Expanding The Firm’s International Business Operations Essay Writing Essay Help

Business plan The firm’s management has unanimously agreed to inject a new lease of life into the waning firm’s business life; this comes after carrying out a successful market research. This comes in the wake of the emerging trend of the declining pace of the firm’s growth over the past year. As was established by the research team, one of the ways of saving the firm’s falling business life is through expanding the firm’s business operations internationally. The reasons for expanding the operations of the firm internationally include:-

The firm intends to reach out to the market that is readily available in other countries (U.S. CB, 2013). Based on the findings, the research team established that the domestic market is saturated by the commodity supply. This is due to the establishment of other firms that deal in the supply of substitute commodities for the product.

Other firms equally supply other brands of the same commodity. This, as a result, reduces the total sales by the firm which translates to reduction in the net income. Increase in the costs of factors of production, such as land over the past one year, has forced the firm to increase the price of the commodity in order to take care of the extra cost. This has scared most of the potential buyers away, thereby, reducing the sales volume.

The firm intends to set up additional branches in other countries in order to take advantage of cheap labor and reduced duty charges in other countries. In the research findings, the firm also established that the international labor market harbor laborers with lots of skill and technical know-how.

The firm, therefore, intends to establish its branches in these countries that boast cheap but skilled labor in order to reduce the cost of production. The firm looking to set up its business operations under favorable government policies that will allow it to maximize the profits accrued.

Some of the countries like Germany have favorable market policies that include reasonable duties charged on the commodities available in the market. The firm intends to take advantage of comparably low duty charges on commodities produced locally amongst various countries worldwide, by expanding its operations internationally. This may invariably impact the price of the goods produced by lowering the selling price; as a result, the firm will be able to sell an additional quantity.

The firm also intends to increase its financial base, through initiating trade partners in most countries by expanding its operations internationally. There are a lot of firms in the international market, with greater financial base that are willing to enter into partnership with other firms in order to expand their operations. The firm, therefore, will look for such firms in order to take advantage of the capital that they are willing to inject into the business operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various methods of expanding the firm operations internationally. These methods can be adopted by the firm depending on the risks involved, nature of the market, and the urgency to expand the firm’s operation (Lord, 2012). These methods include foreign direct investment approach and strategic alliance approach.

Strategic alliance refers to a business partnership in which two or more firms work together on agreed business activities, so as to expand their operations. The associated firms, however, remain independent business entities within the coalition. Foreign direct investment, on the other hand, involves the buying of an already established firm in another country or injecting capital to expand the operations of another firm in the target country by a foreign firm.

These methods of expanding business operation internationally have different advantages and shortcomings depending on the prevailing circumstance (Hisrich, 2010). Therefore, a firm should conduct thorough research and evaluation before choosing on which method to employ.

A firm can employ foreign direct investment through different ways. A firm may decide to buy shares in the associated company, in order to gain control over the associated firm’s operations. A firm can also effect foreign direct through forming a joint venture in which both firms participate equally. It may also do so by forming a merger with another firm that deals in the production of a unique product.

This method of business expansion allows a firm to reduce the risk associated with any given investment by allowing the firm to diversify their investments in the overseas countries. It is also associated with an increment in the total revenue collection through increased sales volume; this is as a result of increased market outreach by expanding the scales of operation internationally. Foreign direct investment also allows a firm to use the market channels that have already been developed by the associated firm (Andrew, 2013).

This helps save on the cost of conducting market research, aggressive marketing and even losses owing to prolonged promotion periods. Additionally, such moves grant the investing firm with an opportunity to concentrate on other sectors of production with a view of increasing the total revenue income. In some situations, firms get the advantage of inheriting a competitive pool of workers with vast knowledge of the market that helps in the launching firm’s operation at initial stages of production.

Firms can effect strategic alliance arrangement through different ways; for example, such an arrangement can be made by creation of a totally independent business entity by two or more firms, which combine their resources in order to fuel the operations of the new entity while still keeping their respective objectives in check. Such arrangement is referred to as a joint venture.

We will write a custom Essay on Expanding the Firm’s International Business Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, two or more firms may decide to come together and join their resources in different ratios, by offering factors of production according to their capabilities in order to take advantage of the prevailing market situation by reducing the cost of production and maximizing profit, a practice known as equity strategic alliance (Andrew et al, 2009).

Strategic alliance also occur, when two different companies occurring in different countries, agree to form an arrangement to share their strengths and supplement their weaknesses in order to aid their operations in a foreign country over a given period, after which the arrangement seize to exist. This arrangement is known as a global strategic alliance.

Like foreign direct investment, strategic alliance equally has advantages. Strategic alliance allows the associated firms to focus on their competitive strengths within the partnership arrangement in order to increase their overall sales volume. The associated firms also reduce the political risk that is common with extending operations internationally through forging strategic alliance. Practicing firms also get the opportunity to learn from their partners in areas where the associated partners are doing well.

Pooling of resources among the practicing firms allows for the creation of a sound capital base by the associated firms, thereby allowing the firms to have a greater bargaining power in the market. It also saves the firm the agony of tightening up the legalities of operation with the foreign authorities especially in countries where the procedures for procuring such documents are so cumbersome, thereby, allowing the firm to focus on other more productive initiatives.

As expected, these two methods of firm expansion also have their shortcomings. To start with, strategic alliance requires proper supervision to ensure that both the investing firms serve equally according to the agreement. Most of the strategic alliance arrangements are not fully legally tied; therefore, they lack proper documentation that helps in conflict resolution, in case of misunderstanding amongst the associated partners (Raphael et al, 2013).

In some cases, one of the associated firms may lag behind in providing the necessary support as spelt out in the agreement. This may force other associates to pump in more resources a process that may cause deviation from the firm’s initial set objectives. This may also strain the firms independent undertakings since the firm may have to reallocate some of resources from other areas of production.

Foreign direct investment, on the other hand, requires tedious and involving research about the prospective partner. This may prove costly and erroneous especially where the prospective partners do not keep clear financial records.

Lack of proper financial records may equally spur legal battles between the firm and other business associates, mainly where the missing records contain the debt records involving the absorbed firm and other enterprises. Inheriting a firm may also impact the firm’s image negatively especially where there is discrimination against foreign investors in a given country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Expanding the Firm’s International Business Operations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on this understanding, it is advisable for a firm to expand its operations internationally through the strategic alliance approach. This method offers the firm an opportunity to extend its operations internationally through associating with other companies but still permits the firm to hold on to its profound objectives (Landström, 2012).

It is also worth noting that, with this arrangement, the firm may decide to withdraw from the joint venture any time it feels like, as long as there is a breach of the terms of the agreement; therefore, strategic alliance is the best risk management approach of expanding the firm’s business operations internationally.

References Andrew, H. (2013). Business Environment in a Global Context. Oxford: Oxford university press.

Andrew, S., Gerald, Y., Hung, G. (2009, June). Ping An’s Overseas Expansion: Financial Uncertainties and Risk Management. Hong Kong daily, 24, 20-21.

Hisrich, R. D. (2010). International Entrepreneurship: Starting, Developing and Managing a Global Venture. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Inc.

Landström, H. (2012). Handbook of Research on Venture Capital, Volume 2. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lord, Y. (2012). A Guide to Starting and Developing a New Business. London: HM government.

Raphael, L., Luis, V., and Donald, L. (2013, January, 6). Building Your Company’s Capabilities Through Global Expansion. Cambridge: MIT Sloan Management Review, 234.

United States Census Bureau. (2013). U.S. and World Population Clock. Web.

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Intercultural Communication in Society Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Diverse cultural beliefs and traditions that people have across the world have significant influence on intercultural communication. While some cultures have unique cultural beliefs and traditions, others have common beliefs that anyone can easily adopt and apply in intercultural communication.

The variation in cultural beliefs and traditions among various cultures portrays the extent of intercultural communication that occurs in a given population. Since tourists often face difficulties in intercultural communication, examination of the cultural beliefs and traditions of the native population is imperative. To establish how cultural background influences intercultural communication, this essay examines Alexander Mathew’s experiences with tourists in New Jersey.

Alexander Mathew is a resident of the Atlantic City in New Jersey. He is a White American who has lived in the Atlantic City since his birth in 1970. This implies that Alexander Mathew has purely adopted cultural beliefs and traditions that are dominant in Atlantic City.

Hence, Alexander Mathew has beliefs and traditions that reflect White American culture. Alexander Mathew works in a tourist resort in Atlantic City, and thus he interacts constantly with tourists. The experience of interacting with tourists makes him an appropriate candidate for the interview.

From the interview, one can learn that Alexander Mathew greatly cherishes his cultural background because he happily shares his beliefs and traditions with tourists that he interacts with daily.

When asked what makes him communicate effectively with tourists from various cultural backgrounds, A. Mathew (personal communication, August 18, 2013) says that he uses English mostly when communicating with tourists and he has learned French, Germany, Spanish, Portuguese, and Jerriais. In this view, it is evident that to communicate effectively with tourists from diverse cultural backgrounds, one must understand different languages.

The attitude of Alexander Mathew is not typical because he is proud to be a resident of Atlantic City in New Jersey. Unlike other people in New Jersey, Alexander Mathew has a friendly attitude towards tourists, as he likes sharing his cultural beliefs and traditions with different people. With his friendly attitude, A. Mathew (personal communication, August 18, 2013) says “I enjoys interacting with all tourists no matter their cultural backgrounds while teaching them to learn White American culture and language.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, Alexander Mathew continually learns other cultures, which has helped him communicate effectively with people from diverse cultures. Thus, Alexander Mathew gives good treatment to the tourists by encouraging them to adopt a White American culture while learning from diverse cultures.

The Alexander Mathew’s experience with tourists has stretched the comfort zone of the writer in intercultural communication. As a resident of New Jersey, the writer perceives that residents of Atlantic City, New Jersey, have unfriendly attitude, and thus unable to provide favorable treatment to tourists by teaching their culture or learning from diverse cultures.

In this view, the writer has learned that sharing of cultures occurs through the process of teaching and learning that occurs when members of different cultures interact as it happens when natives and tourists interact.

Reference Mathew. (Personal Communication, August 18, 2013). Atlantic City.

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Business Ethics Case Study college application essay help

Table of Contents The Financial Executive

Marketing Officer

Director Research and Development

Vice President Sales and Marketing

Conclusion

References

Moral considerations play a critical in determining the success of the organization in the modern organizational culture. The ethical codes determine the relationships between customers and the company in the sense that any organization willing to follow the established moral codes will increase its market share (Duska, 2007).

In the case provided, Soybean Derivative Research Initiative has to observe moral codes in order to achieve its intended objectives. The organization stands to benefit in four major ways, as listed below if it observes ethics:

The company will attract potential investors, as well as keeping shares high. In this regard, the management will have protected the organization from a possible takeover.

Many excellent employees will be willing to join the organization since any person feels comfortable when associated with strong moral conducts. This will perhaps bring down the costs associated with recruitment. The talented workers will be retained, which is an advantage to the organization.

The productivity of the organization will be high, as labor turnover will be reduced tremendously.

A company with a good business name attracts many customers implying that the sales of the firm will always be high hence increasing profitability.

The Financial Executive Issues related to finances are always important to the survival of any organization, including Soy- DRI. In particular, the issue of trust must be taken into consideration since it might bring down the performance of the finance unit.

Due to the fact that organizations are constantly in violation of the financial fair play, a number of global bodies have been set up to ensure that ethical codes are observed when handling the financial matters of any firm. When drafting financial policies, the top executive has to be sensitive to the demands of clients regarding the environment and social issues. These issues must be resolved before moving on to make any financial policy.

Based on this, the financial officer is advised to be an active owner by simply integrating the issues into the policies and practices of the organization. As a rule, any financial officer should disclose any unfair solicitation of funds since it would maintain the position of the organization in the ever-competitive market. For this to happen, the officer has to work hand in hand with other organizational units.

Organizational investors are expected to carry out their fiduciary duties pertaining to environmental, social, and governance issues. In one of the studies conducted by the Asset Management Working Group of the UNEP Finance Initiative, it was established that stakeholders should stop concentrating on making profits and instead focus on following the law in order to preserve the environment and safeguard lives.

The law on social governance is very clear since it states that all organizations have a role to play in safeguarding the lives of citizens. The finance manager should explore some of the ways that will enable the organization to introduce its customers to the correct brand other than using a different brand in serving babies. A different report published in 2009 by EIRIS suggested that many financial executives obey the ethical codes, even though the financial sector is yet to accept this reality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the organization is faced with a major ethical issue, the finance officer will have to come up with strong financial management codes to protect the reputation of the organization. For this to happen, he or she is expected to observe some principles, including the following:

The officer should act honestly meaning that he or she has to be an individual with high integrity. The official has to come up with financial policies to minimize the misuse of company products without necessarily creating any conflict of interest in personal or professional life.

The executive has the moral responsibility of offering financial information to various units. The information ought to be realistic, precise, inclusive, objective, pertinent, well timed, and comprehensible. The financial executive should pass any form of information whether negative or positive. Moreover, all sections should be addressed independently to avoid any chance of breakdown in communication. Timely disclosure of information will perhaps help in presenting the accurate picture of the organization regarding the financial position of the organization. This will go a long way in ensuring that the business achieves its financial objectives.

The organization is faced with both ethical and legal issues. Apart from resolving the moral issues, the financial expert should advise the company on the best way to handle the situation to prevent any form of legal action (Arnold, Beauchamp,

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Social Psychology: Definition, Aspects and Theories Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Differences from other disciplines

The role of research

Conclusion

References

Introduction Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies actions, interactions, thoughts, and feelings of people under different social contexts (Kassin, 2013). It is mutually related to sociology. However, both disciplines have evolved differently over the years and deal with different social issues. One of the most important aspects of social psychology is research. Research applies to develop and study various theories that form its basis.

It generates different theories that explain social behavior and different mental states. Social psychology varies greatly from other disciplines of psychology because of its unique approach to study of individuals and its application of different methods of information collection during research. It is important to study social psychology because it improves the understanding of the existence of stereotypes, racism, sexism, and discrimination in the society (Kassin, 2013).

Discussion Social psychology is the methodical study of human feelings, thoughts, and actions in relation to their surroundings. Going by this definition, social psychology utilizes empirical methods of study, hence reference to scientific study (Myers, 2010). On the other hand, it involves study of variables that include thoughts and behaviors that are observed in individuals. In the study of social psychology, researchers and professionals use observed influences of certain social situations on humans to explain behavior.

Social psychology establishes a mutual relationship between psychology and sociology (Myers, 2010). In the last century, psychologists and sociologists collaborated in many studies with efforts to develop both fields. However, the disciplines became specialized as researchers pursued different aspects of their respective disciplines.

Differences from other disciplines Social psychology differs greatly from other disciplines such as clinical psychology, general psychology, and sociology. Social psychology differs from personality psychology because it lays emphasis on the influence of social context on behavior while personality psychology focuses on individual difference between individuals, human nature and similarities between people (Myers, 2010).

In addition, it studies the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that influence individual perception and attitudes. In contrast, social psychology studies how social contexts influence behaviors, feelings, and thoughts (Kassin, 2013).

There is a big difference between social psychology and sociology. While sociology focuses on social influences that form human behavior, social psychology deals with experiences and social issues that explain people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In addition, social psychology involves interpretation of individual attitudes and perceptions in relation to their social contexts (Myers, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sociology focuses on the whole society while social psychology focuses on individuals. As such, social psychology applies as an extended branch of sociology, because it studies how society affects the behaviors, attitudes, and thinking patterns of individuals (Kassin, 2013).

There are distinct differences between clinical and social psychology. Clinical psychology deals with mental disorders that arise from intellectual, biological, emotional, and psychological inadequacies.

Unlike social psychology, it does not focus on the effects of social aspects such as interactions on human behaviors. Clinical psychology deals with the biological effect on human behaviors and thoughts while social psychology deals with social aspects that affect behavior and thoughts (Myers, 2010). Social psychology does not involve study of the causes of emotional or psychological disorders.

Biological psychology focuses on the mechanical aspects of behavior, thought patterns, and attitudes. It is the scientific study of the biological basis of behavior and thought patterns. In contrast, social psychology is the study of the causes of behavior and mental attitudes.

As such, psychologists explain why people interact with others, and why they behave in certain ways (Smith

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Intercultural Communication: Interview Essay essay help

Intercultural communication determines how people from diverse cultural backgrounds co-exist in a diverse society. Cultural beliefs and traditions affect intercultural communication because they dictate how people communicate within a given cultural environment.

A cultural background under which children grow and develop has considerable influence on beliefs and traditions that they uphold in their adulthood. Migration has created an avenue through which people from diverse cultural backgrounds can interact and share their cultural beliefs and traditions. In this view, this essay examines the cultural experience of an immigrant, Sheik Omar, to the United States.

Sheik Omar is an immigrant to the United States and lives in the Atlantic City, New Jersey. Sheik Omar is a 40-year-old man who migrated to the United States when he was 29 years old. This means that Sheik Omar has lived in Atlantic City, New Jersey for a period of 11 years.

For 11 years, Sheik Omar has been working as a chef at a tourist resort where people from diverse cultural backgrounds visit. His job has made him gain significant skills that are essential in intercultural communication. To interview Sheik Omar, the writer met him at the tourist resort in Atlantic City and interacted for a period of three hours during the interviewing.

From the interview, the writer learned that Sheik Omar is an immigrant from Saudi Arabia where the dominant culture is the Arab culture. Sheik Omar speaks English in New Jersey because it is the official language, but his native language is Arabic. Moreover, Sheik Omar is a Muslim despite the fact that Islamic religion is not dominant in New Jersey.

Owing to his Islamic faith, Sheik Omar celebrates Islamic festivities such as fasting (Ramadan) and pilgrimage (Hajj). S. Omar (personal communication, August 19, 2013) asserts that, “although the dominant religion in New Jersey is Christianity, I will not leave the Islamic faith because I grew up in an Islamic environment.” Hence, the writer learned that Sheik Omar upholds Islamic beliefs and traditions because they shaped him during his childhood.

Since Sheik Omar is an immigrant to the United States, he has experienced great challenges in coping with the American culture. When Sheik Omar came to the United States, he had to adjust his language to English for him to communicate effectively with the Americans. In his home country, Omar Sheik used to speak the Arabic language as the official language.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, dressing code and social interaction in the United States surprised Sheik Omar. S. Omar (personal communication, August 19, 2013) argues that what is unique about American culture is that people dress and interact freely, unlike the Arab culture where men and women have a specific dressing code with gendered interactions. Although Sheik Omar likes the freedom that American culture bestows to people, he confesses that he misses Islamic festivities and cultural events that happen regularly.

The experience of Sheik Omar stretched the comfort zone of the writer in terms of intercultural communication. The writer thought that Sheik Omar has adopted American culture since he has lived in the United States for more than a decade. However, the assertions of Sheik Omar have surprised the writer because he still cherishes Islamic beliefs and traditions together with Arabic language despite the fact that he has interacted with Americans for more than a decade.

Basing on his experience, it is evident that Sheik Omar upholds the Arabic culture, although he lives in the United States where American culture predominates. In this view, for the study to be valuable, the writer needs to study cultural beliefs and traditions that shape childhood growth and development in relation to intercultural communication.

Reference S. Omar. (Personal Communication, August 19, 2013). Atlantic City.

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Twitter and the hardships of life Essay essay help online free

The development of technology has drastically changed the world. As people are unable to calculate the rates of progress, it is impossible to determine what changes will be brought about with an even greater increase in technological advancements. The use of social networks has added to the hardships of life, as people endanger their personalities and reputations by their postings to the public. Twitter shows that sometimes, people make mistakes in their messages and are unable to control the outcome.

The biggest question is that sometimes the problems overtake the benefits of technology. This closely relates to the social media and all the resulting problems. Primarily, there is the safety concern, as the information used in the social networks can be used by the advertisement websites.

Even though there are safeguards that try to prevent personal information from being shared with other institutions and sites, there are still some was that information gets out. “Twitter” has been one of the sited networks that is widely used by people. People add their posts as soon as they can. Another issue is that people who share information online cannot really control who can access their web page and browse their personal information.

Many have compromised themselves in the workplace and home. This leads to many concerns, but people are still not aware of the security issues. The unfortunate part is that people do not pay attention to the growing problem and continue using the social networks. It has become so popular that individuals feel to be required to upgrade their social status and produce information that can be acknowledged by others.

An aticle titled “How To: Recover from a Social Media PR Disaster” talks about people worrying about theit status and posts they have made. One of the poits made is that “It’s hard to tell the whole story in a post and it’s hard to talk to your entire audience in just one tweet” (Sniderman, 2011).

This is very true, as people are unable to respond properly to posts and might not get the whole picture. Very often, people will succumb to the pressure and join the majority, as no one wants to be outside the circle and be seen as an outsider. This will result in unwanted comments.

Even though there are several layers of security and people are warned about the harms of personal information leaking, organizations are the ones that are using the private information to own advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The development of social networks and the use of internet have made communication between people a form of social status. People focus on the way their “Twitter” page looks, they pay great attention to the amount of pictures they post, number of responses that they receive to certain posts and comments about their status. The need to go out and do things became not needed.

The interaction between people has come down to words on web pages and comments in relation to behavior of others. It is also cheaper and more practical to live in the word of computers, where there is no need to go out, spend money in bars, different attractions and games that involve physical participation of the person and others. Also, it is very time consuming, so people simply have no time to go out and enjoy nature and the company of others.

The constant checking for the replies and posts of others, especially if there is an extreme amount of friends, takes up a lot of time. Very often people add individuals to the category of “friends” through other people. They do not really know the person or are familiar with their individual personality. The only way they “know” them, is by pictures on their page and comments on their “wall”.

The social networks have put a major dent into the society. The private information and the communication itself has become a public occurrence where people put their lives out on the public viewing without any concern for security or privacy. Even though technology has helped people in a lot of ways, a person must realize its drawbacks and balance the use of technology with the physical interaction with others.

The balance must be kept for technology to be helpful instead of detrimental. It is important to keep in mind that technology is not always error proof, thus reliability is a relative concept. There are many examples that show how technology has proven to be a negative influence on society, but people still continue its use.

A major concern can be observed through the posts and the type pf shared information. This might endanger the security of the personal information and is one of the most important things that a person has. People must become aware of the growing problem and use as much care as possible to protect their well being and individuality. A person’s reputation is very hard to deserve but is rather easy to mar by a simple comment on the “wall”.

Reference Sniderman, Z. (2011). How To: Recover from a Social Media PR Disaster.

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Saudi Arabian Culture Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Family, Marriage, and Children

Norms, Religion, and Education

Superstitions, Taboos, and Gestures

Important Events in History

Conclusion

References

Introduction Across the world, different countries have different cultures depending on racial and ethnic composition of citizens. Countries that have diverse races or ethnicities appear to have diverse cultures, while countries that have one race or ethnicity have common culture. Normally, the culture of a given population comprises of several elements of culture. Andersen and Taylor (2011) assert that elements of culture are norms, beliefs, values, and language, which comprise of material and immaterial things.

In essence, culture consists of concrete and abstract elements that shape human and societal behaviors across all ages. Since different countries have different cultures due to their racial and ethnic differences, people exhibit unique behaviors that reflect their respective norms, beliefs, values, and languages. Owing to globalization and increased intercultural interaction, people need to learn about other cultures.

Learning other cultures is necessary because it enhances intercultural communication, which plays an important role in promoting economic, social, and political aspects of a country. In this view, by having common norms, beliefs, values, and languages, people can easily interact and perform businesses without undue cultural restrictions. Therefore, this essay examines elements of the Saudi Arabian culture with the objective of helping visitors to enjoy their stay in Saudi Arabia.

Family, Marriage, and Children Family and marriage are central in the Saudi Arabian culture because they signify the procreative ability of the society. In Saudi Arabia, family is a crucial social institution because it enhances the social status of an individual. The family provides an opportunity for parents to take care of their children and create businesses for the benefit of the family and society.

The Saudi Arabian family has patriarchal structure, which makes husband the head the family with great responsibilities of protecting and providing for the family. Owing to the patriarchal structure, the family assumes the identity of the father. In this case, Sharia law (Islamic law) makes the father to be the custodian of the children when they are still young.

According to Bowen (2008), Sharia law favors men because “in case of divorce, they receive custody of all children; boys at the age of seven and girls at the age of nine” (p. 11). This means that Saudi Arabian culture gives men the right to be custodians of children in the event of separation or divorce. Therefore, a foreign woman needs to know the state of family law in Saudi Arabia before marrying a Saudi Arabian man.

In Saudi Arabia, marriage is a civil contract where a husband pays dowry in the presence of family witnesses who sign marriage agreement. The aged family members have the responsibility of discussing marriage issues and signing the marriage agreement. Bowen (2008) states that, “marriage in Saudi Arabia is contractual, with rights and obligations established by means of a formal prenuptial agreement” (p. 11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the marriage period, wives are subject to their respective husbands who have absolute authority over what they do. Before marriage, fathers or male relatives dictate what women do in terms of work, education, and behavior, while husbands take over the role when they marry them.

In the society, the responsibilities of women lie within the family, while the responsibilities of men lie in the public realm. Women have powers in making decisions regarding household duties and upbringing of children. Moreover, Sharia law allows men to marry up to four wives provided they treat them equally. Hence, foreigners need to understand that women in Saudi Arabia are under absolute authority of men and that polygamy is legal.

Norms, Religion, and Education Saudi Arabia is a country in the Middle East that exhibit cultural homogeneity as the citizens have a common culture. Cultural homogeneity is evident as Arabic is an official language and people believe in one religion of Sunni Islam. Additionally, Saudi Arabian monarchy is a political culture that supports homogeneity of the Saudi Arabian culture in the Middle East.

The Saudi Arabians, therefore, share cultural elements that define their norms, beliefs, customs, traditions, superstitions, taboos, and language. Cultural elements of the Saudi Arabian culture are familiar in the Arab countries. Transfer of cultural elements from one generation to another depends on beliefs and norms govern families.

In Saudi Arabia, beliefs and values that shape the culture of Saudi Arabians emanate from families and social structures. Norris and Inglehart (2012) argue that theories of multiculturalism envisage that people “acquire deep-rooted and enduring social norms and cultural values through the process of childhood socialization within the family, local community, and country” (p. 235). Thus, family and social structures of the Saudi Arabian culture have significant impact on beliefs, norms, and values of the people.

Sunni Islam is a dominant religion in Saudi Arabia as it dictates the culture of people. Beliefs, norms, and values that Saudi Arabians uphold mirror Islamic teachings that are in the Quran and Sharia law. For example, the Quran teaches Muslims to dress in a decent and modest manner to discourage sexual temptations (Aziz, 2010).

The dress code of Muslims in Saudi Arabia aims at concealing rather than revealing sensitive areas of the body that the culture considers private. Unlike in the United States where people have freedom of dressing so long as the dress code is not explicit. Since legislations support the dress code, everyone in Saudi Arabia including foreigners must dress decently. While men wear white caps (taiga) and robe (throbe), women wear cloak (abayah) and head scarf.

We will write a custom Essay on Saudi Arabian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the Saudi Arabian culture, foreign men must put on long trousers that loosely fit and dress in shirts that cover upper part of the body well. The culture also dictates women to dress in long skirts, which fit loosely with hem covering the knees. In this view, foreigners need to understand how to dress lest they violate dress code that the Saudi Arabian culture and legislations stipulate.

Saudi Arabia has integrated Islamic religion into its education system. The government of Saudi Arabia has made basic education compulsory, and thus many students have been able to pursue their education. Through education, students study theology and cultural studies, which have enabled Islamic monarchy to thrive in Saudi Arabia (Hefner,

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Critique of film by Tony Gilroy Essay a level english language essay help

Movie has been used for years as a way through which people depict issues that happen in the society. On the same note, movie can be used as an entertainment aspect when people want to relax. Nevertheless, while some other movies are well cast and plotted, there are others which do not meet the best criteria.

Academically, studying film is very interesting given the opportunity it provides for the students to understand some crucial aspects of film. The movie duplicity directed by Tony Gilroy is an American feature film that was produced in 2009. It is a very entertaining movie on crime, love and comedy mixed together. It is, however, crucial to evaluate various aspects of the movie to come up with a fair judgment.

The story of the movie is about two spies who were working for the government but have had to resign in order to take well paying jobs in the private sector. The two met some years back but the events that unfolded during their meeting were not very encouraging. Nevertheless, the two spies find themselves working together in the cosmetic industry (Fox, Bickford

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The Discussion on the Institute of Family Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Modern Issues in Family Formation

The Problem of Family Institutionalization

Impact of Marketing on Children

References

Modern Issues in Family Formation The story which Melanie Thernstrom shared with the readers of The New York Times actually represents a rather sensitive topic in the discussion of the institute of family. Melanie suffered from inability to have children for a long time. Every time, when her pregnancy failed, she felt that her life is ruining (Thernstrom, 2010). After unsuccessful fertility treatment, she and her husband decided to apply for surrogacy.

Unarguably, the surrogacy is rather painful issue in the society with some part of people accepting it and the other one claiming that it is wrong to divide a child with the woman who gave him life. Speaking about the society as a whole, it will be logical to cite the words of Bayer J.A. who says that “like every other culture, American society depends on reproduction for its continued existence” (Bayer, 2002).

Sutherland and McCall Smith (1990) mention that “some legislators and jurists have responded positively to this challenge; others appear to have felt threatened by what has been seen as a frontal assault on the traditional notions of genetic relationship and family bonds” (p. 2) In spite of the controversy around the problem, Melanie and Michael did not want to live their life without children. Nowadays, Kieran and Violet are the children of Melanie and Michael making their family complete and happy.

In my opinion, the relationships between adults and children in this family do not suffer from the fact that Kieran and Violet are not biological children of Melanie and Michael. Moreover, it will be incorrect to say that the way these children have been born will influence their future life in some negative way. Instead, they will be always lovely children of Melanie and Michael who will take care for them.

The Problem of Family Institutionalization Another problem in the sphere of family relationships touches upon those families, the members of which became imprisoned. Generally speaking, this issue is about the attitude of the society not only to the sentenced themselves but also to their relatives.

The incarceration became the way of the family institutionalization which can be explained as the formal organization of family made by some external institutes such as the court. The film A Sentence Apart is devoted to the problems of the families of incarcerated. One story included in the film is told by the young girl, whose father was sentenced when she was born.

In essence her father’s sentence and isolation became the reason for her own alienation which she felt while being a child. Nowadays, the girl says that she has overcome that and she makes the efforts to inform a society about the problems of the families of the incarcerated. “We are the leaders of tomorrow, and there will be no leadership in a future if there are no protective due here in a sentences carcer” (Community Works, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are other types of family institutionalization including the military one. Unarguably, it differs from those described above. Military institutionalization of family is called to unite people in case of war or external threat to the nation, whereas institutionalization of imprisoned families reflects the legal regulation of social order and safety, sometimes, even the personal safety of the family members of the sentenced individuals.

Criminal incarceration differs from other kinds of institutionalization primarily due to the social alienation which it brings to the family functioning. That is why the effects which different kinds of institutionalization make are also substantially different and very often they are not positive ones.

Impact of Marketing on Children The uprising of children is a vital issue for the society as our children is our future. The impact which the media and the pop culture make on children is discussed in the film Consuming Childs. Belford T. in his review on the film summarizes its main idea stating that “the consumerism in the United States has moved from marketing products based on actual features to be conveyed by advertising to the practice of marketing social meaning of products” (Belford, 2010, n.pag)

It was found that “children in the United States spend over a week of their lives every year (10,700 minutes) watching television advertisements” (Chapter 7.Consumerism, 2009). The authors of the film make it clear that the marketing techniques are aimed at children as a target audience promoting certain models of behavior for them. Unfortunately, these models are very often mentally and morally destructive for young generation.

McGergor says that the adults are responsible for teaching their children not only consumption but also making them aware of the problems it may bring to society (McGregor, 2003, n.pag.) The consumerism and the ensuing materialism cause the priorities reversal changing people’s values (Abela, 2006). In this context, a society should be more conscious in respect to the environment in which the children rise.

It is important to emphasize the role of law regulating promotional activities and advertising. It is able to restrict the time of certain commercials on TV, for example. However, it should be said that despite of the measures the social institutes can make in order to protect children from negative external influence, the most part of responsibility should be taken by parents who must persuade their children in the importance of the ethical model of behavior.

References Abela, A. V. (2003). Marketing and consumerism: a response to O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy. European Journal of Marketing, 40(1/2), 5-16.

We will write a custom Essay on The Discussion on the Institute of Family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bayer, J. A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and multicultural encyclopedia of women’s reproductive rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Belford, T. (2010). Film review of consuming kids by Adriana Barbaro

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General Introduction of Sustainable Development Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary Sustainable development confers the development of human activities in an environmentally friendly manner. Most cities are starting to embrace the concept to overcome environmental challenges that undermine the longevity of development activities and the vibrancy natural ecosystems. Abu Dhabi is at the forefront of this initiative.

This paper explores the underpinnings of sustainable development, as a concept, and as an international statute, that defines development activities. This analysis occurs through the understanding that economic, social, and environmental pillars of development define sustainable development. A deeper understanding of how sustainable development affects natural ecosystems also suffices in this regard.

Based on the understanding that sustainable development is an essential guideline for future developments, this paper uses Abu Dhabi as a case study to explore the adoption of the concept in the desert city. The progress and vision of Estidama and Masdar city, as sustainable pioneer projects in the UAE, show that Abu Dhabi has a promising future in the adoption of sustainable development.

This paper also shows that Abu Dhabi is a leader in the adoption of sustainable development not only in the UAE but also in the wider Arab Gulf region. However, compared to other sustainable cities in the world, Abu Dhabi’s sustainable development plan stands out because it has unique sustainable challenges that stem from its extreme climatic conditions.

Moreover, Abu Dhabi has a unique cultural background that prevents the adoption of western-styled principles of sustainability. In this regard, this paper affirms that Abu Dhabi adopts a special set of standards for sustainability that appeal to its local dynamics. Lastly, compared to other sustainable cities around the world, Abu Dhabi’s vision of sustainability appears to be highly ambitious.

Introduction Sustainable development is a commonly used term that denotes the ability of present generations to meet their needs, while ensuring the protection of future generation needs as well (Gandhi 654). Sustainable development is, therefore, a human activity development paradigm that seeks to maximise existing resources in a way that maximises output, to avoid wastages and minimise resource use.

In the seventies, analysts conceived the concept of sustainability to describe economies that achieved a balance between their economic needs and environmental concerns (Gandhi 654). Economists adopted this concept after touting the idea that economic sustainability was subject to limits of growth (Swanson 630). As an alternative, they proposed that different countries should strive to have a steady-state economy, which balances economic and environmental needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paradigm of sustainability stemmed from the idea that the world contains limited resources. Since most human activities deplete these resources, nature overstretches its limits to support social activities. Therefore, people have to seek better ways of sustaining human activities, in a way that balances human needs and environmental needs. Stated differently, people have to seek sustainable ways of sustaining their development activities.

A common concept of sustainable development is environmental conservation. However, ecological conservation emerges as a small constituent of a larger concept of ecological sustainability. Similarly, the idea of environmental conservation falls within a wider continuum of three concepts that define sustainable development – “environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and social-political sustainability.” Recent analyses into the concepts of sustainability aim to introduce culture as a tenet of sustainability.

Observers who push this idea also suggest that sustainability should have only four distinguishable concepts – economic, ecological, political, and cultural sustainability (Gandhi 654).

Nonetheless, despite the different categories of sustainability, four domains of the concept have emerged as acceptable criteria for understanding sustainable development. These domains include economics, ecology, culture, and politics. Politics, as a domain of sustainable development, have surprised many people, especially concerning how it fits into the conventional understanding of sustainable development and its tenets.

Its acknowledgement in sustainable development, however, stems from the involvement of the United Nations Global Impact Cities Program, which identified politics as a critical tenet of sustainable development (because of its influence in defining the governance structures needed to do sustainable development work) (Swanson 630).

This analysis also highlights the exercising of social power as an important power tool that should ensure different stakeholders (needed to do sustainability work) perform to their maximum potential. This idea also stems from the fact that political will is critical in doing sustainability work. Indeed, as Dovers (5) asserts, the answers to several social and economic challenges experienced today largely depend on political solutions.

Through the incorporation of politics, as a tenet of sustainable development, the economics of change (which significantly affect sustainable development) equally manifests in this regard. This emphasis is specifically real in the provision of private (or public) solutions for problems that often manifest as global problems (this is often a controversial topic because the provision of private solutions to global problems often present rooms for financial exploitation by private entities).

We will write a custom Report on General Introduction of Sustainable Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another notable controversy that informs the politics of sustainability is the measurement of sustainability, through the formulation of sustainability metrics and indices. For example, a common political debate that characterises the politics of sustainability is the argument that rich countries support sustainability as a concept to limit growth in developing countries because during their developmental stages, these countries polluted the environment.

Nonetheless, despite the truthfulness or falsification of these arguments, politics emerges as an essential tenet of sustainable development. However, for purposes of this report, this paper shelves politics as a component of sustainable development because of its controversial nature.

Instead, this report focuses on economic sustainability, social sustainability, and environmental sustainability as the main pillars of sustainable development. In later sections of this report, this paper analyses these pillars of sustainability with respect to UAE and Abu Dhabi. However, before delving into the practicalities of applying this concept in the gulf, it is first important to understand sustainable development as a law.

Sustainable Development Law

A key concept of sustainability is the law that defines the concept. International law on sustainability largely provides the guidance on how sustainable development should work. Even though there is little contention regarding the fact that sustainable development manifests in international law, there is minimal consensus regarding the fact that sustainable law follows the principles of customary norms of international law (CISDL 2).

This lack of consensus does not, however, mean that sustainable development law does not follow the patterns and meanings of normative values in international law. Instead, sustainable development law may be considered as, “an interstitial norm, which serves to reconcile other conflicting norms related to the environment, the economy and social development (including human rights), and also simply the object and purpose of many international treaties and legal instruments” (CISDL 2).

In the precincts of international law, experts have fronted sustainable law development with the aim of harmonising other norms and practices that concern development (in a social and economical way) (CISDL 2).

Stated differently, sustainable law development aims to harmonise how other norms and practices surrounding social and economic development should integrate with sustainable development, to conserve the environment. Integrations of these norms and practices have emerged in several past cases that sought to address how social and economic developments should continue, with respect to environmental conservation.

For example, the integration of norms and practices in sustainable development emerged in the Gabcikovo – Nagymaros Case, which showed that new norms and practices should be considered in the formulation of sustainable development law (CISDL 2). The outcome of the same case showed that project managers should observe the principles of sustainable development in new developments and in the continuation of past developments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on General Introduction of Sustainable Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the adherence to sustainable development practices in an ancient development provides a challenge to lawmakers because in the past, people undertook investment projects with very little concern for the environment. However, given the proliferation of new scientific insights on the environmental implications of development, many countries have subjected their old projects to new environmental laws that govern how project managers undertake existing projects (Dovers 7).

Through the above understanding, sustainable development law should not stand on its own, as an isolated clause, but rather, it should promote the protection of the environment and the minimisation of environmental risk in development projects (because it is a mutually reinforcing framework). The duty of environmental law to protect the environment has, therefore, stood out as a respectable principle of international law.

This principle not only applies to activities that involve environmental assessments but also activities that involve the arbitration between two or more parties as well. Its application is especially common in instances where trade, or other laws, intersect with environmental law. In such instances, sustainable development laws play a normative role in outlining the implications of independent laws or activities (CISDL 2).

International treaty laws regard sustainable development as a goal, rather than a process. This objective often influences how people interpret such treaties. In this regard, sustainable development has also emerged as a guiding principle in arbitrating disputes (mostly between developed and developing countries).

In the same manner, the same doctrine informs the decisions of international arbitration courts. From the role of sustainable development laws in interpreting and defining international treaties, it, therefore, comes as no surprise when CISDL (3) says, the same law is at the centre of many international treaties and agreements, such as,

“The 1992 UN Convention on Biological Diversity and its 2000 Cartagena

Protocol, the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the 1994 UN Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement, and many others” (CISDL 3).

From the relevance of sustainable development law in international treaties, it is correct to say; sustainable development forms an integral part of international law. In fact, most international treaties that highlight natural resource use and environmental concerns, as a critical component of their conception, use sustainable development law to interpret their agreements.

Furthermore, as highlighted in this paper, the sustainable development law also applies to economic treaties and international trade agreements. For example, the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement (co-signed by the World Trade Organisation) acknowledged sustainable development as a critical tenet of its multiple objectives (CISDL 3). The ability of sustainable development law to combine economic, environmental, and social concerns in development informs its widespread acceptability in trade and international treaties.

Beyond the international application of sustainable development law, it is also important to understand why many nations accept sustainable development laws in their social and economic contracts. This paper shows that the acceptability of sustainable development laws, in such contracts, mainly stems from the importance of global ecosystems in social and economic development.

Worldwide Ecosystems A common philosophy that informs the concept of sustainable development is the acknowledgement of a common future. At the centre of this philosophy is the understanding that the world is a system that supports all forms of life (through the connection of space and time).

Scientists also rely on this philosophy to promote environmental awareness because they say one activity in one region of the world is likely to have a ripple effect on another part of the world (United Nations Environment Programme 1). For example, the pollution of air in China is likely to have an impact in Africa, while the pollution of water in India could have a negative impact on marine life in Japan.

By understanding the world as a system, it is easier to understand how ecosystems influence social and economic developments. Moreover, through the conception of the world as an ecosystem, it is easy to affirm the view that natural ecosystems are indispensable to not only human life, but also wildlife and marine life. A disruption of these ecosystems may lead to disastrous social, environmental, and economic outcomes (such as the loss of income, human conflict, and even the displacement of populations).

The World Health Organisation (2) says that the causal link between human well-being and the natural ecosystem is often indirect, as the relationship is highly complex and dynamic. For example, environmental destruction may cause changes in disease patterns, while climate change may worsen malnutrition levels in the world.

Sepúlveda (632) says that climate has the greatest effect on the global ecosystem. Its impact on global ecosystems manifests in different ways. For example, a rise in global temperatures may cause an increase in seawater levels and the infiltration of freshwater systems. This infiltration may lead to the migration of marine life, which normally thrives in freshwater conditions.

In another example, an increase in global temperatures may cause species of animals to migrate from their natural habitat to other areas. For example, the impacts of urban expansions on important ecosystem zones occur in Nakuru town, which is in Kenya’s rift valley.

In the small town, the United Nations Environment Programme (2) says the encroachment of urban dwellings and the dumping of untreated industrial wastes on natural ecosystems (Lake Nakuru) explain the dwindling numbers of flamingos and the depleting water levels in the lake. This ecological concern has caused jitters in Kenya’s tourism sector because Lake Nakuru depends on its vast flamingo populations to attract tourists from around the world (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

The same environmental degradation has happened in Argentina, where the United Nations Environment Programme (2) traced dwindling fish numbers to the encroachment of urban dwellings on natural ecosystems. In a related finding, the United Nations Environment Programme (2) also says that low amounts of cod stocks in the Northern Atlantic and dwindling fish stocks, off the coast of West Africa, affirm this trend as well.

The influences of climate change on global ecosystems do not only end with their effects on animals because it affects human development activities as well. Albeit the impact of climatic factors on human development may be limited to a few environmental factors, a significant impact of ecosystem disturbance may be realised if these factors occur at the same time.

For example, climatic factors (such as tornados and hurricanes) may potentially affect the future of human developments in coastal areas. Also, if normal rains turn to hailstorms, agricultural productivity may decline (through increased soil erosion).

The understanding of the world as an ecosystem has a great implication for the overall rate of human development and the conceptualisation of sustainable development, as a new paradigm of development. For example, globally, the populations of people living in urban areas have greatly increased in the last two decades. Most of the world’s population is, therefore, living in cities. Experts project that this trend will continue to strengthen soon (Swanson 630).

The rapid shifts of human populations from rural areas to urban dwellings pose serious implications for modern cities because the existence of cities largely depends on the health of the ecosystems that support them. Moreover, even though cities may only occupy about 2% of the earth’s surface, their high levels of natural resource use largely strain the existing ecosystems (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

Besides, cities account for the highest concentration of pollutants, which affect the global ecosystems as well. It is therefore prudent to find an amicable balance between urban development and ecosystem needs because cities mainly depend on existing natural ecosystems for the supply of food, regulation of quality of life, and the enrichment of urban dwellings.

It is easy to measure specific aspects of contributions that natural ecosystems make to cities (such as the provision of food and water), but it is difficult to estimate the intangible benefits that natural ecosystems provide for the same cities. For example, this paper already shows that natural ecosystems enrich cities.

This enrichment may be in aesthetic or spiritual terms. From the implications of human encroachment on natural ecosystems, the effect of human development activities on natural ecosystems manifest. In fact, experts say the impacts of urban growth on natural ecosystems show that most cities affect a greater geographical region, more than the size of land that they cover (Dovers 7).

From the understanding that human activities play a significant role in the destruction of natural ecosystems, it is inevitable to point out that human activities may also be part of the solution for mitigating this effect. For example, cities may comprise part of the solution for sustainable development.

Illustratively, cities may easily protect and manage fragile natural ecosystems through the establishment of oversight bodies that regulate human activities and repair the damage that occurs on such ecosystems. Indeed, similar to the way cities may have an expansive negative effect on geographical regions that are beyond their scope, the same cities can also have a positive effect, beyond the geographic regions that they stand on.

For example, the establishment of green zones in established cities and the connection of such zones to natural ecosystems may provide an opportunity for increased contributions to sustainable development, by modern cities. Illustratively, the United Nations Environment Programme (2) suggests that “Small towns and big cities can make up watersheds – an area of land that catches precipitation and drains or seeps into a marsh, stream, river, lake, or groundwater” (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

Through such plans, many modern cities may find sustainable development to be a highly fulfilling and cost-saving exercise that would save them many hassles of mechanically intervening to protect the environment. For example, most cities around the world source their domestic water supplies from protected natural ecosystems that surround the cities. The initiatives of such cities to protect such ecosystems help to improve their diversities and surrounding ecosystems as well.

Another way that modern cities can help to promote the goals of sustainable development is through their urban planning systems. In other words, urban planning systems should be able to protect the environment by protecting natural ecosystems from human activities. For example, cities may prevent the construction of buildings on wetlands to protect the environment. Relative to this assertion, the United Nations Environment Programme (2) claims,

“Although the primary impetus to conserve the natural ecosystem stems from a desire to reduce the risk of flooding and to drain stormwater, such regulations also support biodiversity by maintaining natural ecosystems close to the city, improving the quality of life for urban residents, and providing essential space for urban wildlife” (2).

Through the above assertion, natural ecosystems emerge as essential influences of social and economic development. Comprehensively, natural ecosystems provide a lot of diversity in cities because they ensure the existence of different species and the supply of essential utilities to city inhabitants. Relative to this assertion, United Nations Environment Programme (2) says, “Clean water, foodstuffs, medicines, and quality of life are just a few of the services which biodiversity offers to cities” (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

Through the recognition of the contribution that natural ecosystems make to cities, some cities appreciate the importance of preserving their natural ecosystems. However, these actions should spread further beyond the cities because a positive recognition of the role of biodiversity in our lives should have a global impact. These impacts manifest as the positive effects of global ecosystems.

Effects of Global Ecosystems Many benefits accrue from the safeguard of global ecosystems. One such benefit is the safeguard of human health, on a long-term basis. If authorities guarantee their people of long-term quality health, there are likely to be positive social, economic, and political benefits in the end as well.

For example, World Health Organisation (10) says that the protection of global ecosystems may lead a society to be more productive and congruent in the long-term. The protection of natural ecosystems may also bring more equity in the provision and access to food and natural resources.

For example, human diseases, which occur through the degradation of the environment, may decline through the safeguard of natural ecosystems. Global ecosystems, therefore, play a vital role in ensuring the quality of human health. However, the failure to protect global ecosystems may also lead to undesirable outcomes. Indeed, the safeguard of quality human health also spreads to the understanding that human safety also depends on the commitment to protect global ecosystems.

Arguably, scientists have drawn the link between the destruction of global ecosystems and rampant environmental hazards (United Nations Environment Programme 2). Blizzards, hurricanes, and tornadoes are just a few examples of the impact of environmental destruction on global ecosystems.

Even though these natural disasters used to occur in the past, their increasing intensity stems from the destruction of global ecosystems. Moreover, their frequencies show that nature continues to be more unstable because of intense human activities. The rampant occurrence of these natural disasters and their increasing frequencies pose a threat to human safety because natural disasters have become more unpredictable and intense.

In their natural forms, global ecosystems would be able to mitigate some of the effects of these natural disasters, but because of irresponsible human activities, people have become increasingly vulnerable to such adverse climatic conditions (World Health Organisation 10). Rapid deforestation and destruction of natural habitats provide a few examples of the extremes of human activities on the environment.

For example, deforestation limits the ability of the environment to mitigate some of the effects of extreme climatic conditions, such as strong winds and hurricanes. Moreover, through deforestation, soil erosion has become more severe, while droughts have become more frequent. Increased air pollution from some of the world’s emerging economies, like China, has also increased the severity of natural disasters, thereby making a larger population of people to be highly exposed to these natural disasters.

Comparatively, besides the increased vulnerability of the world’s population to the adverse effects of extreme climatic conditions, many people also depend on the vibrancy of natural ecosystems to earn a living. Tourism is one such sector that greatly depends on the vibrancy of natural ecosystems (Harrison 294). If human activities destroy these ecosystems, people would lose their livelihoods and fail to sustain their families. In fact, in some countries, tourism contributes a significant portion of the national GDP (Harrison 294).

The collapse of such a sector would, therefore, spell doom for such economies because it may lead to their eventual collapse (Harrison 294). Although the UAE economy is not entirely dependent on tourism, as its main export, a destruction of its natural ecosystem would affect the country’s economy, significantly. Environmental analysts have already warned against the rampant infringement of natural ecosystems in the UAE (Harrison 294).

For example, the construction of artificial islands off Dubai’s coast has sent jitters among environmentalists who believe such expansive human activities affect natural ecosystems, negatively. For example, these analysts have warned that the continued construction of artificial islands in the coastline affects wind patterns and the natural habitat of marine life (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

Interestingly, while many environmentalists caution against this trend, Dubai’s tourism industry relies on its marine ecosystem to sustain its tourism numbers (deep-sea divers often come to Dubai to watch its marine life). The destruction of the country’s ecosystem, therefore, threatens the fabric, which holds part of the UAE’s economy (tourism). The same situation replicates in other parts of the world, which depend on tourist numbers to improve the well-being of their people.

From the above analysis, the protection of the natural ecosystem poses several advantages to human habitation and comfort. For example, the establishment of green zones in cities helps to improve the quality of air by filtering pollutants. Planting trees and protecting them from human and animal destruction in towns may also help to improve waterways through the minimisation of soil erosion.

In desert areas or other places with extreme climatic conditions, the protection of the natural ecosystem also helps to reduce energy costs by reducing the warming effects of the environment. This way, people do not have to spend a lot of money on air conditioners, or other equipments, to cool their environment (the protection of the natural ecosystem may also recharge groundwater supplies by minimising the effect of pollutants in water sources).

Since the continued degradation of the environment is likely to cause serious ecological impacts, the safeguard of global ecosystems may help to mitigate this effect by conserving the environment. For example, environmental degradation is among the most reliable explanations why some parts of the natural ecosystem (such as rivers and lakes) disappear (Harrison 294). This explanation supports the view that environmental degradation may cause serious and permanent ecological damage.

Worryingly, on a larger scale, if the ecological damage continues to occur, the economic, political, and social processes that support human societies may collapse, thereby leading to social and political instability. The protection of natural ecosystems, therefore, helps to avoid such eventualities. Comprehensively, it is correct to say that the protection of global ecosystems not only helps to preserve the environment, but also helps to promote social, economic, and political stability.

Introduction of Sustainable Development its Main Points (Economic, Social, and Environmental) A major challenge for the adoption of sustainability is the failure to understand the main concepts of sustainability in the first place. In project management, sustainability covers a wide scope of analysis, to include the design, construction, and demolition phases of a project (Gandhi 654). The dynamism of sustainability (as a concept) often poses different ramifications in its application because, on the one hand, the flexibility is good because it allows for an easy fit into different facets of a city’s sustainable vision.

One the other hand, the flexibility of sustainability may make it difficult for designers to harmonise its different concepts and promote one goal of ensuring human development activities are sustainable. Nonetheless, to understand how sustainability manifests in present and future human development activities, it is important to understand that sustainability contains three main facets- economic, social, and environmental.

Economic Sustainability

A controversial tenet of the concept of sustainable development is the economics of sustainability. The controversy surrounding the concept of economics in sustainable development stems from the criticisms levelled against the use of the three-thronged approach to sustainability – economics, environmental, and social (Gandhi 654). Criticisms levelled against this approach stem from the assumption that many people consider economics to be the superior concept in sustainable development studies (Swanson 630).

People who hold such beliefs say the economic concept almost acts exclusively to social factors because it does not fit in the economic realms of reality. Nonetheless, despite the validity of these arguments, the concept of economics emerges as an essential concept in sustainable development because it outlines how people should manage resources. Through this understanding, it is important to say that the economics of sustainable development largely occurs in the broadest sense of the word (management of resources).

Based on the arguments surrounding economic sustainability, the concept appears to be the most dominant pillar of sustainability. Despite the accuracy of the arguments advanced to support or undermine this fact, the idea of economic sustainability merely aims to derive the maximum output from any given resource.

The idea behind this principle is to derive the maximum output from a given resource, in an environmentally responsible way, and in a manner, which ensures the longevity of the activity (Swanson 630). For example, if we mirror this approach to a business context, the concept of economic sustainability would demand that a business operates in a manner that ensures its long-term existence and its long-term profitability.

Many assessments of economic sustainability denote values of economic sustainability in financial terms. For example, most resources would be valued in a specific currency to understand the importance or significance of a resource. The idea behind this evaluation is to identify areas where people may eliminate inefficiencies to realise improved productivity.

The same process identifies areas, where production flows, may be undermined so that more room emerges for corrective measures to occur (before the actual implementation of plans) (Swanson 630). This process aims to identify the impact of changes on one area of production on other activities and processes.

In the Abu Dhabi context, the concept of economic sustainability manifests in its vision 2030, which strives to ensure the desert city, sustains its economic activities through the adoption of green energy (Government of Abu Dhabi 1). This pillar of the vision is unique for a town that controls vast deposits of oil resources.

However, although Abu Dhabi sits on huge oil deposits, the city’s leadership has resolved to ensure that its green energy initiative sustains in economic activities. Therefore, in line with its economic sustainability plan, wind and solar power are key energy sources that may dominate the next decade (Abu Dhabi has a huge potential of harnessing this energy because the city is located in a desert area).

Social Sustainability

The concept of social sustainability mainly outlines the usability and appropriateness of sustainable projects for its intended users. The concept of social sustainability dictates that sustainable projects should easily fit into the lifestyles and social dynamics of its host population (Gandhi 654). This is why it is often difficult to imitate principles of sustainability from one society to another society, especially if the two societies do not share the same ideals.

For example, the next section of this report shows that sustainability principles in Arab societies differ from sustainability principles in western societies. For instance, while Copenhagen and Abu Dhabi strive to reduce their carbon emissions, in the transport sector, by reducing their dependence on cars, as the primary mode of transport, both cities circumnavigate this issue in different ways.

In detail, Copenhagen has replaced cars for bicycles and Abu Dhabi has replaced cars for more massive capacity modes of transport (like trains). Both cities may eventually reduce their carbon emissions, but depending on their cultures, they adopt different ways of doing so. It would be wrong to assume that since Copenhagen has reported tremendous success in the use of bicycles, to reduce its carbon emissions in the transport sector (Hernandez 288), Abu Dhabi could quickly introduce bicycles, as well, and achieve the same result.

This is because the culture and social dynamics of the Danish people easily accept the use of bicycles, but the same ideology may not necessarily fit in the Arab context. The concept of social sustainability, therefore, dictates that sustainable development projects should largely appeal to the unique social dynamics of its users (Gandhi 656).

From the above understanding, Abu Dhabi understands the importance of its sustainable development projects to appeal to its social and cultural dynamics. For example, even though Abu Dhabi aims to overhaul most of its traditional pillars of economic development, the city does not intend to change its social dynamics in the process. Instead, Abu Dhabi’s population boasts of a wealthy Arab heritage that it seeks to maintain, even in the wake of extensive paradigm changes in development (Government of Abu Dhabi 1).

Certainly, according to Abu Dhabi’s vision 2030, the city intends to merge most of its modern designs (in the construction sector) with traditional designs, so that modernity does not mark the end of the city’s Arab culture. The blend of modern and traditional designs in the city should accommodate the varying lifestyles of Abu Dhabi people, besides denoting the evolving culture of the Emirate.

Despite the importance of culture in understanding sustainable development, it is crucial to say that the concept of culture is a relatively new addition to the understanding of sustainable development. Some analysts added this concept because new researchers did not believe that focusing on the economic, ecological, and political forces (alone) could address all the sustainable development concerns of today’s contemporary society (Gandhi 657).

Proponents of this point of view say that culture is essential in understanding sustainable development because almost all public policies on sustainable developments have a cultural aspect in their implementation. The European Union (through the concept of sustainable development in a diverse world) says that the inclusion of cultural dimensions highlights a new way for carrying out sustainable development (Gandhi 656).

More specifically, the power of culture in easing the adoption of sustainable development stems from its ability to give a social meaning to the concept (Swanson 631). Nonetheless, it is critical to say that the proposition of culture as a strong pillar of social sustainability has not been widely embraced by all analysts, mostly because culture only denotes the social-political understanding of sustainable development (Swanson 631).

Environmental Sustainability

Similar to the concept of social sustainability, environmental stability strives to ensure human development activities do not clash with the environment. An ideal situation would see a seamless integration of these human development activities with natural ecosystems. However, this has not been the case in many development projects around the world. Human activities have traditionally interfered with natural ecosystems and caused a severe depletion of resources.

Deforestation and the displacement of animal populations (because of human activities) provide some examples of cases where social activities have failed to integrate with the environment (United Nations Environment Programme 2). The concept of environmental sustainability aims to ensure that human development activities do not harm the environment (in any case, they should improve the environment).

For example, most sustainable development project plans contain a provision outlining the management of wastes. Some plans propose the recycling of wastes (like wastewater), treatment of wastes, while others suggest that wastes should be disposed in an environmentally friendly manner. These plans fall under environmental sustainability because they outline how human activities should integrate with the environment (United Nations Environment Programme 2).

The concept of environmental sustainability may, however, be the broadest component of sustainability because it covers a very wide scope. Moreover, most components of sustainability plans aim to ensure the plans are environmentally sustainable. For example, reductions of carbon emissions, improvement of energy efficiency, and the treatment of wastewater disposal (which constitute a great part of the argument in this paper) outline environmentally sustainable practices.

A key component of the concept of environmental sustainability is the concept of ecology. However, the concept of ecology is often challenging to understand, especially regarding how it fits into the broader realm of sustainable development (because of its incorporation of social dynamics).

However, instrumental groups of people who support the incorporation of ecology into the understanding of sustainable development activities say ecology epitomises the relationship between nature and culture. Some people also say ecology defines the relationship between social and environmental factors in the broader understanding of sustainable development (World Health Organisation 10).

For example, the conception of human habitation stands at the centre of the relationship between social and environmental factors (by exploring how human habitation blends with the wider natural ecosystem – human ecology). The concept of human ecology has a wider implication of including human health into the understanding of sustainable development. Coincidentally,

“Fundamental human needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food and shelter are also the ecological foundations for sustainable development; addressing public health risk through investments in ecosystem services can be a powerful and transformative force for sustainable development, which, in this sense, extends to all species” (World Health Organisation 11).

Comprehensively, environmental conservation outlines an important part of the concept of ecology (in the understanding of sustainable development) because environmental sustainability understands the fact that natural systems have their limits.

The Future of Sustainable Development in Abu Dhabi In the past couple of decades, most Middle East economies have witnessed rapid economic development. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is not an exception. Funded by oil revenue, the UAE has dramatically expanded its economy to be among the most vibrant economies in the world. Now, unlike a decade ago when the country mainly depended on the oil sector, the UAE economy now boasts of a vibrant tourism sector, real estate sector, manufacturing sector, and service sector.

At the centre of UAE’s rapid economic development is the vibrancy of Abu Dhabi as an economic and financial hub. The Emirate is also the largest in the UAE. According to Mezher (744), Abu Dhabi is highly endowed with several natural resources that have fuelled its rapid development as a global economic hub. The great prosperity of the residents of Abu Dhabi can, therefore, trace to the contribution of the Emirate’s natural resources to its economic and political development.

Since most of the economic developments in Abu Dhabi have ridden on the back of natural resource exploitation, environmentalists have said that Abu Dhabi’s rise to be an economic powerhouse comes with a serious environmental impact (Mezher 744). The high ecological footprint of Abu Dhabi confirms the growing carbon footprint of the Arab world, as described in the diagram below.

Figure One: Arab World Emissions (Source: United Nations 2)

A forecast of the diagram above shows that this trend may persist in the next decade. The high carbon footprint of Abu Dhabi is only indicative of an even higher carbon footprint for the UAE. This poor environmental record traces to two main issues – greenhouse gas emission and poor management of water resources.

The high greenhouse gas emission that is synonymous to Abu Dhabi stems from the high consumption of energy in the industrial sector and the sprawling growth of urban dwellings, which have increased the demand for energy. The poor record of water management traces to the limited water resources in Abu Dhabi and the high demand for water in the Emirate.

Often, these two problems occur simultaneously because the high water consumption levels and the limited water resources in the Emirates have forced the government to depend on seawater desalination as the main source of water. The desalination of seawater has increased the energy consumption in the UAE, thereby further adding to the carbon footprint of the country.

The concept of sustainable development has only started to gain credence in Abu Dhabi in the past decade. Historically, the government paid little attention to this issue, but environmental concerns have forced it to reconsider its position on the matter. To explain this concern, Smeets (2) says,

“Several countries (and individual Emirates) in the Gulf face energy shortages, primarily due to abundant gas consumption, and besides the pollution from heavy industry and large-scale desalination of seawater have adverse effects on the local environment, threatening the health condition of the citizens” (Smeets 2)

Smeets (2) also contemplates that before Abu Dhabi receives a positive environmental record, the Emirate will first have to eliminate the obstacles of adopting sustainable development. One such obstacle is its high-energy demand. Behavioural challenges also exist in the same regard. These issues highlight a common debate among analysts who have studied the attitudes of people in Abu Dhabi (concerning energy consumption) (Smeets 2).

This debate revolves around the fact that the Abu Dhabi government has always subsidised energy prices, thereby creating the idea that energy is in abundance. Therefore, some people do not feel the pressure to conserve a resource that they believe is in abundant supply. Another side of this argument is the social contract that exists between the Abu Dhabi government and the citizenry because the government has a social contract to provide low-cost energy.

Therefore, the elimination of government subsidies on energy cost remains a contentious issue. Nonetheless, this debate has not dampened the spirit of the Abu Dhabi government to support sustainable development. For example, in 2009, the Abu Dhabi government introduced the renewable energy policy to ease the demand for energy. The policy created a 7% dependency rate on renewable resources (in the production of energy in Abu Dhabi) (Smeets 2).

Abu Dhabi’s Sustainability Record

Abu Dhabi has made significant strides in improving its environmental record. At the pillar of its efforts, the Abu Dhabi government has received praise for increasing the use of renewable energy and replacing traditional sources of energy for clean energy.

For example, a recent report by Mayton (1) shows that Abu Dhabi has greatly boosted its efforts to harness the sun’s energy and use clean sources of energy, in the recent past. The Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi has also affirmed this positive environmental record. In 2012, the same agency said that Abu Dhabi had a positive rating in other sectors of sustainable development, such as the enhancement of biodiversity (Smeets 3).

The recent positive environmental rating of the Emirate is a product of a coherent push by private and public stakeholders to promote the use of renewable energy in Abu Dhabi. Therefore, the use of renewable energy and the reduction of energy consumptions have been at the top of the Agenda for Abu Dhabi organisations. With the support of the top leadership of the UAE, Abu Dhabi has not relented on its quest to adopt sustainable development because this vision perfectly fits within the Emirate’s vision 2030 plan.

Analysts have hailed the role of the plan in steering developments in Abu Dhabi to be more sustainable (Smeets 3). In fact, according to Mayton (7), Abu Dhabi’s vision 2030 plan seeks to “break complex development issues into understandable, manageable, and achievable targets and offers a tool we can use to make decisions that protect the environment and the quality of life for future generations (Mayton 7). The vision 2030 plan contains several flagship projects (some of which outline below)

Estidama

The Estidama project is one initiative introduced by the Abu Dhabi government, which shows the government’s commitment to adopting sustainable development practices. The Urban planning Council of Abu Dhabi launched the Estidama initiative in 2008 to meet the growing need for the introduction of sustainable development initiatives in the UAE (Reeder 208).

Like the model of sustainability proposed in this paper, the Urban Planning Council introduced the Estidama initiative with the goal of providing a sustainable development initiative that could easily balance environmental, economic, social, and cultural needs, in one project. These dimensions inform the multi-purpose design of the Estidama project. On completion, the Estidama project may affect different facets of life in Abu Dhabi. The Government of Abu Dhabi (2) says,

“Once fully adopted, Estidama is expected to affect various facets of day to day life, such as school curriculum, investment decisions by sovereign wealth funds, infrastructure planning, evaluation and implementation, the health of land and marine environment and the sustainable use of food and water” (Government of Abu Dhabi 2).

Besides being a pioneer project in the UAE, the Estidama project forms a core plan of vision 2030, as proposed by the Abu Dhabi government. The same government has mandated the Urban Planning Council to undertake this project with the help of development partners who share the same vision of revolutionising Abu Dhabi to be a model sustainable city (Reeder 208).

In detail, the Estidama project aims to provide a perfect blend of developmental needs, environmental needs, and the Middle East culture, to provide an acceptable sustainable model that would address present needs without compromising the needs of future generations. Relative to this aim, the Government of Abu Dhabi (3) says, “The key mission of Estidama is to create a new sustainability framework to guide the way and enable adaptation when the new concept takes shape” (Government of Abu Dhabi 3).

At the core of the Estidama project is the principle of sustainable living, which involves the contribution of all stakeholders in the promotion of a sustainable model for Abu Dhabi.

To ensure the Estidama project lives up to its aim of being a sustainable project, the Abu Dhabi government ensured that its design phase included four essential tools of sustainability – “regulatory and code alignment, the pearl rating system, pilot project and stakeholder participation, and the education and training of partners regarding the Estidama project” (Government of Abu Dhabi 4).

Here, the pearl rating system emerges as an essential sustainability tool for this project because this system evaluates the entire project to ensure it meets sustainability standards.

Moreover, the pearl rating system is very dynamic to include all the activities of all stakeholders in the project (including contractors, designers and even the local community) (Reeder 208). All these small stakeholder groups are subject to the pearl rating system and their compliance to this system ensures that the Estidama project lives up to its expectation as a model sustainable project.

Masdar City

The Masdar City project is similar to Estidama, in the sense that the designs of both projects are revolutionary (in the adoption of sustainable development as the new operational paradigm). Similar to Estidama, the Abu Dhabi government also funds the development of Masdar City.

A vital feature of the project is its sole reliance on renewable energy (solar). Another key feature of the city is its carefree policy, which also hinges with the goal of making the city a zero-carbon metropolis (Mezher 745). Through its goal of becoming a pioneer sustainable city not only in the UAE, but also across the gulf region, the government expects many clean-tech companies to set up their headquarters at Masdar.

Like the Estidama project, many of the Masdar city plans involve the contributions of several stakeholders. However, a key stakeholder in the Masdar city plan is the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, which occupies a great part of the city. The institution has collaborated with its US counterpart (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) to provide practical engineering solutions to make Masdar city a sustainable economic hub Mezher (745).

Some of the solutions provided by the institutions include a drastic reduction of energy and water. For example, the building that houses the Masdar Institute of science and technology uses up to 70% less water, compared to other buildings in Abu Dhabi (Mezher 746). The same building is also almost entirely reliant on renewable energy (the building can also monitor its energy consumption in a similar manner – as an additional feature).

Besides solar power as the main source of renewable energy, Masdar city also plans to use other renewable energy sources like wind power. For example, a preliminary research into the potential of wind power in the city shows that the city will benefit from about 20 megawatts of power that the city may produce from its outskirts (Reeder 210). Similar preliminary research into the potential of geothermal power in the city shows that Masdar city may also benefit from this source of energy as well (clean energy).

Still, to ensure the Masdar plan remains true to its goal, there is an elaborate plan to ensure the city uses its water resources in an efficient manner. This paper already shows that Abu Dhabi largely relies on desalinated water. However, unlike the past, Masdar city will use solar energy to power these desalination plants (Reeder 210).

This strategy will be a departure from the past because Abu Dhabi used to increase its energy consumption by using conventional energy to power its desalination plants (Mezher 744). The use of solar power, to meet the city’s water needs, may reflect a 60% reduction in energy use (compared to other desalination plants of similar capacity) (Mezher 746).

Masdar city will also set new standards for water management because its designers intend to recycle about 80% of the city’s used water (Reeder 210). The city will also use some of the recycled water for agricultural purposes. Besides the effective management of water, Masdar city also intends to reduce its total volume of waste to near zero. This strategy is in tandem with the zero-waste policy that the designers expect to characterise the city (Reeder 210).

Some of the biological waste that will be collected from the city will be processed and used to make fertilizers for agricultural use (waste minimisation). The city will also use some of this waste to generate power. In detail, industrial waste will be recycled, while the city will use some of the waste (that cannot be recycled) for other purposes.

So far, the Masdar project has received a positive response from global institutions that focus on promoting sustainable development. For example, the World Wide Fund for nature has hailed the project for its elaborate plan of reducing waste and minimising energy consumption (Reeder 210).

The World Wide Fund for nature has also received the support of another global entity, Bioregional Organisation, which has also hailed the Abu Dhabi government for coming up with a sustainable development plan that involves zero-carbon emissions and a zero-waste policy (Mezher 746).

Both organisations have also received the support of Greenpeace Movement, which also hails the project for its positive environmental record. The Greenpeace Movement however also agitates the Abu Dhabi government to transform its existing metropolis into sustainable cities as well (Mezher 746).

Similarity and Differences between Sustainable Development in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and Worldwide Rating System

As mentioned in this report, Abu Dhabi has largely relied on the pearl rating system as its unique model for measuring its sustainable development projects (Estidama). However, other parts of the world normally use other rating systems. For example, most European countries use the British Research Establishment Environmental Assessment (BREEAM) to evaluate their sustainable projects (Elgendy 3).

Similarly, America uses the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) method to evaluate its projects. The choice of rating system does not mostly depend on the strength of the system, but rather, on the familiarity of the system in the market.

Therefore, Abu Dhabi’s choice of the pearl rating system largely stems from its appropriateness to the UAE market. Besides, as explained by Elgendy (3), the UAE has unique cultural and market factors that ensure the pearl rating system would not duplicate the components of other rating systems, as adopted in other parts of the world. The pearl rating system, therefore, addresses Abu Dhabi’s unique cultural characteristics.

The difference between the pearl rating system and the BREEAM system, or LEED system, largely stems from the differences in their design guides. For example, Elgendy (3) says the pearl rating system is not an exclusive document because it forms part of the pearl design system, as outlined by the Abu Dhabi government.

To further explain the uniqueness of the pearl rating system, Elgendy (5) says, the pearl rating system “includes a complementary design Guide and supplementary Application Guides for public works, parks and infrastructure. Like LEED and BREEAM, the Pearl Rating System for Estidama (for example) includes several rating systems assessing buildings, villas, and neighbourhoods” (Elgendy 5).

According to Elgendy (3), the pearl rating system differs from the LEED and BREEAM systems because it is a blend of both rating systems. In other words, the pearl rating system strives to blend the positive attributes of both systems by promoting dialogue between practitioners and the system. The pearl rating system also strives to make its adoption easier for practitioners to use because its requirements are often less onerous than other rating systems.

Particularly, analysts see the pearl rating system to be less onerous than the British version of the system (Elgendy 5). Practically, unlike the pearl rating system, which identifies a specific objective and leaves it to the designers to identify how to meet the objective, the BREEAM system articulates the objectives of the sustainability plan and the achievement of these objectives.

The LEED system also shares the open-ended nature of meeting project objectives, but as Elgendy (3) says, this method requires much documentation to affirm the compliance to sustainability standards. Based on an analysis of their applications, Elgendy (3) says the pearl rating system is closer to LEED than it is to BREEAM.

Focus on Energy Consumption

Many countries around the world have adopted different methods for improving their environmental record. Some have adopted recycling as the major form of sustainable activity, while others have embraced the re-use of waste products to conserve the environment.

However, most countries have focused on reducing their energy consumption as a sustainable development method. In fact, most countries have preferred to adopt strategies that reduce their energy bill by embracing energy efficiency activities and processes. Abu Dhabi’s sustainability plan resembles other sustainability plans in this regard because both sets of plans focus on reducing their energy consumption.

Carbon Emission Policy

Abu Dhabi is unique to several cities, which embrace sustainable development because its carbon emission policy differs from other cities. While most cities strive to reduce their carbon emissions, Abu Dhabi aims to have a zero-carbon policy. This means that the city not only wants to reduce its carbon emission, but it also wants to have no record of carbon emission, in totality (Mezher 746).

Masdar city is a perfect example of the actualisation of this policy because designers expect the city to have no carbon emissions at all. Analysts are yet to ascertain the practicality of this policy, but experts have already put structural pillars in place to actualize this goal (Mezher 746). For example, Masdar city does not expect to use cars. Instead, the city may provide transport for thousands of its citizens through mass transport engines, which rely on clean energy.

Unlike Abu Dhabi, most sustainable cities strive to adopt a more pragmatic approach of reducing their carbon emissions, instead of declaring that they would have no carbon emissions at all. Vancouver city is one such example, as it ranks among the five most sustainable cities in North America. The city’s planners have always declared that the city has achieved tremendous reductions in its carbon emission (of between 11% and 20%) (Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore 78).

However, the city still grapples with the new challenges of reducing its carbon emissions (through the emergence of growing economic sectors that increase carbon emissions, instead of reducing them). For example, carbon emissions in the automobile sector have increased by about 11% (Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore 78). While the city has experienced significant challenges in controlling carbon emissions in such sectors, other sectors have supported the objective of realising low carbon emissions.

For example, the building sector has reduced its carbon emissions by about 18% in the last decade (Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore 78). This reduction mirrors similar reductions of carbon emissions in the UAE construction sector, as most buildings in the Arab city strive to reduce their carbon emissions by reducing their energy consumption and adopting the use of clean energy (like solar power) to run their operations.

Unlike Vancouver, Copenhagen’s carbon emission policy resembles Abu Dhabi’s because carbon emission policy because the city strives to be carbon-neutral in the next decade (Hernandez 288). This policy mirrors Abu Dhabi’s carbon emission policy because the Arab city also strives to have a zero-carbon emission in some of its cities in 2020 (Hernandez 288).

The methodologies adopted by both cities to actualise the zero-carbon policy also resemble, because Abu Dhabi and Copenhagen intend to maximise the use of wind power and increase the use of clean energy in their transport and construction sectors. In line with the zero-carbon vision, Gerdes (8) says,

“Acting on a City Council plan approved last August, Copenhagen intends to replace coal with biomass, to add more wind and solar electricity to the grid, to upgrade energy-guzzling buildings, and to lure even more residents onto bikes and public transit” (Gerdes 8).

The massive use of bicycles as a common mode of transport in Copenhagen is however unique to Copenhagen because Abu Dhabi does not intend to use this strategy to reduce its carbon emissions.

In an unrelated context, just like Vancouver and other cities that are on their way to be sustainable cities, Copenhagen also experiences its share of challenges in the actualisation of the zero-carbon dream. For example, the city faces the challenge of a bulging population that has more energy demands than ever before. Practically, Copenhagen expects its city population to increase by about 100,000 (by the year 2025, when it expects to have actualised the zero-carbon policy) (Gerdes 8).

Despite such challenges, the city remains committed to reducing its carbon emissions because it believes that the world will win the fight for a zero-carbon society in cities. Indeed, as the United Nations Environment Programme (1) reports, established cities like Copenhagen, Abu Dhabi and Vancouver account for about 70% of the carbon emissions reported in their localities.

Desert Conditions

Many sustainable cities adopt sustainable development practices, based on their climatic conditions and the challenges they experience, locally (concerning sustainability). This means that the nature of sustainable practices adopted by every city largely reflects the unique needs and characteristics of the city. Abu Dhabi is unique in this regard because unlike other sustainable cities around the world, Abu Dhabi’s sustainable practices largely appeal to its climatic conditions (arid and semi-arid conditions).

Indeed, a comparison of other sustainable cities, like San Francisco, Copenhagen, Vancouver, Curitiba, Oslo, Chicago, London and Tokyo, show that Abu Dhabi is unique because it is located in a desert region. This means that Abu Dhabi faces a particular sustainability problem, which concerns water management.

It is therefore unsurprising that most sustainability plans in Abu Dhabi have a clause that outlines how the city will manage water resources. Moreover, this paper already shows that water treatment and desalination accounts for a huge portion of Abu Dhabi’s energy bill.

Certainly, compared to other countries around the world, the UAE does not have renewable freshwater resources like other countries around the world. According to, Lee (8) a comparison of six major countries around the world show that America, France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Jordan many freshwater sources in that order.

However, since the UAE does not have any freshwater sources, it is last in this list. Ironically, for a country that does not have any freshwater source, a similar comparison of average residential use of water shows that Abu Dhabi’s consumption of water tops the list of average consumption of water among the six countries sampled above (Lee 8). In detail, America’s water consumption is second to Abu Dhabi’s water consumption.

This domestic consumption increases in France, UK, Germany, and Jordan, in that order (Lee 8). A perfect explanation for this trend would be the desert conditions that characterise Abu Dhabi (which lead to an increased demand for water). Furthermore, the growing tourism sector (increased tourism numbers) has also caused a significant strain on the city’s water network.

From the above analysis, it is correct to say, other sustainable cities do not experience Abu Dhabi’s water challenge because they are not located in a region that experiences water scarcity.

In fact, some of these sustainable cities are located in regions that have a lot of water and therefore, they do not have to incorporate water management as part of their sustainability plan (this fact does not, however, mean that other sustainable cities fail to conserve their water). Therefore, comparatively, water management is a key highlight of most sustainability plans in Abu Dhabi.

Conclusion Climate change is a reality that we need to confront today. More so, we need to mitigate the effects of climate change through the adoption of proactive, rather than reactive measures. Sustainable development is one such proactive measure that this paper investigates. The evidence gathered in this paper show that climate change is significant for our existence and for the longevity of our development activities.

Even though this paper approaches this problem from the lens of sustainable development in Abu Dhabi, it is still important to appreciate the fact that environmental conservation is a global phenomenon and its solution needs to reflect the same seriousness. This seriousness should especially manifest through the realisation that our human development activities destroy our environment and continue to put our access to food, water, and other social amenities (that come from nature) at risk.

The failure to embrace sustainable development, as the guiding principle for future development means that our social and economic welfare may continue to be under threat. Economically, Schein (1) says that the failure to adopt sustainable practices may lead to a loss of about 5% of the global gross domestic product every year. By far, this figure shows that no country should tolerate the ignorance of sustainable development practices in today’s century.

Most cities around the world have risen to this reality and are embracing sustainable development as an acceptable operational paradigm to guide their development activities. Abu Dhabi is at the forefront of this initiative because in the last decade, its government has shown an unwavering commitment to adopt sustainable development as the primary operational paradigm for new developments in the Emirate. The Estidama and Masdar projects are just a few examples of the numerous projects currently undergoing in Abu Dhabi.

On a broader scale, the UAE government is adopting similar sustainable projects in the other Emirates. For example, Dubai is also home to other sustainable projects in the UAE. The tremendous progress made in Abu Dhabi and other emirates paint a perfect picture of the UAE, which has gained the reputation of being an extravagant country that is characterised by massive resource wastages (because it is an oil producer).

The dwindling oil reserves and the realisation that the UAE needs to embark on diversifying its economy from oil has however brought the need for the adoption of sustainable practices because Abu Dhabi and other emirates need to find sustainable ways of undertaking their developments.

This realisation is a positive evaluation of the UAE government, which is trying to address a growing trend that would probably dominate future development projects not only in the UAE but across the rest of the world as well. Therefore, through the success of pioneer projects like Masdar and Estidama, it is correct to say that the future of sustainable development in the UAE is promising.

Still, based on the assessment of sustainability practices in Abu Dhabi and the rest of the world, it is easy to point out that even though Abu Dhabi and other cities strive to uphold sustainable principles of development; their methodologies differ slightly. For example, this paper shows that Abu Dhabi’s development practices largely appeal to its local situations and environmental challenges, while the rest of the world have a more uniform approach of embracing sustainable development (albeit with few cultural variations).

For example, the adoption of the pearl rating system by the Abu Dhabi government is a bold attempt to adopt a localised sustainable rating model that appeals to the culture and needs of Abu Dhabi. Most of the sustainable practices adopted in Abu Dhabi also seek to address local environmental challenges in the UAE, such as acute water shortages.

Other sustainable cities around the world, however, adopt a more conventional approach to sustainable development, especially by embracing principles of reducing energy consumption and reducing carbon emissions. Therefore, Abu Dhabi’s sustainable development design is very ambitious and bolder than other sustainable development plans from other parts of the world.

This paper already gives the example of the zero-carbon policy as a special sustainable development plan of Abu Dhabi that very few cities bother to imitate. Only Copenhagen’s sustainable development plan surfaces as a possible match to this policy. However, unlike Abu Dhabi, Copenhagen’s plan does not embody a bold attempt to build a city from scratch and make it fully sustainable (like Masdar City in Abu Dhabi). In fact, most cities that bask in the glory of being sustainable towns have not developed from anything.

Instead, most municipalities and local governments strive to build sustainable cities by modifying some of the core operational processes of the city. For example, London, San Francisco, Chicago, Oslo, and Copenhagen (just to mention a few) bask in the glory of being (or becoming) sustainable cities by modifying their city development plans to reflect elements of sustainability. Abu Dhabi, therefore, is a leader among its peers for having ambitious plans to build sustainable cities from nothing.

As this paper appreciates the importance of sustainability and the efforts made by global cities to embrace it, it is still important to acknowledge that the transition to embracing sustainability is not a process without challenges. The leadership trait especially manifests as an important prerequisite for the realisation of sustainable goals because it denotes the commitment to embrace sustainability.

The importance of securing good leadership is essential in this regard because sustainable development is often a controversial issue that most people may easily ignore because of negative rhetoric. Other factors that may contribute to its failures are characteristic of the process. For example, adopting sustainable practices may be a costly affair for most cities, which may be preoccupied with other development priorities.

This reason explains why some people regard sustainable development as an afterthought. Similarly, the adoption of sustainable development practices may be lost in philosophical arguments regarding the authenticity of the arguments that surround the concept. For example, the adoption of sustainable development stems from climate change arguments because scientists believe that we need to protect our environment from adverse environmental effects like climate change.

However, there is an opposing school of thought, which believes that climate change is a fallacy. Such arguments greatly undermine the adoption of sustainable development practices. It is, therefore, crucial to have a strong leadership focus that should ensure sustainable development remains a priority for most societies.

Nonetheless, globally, many countries face different types of challenges that hinder the adoption of sustainable development. For example, the United Nations (1) estimates that many people still live below the poverty line. This problem compounds through the acknowledgement that other pressing problems’ like income inequality, illiteracy, and unsustainable consumption (among others) also persist.

The existence of some of these problems not only exacerbates the problem of unsustainable development because they also hinder the adoption of sustainable development. For example, high illiteracy levels in some countries may prevent the understanding, or appreciation, of sustainability. High poverty levels in some countries also exacerbate the same problem by making the adoption of sustainable practices to be among the last priority issues for such countries.

Moreover, extreme poverty may also be counterproductive to the goal of sustainability, as many people still depend on their primary environments for their existence. For example, it would be difficult to tell a poor community not to cut trees if they do not know an alternative source of energy that they can afford. Through such an analysis, it is essential to understand that the realisation of sustainable goals may largely depend on the inclusivity of every group of people in the society.

More specifically, people who champion the goal of sustainability need to consider the needs of the poor and vulnerable people in the society. Indeed, as United Nations (1) argue, the success of sustainable development, as the new development paradigm, largely depends on the ability of policymakers to challenge traditional patterns of consumption and their flexibility to adapt to different levels of development.

Works Cited CISDL 2005, What is Sustainable Development Law? PDF file.

Dovers, Stephen. Environment and Sustainability Policy: Creation, Implementation, Evaluation, New York, US: Federation Press, 2005. Print.

Elgendy, Karim 2013, Comparing Estidama’s Pearls Rating System to LEED and BREEAM. Web.

Gandhi, Mohan. “Unsustainable Development to Sustainable Development: A Conceptual Model.” Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 17.6 (2006): 654 – 672. Print.

Gerdes, Justin 2013, Copenhagen’s Ambitious Push To Be Carbon Neutral by 2025. Web.

Government of Abu Dhabi 2013, Estidama: Abu Dhabi’s Answer to Sustainable Development. Web.

Harrison, Lynn. “Sustainable Tourism Development in the Caribbean: Practical Challenges.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 15.5 (2003): 294 – 298. Print.

Hernandez, Brebbia. The Sustainable City VI: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, New York, US: WIT Press, 2010. Print.

Lee, April 2010, Sustainable Water Management in Abu Dhabi. PDF file.

Mayton, Joseph 2013, Another Sustainable Development Report from Abu Dhabi. Web.

Mezher, Toufic. “An overview of CSR in the renewable energy sector: Examples from the Masdar Initiative in Abu Dhabi.” Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 21.6 (2010): 744 – 760. Print.

Reeder, Linda. Guide to Green Building Rating Systems: Understanding LEED, Green Globes, Energy Star, the National Green Building Standard, and More, London, UK: John Wiley

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Economic Policies of Different Countries Essay college essay help near me

Introduction The day-to-day economic world is driven by different policies as adopted by different countries based on different schools of thought. The paper investigates the organisational purposes of a business, the nature of national environment in which the business operates, the behaviour of organisations in their market environment, and the significance of global factors that shape the national business environment.

Worth noting is that the prevailing political leadership that subscribes to certain ideologies usually informs an individual country’s choice of an economic system, which in turn dictates the economic system to be used. An example of an economic system is capitalism.

How Economic Systems Allocate Resources Effectively Capitalism can be described as the free market economy, which advocates for the determination of market prices through supply and demand of goods and services. Under capitalism, the state allows businesses to buy and sell their goods and services without the state interfering in the pricing of the same.

Under the capitalism system, the production of goods and services is largely privately owned. The role of the state is to provide an economic environment that will ensure the citizens of the state are protected within the economic system (Cohen 15). In fact, although capitalism is free from state interference, it still has to work under certain laws as provided by the state to guide it. This therefore gives the present day capitalism the definition of a mixed economy because it is not perfectly capitalist.

An example of a planned economic system is socialism. Under this economic system, the central government or any agency of the central government determines the production of goods and services. Cohen states that under this system, the government centrally plans and controls the economy together with the flow of goods and services in the market (12). The government determines and enforces the prices of goods and services. The slight advantage that the system has is in the almost equal distribution of wealth and income.

Impacts of the Fiscal and Monetary Policy on Business Organisations The fiscal policy is the official government outline that spells the steps that it will take in its effort to manipulate the budget deficit or surplus as a way of achieving its economic goals. The fiscal policy is usually a budget statement outlining tax measures taken by the government, the borrowing, and lending that the government will do as it works towards meeting its budgetary obligations (Langdana 6).

The fiscal policy affects the prices of goods and services by either increasing their taxation or reducing it, therefore making the cost of goods go up or come down. The government uses the fiscal policy as a tool for controlling inflation. According to Langdana, the fiscal policy employs two instruments when working; these include automatic stabilisers and the discretionary fiscal policy (6). The fiscal policy in its working will lead to cheap production of goods, or it may lead to expensive production of goods, thus affecting the pricing of the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the attempt by the government through the central bank to manipulate and control the amount of money in circulation so that only the right quantity of money is in circulation. The monetary policy has a direct effect on the supply of credit to market, the interest rates, and other variables determined by money. The monetary policy is usually controlled through taxes being levied on goods and by manipulating the overnight lending rates between banks (Langdana 8).

This will make the value of the currency either appreciate or depreciate and in so doing affect its exchange rate on the international market. A weak currency allows the country to export its goods cheaply as pegged to the dollar while a strong currency makes the country’s goods expensive on the international market. This therefore has an effect on the country’s foreign reserves.

The Impact of Competition Policy and other regulatory mechanisms on the activities of a selected organisation

The world of business is full of competition from different businesses that sell similar goods but to the same clientele base. This therefore leads to the adoption of survival tactics by rival businesses as a way of surviving in the business and/or to make a profit from the same. Left on their own, business organisations such as McDonald’s will resort to unethical moves that will see them push their competitors out of the market. Thus, the government has to step in and play the role of the regulator so that any form of competition is fair to all players (Cohen 23). The government employs different measures to control competition. It makes legislation or simply passing policies as provided for by the law. Competition regulatory policies and other mechanisms usually have an impact on individual businesses because they either enable the business to thrive or inhibit the business in its growth. Competition policy will protect the country’s manufacturers from imports, which might be cheaper on the consumer than the locally manufactured goods (Strange 14). Therefore, a government will enact a protectionist policy that will control the amount of imports that compete against the local goods. On the local scene, the government will enact competition policies to ensure that there is an even playing field for all players. The competition policy can take away advantages that an organisation previously had when it is forced to conform to the new regulations and policies. Other regulatory mechanisms such as licenses will require a business to conform to certain standards for it to operate as per the government’s demands. These become inhibitions because they come at a certain cost to the business.

Strategies and Appropriate Solutions In its attempt to provide a solution, the government should work towards empowering the citizens in areas that they can be empowered while at the same time propping up the economy where it can be propped up. The United Arab Emirates has a unique system of economic governance that allows the different emirates to share resources effectively.

The United Arab Emirates practices the free economy system where individuals are allowed to own property and businesses. The ownership of property is not restricted to land locals alone but also to foreigners who are encouraged to invest in the Emirates.

The government has created an enabling environment that allows businesses to thrive by creating tax-free economic zones that allow free trading (Cohen 34). Any government can apply this strategy depending on its needs and abilities. In the case of the United Arab Emirates, the government finances 80% of the expenditure using money from the oil sector.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Policies of Different Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many goods in the market are usually imported, with the government subsidising the goods so that they can be affordable to the masses. Measures such as providing subsidies enable the nation’s population and the business community to afford goods, thus boosting the economy. A good fiscal policy by the government will ensure that employment opportunities are created and that citizens are able to pay taxes from employment.

This will enable the government to fund other programs such as infrastructure through monies collected as tax (Langdana 23). On the other hand, businesses should exploit the incentives provided by the government because the incentives are meant to enable them maximise on the profits they are expected to get. The businesses should also seek favours from the government by pushing for changes in areas that they feel will benefit them.

Market Structures, Pricing, and Output Decisions The market structure in a free market is usually determined by the demand and supply of goods, which in turn determine the price of goods. The availability and non-availability of goods in the market are some of the strongest determinants of prices for goods because they will either create scarcity of goods, a perfect balance between the supply of goods and services, or oversupply of goods and services (Cohen 3). Different structures such as monopoly come into play depending on the positioning of players in the market.

A monopolistic market has only one supplier of goods and services without any form of competition. The supplier therefore sets the price of goods. It will be up to consumers to decide whether they will buy or not. In case the commodities are essential, the supplier will set a very high price than the supposed market price.

However, consumers will pay for the goods and services (Cohen 3). In addition, oligopoly a type of market whereby there are few specific suppliers of goods and services who come together to form an association that makes them agree to set prices for their specific goods.

They therefore end up controlling the market as well as prices of goods they sell. An example of this is the oil industry through OPEC. Moreover, in a perfect competition, there are many suppliers of goods and services fighting out for a specific clientele base. Under this situation, the customer decides where to buy their goods and services because the goods retail at the same price. Therefore, no specific supplier has an advantage over the other in the market.

How Market Forces Shape Organisational Responses The dynamic nature of the market dictates business organisations to take the necessary measures and steps to ensure that the business survives changes in the market. A static business will fail to survive because unresponsiveness to market changes leads it into a disadvantaged position that can easily take away its profits, which are its reason to trade.

When there is an oversupply of goods and services, competition among players in the field for clients intensifies, thus leading to a drop in price of the goods. Customers will have many buying options. They will thus go for the person selling at the lowest prices. At the same time, the business selling at the lowest prices will see their stock turnover rise.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Policies of Different Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the demand for a specific good is high and the supply of the same good is lower than the demand, the business will take advantage to sell its goods and services at a higher price because consumers will still pay for the price as demanded by the seller. Alternatively, sellers of goods and services will find out suppliers offering the best prices for specific goods and services to source the goods at a lower price so that they can also offer the goods at a much lower price relative to their competitors (Cohen 4).

There are instances when stores find themselves with old stock that is not moving very fast at the current prices. The store will lower the prices of the goods as a way of making them move fast either before they expire or as a way of creating space for newer products in the market. At this instance, the prices the goods will be much lower as a way of cutting on loses.

How Business and Cultural Environments affect Organisational Behaviour Businesses change with the change in the environment in which they operate in order for them to remain relevant. The business environment is made up of several factors such as the law, demographics, and the supply of goods and services to the market. According to Cohen, a good business should be able to change with the change in the environment by being up to date with the trends of the moment as a way of remaining relevant and competitive (13).

Good examples of businesses that have changed with the trend are music distributing companies such as Sony and the Apple Companies. When online music became the new thing in the market, Sony saw the trend and opened online stores from where people could buy and download music because many people were moving away from buying music in hardcopies to buying music online.

The trends in business are set by the prevailing cultural conditions, which dictate what sells fast in the market. On the other hand, cultural factors shape up a business because people’s culture is informed by their belief systems, which the business has to understand and/or for it to fit in the given community.

Methods for Different Market Types Different markets for goods take shape in different ways depending on the prevailing factors that drive the market (Langdana 36). Players in a given market also influence the direction the market takes together with how business is to be driven in that area.

For instance, for a short time, countries such as the United Arab Emirates have become major players in the airlines industry because of the capital advantage they have. Within a short time, they have been able to build some of the major airlines such as the Emirates and the Etihad airways from Qatar. This move is happening in the backdrop of a very competitive industry that is seeing many airlines close their shops.

The major Arab airlines are simply enjoying capital from their oil industry together with the cheap oil from their own governments. The availability of this resource is enabling them to compete profitably. As they are referred to, the petrodollar airlines are never affected by the price of fuel, which has become the most dominant determinant in the airlines industry. Therefore, to survive in the airline industry, governments have stepped in by providing subsidies.

Critical Reflection To achieve realistic improvements in the economy of a country such as the United Arab Emirates, the government needs to get its priorities right so that its economic advances and plans remain relevant to the population of the country.

The United Arab Emirates as a country has a large population in the middle class, with the ruling elite making the upper class who are affluently rich. The government needs to invest more in its population in terms of labour so that the population does not depend on the government’s support forever because this can last only as far as oil is available and/or as far as the oil is still on demand.

The propping up of their airlines to be world class can only be described as being done for pride rather than for business purposes because the amount of money being pumped in for subsidies can be put to other uses such as making the country more of a producing nation as opposed to an importing nation.

Significance of International Trade to UK Business Organisation International trade has different effects on the UK’s business organisations depending on what platform one wants to look at it. There are two platforms, with one being for imports while the other one is for exports. On the platform of exports, the international trade is good for the UK’s business organisations because they offer an external market for goods outside their country.

Any business organisation will want to export the surplus of its goods so that the goods on the local market remain competitive. Therefore, international trade opens doors for goods from the UK to the global market, thus boosting the country’s balance of trade.

On the other hand, international trade opens up the UK’s market to goods from other countries into the UK market, thus creating a lot of competition for the local goods from local manufacturers. This move has a domino effect on the business organisations as well as the economy in general because, as long as importers work within the international trade agreements, they are allowed to import goods into the UK.

This provision can be a source of competition to the local goods. International trade is governed by agreements, which are reached on a give-and-take basis that allows the local business organisations to gain and/or cede ground. The role of the government in this case is to ensure that the balance of trade remains favourable.

Negative and Positive Impact of Global Factors Global factors have both positive and negative impacts on businesses in the UK and the world over. Each country on the global arena is fighting for a share of raw materials, which have become scarce with time. This has led many business organisations to close shop because they can no longer trade competitively on the global stage. The global market is also responsible for the provision of raw materials to the UK companies. This role is subject to competition from other manufacturing countries, which compete for the same raw materials.

This situation has therefore forced the UK’s business organisations to come up with strategies for survival, but which are expensive to maintain. Other factors such as the European monetary crisis have had an effect on the economy of the country because the country has had to step in to provide stopgap measures for other countries on the European Union block (Stewart 56).

The unstable prices of raw materials such as metals on the global market have hindered proper planning for many UK’s companies in the construction industry because the acquisition of the same cannot be pegged on a long planned budget. The growing demand for goods manufactured in the UK is influencing positively on the business organisations because they are able to sell their goods on the international market, thus developing their global base.

Impact of the Policies of the European Union on the UK Businesses The European Union on its formation was meant to create an economic zone that will filter any members who wished to join by subjecting them to certain economic and political conditions before they could be allowed in as members. This has had both positive and negative effects on the UK organisations business. The European Union has led to the creation of a protected zone for manufacturers in the UK in such a way that only goods from certain economic zones will be allowed (Stewart 57).

It sets quotas so that goods imported into the European Union are controlled to curb instances of dumping. The European Union has led to a big problem in immigration because it allows free entry to citizens from member states. This path has led to an influx of immigrants from the impoverished Eastern European countries that have increased competition in employment opportunities for locals because they are cheap to pay relative to locals.

As a European Union country, the euro on the other hand has had many problems that have had members threaten to abandon it as a currency of choice. It has led to member countries such as Greece employing austerity measures as a way of reversing the negative economic situations they have encountered. The UK as a member country playing a big brotherly role has had to step in to provide financial assistance to Greece by being financed by the UK taxpayers.

Appropriate Findings The findings in this case indicate many factors that affect the smooth running of any business at any time. Any business organisation should be dynamic enough to swim with the tide of change so that it does not run down when changes come into play. The world has become a global village due to information technology and information explosion, thus opening up opportunities for different players in different parts of the world.

Therefore, it is prudent for any organisation to be proactive in its planning by putting all factors into consideration and by being on the lookout for change at the earliest stage. The UK business organisations enjoy the economies that come with a strong pound to the dollar. What manufacturers need to do is to take up the many incentives provided and/or maximise them to their advantage.

Conclusion: The European Union and the European Monetary Union In conclusion, the European Union as currently constituted is slowly loosing the goals it was created to achieve. As an economic union, the union was initially supposed to derive its value from being an exclusive zone that would hold during certain conditions before one could join it. The present day situation paints a picture of a Union of almost all European countries because it is bloated with new members who can meet certain political conditions. It has therefore stopped from being an economic zone to being guided by politics.

The decision by the UK not to join the European Monetary Union can be attributed to the UK not wanting to cede its economic muscle by ceding the control of its currency because other countries such as France and Germany who are major players also will eclipse the economic power of the UK by taking control of the euro. This decision has paid off because the euro has become a very unstable currency due to poor monetary policies by some of the European Monetary Union members such as Greece and Italy, and Spain to some extent.

Works Cited Cohen, Solomon. Economic Systems Analysis and Policies: Explaining Global Differences, Transitions

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Comparison between Uruguay and Argentina in Term of Economy, Culture, and Sustainable Development Report essay help: essay help

Introduction Understanding the socio-economic and cultural issues of a country needs a deep analysis of the history of the country from pre-historic times to the current day society. According to Bernhardson (67), in order to have a comprehensive understanding of a country’s history, it would be important to take detailed analysis of all the factors that have played off to make it to its current position.

This scholar says that if care is not taken, there are always chances that some of the most important facts may be ignored. Once this happens, then the analysis shall have lost its real meaning. This is because in every country, there would be something that is unique to it. It is always common to find that most of the cultural and economic practices of two countries from the same region are similar. Despite this similarity, always a small issue may bring a difference between the countries.

This difference should always be captured in order to bring out uniqueness of the country. It is with this knowledge that the researcher set forth to analyze the socio-economic and cultural factors between Uruguay and Argentina and how these factors compare in the two countries.

Uruguay and Argentina are two neighboring countries in South America. These countries have a lot in common, having been exposed to the external world almost at the same time. They both experienced similar colonization pattern, although Argentina gained its independence a few years ahead of Uruguay.

According to Bernhardson (90), when comparing two countries, it is important to bring out their similarities and differences in a clear manner as to enhance understanding. This scholar warns that when analyzing countries with near similar economic and social structure, the researcher should be in a position to pick differences in what appears to be similar because there must be some form on uniqueness in each country.

The researcher was keen on this warning because previous researchers have always stated that most of the South American states have many similarities in their socio-cultural practices. The researcher was therefore, keen to point out these similarities, while still making sure that the differences are captured in a clear manner. Also within the scope of this study is the sustained development between the two countries and the similarities and differences they have.

History of Uruguay As was mentioned in the introductory section above, the first step towards understanding a country is to know its history. History of a country helps in bringing out the path the country has taken to reach its current position, some of the challenges it has faced in the process, and how it has been able to cope with these challenges in a manner that has defined its culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to have a clear understanding of Uruguay as a country in terms of its economic, social, cultural and sustained development, the researcher will give a brief history of the country. According to Lavrin (87), Uruguay was formerly known as the Republic East of the Uruguay, but latter changed this name to Oriental Republic of Uruguay. This scholar says that documents about this country before colonization are very scanty.

The only recorded history of this country before colonization was of the Charrua tribe. This tribe was later pushed south by Paraguayan Guarani. However, a rich documentation of this country during the European invasion, struggle for independence and after independence is in existence. In 1516, the first European settlers entered Uruguay. Spain was keen on colonizing this country, but met stiff resistance from the Indians who were living in parts of this country.

Lack of precious metal such as silver and gold slowed the rate of the colonizers grabbing this country because to them it lacked economic benefits. The Portuguese- keen to expand its territory in this region- also made a move to conquer this country by building a fort at the coastal region.

These two colonizers did not find this country economically viable, but the need to expand their territory and capture Brazil motivated them to capture this country. The onset of the 19th century would see British joining the two colonizers in a battle to gain control of this country.

However, after a series of battles between these colonizers, an agreement was reached and Britain and Portugal withdrew, leaving Spain to rule this country. The Spanish rule was soon brought to an end by a revolution led by José Gervasio Artigas at the battle of Battle of Las Piedras in 1811. An autonomous government was formed two years later, but the government had many wrangles. This created an avenue for the Portuguese to take control of this country in 1816 using only 10,000 troops.

The Portugal government handed over the country to Portuguese Brazil, and when the Brazilian Empire became independent in 1822, it retains Uruguay as one of its provinces. This led to a revolution where the Uruguayans demanded that they be declared independent.

This war lasted three years, until the British government fostered peace through the Treaty of Montevideo in 1828. This treaty gave birth to an independent Uruguayan state. When it was finally granted independence, this country was home to about 75,000 people. Despite this small population, the country became split into two political frontiers.

We will write a custom Report on Comparison between Uruguay and Argentina in Term of Economy, Culture, and Sustainable Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On one side were the conservative Whites with massive interest in agriculture. On the other side was liberal Colorado’s who had massive interest in general business. By 1879, the country experienced a mass immigration and development. Most of these immigrants came from Italy and Spain to practice livestock keeping. The twentieth century saw a series of revolutions between the Colorado and the Blacons. In 1973, the military took over the leadership of this country until 1985 when democracy was finally restored.

The country experienced serious economy contraction from 1999 to 2002, which led to massive loss of jobs and increase in poverty levels. This was caused by the reduced demand of cattle products in the international market. The country has been struggling to gain its footing economically, and with good results as it has managed to reduce government debt and increase employment. The country has also joined a few other nations is legalizing abortion, same sex marriage and use of cannabis.

History of Argentina Argentina is one of the South American federal republics that were colonized by Spain. This country is officially known as Argentina Republic. It borders Paraguay and Bolivia to the north, Atlantic Ocean and Uruguay on the east, Brazil on the northeast, with Chile on its west. According to Selby (26), the name Argentina was derived from Argentum, a Latin name for silver.

There was a rumors that this country was rich in silver, hence the name, but the first Spanish settlers were disappointed to realize that there was no silver in this country. Unlike Uruguay, Argentina has a rich history dating back to the pre-colonization period. Richardson (56) says, “The history of Argentina can be traced back to those Paleolithic periods, with some traces of Neolithic and Mesolithic.”

The pre-colonial history of this country demonstrates that these people were hunters and gatherers. Scientists have also confirmed that people of this country also practiced advanced hunting, farming, and pottery. By the time the white settlers made an entry into this country, the locals had clearly defined cultural and economic practices. They also had a clear leadership structure that was based on chieftaincy.

The first Europeans to arrive in this country were a voyage of Amerigo Vespucci in 1502 (Behar 56). The Spanish would later make their first visit into this country in 1516.

It is worth noting that the invasion of Argentina not motivated by gold rush as was in other South American countries because there were no precious metals in its soils. Although Spain managed to conquer and rule this country, it faced many challenges, especially from other European nations such as France, which offered the locals military assistance to oppose the Spanish rule.

From 1776 when the United States gained independence, to 1810, there were a series of revolutions aimed at overthrowing King Ferdinand of Spain, especially the Peninsular Wars. According to Connolly (37), a series of rebellions brought down the colonial regime and Argentine Declaration of Independence was finally made in 1816. Soon after gaining independence, the country underwent a series of revolution because different political groups wanted to ascent to power.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Uruguay and Argentina in Term of Economy, Culture, and Sustainable Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern Argentine Nation can be traced back to the 1980s when the country changed its policies to encourage immigration. The whites, especially the British and French investors came to this country in mass from early 1880s. They were coming to invest into the agricultural sector.

This massive immigration and investment saw the country emerge as one of the most industrialized nations in South America. The country’s economy grew rapidly through export of agricultural products. The population was also on the rise and this increased the market size.

President Juan Peron has been considered as one of the presidents of this country that helped shape the future of this country. Coming to power in 1946, this president introduced policies that motivated growth of the private sectors. He introduced peronism– a doctrine of leadership that denounced military interference in the political leadership of the country- into this country as a way of encouraging civilian rule.

Peronism generated a lot of debate among the military chief, a fact that made Juan to flee the country to Spain. The military would soon take over power and ban peronism and all its doctrines. There were a series of military coup and civil strife until 1983 when the military chiefs decided to allow for a civilian rule. The political environment had massive effect on the social and economic environment of this country.

Source of Income in Uruguay The economy of Uruguay has experienced massive growth in the near past due to friendly policies that was introduced by the current regime. For a long time, Uruguay had majorly depended on livestock keeping as the main source of income. The main markets were Argentina and Brazil. However, this changed when the demand for livestock products fell in the world market. According to the report by Cortés (93), the Uruguayans remain the largest consumers of red meat in the world.

From 1999 to 2002, this country experienced massive economic problem, especially due to the reduced demand of its products in its main market. Argentina- the main market for its exports- was undergoing a serious economic crisis during this period, and this reduced the amount of their exports. Brazil also reduced the amount of their imports from this country. Because of this, the economy of this country shrunk by 11%, while the rate of unemployment rose by 21%.

Most of those people who relied on exports were rendered jobless because of this crisis. However, this country was able to recover from this economic shock by late 2003. Since 2004, the government has made deliberate effort to ensure that it stimulates the economic growth of this country. With the help from International Monetary Fund and other world agencies, the government of Uruguay borrowed money in 2004 and 2005 to stimulate economic growth and improve employment.

This has seen this country’s economy expand very consistently. According to Conesa (45), Uruguay was the only country in South America, which was not affected by the massive economic recession of 2010. This scholar says that it was strange that while the entire American continent was feeling the heat of the recession, Uruguay managed to expand its economy by over 10% and unemployment was reduced 5%.

It would be interesting to understand sources of income in this country that has made it gain a strong economic that could resist the inflation. The graph below shows economic growth and income inequality in this country since 1981 to 2010 in the urban centers. The graph above shows that the gross domestic product of Uruguay has been rising consistently from 1981 to 2010.

The growth of per capita income has been growing but in erratic manner. Hourly labor earnings have also been rising, but there has been a drop from 2008 to 2010. The following are some of the sources on income for the Uruguayans.

Source: (Lustig 83)

Agriculture

Uruguay has largely depended on agriculture as the main source of income for its populace. This sector remained the main source of income for the economy and for individual families until in the 1970s when it was overtaken by other sectors in the economy. One of the main agricultural practices that have been widely practiced is animal keeping.

During the immigration, most of the white settlers who came to this country were ranchers. They practiced cattle keeping for their meat and milk. The local population was not large enough to make a good market for these dairy products, and therefore these ranchers decided to export their products to neighboring Argentina and Brazil, which had huge markets.

Most of the exports were processed milk, cheese, meat and other animal products. These ranchers also kept sheep for their wool and meat. The climatic condition and geographic location of this country favored animal keeping. The locals found it easier to keep animals because there was plenty of grass for the cattle and the temperatures of this region were favorable.

A small percentage of the dairy products were sold in the local market, especially red meat. Prior to 1970s, this sector employed the highest number of Uruguayans either directly in the ranches, or indirectly in the transport sector or other related sectors of the economy. However, this changed in the 1980s and 1990s when there was a sharp drop in the demand for dairy products in the international markets.

This worsened as the two main markets of Brazil and Argentina started relying on the dairy products produced in their local countries. The economic recession that hit the world added to the injury of this struggling industry. The players in this industry realized that it was time to change tact.

They had to find another way of cushioning themselves from the deteriorating dairy products markets. Some considered changing from this sector completely to try other agricultural practices like farming. Others reduced the number of their cattle in favor of mixed farming. The most common crop in this country is rice. The country produces enough rice to meet the local demands and export others to some of the neighboring countries.

Wheat and corn farming is also practiced locally. Other common crops in Uruguay include sorghum, barley, oats, soya beans, sunflower, sugarcane, peanuts, potatoes, cotton, and flax. Most of the farmers in this country have adopted mechanization in farming as a way of improving their productivity. Although this sector is still a major source of income to many Uruguayans, it is no longer the leading economic activity in this country. It is estimated that agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total income in this country (Perry 118).

Tourism

Since gaining independence Uruguayan government had ignored tourism industry. Of all the sectors of the economy, this industry had no ministry responsible for its management and promotion. It was not until 1986 when the government decided to create Tourism Ministry to help attract tourists into this country. The government came to realize that this could be one of the leading economic sources in this country.

According to Frankema (48), the government of Uruguay started to develop infrastructure that could attract international visitors. The roads were improved, the sewer system changed and security was improved as a way to assure tourists that the government was determined to protect their interest when they come visiting. The government also tasked the ministry of tourism with promoting tourism by attracting international visitors. The beaches have been improved to offer tourists comfort and luxury when they visit.

This effort has done very little in attracting tourists from other continents, especially from the United States and other European nations. Graham and Eduardo (67) notes that over 85% of the tourists who visit this country on a yearly basis are from Argentina. Most of them have investments in this country, and therefore, they come to monitor their development.

Inasmuch as they come to tour the country and for the holidays their main drive is to monitor growth of their companies. About 10% of the tourists coming to this country are from Brazil. A few come from Paraguay and Chile. The country has not been able to attract tourists from other nations other than its immediate neighbors. This may be attributed to its limited flora and fauna. The country lacks vegetations and beautiful sceneries that can attract international visitors.

The wild animals that are found in this country are few, and are commonly found in other countries in other parts of the world. This has denied this country opportunity to attract international visitors because it is considered to lack what to offer to tourists. Moreover, Tanzi (29) says that this country do not have a five star hotel that most of the international customers prefer when they come to visit.

Most of the hotels in this country are owned by the Argentines and they are not of the standards that can attract the European and United States’ tourists. However, the government has made an effort to ensure that this grim face is changed in order to increase its attraction to the international tourists. The government has been keen to support investors in this industry through various incentives. If things continue in the same trend, then it is very likely that the tourism in this country will expand.

The industrial sector

The manufacturing industry in this country has been expanding consistently since the investors turned their focus from ranching. According to Behar (17), the industrial sector in Uruguay has massively expanded, especially the textile industry. When the demand for the dairy products dropped in the international market, the players in this industry focused on the production of clothes, shoes, and other products from the skin and fur obtained from the animals.

At first, there was a challenge in the production process because there was lack of technical skills and machines to enhance this production process. However, this industry gained stability when several investors and the government made a commitment to develop it. The government offered loans to the companies in this sector. These firms were then able to buy machines and other tools to make this process a success.

Between the periods of 1950s to 1970s, this country was able to produce enough textile products to meet the local demand. This production has improved, and currently this firm is producing enough to export to neighboring countries, especially in Argentina. The country has developed numerous entities that have been known to export their products to Brazil and other countries within South America. This has created sources of income to those who had lost jobs in the declining dairy industry.

According to Mooij (79), “The two largest autonomous entities were also the two largest companies in Uruguay: the National Administration of Fuels, Alcohol, and Portland cement, and the National Administration for the Generation and Transmission of Electricity.” The country does not export alcohol. The production of alcohol is meant for local consumption. Alcohol production has been a source of income for a number of citizens of this country.

Portland cement also employs a number of Uruguayan nationals. Generation and transmission of electricity is also another reliable source of income for some citizens of this country. The government has committed many resources to develop this sector as a way of increasing employment opportunities and reducing poverty levels. This has seen the level of absolute poverty drop to less than 2 percent in 2010.

Fishing

Fishing is one of the most developed industries in this country. According to Tulchin (110), Uruguay has had a long history of fishing even before the colonizers invaded it. For a long time, fishing has not been viewed as an economic activity in this country. Only a small percentage of Uruguayans depended on fishing as a source of income. Those who relied on fishing to earn their daily income were considered as poor people.

Most of those who went fishing did it for leisure. However, this is changing as the government tries to increase sources on income and fight poverty in this country. The fishing industry is gradually expanding as some investors have come to realize that this industry can also be tapped. Currently, commercial fishing is taking place in this country. Most of the fish harvested are for local consumption within the local market.

Health experts in this country have been warning against excessive consumption of red meat, which is readily available locally. Although majority of the citizens still consume red meat, a new trend is emerging where the locals are looking for alternatives other than red meat. Fish has been considered as the best option for those who want to stay away from red meat. This industry employs the anglers and those who handle this product until it is finally delivered to the consumer, either at the hotels or in the market.

According to Galeano (90), fishing is getting a new approach in this country. This scholar says that fresh water fishing has a long history in this country. Fishing is now considered as a sport in this country. Catching golden Dorado fish, especially at Salto, has gained a lot of popularity among the locals. This activity has been turned into a competition among the locals during weekends and holidays.

Some Uruguayans depend on this sport for their livelihood. Those who are able to catch the largest and highest number of golden Dorado fish are always rewarded. This leisure game is also attracting tourists. The coastal region has seen an influx of tourists who come to witness or participate in this game. Those who guide the tourists and the owners of the boats generate their earnings from this.

The service sector

The service sector is one of the main sources of income for the people of Uruguay and for the government. The service sector has expanded rapidly over the past few years and has already overtaken agriculture as the main source of income. This industry is big and the government has been able to invest in it extensively. One of the main sectors in the service industry that has developed includes the banking sector. The stated-controlled Central Bank of Uruguay was developed in 1967 to regulate the operations in this sector.

The growth of commercial bank was experienced from 1990s onwards. Some of the commercial banks such as Bank of Uruguay were started in1896 and it is still in operations. It is worth noting that there has been a limited penetration of the local banks into this country. Some of the world’s leading banks have been reluctant to enter this market. However, private investors have come into this industry and currently it is one of the major employers in the service industry.

Another service industry that has been considered as the main sources of income for the locals is the transport sector. This sector has employed a huge number of the locals. The government has invested in the transport sector by developing road and rail transport. Most of the youths are employed as drivers, loaders and various other tasks related to transporting people and products.

Entertainment industry has also gained momentum and now employs a good number of people. Acting is gaining popularity among the locals. A number of Uruguayans are generating their income through music and movies as artists, producers, or distributers. A number of informal sectors falling under the service industry have been able to offer employment opportunities to the locals.

Mining

It is a fact that Uruguay lack precious metals, a fact that made colonizers asserting their power into this territory. These colonizers never made attempt to promote mining because their exploration confirmed that there were no minerals locally.

When this country gained independence, mining was never considered as one of the possible sources of income because it had been confirmed that the country did not have precious metals. However, this industry started developing following the increased pressure to increase housing units, especially in the expanding urban centers of this country. Sand harvesting has become one of the sources of income for the locals. They harvest sand and sell it to the contractors.

Stones used in the construction of houses, roads, bridges among others also come from this industry. The recent funding done by the government to increase housing units and hotels along the coastal region of this country has been a boost in this industry. The number of those directly employed in this sector has been on the rise. However, environmentalists have complained that this sector has negative effect on the environment.

Forestry

Forestry is another source of income for a number of people in this country. Although Uruguay does not have large tracks of land dedicated to forests, individual famers have set aside part of their land to this industry. They grow trees and sell them to various customers who may need them for various activities.

Most of the buyers of the wood are carpenters who use wood to make various items sold locally. Paper manufactures and electric power supply companies also make a substantial market for the players in this industry. Although this industry has been employing more people, it is yet to get direct support from the government. Only a few foreign investors concerned with protecting the environment have made effort to support famers by providing them with seedlings.

Source of Income in Argentina Argentina is the third largest economy in South America. When the country gained independence, the local leadership was concerned of how to fight poverty among the Argentines. It was clear that the country’s resources were under control of the external forces. According to Fischlin (39), the colonizers were reluctant to leave this country even when it was declared as an independent state.

This scholar says that the ability to empower the locals was challenged by the constant leadership wrangles by different factions. Although these factions were committed to empowering the locals, greed for power serious affected economic growth of this country. A series of coups have made it difficult for successive governments to make a step towards economic growth. These governments’ focus was how to retain power by avoiding possible military takeovers.

Due to government instability during the early years, economy experienced a number of challenges. This instability continued until 1946 when Juan Momingo Peron took over power through a democratic election. He introduced Peronism- a doctrine that was meant to empower the civilians and promote economic growth locally- to this country. Under his leadership, the country experienced a substantial economic growth as many companies were put up to promote development in various sectors.

Currently, Argentina is classified as one of the upper-middle income economies in the world by various organizations, including the World Bank (Davis 71). This scholar also says that the gross domestic product of this country and its per capita is higher than most of its neighbors.

The World Bank has classified this country as one of those with the highest human development index in South America. Although the economy of this country has been affected by the recessions, especially in the late 20th century, it has remained strong over the years. This is attributed to high literacy in its population, and the rich natural resources. The increasing export of its agricultural products has also given it an edge over other competitors in the market.

This country is among the G-20 economies, and is classified as one of the emerging economies in the world. The government has promoted the private sector as a way of promoting economic growth. Inasmuch as the government has faced criticism from various quarters as being corrupt having been ranked position 100 out of 178 most corrupt countries by Transparency International, the country has seen growth in various sectors of the economy.

The table below shows the trend of investment in this country over the years.

Investment, 1980-1998 (Constant Prices 1980)

Year Total Gross Fixed Investment (% of GDP)

Public Investment (% of GDP)

1980 25.05 6.16 1981 22.57 5.50 1982 18.01 4.34 1983 17.20 5.20 1984 15.84 4.36 1985 16.48 4.03 1986 18.39 3.70 1987 17.47 5.70 1988 14.73 5.73 1988 12.66 4.39 1990 15.07 3.54 1991 12.26 2.20 Average 1980-1991 16.32 4.22 1992 18,24 1.81 1993 19.92 2.13 1994 22.35 2.07 1995 19.61 1.14 1996 20.48 1.21 1997 23.90 1.18 1998 24.45 1.12 Average 1992-1998 21.28 1.52 Source: (Davis 91)

The above statistics shows that there has been a consistent decline in public investment as a percentage of gross domestic products since 1980 to 1998. The total gross fixed investment as a percentage of gross domestic products declined from 1980 to 1991 when this percentage started to rise until 1998.

The following are some of the main sectors that have offered employment to the Argentines.

Agriculture

Agriculture has been one of the main sources of income among the Argentines. This country has been practicing crop farming even before attaining independence. For a long time, faming was considered as a source of income to peasant farmers. Enough attention was not given to faming when investors came to this country after independence.

However, this changed when the government realized that it had to import agricultural products in order to sustain its increasing population. Anton (73) says that Argentina is one of the South American countries that are endowed with various natural resources, including land. Large tracks of land were put under farming and mechanization was embraced in order to improve productivity.

Government made direct efforts to support crop farming in this country by zero-rating tax on farm inputs to reduce cost of production. The government also eliminated tax on most of the farm products, a fact that attracted investors into this industry. Currently, this country is producing enough to export to other neighboring nations. Rice, corn, wheat, barley, beans, and sugarcane are some of the main crops that have been earning the Argentines a lot of income.

Just like its neighbor Uruguay, Argentina has embraced ranching as one of the sources of income. The government has supported development of this sector in order to reduce the level of importing dairy products such as milk and red meat from its neighbors. Huge market in this country has motivated investors to enter this sector. The skins and fur from the slaughtered animals also find their ready market in the textile industry, which has been expanding over the years.

Some of the products from animals are used in making various other products such as cooking oil. This sector has employed a large number of Argentines at various stages of production. Their income from this sector has been stable despite the recession that this country has gone through in the past. With the increasing support from the government, this sector is destined to be one of the leading sources of income for the citizens of this country.

Tourism

Argentina’s tourism sector is very advanced and this is attributed to its natural assets in various cities. Tourists are also attracted to the country because of the rich cultural practices that is unique to this country. According to the report by Bernhardson (58), in 2010, this country received about 5.3 million visitors most of whom come from the United States and Europe.

This makes it the leading tourist destination in South America, beating the neighboring Brazil. In fact, this country is considered having the second highest number of international tourists in the entire Latin America. In this year, it is estimated that this country received about US$ 4.93 from tourism. Some of the most popular destinations in this country include Buenos Aires, Iguazu National Park, Bariloche, Los Alerces National Park, and Los Glaciares National Park among others.

This industry employs a massive number of people directly and indirectly. The tour guides fully depend on tourism as their source of income. With the increasing popularity of this country as a tourist’s destination, the number of people getting into this job has been on the rise.

This industry has also been a major boost to the hotel industry, which also employs very many people. Other professionals such as drivers and security agents also draw their source of income. To the government, tourism has been one of the main foreign exchange earners, besides export goods.

The industrial sector

The industrial sector in this economy is very advanced. According to Bernhardson (37), manufacturing sector is the largest sector of the economy, accounting to 19% of the country’s gross domestic product. This massive development was witnessed in the late 19th century and early 20th century when the government offered direct support to manufacturing firms. Successive governments have given this sector a lot of attention that led to this great growth.

The industrial sector employs the highest number of Argentines either directly or indirectly. Lavrin (78) says that, “Leading sectors by production value are Food processing and beverages; motor vehicles and auto parts; refinery products, and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel and aluminum; and industrial and farm machinery; electronics and home appliances.” According to this scholar, this country produces enough home appliances and electronics to meet the local demand.

Other major manufactured products in this country include cement, glass, plastic, and tires. The country also produces textiles, apparel, furniture, leather, and tobacco products. The main destination for these products is the local market. However, some of these products are exported to some of the neighboring countries. The country is also considered as the main exporter of cobalt-60, an isotope that is used widely in cancer therapy (Lavrin 71). The country also depends on the production of laptops servers as its source of income.

Fishing

The Argentine sea has been a source of income to people living along the shore. Fishing is not given as much emphasis as it is in the neighboring Uruguay. However, a few people have been keen on earning their income from fishing. It is estimated that there are over a thousand fish species in this sea. There is a ready local market for the produce from this lake. However, this industry has received minimal support from the government either directly or indirectly through the players.

The service sector

The service industry is also very much developed as compared to its neighboring countries. The government has given massive support to the banking industry as a way of motivating other sectors of economy. The central bank of Argentina has developed policies that many have considered as friendly to the commercial banks. The banking sector of this country has attracted a number of international banks.

The government has been using the commercial banks to manage inflation and to motivate investment. The banking sector is another major employer in this country. Most of the graduates prefer working in this sector because it is considered as very prestigious. Transport sector also employs a good number of people in this country. The informal sector also employs a good number of Argentines. The government has also been able to generate income from taxing these firms.

Mining

Argentina is one of the countries in South America where mining has not been given a lot of importance. However, the private sector has been keen to develop this industry, especially due to the rising need for power. As was stated before, the country’s industrial sector has been growing over the years.

However, the country was at one time forced to import electricity from Brazil. Investors have come to develop this sector specifically to meet the local demands. Geothermal has been developed to reduce the country’s dependence on external sources of power. Just as in Uruguay, mining in this country involves harvesting of sand and stones to help develop infrastructure in this country.

Comparison between Source of Income in Uruguay and Argentina The above analysis has given a detailed analysis of the sources of income in Uruguay and Argentina. In this analysis, some similarities and differences have come out. The following are some of the similarities brought out.

Both countries depend on agriculture as one of the main sources of income

Ranching is a well-established source of income and was introduced by white settlers in both countries

The industrial sector is the main source of income in both countries.

The governments of both countries have been promoting tourism, which is another major source of income in both countries.

The above similarities may be attributed to the fact that both countries are neighbors and experience a similar environmental pattern. Despite the above similarities, a number of differences in source of income in both countries are evident. The following are some of these differences.

The industrial sector in Argentina is developed, while that of Uruguay is still developing.

Although both countries export various products to the international market, the amount of Export of Argentina is larger than that of Uruguay.

The tourism sector in Argentina has attracted visitors from Europe and the United States, while that of Uruguay has only attracted regional visitors from neighboring countries.

General Overview of International Organization in Uruguay and in Argentina The foreign policies in Uruguay have helped it develop close ties with the international society. According to Selby (49), Uruguay has been keen to promote international relations with its immediate neighbors and other nations overseas.

Uruguay is a member of World Trade Organization, the United Nations, International Labor Organization, World Food Program, UNESCO, World Health Organization, among other international organizations. This country joined International Organization of la Francophone, making it the first South American nation to join this organization.

This country was among the non-aligned countries during the first and second world wars. One of the issues that have affected this country is emigration. It is estimated that more that 19 percent of its citizens are living abroad. Majority of those who emigrate from this country are young individuals, making it vulnerable due to the aging population. This country has a stable military (the army, navy, and air force), but has never been forced to use it against its neighbors in the recent past.

Argentina on the other hand, has had its own issues with its foreign policies and international relation. Soon after gaining independence, this country received criticism from the former colonizer of using its strategic Buenos Aires port to facilitate smuggling. In response to this claim, the government developed a policy that would grant it more autonomy.

This country has also had a policy granting it an autonomous alignment to the United States, but this was changed by president Nestor Kircher in 2003. Although there has been accusation, from other countries, that Argentina is selling arms to Ecuador and Croatia despite attempt to bring peace the government has been keen to avoid any military confrontation with its neighbors and other foreign nation (Selby 82).

Trade between this country and international society has been growing at an attractive rate. It is important to note that although Uruguay and Argentina share a number of issues in their international relation policies their policies also have many differences.

Overview of Commercial and Logistic Sources in Uruguay and Argentina According to Conesa (61), the commercial sector is always depended on the logistical issues within a country. This scholar says that it is not possible for the commercial sector to prosper when means of transport is not adequately developed.

It is because of this that the governments of Uruguay and Argentina have been keen to develop the transport sector. Developing this sector always has a direct impact on the growth of the commercial sector. As was mentioned in the sections above, these two countries have large industrial sectors that have supported their economies.

Both countries depend on exports in order to advance their economies and increase job opportunities. These commercial activities can only be a success if a country has a developed infrastructure. The domestic players as well as the exporters rely on goods roads, rail, air, and sea transport to achieve their goals in the market. It is therefore, important to analyze these four sectors of transport in these two countries in order to determine how well these countries can support commercial activities.

Sea Transport in Uruguay It was mentioned in this research that the main destination for most of the exports from Uruguay is Argentina. These two countries have close trade ties. Although these two countries do not share borders because of the water body between them, they have had very close trade corporations. Uruguay exports its red meat to Argentina. In exchange, this country buys electronic products, especially home appliances from Argentina.

This close exchange of goods needs a good sea transport. Most of the products that these countries exchange are bulky and cannot be transported by air. Uruguay also has close trade corporations with other South American states such as Paraguay. Recently, there has been a close trade corporation between China and Uruguay. Although Uruguay is yet to find a way of making its exports to China, more substantial, Chinese products are finding their way to Uruguay at an unprecedented rate.

These commercial activities can only be made a reality of there is a developed sea transport within the country. The government has developed a number of ports that can handle cargo leaving this country to international markets. These ports also handle goods from the international markets into the country. Montevideo is the main port that has been handling cargo from this country leaving for the international market, and those that are being imported.

Fray Bentos, Paysandú, Nueva Palmira, La Paloma, Carmelo, Juan Lacaze, Conchillas, Salto, Colonia Del Sacramento, Punta Del Este, Piriápolis, and Mercedes are some of the major ports and harbors in this country that has supported international trade. The government of Uruguay manages these ports, although the government has allowed the private sectors to have joint operations with the government in some of them.

Air Transport in Uruguay Air transport is very important for the Uruguayan tourism industry. According to Lustig (59), the government of Uruguay has been struggling to develop tourism industry for a very long time. This country has not been able to attract tourists from the United States and Europe.

Although some scholars have attributed this to less developed hotel industry of this country, others claim that air transport into, and out of this country may be another reason for this. Uruguayan airports do not have straight routes to some of the major international airports in the United States and Europe.

This forces tourists who wish to travel to this country from these European countries to pass through Argentina or Brazil and then connecting to Uruguay. Some tourists end up spending their time in Brazil or Argentina without making it to this country because of this. It is very unfortunate that this country do not have a national airline. Private investors own the airline companies operating within this country. Most of these investors are foreigners from Argentina, Brazil and other European nations.

The government has launched a massive plan that would see a number of the airports in this country improved to meet the standards that would allow them to have direct routes to major cities in the world. Lustig (73) observes that Angel International Airport, Villa Independecia Airport, Artigas International Airport, and Santa Bernardia International Airport are some of the main airports in this country trusted with the international flights.

A host of other airports also exists to help handle the domestic and international flights. The government has committed itself to improve the status of the current airports in this country based on the guidelines of IATA instead of increasing their number. The security at these airports has been maintained, but customers have complained before of the service delivered by these airports.

Road and Rail Network in Uruguay Road and rail transport has been important in promoting movement of goods and people within the borders of this country. The rail and road transport has also been important in promoting trade between Uruguay and Brazil, the only country with which it shares a border. The manufacturing sector has the local market as its main destination. These products are always delivered through road and rail transport.

The country has well developed road network that covers most of the cities and the rural areas. However, the rail network has not received much attention from the government as would be expected. The effort to develop the road network has been much stronger as compared to the effort put to improve railways transport. The first railway line to be developed in this country was in the 17th century by the colonial government. Since the country attained its independence, little has been done to promote rail transport.

Recent reports have indicated that the government is heeding to the pressure from various stakeholders to privatize this sector as a way of reviving it to ease transport pressure on roads. This in turn helps improve other commercial sectors of the economy. Road penetration into various parts of this country has been on the rise.

The macadamia roads are common even in the rural set-ups in this country, a fact that has made movement of raw products and finished goods to the company and to the market respectively, very easy. Road transport has kept the industrial sector very active. According to Perry (72), the road network within this country and those that link it to its neighbor Brazil has facilitated improved commercial activities within this country. It is estimated that roads in this country are about 77,732 kilometers in total length.

Sea Transport in Argentina Argentina has a well-developed sea transport that enables it to export its manufactured goods to foreign markets, and import products that are insufficient within its borders. For a long time, this country had not developed its industrial sector and imported most of the industrial goods from Europe, the United States, and China. However, this changed when the government gave focus to the local industrial firms.

Currently, Argentina produces several industrial products such as home appliances, electronics, among others. Some of these industrial products are exported to the neighboring countries. The commercial relationship between Argentina and Uruguay has been very close, with a number of Argentine investors coming to invest in Uruguay. There is a massive exchange of goods between these two countries. However, these two countries do not share a land border.

This means that road and rail transport cannot be used to facilitate trade. These two countries depend on water transport to move their goods from one country to the other. The coastal strip of this country is estimated to be about 1600 kilometers stretch.

According to Perry (39), some investors have developed shallow-draft river craft along this coastal strip to facilitate quick movement from Argentina to Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, and other countries sharing a marine border with Argentina. The shallow-draft river crafts are specifically meant to transport passengers.

The shipping industry has grown over the years with the expansion of the commercial activities between this country and its neighbors. Bulk ships, container ships, cargo ships, roll-on roll-off ships, liquefied gas tanker ships, chemical tanker ships, petroleum tanker ships, and combined passenger-cargo ships are some of the main ships used at the ports of Argentina (Cortés 47). This scholar says that Argentina has about 11,000 kilometers of navigable waters. This makes it one of the countries with the largest navigable waters in the world.

The cargo freight using these waters was estimated to be about twenty-eight million metric tons as at December 2010. Some of the most active ports and harbors in this country include Bahía Blanca, Comodoro Rivadavia, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Río Gallegos, Concepción Del Uruguay, and Necochea. These ports have facilitated movement of goods from Argentina to other parts of the world, and from other parts of the world to Argentina.

Air transport in Argentina Air transport in Argentina has been developing very fast. The increasing number of tourists has propelled this development into this country. Argentina is one of the most attractive tourist’s destinations in South America. Most of these tourists come from the United States and Europe. This has stimulated growth of international airports in this country.

Air transport has been instrumental in the development of trade between Argentina and international community. Every province in this country has an airport in order to facilitate movement of tourists and other businesspersons in this country. Although considered more expensive than other means of transport, air transport is gaining popularity even among the locals because of the speed and convenience.

Buenos Aires remains the most active airport in this country, especially for the international travels. However, other major airports coordinating regional movements include Córdoba, Mendoza, and Rosario airports. These three airports were developed to ease the pressure on Buenos Aires due to the increasing international travels into and out of this country.

The national courier for this country is Aerolíneas Argentinas, which is one of the largest airline companies in this region. However, international airlines such as British Airways, Virgin Atlantic, and Air France always make frequent visits to the international airport of this country.

Road and Rail Network in Argentina The road and rail transport in Argentina is very developed, and always active throughout the year. One of the most conspicuous transport means when one gets to any of the Argentine cities is taxi. This may be attributed to the high number of tourists who visit this country throughout the year.

Within the cities, there are large buses that help in the movement of people from one place to the other in order to facilitate running of commercial activities. Long distance buses also exist to help travelers moving from one city to another or one province to another. Most of the Argentines prefer the use of Buses to airplane because of the relatively low cost of road transport. Large tracks are used to transport goods from the ports to their destinations or from various companies to the market or the port.

Rail transport has also helped improve commercial activities in this country. According to Cortés (48), suburban trains are vital in connecting Buenos Aires city with other cities in this country, especially the Greater Buenos Aires area, a fact that has helped in moving bulky goods into the market. The commuter trains also help a lot in enhancing movement of people within the cities and from one city to another.

It is estimated that about 1.3 million people use commuter train every week. Although the government has been able to phase out some of the diesel-power train and replace them with electric trains, some cities in this country still depend on diesel-powered trains for their movements. The capital Buenos Aires is the only city that has an Underground metro train in this country. However, plans are underway to expand metro system to other cities.

Comparing the Infrastructural Development between the two countries The above discussion has given a detained infrastructural development between Uruguay and Argentina based on their transport system. From this analysis, it comes out clearly that both countries have developed sea, air, road, and rail transport. The governments of both countries have realized that the only way to promote commerce in their countries is to improve transport system, which would facilitate movement of goods and people.

However, there are some striking differences between the two countries in their transport system. Uruguay only has Brazil as the neighbor it shares a land border with in South America. However, its main trading partner is Argentina. This has made sea transport the most important transport system when it comes to international trade in this country.

However, this is not the case in Argentina. It is also clear that air transport is more developed in Argentina as compared to that of Uruguay (Aloian 45). The Argentine government has also been able to improve its rail services and currently, Argentina has more trains that are electric then Uruguay. The volume of trade within Argentina is by far larger than that of Uruguay. While Uruguay depends on the region market for its exports, Argentina has been able to reach out for the markets beyond South America with its products.

Cultural Similarities and Differences between Uruguay and Argentina Culture is one of the defining factors of a given community. The world is increasingly being globalized and the world society is slowly adopting a similar culture that is universal. Graham (67) calls this convergent of culture globalization or westernization. Various societies around the world are being exposed to the western culture backed by capitalism that has already engulfed the world.

For these reason, it is true that some cultural practices that were unique to these two countries have been influenced by the western culture. South American states have tried to remain closed states in a bid to avoid the massive influence that the United States had on other countries around the world.

It was important that their governments took measures to avoid the massive westernization that grew when the United States became the only superpower in the world. To an extent, this has helped them retain some unique cultures, but the truth is that this culture is fast being eroded by western culture. These two South American countries have a number of similarities and differences in their culture as discussed below.

Cultural similarities between Uruguay and Argentina As mentioned previously, these two countries come from South America, and they share a marine border. This is a clear indication that traditionally, these two regions shared a lot in common because of constant contact they had with each other.

The cultural practices of these two countries were also influenced by the slave trade that was very popular in this region before it was finally brought to an end. In order to bring an understanding into the cultural practices in these countries, the research will focus on some of the striking similarities in both countries.

Gander power

Gender inequality has been an issue in both countries since they gained independence. The cultural practices in both countries have given men power over women. Until 19th century, women were not expected to engage actively in leadership issues and in the corporate world.

These societies were highly patriarchal, with women expected to play a passive role whenever she was in the presence of men. Westernization has fought this notion, with various gender-based organizations criticizing governments for its reluctance to empower women. It is in this twenty first century that women in both countries have gained full liberation from dominance by men. However, it is still apparent that men still have an upper hand and this is because of the historical cultural practice that was common in this country.

Sports

Sport is one of the most important recreational activities that define culture of a society. According to Tulchin (113), by determining the recreational activities of a particular region, it may be possible to explain some of the behavioral patterns of a particular group. One of the sports that have been common in these two countries is football. In both Argentina and Uruguay, football is the most favorite game, especially for men.

Women also like football, but men’s football has been given priority. Both countries have been able to win World Cups more than once since it was started. There has been an argument that football must have originated from this region, though it has been modified in various ways to acquire its current form.

Religion

Religion is one of the cultural practices that bind together the society and shapes morality in both countries. There are scanty documents describing the religious practices in the two countries before the colonization. However, when the colonizers came, Christianity was introduced into this region, and it has remained the main religious practice.

Most of the Uruguayans and Argentines are Christians. In both countries, the Roman Catholic is the main religious denomination. It has over 60 percent of the total residents in the two countries. There are a few protestant churches in both countries, with a negligible percentage being Jews.

Cultural differences between Uruguay and Argentina Despite the above differences and the fact that the two countries are geographically located in the same region in South America, there are a few differences in cultural practices. One of the differences in cultural practices that have become very conspicuous is the architecture. The Argentines have embraced the western architectural designs, while the Uruguayan architectures leans more towards the Chinese architecture.

This may be attributed to the fact that the Chinese contractors have been very common in Uruguay than in Argentina. Although cinema is a common leisure in both countries, Argentina has more developed theaters, and their film industry is much advanced. Red meat is more popular in Uruguay than it is in Argentina. While it is true that wine taking is a common practice in both countries, it is more common among the Argentines than in Uruguay.

Environmental Concerns in Uruguay and Argentina According to Tulchin (83), Uruguay is one of the countries that are highly endowed with natural resources in form of biodiversity. This nation has rich environmental ecosystems that are characterized by various forms of biodiversity. The researches show that this nation has very fertile soils that can support the life of many food plantations.

Among the food, crops that are planted largely in this country include wheat, rice, corn and many others. This indicates that a large part of Uruguay’s economy is supported by agriculture. A part from the fertile farmland soils, the country is also known to have several waterways that enable the country to harvest hydroelectric power, support fisheries, industries, and agriculture.

However just like many other nations, Uruguay is has many environmental issues that poses a threat to the economic development in this nation. Like in many nations, these environmental concerns emanate from the failure of the country to link the environment’s food production ability with sustainable management of the related resources. Uruguay experiences a lot of water and air pollution. Water pollution results from the nation’s industries and mining activities.

Pollution of water poses a serious threat not only to human healthy but also to the fishery resources. Water pollution has posed serious and negative impacts to the biodiversity in Uruguay. This research continues, points out that many plant and animal species are endangered, and some have become extinct because of water pollution. Some of the species that are reported to have been threatened to extinction include turtle, tundra, and crocodile species.

Air pollution has healthy impacts to many life forms in this nation. Air pollution just like water pollution emanates from the unregulated mining and industrial activities. Water and air pollution have high impacts to the environment of this nation which if the polluted is not curbed, it is yet to affect the nation.

Just like Uruguay, Argentina also has a number of environmental problems that raise a lot of concern. Argentina’s environment is characterized by availability of all forms of biodiversity.

Like many other nations, this country faces a lot of environmental degradation, which poses serious impacts to different life forms in the nation. The environmental concerns in Argentina include deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution, and air pollution among others. Tulchin (40) says that the nation of Argentina is growing rapidly in population and the industrial activities are expanding rapidly.

This researcher points out that the increase of population puts pressure on the available water sources resulting to water shortage. In addition, the industries also harvest lot water from the water bodies adding up to the problem of water scarcity. What complicates the whole matter is that the industries release the untreated wastewater with chemicals to the water streams making water from such bodies to be unhealthy for drinking.

Deforestation is also high in Argentina. It is a common knowledge that forests acts as habitants for many life forms including animal and plant species. Once these forests are cleared, it is understood that the biodiversity is also lost. This leads to several plant and animal species becoming extinct and others endangered.

Some of the animal species that are greatly threatened include the crocodile species, some birds’ species, deer, tundra and goose species. It is reported that more than 25 mammals are endangered and close to 200 reptiles threatened in Argentina. Forests play a crucial role in the process of rain formation. They are preserved as good water catchment areas.

Therefore, deforestation affects the rain patterns which results to water issues on shortage. It is also worth noting that tree roots helps in holding the soil particles together. This is vital as it helps in preventing soil erosion. Once tree vegetation is removed, the soil is left bare and prone to the agents of erosion. This nation is also faced with air pollution problems. This results from high emissions from industrial activities. This again poses a health problem to human beings and animals.

Comparing the environment in Uruguay and Argentina, there are similarities in the environmental concerns raised. In both countries, the environment highly degraded. The two countries have similar environmental concerns that emanate from the inability of the nations to observe sustainable development.

Sustainable development is necessary for the prosperity of any nation that desires to grow. This researcher argues that a nation and its citizens should not develop at the expense of the environment. In both Uruguay and Argentina, water and air pollution is common. Tulchin (75) says that this kind of pollution can only be curbed in Uruguay only if industrial activities and mining can be regulated.

The seriousness of water pollution in Uruguay has provoked the nation to collaborate with various authorities with an aim of trying to reduce the levels of pollution. However, as indicated earlier on, much is still to be done for these efforts to yield fruits. While this is the case in Uruguay, air pollution in Argentina mainly arises from the industrial emissions in the environment and from the motor vehicles. To a smaller percentage, this pollution is caused by mining activities around Esquel town, Chubut province in Argentina.

The two countries as a result of the environmental degradation have severed suffered the loss of many animal and plant species. Although the animal species that have been endangered and become extinct differ, some common species have been threatened in both nations. These include tundra, and crocodile species. Unlike Uruguay, much has not been done to address the environmental issues in Argentina.

Sustainable development in Uruguay and Argentina The above discussion has demonstrated that both Uruguay and Argentina has experienced healthy economic development in the past years. Although these two countries suffered from political anarchy immediately after gaining independence, they were able to gain political stability, a major ingredient in achieving sustained development. Both countries have been able to fight extreme poverty with a lot of success.

The percentage of those staying in object poverty in Argentina and Uruguay is way below the world average. Income distribution may not be as even as would be expected, but the governments of these countries have developed mechanisms through which those staying in object poverty can be helped by the state to get access to basic needs.

Various measures can be used to determine sustained development in a country. In Argentina, the economy has been consistently growing and the International Monetary Fund has classified it as the middle emerging economies. Fischlin (48) says that there was a time when Argentina was considered as the richest country in Latin America. However, this was interfered with when the government became corrupt in various ways. This slowed the economic growth.

However, it gross domestic product has been on the rise despite the economic challenges it faced during the recession that hit the world. On the other hand, the economy of Uruguay has remained strong. Government has invested in various sectors of the economy in order to stimulate sustained development in the country. The government of this country has also tried to avoid overreliance on exports and foreign aid. This explains why the country was not affected by the 2009/2010 world economic recession that hit the world.

The government of Uruguay has also developed foreign policies that would encourage foreign investment. This has seen more Argentines come to this country to invest in the hospitality industry. Through this, the government has been able to reduce the rate of unemployment to less than 4%, a fact that has been of help in the struggle to achieve sustainable development.

Conclusion Uruguay and Argentina are countries that share marine border in South American content. The two countries have had a cordial relationship with each other since they gained independence from Spain. Given the fact that they are in the same region, the two countries share a lot in various field.

The discussion above has given a systematic analysis into the economic, social, and cultural practices in both countries and how they compare. From the above discussion, it is apparent that Argentina has a larger economy than Uruguay. This is attributed to the larger size of Argentina as a country and its rich natural resource endowment. However, both countries have been able to fight poverty among their citizens. In both countries, the rate of unemployment is below 4 percent, a sign that living standards is above the world average.

This analysis has also demonstrated that both countries rely on each other for trade, with most of the exports from Uruguay finding their market in Argentina. However, it has come out that tourism sector in Argentina is much developed as compared to that in Uruguay. Socially, both countries share a lot. Football is the main sport in both countries. The two countries have had over 1000 players from each country playing in other countries, especially in Europe.

The music and foods eaten in these two countries compare very closely. Christianity is the main religion in both countries. This is because of their geographical closeness. From this analysis, it is clear that Uruguay and Argentina share many cultural, social, economic and environmental issues. The difference that comes out is due to difference in geographical size and leadership.

Works Cited Aloian, Molly. Explore South America. St. Catharines: Crabtree Publishers Limited, 2007. Print.

Anton, Donald. Environmental Protection and Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

Behar, Jaime. Cooperation and Competition in a Common Market: Studies on the Formation of Mercosur. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag, 2000. Print.

Bernhardson, Wayne. Argentina: Uruguay

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Student trip to the Kenya national parks Report essay help free

Introduction to national parks and resorts in Kenya and worldwide Kenya has been noted as one of the most dominant and famous tourist destinations across the world. It is an original safari country that has attracted tourists from all corners of the world. The country is currently well endowed with wildlife reserves and national parks that stretch from the coastal region to the drier northern parts of the nation.

As it stands now, wildlife reserves and national parks are over forty in number. These memorable sites have been specifically set aside for the sake of preserving the natural habitat and wildlife. There are myriads of animals and indigenous plants that have been conserved in these natural habitats. For example,

Selenkay Conservancy and the Amboseli National Park is one of the most renowned national parks in Kenya. This park is located near Mt. Kilimanjaro on both the Kenyan and Tanzanian borders. Towards the northern side of the Amboseli National Park, the Selenkay Conservancy can be found there.

In this particular conservancy, there are quite a number of restrictions to visitors especially in regards to those who are allowed to visit the site. It has been described as an ‘unspoiled’ wilderness largely due to its distinct physical features and animal kingdom that have not been interfered with at all.

As already mentioned, Amboseli National Park is apparently the largest point of alluring visitors who are keen in observing wild animals and the general natural habitat. The entire park is part and parcel of the attraction that encompasses Mount Kilimanjaro. This mountain is known worldwide due to its vantage and snowy view that has been captured for several years. One of the most outstanding features of this mountain is that it can be vividly viewed at dawn or dusk.

During these moments of the day, the iced summit of the mountain can be observed quite easily due to low hanging clouds that hardly obscure any kind of viewing. The mountain is undoubtedly the highest point in Africa. This explains why the Amboseli National Park has earned its reputation and global recognition. The presence of the Mountain has also enabled the park to be one of the most desired and visited tourist destinations in Kenya.

In spite of the high traffic to the Amboseli National Park, the routes leading to the park have been downgraded, eroded, overused and generally unsuitable for local road travelling. There are several off-road excursions that do not appeal at all to visitors making their way into this park. Perhaps, the poor state of the roads can be remedied by re-carpeting the eroded sections of the road and establishing a program that can take care of road maintenance to the park throughout the year.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also interesting to mention that Lake Amboseli is part of the attraction of the Amboseli National Park. This natural habitat derived its name from the lake. The lake is largely composed of volcanic soil deposits that are crusted and dull in appearance. The depth of the lake hardly goes beyond 50 centimeters even when there is plenty of rainfall in a season.

The lake bed is probably a dry patch in spite of the lush green vegetation that grows around it. Lake Amboseli is also the main source of water to wild animals and other living organisms residing in the habitat. Elephants, cheetahs, leopards and lions are found in this tourist destination. There are also birdlife such as eagles, herons, and vultures.

The Selenkay Conservation area is a host to wild animals such as yellow baboon, giraffe, porcupine, mongooses, bat eared fox, leopards among others. Its ecosystem is a lot similar to that of the Amboseli National Park.

There are quite a number of resorts at the Amboseli national Park that can be used for safari accommodation. These include the Ol Tukai Lodge, Tortilis Camp, Amboseli Serena Lodge, Game watchers Adventure Camp, and the Amboseli Porini Camp.

The Aberdare National Park is also another popular natural conservancy in Kenya situated near mount Kenya and along the Aberdare ranges. The landscape around this location is quite diverse and stunning (Riley and William 65). There are several forested slopes and deep ravines with jagged mountain peaks that range between 3500m and 4000 m above sea level.

As a matter of fact, trout fishing, picnics, walking and game viewing are all ideal in this location. A large variety of wildlife has been supported by the attractive streams and the green rainforest. Some of the key wildlife found at the Aberdare National Park includes sykes monkey, white Colobus monkey, black Colobus monkey, baboon, leopard, Black Rhino, buffalo and elephant (Malloy and Fennell 459).

There are more than two hundred and fifty species of birds found in this natural habitat. This explains why bird watching is one of the main tourist attractions in this location. Some of the birds found here entail plovers, sunbirds, and Francolin. Others include Mountain Buzzards, Hawk, Rufous-breasted Sparrow, Eagles, Hawk, Ayres, and African Goshawks.

We will write a custom Report on Student trip to the Kenya national parks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When it comes to the accommodation of visitors, the Ark and the Tree Tops lodge happen to be the main resorts at this place. Both the night game viewing and game drives are carried out with the assistance of these lodges and resorts. Additional national parks and resorts have been discussed below.

The Meru National Park is a natural habitat. The accompanying resorts are positioned along the equatorial region. It hosts crocodile and elephants alongside other rare animal species. It is a commonly visited destination and that is why there are limited safaris that head in this park.

The Tsavo National Park is a global center for tourist attraction in Kenya. It is a well established park that is endowed with wooded grassland, plains, rivers and numerous hills. It is a home for myriads of wildlife species such as elephants, lions and birds.

Lake Nakuru National Park is easily accessible by both road and air from the Kenyan capital city of Nairobi and even the coastal town of Mombasa. Although it is commonly known for one type of bird species, others such as pelicans, eagles, and African fish are also found in this national park. There are grassland areas and woodlands that surround the Lake Nakuru National Park. The latter are a home to lions, zebras and rhinos.

The Maasai Mara Reserve and resorts are closely located to Serengeti park on the Tanzanian side. Although it is a game reserve, there are several conservancies and resorts that are used to attract and accommodate tourists visiting the destination. Some of the conservancies include the Olare Motorogi and Naboisho. Other resorts are found at the Samburu Reserve, the Lewa Downs Conservancy and the Ol Pejeta

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Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Internal factors

External factors

Situational factors

Conclusion

Introduction Understanding consumer behavior is a critical aspect of success for marketers in all sectors of the economy. Studying consumer behavior furnishes companies with information about consumers’ demands, perceptions, and their spending habits.

Understanding consumer behavior enables companies compete effectively, stay in business, improve sales, and develop better and effective marketing strategies. Many factors affect consumer behavior. They are classified into three groups namely internal, external, and situational factors. Internal and external factors are intertwined.

However, they affect consumer behavior in different ways. Many factors that affect consumer behavior are beyond the control and manipulation. Factors that influence consumer behavior include motivation, perception, learning, feelings, personal preferences, thinking, social norms, cultural values, trends, group influence, family influence, cultural influence, sub-cultural influence, environment, economy, culture, marketing, age, prevailing circumstances, and personal life.

Internal factors Internal factors that influence consumer behavior include motivation, perception, learning, feelings, personal preferences, and thinking. These factors are also referred to as personal factors. A consumer’s motivation to purchase a certain product or service mainly depends on an urge to fulfill a certain desire or attain a certain goal. Consumers’ perceptions largely affect their behaviors. They determine how they value certain products or services based on their perceived outcomes or benefits.

Perception can be influenced by factors such as education, marketing, and advertising. Many consumer behaviors are adapted from learning. People learn to like or dislike certain products depending on the information they get form materials such as books, magazines, and online sources. Personal preferences affect consumer behaviors because they determine consumer attitudes and perceptions.

For example, some consumers prefer high heel shoes to flat shoes. This influences how they make decisions on the type of shoes to purchase. Consumer behaviors are also influenced by feelings and thinking. Emotions play a critical role in determining whether consumers purchase certain products or not. Through thinking, consumers analyze products, compare them with others, and decide which products and services best suit their needs.

External factors External factors that influence consumer behavior include social norms, cultural values, trends, group influence, family influence, cultural and sub-cultural influence, and environment. Social norms are strong determinants of consumer purchasing behaviors. In many societies, certain social norms restrict individuals of certain genders to certain ways of dressing or doing social things.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, women only purchase certain types of clothing that does not contradict their norms. This greatly affects their purchasing behaviors. Group influences includes informational influence, comparative influences, and comparative influences. Informational influences take place in situations where consumers seek information from families or friends.

Comparative influences take place when a consumer bases his/her decision on the identity of the group to which they belong. For example, a young person will buy the type of shoes that his/her peers buy. Finally, normative influences involves establishment of rules regarding the behavior of group members. These aspects determine what consumers purchase. Trends have significant influence on consumers especially young people.

They dress in the latest fashion in order to look relevant and knowledgeable. Older people are less attracted to trends and fashion. They mostly dress for comfort. Families also affect the process of decision making by consumers. For example, purchasing trends change when a single individual starts a family. Single people purchase products that suit their lives as single individuals.

In contrast, married people purchase products that fulfill the needs of all their family members. As such, they purchase more products. I addition, families influence decision making. Unlike in the case of single individuals that make personal decisions, married individuals make joint decisions that take into account the preferences of other family members. Cultural and sub-cultural factors include social norms and beliefs.

In certain cultures, modes of dressing, feeding, and communication are determined by norms, traditions, and beliefs. Therefore, consumers are very selective on what they purchase. Collectivist cultures differ from individualistic cultures. In collectivist cultures, decisions are made collectively. As such, consumer behaviors are determined by the collective decision made. In contrast, the consumer habits observed in individualistic societies depend on personal tastes and preferences.

Situational factors One of the most important aspects of business is the consumer market. An important skill is needed for businesses to understand the needs of customers. In addition, they should understand the factors that affect their behaviors. Examples of situational factors that affect consumer behavior include economy, culture, marketing, age, prevailing circumstances, and personal life.

These factors that affect consumer spending have different effects in varying degrees. Some have stronger effects than others do depending on the status of the consumer. Economy is the main and most important factor. This is because it determines the financial status of consumers, the amount of money they are willing to spend, and the amount available to spend. If the state of the economy is worse, then consumers will have little to spend and will therefore shun spending.

We will write a custom Essay on Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, if the economy is thriving, consumers possess a lot of money and they therefore spend it on buying goods and services. In addition, the economy also affects the job markets. High rates of employment mean that consumers have more money to send while low rates of employment means that the economy is unstable and therefore little money to spend. Culture is also an important factor. Culture determines the beliefs, attitudes, and prejudices that people harbor. This in turn affects their purchasing tendencies.

People’s attitude and beliefs are largely influenced by their families and friends. It is important to study the effect of culture on consumers’’ spending tendencies. Marketing is a very effective tool that is used to control and influence consumers’ spending tendencies. It influences consumes by telling them what to buy and why to buy. Age is also a determinant of consumer behaviors. People of different ages have different needs and preferences.

Therefore, consumer behaviors depend on age and the suitability of certain goods and services to certain ages. For example, movies attract more young people compared to old people. Finally, personal life and prevailing circumstances influences consumer behaviors significantly. For example, the spending habits of married people are different from sending habits of single people. The wants and needs of married people are more. Therefore, they spend more.

Conclusion Many factors affect the purchasing decisions that consumers make. These decisions are influenced by a wide range of factors that are grouped in three classes. They include internal, external, and situational factors. Factors in each group influence consumer behavior differently in varying degrees. Examples of internal factors include motivation, feelings, perception, and attitude.

External factors include group influence, family, environment, culture, and sub-culture influences. Situational factors include economy, personal life, age, and prevailing circumstances. Study of consumer behavior is important because it furnishes companies with information about consumers’ demands, preferences, perceptions, and spending habits. In addition, it helps businesses improve sales and develop better and effective marketing strategies.

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The Modern Theatre Essay online essay help: online essay help

The modern theatre and film industry have helped familiarize people with the reality of the world, emotions people go through and happy, as well as sad situations. Historically, one of the first forms of entertainment which evolved into movies today was theatre.

People went to all the plays that were in their towns and greatly valued this form of art. At the same time, there were many prejudices that were a part of the society, which today might seem harsh and unacceptable. One of these is the way gender and races were viewed by the theatrical population and people viewing the plays.

The present society has seen many advances in the way people are treated and how the differences between individuals are viewed. Today, people are given an equal opportunity to participate in theatre and media, but even though there are laws that prohibit discrimination due to race or gender, there is still prejudice and stereotyping.

In the past, women were not allowed to perform plays. Men would play their parts and from one perspective, this enforced the common views that were abusive towards a certain group. Even though it changed the atmosphere of the theatre, people were not aware that anything could be different, so they accepted it as it was.

It would be reasonable to assume that women realized how unfair and humorous it was that men had to play women’s roles, but the dominant social views could not allow anything different. The same can be said about different races, as people were not used to people who stood out from the crowd. Their own insecurities and fear led them to believe that they must not allow anyone who looked different into the industry.

Right now, the world has changed and the theatres, as well as other forms of entertainment have become greatly “colorblind”. It is obvious that the theatre culture is more old fashioned, so prejudices still exist there, but other forms of media and entertainment, especially in the western world, are a clear example that people from all cultures can become successful and accepted.

Hollywood has seen many prosperous and world famous people from other races, who are loved and respected all over the world. The theatre is slowly adjusting to the change and this is most obviously seen in relation to gender. Women’s roles are played by women and it would be ridiculous to even image a man playing a woman’s role in the modern world. The society needs diversity in all its parts of entertainment, as people should realize that everyone is equal and there are no real differences between people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everyone wants to do what they love and have a talent for, and entertainment industry has shown that there are many actors who are of same or even greater talent in relation to “white only” population. The mixing of all societies into one will allow for greater acceptance and cooperation, and because theatre and other media are viewed by so many people, it would be most beneficial to display the unity there.

Even though the times are changing slowly, it is clear that gender or race should not matter in theatre or films. The whole world must see that entertainment comes from emotions and people’s soul and looks are unimportant, as people should be judged by their character and not how they appear to be.

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Effects of Violence Media on Aggression Report college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects of Violent Media on Aggression

Conclusion

References

Introduction Craig and Bushman (2002) conducted a study that confirmed studies performed previously regarding the effects of media on aggression and the behavior of children. Studies conducted from 1975 onwards suggest that violent media generates both long and short-term effects that tend to affect the socialization of individuals.

Recent investigators observe that aggression increases tremendously among individuals who play violent video games for over three times consecutively. Whenever such individuals play violent games, they are exposed to aggressive behavior and their expectations tend to be hostile as well. In particular, playing violent games result to short-time violence, aggressive behavior, and nervousness.

Scholars compare playing violent games to smoking. It is factual that just one cigarette cannot cause cancer, but continuous intake would probably increase the chances of contracting cancer. This implies that incessant exposure to sadistic video games might perhaps have a cumulative effect on hostility. Even though video games play a critical role in educating the young people, they affect the behavior of individuals in their entire life in case they are not employed carefully.

The correlation between aggression and violent media is often disputed since many people expect the results to be instant whereby an individual is expected to watch the violent video and shoot another person the next minute. Since this cannot happen, Craig Anderson and other scholars explain the relationship between the violent media and aggression. Craig suggests that a collection of cells in the mind is charged with the role of detecting the occurrence of something new in the environment.

Responsible body organs activate cells anytime something new is experienced. If two things happen at the same time, they are wired together meaning that the body will always link the occurrence of violence to the violent media (Craig, 2004). This paper looks at the three major effects of violent games. An individual’s biological, social, and psychological processes are affected whenever a child plays or watches violent media continuously.

Effects of Violent Media on Aggression Type of Effect Effect Justification Explanation Biological Abnormal heart rate and sleep Studies show that independent nerve system, as well as the central physiological structures in the body can perhaps be affected even without the knowledge of the individual when a violent video game is watched or played. In one of the studies conducted at the Stockholm University, it was established that violent media has a negative effect on the functioning of the heart, which automatically interferes with sleep among children. The study was conducted with a sample of thirty teenage boys aged between thirteen years and fifteen years (Krahe, 2012). Upon division of the sample into two groups, the high exposure group was subjected to violent video games for at least three hours. The low group played the violent game for less than an hour. The findings of the study revealed that children who played the violent game had problems with their heart rates, as well as sleeping. Children were anxious after the game meaning that violent games elicit more stress at bedtime. Moreover, children were exhausted, which is an indication that violent media interferes with sleep. Psychological Development of aggressive behavior A number of studies conducted in the United States, as well as other countries, suggest that children, who are often exposed to violent media, develop aggressive behaviors that are always dangerous to their survival and the survival of other societal members. Violent behavior against others and lack of remorsefulness characterize the actions of children with aggressive behavior in society. Such children tend to develop defective belief, which generates stressors that might lead to many unconstructive events. Such children develop increased sentiment of antagonism and decreased expressive response towards brutality and harm. Children acquire sadistic behavior through learning process (Griffin, 2013). Social/environmental Human behavior is achieved through the process of socialization meaning that an individual would probably develop aggressive behavior through media influence. In case a child is exposed to continuous violent media, chances are high that such a child would develop a deviant behavior, which might lead to the development of aggressive behavior. The media is one of the socializing agents implying that it affects the normal growth of a child. Children should be allowed to interact with video games that are constructive. In the modern society, the media is replacing the family as a primary socializing agent. Therefore, children are likely to adopt aggressive behavior that might affect their individual orientation to the world. Thus might happen in case children are allowed to watch or play violent video games (Nauert, 2012) Conclusion Violent media has a tremendous effect on the life of an individual in society. Biologically, violent media interferes with the heart rate and sleep among children. Research shows that watching aggrieve movies and playing violent videos cause sleep difficulties and heart challenges. Psychologically, an individual suffers from stress and anxiety if he or she is continuously exposed to violent media. From a social perspective, violent media interferes with the socialization of the individual, as he or she tends to develops aggressive behavior.

References Craig, A. (2004). Violence in the media: its effects on children. Issues in Parenting Education, 1(2), 1-15.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Craig, A.,

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What is the negative and positive side for the national broadband network? Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

National Broadband Network or NBN is a network that is based in Australia. It has been proposed to develop it further with a constant increase of access to the customers (Wong, 2009).

There have been some controversies over how NBN will be seen according to political and economic viewpoints, but overall, there are several positive and negative aspects that can be established. The positive sides include that access to data and people’s awareness of the matters while the negative factors relate to the cost and risk in the amount and practicality of usage (Kim, 2010).

The way users gain access to information has become one of the key points in the modern world. The base promise of NBN is that the speed of access will be enormous, providing the population with one of the most advanced technologies. Also, there are plans to provide access to a great number of people that will include as much of the population as possible (Shilling, 2004).

This will give a chance to improve the infrastructure, as well as awareness of the local matters. There has even been support from politicians, as it will provide better organizations and framework throughout the population, maximizing the interconnection between the different social divisions.

But some of the disadvantages are also present and these relate to the way people become dependent on technology in almost all aspects of life. The development of technology has drastically changed the world. As people are unable to calculate the rates of progress, it is impossible to determine what changes will be brought about with an even greater increase in technological advancements.

This can turn out as a failure to all the money invested. Some estimates have shown that the implementation of the new system will cost billions of dollars (Picot, 2010). This does not fare well will politicians and the economic agendas that are so dependent on the budget. Any innovation can be seen as a part of the greater progress, but it is a very risky matter where many people can be negatively affected (Green, 2002).

At the same time, there are talks about the control that is exhibited by the user. The access to the information might put a major dent into the society. The private information and the communication itself has become a public occurrence where people put their lives out on the public viewing without any concern for security or privacy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of course, there are positive sides, as people can become better known by the surrounding population and bring benefits to those who are interested. It is rather difficult to estimate the affects of such a change to a society that did not have the sort of technology previously (Restivo, 2005).

Even though technology has helped people in a lot of ways, a person must realize its drawbacks and balance the use of technology with the physical interaction with others. The balance must be kept for technology to be helpful instead of detrimental. It is important to keep in mind that technology is not always error proof, thus reliability is a relative concept.

There are many examples that show how technology has proven to be a negative influence on society, but people still continue its use. Security of the personal information is one of the most important things that a person has, and identity theft or abuse of private information has become widespread. People must become aware of the growing problem and use as much care as possible to protect their well being and individuality.

Reference List Green, L 2002. Communication, Technology and Society, SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Kim, Y 2010, Building Broadband: Strategies and Policies for the Developing World, World Bank Publications, Washington, DC.

Picot, A 2010, Strategies for Rural Broadband: An economic and legal feasibility analysis, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.

Restivo, S 2005. Science, Technology, and Society: An Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

We will write a custom Essay on What is the negative and positive side for the national broadband network? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shilling, C 2004. The Body in Culture, Technology and Society, SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Wong, D 2009, Wireless Broadband Networks, John Wiley

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Tools college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Tools and Techniques for On-the-Job Training

Conclusion

References

Abstract Many organizations have often used on-the-job training to equip their recruits with the required competencies, skills, and knowledge for the job. On-the-job training involves the use of skilled, knowledgeable, and experienced employees to train new employees or employees with inadequate skills, knowledge, and experiences in certain aspects of the job.

Managers and supervisors may perform on-the-job training in an informal manner. Generally, studies have shown that effective approaches to on-the-job training could equip employees with the required skills, attitude, and knowledge. In addition, it could help new employees to acquire organizational culture and good work habits.

Introduction On-the-job training (OJT) refers to teaching skills, knowledge, and competencies to new employees to allow them to perform their jobs at the workplace effectively. In most cases, OJT has relied on regular and available workplace tools and techniques, such as, employees, knowledge, skills, documents, and other relevant resources in order to allow employees to learn and perform their roles well at the workplace.

This paper explores tools and techniques, which are necessary for effective OJT as an alternative form of employee training at the workplace.

Tools and Techniques for On-the-Job Training Several studies have demonstrated that OJT is a critical part of workplace learning, which has not received the required attention (Walter, 2000; Klink and Streumer, 2002). Effective use of tools and techniques for OJT can enhance performance and competence in employees (Khan, Khan and Khan, 2011). Employees can gain core aspects of a workplace like actual work methods and social aspects of the workplace.

While research on OJT has not gained prominence, previous works have indicated that there were both structured and unstructured OJT. It is the structure of OJT that can describe many forms OJT can assume in an organization. Hence, there are clear differences between structured and unstructured OJT approaches.

Structured and effective OJT has proved to be the most effective form of teaching employees because they acquire practical experiences with specific tools used in an organization on a daily basis (Rothwell and Kazanas, 1990).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, OJT has been widely used in both small and large organizations, particularly in the manufacturing sector. The trainee may follow the experienced manager or worker for several days as he or she learns skills required for the job. The approach is usually one-on-one, but the trainee has the opportunity to learn several different aspects of the job as possible.

Usually, OJT involves learning that takes place by observing and imitating what others do. The supervisor may provide feedback, but there are few instances in which the trainer may refer to training manuals or organizational documents. Usually, OJT involves orientation of new recruits, but firms may also use it to meet certain goals. First, employees can use OJT to advance their skills in cases of new technologies and work techniques.

Second, OJT has been effective on cross-training workers within the same units of the organization. Third, organizations have used OJT to orientate employees from other departments. Other firms have used it as way of transferring and managing knowledge resources.

Past studies indicate that planned OJTs have been effective, but these are usually Job Instruction Training (JIT). This form of OJT had significant impacts on productivity upon its introduction. The process requires analysis of gaps in every task, and then the supervisor guides the trainee through all the required stages. These stages may include seven areas:

Demonstrating to a trainee how to perform a certain task

Providing explanations through specific work points

The trainee watches the supervisor as he or she performs the task

The trainee takes part in performing simple aspects of the task

The supervisor assists the trainee to perform the entire task

The trainee takes turn to perform the entire task on his or her own (the supervisor should provide praise and note areas of improvement, and provide required feedback)

The trainee works independently on the task

Organizations have used OJT to meet basic skills requirement at workplaces. In addition, they have also used OJT to develop aspects of organizational cultures and performance required from newly recruited employees. Still, firms have used OJT to provide onboard information to new employees.

A study by Klink and Streumer showed that the OJT programs were “only partially successful in realizing training goals” (Klink and Streumer, 2002).

They noted that OJT training effectiveness required factors like “self-efficacy, prior experience with tasks, managerial support, and workload” (Klink and Streumer, 2002) because these were the most powerful indicators of its effectiveness. Overall, these researchers noted that OJT was not an effective method of training employees, but they cautioned that further studies were necessary to ascertain their findings.

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Let’s conduct some research this week! For this forum, you must submit 2 posts. Post #1: In your original essay help online

Let’s conduct some research this week! For this forum, you must submit 2 posts.

Post #1: In your original post, discuss a current drug or gun control policy that you found to be supported by empirical evidence and research. Choose a specific policy and explain the research that supports it. It does not have to be a policy we discussed in class. In your view, is this policy meeting its goals?

Post #2: In a response post to another student, post a counterargument with empirical research. You do not need to include a full APA reference entry, just a link to the website is fine.

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Theorist Bio-sketch Essay college essay help: college essay help

The origin of the psychoanalysis theory is traced back to the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century and is closely connected to the works of famous Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud. His works gave impulse to the further development of this field of psychological study. Erik Erikson, the outstanding American researcher in psychoanalysis, continued the work on the issue of personality development, motives of it development and the impact of social order on personality.

The aim of this essay is to present a bio-sketch of Erik Erikson, to characterize his contribution to the development of psychoanalysis and the understanding of human personality.

Erik Erikson was born on 15 June 1902 in Frankfurt am Mein, Germany. His future life and scientific work would be closely connected to the story of his family and his memories from childhood. Karla Abrahamsen, his mother, was Jewish. At the time when she had already been married with Waldemar Isidor Salomonsen, she had a liaison with Danish citizen.

As a result of this extramarital relationship, she gave birth to Erik who was given Salomonsen surname. A few years later Karla Abrahamsen moved to another town where she married Theodor Homburger who adopted Karla’s child and gave Erik his surname.

In 1930s Erik Homburger met Joan Mowat Serson, a Canadian dancer, who became his wife later. The pair immigrated to the United States where Erik started his new life with the change of his surname to Erikson. In such a way, he, so to say, adopted himself. His brilliant work as psychoanalyst started in this country. Initially, his work in the field was primarily concentrated on psychological practice and later he devoted himself to the scientific work which resulted in his famous theory of identity.

Strozier (2011) mentioned that “in America, Erikson soon established his reputation as a child analyst and became acquainted with people like Margaret Mead” (Strozier, 2011, p. 31). It is important to note that he became interested in the analysis of personality and the determination of factors influencing its development far earlier, when he studied in Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Soon after graduation, Erikson together with historian George Kennon issued his essay on Hitler (Strozier, 2011).

The theory of identity is, perhaps, the most important contribution which Erikson made to the development of psychoanalysis. It is frequently argued that the essence of the theory is interconnected with the author’s own life experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When he was a child, he was influenced by his mother who encouraged all family members to obey all the postulates and customs of Judaism, including the regular visit to synagogue and strict observance of Jewish traditions. However, the boy appearance, his blue eyes and blond hair, told about his Danish roots. That is why it was rather difficult for a child to realize his origin. Besides, his Jewish and German classmates teased him for his roots reminding of his mental problem.

Stroizer (2011) states the following,

“Most of Erikson’s work has focused on adolescence and its concomitant crisis of identity. Some would even say that he helped create the identity crisis as almost a rite of passage for adolescents, who seem to wear their crises on their sleeves, whether Edwardian or leather” (Stroizer, 2011, p.32).

The theory of identity explains the process of personality development considering it in respect to the particular stage which the person goes through in their life. Childhood is the starting point of personality development. At this stage an individual absorbs the information about surrounding reality and the notions about what is right doing and what is wrong doing which are taught by parents. That is why the identity of personality began to develop even in the period of childhood.

Later, when being a teenager, an individual continues to develop the perception of personal identity but at this age this perception is taking the form of the own actions concordance with the attitude of others to them. It is the key in the understanding of Erikson’s theory of identity. This interpretation of the personal development conception emphasizes the fact that the personal identity is influenced not only by psychological factors but also by social ones. Erikson (1975) states

“It is a state of being and becoming that can have a highly conscious (and, indeed, self-conscious) quality and yet remain, in its motivational aspects, quite unconscious and beset with the dynamics of conflict. This, in turn, can lead to contradictory mental states, such as a sense of aggravated vulnerability and yet also an expectation of grand individual promise” (p.19).

The significance of the results of Erikson work over identity conception is proved by its broad view on the concept of personality itself. In contrast to the previous works in this sphere and the Sigmund Freud theories, in particular, Erikson’s conception uncovers the personality development as a more dynamic and complex process. Erikson gives us an idea that the mature personality is a result of hard mental and emotional process which an individual goes through. Furthermore, it is a result of the influence of social factors.

We will write a custom Essay on Theorist Bio-sketch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modern theory of psychoanalysis is based on the identity concept presented by E. H. Erikson to the large extent. Nowadays, his theory is applied to the study of the urgent social phenomena, even such as terrorism or drug abuse. In addition, the conception of identity became the scientific background for the development of the social identity theory concentrating more attention on the identity as a variable in the international relations (Hymans, 2002).

It can be stated that the field of the international politics became the sphere of the theory application. Undoubtedly, the ideas presented by Erikson motivated scholars to study the conception further, analyzing it from other perspectives. The results of Erikson’s work are applied to explain the differences in morality between people, “the control approach to the identity process”, all of which, in turn, assist in explanation of the roots of modern financial crisis, Wall Street intentions and values (Stets

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Marlon Brando: A Method Actor Essay argumentative essay help

Marlon Brando is seen as one of the greatest actors who employed method acting. A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) is one of the films where the actor’s performance can be regarded as an example of the effective use of the method acting techniques. This is an emotional story of a man who tries to build his happiness despite his ill temper. Such techniques as emotional memory, substitution and magic “if” help the actor create such a lively and appealing character.

Thus, examples of the use of emotional memory are quite numerous in the film. For instance, the scene where Stanley reveals his dreams to have a son is one of these examples (A Streetcar Named Desire). Notably, it is manageable to act out emotions of a man who is happy to have a son.

The scene where Stanley is playing cards with other men is also suggestive. Stanley gets more and more furious as he does not win (A Streetcar Named Desire). This emotion is also rather easy to act out as each person has witnessed such kind of emotions.

Admittedly, such techniques as substation and magic “if” are a bit more complicated to act out and trace. Nonetheless, these techniques are also employed by Brando in the film. For instance, the scene where Stanley clears the table is one of examples of substitution. It is clear that the situation when someone is telling a man what to do is unpleasant for the male.

It is also apparent that each man has had loads of such situations (especially in their childhood). Brando refers to all those cases when he was told what to do something to accumulate the fury necessary for the scene. The actor is very emotional when explaining who the king in their kingdom is. The actor’s emotions make the scene very lively and realistic.

As far as the magic “if” is concerned, it can be found in the scene where Stanley confronts Blanche and tells her everything he thinks about her (A Streetcar Named Desire). Brando manages to imagine he is the brutal man who is fed up with the woman’s behavior and lies. He acts out the joy of a man who understands his own flaws, but is eager to reveal the flaws in other people.

The magic “if” can also be traced in the one of the most famous scenes of the film. Stanley calls his wife Stella (A Streetcar Named Desire). He is desperate and he needs his wife badly. Here, the actor puts himself into his character’s shoes. He explores the feelings of a man who can lose the one he truly loves and cares about (in his peculiar way). Stanley is devastated he does not want to listen to anyone else. Only his wife can comfort him and she does come back.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is necessary to note that this scene is also suggestive as it helps understand the inner conflict in Stanley. On the one hand, he is a brutish man who is accustomed to a working life. He is accustomed to being in charge of his family and he is the boss. He uses his physical strength to dominate in his house. His wife is submissive.

Even though she is trying to protest sometimes, Stanley strives for total control over his wife as well as her sister. Thus, the scene where Stanley is telling the women he is the king is one of the illustrations of this facet of his complicated character (A Streetcar Named Desire). He is often violent and brutish.

On the other, it is clear that he is attached to his wife and he loves her immensely. His despair in the scene with Stanley shouting out Stella’s name is obvious. He understands that he offends his wife too often. However, he can do nothing about his own behavior.

Therefore, his inner struggle is related to his nature and his love to his wife. He wants to be a better person for his Stella, but he is unlikely to become one as his temper will never change. Their marriage is also a reflection of Stanley’s inner struggle. They fight all the time, but they always end up in bed and everything starts over again.

It is necessary to note that the film is one of the cinematographic masterpieces. From an actor’s perspective, the film is a manual to learn by heart. Marlon Brando shows the ways actors should live the lives of their characters and become their characters. Method acting techniques are very effective and the film is the best evidence to support the assumption.

As an actor, I have learnt a lot from Brando and his character Stanley. Being emotional and being another person is rather hard. However, in the film, it is impossible to find an actor Brando as he is totally transformed into Stanley. One of the secrets of such successful acting is that Marlon Brando managed to believe he was Stanley. Therefore, he managed to convince the viewers he was Stanley as well.

On balance, it is possible to note that Marlon Brando is one of the greatest method actors. One of the films where Brando’s brilliant performance is manifested is A Streetcar Named Desire. This film is regarded as one of the most remarkable films and should be a kind of training material for actors who strive for achieving highest results in their career. The film will teach actors how to create a strong, lively and appealing character that will definitely remain in the history of world cinematography.

We will write a custom Essay on Marlon Brando: A Method Actor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited A Streetcar Named Desire. Ex. Prod. Charles K. Feldman. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers. 1951. DVD.

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Following the Path of a Diversional Therapist: A Case Study writing essay help

Introduction: South Eastern Sydney Local Health District NSW Health. South Eastern Sydney local health district.

The chosen organization can be referred to as the St. George Hospital of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District. It is a state organization that provides healthcare services to the citizens of Sydney. As one might have already guessed from its title, the organization is located in the southeast of Sydney.

South Eastern Sydney local health district (2013). Retrieved from Google Earth.

Philosophy, Mission and Policies

The philosophy of the given organization is not known as widely as one might want it to; however, according to what the people working at the hospital say, their mission statement can be summarized in the following words: “we are all here to provide the best care possible within those limitations and patients are our number one priority” (About St. George Hospital, 2008, March 25).

The hospital provides a wide range of services to a number of patients of different age, gender and social/ethnical background. To define its basic purpose, the hospital officials declare that they can be called a “designated major trauma service” (About St. George, 2010, June 16).

SESLHD and Ethics

St. George also has a range of peculiar policies and principles. Among the most notable ones, the mobile heritage principle, which works not only for St. George, but also for the rest of the hospitals belonging to the South Eastern Sydney local health district in general.

The staff, as well as the head of the district, must take proper care not only of the equipment and the heritage belonging to the hospital, but also about “any natural or manufactured object of heritage significance” (South Eastern Sydney Area Health Service, 2001, iv) within SHE, in accordance with the given principle.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As for the principles and policies on patients treatment, St. George staff is supposed to provide each of their patients with the due care and decent services, striving for the well-being of each patient and addressing each health issue individually (Lindorff, 2010). With the latest resources at hand, be it surgical, therapeutic or pharmaceutical ones, the South Eastern Sydney local health district can offer its patients the most efficient medical assistance.

The corporate culture of the organization is also quite peculiar. As it has been stressed above, the SESLHD Organization strives for the well-being of each of its clients and, therefore, maintains a specific corporate culture. “New employees in SESLHD MHS may need to be paired with a more experienced member of staff to act as a guide to the workplace and the corporate culture” (SESLHD policy cover sheet, n. d., 2).

Goals and Rationale

However, when it comes to defining the issues within the hospital setting, one must mention that some of the effects of the current management processes leave much to be desired.

Because of the lack of cooperation between the members of the staff, which must have been spawned by the cultural differences between the younger trainees and the older staff, there are considerable disagreements concerning the methods of tending to the needs of the autistic patients (Olmstead et al., 2012). By developing a strong program that will help the staff feel more integrated, one can possibly shape the existing method of autistic patients treatment so that it could bring more fruitful result (Lobas, 2006).

Management Plan Management

As it has been stressed, the selected environment can be defined as the SESLHD nursing care and patient treatment. Both the nursing staff and the patients are going to be involved into the experiment for the program to work both in favor of the patients and he staff. Seeing how the age gap seems to be the basic problem, the environment can be defined as human and socio-cultural one.

When it comes to picking the leadership style, it is important to keep in mind that not only the process of training, but mainly the relationships between the staff members should be changed. Therefore, it will be necessary to reinvent the employees’ perception of training, as well as the attitude of the senior members of the organization to the trainees. Therefore, the transformational leadership seems to be the most reasonable option (Luzinski, 2011). That being said, it will also be required to introduce a role model for the senior employees and the trainees to follow. Thus, charismatic leadership model will be required as well (Levay, 2010).

It is crucial that the elements of quality management should also be integrated into the program. As it has been stressed previously, patients are the focus of the given plan, and their progress is what one has to keep an eye on (Cherian

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Reading Response of The Year without Toilet Paper Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The Year without Toilet Paper is the article published in The New York Times by Penelope Green. The article is based on the real life experience of the family who decided to support the environmentalists’ ideas.

The Conlin-Beavan family answers the question about the source of inspiration making them adhere to the environmentalism thoughts and tells the readers about the reasons of their choices in their day to day life. The family does their best to make the contribution in the reduction of pollution caused by carbon fuel (“The Year without”, n.pag.). They restricted the range of everyday products, which remain typical for every household, including even the toilet paper.

The purpose of Green’s essay is to present a real life case to the public by showing the decisions made by the New York family in their day to day life in order to make their own contribution for the Earth nature preservation and the preventing of global climate changes.

The author of the article aimed at making us understand that the environmental decisions are made not only in the frameworks of formal agreements at the level of governments and environmental organizations such as Green Peace but also that they are made by not indifferent ordinal megalopolis families aware of the environmental movement. They use their life experiment to tell people how to go green and how we can protect our environment.

The Colin-Beavan family is composed of three members: the father, who is a books writer, the mother, who is also a writer working at Business Week and their two-year old daughter (“The Year without”, n.pag.). The pair adhered to the principles of the environmental friendly lifestyle presented in the book No Impact (“The Year without”, n.pag.).

They have already managed to go green for one year having found the substitutes for the harmful products and services which directly or indirectly cause the pollution. Mr Beavan tells that they make bread themselves; they do not use plugged refrigerator; they use box to replace metal tube for trash; the spices have been completely excluded from their daily ration except for salt, they do not use elevator and, last but not least, they eat vegetables in 250-miles radius of Manhattan (“The Year without”, n.pag.).

No doubt, the readers wonder how they managed to do that and for what. The answer is straightforward: the family does not use any carbon fueled vehicle and it is hard to walk the distance more than 250 miles (“The Year without”, n.pag.). The family decided even to include the toilet paper to their restricted list. Mr Beavan explains that they substituted it for bowls of water and air drying (“The Year without”, n.pag.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my opinion, the environmentalists’ way of life given as an example by the Colin-Beavan family is too strict and not all people will find it suitable for themselves. Although the article has made a huge impact on me and my vision of social responsibility, I consider the presented experience as striking.

To my mind, it will, undoubtedly, shake the public opinion. In addition, it should be said that the carbon fuel plays a very important role in our society and we should be able to go a hard way for its complete replacing with substitutes. Thanks to the activity of environmental organizations and the researchers on this topic, the discovery and development of these substitutes are not impossible and the mankind will eventually find a solution.

Frankly speaking, I am not a kind of person who can follow the experience of the Colin-Beavan family and I will not ready to exclude any of my daily living essentials at the moment. Perhaps, I will not be able to adhere to the environmentalists’ lifestyle. Nevertheless, I respect their ideas and the hard work for nature protection.

Works Cited Green, Penelope. ” The Year without Toilet Paper.” The New York Times 22 March 2007: n.pag. NY Times. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/22/garden/22impact.html?pagewanted=all

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Leadership and Management Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Management

Functions of management

Controlling as a function of management

The manager as leader

References

Management Management is a strong tool in ensuring an organization’s better performance in the market. Management entails proper planning, organization, coordination, and supervision of the organization’s policies. Firms that are under proper management benefit from timely and smooth flow of operations. Proper management procedurally spells out when and who should carry out a concrete duty at specific time. The four most important functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (MSG, 2013).

Functions of management Planning involves outlining needs that should be done in the future in line with the organization’s objectives and operations. Planning limits time wastage since it calls for allocation of time schedules for all the activities, in which the organization is involved. Organizing, as a function of management, entails combining all the factors of production within the organization set up in order to maximize the output.

As a management tool, the manager performs this function by identifying the activities, which the organization should carry out, delegating duties at departmental levels, classifying powers to departmental managers, and coordinating activities amongst the departments as the case of the Coca-Cola Company.

Organizing helps in eliminating duplication of duties amongst the departments. Leading is the process of issuing instructions and overseeing the conduct of the employees in an organization in order to achieve the set objectives. Leading, as a management tool, therefore, initiates all other functions that management performs.

Controlling as a function of management Controlling involves monitoring the actual performance of the organization against the set plans (John, 2012). As a management tool, controlling helps in planning of the organization’s activities as well as facilitating the organization process.

Controlling enables the management to engage the employees only in activities that are in line with the company’s objectives.Controlling, therefore, requires the organization’s management to set up rules and regulations, which all employees must follow when conducting their operations within the organization.

Usually, top performing organizations are those ensure that their management is in full control of all the operations that the organization conducts (Loren et al, 2013). Most employees normally do not like rules and measures that restrict their manner of operations within the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, these employees assume that management does not need to monitor employees’ performance due to their high level of experience. According to the case of Coca-Cola Company, the company had to enforce a control measure barring the organization’s employees from running retail and wholesale shops dealing in the supply and distribution of Coca-Cola products.

Prior to implementing this control measure, the Coca-Cola Company conducted thorough sensitization and education of its employees to ensure that all the employees understood the need for the control measure. This control measure enabled the company to engage all the employees fully in the company’s activities. It also ensured that the company offered quality services to its customers.

The manager as leader Good managers boast excellent skills in communication, human management and high level of conduct. One’s experience in management equally plays a major role in the decision that he or she makes pertaining to the management.

Managers should improve on their response to handling sensitive matters affecting the employees, so as to make employees comfortable within the organization’s set-up. Managers should also engage employees in making the organization’s policies so as to enable smooth implementation of the policies (Angelo et al, 2012).

References Angelo, K., Brian, W. (2012). Management: A Practical Introduction. New York City: McGraw-Hill.

John, R. (2012).Management.New Jersey: Wiley Publishers.

Loren, B., Jim, M.,

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The Adaptation of Shakespeare’s Play: A Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The play A Midsummer Night’s Dream was written by William Shakespeare during the 16th century. This play can be discussed as the comedy which is based on the magic plot referred to the humorous and fairy-tale adventures of the main characters in Athens. It is important to note that a play has the most important impact on the audience when it is performed on stage. Today, film adaptations can also be discussed as the variants of the plays’ production.

From this point, it is necessary to refer to the most vivid film adaptation of the play realized by Michael Hoffman in 1999. To analyze the play or its adaptation, a person should refer to the approaches proposed by the German playwright Johann Wolfgang Goethe and the Greek philosopher Aristotle in order to discuss the aspects of the play and its success. On the one hand, the analysis of the play’s text cannot reflect the real meaning or idea based on the author’s intention without references to the real performance on stage.

On the other hand, the vision of the director can also affect the audience’s vision of the play and its idea significantly. That is why, it is important to balance these positions while analyzing the play A Midsummer Night’s Dream with references to Hoffman’s film. A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1999) is the vivid and expressive film adaptation of the classic Shakespeare’s play which is characterized by bright pictures and the accentuated comic component to emphasize the farce of the story.

According to Aristotle’s viewpoint, there are six significant elements in the play which should be discussed in detail in order to analyze it effectively. These elements are the plot, thought, character, diction, spectacle, and song (Downs, Wright, and Ramsey 88-89). Focusing on the play, it is important to determine several lines of the plot which include the stories of relationships between Lysander, Hermia, Demetrius, and Helena, between King Oberon and Queen Titania, between Duke Theseus and Hippolyta.

All these plot lines are closely connected guaranteeing the complex and interesting net development in the play. The element of thought is presented in the play with references to the moral ideals which are followed by different characters. Thus, the plot development depends on the progress of the characters’ complicated relations which are reflected in their love for each other, affection, and even hate and revenge.

Referring to the play’s characters, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that Hoffman’s interpretation of the characters differs from Shakespeare’s original descriptions (A Midsummer Night’s Dream). Thus, Hoffman’s characters are more comic and inconsistent in their actions, they are too expressive and even grotesque, and their actions and ideas are exaggerated.

In spite of the fact that the film is based on the play appropriately, and Shakespeare’s words are followed strictly, there are some details which are added to adapt the play to the director’s vision of the play’s world. From this perspective, the diction in the form of pathetic speeches is adapted according to the play’s mood and new features acquired by the characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Titania is the most pathetic in the film because of her status and attitude to the partials and situation. Furthermore, the role of Puck’s trickery is also emphasized in the context of its impact of the characters, their behaviours, and associated diction presented in Shakespeare’s play, but changed with references to the presentation of more ridiculous facts and situations. Analyzing the play’s spectacle, it is important to note that the action of the play is performed not in Athens, but in Italy during the 19th century.

This fact influences the pictures provided in the film, their connection to reality, the characters’ usage of bicycles and their attitudes to each other. However, the illustrations of the magic forest reflect the play’s text appropriately to draw the attention to the imaginative world. The music by Felix Mendelssohn and operatic elements included into the film are helpful to create the specific fairy-tail world of the film with the focus on romantic plot lines.

Goethe’s approach to the analysis of the play depends on more general discussion of the play’s elements. In the 18th-19th centuries, Goethe proposed to concentrate on what an artist could try to do, on the effectiveness of his techniques, and on the overall importance of the play as the work of art (Downs, Wright, and Ramsey 89). The purpose of A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1999) is to provide the comic effect in its connection with the people’s feelings and their ability to follow their passion without hesitation.

If Shakespeare achieves this goal with the help of accentuating controversies in the characters’ behaviours, the film’s author focuses on exaggerating the effects of mad love and self-assurance (A Midsummer Night’s Dream). Although the original variants of the play and its adaptation of 1999 differ in details and shifted focuses, the play and film are worth seeing and discussing by the audience because the authors’ intention to emphasize the magic world of people’s feelings is realized effectively.

Thus, A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an important play which is interesting for the audience because of its deep idea and focus on the people’s inner world in combination with the vivid pictures of magic and comic world.

Works Cited A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Ex. Prod. Michael Hoffman. USA: Regency Enterprises. 1999. DVD.

Downs, William Missouri, Lou Anne Wright, and Erik Ramsey. The Art of Theatre: A Concise Introduction. USA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

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Training Final Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Executive Summary Schlumberger is reputed as the leading service company in the oil and natural gas industry. The company’s business magnitude is big, enabling it to spread its presence its presence across the globe. Schlumberger’s main strategy is building alliances and forming mergers.

This provides the company with ability to penetrate in the market easily. It builds its competitive advantage against industry rivals. Thirteen different companies carry out Schlumberger operations, each specializing in specific areas. Growing global demand for energy has enhanced the company’s potential of growth in future.

More industry players are willing to form alliances with Schlumberger to enhance their chances of business operations. Continuous legal suits and actions against the company affect Schlumberger’s profile. This may result in governments tightening regulatory frameworks, thus making it difficult for the firm to operate in their markets. More investments should be made in the area of research and development.

This will enable the company come up with practical solutions to the perennial environmental degradation problem that affects the company. The company over relies on the expenditure levels of the oil marketers. This puts its business at risk because the oil marketers equally depend on global oil prices before making expenditure decisions. Global oil prices are erratic and they put oil marketers’ investment and expenditure into jeopardy.

Schlumberger should sustain its alliance and merger strategy, but maintain close scrutiny prior to making decisions. Both companies engaging in the merger or alliance must realign their structures in order to eliminate chances of making costly mistakes. Failure to observe this measure may result in losses for both companies. Merger and alliance agreements must be fully understood and observed to limit the number of legal actions emerging as a result of breach of contract.

Introduction Schlumberger is an international firm that offers different services to different players in the oil and gas sector. The services include digging wells, testing, seismic acquisitions, directional drilling, and seismic processing, among other activities.

The wide range of services are offered by many other smaller companies which fall under Schlumberger, and which could either have been acquired or working in strategic relation with the company. This report extensively covers the operations of the company, including analyzing its internal and external environments, its marketing and competitive strategies, as well as evaluate on the internship experience encountered at the firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company Background Activities

Schlumberger is a global firm that is technology-based. The company is involved in providing information solution to oil and gas firms. Schlumberger also engages in project management. With the company’s activities mainly targeting operations in the global oil sector and industry, Schlumberger has invested its expertise in well testing, seismic acquisition, seismic processing, artificial lift, formation evaluation, directional drilling, as well as managing software and information.

The company’s operations also include mining groundwater, as well as capturing carbon. It deals in various technologies and activities on how to store the captured carbon (Schlumberger, 2013).

The activities of the company are grouped together into two segments, with the Schlumberger Oilfield Services mainly focusing on the supply of the range of activities targeted at the oil production and operations. A second segment, Western Geco, concentrates its focus and activities on seismic operations. It additionally concentrates in data acquisition and processing services, which aim to improve the overall seismic operations.

Company Size

The total workforce size of the company is close to 120,000 people (Schlumberger, 2013). These workers are drawn from more than 140 nations across the globe. Schlumberger has established operation bases spanning across over 85 countries where it is mainly involved in oil exploration and production services.

Schlumberger is itself a conglomeration of up to 13 companies, all of which deal in different activities and services that enable the company to achieve the wide range operations and services. The member companies under the Schlumberger umbrella include WesternGeco, which is a leading geophysical services company, Smith Bits, which deals in designing, manufacturing, as well as marketing roller cone and the PDC drill bits that are used in the exploration of gas and oil (Schlumberger, 2013).

Dyna-Drill Technologies deals in the “designing and manufacturing down-hole motor equipment”. This is a very vital thing in the oil sector. MegaDiamond is involved in “ultra-hard materials used for cutting tools, drilling of oil and gas, mining applications and constructions” (Schlumberger, 2013, para 2). It mainly manufactures and designs all the equipments used for these activities.

Other Schlumberger member companies include Omni Seals, a custom molding company, Pathfinder, which offers directional drilling services, Thomas Tools, which specializes in downhole tool, and Coil Tubing Services, which literally deals in coil tubing services. E

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Same-sex Relations and Americans’ Definitions of Family Essay argumentative essay help

This article tries to answer some pertinent issues about the American families. As such, it seeks to illustrate whom the Americans count as family, identify how the Americans perceive their families, and find the public opinion about the American nontraditional families such as same sex marriages (Powell et al. 17).

In the article, the author asserts that currently there are several differing opinions on what counts as families. The author reaffirmed this opinion when he or she interviewed several family members from both heterosexual and homosexual couples.

These family groups comprised of a man and a woman living together with children, a man and a woman living together with no children, a man and woman cohabiting, and homosexual couples. According to the article, the American’s definitions of families can be clustered into three groups. These groups are exclusionists, inclusionists, and moderates. It was found that the dissimilarity among these clusters extend beyond their views on same sex marriage.

In the article, the author collected a number of respondents about pertinent issues concerning the American families. Through this, it was found that more individuals agreed that a man, wife, and children count as a family. The second living arrangements that had a number of individuals perceiving them as families were single families. Last in the list was housemates followed by homosexual couples with children.

To reaffirm on these claims, the author carried out an independent research and consulted existing family literatures. For instance, the author acknowledges that finding consensus among existing definitions was not an easy task. The article notes that there are disagreements among several academicians indicating that the author relied heavily on previous works before coming to his or her conclusions.

Equally, the author mentions several authors of other family related books. Among these authors are Berkowitz, Bernstein, Riemann, Holstein, and many more (Powell et al. 18). This indicates that appropriate evidence was provided for conclusions. In general, the article gave a broad overview of the distinctions that Americans make between families and non-families. The conclusions were drawn after analyzing a unique data set of several respondents.

Based on this article, it is apparent that there are several perceptions about families in the American society. As such, it was widely agreed that a family constituted of a couple with their children as compared with couples with no children. Similarly, the article asserts that more Americans use cohabitation and homosexuality as a disqualifier for family status. However, it was worth noting that the number of those who acknowledged homosexual couples with their children as families was on the rise compared to some few years back.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies that these types of families are slowly gaining acceptance among the American population. Based on these findings, it can be deduced that in the future the definitions of the American family will differ from the current definitions. In the future, social constructions based on emotional ties will play a major role in defining the American family.

During the classroom sessions, the following questions can guide the students in analyzing the article. Whom do Americans count as family? What is the public opinion about the family? Does public opinion indicate a shift toward greater acceptance of homosexual families? Based on the article, can the attributes of America’s future families be deduced? Do public definitions of family translate into views regarding family policy?

Bibliography Powell, Brian, Catherine Bolzendahl, Claudia Geist, and Lala Carr Steelman. Counted Out: Same-sex Relations and Americans’ Definitions of Family . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2012. Print.

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Building Effective Teams Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effective Team Building

Summary

References

Introduction Leaders need to build a strong team that can realise its goals by incorporating certain aspects of effective team building. Such aspects would ensure that the team is efficient and effective in its roles. In this context, team members must be aware of the objective of the team and specific periods for realising the set targets. A team must have a method of sharing responsibilities and leadership roles. This ensures accountability within the team. A team should have a clear purpose and concrete outcomes from inputs of its members.

Effective Team Building A clear purpose is a characteristic of effective team building. All members of a team should agree on the team’s goals. Shared goals and responsibilities enhance team effort by providing a clear sense of direction. All members should contribute in formulating objectives (Mealiea and Baltazar, 2005). A clear purpose would ensure that all members of the team have clear roles and responsibilities. Moreover, other members will also support such roles and the purpose of the team.

Team building requires definitive decision-making strategies. This eliminates challenges related to prolonged and unproductive discussions, which could hinder the team’s effort. A definitive process of making decisions ensures that all team members contribute, and they may resort to consensus to overcome contentious issues. Members must express their opinions and review all areas of disagreements.

Building a team requires an open communication system. This allows members to exploit communication channels to express their opinions and offer relevant feedback, as well as share information among themselves. Communication must reach all members of the team. Moreover, it should be consistent through various channels of communications. This ensures that all members are up to speed on the team’s progress and setbacks.

Effective team building requires shared leadership. In this regard, the team carries out leadership roles like “contributor, collaborator, challenger, facilitator, and controller” (Mealiea and Baltazar, 2005). These roles are not exclusively for the team leader. However, shared leadership roles will differ based on the prevailing circumstances and skills of members of the team. Moreover, different members may also have different responsibilities in leadership.

This is a participatory style of leading a team. Team members can suggest various ways of improving team activities and services. Participation by team members in various activities enhances decision-making processes within the team. Members can also rely on the group participation to facilitate self-efficacy and development of new strategies.

Listening and acknowledging contributions of other team members can facilitate building of effective team. Team members should discuss and formulate strategies for problem solving (Taggar and Brown, 2001). Members of a team could use listening to enhance interpersonal sensitivity and understanding. Listening ensures that all channels of communication within the team are open for contributions and criticism. Listening also facilitates interaction among members of the team.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Summary There are several approaches used in building effective team, but they depend on the prevailing conditions and characteristics of members. The role of the team leader remains imperative in ensuring a successful team that can realise its objectives. Leaders can only realise the overall purpose of the team if they have a clear framework that guides their roles and team activities.

The framework should show a clear purpose of the team, decision-making strategies, listening, communication channels, relationships, and shared leadership and members’ responsibilities among others. Building effective team requires action-oriented approaches and practical solutions to challenges associated with team building.

References Mealiea, L., and Baltazar, R. (2005). A Strategic Guide for Building Effective Teams. Public Personnel Management, 34(2), 141-160.

Taggar, S., and Brown, C. (2001). Problem-solving team behaviors: Development and validation of BOS and a hierarchical factor structure. Small Group Research, 32(6), 698.

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Essentials of Management: Skills and Applications Essay online essay help

A manager needs to use different criteria when making decisions that have an impact on his firm’s operations. A manager needs to identify the specific problem that exists in the firm which needs to be solved. After identifying the problem, a manager needs to brainstorm with other members of the organisation to come up with probable solutions.

A consultative process makes all participants in the firm have more confidence in the manager’s leadership (DuBrin, 2003, p. 65). A manager needs to look at benefits and problems of every proposed solution before settling on the most appropriate one. A manager needs to understand all benefits and risks likely to be experienced by his organisation after the decision has been implemented.

An effective manager needs to understand the industry his firm operates in to ensure he makes appropriate decisions that advance its interests.

He needs to take note of different issues in the industry to find out how they impact on his firm’s operations. Jones and George (2006) reveal that a manager needs to rely on accurate information to expand his knowledge on various matters in the market (p. 87). A manager needs to study both short term and long term trends in the industry to understand how they are likely to impact on his firm’s performance.

It is vital for a manager to understand his firm’s vision to ensure that he makes appropriate decisions that help it achieve its objectives in the industry. He needs to allow other stakeholders in his firm to participate in making crucial decisions that enable his firm to make positive progress in the industry.

The assumption by an automobile manufacturer stating that the demand for SUV’s will continue to rise due to an increase in fuel prices is not backed up by accurate statistics. The manufacturer needs to do a lot of market research to validate this assumption, before its managers make any decisions regarding this issue. A leader should not use assumptions that have not been verified through elaborate marketing research to make choices that impact greatly on a firm’s operations.

He needs to use statistics gathered from different consumers to understand the best course of action his firm needs to pursue in the market. Pastinen (2010) reveals that managers need to develop effective systems that help them coordinate all activities their firms are involved in (p. 59).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These systems will help a firm understand financial as well as strategic implications of choices it makes in different markets. Therefore, the SUV manufacturer needs to assess all risks it is likely to experience before it decides to manufacture more vehicles.

An airline that makes an assumption that some travellers are willing to travel without additional amenities should conduct more market studies. However, the airline’s managers need to take time to find out if there are any major changes in the industry before making a drastic decision.

Managers need to compare services offered by other airlines to get more evidence that shows this assumption is credible and likely to benefit the firm’s operations in the long term. They also need to find out how the airline’s loyal customers are likely to react to such news and if this shift is likely to affect the quality attached to its brand in the market. Ultimately, the managers need to decide whether to market the airline as a low cost service provider or to maintain its current identity in the industry (Rue

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Decision Making: Challenges and Techniques Essay essay help

Decision making refers to a process of selecting a logical course of action among several available options. In the world of business, the manager faces challenges and scenarios in which he has to make a decision regarding the matter at hand. Therefore, every manager should have better decision making skills in order to navigate through these challenges. There are several criteria for determining whether the manager is making a good decision.

One of the criteria is through evaluating the results that come about by the decision that the manager makes. Every organization expects better results. Better results come as a result of better governance, good decision making and collective participation by members of the organization (Mikael

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A Grand Escape From the Prison of Chauvinism: Awoken and Ready to Fight the Society Prejudices Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Fighting for freedom is not an easy task, especially when not knowing whether one truly deserves this freedom and is ready to pay the price that the society demands for it (Jewett 525). While at present, the feminist concept of granting equal rights and freedoms to men and women seems quite legitimate, at the end of the XIX century, in the American South, the very idea of a woman fighting for her rights to be equal to a man seems impressively daring (Howells 374).

Despite the fact that Edna, the leading character of Kate Chopin’s Awakening, is the focus of the story and the character whom the readers are most likely to relate to, the rest of the female characters are also very compelling and are, in fact, the manifestation of feminism as it is – the demand for acknowledging the rights of women, the history of fights for freedom, the losses taken and the victories scored.

As the closest people for the novel protagonist, Janet and Margaret deserve to be mentioned first. Although they do not appear in the novel very often, they still have clear personalities and are very fun to watch, especially when they interact with their rebellious and confused sister.

It is quite peculiar that the relationships between the three sisters are so much complicated – with Margaret playing the role of a mother, wise yet very conservative, and Janet, refusing to have anything to do with Edna. Weirdly enough, out of these two, Margaret, with her traditional view of a woman’s role in a family and a woman’s place in the society, is much closer to the principles of feminism than her younger and more passionate sister Janet – and, maybe, Edna as well.

In contrast to her younger sisters, who are searching for their place and trying to gain confidence, she pretty much already has, and takes her actions with all due responsibility: “Her older sister, Margaret, was matronly and dignified, probably from having assumed matronly and housewifely responsibilities too early in life, their mother having died when they were quite young, Margaret was not effusive; she was practical” (Chopin 570).

Unlike Margaret, though, Janet is also worth taking a closer look at; detached from Edna, she has a lot in common with the latter, also being in search for her own self: “She and her younger sister, Janet, had quarreled a good deal through force of unfortunate habit” (Chopin 570).

Mademoiselle Reisz is on the other side of the spectrum; taking a look at her through the feminist goggles, one is most likely to find out that she is the essence of feminism. However, in terms of character development, she must be the most boring character of all, with all due respect to her enlightened attitude towards women in society. Though her personal journey is clearly not coming to a closure yet, it is obvious that she serves the function of a feminist model that Edna can relate to in her attempts to figure out what she truly wants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mademoiselle Reisz is the feminist mascot in the novel and a cautious example of the fact that society does not like people who are trying to be different, down to the point of ostracizing them; as a result, a feminist woman has to be able to prove her right to be equal to a man with every little step that she makes: “I’ve always said no one could play Chopin like Mademoiselle Reisz!” “That last prelude! Bon Dieu! It shakes a man!” (Chopin 574).

If someone could actually rip Mademoiselle Reisz off of all her dignity and pride, replacing these qualities with vanity and shamelessness, she would have turned into Mrs. Highcamp. Another example of what feminist ideas can do to a person who pushes them to the breaking point, challenging social norms, she could have been in the protagonist camp if it was not for her low moral standards.

Mrs. Highcamp displays feminist features by challenging social morals by engaging into affairs with younger men, yet she is hypocritical enough to force her younger daughter into building relationships based on the financial status of men.

More to the point, Mrs. Highland actually uses her daughter to engage into relationships with young men: “She had a daughter who served her as a pretext for cultivating the society of young men of fashion” (Chopin 595), which is, in fact, pretty low. One of the most disturbing issues about her is that she never learns from her mistakes and, basically, is the example of feminism subdued by the social norms and turned into travesty of liberation ideas.

Perhaps, by far the most exotic characters in the novel, the Farival twins represent the Victorian era as it is, with the emphasis on motherhood and on devotion to the family, which is, in fact, not a very bad idea. It would be a mistake to claim that feminism has nothing to do with motherhood or family creation – on the contrary, a feminist can be a devoted mother and a loving wife.

However, the way in which the Farival siblings set their priorities sadly repeats the chauvinist motifs that are typical of the Victorian era (Wrobel 7). Instead of considering the creation of a family and being a mother and a wife as the options of a liberated woman, they obviously have the idea of a woman as a subordinate creature being foisted on them.

However, as the novel unwinds, much to the reader’s disappointment, they become sock puppets in the hands of the people speaking in favor of the chauvinist principles as the basis of the society, thus, becoming boring, predictable, and, quite honestly, virtuous to the point of being annoying: “’The following week,” answered Edna, adding, “It has been a pleasant summer, hasn’t it, Mademoiselle?’ ‘Well,’ agreed Mademoiselle Reisz, with a shrug, ‘rather pleasant, if it hadn’t been for the mosquitoes and the Farival twins.’ (Chopin 585).

We will write a custom Essay on A Grand Escape From the Prison of Chauvinism: Awoken and Ready to Fight the Society Prejudices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another person whose character arch seems to have been completed before she even entered the plot, Madam Antonie provides an opportunity to look at the concepts of feminism through the goggles of a woman who seems to have solved the conflict within her and finally discovered her own self, reconciling with the demands of the society and her own social, personal and intellectual needs.

When comparing the given character to the rest of the people that emerge in the noel, one must admit that she seems to be by far the most complete and content of all of them. It is also quite remarkable that, being complete and not needing to establish herself in the society, as well as to change people’s perception of her persona, Madam Antonie does not change throughout the novel a single time.

While the given detail could be regarded as a character flaw, it is still reasonable to assume that Madam Antonie was not created for the purpose of showing character development; instead, she was supposed to be a complete character from the very start, a wise guide for Edna on her complicated journey (Abele 5). Truly, Madam Antonie appears only in two scenes in the novel; however, the given scenes are very symbolic in terms of the whole feminist concept being the focus of the Awakening.

Instead of guiding Edna the whole way to the point where she is finally handed her life choice, Madam Antonie emerges to bring comfort into Edna’s life and provide her with support at the points when Edna needs it most. In relation to the principles of feminism, Madam Antonie seems to have the closest to the idea of a self-sufficient, responsible and independent woman who has found the way to evolve within the context of the Victorian world without getting into conflicts with the adepts of chauvinism.

Arguably, she could be considered as a bad role model for the main character of the novel, Edna, seeing how the latter is willing that her rights should be recognized by society. With that being said, it can be assumed that Madam Antonie’s personal development does not come to an end as she disappears from the noel.

Rethinking the possible changes that she might undergo when colliding with the realities of the society of 1899, one might assume that she would not be able to fight back and would, probably, subdue to the socially accepted standard. It is quite peculiar that Madam Antonie is one of the characters whose further evolution is not quite clear in the novel; on the surface, she and the rest of the minor characters serve as the foil for Edna’s character development.

On a second thought, though, one might notice that these minor characters actually serve a bigger purpose; they are the representatives of the late XIX-century ideas of female identity (Weinmann 3). Showing that, when pushed to extreme, each of these ideas goes nowhere, the supporting characters like the aforementioned Farival siblings, Mrs. Highcamp, Mademoiselle Reisz, and many others form a pattern of the feminist ideas evolution at the end of the century.

It cannot be argued that not all female characters in Chopin’s work are as daring and feminist as Edna; in fact, some of them are the exact opposite, as the analysis above shows. However, it cannot be denied that even the most humble and the least courageous ones embody the basic ideas of feminism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Grand Escape From the Prison of Chauvinism: Awoken and Ready to Fight the Society Prejudices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the characters doing everything possible to gain the least bit of freedom and being the heralds of the new era, others being completely subdued to their husbands, fathers, or other men, and, therefore, representing the effects of chauvinism at its worst, they all make a clear picture of the society of the end of the XIX century, with its prejudices and the desperate need for changes.

Granted that Edna is the leading and by far the strongest character, who manages to overcome the social obstacles in her ay practically on her own, the rest of the female characters cannot be denied their impact on the feminist moods in the novel. Each contributing a bit of their own experience, these women become the voice of the feminist America, and they are yet to be heard once again.

Works Cited Abele, Michaela. Women in Kate Chopin’s “Awakening.” New York, NY: GRIN Verlag. 2003. Print.

Chopin, Kate. “The Awakening.” In The Norton Anthology of American Literature: 1865–1914 (Vol. C). New York, NY: W. W. Norton

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Representation of the Body in Advertising Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Advertising is a form of marketing that aims to attract consumers and consequently increase sales. Different channels of advertising such as television, the internet, and magazines have different ways of attracting customers. Representations of the human body in magazines are unique and different compared to other advertising channels.

Images used depict different stereotypical gender roles that create certain images in the minds of consumers, and pass certain messages. The representation of both the male and female body aims to teach consumers certain social cues, which have great impact on them. Representation of both genders applies differently in advertising. Representation of the genders largely depends on the society’s definition of femininity and masculinity.

The male body In many advertisements, representation of men applies in many ways. They apply as physically active, serious, alert, energetic, and conscious to the surroundings. Nudity applies in small scale to depict the strength and valor that masculinity represents. As such, masculine bodies are represented in ways that show their strength, bravery, and valor.

In cases where nudity is used, male bodies with huge muscles and protruding bodily veins are used. Masculine bodies experience full control in advertisements. Images depict men standing upright, hands in pockets, gripping objects tightly with their strong hands, and with eyes open looking attentively. These postures depict seriousness and power. In cases where the male and female bodies appear on the same advertisement, the man is always standing while the women is always sitting or lying on a bed.

This shows the submissive nature of women and the dominating nature of men. The masculine body in advertisements passes the message that men can be all they wish to be. In addition, they encourage men to be tough and brave as that is what defines masculinity. Nudity applies to reveal the strong nature of male bodies. Images used show strong hands and shoulders, strong muscles, and protruding veins on hands.

Image1: Strong hands and muscles (Man is superior and woman is inferior)

The female body

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Representation of the female body is achieved through nudity. The female body applies as the ultimate representation of beauty and vulnerability. It comes across as sexy, seductive, vulnerable, and playful. Nudity is mainly encouraged in representation of female bodies in order to reveal their sexiness. Several body positions apply to depict their powerlessness, sexiness, and submissiveness.

For example, their often representation while sitting on the floor, caressing certain objectives seductively, and playing with objects with their eyes closed. Another representation involves women sitting on beds or chairs looking confused. The female body is controlled by social norms and perceptions that people harbor. In many advertisements, women are depicted as weak and inferior to men. In contrast, men are mostly shown grasping objects while looking serious to show that they are always in control of their lives.

The feminine body is represented as an object of sexual appeal. This applies through nudity. Many advertisements accentuate the curves and certain feminine features through nudity. This is encouraged and widely used within consumer culture. The female body is viewed as a source of pleasure for consumers. In order to create and depict perfection, many images are manipulated using highly advanced technologies such as Photoshop.

Image 3: vulnerable, nude, and seductive

Image 4: touching herself, and seductive

In Killing Us Softly 4, there is a lot of gender stereotyping. Even though it passes intended messages, it depicts women in negative light. Women are not objects of sex appeal and pleasure as depicted.

Conclusion Advertisements apply to attract consumers through different representations of masculine and feminine bodies. The male body is represented as strong, powerful, and dominant. In contrast, the female body is represented as sexy, seductive, vulnerable, weak, and an object of pleasure. Advertisements pass different messages depending on the mental images that advertisers wish to create in the minds of consumers.

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The Chinese Art-piece “Spouted Ritual Water Vessel” Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Formal Perspective The Chinese art-piece, which will be discussed in this paper, is the Spouted Ritual Water Vessel from the 7th-6th century B.C. (IMG_4028.JPG). The piece’s utilitarian purpose is concerned with its ability to hold liquids. It features a rather elongated spout and richly decorated handle and supporting legs.

The latter resemble of what could have been the legs of some mythical animal. The vessel’s outer sides also feature a fair amount of decorative elements. In its turn, this implies that there is indeed a good rationale to think of this particular art-piece, as such that has been greatly treasured by the affiliates of the concerned historical period in China. The fact that, as it can be seen on the picture, there are no signs of any visible wear on this water vessel, suggests that it has been used on rare occasions.

Technical perspective Given the actual material, out of which the Spouted Ritual Water Vessel was made (bronze), we can well assume that, in terms of a technological development, the ancient Chinese were not falling behind ancient Greeks, for example. Apparently, in order to be able to produce bronze, people are supposed to possess a certain awareness of what happens when copper is being alloyed with tin.

This, however, can only be the case with those who have evolved to the point of being able to maintain a civilization of their own. The validity of this statement can also be illustrated in regards to the fact that, as the image of the Spouted Ritual Water Vessel points out too, its creators thoroughly mastered the technology of a lost-wax casting.

In essence, this technology is being concerned with artists making a wax-mold of whatever the object that they intend to produce, allowing a gypsum-cast to form around it, and filling the obtained cast with molten bronze. It is understood, of course, that the earlier mentioned technology implies that its affiliates, at the time of an ancient antiquity, were utterly industrious people, fully capable of remaining on the path of progress.

Social perspective The Spouted Ritual Water Vessel has been mainly used for a variety of ritual purposes, such as symbolizing the fluidity of one’s life, during the course of religious ceremonies. The item’s rich ornamentation validates the legitimacy of this suggestion, as it implies the vessel’s high value, which in turn sheds doubts on the idea that the concerned art-piece could have been used as an ordinary household article.

The earlier provided suggestion presupposes that it was primarily the members of the China’s ruling class/nobility, for whom the Spouted Ritual Water Vessel was meant to serve initially. This is because the item’s rich decorations imply that, along with having been considered ‘sacred’, it has also been deemed utterly expensive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given the fact that there can be only a few doubts, in regards to the vessel’s significance, as a ritual item, we can well assume that it was primarily during the time of a religious worshiping that this art-piece used to be put in a practical use.

The vessel’s another use could have been concerned with helping diseased people to feel thoroughly ‘accommodated’ in the afterlife. For this purpose, the item would have been placed in the coffin along with the diseased individual. The soundness of this statement can be shown, in regards to how the ancient Chinese used to reflect upon the meaning of death.

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The Advertisement to Attract Organizational Leaders Essay essay help online: essay help online

Automobile industry is one of the most developed economic sectors in the world, thus, any innovations in the field can contribute to the growth of your profits if you focus on expanding to a country which can be discussed as a right choice.

Follow the successful experience of such giants of the automobile industry as Renault, Volkswagen, and Nissan and provide your organizations with a chance to achieve the similar successes. If your company is growth-minded and it is focused on expansion globally, Spain is the effective choice to complete your goals. Pay attention to many advantages of the Spanish market to start your organizational expansion successfully:

1) Spanish economy is traditionally discussed as rather mature because of the progress in the spheres of transportation and infrastructure and because of the high health and educational status of the country’s population. Being the member of the European Union, the economy of Spain can be discussed as protected from significant negative changes and extreme consequences of the global economic crisis.

2) The situation in Spain can be characterized with references to the positive macro-economic environment appropriate to stimulate the organizational expansion to the country. The economic growth rates demonstrate positive changes dependent on the general progress of the country in relation to its economic and social stability and progress.

Wealth of society increases along with the people’s positive attitude toward free enterprises (Spain: Index of Economic Freedom 2013, 2013). Thus, you will be provided with an opportunity to establish strong business relations with new partners within the industry because of the positive impact of the macro-economic factors on the automobile industry’s development.

3) It is important to focus on the increased profitability of the automobile industry in Spain because of the prolonged tradition to develop this industry and to contribute to investing.

The automobile industry in Spain develops according to the principles of the controlled public spendings and investment freedom associated with business freedom in order to provide the companies with the opportunities to work to gain profits. While gaining profits in Spain, the company’s leaders can speak about the successful organizational expansion which is usually not the final goal, but the effective method to achieve it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 4) The legal nature of the country is also important. The rule of law is the main requirement to expand business activities to Spain. The country is open to intensive investment and associated trade relations, thus, the economy of the country and the development of industries should be based on the rule of law. Spanish judiciary can be evaluated as rather independent and contributing to the economic development of many industries (Spain: Index of Economic Freedom 2013, 2013).

In order to receive the opportunity to use extensive economic advantages associated with the organizational expansion, it is necessary to evaluate all the strengths and weaknesses of the process and to concentrate on the appropriate choice (Tarn

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Critical thinking Essay a level english language essay help

The concept of utility takes an important place in the economic theory. In context of marketing, the theory of utility is used in practice in order to facilitate the sales of the company and to adjust the business plan with the market demand and customers preferences. The concept of utility plays a vital role in the small firms functioning as well.

“Utility is the use or satisfaction a person gets from a product” (What is marketing?, n.d., p.14). Taking into account that the search and satisfaction of customers needs are the fundaments in the profitability and overall effectiveness of the business, the efforts should be made by the firm to find the market segment in which it can provide utility to the customers. In this respect, it would be logical to quote John Mackey, co-founder and CEO of Whole Foods Market, who says

“For us, our most important stakeholder is not our stockholders, it is our customers. We’re in the business to serve the needs and desires of our core customer base” (Boone, 2012, p. 39).

The theory usually defines the four types of utility: form, time, place, and possession. However, the task utility is sometimes marked out by marketers. It assumes providing some service to the customer.

In order to define which types of utility are relevant to the small firms, we need to consider the market structure in which they mostly operate. Boone (2012) states that the “traditional economic analysis views competition as a battle among companies in the same industry (direct competition) or among substitutable goods (indirect competition)” (p.65-66).

The majority of small businesses function under the conditions of monopolistic competition defined as the market structure with the numerous competitors selling differentiated products (Monopolistic competition, n.d.). In order to survive, the firms must differentiate their product to make it stands out on the market by emphasizing the benefits it can provide to customers.

There are four types of utility relevant to small businesses: form, time, possession, and task. The place utility may also add value to the small firms’ products but its role is substantially lesser in comparison with the other four and it rarely contributes to the good or service differentiation of the small businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Form Utility assumes that “a product must be processed into a form that the customer wants or needs” (What is marketing?, n.d., p.14). For example, bakeries, delicatessens, or cafes benefit consumers by selling them products ready for use; they turn the separate ingredients into the integral product. The customization of good is one of the features of the form utility (Winsor et al., 2004). That is why the form utility prevails in the monopolistic competition.

Possession utility establishes legal ownership of a product which is supported by the receipt (What is marketing?, n.d., p.15). For instance, a lot of small businesses operating in e-commerce provide the customers with the opportunity to use the debit electronic payment systems such as PayPal. The use of the system simplifies the process of payment, thus creating benefit to the customer.

“Time Utility could be described as being in the right place at the right time when a customer is ready to purchase a product” (What is marketing?, n.d., p.16). Undoubtedly, the debit electronic payment systems also represent the bright examples of the method of saving time while making a transaction. Besides, a lot of small businesses place their retail outlets nearby the potential customers’ residence. In such a way, they save the free time of customers who do not have to spend hours to get to the bakery, for instance.

Finally, the task utility adds value by providing customers with special services. For example, the customers go to hairdressing or the beauty salon because they do not possess certain skills.

In summary, the understanding of the customers needs plays an important role in the survival of the small firms. It is the factor that motivates them to add value to their products by using form, possession, task, and time utilities.

References Boone, L. E. (2012). Contemporary marketing, 16th edition. Stamford, USA: Cengage Learning.

Monopolistic competition. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Business_economics/Monopolistic_competition.html

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Portfolio Project: A Case of Nestle Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Nestle is the largest food company in the world, with its presence stretching to more than 80 countries and manufacturing facilities numbering about 450. The company has registered great success that is showcased in its elaborate structure and physical establishments across six continents of the globe. Nestle has dealt with one controversy after another in its course of operation. The most pronounced controversy involved the marketing of infant formula, mainly in third world nations.

The company’s bottled water brand also faced controversies over its alleged purity in some developing countries. This paper analyzes the company’s controversies and the corrective measures undertaken to rectify the situation, making a comparison of international management theories. The paper also includes a personal opinion on how the organization managed the issues through. The paper finally reflects on how managers can prevent similar issues in the future.

The Management Issues Infant formula marketing controversy

Nestle Corporation was embroiled in controversy in 1977 when the company’s management sought to increase the sale of infant formula brand within the developing nations. Groups in opposition to Nestlé’s plan raised concerns over the firm’s idea to offer breastfeeding mothers the infant formula to act as a substitute to the breast milk.

A global call for a boycott of the company and its products, mainly the infant formula, was organized by groups that argued that substituting breast milk with the infant formula led to suffering and even deaths of babies, particularly in the developing countries (Boyd, 2012).

The anti-Nestle groups, including Save the Children and International Baby Food Action Network, insisted on the unrivaled benefits of breast milk to babies. They accused Nestle of cheating mothers to make huge profits. Several other prominent organizations and bodies in the world, including the World Health Organization (WHO) (Heath, 1997), joined the activist groups in rallying for the global boycott of Nestlé’s infant formula. These bodies termed the milk a baby killer.

Ethical management issue

Nestlé’s management failed to consider the ethical question when it sanctioned the questionable marketing of its infant formula. The least developed countries, compared to the developed world, still suffer from many infrastructural and developmental challenges.

These countries lack sufficient refrigeration services, suffer from lack of sanitary conditions, and experience impure water supplies. The management ignored ethical practice and consideration by insisting on bottle-feeding as the best alternative for mothers and babies living in such countries (Carroll

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Choice essay help online free

After viewing the “CSI and Toxicology” videos, you will provide a commentary of your reaction to the videos and the contents therein. Your reaction paper will be written in a scholarly tone, making any references you identified from the videos relevant to the chapter readings and any prior knowledge you have about the topic.
These videos last 3 mins total for all of them they arent long.
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