners like the abolitionists group and help fight slavery both in the North and South of America.
It would be easier to communicate and collaborate in fighting for their human rights. According to Douglass’s narrative any slave who has acquired some education should share it with other people to enlighten more people in the society.
Douglass also believes that the Christmas holidays afforded to slaves were insincere and a crime against humanity. Slaveholders would always trick them into getting drunk the whole festive season so that by the end of the period they have not done anything for their lives. They make sure that the drink keeps the slaves from thinking of the abuses that they receive during their slave life.
Conclusion It is important to enlighten slaves both from the north and south to help them achieve their freedom. Slaves both black and white and whether from the north or south should work together to redeem themselves from slavery.
Works Cited Douglass, Fredrick. Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass, an American slave. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE 14 May, 1997. 11 May, 2011 http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/
Management of a Diverse Workforce Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Problems of performance managing in diverse human capital
Gauging the level of performance of such an employee
Suggestions on ways that the problems can be minimized
Globalization has facilitated the growth of multinational; an increasing number of companies are diversifying their operations in different part of the globe. When operating in the international arena, a company has to manage a diverse work force; managing diverse human capital has continued to be a challenge to human resources managers.
The main challenge is how to develop a universal performance management system amidst changes occurring in different environment that affect personnel differently.
With diverse human capital, companies need to develop strategic human resource management practices, which will provide the company with global consistency of purpose as far as human performance management is concerned.
One major role that strategic international human management (SIHM) plays is to manage diverse human capital performance; performance management is a continuous process through which the output of human capital is gauged to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner.
The policy addresses activities affecting the performance of human capital in the efforts of formulating and implementing strategic needs that will facilitate an improve business within an organization; to undertake this task in a diverse human resources capital, is a challenge to personnel managers (Fernandez-Alles
Definition of Anderson’s Utopia Report essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
The saving tradition
Introduction The concept of utopia has drawn a lot of debates concerning what it entails and what it does not entail. The term utopia refers to the state of predicting a bright future and presenting issues ass best as they can be.
The state of utopia brings forth hope, and big expectations even where there are few expectations. However, there are many phases of utopia, social, political and theoretical. The presentation of utopia by Benedict Anderson has brought a lot of criticism.
This paper aims at bringing out the theoretical issues of utopia in relations to Anderson. The main discussion question is, “is utopia politics related to nationalism and community?”
Disproportional society In a state of utopia, all the persons are made to believe that the future is promising. And as put out in the introduction, there are no benefits of doubt that are given to the systems in place or even to the visions that are there.
This puts the while community at disproportion should an unprecedented event or change to the laid down structures occur. The community believes in perfect religion, community, nation, and governance.
The ability to focus on the incurrence of events that may lead to negativity is alienated in utopia thus the community is not balanced in its gauging of the future (Chatterjee, 4).
The saving tradition The argument in utopia discourages the saving tradition. The main purpose why the people save is to safeguard the future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When there is no danger in the future the persons in a community are made to believe that the whole system is in operation and thus they do not save. This puts the coming generations at the risk of not benefiting fully form the structures as there is no good foundation is made for them.
The future generations in a utopia, as Anderson puts it, shall start from the scratches that their fore fathers started at. The ability of the community to transform the future generation is laid on the ability to save.
The ability to save is in most occasions motivated by the fact that there are probabilities that the future may not present all that is there to be presented. Thus the people are determined to have a portion that will cover them from the inaccuracies (Chatterjee, 3).
Security Benedict Anderson shows the state of utopia as the leading stumbling block to the development of the people. The scenario has lead many communities in believing that there are no security issues in their lands.
The fact that the country is safe today is not an assurance that the country will be safe tomorrow. This then is the probability that the countries should look at. The isolation of the issue of security leads to the colonialism in most of the countries in the eightieth century. This case should not be repeated.
The issue of security has now intensified from those age a as the current generation experiences pirates hijacking ships in majors seas and also mega corruptions, human trafficking and even terrorism.
While Anderson does not advocate for dystopia, the opposite of utopia, he encourages the governments to be wary of any internal and even external dealing that may lead to the fall of the country.
We will write a custom Report on Definition of Anderson’s Utopia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The citizens of any country should be encouraged to address all the issues with a benefit of doubt yet not being pessimistic at the same time.
The fall of great cities has been blamed on dystopia. In fact most of the government overturning that have been in the Arab speaking countries in the twenty first century has been the dystopian results of the society.
The unity of many people has been on many angles one of them are the cases of racism, nepotism and tribalism. The above have for a long time been considered as vices and they still are.
However, many communities world wide have continued either directly or indirectly to be involve in them. According to Anderson, the communities should change their perception of others.
The thinking that the only probability of fortune can come form one community is opportunistic and thus anything that may happen against that thinking will be detrimental to the community that basis its theories on the utopia (Chatterjee, 6).
Criticism The stand by Benedict Anderson has been criticized from many corners. To start with, Anderson has been criticized of using the platform of advocating for the future and taken that chance to advocate for the position of his political party in Costa Rica.
The critics argue that, Anderson is sly when he calls for the people to change their mentality as he uses that chance to drum up support for his party. The ability of any theorist to alienate his personal stand and political stand from philosophy is usually looked at as the strength of the theorist that he presents (Chatterjee, 7).
Conclusion Though it has been criticized by many people, the Anderson’s theory of utopia is arguably one of the best works that tackle major issues that have lead to the down fall of many communities and the nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Anderson’s Utopia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The theory should thus not be ignored but rather be implemented with exemptions of the parts that any community or institutions may feel are not at the benefit of the members thereof.
From the above discussion, it is evident that utopia politics are deeply rooted in nationalism and community as all the issues contained affect the nation and the community as a whole.
Works Cited Chatterjee Partha. Anderson’s Utopia’, diacritics. New York: The Johns Hopkins University Press. (1999)
Product diversification and internationalization Report essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The success and failure of any business entity is determined by the strategies adopted. It is the wish of every organization to be successful in business so that the goals of the stakeholders can be achieved.
The goals can be achieved by establishing the strategies which are suitable to place the organization in a competitive position. Managers have an obligation to develop strategies which will make the company successful (Jones, 2009).
Product diversification Product diversification has been found to improve the performance of a company. The companies with higher levels of product diversification have more total sales and total assets. This can be explained from the understanding that companies with a wide variety of products provides consumers with the ability to choose.
Therefore, consumers can buy products which they need because they have supply of all the kinds of products required to satisfy their needs. Companies with few or no diversification end up losing customers especially when the consumers lack products which satisfy their needs.
The companies with a high product diversification end up making more sales compared to those with no or lesser levels of diversification. This is the argument which helps us to understand why the companies with high levels of diversification have more assets and make more sales (Jones, 2009).
However, companies which specialize in the production and marketing of a particular product are able to capture the particular needs of each customer and this helps improve their performance compared to diversified companies. As such, these companies can satisfy the needs of a particular niche of customers.
These companies generate more sales and accumulate more assets because they are able to get extra advantages in the sale of their products. In the modern day business environment it has been observed that companies develop better strategies when they specialize in one product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Product diversification has been found to make companies make lower levels of profits. The asset base of a company is determined by the amount of sales made in a particular period of time. Thus, when companies specialize in production of certain products they have added advantages in that they can maintain a higher profile of customers (Jones, 2009).
From table 1 it is evident that the correlation between the level of diversification and the percentage sales ratio is significant. It is observed that there is a negative correlation between the level of diversification and the percentage of sales ratio (Field, 2009).
This implies that the higher the level of diversification the lesser the sales are made per unit of the products. This is explained by the fact that when a company has many products to sell a few units of each unit are sold compared to the total sales volume.
Table 2 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the level of diversification and the percentage asset ratio. On the other hand, there is a negative relationship between the level of diversification and the percentage asset ratio (Field, 2009).
This indicates that as an organization continues to diversify its products it is unable to purchase more assets to cater for each of the product category. Companies manufacturing a single product are able to develop a large number of assets in the product category which they choose.
Internationalization Internationalization helps companies to venture into more countries to market their products. As companies sell their products to more countries they are able to get more customers and this helps improve the sales as well as the assets accumulated.
Internationalization helps companies to expand the market share and the level of competition is increased. When companies increase the numbers of countries they serve with their products this helps create more opportunities to establish new customers.
We will write a custom Report on Product diversification and internationalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sales volume of an organization increases when the number of customers served increases. The ability to purchase new assets is determined by the profitability of the businesses conducted by the company (Jones, 2009).
From Table 3 it is evident that there is no significant relationship between the percentage asset ratio and the degree of internationalization. In addition, it is observed that there is a positive relationship between the two elements (Field, 2009). This explains the hypothesis that the higher the level of internationalization the larger the amount of assets accumulated.
From Table 4 it is observed that there is no significant relationship between the level of internationalization and the percentage sales ratio. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the degree of internationalization and the percentage sales ratio of the company (Field, 2009).
This is an indication that when companies expand their operation to the global markets they get more market share and the sales increases. It is also important to identify that when companies venture into new global markets more products are sold and this increases the sales volume.
Conclusion From the above findings it can be concluded that product diversification and internationalization of market activities of a company help improve the performance. It is evident that the sales volume increases when companies diversify in the production and marketing systems.
In addition, it is also evident that the amount of assets accumulated is higher when a company operates in many countries. Therefore, diversification and internationalization are important factors in improving the profitability, market share and the asset base of a company.
References Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3rd edition, New York: NY, Sage
Jones, M. (2009). Internationalization, entrepreneurship and the smaller firm: evidence from around the world. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
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** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Assignment college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Assignment: Based on the information provided below, prepare a 2 to 3-page essay (1.5 spacing; Times New Roman; Font size 12; 1” margins) discussing a draft FDA Guidance. Additional information can be found in Week 1 lecture material- US Drug Development, Regulatory Evolution, and the Rulemaking Process. Please also refer to the Syllabus. Background Information: Although not enforceable as regulations, FDA Guidances provide an understanding of the Agency’s current thinking. They are meant to assist Regulatory professionals to interpret and define processes needed to successfully develop drugs in a heavily-regulated industry. As a Regulatory professional, it is important to be current with FDA Guidances pertaining to your company’s operations, and to know which 21 CFR regulations are being discussed in which FDA Guidances. Before becoming finalized, draft FDA Guidances are released to the public, during which the Agency welcomes comments and recommendations. Public comments can make a difference and impact the outcomes of FDA regulatory policy. Both draft and final FDA Guidances are accessible online, and by law, anyone can participate in the rulemaking process by commenting in writing. Prompt: An important responsibility of Regulatory personnel is to understand the regulatory landscape pertinent to company operations, and to advise the company on how to remain compliant. For example, understanding the intricacies of procedures and expectations of global health authorities in clinical trial start-up will allow a company to efficiently ship a drug to clinical trials sites and study its safety and efficacy in human subjects. A strong Regulatory group will help the company to avoid delays associated with incomplete or inadequate Clinical Trial Authorization applications. A strong Regulatory group may help the company to remain in good standing with the FDA as well as the pubic by helping to report adverse events within defined timeframes and promoting the drug in an accurate and scientifically valid manner. In addition to understanding FDA’s current thinking on a given topic, Regulatory personnel should help to influence and shape the expectations and procedures set forth by regulatory authorities. One way to do this is to submit comments and feedback on draft FDA Guidance. Visit the website below and select any draft FDA Guidance: http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/default.htm Summarize the guidance document and provide its title and date. Discuss its importance for drug development, describing aspects of the process for which it is most relevant. Comment on the merits of the draft guidance, discussing its feasibility and potential strengths and weaknesses. If you disagree with any of its provisions, explain how it could be improved. Make your voice count- FDA rules and recommendations impact the nation’s health, industries, and economy, and are formed with help from the public. Commenting on draft FDA Guidances is a useful development activity outside of this course. However, please do not submit public comments on behalf of your employer without your manager’s approval.
Report on Emotion, Identity, and Religion: Hope, Reciprocity, and Otherness, by Douglas Davies Report college admission essay help
Introduction This report is aimed at discussing the marketing campaign surrounding the release of such book as Emotion, Identity, and Religion: Hope, Reciprocity, and Otherness, written by Douglas Davies. This work was published by Oxford University Press on 10 March, 2011.
It is necessary to analyze the target audience of this book or product, the elements of the marketing mix that have been included in its promotion.
Furthermore, it is important for us to discuss the competitive environment of this product and identify those factors which might pose a threat to the commercial success of this publication. Finally, it is necessary to present overall evaluation of the company’s promotion strategies, particularly regarding this book.
Target market The target audience of this book is very difficult to define. Judging from its content, one can argue that it is intended for well-educated people, who major in religious studies, history, or psychology. One may argue that this book will be of the greatest interest to educators or students.
Certainly, it is possible to say that increasing attention to the relationship between religion and culture can contribute to the success of this book among general audience.
But, the main readers of this book can be graduate or post-graduate students, professors of psychology and religious studies, and those scholars, who are doing research in this field.
Apart from that, we can hypothesize that the age of readers will 22 and above since at this age people are more likely to have necessary background knowledge in order to read this work. Finally, we can assume that this book is intended to both male and female readers.
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This marketing campaign has several strengths. First of all, we need to speak about brand. Oxford University Press has long been regarded as a leading scholarly publisher which always attempts to offer only the most innovative and well-researched works to the readers.
Secondly, we need to mention that the author of this book Douglas Davies is a well-known expert in religious studies; thus, his opinion will be valued by the readers. Finally, the most important strength is the product itself. The book Emotion, Identity, and Religion Hope, Reciprocity, and Otherness presents a thought-provoking discussion of how religion can shape a person’s identity.
One can identify several essential weaknesses of this item. Judging from the cover of the book, one can hardly deduce its target audience. It is not clear whether it is intended for scholars, majoring in religious studies or for people, who are interested in psychology, anthropology, or sociology.
This lack of focus can undermine commercial performance of this item because prospective readers may not know whether this book will be of any benefit to them. The second weakness is poor use of the brand. The thing is that a potential buyer may not notice the name of the publishing house.
The thing is that readers may be more willing to purchase a book, if they know that it was released by Oxford University Press. Additionally, we need to mention that the publishing house does not provide detailed information about the author.
They should have mentioned that Douglas Davis has written more than 20 books about psychology and sociology of religion. By referring to these books, the publishers would have been able to attract customers, who formerly read the books of this author. These are the major limitations of this publication that we can identify. On the whole, they can significantly reduce the commercial success of this book.
The major opportunity is increasing interest of readers to this topic. Many people (not necessarily professionals) want to understand the similarities and differences between the world’s largest religions and their impact on the identity of people and society, in general.
We will write a custom Report on Report on Emotion, Identity, and Religion: Hope, Reciprocity, and Otherness, by Douglas Davies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, we should note that religious studies are becoming more and more connected with other disciplines, such as sociology or psychology. This trend can eventually increase the target audience of this title and this factor was definitely taken into account by Oxford University Press.
There are several external factors which downgrade the success of this marketing campaign. First, the topic has already become a subject of numerous books and articles. A great number of books have been written about the impacts of religion in identity and human emotions. Thus, it will be rather difficult for Oxford University Press to pursue product differentiation policy in this competitive environment.
Sales Figures At this point, Oxford University Press does not provide accurate statistical data about the sales rates of this book. However, the figures provided by such websites as Amazon (2010, unpaged) indicate that this book does not perform very well.
Currently, the sales rank of this book is 148,881 (Amazon, 2010, unpaged). This means that there are at least 148,881 books which are selling better than this title. This sales rank indicates that a copy of this book is purchased every one in a week.
Overall, one can say that this work can hardly be called a bestseller. Nonetheless, we need to emphasize the point that at the given moment these numbers are definitive. This book was released only 7 weeks ago and this period of time is not sufficient for conclusive evaluation.
Market research conducted by the company
One can assume that Oxford University Press carried out in-depth research of the market prior to the publication of this item. First of all, they determine the extent to which this topic has been examined and discussed in scholarly works and identifies the major books that were previously published. Secondly, they determined if this book by Douglas Davies would enjoy demand among the prospective readers.
Competitive Environment This book has been launched into a very competitive environment. As it has been said before, there are numerous books, dedicated to this topic. For instance, we can mention the book called Religion and Identity, written by Patrick O’Sullivan (2001) or the work by Sean Oliver-Dee (2009) called Religion and Identify: divided loyalties?
Moreover, there are thousands of books which can be indirectly related to this question. The majority of them belong to the domain of religious studies. Nonetheless, there are several characteristics of this product which can contribute to its success.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Report on Emotion, Identity, and Religion: Hope, Reciprocity, and Otherness, by Douglas Davies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such brand as Oxford University Press has always been regarded as a paragon of academic excellence, and this perception can affect the purchasing decisions of the readers. Another difficulty which must not be overlooked is the dissemination of news about this book.
Douglas Davies’ book can enjoy demand among readers only if it will be of interest to scholars and teachers. If this book will be used in educational institutions, the demand for it will eventually rise. These are the main external factors that can affect the financial performance of this item.
Marketing Mix At this point, it is necessary for us to show how different elements of the marketing mix can be applied to this particular title; in particular, we need to speak about the product, price, place and promotion. Prior to the launch of any title, the publisher must insure that the book is affordable to the target audience (Woll
Hiv/ Aids In Papua New Guinea Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Papua New Guinea is a country found in the south western part of the Pacific Ocean. Though a small country, New Guinea is diverse with a large number of indigenous languages and culture. The country is also majorly rural with only a small percentage of the population found in the country’s urban centers.
AIDS, being a global epidemic, is an element that is felt in New Guinea. This paper seeks to discuss the topic of HIV/ AIDS in the country with respect to demography. Demography refers to elements of human population such as the number of registered births, income and diseases among others. The paper will look into the elements of the epidemic with respect to statistics that relates to demography.
HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea New Guinea is not spared from the global epidemic that has threatened lives without any hope of a potential solution. Papua New Guinea has been slow to respond to the development of the diseases that was realized to be spread quite fast.
Even though the disease was first noticed in the earlier years of the 1980s, it was news to the country of Papua New Guinea till in the year 1987 when the first case of AIDS was reported in the country.
The spread of the disease also took a slower pace as years passed before the disease was significantly realized among the population of New Guinea. It actually took almost a decade before the country realized the spread of the disease (McBridge, 2005, 1).
Quiet a number of reasons have been used to explain the trend in which the epidemic engulfed and grew in the country. One of the reasons why the epidemic took a longer time to be felt is the population structure of the country.
The country’s population in urban areas is relatively low as compared to population in the country’s rural areas. A country whose urban population is significantly low compared to its rural population would realize a slower rate of the spread of the disease.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another reason for the slower rate of spread of the disease in the earlier years was the country’s poor infrastructure. The country’s transport network is reported to have been “a highway system that did not network across the whole country” (Caldwell and Touta, 2002, p. 1).
Having a highway system that was not adequately distributed throughout the county hampered the communication and interactive nature of people who were in different parts of the country.
This meant that those who were infected with the disease were to a great extent confined to their locality by the poor transportation system. This therefore had impacts on the spread of the disease by restricting movements of victims to other regions where they could further spread the disease besides their locality.
A general existence of moral values in the country that led to a low level of commercial sex in the country was also a factor to the lower rate at which the disease initially spread.
Since the disease is majorly spread through sexual intercourse, it depended on the level of unsafe practiced sex by people which include multiple sex partners.
Such is the experience in commercial sex which then risked lives at a time when protective measures against AIDS had not been on the public knowledge. Limited such irresponsible practices thus helped to reduce the rate of spread of AIDS in the country (Caldwell and Touta, 2002, p. 1).
The spread of AIDS in the country Things however changed in the country with the prevalence rate of the disease taking a turn towards the end of the twentieth century. AIDS became a major problem in the country as it was reported to constitute the highest cases in hospitals as compared to other diseases.
We will write a custom Essay on Hiv/ Aids In Papua New Guinea specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The turn was alarmingly reported with statistics at around the year 2002 indicating that the disease was increasingly infecting people at a rate of about sixty percent per year. Such a rate can be interpreted to be a potential threat to the country whose total population is below six million people.
Though the country was credited for lower reported cased of commercial sex activities, it has experienced high levels of sex practiced outside marriages. Extra marital sex, being an element of having multiple sex partners therefore has contributed to the significant levels of increased cases of the epidemic in the country.
With reports of high susceptibility of women to the infection, their sexual involvement with men who have multiple partners has been a great risk to the lives of these women as well as the country’s population in general.
The prevalence rate that was formally considered to be relatively lower in Papua New Guinea as compared to other countries has changed with statistics indicating that the rate in new guinea, recorded at 0.22 % as compared to those of other regions such as Fiji that recorded 0.07 %, Australia with 0.15 % and New Zealand with 0.06 % with all the data taken in around the year 2002 (Caldwell and Touta, 2002, p. 2).
According to McBridge William (2005), the number of cases of HIV infections in the country are probably higher that could be imagined. He refuted the officially released data to be underestimating the rate of infection in the country.
McBridge William argued that contrary to the officially identified and reported cases of infections that were reported to be around eight thousand towards the end of the year 2003, actual estimates of infections could be rated at about thirty thousand. The claim should however not be used to discredit the country’s official data as a number of people are infected but are not yet tested.
Statistical analysis giving a projection of data would therefore most certainly conflict with official data that gives the exact number of people tested and found to be positive.
Data collected in the year 2001 also revealed higher rates of association of the disease to complications and cases that were related to tuberculosis, female prostitution and sexually transmitted disease that recorded about nineteen, seventeen and nine percent AIDS infections respectively (McBridge, 2005, p. 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hiv/ Aids In Papua New Guinea by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other reports as indicated by Cullen Trevor showed that the spread of the epidemic is still on the rise as higher values were estimated in the year 2004. Reports indicated a two percent infection of the country’s total population at the time.
Trend in increased rate of infection led to a prediction that the country was faced with a threat of high infection rates as had been registered in parts of Africa where rates of as high as twenty five percent had been reported.
High rates of multiple sex partners were still registered by the year 2004 with about fifty percent of men in the sexually active age bracket ranging from about twenty years to forty five years having sex with multiple partners (Cullen, 2006, p. 1).
Aids in rural New Guinea People in rural areas of New Guinea were by the year 2004 were not well educated about the AIDS epidemic. A high level of ignorance over the disease was realized in a research that was conducted on condom use and what people thought about the disease.
A significant number of people, for example, were reported not to have been aware of the exact causes of the disease. Some people actually believed that AIDS was caused through bites by insects, sharing of items and even personal contact with an infected person.
Some respondents also claimed that a sexual intercourse with an infected person can only lead to an infection in event of repeated interactions. About twenty percent of men who were interviewed had this opinion (Dundo and Wilde, 2007, p. 3).
The population in rural areas also revealed a level of discomfort towards condom usage. An interaction with a group of Christian women revealed to the researchers that the women were greatly opposed to the idea of using condoms based on religious teachings.
It was also realized that increased movements of people from one place to another, especially men who travel in search of jobs was also a factor to the spread of aids in rural areas with extension to urban areas where these people would travel to (Dundo and Wilde, 2007, p. 3).
Data that was released by the United Nations program on AIDS confirmed the fact that by the year 2007, the trend in HIV/AIDS prevalence had shifted with the disease being felt more in rural areas more than it was in the urban regions. The number fresh infections were also noted to have increased in the year.
This would be in line with previously published reports that the rural areas had been experiencing higher rates of infections and thus a general increase in the country would as well reflect an increase in the rate of infection by the disease in rural areas (USAID, 2010, p. 2).
Poor transport and communication network in New Guinea as is adversely felt in the country’s rural areas has significantly limited efforts to control the rising number of reported cases of infections in the areas.
Issues such as “awareness rising, condom distribution, counseling, testing and provision of care for people living with AIDS” (VSO, 2011, p. 1) have been identified problems following poor infrastructure that has made it difficult to avail services, personnel and even the anti retroviral drugs to people in the rural areas (VSO, 2011, p. 1).
Poor education of the youth on sex was also reported in the country’s rural areas with parents shying away from taking responsibility to talk to their children about sexual behavior (VSO, 2011, p. 1).
A large population of the country especially in the rural areas is at risk of illiteracy as well as poor health services that increases risks of contracting HIV/ AIDS following the poor infrastructure in the country.
Only regions along the country’s coast are sufficiently supplied with reliable water transport while the inland rural areas are poorly serviced with some regions entirely depending on rivers for transportation as there are either no roads or the available road networks are inaccessible due to poor management.
This poor network is a hindrance to the war to curb the AIDS epidemic (World Bank, 2011, p. 1). The prevalence in the country’s rural areas can also be attributed to the economic activities in the regions such as mining.
A poor provision of health services that was realized in the 1990s was also a factor towards the spread of the disease in the rural areas by increasing vulnerability of people to the epidemic (Felicity, Knipe and Aggleton, 2010, p. 177).
Aids in urban New Guinea Though the epidemic has been reported to be highly spreading in the rural areas, the urban areas are still subject to the epidemic. The prevalence rate in the country’s urban areas was reported to be more than three percent in the year 2006.
Some of the factors that contributed to this level of preference include “early sexual initiation, a common practice of concurrent sexual partnerships, high rates of transactional sex, very low rates of condom use and wide spread physical and sexual violence against women” (United Nations, n.d., p. 61).
Studies that were conducted in semi urban areas indicated levels of commercial sex with a higher involvement of women as compared to men at fifty five and about thirty six percent respectively.
Practices such as homosexuality among men and poor usage of condoms that was reported to be better in men as compared to women was also reported to be significant in the near urban set ups (United Nations, n.d. , p. 62).
The youth in the urban area are identified to be at high risks of infection with the AIDS epidemic. As the overall prevalence rate in Port Moresby, according to the city’s general hospital’s data, was rated at bellow two percent in the year 2004, expectant teen agers registered about ten percent prevalence rate in the same year.
Whether these girls had interactions with their peers or with older men, the overall result is that they will further interact with their peers and most likely risk the youth in general (World Bank, 2007, p. 83).
Aids according to gender There has been a significant relationship between vulnerability to AIDS infection and gender in the New Guinea. Women forms a larger percentage of those infected with the epidemic in the country.
Though different reasons may be available in other parts of the world, women in Papua New Guinea believe that their vulnerability to the disease is a result of the irresponsible and risky sexual behavior that their men practice.
Behaviors which majorly consist of unprotected extra marital sex were pointed out to be factors. This could be due to engagement of men with commercial sex female workers (UN and ESCAP, 2010, p. 45).
The gender disparity in terms of levels of infections is also attributable to the country’s social set up which is male dominated. Cases of marriages between young women and relatively older men have for example explained the high rates of infection between the two groups.
This age difference in marriage together with male dominance thus contributes to unquestionable adultery among men who in turn infect their multiple sex partners (Butt and Richard, 2008, p. 62).
The higher vulnerability in women is also explained through other number of factors such as “legal, social and economic disadvantages” that are encountered by the female gender in general (UNDP, 2005, p. 3). Higher rates of infections are further identified with younger women.
The major factor in the gender biased records as realized in the country is based on the values of the society that has left women with no choice but to be submissive to their men regardless of the dangers that they may be subjected to.
Men therefore with this respect take advantage of younger women, whom they can easily suppress, marry them and then risk their lives through infection. Economic situations also play a role in the gender biased infection rates. Being an underdeveloped country, with high unemployment rates and poverty levels, women are rendered powerless as they depend on their men for financial support.
Men who are relatively financially stable are also characterized with offering money or goods in exchange for sex with women who at the same time are in need of such offers.
It is for example reported that the number of young women in the age bracket of between fifteen up to about twenty five who are infected with HIV/ AIDS are at least twice as high as the number of males in the corresponding age bracket (UNDP, 2005, p. 4).
Future projections of trends in infection Papua New Guinea being rich in unexploited minerals and other resources such as timber has contributed to significant movement of people in the course of economic activities. Such movements have even attracted foreigners into the country for the exploitation of the country’s resources.
Such increased movements and immigration into a region have been significantly characterized with increased rates of infections as these people will tend to sexually interact with people in the new environment. They then end up either being infected or infecting other people. Continued movements thus indicate further increase in reported infections in future (Island, 2010, p. 1).
The trend of HIV infections in the country which has been increasing is expected to continue in the future. Factors in the country which includes “social, economic and political realities” have been identified to possibly increase the dominance of the HIV epidemic.
It has been warned that unless effective measures are taken by stakeholders, the epidemic will be overwhelmingly felt in future (HIV policy, n.d., p. 2). This is however in line with the general observed trend of infection in developing countries which has called for stronger control measures against the disease (FHI, 2011, p. 1).
The trend in percentage composition of the country’s number of infections with respect to the pacific region has also been on the rise from about twenty percent in 1989 to more that ninety five percent in 2007. The trend can thus be expected to continue rising (Evidence, 2011, p. 1).
Impacts of aids in Papua New Guinea One of the direct impacts of HIV infections is the effects that it has on economies. Once a person has been infected by the disease, there is the first impact of body weakness especially when the person is bed ridden. Economic activities of the affected individual will consequently be affected at the time hence reducing income.
The withdrawal of individuals from work due to sickness is then transferred to the country’s economy. HIV infections therefore have adverse economic effects on the people who are infected as well as those who are affected. This is realized through reduced income and increased expenditure in medical costs.
Gross domestic products of individual countries have also significantly reflected impacts of the epidemic. Significant fall in countries’ gross domestic products in the range of 0.3 to four percent have for example been reported from the global perspective. New Guinea has not been an exception (Hauquitz, 2004, p. 2).
There are also expected social effects of the epidemic in the country. With increasing rates of infections that had been projected to even reach a ten percent mark in future, there will be a social burden following the loss of relatives to death due to the AIDS. A level of social strain is also expected to increase as more number of people will require attention following their sickness (Content, 2006, p. 295).
The economic impacts of infections are also directly transferred to other sectors of the country’s economy. The health sector is for example strained by increased demand for medical services due to increased infections. Education system is also affected by the psychological effects that students have when they are either infected or affected by the disease (Australia, 2006, p. 49).
Conclusion HIV/AIDS is a globally recognized epidemic that was first realized in early 1980s. The disease however took a long time before being realized in Papua New Guinea.
It also took a long time to start spreading in the country. Its spread however took a twist as it attained a high rate with more vulnerability being realized among women. Alarmingly increasing trends in infection rates have been reported with a possibility of adverse impacts if sufficient and drastic measures are not taken to control the epidemic.
References Australia. (2006) Impacts of HIV/ AIDS 2005-1025 in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor. New York, NY: Cengage.
Butt, L and Richard, E. (2008) Making sense of AIDS: culture, sexuality, and power in Melanesia. New York, NY: Princeton.
Caldwell, C and Touta, I. (2002) AIDS in Papua New Guinea: situation in the pacific. Dhaka: Proquest.
Content. (2006) Aids is a tear in the social fabric of Papua New Guinea: HIV and its impacts, 2005-2025. New York, NY: Cengage.
Cullen, T. (2006) “HIV/ AIDS in Papua New Guinea: A reality check”. Pacific journalism review 12. Web.
Dundo, A and Wilde, C. (2007) Introduction: HIV and AIDS in rural Papua New Guinea. Australia: University of Sydney.
Evidence. (2011) Papua New Guinea-country profile. Web.
Felicity, T., Knipe, M and Aggleton, P. (2010) Mobility, sexuality and AIDS. New York, NY: Taylor
The Role of the High Court in Australia’s system of government Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The role of the High Court in interpreting the laws
The role of the High Court as a political institution
Introduction The Australian High Court is the highest independent judicial arm of the government, which is also a significant feature of Australia’s liberal-democratic governance (Patapan, 2010, p. 167; Banks, 2007, p. 16).
The main functions of this court include interpreting and applying the Australian constitution, solving cases regarding the federal system of governance such as instances where the constitutional validity of the laws is challenged, and officiating appeal cases (Singleton et al., 2009, p.64).
However, in the recent past, there have been arguments over the court’s role in the shifting balance of power, which tends to favor the Commonwealth.
As a result, there is the need to look into the factors underlying this shift in the balance of power and the relevant constitutional interpretations since the initial constitution provided for the preservation of the balance of power between the commonwealth and the states (Singleton et al., 2009, p.64).
To this end, the essay will look at the role of the high court in interpreting the wording of the Australian constitution by considering the Engineers case (Amalgamated Society of Engineers Vs Adelaide Steamship Co. Ltd) of 1920.
In addition, this essay aims at illustrating the High Court’s role as a political institution of governance through considering the court’s input in supporting the legislation regarding income tax, which was enacted by the Commonwealth in 1942.
Overall, the two cases will serve as examples of the roles played by the high court in interpreting the Australian constitution, and acting as a political institution in the Australian system of governance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of the High Court in interpreting the laws Considering that all the constitutional rights of appeal bestowed upon the Privy Council have been abolished in the recent past, it is certain that the Australian constitution allows the High Court to interpret the laws (Singleton et al., 2009, p.65).
This implies that all the constitutional cases including appeals originating from different jurisdictions, which bear a greater political significance to the federal government, are referred to the High Court.
Here, it is worth noting that most constitutional cases are based on disagreements involving the balance of power between the federal and the state governments particularly in matters dealing with trade, banking, and arbitrations (Singleton et al., 2009, p. 65; Wiltshire, 2008, p. 31).
Thus, the decisions made by the High Court regarding these cases can have far-reaching implications since they form the framework for decisions made by other courts several years later.
Accordingly, since its inception, the High court’s rulings have been centered on controlling the federal powers, giving wider interpretations of the federal powers, sustaining the role played by the Commonwealth in governance without bias, and as can be noted from the recent developments, the High Court is engaged in providing additional interpretations of the powers held by the federal government (Ward
System Feedback Loops for Nutrisystem Term Paper online essay help
Balancing and reinforcing feedback loops in Nutrisystem Nutrisystem is a leading developer and retailer of weight loss products; moreover, this company provides programs and counseling to those people, who suffer from extra weight (Nutrisystem, 2011, unpaged).
Overall, this organization offers more than one hundred meal items to its customers, both male and female. This paper is aimed at apply such concept as feedback loop to this company.
Marketing strategies and customer relations
When speaking about marketing strategies of Nutrisystem and its relations with the customers, one can use reinforcing feedback loop. This tool is supposed to describe those activities which promote or amplify one another (Bellinger, 2004, unpaged).
Reinforcing feedback loops results either in exponential growth or decline of two variables (Larsen et al, 1996, unpaged). In the case of Nutrisystem, we need to discuss the interactions between such variables as customer satisfaction and marketing of the product, namely sales. Their interactions can be depicted with the help of this reinforcing feedback loop.
On the whole, it is possible to argue that customer satisfaction lies at the core of this feedback loop. It prompts clients to recommend the products of Nutrisystem to other people, who are concerned about their extra weight.
One should note that word of mouth recommendations are by far the most powerful form of advertising since a client is more likely to believe a person whom he/she knows because this individual is not paid to promote the product.
One can say that Nutrisystem pays much attention to word-of-mouth advertising; the website of this organization contains such section as “Success Stories” where people can read the customer’s reviews and their assessment of Nutrisystem’s products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this reinforcing feedback loop is possible under several indispensible conditions, namely excellent pre and post-sale services.
In contrast, if they are not present, this reinforcing loop can be reversed, which means that dissatisfied customers will tell others that the products of Nutriystem are not worth buying and that they should consider different companies.
In the long term, such behavior can lead to dramatic decline in the revenues and inability to compete with other firms. Therefore, positive reinforcement should not be regarded as some permanent phenomenon that will exist irrespective of the company’s policies. Such a perception is entirely flawed and, mostly likely, dangerous because it can lead to a false sense of security.
In turn, balancing feedback loop depicts those variables which have to be brought into agreement or reconciled. In this case, the change in one variable is supposed to counteract or oppose the change in another variable (Larsen et al, 1996, unpaged).
The balancing feedback loop can be applied to the company’s attempts to gain competitive advantage over others or to strengthen its positions in the market. In this case, the major variables will be the intensity of competition and the financial performance of Nutrisystem. They can be depicted by means of this diagram.
This diagram shows how the company counterbalances the competition put up by the competitors. The red arrows indicate the corrective measures or actions which are aimed at gaining a larger market share and increasing sales.
It should be noted that this organizations operates in a very saturated market and there are many organization that offer similar products and services to the clients. Therefore, Nutrisystem has to use different methods to attract the clients.
We will write a custom Term Paper on System Feedback Loops for Nutrisystem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, this organization pursues a cost leadership strategy and lowers down the prices for its products. In fact, the weight control program offered Nutrisystem is believed to be the least expensive (Forbes, 2008, unpaged).
Apart from that, this organization always expands the variety of meal items they offer to the clients. Thus, one can say that the competition in the market can be represented as balancing feedback loop. Yet, this representation is valid only if the company possesses reliable and up-to-date information about the market, customers, and their competitors.
Theory of organizational learning The theory of organizational learning is based on the premise that a company behaves not only a set of separate individuals or departments but as a system in which every component serves to achieve the common goal. Such an organization is also able to detect the opportunities or threats in internal and external environment and adjust to them.
Such adaptation is possible only if there are no barriers which impede the flow of information from business unit to another (Easterby-Smith
Design and Craft Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Differences between Craft and design
Introduction Design and Craft are terms which are commonly used interchangeably although they differ in meaning. Craft is technique believed to have evolved many years ago, and it is still in existence. The oxford dictionary defines craft as a capability to generate and organize items by the use of intellectual power, force, strength, ingenuity and inventiveness. However, Craft involves cunning, guile and magic.
Differences between Craft and design The difference between design and craft spans back to over several centuries. With the development of French, Italian and English Design academies, the idea of distinguishing between design and craft emerged (Forty, 46). The following differences therefore, can be noticed between the two aspects.
A. The word craft is associated with a noun whereas design is associated with a verb.
B. Craft is a term which is commonly used to refer to objects which are made from non-art materials. The word craft is only used when describing a set of objects and it’s often confused and used interchangeably with the words art and design.
Craft can also be defined as a precise and accurate form of creating items, that is, an approach to manufacturing.
According to Forty (76), the term craft is used to refer to two things at the same time, that is, it is used to describe how different things look, (for instance, we always say that I love that design) combined with the steps involved in achieving the final product of a good (for instance, we often say the tailor is designing my dress).
Forty (63) argues that the word design is very tricky to determine since the logic of the word in the design sector does not comprise of words.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He continues to elaborate that the explanation can only be established through the creation of artifacts and acquisition of key framework for analysis. Therefore, his interpretation is based on the standard definition which defines design as, the process of transformation of something from its existing state to a preferred state.
C. Craft is an intangible act, and it’s not made but applied. A craft work involves the use of imagination, knowledge and skills to the characteristics of different items such as paintings, clothing, furniture, ornaments and vessels whereas Design includes how things are made, their external appearance and how they are marketed.
Design has the ability to change the culture of a place as people tend to embrace new designs with the changing times. According to Forty (33), Design also reflects on the culture of a given place as one is able to deduce the values of a given place through the existing design patterns.
D. Craft work typically involves the use of hand whereas most of the design processes involves the use of computerized technologies such as the 3D software for the production stage to be completed.
E. Crafting is applied to processes such as producing films, writing poetry and making paints and breads whereas the design process is creative and involves a lot of analytical processes such as testing, prototyping, model making, product research and sketching.
F. Crafts practices include ornamenting, covering, performing ritual, decorating, wearing and furnishing among many others, which all these practices can be carried out by one unit whereas the design process involves integration of functions from different specialists due to its complexity.
For instance, for a product to be converted into a finished good it involves the work of architect, engineer, marketer, lawyers and the series may contain several other professionals.
We will write a custom Essay on Design and Craft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Design is a very powerful aspect in the differentiation process since certain elements such as; gender roles, age and class are emphasized through it. Design rights generally industrial design rights are protected under the intellectual property rights which makes infringement of the rights unlawful.
Works Cited Forty, Adrian, objects of Desire: Design and Society Since 1750, New York: Thames and Hudson, 2005
Sustainable Practices in Facilities Management Report essay help site:edu
Introduction The activities that occur in a given organization and the kind of products used by individuals and the organizations emit gases that have a greenhouse effect. The individuals and organizations need to be aware of the amount of emissions that they produce into the ecosystem through their activities and the products that they use. They need to adopt ways that can help in reducing such dangerous emissions.
The greenhouse emissions produced directly or indirectly by the activities of organizations or individuals can be measured through a carbon footprint. The calculation of this carbon footprint by an organization is the fundamental step in the reduction of the emissions.
The emissions of gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Sulphur hexafluoride, Nitrous oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons and Perflourocarbons are considered in the calculation of the carbon footprint.
The carbon footprint is measured in tones of carbon dioxide equivalent. In this way, the emissions of different gases can be measured on a scale equivalent to a unit of carbon dioxide gas emitted and the effect of this unit on global warming.
HTF General is an international hotel that has clients from within and outside the country. The hotel has facilities that are located at three different sites within London City. The hotel is served by more than ten suppliers of raw food materials from different parts of the country.
It has to arrange for the transportation of these raw materials from the suppliers. Recently, the management of the hotel acquired another retail store that it uses to stock soft drinks. These are also distributed to other clients within the city. It also has some small poultry farm within the city suburbs.
The hotel is developing rapidly and there is need to expand its facilities. Waste products that come from the leftover have also increased posing environmental challenges. The costs of fuel that the hotel uses in its daily operations are also high leading to high costs of production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is, thus, an increased need to develop proper ways of waste product disposal. The management of the hotel should also use the sources of energy that have less adverse effects on the environment than the natural gas and oil that are currently being used for most of the activities.
The components of a business’s total footprint The activities that a typical business organization performs in its daily operations have various environmental effects. Different gases are emitted due to these activities that pose environmental problems. The impact of the activities of an organization on the environment is measured by a carbon footprint (Carbon Footprint Ltd, 2011). The carbon footprint is expressed in tones of carbon dioxide equivalent.
It measures the amount of greenhouse gases that are produced by the daily activities of the organization. These gases are produced through a given organizational activity, the use of the assets owned by the company, and when using the products and services of the company (Mathews, 2009, p.1).
There are, thus, two types of carbon footprints in a typical organization. These are the primary and secondary footprints. The carbon footprint of the organization will be the sum of these two categories.
The primary footprints provide a measure of the direct emissions of carbon dioxide by the organizational activities (Carbon Footprint Ltd, 2011). Various fossil fuels are burned daily in the organization to produce electricity to perform the different daily tasks in the organization.
The energy that may be used in an organization like gas for lighting and heating do emit these gases. Business organizations have company vehicles that are used for the transportation of products to various destinations. The vehicles are also used by the employees of the organization in carrying out other business operations.
These vehicles use products like diesel or petrol as fuel. The combustion of such products to power the engine emits gases that have the greenhouse effects. Besides, the production companies that involve various industrial processes also give large amounts of gas emissions into the environment.
We will write a custom Report on Sustainable Practices in Facilities Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Various compounds of Sulphur and carbon are in high concentration around industrial centers due to the release of such compounds by the industrial processes.
In calculating the carbon footprints from such activities, the organization could make use of the data obtained from the gas bill, electricity bill, the travel pattern of the employees of the organization, the vehicle usage in the organization and the amount of products produced in the industrial processes of a given production company.
The management of the organization can exercise effective control and manage the emissions due to these factors.
On the hand, the secondary footprint provides a measure of the carbon dioxide emitted indirectly by the products that are used by an individual or organization in the life cycle of the products (Carbon Footprint Ltd, 2011). All the various stages of product developments, like the extraction of raw materials and manufacturing of products from the materials and the ultimate usage of the products, are associated with gas emissions.
When an organization buys the food products or other goods that have undergone such processes, then it is indirectly adding onto its carbon footprint. The production of these products must have produced carbon dioxide at some point (Time for Change, n.d).
The organic materials that are not properly disposed off are known to provide emissions that may be harmful to the environment. The recycling and reuse of the reusable materials can be a good way of preventing environmental degradation caused by such emissions.
Besides, the organizations need to device ways of using the resources more effectively so that wastes produced from the processes are minimized as far as possible. Excessive disposal of biodegradable materials through land fills results into the emission of methane gas, a gas that has greenhouse effect.
Significance of the reduction of carbon footprint to a business The carbon footprint is not just an environmental issue but is also an issue that has direct impacts on the management of business organizations. The organizations should be sensitive to the impacts that they activities have on the environment and how these eventually affect their operations in a given region.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable Practices in Facilities Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most managers of business organizations have come to notice that carbon footprints are not just threats to the operations of the organizations but could also provide a good opportunity for the establishment of better programs in the organization (Matthews, 2009, p.1).
A good management of an organization is that which understands and considers the risks and opportunities that are involved in a given business operation.
Firstly, the management of a business organization needs to understand that the prices and availability of energy influences the operation strategies of the organization. The amount of energy that is consumed by a given organization will be proportional to the carbon footprints of the organization.
Consumptions of large amount of electricity produced from fossil fuel like coal, translates into large emissions of greenhouse gases. An understanding of the carbon footprint of the organization can enable the management of the organization to shift to the energy source that may cost a little more but is effective.
Secondly, the government and other regulatory agency will provide rules and regulations that protect the environment. These regulations will affect the relationship between an organization and its suppliers and/or clients and the prices of the company’s products and services.
The business organizations need to operate under such provisions. Competition among organizations will also be based on the compliance to the provisions. The knowledge of the carbon footprint of the organization will help the organization examine if they operate within the legal provisions.
The organization needs also to understand and acknowledge the impact that their relations with the public have on their operations. The brand of a given company product is influenced by the environmental actions of the public. The individual activities and behavior of individual clients to an organization will determine the products and services provided by the company.
On the other hand, the environmental impacts of the activities of an organization will affect the reputation of the organization. An organization whose activities have adverse environmental effects will have poor reputation among the public and lose its competitive advantage in a given market.
Understanding the carbon footprint and taking the correct measures will help the organization build on its reputation among the members of a given society.
Besides, business organizations are also supposed to contribute to the other development aspects in the society and in the global economy. The attempt to reduce global warming is of concern to different climate-change organizations across the globe.
It is desirable that every individual contribute towards the reduction of the process. A proper understanding of the carbon footprint of a given organization helps the organization contribute to the fight against global warming.
Thus, it is very essential that the operations director or facility manager of a given organization perform an assessment of the carbon footprint of the organization. The carbon contents associated with the processes in the organization are important in developing the production and marketing strategies in the organization.
It has been noted that ‘thriving in the 21st century [market] will depend on the ability to track, manage, and report on climate, environmental, carbon and GHG-related risks with speed and precision’ (Matthews, 2009, p.3).
In general, the understanding of the carbon footprint of a given organization will improve the organization’s production, as it will be operating under little uncertainty. The organization will be able to produce goods or services that are in line with the demands of the customers and consider the environmental impacts.
The business will also gain a competitive advantage over the others due to its awareness of the environmental constraints and the role that a business should play in environmental conservation.
Different renewable energy technologies In developing a good climate strategy, a business organization should consider the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as one of the business strategies. The development of good climate change strategies by an organization contributes significantly to the development of corporate strategies.
It helps the organization in the development of brand. It also helps the organization in developing new products and services. An effective climate change strategy will also improve on the efficiency of the operations at the organization (Matthews, 2009, p.2).
The proper management of carbon footprint by organization requires a reexamination of the facilities in the organization. The transportation systems in the organization should be rescheduled to suit the standard established by environment regulatory agencies.
It has been pointed out that the amount of energy consumed by an organization is proportional to the carbon dioxide emissions produced in the process. Thus, an organization needs to establish new programs that are energy efficient. The organization should embark on programs like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) in developing the GHG reduction measures.
The organization can also reduce the fuel consumption by its vehicles by optimizing the transportation network. Similarly, the organization needs to reduce its use of brown energy (energy from fossil fuels like natural gas, petroleum products, and coal) and increase the use of green energy.
The use of renewable energy sources like solar energy, hydroelectric power, or geothermal helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by an organization. Water and geothermal energy are used to generate large amounts of electricity.
A typical organization cannot produce HEP or geothermal energy but will tap it from the national grid. Geothermal power is mainly used in the United States (Geothermal Energy Association, 2011).
Conclusion and Recommendations The different renewable energy sources described above can be effective in the reduction of the carbon footprint in an organization. However, they have varying characteristic factors that will make one be preferred to the other. The green energy sources include solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric energy.
Nuclear energy is also considered as green energy since it produces lower waste output compared to the fossil fuels. The use of green energy is aimed at producing the same amount of energy as those produce by the brown energy but with reduced amounts of pollutants as the by-products.
Wind energy is common in the desert regions where wind can be harnessed to drive a turbine and generate electricity. This kind of energy is not appropriate for an organization that is not established in windy region.
Solar energy is trapped from the sun’s radiations through the solar cells and converted into electrical energy. This could then be used for various activities in the organization like lighting, heating, or driving power tools. The solar panel is easily mounted on the roof of the buildings in the organization.
Its installation is cheaper compared to connection to the national grid for electricity supply. The organization should adopt this energy source to supplement electricity from the national grid.
Nuclear energy is generated from the radioactive decay of atomic particles that combine or disintegrate to release some form of energy. Nuclear energy contributes 16% of the total amount of electricity used globally (ThinkQuest, n.d). This kind of energy is expensive and requires a lot of expertise to be adopted.
It also produces some radiations that are harmful to human being (ThinkQuest, n.d). Thus, it is not recommended for this organization.
There are further requirements that the organization needs to incorporate to ensure the success of the carbon management strategies. Firstly, there needs to be leadership support for these programs in the organization (Matthews, 2009, p.2). The management of the organization should recognize the need to have such programs and provide the necessary support.
Secondly, it is necessary that the management involve all the stakeholders of they organization in the carbon management program. It is a collective responsibility and requires the contribution of the employees, shareholders, and even the clients of the organization.
The employees are of particular importance as they are the implementers of the operational strategies that will be developed (Matthews, 2009, p.2). In working towards the reduction of the GHG emissions, an organization needs to be working to achieve some goals.
Thus, another important requirement is to establish the goals and objectives of greenhouse gas reduction. Finally, these requirements and steps would not be successful if there are no good implementation plans. The organization needs to incorporate the carbon-footprint reduction strategy into the plans of the organization.
Reference List Carbon Footprint Ltd. 2011. What is a Carbon Footprint? Web.
Geothermal Energy Association. 2011. Geothermal power plants- USA. Web.
Matthews, J., 2009. Managing Your Corporate Carbon Footprint – The Benefits Go Beyond the Environmental Impact. Solutions Inc. Web.
ThinkQuest. Nuclear Energy. Web.
Time for Change. N.d. What is a Carbon Footprint- definition. Web.
The need for Sustainable development Sustainable development in an organization refers to how the organization strategizes to meet its present needs keeping in mind how it will function in the future as well. It refers to the steps of conserving the resources in the organization so that it ensures a prolonged life of the business.
The conservation of environmental resources is a key factor in the framework for sustainable development (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, p.61). With the increased industrialization, more of the environmental resources like water, land, and air become highly contaminated by the excess waste products from the industry.
The burning of fossil fuels for energy production produces emissions that have contributed greatly to climate change. This poses problems to economic growth and development. In effect, the attention of many researchers has been diverted towards the most appropriate measures of environmental management and conservation.
A business organization that is to survive in the current market must identify and manage the environmental challenges caused by its activities that can influence its future operations. The organization should apply effective assessment methods and measurement tools in managing the challenges.
The decisions to be made by the organization should be based on the analytical measurements so obtained. The decisions that are made on wrong measurements will lead to massive losses at the organization.
In the development of the facilities of the organization, it is important to consider the needs of the modern day life as well as the kind of comfort that the users of the facilities will need. These factors will be incorporated in the design of the building of the organization.
Organizational objectives, strategy, and vision The hotel management has set a number of goals and objectives to be met. Firstly, it has an aim of reducing the total cost of production and the negative environmental effects by reducing the energy consumption. Secondly, the organization aims at providing healthy working conditions for its employees as a way of ensuring the employees are motivated in their respective tasks.
The organizational also aims at improving the lives of all its stakeholders through extensive initiatives. The satisfaction of the needs of the customers and the other stakeholders of the organization has been given a significant consideration.
To achieve the above objectives, the organization should schedule to take the following strategic initiatives. The organization should purpose to embark on energy conservation measures as a step towards the reduction of carbon footprint. In the design of the facilities of the organization like buildings, there has been a need to adopt energy conservation measures by using kinds of energy that do not generate much pollution into the atmosphere.
The buildings of an organization need to be constructed in a manner that reduces the energy needs right from the construction time to the period of its usage. For, instance, a modern housing facility should be architecturally designed such that it provides warmth when it is cold and becomes cool during the hot afternoon.
The building should be designed in a manner that it does not require air conditioning. This reduces the amount of energy that is used in maintaining the temperature of rooms. The organization should apply this model in designing the guest rooms and the other accommodation facilities.
In ensuring the healthy working conditions for the employees, the organization has to follow the legal provisions that are given that govern the employees at the work places.
The management of the organization needs to ensure that the employees are supplied with safe working equipments and that the working practices in the organization takes into account the employees’ safety (Booty, 2009, p.5).
The management has to ensure that the facilities and equipments of the organization are handled safely so that the employees are not at risk when using the equipments or accessing the facilities; the equipment needs to be stored safely.
There should be close relationship between the management and the suppliers of the equipments and the contractors to ensure that the facilities and equipments are developed that do not pose risks to the users. The management should ensure that the whole environment at workplace is safe for the employees (Booty, 2009, p.5).
It is also important to consider the safety of the other stakeholders of the organization that may have access to the facilities and equipments of the organization.
Managing carbon footprint by the hotel The management of the carbon footprint by an organization has certain fundamental steps. The carbon footprint will be managed only after it has been measured. Thus, the first step in the management is to develop an inventory for the greenhouse gas emissions by the activities of the organization.
In developing the inventory, the hotel management will decide on what to measure, the method that is to be used in measurement, and how the information so obtained shall be handled (Matthews, 2009, p.2).
The accurate measurement of these fundamental aspects of the carbon footprint will enable the management to develop the strategies for operations aimed at reducing the emissions through identifying the risks and the opportunities that that are associated with the carbon footprint.
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol is one of the standard methods that are appropriate in measuring, reporting, and verifying the greenhouse gas emissions (Matthews, 2009, p.2). The data pertaining to carbon footprint of the organization should be determined for some known period, say one year. The fuel consumption by the organization can be used to determine the carbon footprint.
The amount of carbon dioxide emissions can be calculated depending on the energy consumption by company vehicle. Different fuels will produce different amounts of carbon dioxide emissions from equal consumption. The table below shows some of the commonly used fuels in the United States and UK and the respective amount of carbon dioxide that each will produce.
The knowledge of the fuel consumption by a given vehicle over a distance of one kilometer and the total distance covered in a given period will be sufficient in calculating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle.
fuel type unit CO2 emitted per unit Petrol 1 gallon (UK) 10.4 kg Petrol 1 liter 2.3 kg Gasoline 1 gallon (USA) 8.7 kg Gasoline 1 liter 2.3 kg Diesel 1 gallon (UK) 12.2 kg Diesel 1 gallon (USA) 9.95 kg Diesel 1 liter 2.7 kg Oil (heating) 1 gallon (UK) 13.6 kg Oil (heating) 1 gallon (USA) 11.26 kg Oil (heating) 1 liter 3 kg Adapted from Time for Change: What is a Carbon Footprint-definition The next step is to understand the risks and opportunities that are identified above. The inventory defined above only identifies the risks and opportunities that are associated with the carbon footprint. It does not provide the details on an organization’s exposure to a market with constraints on carbon emissions (Matthews, 2009, p.2).
The risks associated with climate changes are of great significance to business organizations. The organization should perform a thorough risks assessment and adopt practices that can help in managing the climate change risks. The organization needs to review its internal management and operations systems.
There is also a need to consider the roles of all the stakeholders of the organization in the planning of the strategic operations to manage the risks. The organization should also perform these analyses to understand the opportunities that are brought about by these climate change strategies.
The last step in carbon footprint management by the organization is to act appropriately to reduce the footprint. The organization has to identify the opportunities that can help in reducing gas emissions (Matthews, 2009, p.2).
An examination of the organization’s facilities and transportation systems provides these opportunities of reducing emissions. The above steps should be implemented in order to realize a successful carbon management.
Corporate Social Responsibility in Facilities Management The management of the facilities of an organization enables the organization to cut down costs and gain competitive advantage in its business (Atkin
Smart Cities: Masdar and New Babylon Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents An overview of Masdar City
An overview of the New Babylon City
Masdar as ecology vs. function
The Masdar city and the Protocol of Program
New Babylon as Control vs. Chaos
An overview of Masdar City Masdar City is one of the budding smart cities that use environmentally friendly technologies to stir novelty and empower business. The city is located in Abu Dhabi and covers a total area of 7kilometers square (Jaber 2).
Since it is powered by renewable energy, it offers an environment that promotes creativity, provides investment opportunities, offers avenues for testing novel technologies and promotes informal sharing of ideas amongst like-minded experts and serves as a an attraction hub and genesis of world class talent.
The unique environment of the city is drawing regional and global companies to establish sales, promotions, servicing and exhibition hubs to demonstrate their renewable energy and sustainable technologies. In addition, Masdar City offers these companies to set up research and development infrastructures and regional head offices in their respective fields (Masdar City 1).
An overview of the New Babylon City The concept of New Babylon City is epitomized by the politicization of urban space which has emerged as a major aspect in the social and political plans of most Urban Social Movements (USMS). This includes the famous Reclaim the Street (RTS), a worldwide lobby group that begun in London in 1990 as a response to the automobile culture and highway extension projects (Smith157).
The modern urban social movements-including RTS- have emerged as direct reaction to the ever-rising aggressive politicization of urban space by a number of proponents of global capitalism in the post-modern cityscape (Lefebvre 148
Securing America and Protecting Civil Liberties Essay essay help: essay help
According to the Oxford dictionary civil liberty is, “the right of people to be free to say and do want while respecting others and staying within the law” (Freie, 2008, 255).
The civil liberties in the U.S are closely tied to its democracy. This basically means that it upholds such rights as, freedom of speech in which the press is also included; everyone is entitled to express themselves verbally regardless of their unpopular or radical beliefs.
Since the September 11 attacks, there have been various acts by the government that clearly bring out the breach of civil liberties in the country. Most of the restrictions have been targeted towards the Muslim communities within the territory regardless of their citizenship status.
There has been deep within the state. For instance, according to Heymann (2008), it was in 2002 June that the National Security Entry – Exit Registration program was put in place. It entailed digital fingerprinting as well as photographing for anyone who entered the United States and was not a citizen by any change.
Furthermore, it was made a requirement that there should be annual registration for anyone who was in the country for longer than thirty days. These also apply to the individuals within the country but are from nations that raise security concerns (p.11).
The success of these restrictions depends on how thorough the American administration is in flashing out “potential” terrorists. The American people are also meant to be very cooperative when it comes to helping the state in protecting the nation against terrorist organizations across the world.
For instance, they should hand in accurate information on whatever that seems to be threating their security in their respective neighborhoods. However, to a large extent America can be able to protect its citizens. For as long as the State deals with the issue of racial profiling, there might be loopholes in ensuring its citizens are safe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At some point however, the American administration might loose on this battle if the citizens of Middle Eastern or Asian decent decide to react out of frustration. However, the U.S has taken the responsibility of dealing with this problem in some places.
The department of justice and that of homeland security have set up initiatives at the ports of entry into the United States to deal with this issue (Rights working group, 2009).
Another method that was used after the September 11 attacks to improve security was that of voluntary interviewing of non-citizens (Legomsky, 2010). These interviews were however not entirely voluntary because some of the interviewees later on explained that they only felt that it was an obligation.
This was basically due to the fact that it was targeted at the Muslims, South Asians and individuals of Middle Eastern origin. Hence, since they had to answer to the questions, some might have given inaccurate answers (Legomsky, 2010).
Furthermore, a good majority of targeted population for interviews might just be proven innocent. This as a result may lead to the some of the agents involved in these interviews to let their guard down. Consequently, the worst might as well take place.
After the 9/11 attacks, the congress was fast to pass the USA patriotic Act. This was meant to set up a spying system that would do so on its own citizens while reducing checks and balances on certain public sectors some of them including public accountability among others. (ACLU, 2010).
It has been argued over and over that the Act has nothing to do with terrorism. As a matter of fact, most of the congressional representatives claimed that the bush administration coerced them in to casting a yes or no vote before they could read the document. Voting a “no” according to the bush administration would mean that they were allowing further attacks.
We will write a custom Essay on Securing America and Protecting Civil Liberties specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Act has increased the government’s powers in surveillance in certain areas such as record searches and intelligence searches among others. As for the latter searches, it extends to the fourth amendment, which was created for the specific reason of gathering intelligence information (ACLU 2010).
The patriotic act has ended up violating both the first and the second Amendment which states that, unless an individual has committed a crime is the government warranted to take on a search. However, the patriotic act requires the search be done regardless of any evidence that the person might be innocent.
The Act does not require that the “victims” be informed even after their privacy has been interfered with. This particular Amendment requires that the individual is provided with a notice prior or after the violation of his right to privacy.
This act is also unconstitutional since it is the complete opposite of what it upholds free speech. It prohibits free speech in the sense that those individuals on whom searches are done, they have no right to go telling everyone else about it. Even when there is no need for such secrecy, the act does not allow for such to happen.
The principles of democracy include freedom of speech, freedom of religion and right to one’s own privacy among others. This particular Act which was hastily passed on the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks violates these principles to a large extent.
People no longer live freely as they used to especially in areas where there are immigrants from the nations that are perceived to host the terrorist groups. Unless the Act is amended, it will eventually do more harm than the good it was meant to do.
Torture is never the way to go and it may result to more harm to the society in the event an individual or a group of people decide to retaliate out of anger given that they are innocent.
References ACLU. (2010).Surveillance under the USA Patriot Act. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Securing America and Protecting Civil Liberties by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Freie, F.J. (2008). U.S. civil liberties after 9/11. Web.
Heymann, P. (2008). Muslims in America after 9/11: The legal situation. Web.
Legomsky, S. (2010). The ethnic and religious profiling of noncitizens: National security and International Human Rights. Web.
Rights working group. (2009). Violations of rights of non-citizens in the United States: A shadow Report to the UN committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Web.
Benefits of Globalisation Essay best college essay help
The introduction Some fundamentals on globalisation
It is impossible to imagine the modern world without such phenomenon as globalisation. Generally, there are many definitions, which cover the term; although the most appropriate one is mostly related to the filed of economy and business.
Thus, globalisation is considered to be a process “by which the world economy is fast becoming a single independent system” (Angiello
Microeconomic Analysis Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Binding price ceiling
Market for rental accommodation
Allocation technique available to the government
Options available to owners
Binding price ceiling The forces of demand and supply in the market determine the prevailing market price. This is the equilibrium price. However, there are instances where market conditions do not regulate prices. These are instance when government comes in to set either minimum or maximum prices.
This is especially when government feels that the market prices will exploit either consumers or suppliers. Price ceiling is a scenario where the government sets maximum price at which sellers must sell goods and services. The essence of setting binding price ceiling is to a minimize consumer exploitation (Baumol
Review on When the Broken Glass Floats by Chanrithy Him Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Review on When the Broken Glass Floats by Chanrithy Him Autobiographical readings are numerous and when such a reading tells about some particular events as the part of someone’s life it becomes obvious that such work is a treasure. Most of the events in the history of different countries are written under the impact of the political regime which exists at the moment of writing a history.
It is obvious that the regime which is running the country at the moment is trying to present its vision of the events. Therefore, when such books as When the Broken Glass Floats appear, many historians are sure that such books are great sources and they have great historical value. The opportunity to look at the events from another side is valuable even though most of the facts are provided on the basis of the recollections of a child.
When the Broken Glass Floats by Chanrithy Him is an important source in understanding the events which happened under the ruling of the Khmer Rouge. The greatest value of the book should be explained via the opportunity to see the events which happened in the society through the perspective of the victim of those events.
The victim was a child, however, it does not give the right for critics to ignore the feelings and thoughts of this person. Being a child, the author managed to remember everything what happened. The book is a treasure which is to be saved. One of the greatest values of the book is its truthfulness and the desire to tell the world what was happening. Additionally, this is not just the retelling of the story f life, it is a lesson, a good history lesson.
Him starts writing from the poem, the one she composed herself and which tells the reasons why Him needed to compose this memoir.
When broken glass floats, a nation drowns,
Descending to the abyss. From mass graves in the once-gentle land,
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their blood seeps into mother earth. Their suffering spirits whisper to her,
“Why has this happened?”
Their voice resounds in the spirit world,
Shouts though the souls of survivors,
Determined to connect, begging the world:
Please remember us. Please speak for us. Please bring us justice. (Him 6)
Therefore, it may be concluded that Him felt that her story will help to remember the events which happened in Cambodia better. People are to remember such terrible events in order not to repeat the mistakes and not to make people suffer in the same was as while the Khmer Rouge regime.
We will write a custom Essay on Review on When the Broken Glass Floats by Chanrithy Him specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The story in the book starts with the times when everything was great and there was no any hazard. Chanrithy Him starts from the days when her parents were children, how their marriage was arrange, how her father fell in love with her mother and other details which are very important for the family in Cambodia.
Further, the description of life and family traditions is considered. This part is very important to understanding the Khmer Rouge regime as the description of the ordinary life of simple people helps top see the life of the whole society. Him’s family is taken as the example and it is possible to predict that the society in Cambodia was organized in the same way. This, one of the historical values discussed in the book is the description of life before political changes.
The background is important in understanding the reasons how and why the Khmer Rouge regime became possible in that society. The parts where Him refers to the customs and traditions of the society helps to see the full picture. Such parts are really important as they help use the book for generalization, but not as the personal writing about one family.
Explaining the phrase “the kang prawattasas, the wheel of history” Him states the following, “The wheel of time or change. The Khmer Rouge often used such terms to threaten us, to force us to follow their rules, their revolution. If we didn’t follow their rules, the wheel of history would run over us.
This could mean punishment or death.” (Him14) Such pieces are really important as they help consider the source as the valuable historical piece of writing.
Almost each of the chapters in the book contains the pieces of news from the contemporary of that time newspapers. Such pieces help the reader to see the situation how it was presented in the society, how it was highlighted by the journalists and how it was in reality as the further discussion continued from the first person and Him continued remembering what happened with her family.
One of the epigrams is taken from the New Internationalist with the purpose to describe a concept titled “Year Zero”, “Year Zero was the dawn of an age in which, in extremis, there would be no families, no sentiment, no expression of love or grief, no medicines, no hospitals, no schools, no books, no learning, no holidays, no music: only work and death” (Him 226).
This is the phrase which sums up the experience of Chanrithy Him under the reign on the Khmer Rouge regime. The book has a great value for the contemporary historians who have an opportunity to see the events of those time from different perspectives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Review on When the Broken Glass Floats by Chanrithy Him by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Him, Chanrithy. When Broken Glass Floats: Growing Up Under the Khmer Rouge. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001. Print.
National Economic Policy Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Policy Mix to Increase Output without Changing Interest Rates
Elasticity of Money Demand and its Effects
Fiscal Policy under Fixed and Floating Exchange Rate System
Policy Mix to Increase Output without Changing Interest Rates It is the desire of policy makers to boost economic growth in all ways possible. One of their main problem is always how to increase economic output while maintaining interest rates as low as possible because high interest rates discourage some components of aggregate demand especially investments.
The fiscal policy uses the government resources to alter aggregate demand thus, influencing economic performance of a country (Arnold 2010). To raise output, policy makers will need to implement expansionary fiscal policy. This means that the government can either choose to reduce the amount of tax that citizens have to pay, increase it purchases or increase its level of transfers.
The effects of taxes cannot be expected with certainty since it is not automatic that when people’s disposable income increases their spending follows suit, because others may choose to save instead of spending. When the government increases its level of purchases then, the level of planned expenditure in the whole country increases thus, demand for goods and services increases. Increases in demand means that suppliers can sell more commodities than they are currently selling therefore suppliers increase their output.
On the same note, when government chooses to reduce the amount of taxes that are levied, people will have more disposable income and they are likely to increase their spending thus increasing aggregate demand. This will give suppliers incentive to produce more thus increasing output, which will in turn increase the average levels of income.
It should be noted that, the increase in output is always more than the increase in government spending due to government multiplier. Expansionary fiscal policy makes the IS curve to shift to the right due to increase in aggregate demand which in turn increases output (Mankiw 2011).
Regrettably, as the IS curve shifts to the right it is not the output only that increases but also interest rates and because policy makers do not want any effect in the interest rates the LM curve must be induced to shift to the right. If expansionary monetary policy is implemented, for example by increasing the amount of money in the economy, the LM curve will shift to the right (Froyen 2008).
When the amount of money in circulation increases, the supply of money exceeds its demand and to boost the demand for money, banks have to reduce the interest rates thus making it cheaper to borrow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The graph above shows the effects of expansionary fiscal policy as well as monetary policy on the IS LM curve. If the economy is initially in equilibrium at point A with interest rates i1 and output y1. Implementation of expansionary fiscal policy will cause a shift of the IS curve from I1S1 to I2S2 thus, changing the equilibrium from point A to point B with interest rate i2 and output y2.
An expansionary monetary policy shifts the LM curve rightwards from L1M1 to L2M2 increasing output to y3 but reducing interest rates back to i1 and setting the new equilibrium at point C. Therefore, through mixing expansionary fiscal and expansionary monetary policy, policy makers can increase output without increasing interest rates (Gordon 2008).
Elasticity of Money Demand and its Effects It is paramount to note that the quantity change in the demand for money is subjective to the elasticity of demand for money in relation to the factors that affect the demand for money.
Income elasticity of money demand is the percentage change in the quantity of money demanded as a result of unit change in income levels of people. Usually, people who have higher income levels tend to have higher expenses and thus demand more money for their transactions. However, it has been noted that the increase in real money demand is less proportional to increase in real income levels.
Alternatively, interest elasticity of money demand is the quantity change of demand in money caused by a unit change in interest rates. Interest rates represents the opportunity cost of holding money therefore, as they increase it becomes expensive to hold money.
Consequently, as the interest rates increases, rate of return on securities increases and people find it profitable to invest in securities instead of holding money. Accordingly, as interest rates increase, nominal demand for money decreases because people prefer to hold non-monetary assets as opposed to cash money.
Expansionary fiscal policy increases output and therefore, income of the people while at the same time it influences increase in interest rates. It will therefore be more effective if the income elasticity of money demand exceeds interest elasticity of money demand (Keynes 2006). This is because the quantity increase in demand for money to be spent will be higher than the quantity decrease in demand for money to be invested and thus the overall effect will be increase in output.
We will write a custom Essay on National Economic Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be noted that, the final quantity increase in aggregate demand and hence, the increase in output is highly influenced by the quantity decrease in investments as a result of increase in interest rates. The increase in output due to expansionary fiscal policy causes an increase in interest rates which is the cost of investments (Harford 2012).
This in turn leads to decrease in the amount of investments thus, reducing the quantity change in aggregate demand, a process referred to as crowding out effect. If interest elasticity of money demand exceeds income elasticity of money demand, the crowding out effect is large to the extent that it might completely eliminate the increase in output resulting from expansionary fiscal policy (Baumol
Concept of Diversity Training Program Research Paper essay help: essay help
Diversity Training Model In any organization, there is always a laid down structure formulated in order to keep its staff in healthy and stable mind in their duty of serving company’s interest. A stable mind performs optimally with little or no supervision. In line with this, an organization will always work alongside its staff to promote healthy working habits by recognizing and where necessary, supporting staff that make a steady commitment in practicing accepted desirable healthy habits in their work departments.
Periodically, programs are designed in line with objectives and goals on researched conducive work methodology for sustained happy employee-employer relationship. The method used include direct participation by the employees who after interaction with each other, identify hale and hearty workplace interventions passed through a feasibility test for implementation to initiate cultural shift in organization.
Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly present an organizational model for analyzing diversity in a cultural diversity training program in an organization to promote healthy culture of appreciating diversity. Besides, the model presented contains methods and procedures which are structured to facilitate diversity training program.
By definition, diversity climate in an organization comprises of the perception and attitudes exhibited by members of the organization culture and are directed to persons of diverse background in terms of race, tribe, culture, and views that might be different from their own.
As a matter of fact, these various attitudes and perceptions are evident in the behaviors and practice that an individual or a subculture directs to one another in the process of interaction, accomplishing duties, and performing assigned role. Schneider, Chung, and Yusko (1993) opine that:
Companies have a duty to implement the results of a cultural diversity program by developing and maintain effective diversity initiatives. Another significant aspect is accountability. Besides, Company committees have set up diversity training teams which consist of members of management, division managers, and business resource teams which represent the broad list of minority groups. Networking serves as a solid foundation which helps to foster diversity initiatives. (p. 134)
There are written rule of engagement, expected behavior, and repercussions for misconduct. During diversity training, these rules are clearly presented on a blue print to the organization community in order to appreciate diversity and uphold integrity in judgment. In the process, cases of prejudice are minimized as diversity will develop into a positive aspect of the organization (Schneider, Chung, and Yusko 1993).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Periodically, the organization restructures these goals in consistency with the changing work environment and requirement of its staff. Consequently, when people are absorbed and made to feel part of these goals, they would strive to give their best towards the organization and uphold existing culture with minimal struggle.
In order to design a diversity climate training model, it is vital to factor in the aspects of social circles, cultures, and background of members of the organization culture. This facilitates quality and objectivity in implementing the training. As a matter of fact, boarder perspectives are incorporated in the displayed character of the organization culture.
The first step is to activate the aspect of learning the distinct individual perspectives within subgroups and between intra and inter personal interaction. In the process, the evaluator is likely to classify differences from meaningful revelations established in the environmental culture predominant of the economic, sex, demographics, and race tolerance perspectives.
The next step is to integrate the findings from the first step into the aspects of social and human capital that is quantifiable and can be managed. This is often referred to as “the potential individual contribution to establish strong relationships, communication, working teams an effort to reach a common goal for using crisis for opportunities” (Knicki and Kreitner, 2009, p.89).
The third step is to actualise provision of the diversity program characterized by periodic training. During these sessions, the entire community is expected to participate at individual and group levels. As a result, quantifiable and structure oriented diversity initiatives will surface.
In doing so, the trainer should incorporate the aspect of controlled democracy to protect the micro groups or cultures that may lack numbers (Schneider, Chung, and Yusko 1993). Moreover, uninterrupted attention should be directed towards procedures and practices that are indicates in the diversity training model shown in figure 1 below.
Reflectively the above model indicates intrinsic leadership since strong leadership is the recipe for success. Besides, the aspect of constant and continuous measurement and research into diversity are activated to maintain the gains made in leadership. This includes the achieved education which cultivates and affirms diversity. However, the above requirements are best met when objective follow ups are emphasized to ensure accountability (Knicki and Kreitner, 2009).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Diversity Training Program specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusively, leadership, assessment and research, education, and proactive follow ups determine the success of a diversity training program. This will minimize isolation, self-protective mode, and workplace discrimination. As a matter of fact, these aspects assist in the evaluation process and make the training behavior responsive. Besides, this helps to reaffirm the organization culture and promote proactive judgment.
References Kinicki, A.,
Mozart symphonies Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
General overview of the genre
Introduction Symphony is a type of music invented during the classical era that encompasses music composition aspects outlined in the sonata principle (Sadie 76). It is usually a long and very complex sonata composition that qualifies to be referred to as orchestra. It is composed of a minimum of a single movement.
Most symphonies are composed of four movements, with the first one derived from the sonata principle. That is the basis for referring to symphonies as a form of classical composition. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prominent music composer from the classical music era (Sadie 89). His works were much diverse and comprise of operas, symphonies, concentrate and choral music. He is one of the greatest music composers of the classical era and of all time.
General overview of the genre The symphony genre of music refers to musical pieces of the western classical music developed for orchestra and that is comprised of four movements. These movements include allegro (executed in the sonata-allegro form), a slow movement, a scherzo movement or the minuet and the finale, that is characteristic of allegro or rondo (Dearling 24).
Symphonies composed in earlier years comprised of only three movements and were shorter than the present day symphonies. They run for a period of 10-20 minutes. This genre evolved largely during the classical era and by the dawn of the Romantic period, symphonies had incorporated an extra movement to make up a total of four and were a little longer (Dearling 31).
They went for a period of 30 minutes to one hour and a few of them lasted for more than an hour. Today, the symphony is a popular genre among music composers and the typical four-movement symphony is usually altered to accommodate other musical aspects.
Mozart bibliography Mozart was born in the year 1756 and was a highly creative music composer who lived in the Classical era (Sadie 18). He composed many music pieces, over 600, and comprised of several genres: opera, chamber, concertante, choral and symphony. His success in the genre of symphony started early as he showed excellent abilities in playing the keyboard and the violin. This saw him start composing at the tender age of five.
Mozart wrote 41 symphonies all in the same key except symphony 25 and 40, which are in G minor key (Sadie 28). His music received criticisms because of its complexity. It was comprised of many notes that it was hard to comprehend. Mozart was famous for integrating pieces of music together to develop strong and complex pieces. He often took lines from a piece of music and inserted them in to another piece.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mozart symphonies Mozart wrote 41 symphonies that developed the emotional reach and sophistication of the symphony genre at the time (Zaslaw 43). The major aspects of classical music are present in Mozart’s symphonies. His symphonies are characterized by complexity, clarity and balance.
However, the simplicity of his compositions cover the finesse that is observed in some of his masterpieces such as the symphony number 40 that was written in the G minor key.
Mozart had a gift of recognizing good music pieces and adapting some of their aspects into his own compositions. He borrowed greatly from Baroque in composing his symphonies. For example, symphony number 29, composed in A major K.201 is comprised of a theme that is borrowed from other Baroque compositions.
All the symphonies composed by Mozart are in the period between 1764 and 1788 (Zaslaw 38). Reports by music researchers indicate that Mozart may have composed more than the 41 symphonies attributed to him. They approximate about 68 symphonies that Mozart may have composed.
However, the numbering of these symphonies is the same and therefore, the last symphony is number 41. Some symphonies were revised from their original versions. They are divided into three categories according to the time they were composed. The three categories include the childhood symphonies, Salzburg-era symphonies and the late symphonies.
Childhood symphonies These were composed between 1764 and 1771 (Zaslaw 46). They include symphony number 1 to number 13. These symphonies were composed in different keys but some were similar. Symphony number 4, 7, 8 and 11 were composed in the D major key. Symphony number 1 and 3 were composed in the E-flat major while Symphony 10 and 12 were composed in the G major key.
Symphony 2 and 5 was composed in B-flat major, symphony 6 and 13 in F major key. In this category are other symphonies attributed to Mozart and were assigned umbers from 41.
We will write a custom Essay on Mozart symphonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Salzburg-era symphonies These were composed between 1771 and 1777. They are sometimes grouped into early and late symphonies or German and Italian symphonies (Cliff and Stewart 39). This category composes of symphonies from number 14 to number 30.
Number of symphony Key 14 A major 15 G major 16 C major 17 G major 18 F major 19 E-flat major 20 D major 21 A major 22 C major 23 D major 24 B-flat major 25 G minor 26 E-flat major 27 G major 28 C major 29 A major Other symphonies in this category attributed to Mozart are assigned numbers from 41. They are thought to be Mozart’s own compositions because they incorporate several aspects of Mozart’s operas. In addition, three more symphonies are founded on three serenades composed by Mozart. They include symphony K.204, k.250 and k.320 and they are all in the D major key.
Late symphonies Symphonies in this category were composed between 1778 and 1791 and numbered from 31 to 41(Cliff and Stewart 41).
Symphony number key 31 D major 32 G major 33 B-flat major 34 C major 35 D major 36 C major 37 G major 38 D major 39 E-flat major 40 G minor 41 C major The last three symphonies were published after his death and speculations suggest that he intended to publish them together a single opus before his death. Symphony 37 was thought to be Mozart’s own composition but was later established that he wrote the introduction only. Michael Haydn composed it with little help from Mozart.
Conclusion The symphony genre of music refers to musical pieces of the western classical music that was developed for orchestra and that is comprised of four movements. These movements include allegro (executed in the sonata-allegro form), a slow movement, a scherzo movement or the minuet and the finale, that is characteristic of allegro or rondo.
Mozart wrote 41 symphonies that developed the emotional reach and sophistication of the symphony genre at the time (Cliff and Stewart 72). The major aspects of classical music are present in Mozart’s symphonies. His symphonies are characterized by complexity, clarity and balance. Mozart is recognized today as one of the greatest music composers of all time.
Works Cited Cliff, Eisen and Stewart Spencer. Mozart: A Life in Letters. New York: Penguin Books, 2006. Print.
Dearling, Robert. The Music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the Symphonies. New Jersey: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mozart symphonies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sadie, Stanley. Mozart Symphonies. New York: Ariel Music, 1986. Print.
Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan, 1998. Print.
Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart’s Symphonies: Context, Performance Practice, Reception. New York: Clarendon press, 1991. Print.
International Trade as a Contributor to a Peaceful Existence of Nations Report best essay help
Introduction International trade is a trade that involves two or more countries. It involves the exchange of goods, services and capital. Countries sell products in other countries; these goods are referred to as exports. Goods bought from other countries are referred to as imports (Batiz, 2004). International companies engage in international trade in order to increase their market share.
This leads to increased sales and revenue. Companies engaging in international trade need to access the profitability of participating in such business. There are several challenges encountered when participating in international trade but the returns are worth the risk.
Companies export goods, which they have a competitive advantage in the production. This is because they know their products will find ready markets in new markets in other countries (Helpman, 1987). The company exporting goods in other country must know the requirements it should fulfill before exporting his goods.
The company also needs to know the policies in its home country regarding international trade. Countries engage in trading agreements to facilitate trade between them. This is because no country can be self-sufficient making trade a must for every country.
Countries strive to maintain an intimate relationship with other trading countries to ensure there is a continuous supply of imports and exports. The imports provide countries with foreign exchange, which it uses to purchase imports. A health trading practice should be observed at all times.
International trade involves the use of different currencies and the importer and exporter, therefore, need to agree about currency conversion rate. This is essential to ensure no party feels cheated after the transaction has taken place. International trade is a significant contributor to a peaceful existence of nations, and every nation should uphold it.
The scenario, in this case, is that of TATA Company based in India and Thompson and Thompson Company based in the United Kingdom. The company, which will be the importer, is Thompson and Thompson Company. Tata Motors Limited is an automobile company and concentrates in manufacturing, sale of commercial, and commercial vehicles (Shinde, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company involves itself in the manufacture of trucks, cars, buses and engages in spare part provision to its customers. Tata do engage herself in developing electric and hybrid vehicles for personal, as well as public use (Graham, 2011).
Tata offers its products through dealers, sales and spare parts network. It has expanded its market internationally in regions, in Africa, Europe, and Middle East among other regions. Initially, Tata was referred to as Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company Limited. In July 2003, it changed its name to Tata Motors Limited.
This company was founded in 1945, and it is based in Mumbai India. Thompson and Thompson is a family business, which deals with supplying new and used cars to private and commercial trade. In addition to selling vehicles, it involves itself in repair and servicing. The company was established in 1952 in the UK and has grown tremendously.
The two companies in this transaction have agreed to use incoterm FCI. This is in consistence with trade arrangements of Tata Company. This incoterm requires the exporter to quote a price that is enough to cater all expenses to be incurred by him up to importers warehouse (Feenstra, 2003). Companies, which offer door-to-door services to their customers.
Overview of Trade India
Choral Music History Essay best essay help: best essay help
Choral music entails the music sung by a choir. In this case, a choir is a musical assembly of singers. The size of the choir varies from a dozen of singers to a considerably large number of individuals as long as they can sing. Two or more voices sing each musical part to create a set of musical tunes.
The origin of this form of music is the traditional music that people sung in groups across multiple traditional cultures. This form of music dates back to 2nd century BC in the ancient Greece. With time, there have been improvements in this art with the refinement of standards and ways of approaching it. Example of ancient Greece music includes Delphic hymns and Mesomedes (Paine 12).
Nevertheless, other ancient cultures such as the ancient Persia, China, India, and Rome had choral music. With the passage of time, medieval and renaissance music were developed. Medieval music entailed the music led by a choirmaster through singing of the verses while the choir sang the refrain.
This mainly occurred during the 14th and 15th century when there was the need to improve the performance. The renaissance music entailed the sacred choral music performed across the Western Europe. Repeatedly, hundreds of masses and motets were composed for choirs that were either cappella or not. From this era, choral music has evolved and continued to become popular with numerous choirs across the world.
Because of the variation in the sizes of choral music singers, a conductor or a choirmaster leads them. Often, the choirs consist of four sections aimed at being sung in a four-part harmony, but in other instances, the parts could range from three, five, six, or eight. To enhance the outcome of the voices, choral music could be sung with or without the accompaniment of instruments. Cappella refers to the choral music without any accompaniment (Apel 141).
This form of unaccompanied music is in much favour since it is applicable in chapels and the secular world. Some of the instruments that could accompany choral music include orchestra but piano, flute or guitar. Since choral music meets a variety of needs, its performance can occur in many locations like the church, school halls, and opera houses. In some instances, choral music could involve mass choirs meant for special reasons as celebrations or entertainment.
During the composition of the choral music, there are equally important voices that require consideration. These voices include soprano, alto, tenor and bass (Forney 45). Soprano refers to the highest vocal range, which is common among female singers though some boys could exhibit it. Alto is the second highest vocal range, which is the highest male voice while for females it is known as contralto. This voice is placed just below soprano, but above tenor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tenor is the highest vocal range for mature males. This vocal is lower than the alto, but higher than the bass. For an opera performance, this voice is used to play the role of a hero. Bass is the lowest male voice. In a choral music performance, these voices are integrated together to produce the desired tunes and appropriate message intended to be delivered.
Additionally, during the performance, the layout of the vocals involves intermingling to portray the exact tune desired. Repeatedly, the arrangement of sections is from soprano, bass, tenor, and alto consecutively, with the conductor and the accompanying orchestra just in front of them. This forms the exact layout that most choral music performances adopt.
Based on the variation of the choral music composers’ concept, there are multiple types of choral music. Some of the major types of choral music include the cappella, anthem, cantata, motet, and oratorio (Juslin 71). The cappella music involves the choral music performance without the accompaniment of the instruments. This form of choral music is popular in churches or the secular world. The variation in the vocals of singers in a choir facilitates the expected voices and conveyance of message to the intended listeners.
Anthem is the choral music comprising of religious or political lyrics that may or may not have instruments accompaniment. This form of music is used to indicate the appropriate cultures that require adoption. Similarly, the music could serve as a form of passing appreciation in a formal manner to those who contribute significantly to the community. This explains the reason why this form of music is usually played in the formal occasions which encompasses all the people of a particular community (Paine 154).
Cantata choral music comes from the Italian word ‘to sing’. During the ancient times, cantata entails any musical piece that was intended to be sung. Over time, this musical form has evolved. Presently, it refers to the musical work that can be sung with multiple movements and accompaniment of instruments.
The messages conveyed by this form of music could exhibit a secular or sacred subject. Similarly the cantatas are structured with three arias which are recitative with an introduction for each. In addition, the performance entails alternation of the arioso (short lyrical piece) with the arias. This nature of music yields the expected outcome of entertainment through message conveyance (Ulrich 78).
Motet refers to any short piece Latin music that is sung at the course of or after the offertorium. This form of music describes the movement of the different voices against each other. The main reason for motets is to serve the interests outlined in the 13th to the late 16th century.
We will write a custom Essay on Choral Music History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the music is moral, any form of vulgarity is avoided. This music is meant for appropriate people who derive pleasure and understand finer details from hearing it. Other aspects aimed from listening to the music include education of people and advancement of art by those who have the desire for it.
Oratorio refers to the choral music composed with the intention of conveying the message in a narrative manner inclusive of an orchestra. Most of the narrative texts’ basis is the stories extracted from the bible or scriptures. Despite the fact that Oratorio’s basis is sacred subjects, it could facilitate the relay of semi-sacred subjects (Juslin 114).
Contrary to the opera, oratorio involves large-scale participants, but they do not have scenes that display acting or multiple costumes. In this regard, the main important aspect of the oratorio is the chorus and the narrator’s recitatives give it a captivating feature and guide the story’s progress.
After analyzing the choral music that suits the message conveyances, the integration of different form of choral music is likely thus resulting in unique forms of music. It is possible to extend this concept to any limit if the idea of mass movement and different types of vocals is considered.
Similarly, the choral music could vary from one geographical region to the other due to cultural variations and manner of message conveyance. Nevertheless, appropriate measures are vital considerations to ensure that the choir does as required following the designed structure of music during composition. This facilitates the maintenance of the concept of choral music.
Works Cited Apel, Willi. Harvard dictionary of music. 2d ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969. Print.
Forney, Kristine, and Joseph Machlis. The enjoyment of music: an introduction to perceptive listening. 10th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007. Print.
Juslin, Patrik N., and John A. Sloboda. Music and emotion: theory and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Choral Music History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paine, Gordon, and Howard Swan. Five centuries of choral music: essays in honour of Howard Swan. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1988. Print.
Ulrich, Homer. A survey of choral music. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,1973. Print.
The Role of Uncertainty in the Scientific Method Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Properties of the scientific method
The impact of uncertainty in natural sciences
Introduction In Science every piece of knowledge is established through a rigorous methodology that seeks to keep balance with all other concepts already proven to be true. There are methods of proof that are used for both the experimental and the theoretical. It is well accepted that scientific methods change with various scientific disciplines and hence there is no single defined approach (Gendron, n.d.).
In a general scope however, developing new knowledge requires some level of suspicion based on our intuitive perception and acquired knowledge of everyday phenomena. An argument must be provided to support or disapprove these hypotheses and dispel any uncertainty that is laid upon them.
Therefore, the scientist does not in fact simply take sides in the proposition of a hypothesis. He merely seeks to find out the truth or falsehood of his claim at which point any conclusion reached is recognized as a universal valid establishment of scientific truth. With this in mind, we see that science develops itself from a synthesis of principles that relate to each other without contradiction.
Properties of the scientific method The scientific method has developed over time to include various viewpoints from a host of scientists and philosophers. Aristotle emphasized on the use of empiricism in deducing rationale for the creation of scientific facts.
The ideas of Aristotle were carried over in the 12th and 13th Century by thinkers such as Grossteste and Roger Bacon to realize a new definitive methodology of testing new scientific phenomena (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007). This method involved a cycle that transitioned between observation, hypothesis, experimentation and verification.
In the verification stage, one’s work must be reviewed by peers who have a suitable understanding of the subject to affirm the findings made. This process has been critical in the functioning of both applied and theoretical scientific fields of inquiry. For instance, in medicine the method is applied in every day practice when diagnosing and treating ailments.
The impact of uncertainty in natural sciences Most of the hypotheses in natural science are substantiated with an acute reliance on pre-defined models. We often make a prediction which will then either be proved through experimentation or model testing. For example, in an average clinical institute, symptoms of a disease will normally be provided by a patient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The medical practitioner attending to the patient will then use his knowledge of associated symptoms to diagnose the patient’s ailment. If experimental methods are used to diagnose symptoms, the final inferences made will still depend on existing models which link observed traits to known conditions.
The more refined this process is, the more successful it becomes in determining the cause. Possibilities of models that have not been discovered still exist and this is normally characterized in events that lead to the discovery of new diseases and pathogens. In essence, we see a process where scientific method is used to discover new problems in the course of resolving others. The complexity of such diagnosis methodologies can preempt proper treatment when a set of symptoms can be linked to a wider variety of ailments or syndromes.
In ecological research, hypotheses are often evaluated through statistical methods. Statistical methods make use of probabilistic and inductive reasoning methods to base their arguments. The numerical evidence to support a hypothesis is often confined to a set of queries which emanate from presumptions about the model that can be used to test the hypothesis (Hobbs
Mozart Symphonies Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is definitely one of the outstanding composers of symphonies who was well known and highly reputed during the classical period of music development (1750-1830). Although there were other symphonies during his time, his legacy stood out to be the best since his productions withstood the test of time.
He was born in January 27, 1756 by Anna Maria Perti and a musician Leopold. In his lifetime, Mozart composed forty one (41) symphonies in which thirty nine (39) were in major keys while only two (2) were in minor keys (Laitz and Bartlette 54). Coincidentally, both symphonies in minor keys were in G minor.
These are symphony number 25 which was composed in October 1773 and symphony number 40 which he produced way back in 1788. It is imperative to note that Modern study to Mozart’s work has proved that he was indeed an intelligent as well as a talented musical genius who had attained musical virtuosity during his lifetime career in music. Evidently, Mozart’s last symphony “Jupiter” in C major has overwhelming beauty that may not be forgotten quite easily.
A symphony is an artistic work of music mostly produced and played for the orchestra. In addition, it is also worth noting that symphonies contain at least one movement or episode which usually follows the sonata principles. Symphonies can also be tonal works written in four movements with the first always in sonata form.
This type of musical production grew during the period between the Baroque and the Romantic when music had lighter and undoubtedly clearer texture. Moreover, emphasis in the symphonies was in contrast created by a variety of keys, rhythms, dynamics, and melodies, (Downs 106). In the case of Mozart, he mainly dwelt on symphonies that were performed with instruments such as the flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, trumpet (wind instruments), violin, viola, double bass (stringed instruments), and the timpani among others.
As a matter of fact, this collection of instruments that were used by Mozart were indeed vital in his productions largely due to the fact that they blended quite well in producing masterpiece symphonies. In addition, the manner in which these assortments of musical instruments were played clearly brought out the much needed flavor in his symphonies. This explains why he remained as music icon who was to be remembered long after he was dead.
Historical background of the Mozart symphonies Many scholars have studied and described symphonies that were produced by Mozart as full rigor that have been applied in modern musicological methods. Moreover, these productions have proved to be comprehensive both in terms of contemporary and secondary literature (Zaslow 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there is no great creation that surpasses a critique’s eye bearing in mind that even the Mozart symphonies were criticized as being too complex with unnecessarily far too many lines and notes within the compositions. In other words, there are those who perceived his music as extremely complex to appeal to most audience and especially those who would be interested to learn the notes.
While the latter argument would perhaps be authentic to some degree, it is also imperative to mention that the dynamisms employed by Mozart included taking familiar musical lines of one piece of music and inserting them in his other new creations or compositions to bring out a completely new flavor.
In due course of creating the symphonies, Mozart entered into a severe financial strain and debt in 1784. By 1788, he was in serious debt. Fortunately, he survived on money that he had borrowed from his Masonic brother called Michael Puchberg. This fact did not deter Mozart from accomplishing his dream since he gave his best during his last years of life.
There are amazing complexities of symphony number 39 in E-flat; number 40 in G minor; and number 41 in C major. Close inspection of these symphonies portray a crowning achievement of Mozart’s instrumental music even though they appear complex. There is also a clear indication of how Mozart was quite thorough with the absorption of his contrapuntal style in most of his music. For instance, the latter characteristic was quite profound in two of his creations namely the virtuosos J.S. Bach and Handel.
Classical-style symphonies as employed by Mozart were mainly in four movements. Their usual arrangement was fast (allegro), slow (adagio), minuet with trio (scherzo), and then fast (allegro, rondo or sonata). However, there are many symphonies by other classical masters that do not conform to this four part model (Prout 92). In addition, Mozart was keen in style and structure. He introduced the third movement (minuet) and gave it splendor. He gave it a pattern that followed an outline of ABA or Minuet-Trio-Minuet.
Capability of Mozart to adapt to the external environment was apparent. He adapted to style of the moment like in symphony number 25 that was inspired by storm and stress of that time (Zaslaw 38). Mozart moved and stayed in Paris for a short period. He composed 3 symphonies including symphony no. 31 while at this place.
These works portrayed Mozart’s ability to adapt to the likes and dislikes of his new hosts and consumers of his music. The three symphonies had distinct Parisian qualities different from his other works. Urgency did not deter Mozart. He was a musical genius and was able to compose, rehearse, and perform symphony no. 36 ‘Linz’ in only four days! Despite the breakneck speed of writing this symphony, he was able to open a work with a slow introduction.
We will write a custom Essay on Mozart Symphonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He demonstrated his prowess by going the way of his loyalists in writing symphony no. 38 ‘prague’. He was widely accepted in Prague, and he wrote this symphony for Prague people (Deutsch 87). Mozart slightly deviated from his norm when he left out the third movement in this symphony but was able to make it profound and quite provocative.
To recap it all, Mozart was undoubtedly great and a model to those who came after him. This was proven by the mid 19th century composer, Johannes Brahms. Mozart’s last symphony Jupiter was so popular, and Brahms knew its structure so well. The fugue finale of Jupiter begins with notes C-D-F-E-A-A. In this respect, Brahms had his first symphony in C minor; second in D major; third in F major; and forth in E minor – the first four notes of the Jupiter (Laitz and Bartlette 91).
Different music experts in composition and performance interpreted symphonies by Mozart differently. Some viewed majority of his works as possessing lightness, passion, and grace while others considered them “works of violence and grief” (Downs 52). Despite these interpretations, the symphonies are unquestionably admired and are frequently performed and recorded.
Works Cited Deutsch, Otto. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965. Print.
Downs, Philip. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven; Introduction to Music History. New York, NY: Norton
Different management practices Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction ‘We tend to think of the task of managing as one defined by carefully considered, long-term thinking. If the global financial crisis taught us anything, it is that more often than not organizations operate with very short horizons, reacting to an ever-changing environment.’
In this literature review essay, I will explore the different management practices that have been employed in dealing with the recent global financial crises. The strategies employed ensured the survival of some firms better than others. The 2008 global financial crisis that started in the US was caused by problems of liquidity in the banking sector, translating to the plummeting of the real estate business, increased unemployment rates and collapse of business (Judge
Graphing Tides Data Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Introduction Decker Computers Limited (DCL) is considered a leader in computer products and service provision across Singapore. The company’s organizational strategy is underpinned on five main points that include a focus on the customer where the company strives to provide value, choice, and service to its customers.
The company also focuses on competitive affiliations across Asia. Decker Computers Limited outlets continue to transform through re-branding thereby offering an expanded choice for the clients. The gains from these transformations will lead to improved customer service, and reduced operational costs for DCL.
Decker Computers Limited knows that within the emergent global economy, e-commerce is increasingly becoming an important part of an organization’s strategy ensuring economic development. Wining on the Internet is prime for DCL strategy, thus information, and communications technology (ICT) in commerce has transformed the way DCL communicates with other businesses.
E-commerce consists of using electronic and communication devices and approaches as well as digital technology for information processing involving business transactions. This is aimed at creating, transforming, and redefinition of links for creating value within organizations, and between organizations, and individuals. Decker Computers Limited implements the business-to-business e-commerce (B2B) defined as e-commerce involving companies.
The building blocks for a web design strategy include requirements, innovation, visibility, and security. Primarily the business objectives, including profit, public service provision and sales growth will be implemented by the website in line with the company’s organizational strategy.
At the base of DCL organizational strategy lies value, choice, and service. These three elements have been defined based on customer insight. In achieving these elements in trade, DCL implements an adequate means of trading. With the customer as the focus, DCL achieves value during trading by among other things offering sales advice, reserve, and collect services, and multi-channel outlets.
Additionally, choice is an important element as considered by DCL. This is achieved by the company in a number of ways that include exclusivity, and a wide range of brands from which the customers can choose.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third element critical to DCL’s organizational strategy intended to provide an adequate means of trading includes delivery, installation, and help support, and repair, and protection.
Summarily DCL website will be implemented according to the corporate strategy possessing tenets that can relate clearly to the provision of an adequate means of trading for the company.
Decker Computers Limited website will be an e-merchant platform offering public service from various brands and affiliates to clients. The computer products to be marketed through the website are unique to the Asian market and are sold at very competitive prices with unmatched after sales support.
Additionally, the website is expected to achieve communication as a marketing tool where products and services will be related to the information posted. This has focused on the customer giving them service, and choice as part of the organization’s strategy. Secured electronic transfer services for clients who make online orders is in line with the company’s compliance policy.
As following through to accomplish an online order activity at the DCL website will proceed in four steps and consistently gives the visitor a sense of secured transaction. The transactions will be implemented using the secure socket layer protocol. This will be determined by the uniform resource locator address prefix change from ‘http’ to ‘https’. This alludes to DCL’s need to provide a secure transaction environment, especially for e-commerce applications.
A simplified client registration process at the DCL website will be implemented prior to the completion of any order process. The website will use effectively the client server platform during this account creation and eventual secure electronic transfer (SET). This e-commerce application requires effective and reliable server interactions. For this the client needs to run a browser on the client computer to access the DCL’s website and enable information exchange with designated servers.
We will write a custom Assessment on Graphing Tides Data specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This project aims to design and implement an e-commerce website application for DCL as a company located in Singapore. The proposed application will allow the company to provide online sales and technical support to its customers. Currently the company is providing sales and support over the phone and by onsite pick up and drop in. It is envisaged that the website will provide numerous benefits to both the company and its customers.
A feasibility study was carried out to determine the benefits of the proposed solution.
From interviews conducted with the senior staff at the company the following findings were gathered.
Only sales and support is provided through phone, and the service hours for this support medium are restricted to office hours on site and thus the customer cannot access support outside normal office hours.
Sales and support cannot easily be addressed over the phone as it does not allow files and other support tools to be adequately managed over the phone requiring costly physical visits for the company and customer.
The process is slow and not satisfactorily approved by the customers seeking alternative outlets and hence the company is loosing to competitors.
Primarily the following benefits will be expected on implementing the proposed system
The system is dependent on the Internet available 24/7 to access online information
Flexible hours of operation enabled by access to online support documentation
Reduce infrastructure costs and enable quicker response times
Allow the company to receive customer feedback
An integrated forum will allow customers to share knowledge on PC-based issues and they can share experiences on best practice on solutions to issues.
The website will allow support to be potentially provided via video tutorials.
Increased customer and business satisfaction from faster response times and solutions
Reduce costs associated with paper based records.
Importance of the design phase This report highlights the design phase for the proposed system indicative of the documentation of the proposed system requirements, including database and process specification requirements. The design phase commences after a successful analysis phase in which the current system is evaluated to determine its shortcomings and propositions are made toward improving the processes within the current system. These propositions are modeled within the design phase.
System specification On completion of the analysis, an e-commerce website application fully functional was considered as the best business option to address the current system shortcomings. Flexibility, efficiency, and cost reduction were seen as the main reasons for the management’s choice of an e-commerce website application.
Ultimately customer satisfaction would be achieved from a well implemented e-commerce website for the company. Therefore, a system specification was written highlighting the requirements in terms of resources (hardware, software, and people) for the proposed e-commerce website application.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Graphing Tides Data by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Database model Because the e-commerce website application will be online it is likely that the company’s client base will expand enormously requiring a well designed database to store securely information and data related to the clients’ transactions.
Additionally, the database will contain the details and images of all the computer products sold by the company, including the respective prices to enable a potential client to view and purchase any of the products online. Generally the application will be linked to e-merchant platforms that will facilitate secure electronic funds transfer using credit card or digital checks, depending on the customer preference.
The database will be implemented as a relational database management system (RDMS) that includes the table structures and all associated design and implementation as well as management procedures. The typical construction blocks for any RDMS are the table. The table is representative of the entity identified within a system. An entity here represents anything about which data can be kept. Typically, a client, and staff are typical examples in this case. Others include product, and order.
The following is a summary of the entity description in the proposed system Client:
This is the company customer who logs onto the system to evaluate and maybe pick a suitable product to purchase. Prior to accessing these products and their details the system capture the client’s basic details through an automated registration process that enables the client to set up an account within the company’s database. These registration details will be used for eventual order processing and billing.
This is what the company deals in specifically computer products. The model, types, and true colour images of the product is stored in the database. Other relevant specifications related to the product are also included together with the price and terms of purchase.
This represents the employee of the company who may process the orders placed online by a client and respond to client inquiries.
This represents a singular transaction by the client and highlights the product ordered, date of order, quantity ordered, and amount due.
These entities can be illustrated using a simplified entity relationship diagram (ERD) as shown below.
A general entity relationship diagram (ERD) representing the e-commerce website application.
Table mapping and normalization To maintain a stable database with minimal data redundancy normalization can be applied to the identified tables to ensure that they are in the normalized form. The table below summarizes the normalization process carried out on the tables of the proposed system. Most of the tables are in the most stable form on second normalization. Therefore, the 2NF tables are the likely one present within the proposed system.
UNF 1NF 2NF Client: ClientID Name Password Email ContactAddressOrder: OrderID ClientID StaffID ProductID OrderStatus OrderTitle OrderBody Staff: StaffID Password
Product: ProductID Name Description Image Price
Support: StaffID ClientID Description Title
ClientID Name Email ContactAddressClientID Password OrderID ClientID OrderStatus OrderTitle OrderBody
Staff: StaffID Password
ProductID Name Description Image Price
Client: ClientID Name Email ContactAddress Login: ClientID PasswordOrder: OrderID ClientID OrderStatus OrderTitle OrderBody OrderProcessing: OrderID StaffRecepient Staff: StaffID Password
Product: ProductID Name Description Image Price
Website plan This website application will be designed and implemented is known as a dynamic web site application or server side application. In a dynamic web application a request is made from the client side and executed by a web server that invokes the request with a database, where data is stored, and retrieved in response to a user request.
Examples of dynamic web-based applications include web-based email clients and applications, such as Facebook and eBay as they require data to be communicated between the client side (i.e. web browser) and the web server and database. There are many web technologies and programming languages used to implement dynamic web-based applications that include PHP, ASP, (which is a Microsoft technology), and JSP (Java Server Pages).
User interface description Several renowned specialists in interface design have offered broad-based principles on designing an effective user interface. For the design of the web application interface the adopted principles offered are offered by renowned HCI practitioner Jakob Nielsen from his book on Usability Engineering. Nielsen highlights the use of the following principles:
Visibility of system status
The system should provide feedback to the user to lets him or her to know what is going in when they have performed a task/user input selection.
Matching the system to the real-world
The system must use terms that are easy to understand.
User control and freedom
There should be clearly marked exit buttons for easy reversal of actions/selections.
Consistency and standards
The same words and labels should be used throughout the system to ensure consistency and so the user becomes familiar with the system as quick as possible.
The potential for errors should be minimized with confirmation boxes before an action is performed.
Visual and simple design
Dialogues must not contain extra information and only information that is relevant and necessary should be used.
Helping users to identify, assess, and recover from errors
Error messages must be indicated in a non-technical way, without any programming, or scripts. A quick solution should be presented to the user.
Help and documentation
Where necessary, documentation should be provided on how to use the system, although the use of the system should be self-explanatory.
The graphic below shows the structure of the website with parent, and child pages.
The shapes titled ‘product support 1, 2, 3, and 4’ represent the pages as categorized by sales and support areas. The real names for these sales categories and support will finally be added at the implementation stage.
Form layout (Order form)
Report layout ( Orders processed)
System security design It is imperative that the website application to be adopted by this business model is secure. It should be free from viruses and hacking; where hacking involves an individual accessing computer system without authorization. The website should assure both the server and user that it is secure and confidential.
The user expects that the company described in the website has met all the legal requirements. This is because of the fear of engaging in business with a company that is not even registered and in case of any breach of contract the user cannot sue that particular company. The server also expects that the website will protect its rights by ensuring that the user is not in a position to break and compromise the data and information on the server.
The website to be adopted by this business model should ensure that it gives confidentiality feature between the user and the server. One security measure in websites involves the use of passwords. Business models that have employed web security design have implications that accrue to them.
The positive implications are that they become competitive advantaged, they achieve their goals and objectives, and stick to their mission and vision. The negative implication includes the high cost incurred in the process of web security design and development.
Considering that the intended website is an e-merchant platform able to support e-commerce transactions, security is considered paramount for successful transacting, especially when the risk toward such applications is high. The company must ascribe to standards like the electronic industry citizenship coalition (EICC) code of conduct to govern their business ethics.
The code compels all stakeholders, including suppliers, and customers to comply with certain regulations governing business on the proposed website. This is in line with one of the nine principles in the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) guidelines. A security awareness program must be implemented and serve as reference among the company’s partners.
The company will work with communication service provider to ensure the program is well implemented. This can be managed by a team led by the company’s Internet administrators and the business standards department. Therefore, maintaining security at the company requires concerted effort involving various stakeholders.
Generally, policies, and standards are already available to ensure that security is well addressed on the company’s website. The company also has an internal code of conduct to govern business transactions within the company to ensure that there is no threat that can be initiated internally.
Employees at the company must read and adhere to the code of conduct that addresses security, especially for the information that the company handles. Additionally, the company will have a team that continuously monitors transactions to ensure that these comply with the business rules. All suspect transactions can be identified and isolated to be further evaluated to ascertain their validity.
Recommendation for the next phase The successful conclusion of the design phase highlighted within this report will be followed by the development process in which the proposed system specification is translated into the actual database and procedure specifications or application using suitable programming language. Once the design specification has been approved by the intended user, the development phase will commence.
The table here below summarizes the development plan that will follow the design phase
Task ID Task name Predecessor Duration (in days) I1 Develop the components of the website – 21 I2 Gather media like images to be used on the website I1 7 I3 Develop HTML website and incorporate the images and links I2 3 I4 Create the physical database using the appropriate database management system 11 7 I5 Test the database for referential integrity I4 4 I6 Populate the database with start up data I5 3 I7 Link the database to the website and test connectivity I6 1 I8 Upload the website to a dedicated server for real time testing I7 2
Supply Chain and Logistical Tools and Techniques Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
New Product Development New Product Development refers to a distinct set of activities that companies use to develop and introduce a product into the market. It has a two concurrent phases. On one hand, there is the product design process culminating in a viable market, while on the other hand, there is the marketing component that starts from market research and ends with the purchase of the product by the eventual consumer. Solar Technical (SL) is a medium sized company that distributes solar products.
It specialises in solar water heating systems. It fabricates solar water tanks for clients that have needs not covered within the conventional systems provided by manufacturers. There have been some problems with the current operations because of problems with the company’s supply chain. This paper will investigate the potential to improve the supply chain performance of the company. In particular, it will compare the potential to improve the supply chain by examining the New Product Development process at SL.
Current Operations and Supply Chain SL is a medium sized company with about thirty employees. It has a technical department that deals with the installation of solar water equipment in client premises. It also fabricates special order tanks and accessories to meet unique needs of the specific clients. It also coordinates Research and Development (R
Consumer Behavior and Culture Essay essay help online
Failures and successes of any business enterprise depend on the behavior of its consumers. The behavior of the end-user consumer affects both the producer of final goods as well as the intermediaries who distribute the products from the point of production to the point of consumption.
Understanding consumer behavior can play a great role in a business enterprise as it helps identifying its weak points and reflect on the positive aspects which can enable it to win the confidence of the consumers (Sinha, 2012). The consumer behavior and the purchasing decision are closely related. Information about consumer product usage therefore enables organizations to come up with effective ways of designing their products (Turner, 2012).
The amount and types of goods that producers produce depend on the level of consumption of the consumers. The trends in consumer behavior have also been known to reflect the performance of the national economy. When the level of consumption is high, businesses tend to increase in size and profitability (Perner, 2010). An economy that has well performing businesses is able to realize significant growth. Therefore, with a high level of consumption in the economy, the level of economic growth is also high and vice versa.
In order for business enterprises to increase their profitability, they need to develop a strategy that can enable them to market their products to consumers effectively. Most organizations devise marketing strategies whose goal is to enable them understand the consumption trends in the areas where they operate. In order to succeed in this process, businesses need to employ a team of marketers who would focus on learning about the consumption behavior of consumers in different markets (Turner, 2012).
When marketers gain a better understanding of consumers in a particular region, they are able to give relevant market information to their organizations. Organizations are therefore able to make adjustments to the products that they produce thereby making them more appealing to the consumers.
Understanding consumer behavior entails knowing what the real wants of consumers are. This way, a business enterprise can be able to design a product that meets the exact needs of its consumers (Reference for Business, 2012).
Therefore, it is the responsibility of all marketers to ensure that they take time to understand the consumption behavior of consumers so that they can manage to come up with the appropriate marketing strategies that would assist in capturing the attention of the consumers. This way, they would be able to win a large number of consumers thereby increasing the profitability of their organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marketers need to understand that the purchases consumers make are meant to address a number of problems that face them. Whenever a customer consumes a product that addresses his basic needs, he is said to be driven by necessity. Therefore marketers should analyze the behavior of such a consumer based on his needs.
However, there is a different group of consumers who purchase goods based on the attractiveness of the products. It is therefore true that different groups of consumers have varying needs and wants (Delbert, Roger,
Head Injuries and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Proposal scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Methodology
Instrumentation and Data Collection Plans
Proposed Analysis of the Data
Methodology The focus of the proposed study is on patients suffering from head injuries and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, (CTE). Case control methodology is appropriate for this study.
To enhance efficiency, the case control methodology must assume a retrospective approach. This is because the proposed study involves examination of the existing cases of head injuries in the sampled population.
The study will sample the general population and the patients within the outpatient departments of public hospitals. The case groups and the control groups are important.
This is because they form the basis for assessments and comparisons (Sim
The Attitude to Prostitution in Different Times Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Prostitution is considered to be the oldest profession. In different times there were women who offered their bodies and pleasure to men. However, the meaning and the attitude to prostitution has always been different.
Nowadays, prostitutes are women who provide people with sexual pleasure, however, there were times when to be a prostitute was an art, prostitutes were the most educated women and were praised by some men more than their counselors.
Prostitution as the profession has revolutionized having become a simple satisfaction of the sexual desire, however, in the Middle Ages prostitution was a more responsible and valuable profession with the presentation of many freedoms to prostitutes while women were restricted in many social spheres.
The belief that prostitution is a dirty profession is not correct as people are to know the history of this occupation to judge the issue.
Critical engagement with the film using class materials and academic sources Prostitution is a profession based on sexuality and women of all times wanted to have a great look when chose this occupation. However, to become prostitutes in the Middle Ages women had to work harder than now.
Nowadays, beauty and the opportunity to bring pleasure for men are the main criteria for a prostitute. However, several centuries before a prostitute had to be educated, she had to be able not only to bring pleasure, but to seduce a man, to make him dependant.
Watching the movie Dangerous Beauty, the history of the prostitution may be studied. This movie is a story about one of the greatest prostitutes whose actions once saved Venice, whose mental abilities were great and this was her main weapon, not the sexuality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Paola Franco, the mother of Veronica Franco, the greatest courtesan, said the following, “Courtesans, my dear, are the most educated women in the world… Desire begins in the mind. Cleopatra, Theodocia, she could seduce a man at twenty paces, without revealing an inch of flesh”.
The value of courtesans was higher the wiser a woman was. Sexuality was important as well, however, this was not the most important aspect as each woman is beautiful if she cares about herself.
The movie under consideration, Dangerous Beauty, shows the life of those who were lucky to have rich lovers, this is a story about pain of a woman who loves but cannot become a wife of a man she loves.
The prostitution in this movie is presented as something sacred and acceptable. However, to show the attitude of another part of the society, the final scene of the inquisition is shown.
Watching the movie, it is possible to change the attitude to courtesans, however, for many people such women would always remain prostitutes who sell their bodies and souls without having the right for forgiveness.
Dangerous Beauty is the movie which tries to show that there are many reasons why society should be grateful to courtesans, still anxiety and hostility are the main feelings people consider appropriate for them.
Still, thorough research makes it possible to say that this anxiety and hostility hided compassion (Mathieu, 2011, p. 114).
We will write a custom Essay on The Attitude to Prostitution in Different Times specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It becomes reasonable, as the greatest part of the society is sure that prostitutes steel their husbands, but at the same time they pity prostitute’s destinies.
Levin and Peled (2011) conducted a research where they tried to present the methodology of considering the social relation to prostitution. Validity and reliability of the methods were considered.
The authors do not question the necessity of prostitutes in the society (p. 582). The same idea of the importance of prostitutes (courtesans) in the society is presented in the movie Dangerous Beauty.
Courtesans were necessary for the Middle Age Venice as well as prostitutes are necessary in the modern world. Men need sexual and mental relief and wives cannot always give them what they need and want. Prostitution is a service where human labor is specific, however, it may be one of the main ways to get whatever one wants.
The problem of prostitution and the legalization of the profession remain sharp in many countries and Levin and Peled (2011) have a desire to consider and evaluate the opinion of the societies to draw a conclusion.
The methodology offered by the author my help solve the problem of prostitution legalization in case society understand the real value of the occupation (p. 583).
Conclusions In conclusion it should be stated that the attitude of the society towards prostitution is an important factor in the life of a country.
Looking at the modern country, prostitution is not legalized in most of them, however, the changes in the attitude of the society to the issue may change the situation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Attitude to Prostitution in Different Times by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Looking at prostitution as the way to get relaxed, to enjoy not only sexually but mentally, may change attitude of people to prostitution in general.
History shows that prostitutes used to be educated people who supported their lowers not only in bed. Such function of prostitutes may increase their status, however, this may also make those uncomfortable for wives.
Reference List Levin, L.,
Jainism college application essay help
Explore ahimsa in Jainism and study how Gandhi applied it to modern times. How can ahimsa be used politically? How should it be applied individually? Does Jainism have other principles that you find applicable to your life?
Compare and contrast Sikhism with either Islam or Hinduism. Discuss how it might feel to be a part of minority religion that has suffered from discrimination both at home and abroad. What is more important, the similarities between these religions or the differences? Why?
* All blog original posts must be at least 200 words.
* Each blog original post should be unique and contain relevant videos, images, and article links.
* Students must respond to at least two other blog posts.
Effects of Video Games Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects on Social Relationships
Introduction The society has been immensely influenced by the technological changes, which are reshaping some of the activities. The emerging technologies in one way or another have affected every member of society, irrespective of age.
Video Games have had the greatest influence on the lives of children. Children no longer appreciate the outdoor games as was before, as most of their time is spend indoors playing video games.
Although this trend may have a positive impact on the lives of the concerned children as far as their knowledge of computer is concerned, there are various negative impacts.
Various educationists have confirmed that outdoor plays are very important to the development and growth of children.
It helps them develop socially as they meet with their friends and learn to share discussions, get involved in physical activities and develop physically through such games. The paper talks about some of the negative effects of computer games (Finkel, 1995).
It is established through research that computer games do not help children grow academically. In fact, computer games contribute to inactivity of body cells, which might lead to oversight hence causing diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.
Moreover, indoor games contribute to poor academic performance among students because most of the time is spend on useless games that do not offer any academic lessons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, computer games lead to the development of antisocial behavior whereby a student is not interested in interacting with his or her peers.
Overweight Available literature shows that more children are growing obese owing to the fact that they spend little time exercising and engage frequently with the computer.
Research shows that children who take part in physical exercises are more healthy, intelligent, and active in class. The study conducted by American Heart Association proved that children are contracting heart diseases mainly because of lack of physical activity.
The research indicated that the number of obese children increased by four percent in 1974. Those affected were children aged six to eleven years.
However, the percentage increase could not be compared with the study conducted in 2006 whereby the increase rate was seventeen percent. As from 1971 to 2006, the number of adolescents thought to be obese increased from 6.1 percent to 17.6 percent.
The percentage increase was shocking. Furthermore, the increase was attributed to lack of physical activity and video games (Wiegman,
Fort Walton Beach Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Fort Walton Beach is located in Okaloosa County in the state of Florida having a population of approximately 19,992 as per the population census of 2005. This city attracts many tourists especially during summer and the spring break where thousands of tourists flock to the beach. In the light of the above it is true to state that tourism in Fort Walton Beach becomes the primary driving force of the economy of this city (Moore 2007).
Reasons why people travel to Fort Walton Beach As elaborated by Velton, Obolsky and Ellwood (2004), people travel to Fort Walton Beach for different reasons as this beach offers various activities that are fun to the tourists. The temperatures of the beach during the summer time and the spring break are very favorable.
The city climate is clammy, a characteristic of sub-stifling typical weather. Various fun activities that attract people to Fort Walton Beach include the activity of sailing the bay where the tourists get an opportunity to explore the coast and view the Dolphins.
Fishing activity also takes place in the Okaloosa fishing pier where the tourists get a chance to catch some fish, take photographs as well as enjoying the breeze from the gulf.
Kite surfing is also another major activity that takes place at the beach and lessons are usually offered to the starters thus making it fun to people who have never done this activity before.
The infrastructure that Fort Walton Beach has or doesn’t have.to support the current and future tourism Franklin and Mikula (2009) points out that Fort Walton Beach has good infrastructure that enable the tourists to access the parts of the city effectively. The Northwest Florida Regional Airport is located in Fort Walton Beach.
In addition to that, it is the largest airport. The presence of this airport has enabled tourists from distant destinations to access the beach effectively. The city is served by various types of airlines such as the Delta Airline, the American eagle, continental express and Vision Airlines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various transits also exist within the city that provides the entry and exit of the people within the city in a more efficient manner.
A perfect example of transits is the Okaloosa County Transit that makes available transportation in the entire Fort Walton Beach. The main alighting station to this transit is the uptown station, lying on State Road 85.
Ways in which the plans for hotel and restaurant development will support the growth of tourism The development of various hotels and restaurants within the Fort Walton Beach will greatly help in the growth of tourism in the area. The presence of many hotels and restaurants that provide good services for the clients will attract many tourists who will be interested in touring the city.
Many tourists are usually attracted to areas where there are good amenities therefore to ensure that tourists continue to visit the beach it is important that the hotels are made suit their needs for example the provision of wireless internet which will ensure that the tourists indulge in business while on vacation thus eliminating inconveniences.
These hotels should also be secure so as to ensure the visitors that they will be safe throughout their stay at the beach.
Unique facilities that will help in the attraction of more tourists to the beach include the provision of Jacuzzi’s, beach games, good food as well as ensuring that the tourists enjoy good food in these beach hotels (Butko
Is it important to distinguish between immigrants and refugees? Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The thesis statement
Introduction As far as there is a strong necessity to address accordingly attitudinal distinctions between refugees and those who come to live permanently in foreign countries, in order to improve the conditions of life, one can conclude that making distinctions between the two groups is rather important.
It seems to be obvious that numerous contradictions concerning people’s values, beliefs, expectations, traditions, mode of life, etc. are to be resolved in a proper way.
Thus, to avoid or minimize the consequences of cultural shock, social violation, and discrimination, immigrants and refugees are to be regarded separately.
Moreover, one is to keep in mind that immigrants and refugees come to foreign countries on the basis of different reasons; so, this point determines the major distinction between those who are forced to leave their country, and those who come of their own accord.
The thesis statement Immigrants and refugees cannot be accepted equally, as their psychology is different. There is a need to distinguish between anthropological, historical and sociological domains the psychology of immigrants and refugees is based on. The contextual factors, which determine immigrants’ and refugees’ acculturation, are also different.
The body The refugee problem is considered to be of particular concern, as people seek safety in strange lands and hesitate in their choice: it is not easy to select between danger at their native land and the loss of identity.
Immigrants, in their turn, have a right of choice. They can come home any time they wish.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, it should be pointed out that such psychological processes as acculturation, assimilation, social changes, and individual challenges are equally experienced by both – immigrants and refugees.
In other words, the processes of socialization based on biculturalism can be applied to representatives of both groups (LaFromboise et al. 395-412).
The intercultural processes are recognized to be extremely important for social adaptation of immigrants and refugees. Thus, the so-called phenomenon of psychological acculturation can be used to explain the psychology of representatives of both groups.
The most important issue, which cannot be ignored, is that acculturation attitudes of immigrants and refugees are different. It was proven that mutual processes as well as mutual changes involve individual behaviors and cannot be interpreted the same way in relation to immigrants and refugees (Berry 616-618).
The issue of cultural identity is also to be discussed in detail, in order to understand the way immigrants and refugees experience acculturation.
It must be noted that immigrants undergo greater behavioral shifts easier in comparison with those who were forced to leave a native land due to certain political, economical or other reasons. That is why immigrants seem to experience less difficulty.
Refugees as compared with immigrants are considered to be less familiar to the dominant population and undergo ethnic stereotyping; however, the resident population prefers “to deal” with refugees rather than immigrants, as immigrants seem to symbolize the threat to the social cohesion of the society.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Is it important to distinguish between immigrants and refugees? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Generally, it is necessary to clarify that ethnic prejudice is related to both groups; although the dominant population expresses more negative attitudes towards immigrants (Stephan et al. 1-19).
Conclusion It is really important to distinguish between immigrants and refugees, as representatives of the two groups experience various acculturation processes in different ways.
Furthermore, the attitudes of the dominant population towards immigrants and refugees are also ambiguous and should be regarded on the basis of different perspectives.
Works Cited Berry, John. “A Psychology of Immigration.” Journal of Social Issues 57.3 (2001): 615-631. Print.
LaFromboise, Teresa, Hardin Coleman and Jennifer Gerton. “Psychological Impact of Biculturalism: Evidence and Theory.” Psychological Bulletin 114.3 (1993): 395-412. Print.
Walter G. Stephan, Lausanne Renfro, Victoria M. Esses, Cookie White Stephan and Tim Martin. “The Effects of Feeling Threatened on Attitudes toward Immigrants.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 29.1 (2005): 1-19. Print.
Concept of Normal and Abnormal Psychological State Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The semantic meanings of the adjectives normal and abnormal seem to be too generalized; for this reason, one is to keep in mind the areas the terms are to be applied to. For instance, according to the psychological field of study, one can define the adjectives in the following way:
Normal psychological state means a person’s reasonable and realistic approach towards a certain situation, problem, thing, etc.
Normal state is characterized by a number of signs, which most important involve an efficient perception of reality, affectionate relationships with others, feeling comfortably, an ability to control behavior without any efforts, and an ability to maintain productivity.
When classifying abnormality or abnormal psychological state, a wide range of social and cultural variables should be taken into account.
Generally, abnormal state can be characterized by learning disabilities, depression, phobic disorders, etc. Simply speaking, if a person feels bad or depressed a considerable period of time without any reason, his or her emotional state is considered to be abnormal.
When applying the terms to grief, one is to distinguish between normal grief and abnormal grief. Thus, it seems to be evident that normal grieving is associated with a kind of loss.
For instance, a death, a divorce, a dismissal are all recognized to be the notions, which form the category “a loss”. These causes of a person’s grief are normal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alarm, numbness, searching, depression and recovery are the stages normal grieving is based on. Normal grief involves a variety of emotional responses, which most common are considered to be anger or irritability, loneliness, anxiety, shock, the feeling of helplessness, cynicism, sadness and guilt.
The most widespread physical reactions include headaches, insomnia, fatigue, confusion, poor concentration, loss of direction, etc. If a person understands the importance of healthy eating and sleeping, and tries to take care of himself/herself despite being depressed, one can conclude that he or she experiences normal grieving.
If a person does not refuse to communicate with friends, family members, etc. and can talk about his or her feelings and problems, then he or she experiences normal grieving. Finally, it is necessary to point out that normal grieving means a person accepts the reality of a loss.
Abnormal grief reactions can be caused by the same losses; although a person’s response to a kind of loss is regarded as unhealthy. Thus, abnormal grieving involves self-destructive impulses, a phobia about a serious disease or death, chronic depression, loss of speech, etc.
If a person implements certain radical changes in his or her mode of life, wants to commit a suicide, cannot control his or her behavior, one can make a conclusion that a person experiences abnormal grieving.
It should be noted that not all problems people face can be easily resolved. The reactions to the obstacles are more important than the ways of resolution.
If a person cannot find a way to resolve a problem, he or she is to seek some alternative techniques. For instance, the problems, which seem to have no resolution, can be ignored.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Normal and Abnormal Psychological State specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, it is necessary to switch over to another task, in order to divert a person’s attention away from a problem. On the other hand, a person is to wait for some time; sometimes the formation of a right decision requires a considerable period of time.
Henri Fayol’s Contributions to Management Today Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fayol’s Management Principles in Today’s Work Environment
Introduction Professor Henri Fayol developed management principles that have identified management as a discipline and a profession. Management involves tasks such as recruiting human resources and deploying them in the organization.
They also facilitate the allocation, utilization and control of material and financial resources to ensure that the organization runs effectively.
According to Fayol, managers should be knowledgeable with skills and responsibilities that can enable them address all areas of the organization (Smit, 2007). These areas include production, commercial and financial roles, as well as planning and coordination in management.
He identified five management roles that help a manager run an organization effectively. These roles include forecasting and planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling (McLean, 2011).
However, management has been seen as a leadership role that focuses on people. Leadership involves engaging people fully and effectively to transform ideas into products.
Such interaction between the management and staffs has seen a revolution in lean organizations. This form of leadership integrates managers and teams to ensure that an individual has the right to contribute and not just follow orders (Howel, Macomber, koskela
The Article “Against Gay Marriage” by William J. Bennett Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The article ‘Against gay marriage’ was written by William J. Bennett. He has served in various leadership positions including a position as chairperson of the National Endowment for the humanities. He has produced various write-ups concerning cultural issues in America.
These include books and articles. His thesis is that gay marriage should not be legalized. The legalization of gay marriage in any society leads to social damage and the destruction of the normal structure of the family.
Summary Bennett has (for a long time) been involved in the forefront in the fighting of same-sex marriages in the United States.
He argues that it is a social issue that may be detrimental to the values held in the society. He was disturbed because the Hawaii Supreme Court was considering legalizing same-sex marriage.
He argued that if Hawaii were to make gay marriages legal, many nations would embrace it too. Bennett terms the arguments made in favor of gay marriages as shrewd arguments (Bennett, 2005, p.409).
These arguments try to suggest that legalization may prove helpful to many in the society.
Bennett shows his concern about the value of marriage, given that gay marriages are legalized. He goes ahead to warn the audience not to take the step.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He argues that the marriage institution is fragile already and legalizing same-sex marriage would only make things worse. He continues to mention that all religions only support marriage between a man and a woman and he believes that this is not mere coincidence.
Bennett criticizes the work by Sullivan saying that his argument is baseless as he describes marriage (same-sex marriage) as an open contract where the single, moralistic model is not honored.
Bennett believes that the essence of marriage is faithfulness and some things such as adultery are not encouraged. This is unlike in gay marriages where they are encouraged to explore (Bennett, 2005, p. 410).
The author is against gay marriage due to the implications it may have on the younger generation (Bennett, 2005, p. 410). He argues that those born in such a society would be confused due to the existence of both homosexuality and heterosexuality.
To make things worse some believe that it is a cool thing to be gay and Bennett refers this as ‘sexual identity crisis’. Bennett argues that if gay marriage were to be legalized, several changes would occur including in the education system.
Students will need to be taught about gay marriage and made to understand that one could have two mothers or fathers.
In conclusion, Bennett argues that the marriage institution has suffered enough due to several issues and there is no need for making things worse by introducing same-sex marriage (Bennett, 2005, p. 411).
We will write a custom Essay on The Article “Against Gay Marriage” by William J. Bennett specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Evaluation The information provided by Bennett accurate and logical. He argues that Sullivan supports gay marriage and yet the practices in such marriages do not follow the principles in marriage (faithfulness and fidelity).
He also argues that if all religions believe that marriage is meant to be between a man and a woman, then his argument is true.
He provides arguments in a clear and logical manner in such a way as to convince the reader of the ills associated with same-sex marriage. I agree with Bennett that gay marriages are unhealthy to the society.
Conclusion Same-sex marriage is becoming a trend in the developed world and it is corrupting the norms and values in the society (Laycock, Picarello,
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Whom It Affects
Psychological Problems and Treatment
Introduction The following is a discussion on the posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental condition that comes after an individual experiences traumatic circumstance.
This essay looks into the history, the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and the individuals who are likely to suffer from this condition, psychological problems associated with this condition and the treatment of the disorder.
History The posttraumatic stress disorder is an extreme anxiety condition that develops because of exposure to psychological trauma. It is an enduring stress reaction. This condition was first identified in the sixth century and has been associated with soldiers.
In the nineteenth century, medical professionals working with the military noted that military officers in the front lines usually had exhaustion after battle. This was characterized by an extreme fatigue and mental shutdown (Kelleher, 2008).
The terminology used for reference at first was that of gross stress reaction but after the world war two and the Vietnam War other terms were used to explain the disorder.
However, as time evolved and diagnosis of this condition in non-military individuals exposed to trauma was observed medical professionals referred the condition as posttraumatic stress disorder (Fullerton, 2004).
Symptoms The following are some of the symptoms that people diagnosed with the condition experience. The first one is that the victims experience a recurrent of the trauma. They usually have trouble-some memories of the experience when they sleep or nightmares.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the day, the individual may daydream or experience flashbacks of the traumatic event. The condition becomes posttraumatic stress disorder when it persists for a period of more than one month (Kelleher, 2008).
Excessive phobia of events or places associated with the traumatic experience also characterizes the condition. This involves avoidance to places, people, and things that remind the sufferer of the experience.
The third symptom involves having sleeping problems where the individual is unable to sleep. The sufferer also experiences very poor memory and low concentration as the mind is always disturbed.
The individuals suffering from this condition are usually absentminded most of the times and they display high sensitivity to touch or when startled.
They are also extremely watchful to threats. The individual suffering from the posttraumatic stress disorder gets angry quickly. They may have impulsive emotions especially when angry and they may be extremely aggressive (Fullerton, 2004).
The fourth symptom is adehonia; this is an extreme disinterest in what a person previously enjoyed. When one is suffering from this disorder, one becomes extremely reserved, and avoids people.
The victims also fail to make any future or long-term plan as they live in fear and anxiety that they might not live tomorrow. This condition is further associated with feelings of hopelessness, a general dislike for life and suicidal thoughts (Yehuda, 2001).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whom It Affects The groups of people affected by this disorder are individuals who have experienced traumatic events in their childhood or adult hood. These may involve physical, emotional or sexual abuse.
The second group of people who experience the traumatic disorders may include employees who work in occupations related to war or violence. This mostly includes soldiers and relief or emergency workers in battle zones (Fullerton, 2004).
People or patients diagnosed with the chronic or terminal illness may also experience the condition. People who have suffered from accidents or witnessed their loved ones in physical injuries are also likely to suffer from this condition. The other predisposing factor of this condition is genetic.
There are individuals who have high arousal tendency and adrenaline surges than others because of their genetic makeup (Fullerton, 2004). Such individuals have a higher likelihood of suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.
Children from foster families or under foster care are likely or have a higher tendency or likelihood to suffer from this condition mainly because they may be exposed to physical abuse or bitter memories, which separated them from their parents (Kelleher, 2008).
Psychological Problems and Treatment The first psychological problem experienced by people who are suffering from posttraumatic stress is that of having a re-experience of the traumatic event. The thought of seeing a psychiatrist usually never appears safe and many of the patients fear stigmatization especially the soldiers.
The first step towards treatment of this psychological disorder is by educating the patient on what they are suffering from.
This involves having a one on one session where the therapist can inform them of the disorder and other patients who have suffered from the same condition and recovered to make them come to terms with the condition and to stop them from living in denial.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second treatment is engaging the patient with a psychotherapist. The psychotherapy session is an interview where the therapist asks the patient questions and explanations about what they have experienced.
This helps the therapist to have a structured memory of the traumatic event. It also helps the patient to have a sense of relief by talking about the traumatic experience.
The other treatment involves having targeted interventions. These interventions also refer to the cognitive behavior therapy. It is training the mind to accept those experiences and teaching it to cope with such traumatic memories by helping the individual to overcome avoidance.
These psychological procedures are directed to assist the individual to stop avoidance behaviors. It involves helping the individual to identify the thoughts or the stimuli that makes them afraid. It also involves training the individuals to replace the distressing thoughts with less distressing thoughts (Kelleher 2008).
By exposing the individual to stimuli that triggers the memory of those events, the individual learns how to cope with thoughts of fear and anger.
This psychological procedure involves the individuals, for example war survivors or soldiers, watching a video on war together with a therapist who guides them on how to react to certain incidences that they are uncomfortable or nervous about.
This helps the patients to come to terms with the traumatic event and enables them to do away with avoidance tendencies (Yehuda, 2001).
The other therapy is the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. It involves having the therapist assisting the patient to talk about the traumatic event while the patient is looking at the therapist’s rapidly moving finger (Kelleher, 2008).
This therapy is especially helpful to patients who are experiencing low concentration and lapse in memory because of the posttraumatic stress disorder. It helps the patients to regain their concentration and alertness especially if they have been experiencing daydreams.
Although some researchers dispute this mode of treatment, it has nevertheless been effective in PTSD recovery (Kelleher, 2008).
The other psychological treatment of the posttraumatic stress disorder is the interpersonal therapy. The interpersonal psychotherapy involves having the patients in support groups such as family support groups that assist the patient to share the traumatic experience (Kelleher, 2008).
The support groups also link the patients with other patients and people who have recovered from the condition. Such support helps the patients to accept their condition and to realize that it is treatable and one can recover from the condition after the treatment (Yehuda, 2001).
Other than having the psychological procedural treatment, patients suffering from the posttraumatic stress condition can recover by having medical assistance. The victims may be given particular drugs to deal with loss of sleep and hypersensitivity.
The drugs include antidepressants such as fluexetine and paroxetine (Kelleher, 2008). Other forms of drugs include adrenergic antagonists that aim at reducing hyper-arousal in the patients by containing the adrenaline and nightmare experiences.
These drugs are effective when administered for a period of more than one year. The other drugs usually administered in the treatment of the posttraumatic disorder are the mood stabilizers that help the patient to be calm; they also significantly reduce sleep disturbances (Yehuda, 2001).
Conclusion The posttraumatic stress disorder is a condition, which has troubled many people but has not received due attention especially in the treatment of non-war patients. As a result, it leads to mental illness if it is not addressed early enough.
An individual suffering from this condition especially the soldiers must stop fearing stigma and seek treatment before this condition worsens. There are different medical procedures for this disorder and they differ because different patients experience the symptoms differently.
However, for the practitioner to diagnose or to consider the individual exhibiting such symptoms as suffering from the posttraumatic stress disorder, the individual must have experienced the symptoms for one month.
The posttraumatic disorder has treatments that are both psychological and medical. Applying both psychological and medical procedures to deal with the condition is necessary for the treatment procedures to have the desired outcome.
References Fullerton, C. (2004). Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 11, 1370-1376.
Kelleher, I. (2008). Associations between childhood traumas, bullying, and psychotic symptoms among a school-based adolescent sample. Britain’s Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 378-382.
Yehuda, R. (2001). Biology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 7, 41-46.
Reading Analysis for Ethics Class Essay college essay help near me
Ethics has a significant role in the public service. Personalities need to emulate and practice proper ethics. Particularly, this relates to those serving in public administrative dockets. Adams and Balfour, (2009), emphasize the need to maintain the society in an ethical state.
The two authors propose two basic approaches that may help in preventing the humanity from ethically “coming apart at the seams.” The present changes within the American society are noted.
The sociopolitical and economic factors have increasingly transformed within the U.S. Consequently, these have impacted on the state of ethics within the public service.
The interconnection between liberalism and individual ethics is obvious. The authors examine the American society from the period of the historical revolution. The ability of liberalism to impose phenomenal ethical challenges within humanity is also indicated.
Authority must be exercised in a manner that motivates controlled freedom. However, the effects of globalization on the morality of the society require great precaution (Adams
Expanding Protection of the Great Bear Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The Great Bear rainforest falls under the forest classification of coastal temperate rain forests, which is one type of the most endangered types of forests across the globe; before the threat of logging and other human activities threatening their existence, they covered 1/5 of 1% of the earth’s land surface.
Approximately, 60% of the original coverage of these forests, have been destroyed through development and logging among other human activities. The Great Bear rainforest is one ecological center, which provides an unforgettable adventure site, where there are mountains, waterfalls, coastal and water slide scenery.
This paper is a discussion of the recent proposals to expand the protection of the forest and its scenery, which may not be witnessed anywhere else in the world (Raincoast Conservation Society).
Following the threat of the Great Bear forest, which is one of the few remaining but threatened forest type, scientists around the world have raised concerns over the delays facing the implementation of protection agreements, which are supposed to increase the protection of the threatened forest area.
Further, scientists have been in the fore front, insisting that the BC should fasten the protection processes for the forest.
An example of this was the request sent by global rainforest scientists attending the Earth Summit at Rio, pushing for a faster process to implement the protection of the forest (Gracey 1; Reichel 1).
The stakeholders to be affected by the proposed expansion of the protected area of the forest, include the loggers, who earn their income from the logging activities at the forest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The B.C government is another stakeholder, as its leadership to guide the players to take place in the protection and the making of the agreement, rely on its directing.
The players under the B.C government stakeholders group, include the employees at the ministry of forests, land and natural resources, central and local authorities, for example, the provincial authorities who are greatly involved in the proposal.
There are the forest and research scientists group from different nations, who are pushing the completion of the protection agreement and process, as they are interested in fighting for increased protection of the threatened classification of forests.
Oil companies like the Northern Gateway pipeline company is also interested in the progress of the protection, as its enacting will affect its oil drilling and transportation operations.
Other stakeholders include tourists, who will benefit from viewing the threatened scenery after protection (Raincoast Conservation Society; Reichel 1; Gracey 1).
The benefits from the protection of the forest will include the protection of the wildlife and marine species that live at the temperate rain forest surroundings, which may not be found at other places, except at the few threatened areas.
From the protection of the forest, the authorities will realize the protection of the biodiversity at the area, including the rainforest forest plants, the marine and the land species residing at the region, including bears and the threatened vegetation and rare scenery.
We will write a custom Case Study on Expanding Protection of the Great Bear specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the implementation, the process will enable the first nation people living at the region, to improve the wellbeing of the community economically, environmentally, and for the general welfare of the people.
Another benefit is the creation of more tourist income avenues, from which the local people and the government can utilize for long-term growth.
The costs to be borne from implementing the protection of the forest include the cost of implementing the agreements and setting up the protection plan for the forest, and the income of the loggers, hunters and other people relying on the resources at the forest; these groups will lose their source of income and employment.
Another cost to be borne from the implementation is the economic potential of the players within the oil industry, as they will not be able to access the oil reserves at the area, which can form a great source of income and employment locally and nationally (Raincoast Conservation Society; Reichel 1; Gracey 1).
Works Cited Gracey, Kyle. “Scientists around the world concerned over lengthy delays to fully implement the protection agreements in the Great Bear Rainforest.” Canada Newswire, 2012. Web.
Raincoast Conservation Society. Great Bear Rainforest. British Columbia, 2012. Web.
Reichel, Justina. “Scientists Urge BC to Speed up Protection of Iconic Rainforest: Half of Great Bear Rainforest remains open to logging.” The Epoch Times, 2012. Web.
Ethical Scenario in Kant’s Theory of Humanity Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
While trying to explain humanity, Immanuel Kant stated that we should always treat humanity in us or in other people as an end and not as a means (Barbara 2011). This is actually the argument which I believe is strongest.
The moral principle behind this argument is helping other people and at the same time helping you. This principle is normally known as beneficence. Treating an individual and yourself as an end depicts that you respect and value that person’s humanity and your humanity too.
This is how you can know that this premise is good. It is important to treat people equally and not discrimination on others because they are disabled or come from different ethnic group or race. Based on utilitarianism theory, an action is termed good if it generates good in a greater way and number (Wells
Medical Ethics: “Sicko” Documentary by Michael Moore Essay (Movie Review) college admission essay help
I believe Michael Moore’s approach to the health care issue in his documentary, Sicko, is elusive and reactive rather than proactive.
It is argued in the documentary that over fifty million Americans are to insure their lives whereas the large percentage insure is unable to maintain its insurance costs owing to rules and regulations and company fraud.
Several interviews were conducted to ascertain the truth of the matter and it was found out that insurance companies play rackets with the lives of people in case of medical emergencies. The insurance companies would always find a reason not to compensate its policyholders.
This is usually aimed at maximizing the profits of the company. The movie compares the healthcare laws of Canada with those of the US. The actor singles out the efforts of one of the Canadian policy maker by the name Tommy Douglas, who worked tirelessly to improve the healthcare system in Canada (Callenbach, 2008).
The actor argues that anti-health care policy individuals claim that providing free healthcare services amounts to communism, which is not true. The then head of state, Ronald Reagan, advised people that universal healthcare services would lead to the loss of freedom and introduction of socialism into the financial system.
Moore answers the critics basing their arguments to Reagan’s allegations that American financial system had not been converted to socialism by the free police services, fire services and the postal services.
In my view, Moore employs both Kantian approach and virtue ethics approach. However, utilitarianism is not applied anywhere in the movie. As Kant observed, each individual in the world exists as an end in himself but not as a means to a particular end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In everything that an individual undertakes in the world, it must be viewed as an end not a means to an end. People do not exist as a means to achieve particular tasks. In other words, we need to strive to achieve our own pleasure but not to exist to please something else.
Critics of the healthcare bill believed that people exist to fulfill the wishes and interests of capitalism, which, according to Kant, is unacceptable since we should not attempt to fulfill the wishes of something else and forget ourselves.
In this regard, we need to act as rational beings meaning that we need to apply reason in everything we do. Healthcare is a basic right to every American hence supporting it is rational and reasonable (DeGrazia, Mappes,
Daoism college essay help: college essay help
Explore the Daoist concept of wu wei. Provide an example from your own life that illustrates this principle.
Explain why Confucius thought education was so important. How do these ideas match with your beliefs on education? Explore the relationship between education and a healthy society.
* All blog original posts must be at least 200 words.
* Each blog original post should be unique and contain relevant videos, images, and article links.
* Students must respond to at least two other blog posts.
The Impact of Applied and Behaviourist Psychology on the Field Essay essay help free
James Rowland Angell’s opinion, in as far as the disappearance of the term ‘consciousness’ from psychology is concerned, was based on his studies in psychology as a critical part of mental activity towards different stimulus in the environment (Hergenhahn, 2009).
His principles in psychology were inclined towards a biological understanding, which rarely tolerated elements that were not physically evidenced such as consciousness.
He identified that by evaluating mental operations as a part of evolutionary stimulus series, psychologists manipulated the different psychological positions of their patients or study subjects in a better way. This was mainly by altering the environmental stimulus that they were meant to adapt to.
He identified that consciousness or lack of it did not inhibit the normal functioning of the ordinary mental processes (Haines