Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist and a philosopher. He is categorized as a behaviorist following his famous rat experiment which he conducted to demonstrate that behavior is influenced not by individuals’ will but by other variables which are external to the individuals.
He took a hungry rat and placed it in a cage and then placed a lever and a food tray. Since the rat was hungry, it would wander in the cage sniffing everywhere and accidentally stepped on the lever, which would trigger the release of a food pellet into the food tray. Skinner observed that the frequency of pressing the lever increased up to the time when the rat was no longer hungry.
This experiment drove Skinner to reach the conclusion that there is nothing like free will but rather, behavior was a consequence of our actions. If actions carry positive rewards, the corresponding behaviors are perfected. Similary, if certain behaviors are not rewarded, they are avoided.
Skinner belonged to the school of thought which contents that human behavior is determined by our cultural orientations and psychological profiling. If we live in a culture whereby for example girls are married at a tender age, then the girls who live in that culture have got no option other than to get married at tender age because the culture stipulates so.
We may also be influenced by our psychological profiling when making some decisions. For example, if we have a tendency of being nymphomaniac (the desire of women to want as much sex and as frequent as possible) then our behavior is already determined by our psychological profiling and therefore we have no option other than to want as much sex as possible.
Determinism in this sense therefore can be said to disregard morality by contenting that we are what we are and we cannot be otherwise (Honderich, 2005).
Despite Skinner’s stand against free will, he went ahead and introduced the concept of self control. What he meant by self control was that human beings were able to generate various responses in an attempt to change their behavior. As stated earlier, human behavior is shaped by the environment in which an individual lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Self control occurs through changing the environment, which subsequently changes the behavior of an individual. For example, if a person stays near a place where chocolates are sold just outside the door of the house; there are high chances that the person would develop the habit of eating chocolates every time he or she sees them, which may become an addicition of some kind.
If the person takes the action of driving the sellers of the chocolates away, then he would have tamed his habit of eating chocolates. Another example is that of a person who is addicted to watching a television due to proximity to the TV.
In order to control this habit, the person can keep it in his or her parents’ house so that he or she can avoid watching it. Skinner outlined various ways of achieving self control. They include stimulus control, self punishment or reinforcement and monitoring one’s behavior among others (Schultz
The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
In her essay The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex, Gayle Rubin strived to outline factors that contribute to the fact that even today, women continue to be subjected to different forms of a societal/patriarchal oppression.
While doing it, she made a deliberate point in mentioning a number of discursively relevant theories that provide a partial insight into what may be considered the dialectically predetermined reasons for the earlier mentioned situation to continue remaining an integral part of today’s socio-political realities.
In my paper, I will outline the major qualitative aspects of the author’s line of reasoning (in regards to the theories of Marx, Levy-Strauss and Freud). I will also argue that, contrary to what Rubin implies throughout the essay’s entirety, there is indeed a certain rationale in referring the notion of women’s patriarchal oppression, as such that has been biologically rather than ideologically/socially predetermined.
The first major theoretician of gender inequality, to which Rubin refers in her essay, is Karl Marx. Although, in his writing he never tackled the subject matter explicitly, he nevertheless did succeed in exposing Capitalism, as such that indirectly contributes to the ‘domestication’ of women.
The validity of this idea Rubin illustrates in regards to the discursive implications of the Marxist view on of the generation of the so-called ‘surplus product/value’, as such that ‘fuels’ the free-market economy’s proper functioning. As the author noted: “If the total value of the things the worker has made exceeds the value of his or her wage, the aim of capitalism has been achieved.
The capitalist gets back the cost of die wage, plus an increment-surplus value” (161). This, of course, presupposes that, in order for capitalists to increase the amount of ‘surplus output’, generated by hired employees, the latter must be exploited in the most effective manner.
In its turn, this explains the phenomenon of the so-called ‘corporate culture’, when workers are being instilled with the sense of loyalty towards their exploiters, and the fact that women are assigned to take care of housework-duties, without being paid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By acting as unpaid ‘housewives’, women allow their husbands to concentrate more on their career-advancement (as a reward for their increased ability to generate more ‘surplus product’).
This, however, naturally results in women’s continual ‘dehumanization’, as their status of ‘housewives’ (euphemism for the notion of lowly female servants) automatically imply their lessened intellectual abilities. Thus, Marxist theory suggests that it is specifically Capitalism, as the form of a socio-political governing, which creates objective preconditions for women to continue suffering from a patriarchal oppression.
Nevertheless, Rubin rightly suggested that this point of view cannot be referred to as such that represents an undisputed truth-value.
The reason for this is apparent – there are plenty of examples of women having been subjected to the different forms of a patriarchal oppression not only in Capitalist, but also in pre-Capitalist and Socialist societies: “Women are oppressed in societies which can by no stretch of the imagination be described as capitalist” (163).
The validity of this suggestion Rubin illustrates in regards to the theory of Levy-Strauss, who views the oppression women as a byproduct of male-dominated societies striving to ensure their structural integrity.
For example, in the tribal societies of Polynesian natives, it represents a commonplace practice for males who seek to attain a social prominence by bestowing gifts upon each other – even though that the act of a gift-giving is not being even slightly justified, in the economic sense of this word.
By indulging in this practice, natives are able to strengthen the extent of their ‘kinship’ with each other, which in turn makes it easier for them to face life-challenges.
We will write a custom Essay on The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Levy-Strauss, the fact that the practice of incest is being traditionally considered utterly inappropriate is best explained within the discursive framework of a ‘gift-giving culture’ – it is exactly because by marrying men outside of their own family/tribe, women establish kinship-ties with potential would-be-enemies, which explains the origins of an anti-incest sentiment in just about every human society.
It is needless to mention, of course, that by being objectualized as ‘gifts’, women inevitably end up facing a patriarchal oppression, because the very practice of their earlier mentioned objectualization deems women inferior to men: “If women are the gifts, then it is men who are the exchange partners. And it is the partners, not the presents, upon whom reciprocal exchange confers its quasi-mystical power of social linkage” (174).
Nevertheless, because Levy-Strauss’s theory suggests that the ‘exchange of women’ is the necessary prerequisite for the emergence of culture, it automatically implies that without such an exchange, there would no human civilization, as we know it – a rather controversial idea.
After all; whereas, people’s strong affiliation with the ‘women exchange’ practice reflects the sheer extent of their existential primitiveness (the measure of their closeness to apes), their capacity to push forward scientific and cultural progress is being reflective of their ability to suppress ‘monkey’ within.
This is exactly the reason why it is namely in Western scientifically and culturally advanced societies, where women are entitled to the same scope of civil rights and liberties, as men are.
In her essay, Rubin also made numerous references to the Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, as such that provides a psychological insight into what causes women to experience deep-seated anxieties of inferiority, which in turn make them more likely to end up being mistreated.
According to Freud, the actual cause of these anxieties is the fact that, throughout the course of their lives, women never cease experiencing the sensation of ‘penis envy’: “The girl turns from the mother and represses the ‘masculine’ elements of her libido…
She compares her tiny clitoris to the larger penis, and in the face of its evident superior ability to satisfy the mother, falls prey to penis envy and a sense of inferiority” (187). It is quite clear that the psychoanalytic view of the subject matter implies the essentially biological roots of women’s patriarchal oppression.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this is something that Rubin cannot accept, which is why throughout her essay, the author continues to imply that the extent of just about theory’s (the tackles the issue of women’s oppression) validity reflects its spokespersons’ willingness to refrain from succumbing to ‘biological determinism’.
For example, while referring to the theory of Levy-Strauss, Rubin states: “The ‘exchange of women’ is a seductive and powerful concept. It is attractive in that it places the oppression of women within social systems, rather than biology” (175). Yet, it is specifically the conceptual framework of biology, within which the issue of women’s oppression should be discussed.
We need to understand that, biologically speaking, the representatives of Homo Sapiens sub-species are nothing but hairless primates. In the societies of primates, males dominate – the very laws of nature predetermined such a state of affairs.
This is the reason why, contrary to what many feminists believe, throughout the humankind’s history, there has not been even a single example of women having exercised the de facto matriarchal dominance within the society.
As Henslin pointed out: “The anthropological record shows that all societies for which evidence exists are (or were) patriarchies… Stories about long-lost matriarchies (societies in which women-as-a-group dominate men-as-a-group) are myths” (297).
Nevertheless, this is not only the result of the fact that, as compared to women, men are physically stronger – the very biological constitution of female bodies makes the representatives of the ‘weak gender’ to be differently ‘brain-wired’. The reason for this is apparent – as compared to what it happened to be the case with men’s ‘external’ genitals, women’s genitals are ‘internal’.
It is its turn, this causes women to exist in the state of a constant sexual tension – unlike men, women are quite incapable of detaching their rational psyche from the physiologically predetermined workings of their bodies. Because of that, female whole bodies can be well conceptualized in terms of a sexual organ (this is why women get easily aroused, because of having clearly non-sexual parts of their bodies, such as hands, touched by men).
Whereas, men’s sexual arousal is best compared to a skin-itch, which disappears after having been scratched, women’s sexual arousal is best compared to a skin-rash, which only gets worse while scratched. In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for women to be able to realize the full extent of their existential potential only through socialization (preferably sexual) with men.
As Weininger noted: “A woman does not value herself by the constancy and freedom of her personality… (she) can only value herself at the rate of the man who has fixed his choice on her” (123).
This presupposes women’s comfortableness with being objectualized – hence, establishing a metaphysical ground for women to continue facing patriarchal oppression. The above-statement also exposes the conceptual erroneousness of political philosophies that promote the idea that it is possible to enforce gender-egalitarianism.
Works Cited Henslin, James. Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2011. Print.
Rubin, Gayle. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex.” Toward an Anthropology of Women. Ed. Rayna Reiter. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1975. 157-210. Print.
Weininger, Otto 1906, Sex
A Case for Global Ethics Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why Global Set Ethics are needed
The Global Ethics
Can the Global Community agree on the Ethics?
Setting the Ethics
Introduction Globalization is changing the world into a close-knit society where people of differing nationalities and cultural backgrounds interact on a frequent basis and engage in actions that influence them. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2009) note that because of these interactions, there have been numerous attempts made to establish a set of global ethical standards.
This attempts have been prompted by the realization that global ethic will encourage good business practices in all countries. However, the goal of achieving a set of global ethics is yet to be realized and some scholars have even argued that this goal is utopian. According to them, universal ethical standards cannot be achieved because of the cultural differences that exist across the globe.
These opponents also argue that global ethics might not be the most desirable since conditions vary between nations. This paper will argue that global set ethics are required and they would promote standard ethical behaviour all over the globe. The paper will highlight what this ethics would be and demonstrate that it is possible for people around the world to agree on such set ethics.
Defining Ethics Ethical scholars and philosophers have always held the view that ethics are important for the establishment of a well functioning society. According to Smilja (2011), ethics imply “social codes that point to a particular behaviour or restrict it” (p.397).
Ethics are of great importance in the decision making process of individuals since they prescribe a legitimate and illegitimate behaviour. A clear set of ethics enables people to determine what conducts the society will judge as “right” or “wrong” and therefore engage in the most socially appropriate behaviour.
While ethical norms are easy to come up with in a homogenous society, the case is not the same for a multicultural community since each culture has its own particular beliefs, values, and ethical systems, which may not be compatible with those of other cultures.
Evanoff (2010) elaborates that ethical beliefs are culturally constructed and this explains the differences in ethical systems across cultures. In spite of this, it is both necessary and possible for people from different cultural backgrounds to agree on a set of ethics that they can uphold.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Global Set Ethics are needed Multicultural interactions are more likely to happen today than at any other point in human history. It is therefore necessary for people to have an ethical system that can guide their interaction and assist in dealing with problems of mutual concern. The rapid development of transportation and technology has converted the world into a global village.
In addition to that, interaction among people of differing nationalities is more prevalent today than at any other time in history (Chryssides
European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom Synthesis Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The consumer protection policy refers to the stipulated mechanism which gives the consumer the freedom to shop and enjoy various products within their establishments. For instance, the European Union (EU) policy and regulation offers freedom to customers or consumers linked to the European Community to operate freely and shop anywhere and to enjoy protection and price advantage and the supply of quality goods to them.
Vulnerable consumers refer to those that are exposed to unfair pricing systems, low quality products, limited consumer rights, inadequate access to information and the repression of speech. Vulnerable consumers may include normal buyers, organizations or individuals who are exposed to unfair consumer practices from the supplier, dealers, government or the representative unions.
According to the Consumer Protection Strategy of 2007 to 2013, the primary role of consumer protection is to enhance equal classes of protection and security within the EU. It also facilitates a rich integrated domestic market.
According to the EU, the objective of a good customer protection approach includes the ability to empower the consumer through the creation of a transparent market which can supply the consumer with a wide spectrum of options in terms of quality of prices of commodities. It is also the objective of the policy to safeguard the consumer from all risks and threats.
The Consumer Policy Strategy focuses on different priority areas that include favorable consumer protection policy, fair oversight of consumer market and state consumer policies, facilitating consumer policy through the establishment of market regulation tools and placing of customers at the helm of other EU policies.
The strategic policy is expected to inform and educate the consumers through integration of the practices of the EU centers. The UK, a member of the EU is bound by the directive of the domestic UK law.
The consumer protection claims are handled when the complaints are forwarded to the director general who deals with fair trade. It is however not easy for consumers to complain straight to the OFT1 and they have to employ a middleman. This study evaluates the European and UK policies of consumer protection. The essay will focus on the impact of fair, favorable or unfavorable policies on the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background Consumer protection constitutes laws and rules organized to facilitate consumers’ rights protection and ensure fair trade. It is also the role of the policy to safeguard the weak and vulnerable consumers. Consumers who cannot take care of themselves or who are afraid to take a step of claiming their rights have the advantage of obtaining anchorage from the consumer policy and regulation approaches.
The policy not only protects the consumers but also enlightens them on the various rights and existence of consumer support agencies. The agencies include Consumer Protection Organization, Federal Trade Commission, ombudsmen, business consultancies and government organizations.
A consumer2 is a person who procures goods and services for consumption or direct ownership. His aim is to keep or use the service or goods and not sell them.
Vulnerable clients When a consumer is weak or not equipped enough to fight for his or her rights in respect to commodity prices; he or she is said to be vulnerable. Exploitative policies among the various nations under the EU have subjected consumers to inflation and sub-standard products and services for a long time. Efficient and effective legislation safeguards consumers against health risks and risks related to unnecessary expenses.
Weak consumers cannot file their complaints when faced with inappropriate services and low quality products from sellers and manufacturers. They are forced to buy and use what to them is substandard and inconvenient but due to the need for the particular commodity, they are forced to succumb to the demand and go on procuring it.
The EU3 and UK policies both outline measures for the consumer protection but not all are put into consideration especially when the issues are related to health, ethics and quality production.
Other types of vulnerable consumers comprise of those informed individuals who are always ready to fight and express their concerns but lack the intervention of a ‘middleman’ or somebody who can represent them in the judicial system or at the high office for immediate action.
We will write a custom Essay on European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vulnerable consumers4 may also include the normal buyers who buy essential commodities like food and clothing even if the prices are compromised. They are highly taxed and tend to pay extremely high to acquire the product differently from other consumers from different locations who use the same product.
The consumers may need to complain but the communication channels may be “blocked” by certain interested parties. The conditions can also become oppressive and inconvenient because of little intervention from the observers and other agencies under the EU. The observers can be government agencies, foreign experts and rights’ protection facilities.
Regulation and consumer policy Proper regulation and consumer protection help both the consumer and the market to work more efficiently. The policies are usually concerned with advertising, complaints, mergers and competition, transparency, fairness and consumers’ rights. The consumer protection policy and regulation in Europe and the UK5 prioritize advertising as a move towards the creation of a competitive and fair market.
The advertising clause serves to improve information quality by maintaining responsible and appropriate standards. The EU Consumer Policy works towards enhancing the consumers’ concerns at the EU level and various issues are addressed through legislative processes. The clause on mergers ensures that all issues are evaluated in the merger or through competitive enquiries.
The principle of consumer regulation is usually responsible for facilitating sensible industrial regulation and evaluation with focus on ensuring consumer s’ rights regulation. The clause on super complaints deals with market failure and makes informed decisions by using the power of the super complaint network.
The consumer’s product safety approach assures the consumers the safety of given products and the authority to question safety standards and deceptive operations of the market.
The European consumer policy and regulation The European consumer policy and regulation is a destination approach in terms of performance, structure and evaluation. The strategic approach focuses on the consumers’ rights in the market mechanisms. It stresses on a number of considerations. The approach considers the clause on fair consumer protection and regulation to be an efficient one in safeguarding consumers’ interests.
In this case, the Council Commission focuses on simplifying the laws by amending the major directives on consumer protection. The commission’s responsibilities constitute the publishing and making of a Green Paper Publication on the evaluation of consumers’ protection. The commission necessitates harmonization towards an improved trend and facilitates an effective consumer protection strategy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The approach by the European agency focuses on favorable redress and enforcement of the consumer protection laws. The consumer is mandated to monitor the state enforcement systems through surveying and close examining their performance. For an effective, fair and open market, the European consumer policy6 and regulation focuses on the fair evaluation of the consumer market.
It also monitors the national consumer policy. Market surveillance has been enforced through employment of devices such as RAPEX (Rapid Alert System) and also through cooperation from USA, China and other countries working together with the EU in ensuring the continued maintenance of consumer safety. The policy and regulation approach has always prioritized consumer protection.
The commission’s responsibility is to ensure that the consumers access health, transport and industrial facilities. It also ensures that all products of general interest and global service at the EU level are protected. Education is crucial for the consumer and the European commission on consumer protection policy and regulation because it promotes information, sound decision making and awareness in the consumer.
The commission finances the initiative aimed at providing information to prospective consumers like actions by the European Consumer Center Network (ECC-Net). The commission also participates in campaigns in newly established member states. The consumer policy strategy of 2007 to 2013 aims at uniting the 27 national domestic markets to form the biggest retail market internationally.
In the wave of the latest expansion, Eurostat targets 495 million EU inhabitants. The prospects of e-commerce are not fully exploited. The consumer strategy is yet to be formulated by the commission. Reports on consumer expenditure show 58% rise in the EU’s GDP.
Many considerations have in the past been made by the commission but at the moment, all units represented can be able to enjoy the advantage of the retail market with vulnerable groups especially the elderly risking being penalized.
The Green Paper Review on consumer acquisition stipulates that the operational consumer protection laws are based on little harmonization and permit member states to adopt a better formulated legislation. The Green Paper unveiled a public consultation forum which was later terminated in 2007.The forum focused on reviewing the consumer acquisition policy.
The forum proposed three options for the purpose of harmonization. The first option involved full harmonization of the policies on consumer protection. The second option incorporated little harmonization supported by a symbiotic recognition clause.
The third option integrated harmonization which involved the establishment of firms in the various member states; all complying with the rules and regulations applied in their states. The Green Paper proposes the reviewing of the main directives on consumer protection and the establishment of new consumer credit directives. The paper also adopted the drafts of two evaluation reports.
One was a directive on financial services and the other was about general product safety. The Commission for Health and Consumer Safety operates under the docket of the European Commission. The present commissioner’s post is occupied by Toni Brag. This docket is responsible for issues of public and animal health, food safety and the consumers’ welfare functions.
The policy by the commission on the promotion of warnings on smoking of tobacco has been an effective market approach towards public health stimulation. Progress has been realized and the commission has been able to address the issue of pictorial warnings. This fact has enabled a majority of the European nations to impose bans on public smoking.
This legislation was proposed by Marcos Kyprianon, head of Barossa Commission on the subject of health and consumer protection. In 2007, Commissioner Marcos unveiled a project that handled the short supply of “organs’ donation” within the EU. This plan involved promotion, donor cells and specially informed medical staff.
The various commissioners with remarkable adjustments include Richard Barco from Ireland (Jenkins Commission), Stanley Clinton from the UK (Delver Commission i), Grigoris Wafts from Greece (Deloris Commission ii), Christian Scrivener from France (Deloris Commission ii), Emma Boning from Italy (Santer Commission), David Bryne from Ireland (Pride Commission and John Dali from Malta (Barossa Commission).
The present portfolio of clauses and acts involves the president, vice president , director general of the agencies and legislative personnel.
The assembly portfolio involves agriculture and rural development, climate actions, competition panels, development schemes, digital agendas, economic affairs, monetary affairs, education and cultural networks, environment, financial programs and budgetary scheme, health and consumer policy, industry and entrepreneurship, international cooperation, humanitarian aid and crisis response and justice, citizenship and fundamental rights.
These entire parameters make the European Consumer Protection Unit what it is today.
UK’s policy and regulation on consumer protection The UK being a part of the EU is legally bound by the policies of the EU. The intervention of the EU law, the UK policy and regulations are emerging to be independent entities with different procedures and regulations to safeguard the consumers.
The UK tends to recognize the different areas that the EU has attempted to enforce the policy but failed and the UK has in the past made attempts to resuscitate it. In the different circumstances, especially where domestic laws are crucial, matters concerning consumer protection are usually evaluated and involve contract restitution tools or criminal laws.
The issues pertaining to consumers are configured and evaluated as complaints are forwarded to the general director in charge of air trade. Direct complaints from the consumer to the OFT are not allowed. An intermediary has to relay the complaint to the OFT. The intermediary provides legal information and advice to the respective complainant.
He can also decide to take the complaints to the trading standard for further evaluation. Following the restriction placed on the Enterprise Act 2012, uncollected complainants face the challenge of not knowing whether their complaints will be considered or not. This aspect becomes difficult for the individual consumers who are unable to access the outcome of their complaints.
The consumer can in certain circumstances forward large volumes of complaints to be evaluated systemically. The OFT is reported to be lenient and rarely takes companies to court but prefers “slim” touch regulation policies. The consumers’ complaints raised against the organization or company do not go through publication but pass through investigative work.
Certain consumer protection laws like the unfair stipulation of the Consumer Contract Regulation of 1999 or Distance Selling Regulation of 2000 were directives derived from the UK implementation. The OFT becomes responsible for enforcing this regulation.
However, these policies can lead to a problem considering that the legalization tackles individual’s complaints and ignores systemic complaints from them. The OFT plays the role of the UK’s official “watchdog” in respect to competition and consumer insights. It oversees the operations of the market at the local and international level through trading standards offices.
General advice on consumer operation can be drawn from the consumer docket or through the Citizens’ Advice Bureau Brand. The UK Policy and Regulation integrates several acts and clauses.
They include Sales of Good Act 1979, Unfair Contract Terms Act of1977, Consumer Protection Act of1987, Electronic Consumer Regulation of 2005, Consumer Protection Regulation of 2000, The Enterprise Act of 2002, Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulation of 2008 and General Product Safety Regulation of 2005.
These acts have existed for a long time and have maintained the UK’s dominance within the European community. These policies on consumer protection have affected many acts of parliament, government departments, statutory instruments’ lobby groups and citizens with the goal of facilitating a market economy that is fair. The policies ensure that consumers enjoy quality and safe goods and services.
The primary zones of regulating consumer matters include the product safety evaluation that protects people from buying potentially harmful goods. It ensures favorable terms for goods and services by elimination of unfair terms. It also includes financial regulation to facilitate credit access by ensuring that it is affordable.
The zone also requires that consumers fully understand the terms and obligations attached to loans and credit facilities. The other zone deals with strong competition especially from the private sector by elimination of cartels, destroying monopolies and dissolution of mergers.
Even though the UK is a part of the EU’s internal market, it works alongside other countries from Europe and EU institutions by outlining and enforcing transitional policies. A lot of parties play different roles in the maintenance of the policies with respect to the established laws. Examples of them include the Bank of England, OFT, Financial Services Authority, Competition Commission and the European Commission.
The Consumer Advocacy Group is a crucial organization that maintains justice and transparency with respect to the consumers’ protection policies. The supposed super-complainant aims at empowering the consumer’s concerns. The consumers in this case become vulnerable by not having individual access to vital information. The information can form a basis of evaluating the market.
Eight types of advocacy groups have been structured since the year 2007 and they include CAMRA which is a lobbying cluster that deals with quality and nature of beer and the Citizens Advice Bureau which provides free legal advice and specific help on consumers’ rights in the UK.
Others include Water Voice, Consumer Direct, Post Watch and General Consumer Council of Northern Ireland, Good Garage Scheme and the National Consumer Council. The Consumer Association has tangible authority of taking action as envisaged by the Completion Act of1988. The association is a lobby assembly and is sponsored by subscription of regular consumers.
The street fundraising initiative that originates from charity mergers is usually an offensive and aggressive move that violates legislation and policies outlined by regulating agencies. Different acts facilitate different clauses and fields. For product safety, the Consumer Protection Act facilitates safety of both goods and services.
For finance and credit, the Consumer Credit Act of 1974, Financial Services Act of 2010, Financial Services and Market Act of 2010 and financial ombudsmen services facilitate monitoring policies. The Competition Act of 1998 and Enterprise Act of 2002 generate healthy and fair competition and practices.
UK’s assistance to the vulnerable consumers The UK’s regulatory policy makes her a stronghold when it comes to consumer protection. The clause on fair trade allows individuals from England, Wales and other parts of UK to enjoy fair trade. Fair trade refers to a good pricing system, fair competition and market procedure. This act tends to empower the weak and depressed consumers as it gives them hope of justice and fairness.
The policies are able to outline what is unfair and inform the consumers on the current market structures. The product safety regulation clause protects consumers, general public and various stakeholders from using harmful products and services. For example the Tobacco Awareness Scheme is aimed at informing individuals with little or no information on tobacco and narcotics about the dangers of using drugs.
Customers or consumers benefit directly or indirectly from this clause. They benefit directly through information availability and indirectly through third parties. The financial regulation clause helps the less informed consumers and general public on financial services. The policy helps individuals to recognize the need for accessing realistic loans and credit facilities.
It is the mandate of the Consumer Protection Commission and Agency to facilitate fair monetary organizations and authentic signatories. Two types of consumers are found in the UK.They include those consumers who seek financial advice from established individuals and successive personalities and those who play the ‘try and error’ technique. They latter operate by chance.
To them, financial gain is based on luck and previous experience. The consumer policy and regulation tends to address the needs of these consumers by creating educational programs in media and social communication networks like Face book7 and Tweeter8.The clause on competition policy and regulation within the private quarters helps in controlling cartels and fighting monopoly.
Monopoly has been a menace to the common consumers who have been subdued by the cartels in favor of certain individuals. They help in abolishing mergers that appear unfair and improperly constituted. The consumers are able to enjoy commodities The Consumer Policy and Regulation protects consumers from the freedom from monopoly and egocentric individuals.
The role played by the OFT has been a crucial one in solving consumers’ complaints through legal means. The OFT is able to speak for the weak, irresponsible and vulnerable consumers. The movement of the complaints from the OFT to the trading standards helps the organization to conduct comprehensive investigations.
The proximity focus by the OFT is to maintain links with its consumers through formation of small groups that act as a representatives of the consumer cycle. The groups are able to convey the complaints to the OFT. The OFT’s nature of not prosecuting companies has been able to encourage different companies to solve their issues and consumer complaints amicably and responsibly.
Consumers are safeguarded from fear of facing prosecution; especially if it is a scheme that undermines the Consumer Regulation and Policy. The OFT “watchdog’s” role has helped the UK community to understand the importance of a better consumers’ regulation and policy.
The freedom that the Enterprise Act of 2002 offers consumer bodies to be structured as super complainants allows the consumer to maintain the proximity of contact between the consumers and the OFT. The Citizen Advice Bureau provides free information and advice to vulnerable consumers who encounter problems in accessing important policy information especially when assessing costs.
Certain consumers find it difficult to file their complaints because they cannot afford advocacy fees. The Water Voice or Consumer Water Council helps the consumer in accessing safe, pathogen free and clean water. Safe water benefits vulnerable consumers in sewage polluted areas, poor drained areas and areas experiencing underground leakages.
The good garage and auto mobile repair schemes have helped consumers in accessing better automobile services. People who do not have enough information on car servicing and maintenance, cost of purchase and repair can depend on the scheme for direction.
Recent invention in automobiles has been re-coded and appreciated as the consumers are availed with important information to earn their desired vehicles based on their willingness to buy and access the services. The policy assures the consumer of an efficient delivery system, resource policy and legislative measure. The Sale of Goods Act of 1979 facilitates efficiency of sales to the targeted consumer.
The act assures vulnerable consumers of the right sales. The act connects the consumer with producers thus enabling an effective network of business. Consumers who are usually exposed to diverse challenges on the kind of products or services to go for are offered a variety of options by the policy. The Unfair Contract Act of 1977 is a practical clause for the vulnerable and less experienced consumers.
The act teaches them about the importance of fair trade and competition. The principle of regulation engages the act in working to motivate rational regulation and industrial evaluation while maintaining safety of the consumers. The UK’s policy generates economic momentum by prioritizing the consumer.
The consumer becomes the subject matter and point of interest of the market. The merger inscription ensures that consumers’ issues are incorporated in competition and merger enquiries. Alongside the super complaints docket, the merger works to check on market failure and opportunity cost.
EU’s assistance to the vulnerable consumers The European Policy and Regulation integrates a number of clauses and acts that are expected to be implemented and applied by all stakeholders. It is however noted that despite the acts and clauses, the EU has managed to produce little, or at a given point, no assistance to the vulnerable consumers. The commission’s council has also done little to observe consumers’ protection regulations.
The Green Paper has been termed as ‘just any other publication’. Not many producers, manufacturers or suppliers are ready to comply with the clause. Certain manufacturers view the publication as a framework for developing top level consumer protection. The EU which is comprised of many member states experiences difficulty in running the policies because of the big number of its members.
Based on the members, the fair monitoring of markets and national consumer policies becomes a challenge, with unfair representation of commissioners and representatives. Many issues emerge and the consumers’ interests tend to diverge from the original intentions.
The provision of better education to consumers is one of the many policies that the EU tends to maintain but due to ignorance and little information; consumers become vulnerable due to lack of enough information. Health is important for all consumers and especially among the weak and malnourished ones. The European policy and regulation on consumer protection is mandated to maintain health and safety standards.
When it comes to work policies, construction workers tend to fear the medical cover because the policy and regulation does not include compensation especially if the accident is beyond the job scope. This fact delays the response awaited by the consumer.
The profiles of climatic action, energy and environment are sometimes a challenge and unfair to vulnerable consumers who may include the normal citizens, government members and non-governmental agents.
The provision on age and medical background of consumers in respect to drug and substance abuse has always been promoted in Europe with the set standards and regulations protecting consumers from exploitation and abuse. The commission in charge of safety creates awareness in social and public settings for individuals who are ready to be informed.
The youths are the most affected when it comes to drug and substance abuse with rising cases of addiction and crime. Suicide has also being linked to drug abuse or overdose.
Conclusion The policies of e-commerce9 have not been favorably exploited. The vulnerable consumers involving individuals and groups are yet to experience the full force of E-commerce. Better and immediate regulations are needed to avail electronic exchange of both goods and services. Most consumers are ill informed when it comes to monetary and budgetary matters.
This kind of ignorance can bring about vulnerability to the consumers. The economic, monetary and budgetary clauses suggest the acquisition of economic power by the consumers in the future. The long procedures and formalities on monetary and budgetary policies may distract the consumers and consequently expose them to exploitation.
Countries from Africa, Asia and America prefer to buy things especially electronics and automobiles in Europe. In this regard, the policies employed by the UK and the entire world should protect the international consumer. The formulation of better and convenient policies can ensure that consumers are assured of a better, healthier, convenient and economically powerful market and trade.
Research should be conducted to find better policy frameworks within the EU and in the UK which can enhance consumer protection. Consumers have in the past been exploited by various states within the European region and this fact has led to the deterioration of economic standards in the region.
Various governments under the EU should allocate more funds towards creation of mechanisms that would eliminate cartels which have exploited innocent consumers for decades.
The initiative cannot however be realized if the EU member states do not demonstrate the will to safeguard the consumers in the European region. Whether the countries enforce the legislation or not is not an issue. The right legislation for consumer protection must first be established.
Footnotes 1 OFT refers to Office of Fair Trade. It is a legal entity that safeguards consumers from being exploited through economic policies
2 Consumer refers to an individual who buys goods and services for his own consumption
3 EU refers to the European Union
4 Vulnerable consumer refers to a consumer who is susceptible to exploitation
5 UK refers to the United Kingdom
6 The European consumer policy and regulation refers to a legislation that is used by states within the EU. The legislation outlines measures for the protection of consumers.
7 Face book is a type of an on-line social site that individuals subscribe to and become members. Once a member, an individual can meet other members on-line and access their personal information
8Twitter is a type of an on-line social site that individuals use in making comments about various issues happening in the local and international levels.
9 E-Commerce refers to on-line trade activities
Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help
For a business to succeed in the society, there are certain qualities that a businessperson should display. An entrepreneur is a person who starts and manages a business and posses unique features. When the entrepreneur meets the customers, he/she should be fair in judgement, intelligent in analysing their problems, honest and having a positive attitude towards them.
An entrepreneur’s main objective is to excel. In order to achieve this he/she engages in a healthy competition with set standards to reach the best performance. This strengthens him/her in repairing misfortunes that may hinder success thereby becoming a winner. Secondly, an entrepreneur works hard to build new businesses. He extends his working hours with fewer hours of sleep in order to complete his work.
In the process of work, he solves problems that arise in order to achieving the set goals (Roger
Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism Proposal essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Shinto refers to the indigenous Japanese religion, which has always influenced the lives of many people politically, socially, and even economically in the country. The Shinto religion has a set of practices that were created in the prehistoric periods, but are still valued. The practices are conducted meticulously in order to ascertain the connection between current events and the precedent.
However, studies show that these historical records do not give the clear picture as to how Shinto, as a religion, established itself in the Japanese society. The writings give disorganized folklores, narratives, and myths. In modern Japan, Shinto is a term commonly utilized to refer to communal shrines, which are used for various reasons including war cenotaphs, crop celebrations, marriage, historical tributes, and sectarian groups1.
A number of historians and analysts give a unified definition of the role of Shinto in the modern society, by using a standardized language and practice, which entails adopting an analogous style in dressing and ritual.
Shinto was derived from the phrase ‘the way of the Gods’. It was a Chinese name that combined the words kanji (shi), implying the spirit and kami (to), meaning a theoretical path or a study. The spirits were usually understood from various perspectives with some believers suggesting that they were human-like while others holding the view that they were animistic.
A majority of believers were of the view that they were abstract objects meaning that they represented nonfigurative forces such as mountains and rivers. Spirits and people are inseparable meaning that they are closely interrelated. In fact, the relationship between human beings and spirits is complex to an extent that the presence of spirits will always determine the behaviour of an individual.
The national statistics of Japan show that over 80 percent of all Japanese practice Shinto as a cultural aspect, but not necessarily as a religious feature2. Studies show further that even though some individuals believe in Buddhism, they also engage in Shinto rituals meaning that it is a cultural practice among the people of Japan.
In this regard, Shinto is considered a cultural belief that influences the lives of many people, both believers and other non-believers of Shinto religion. Studies shows that Shinto is treated as a way of doing things in society, but not as a religious practice, given the diversity of the Japanese society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a number of individuals, both taking Shinto as religion and those believing in Buddhism, tend to celebrate the birth of their loved ones in Shinto shrines.
Thesis Statement It is true that Shinto culture influences the lives of many Japanese in a number of ways, which means that it cannot be separated from Japan, as well as the Japanese. In some point in history, Shinto was declared a state religion, which had a tremendous effect on national values. In other words, it can be noted that Japanese nationalism is attributed to Shinto culture.
As per the writings of various scholars specializing on Japanese culture, such as John Nelson and Scott Littleton, Shinto religion is closely related to the Japanese nationalism. My research would therefore focus on establishing the relationship between Shinto religious practices and Japanese nationalism.
Nationalism is a political concept suggesting that policies made ought to be based on exclusivity whereby the interests of the nation-state should always be given a priority when making decisions at the global level. Whenever the Japanese people make their decisions, they always consider the teachings of Shinto religion, which implies that Shinto religion has always influenced the decisions of policy makers.
Background Information Shinto prodigies suggest that Japanese emperors were always related to each other in blood meaning that they belonged to the same clan. This relationship was in an unbroken line, with Jimmu Tenno being the first emperor who was Amaterasu-Omikami grandson. The kami was the first leader of the Japanese people who contributed to the creation of Japan as a state. Japan is an old country whose leader was known as kami3.
All Japanese are descendants of kami, with Amaterasu being the first leader. The imperial family was the valued family unit in the entire clan, yet it originated from the kami. This shows that Japan is the way it is because the gods liked it.
Moreover, the leadership of the country was selected by god hence the people of Japan had a religious responsibility to support the leadership. Before any state function, all emperors had to worship the kami and offer some sacrifices in order to protect the Japanese populace from any form of tribulation.
We will write a custom Proposal on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, a court liturgical was developed to ensure that god was worshiped before any state function could be performed. In the subsequent centuries, Buddhist traditions seemed to take over, but they contained several Shinto elements meaning that Shinto was more of a cultural aspect than a religious belief4.
Towards the end of the 17th century, Shinto took over the affairs of the government, which resulted to the Meiji Restoration. Consequently, Shinto was made a state religion in 1868. The first leader of Japan, Amaterasu, who was also a staunch supporter of Shinto religion, was promoted to be one of the gods. Shinto religion taught that the Japanese leader was not only a political leader, but also a religious leader.
In other words, the country’s leader was made a high priest. The emperor would therefore rule not only Japan, but other parts of the world as well. Since Japanese were related to god, they had a moral responsibility of ensuring that they offer their skills to other people. Since the emperor was associated with god, her position changed in society meaning that he was also a religious leader5.
Some analysts observe that the Japanese emperor was the powerful figure in the land to an extent that he would not respect the law. In the 20th century, the emperor had inadequate powers mainly because she was both a temporal and a political leader. No one would question her leadership given the fact that she would release the military at will.
Article 28 of the Meiji constitution gave people an opportunity to worship a god of their choice, but the emperor made it illegal for an individual to believe in any other faith, apart from Shinto. Every aspect of life, including political, social, and economic, centred on the Shinto religion.
In the education sector, Shinto religion was made a national core subject, both in primary and higher education. It is factual to conclude that Shinto religion controlled the lives of many in Japan until 1946, just after the Second World War.
Literature Review Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.
The source is very important in explaining the relationship between Shinto practices and the development of Japanese nationalism. The author stated that Buddhism and Shinto religions had coexisted for several years, yet Shinto was treated as a cultural practice. Kami was still respected as the Japanese most important god. The historian traced the origin of Shinto whereby he first noted that it was the way of the Gods6.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the events and festivals in the Japanese culture were worshiped within Buddhism, yet they awere the elements of Shinto culture. He also concurred with the fact that Shinto practices gained momentum during the Meiji Restoration. Through this resource, the rituals and festivals of Shinto religion would be understood better.
Nelson, John A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
The third chapter of the book on the Kami and the fourth on rituals and customs are critical to the understanding of the Shinto religion as regards to nationalism. The author underscored the fact that the people of Japan valued kami so much since she contributed in the making of the nation7. Many people were of the view that Japan could not be in existence without the kami. Therefore, kami was the national unifying factor.
Even non-Shinto believers conducted the Shinto rituals and practices as a sign of patriotism meaning that people respected the culture of Japan. In the third chapter, the author observed that many visitors were comfortable following the Shinto culture because it was not regarded as religion. The book will therefore serve an important role as far as establishing the relationship between Shinto practices and nationalism is concerned.
Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.
The book is critical as far as the understanding of Japan is concerned. In fact, the author cautioned that an individual could not understand the socio-political and economic aspects of Japan without conceptualizing the cultural practices of Shinto. In this regard, it is evident that a strong relationship between Shinto practices and Japanese patriotism exists.
In the view of the author, understanding Shinto culture entails the study of rituals, ceremonies and sacred architecture8. Once an individual comprehends the Shinto culture, he or she would be in a position to determine its effects on the life of ordinary Japanese.
Since the source claims that Japan cannot be separated from the Shinto religion, it will serve a special purpose of explaining the interconnectedness of Shinto and major Japanese cultural practices, which would further confirm that Shinto has an effect on the country’s nationalistic ideals.
Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995.
The above resource suggests that the Shinto culture has retained its rituals over several years to an extent of making these rituals national symbols. Kagura is one of the oldest rituals, which is related to dance. It has been retained for years in Japan9.
In particular, the above source insists on Izumo kagura, which is indeed the most popular type of the traditional Japanese dance. In many public functions, the dance is usually played as one of the ways of showing patriotism to the ideals of the country. This also confirms that Shinto is closely related the country’s nationalism.
Inoue Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press 2003.
The source suggests that Shinto is no longer viewed as a modern religion, but instead a traditional religion of Japan that is related to culture. This means that people worship other forms of religions as their second option, but the first option is Shinto.
Moreover, the author is of the view that modern scholars relate the Shinot religion to kami, meaning a traditional god10. Since it is treated as a traditional religion, it influences the behaviour of many Japanese, which confirms the notion that it shapes nationalist ideals.
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
The source introduces a number of cultural practices in Japan. Through analysis, the author observed that a number of these cultural practices, which are valued as national ideals even in modern Japan, have their roots in the Shinto religion. This implies that Shinto is no longer a normal religious belief that an individual may choose to neglect.
In particular, the author discussed the issue of impurity whereby the Shinto religion teaches that certain types of deeds generate ritual impurity, which demands personal cleansing for an individual to have the peace of mind. The wrong actions are referred to as kegare while purity is referred to as kiyome11.
The author was of the view that a normal schedule in an individual’s life is referred to as ke while a season full of festivities is referred to as hare, meaning good. Many Japanese worldwide celebrate whenever they feel that they have achieved their objectives. They celebrate following the teachings of Shinto meaning that cultural practices in the country rely on the Shinto teachings.
Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.
The two historians note that since the time of Nara and Heian, practitioners have been adopting a diversified set of beliefs through language and practice12. They note that the style of dressing and the performance of rituals show that Shinto religion contributed a lot in the development of Japanese culture.
Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
The author supports the writings of other historians by observing that religion contributes enormously to the development of any culture in the world13. In Japan, the development of culture is attributed to Shinto.
Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.
The view of the author is that Shinto religion forms the backbone of the Japanese culture meaning that it influences the life of each individual14. Without Shinto culture, the author observes that there would be no religion in Japan.
Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”. Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.
The resource supports the previous works, which suggested that aspects of culture, such as dance, play a role in extending the influence of any culture15. In Japan, kagura dance has contributed a lot in developing and maintaining culture.
Shimazono Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.
The article talks about the Japanese society after the abolishment of Shinto as a state religion. The authors discuss the way in which Shinto managed to penetrate society to an extent that it was considered a national ritual.
In particular, the authors focus on period ranging from 1890 to 1910 whereby the emperor was the most powerful figure in the country due to her position as a religious leader16. The source reviews three major features including the ritual system, educational structure, and the training system for the priests.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
The author gives some of the reservations that many people of Japan have towards Shinto as a religion. The author is of the view that people are comfortable associating themselves with Shinto as a cultural belief, but not as a religion meaning it plays a critical part in determining the country’s nationalism17.
The western values on religion affected the views of many Japanese regarding Shinto, but many individuals are unwilling to abandon it since it is part of their culture.
Fukase-Indergaard, Fumiko, and Indergaard, Michael. “Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State.” Theory and Society, 37.4, (2008), 343-374.
The source talks about the role that religion played in developing the Japanese nationalistic ideals. In the source, the author is observes that the Japanese were determined to strengthen their culture through implementation of the Shinto rituals and practices. Some scholars had earlier advised that western societies achieved their objectives mainly because of the strong religious ideals.
State Shinto was instituted as one way of ensuring compliance from the locals. The author concludes by noting that, even though Shinto was aimed at realizing modernity in Japan, its path was different from those of the west18.
In Japan, the state was never separated from religion since political leaders doubled up as religious leaders. In this regard, the country was able to achieve nationalistic objectives, as opposed to a number of countries in Europe and the United States.
Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.
The source notes that Shinto shrines (kaigai jinji) refer to the national heritage of Japan since they are not only present in the country, but also in other countries with Japanese emigrants.
Before Japan was defeated in the Second World War, many individuals believed that the Japanese race was the most powerful in the world. The shrines were constructed in various countries to show the presence of Japanese19. This meant that the Shinto shrines were symbols of national unity.
Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.
In Japan, the author is of the view that an individual may not actually differentiate between Buddhist believers and Shinto believers because they tend to have similar set of beliefs20. The article claims that Shinto originated from Buddhism, with believe of the kami.
Bibliography Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance.” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.
Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: Cornell University, 1995.
Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Inoue, Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2003.
Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.
Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Nelson, John. A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.
Shimazono, Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.
Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.”Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.
Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.
Footnotes 1Irit Averbuch,The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 45.
2Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”, Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 296.
3John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 90.
4Nobutaka Inoue, Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 13.
5Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 45.
6Scott Littleton, Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002) 65.
7John Nelson, A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996), 115.
8Scott Littleton, Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places (London: Watkins Publishers, 2011), 112.
9Irit Averbuch, The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 18.
10Nobutaka Inoue,Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 118.
11Yoshio Sugimoto, An Introduction to Japanese Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 37.
12Richard Pilgrim and Robert Ellwood, Japanese Religion (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985), 94.
13John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 59.
14Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 75.
15Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance,” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 325.
16 Susumu Shimazono and Reagan Murphy, “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 114.
17Shimazono, Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1087.
18 Shimazono Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
19Kōji Suga, “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 70.
20Mark Teeuwen, “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 392.
Accountability in Public Administration Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Public accountability is one of the noble concepts immensely supported by scholars in the discipline of public administration. In the political discourses coupled with policy documents, the term finds an imperative usage since it portrays an image of trustworthiness and transparency (Forrer, et al., 2010).
These two aspects are crucial since citizens who are also the clients of a state become satisfied that a system of administration is able to meet their anticipations in the public sector without exposing their resources to risks of fraud. In this extent, accountability emerges as one of the key values in the public administration. The aim of this study is to discuss the issues involved in making public organizations accountable.
A consideration is also given to discuss the people whom public officials are accountable to, and the most effective means of ensuring a balance between the demands for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.
Issues involved in making Public Organizations Accountable
Accountability involves making organizations transparent and responsible in their dealing in the effort to enhance their trustworthiness. For them to realize the goal, they need to address a number of issues concerning accountability. One of such issue is the development of the capacity to deal with emerging matters that may impede their efforts to attain their dream of being accountable.
For instance, the advent of globalization presents many challenges to corporations and institutions of public administration, seeking that to be accountable in many nations. Kearns (2003) supports the argument by further adding, “Globalization plays the role of shaping the current trends in the global economic markets and the increasing interactions among nations and people from different parts of the world” (p.76).
Emergence of new interactions driven by the dawn of globalization introduces challenges to institutions of public administration in that they handle emerging new roles and expand their functionality sphere. The more expansive an institution or any system requiring checks is, the harder it becomes to handle all the individual facets of an organization, which may provide loopholes for acts of fraud.
Emerging new issues such as those prompted by globalization also present challenges to accountability efforts of an organization due to “the need to understand the dynamics of global value chains, creating trade facilitation structures, developing partnerships, and the establishment of value chains and networks” (Kearns, 2003, p.81).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Existence of such new challenges means that public administration officials have to constantly change their tactics for enhancing accountability since traditional approaches or styles for public administration cease to be effective in handling all the contemporary situations that may prove to be a challenge to the efforts of becoming accountable.
From the above discussion, it is essential that an organization that seeks to be accountable in a globalized market to consider looking for new approaches of enhancing transparency as opposed to the traditional approaches for enhancing intelligibility in the public administration. In fact, this factor is yet another crucial issue involved in making public organizations accountable.
The history of public administration reveals that the main approach for enhancing accountability is through exercising of control and close monitoring of persons who are mandated to execute certain affairs that are of public interest. This task entails “bureaucratic discretion through compliance with some tightly drawn rules and regulations” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.477).
Alteration of such an approach is critical in the modern world that is driven by hefty interactions so that, rather than using a direct-control paradigm, an organization has to consider implementation of strategies for enhancing accountability. The strategy must be driven by the concerns of delegations as a methodology for breaking down the bureaucratic approaches to public accountability.
The relevance of this issue for an organization that wants to be accountable rests on the platform that, although delegation is an effective way for enhancing accountability, it has its limitations. A challenge facing an organization that is determined to be accountable is the establishing of balance and determination of the extents and permissible thresholds of accountability in the organization.
Thirdly, an organization needs to deal proactively with the issue of balancing levels of accountability anticipated from various stakeholders. In support of this argument, Forrer et al. (2010) reckon, “public managers report not only to a multitude of elected officials, but also to a plethora of interest groups, clientele, media, and other actors” (p.478).
This argument means that public administrators serve many conflicting interests of different stakeholders, both formal and informal, through the deployment of appropriate mechanisms for enhancing accountability.
We will write a custom Report on Accountability in Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The balancing mechanism that an organization that seeks to become accountable must deploy includes hierarchical accountability, public accountability, while not negating deploying of mechanisms for enhancing accountability to impersonal standards.
Organizations that embrace the relevance of accountability as a way of development of trust among various stakeholders must appreciate that one of the important issues they must put into perspective is that they must conform precisely to a myriad of legitimized but also competing anticipations for accountability.
To whom are Public Officials Accountable?
Public officials have to be accountable to various people. Essentially, accountability is a “means through which public agencies and their workers answer to the citizens directly and indirectly for the use of their power, authority, and resources” (Kearns, 2003, p.9).
From this definition, it is paramount to note that, in the first degree, public officials are accountable to the citizens who are also served by other persons and interest groups to whom public officials must also be accountable. Such other persons include city councils, administrators such as presidents, states’ legislatures, media, and professional associations, among others.
With the rise of and advocating for governance approaches that portray the exercise of democracy as the chief mechanism of ensuring equal presentations of all citizens’ concerns and interests in the tools of administration, concerns have been alarming on the mechanisms that can ensure that governments are held accountable effectively.
Consequently, with regard to Kearns (2003), internal means of enhancing accountability, including “official rules, codes of conduct, administrative hierarchy, performance evaluation, organizational culture, and professional ethics” (p.65) have dominated the discussions of public accountability. Some of these mechanisms of enhancing accountability have been pinned in the constitutions of many democratic nations.
All systems of power comprise executives, judicial, and legislative divisions of government. These divisions have the responsibility to keep public administrators on the check to limit their discretion to ensure they are achieving their noble mandates placed on them by citizens.
For instance, in the US the progressive era marked the establishments of “independent government regulatory agencies, public commissions, and corporation to oversee government bodies through the executive branch” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.478).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Accountability in Public Administration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the context of the roles of congress, public officials have a duty to ensure that they meet the requirements placed on them in terms of meeting the demands for accountability as stipulated by organizations for agency oversight and committees for budget appropriations, among others.
Since citizens cannot directly regulate the operations of public officials, such organs exercise control and monitoring of the activities of public officials on behalf of the citizens to ensure that they are accountable to any repercussions of the policies formulated and implemented by the public officials.
Public officials are accountable to legislatures. Legislatures have roles to play to investigate the operations of various public officials and demand to provisions of information on certain aspects that they may believe have comprised the national ethics and codes of practice in public offices, including accountability. Organizations such as GAO can also be employed by legislatures and congress to scrutinize public agency programs.
Consequently, public officials must be accountable to them. Since the goal of accountability is to ensure transparency to all interest groups and stakeholders in the operations of public administrators as argued before, public officials are also accountable to media, professional communities, and client groups.
Client groups are interested in the implications of public policies. Such groups have specific anticipated outcomes from public officials. Should the public officials fail to meet these anticipations effectively or do things at exorbitant and inflated costs, the officials have to be held accountable for the failure or embezzlements of funds.
Conclusion: Balancing the Demands for Accountability and the Need to have High-performing Organizations
Accountability implies that public officials have to evaluate every policy or decision they take to ensure that it does not expose the interest of various stakeholders and interest groups at risk upon its implementation. This argument means that decisions and policies that have high potentials of yielding optimal results but possessing high-risk vulnerabilities may not be implemented.
Measuring performance from the paradigm of the magnitude of returns, for instance, in terms of social benefit, failure to implement projects having high risks of failure, but having high levels of returns means that the performance of a public institution is impaired.
Public officials must balance demand for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.
For instance, considering the experience of hurricane Katrina, it is arguable that the government ought to have invested heftily on strategies and equipment for dealing with aftermaths and or for detection of both the likelihoods and the magnitudes of natural catastrophes in the bid to enhance effective disaster awareness through its established institutions for disaster management.
Such a measure would make disaster management institutions highly performing if the investments turn out commensurate to the anticipated levels of response to human and logistical challenges posed by hurricane Katrina.
However, in the effort to ensure that such organizations become highly performing, the question that emerges is whether indeed public officials charged with running such institutions would be willing to venture into risky decisions that would compromise their levels of accountability in the public domain.
Koliba, Zia, and Mills (2011) support this line of thought by noting that it is important to develop both theoretical and empirical constructs “to identify and assess how and whether failures of accountability lead to failures in performance” (p.210).
Directly congruent with this proposal, it is of paramount importance that public officials be made to account for success rather than just failures. Such a strategy can help to balance demands for accountability and the need for high performing organizations.
Obtaining a balance between accountability and the need for high-performing organizations is a challenge that public officials need to proactively address, especially bearing in mind that the citizens whom they owe the ultimate responsibility while making their decisions do not directly elect them.
Consequently, public officials may consider complying with political accountability roles since, according to Bovens (1998), “public officials are not rigidly constrained in their performance by narrow legal or procedural settings” (p.31).
This case means that the capacity to form and operate public institutions driven by the motive for high performance may be compromised by the need to meet programmed guidelines issued by the appointing authority in hierarchical systems of administration.
This argument is more imperative upon considering Bovens’ (1998) assertion that political accountability “tends to use outcomes as the main parameter for evaluation of performance rather than compliance with administrative rules and procedures” (p.31).
As a repercussion, it is probable that public officials may fail to balance accountability with the need to create highly performing public institutions due to the need to satisfy the anticipations of the elected authority as opposed to direct anticipations of the electorate.
Although in democratic and corruption-free nations, the elected persons may present the interest of the electorate. Hence, the anticipations of the elected and the appointing authority from the public officials have to measure up to the anticipation of the electorate. In the corruption-prone nations, the electorate interests are not presented by the elected persons.
If public administrators appointed by the corrupt-elected persons have to be politically accountable, it means that a balance between accountability and the need to put in place a highly performing organization cannot be established.
Reference List Bovens, M. (1998). The Quest for Responsibility: Accountability and Citizenship in Complex Organizations. Public Administration, 77(3), 455-474.
Forrer, J., Kee, J., Newcomer, K.,
Ethics In American Hospitality Industry Dissertation essay help
Introduction Ethics is important for the wellbeing of an organization. It determines the effectiveness of an organization and its operations. in the hospitality industry, ethical practices help to avoid issues such as racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles and dishonesty among others.
Ethics in the hospitality industries is evolving. Changing values and cultural diversity indicates that perception will likely to occur where things does not argue well. It’s the role of the organization and employees to live and communicate organizational ethics and lead by providing leadership in their management.
One of the rationale of this study was to determine the link between common work ethics. Hospitality industry has a wide permissible beliefs and behavior, hence, Hall (1992) points out that the management and the employees should strive to have a global understanding of what is right and wrong.
Literature Review Stacy (2001) defines ethics in business as a guide in the way a business conduct itself. Acting in a moral way entails distinguishing between “wrong” and “wrong” and coming up with the “right” choice. Though Donaldson (2000) explains it is not easy to fix a good definition of a good ethical practice, an organization should aim at being competitive and treat its employees justly.
Besides, it should minimize harn to the eco-system and devise ways of co-existing with the communities in which it works. Ethics and morals are intertwined. They supplement one another in the workplace. Moral and ethical standards guides the organization as well as improves employees interaction among themselves and with the customers. Several researches have been conducted on the aspect of ethics in the hospitality industry.
The human resource direction has actually recorded several ethical issues in the hospitality industry. They have mentioned a range of problems which include employees being disrespectful to each other, racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles, dishonesty and issues that majorly deal with the differences emanating from the different sexual orientations of the different players in the industry, among others.
This research majorly looked into the common organizational work ethics in relation to employee job satisfaction and performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research therefore aims at looking into the issue of ethics in American hospitality industry.
The research therefore aims to:
Demonstrate if there is a link between common work ethics and employee satisfaction
Prove if common work ethics have got a bearing on employee performance.
Common Work Ethics Collins (2001) points out that the managerial theorists affirm that an organization’s most revered component is its employees. Therefore, organizations have aimed at devising several ways in an attempt to care for them.
For instance, organizations have strived to understand how employees feel, think in relation to the organization’s culture. Striving to understand employees has made some organizations understand the behaviors of employees to determine the ethical implication of the same (Collins, 2001)
Ostroff’s (1993) explains that at the center of the organization is ethics. Ethics has been an important factor in most organizations because it help to establish the degree to which the organization relates with its employees and vice versa. Ostroff’s (1993) point out that an organization management must lead by example in encouraging ethical behaviors in the organization.
According to Ostroff’s (1993), organizations top management are the role models of the organization, thus, they should be at the forefront in setting an ethical tone in the organization.
Ostroff’s (1993) illustrates that ethical leadership encompasses personal competencies and these competencies help to promote ethics among employees; thereby fixing a connection between employee performance and the organization according to Wimmer and Dominick (2006).
We will write a custom Dissertation on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the limitation of literature has been an impediment in understanding the relationship linking the organization behavior and managers leading by example in terms of ethics (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008, p. 44). Whitney (1990) pointed out that employees in the hotel industry require a higher level of ethical awareness compared to other organizations.
Besides, they need to have a stronger conscience to evaluate ethical problems in relation to the organization’s principles. Hotel industry consists of many employees diversities compared to other industries. It is made up of diverse employees with from different backgrounds,race, religion and educational background Kelley and Dorsch (1991).
Hall (1992) points out that the hospitality industry embraces a wide range of ethically permitted behavior and beliefs which makes it maintain its image an integrity. Therefore, he suggested that employees in the hospitality industry need to have a worldly understanding of what is right and wrong (Hall, 1992).
Kelley and Dorsch (1991) explain that though little research has been conducted to show the link between the organization’s ethical environment and organizational commitment, other studies have shown that indeed the connection exists.
Kelley and Dorsch (1991) argued that a positive relationship exists between the organization’s ethical climate and employees’ commitment to the specific rules tied to that organization. Similarly, Ostroff’s (1993) showed that an active relationship between climate facet and the organization’s commitment. Additionally, Hunt et al (1989) affirmed that organization’s ethical tenets are important forecasters of organizational commitment.
Further, Hunt et al (1989) in their study involving 1,246 marketing professionals discovered that ethical conduct was compensated and unethical conduct was castigated in the organization they were working for.
Also, gender plays an important role in hospitality industry (Kelley and Dorsch, 1991). It helps determine how an organization related to employees. Gender has occupied a leading role in many studies centered on business ethics yielding differed results (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008). Some research has indicated that there is a big difference in ethical viewpoints between sexes.
For instance, Alabaum and Peterson (2006) pointed out that men were less favorable than females. Other research conducted demonstrated that females are more ethically sensitive than male this was according to Arlow (1991).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, in a study carried out by Chonko (1995) on marketing management staff, they noted that female marketers alleged ethical problems in their duties than male marketers. Moreover, they also observed that female employees are more dedicated to an organization than male when their favored ethical environment and their definite ethical work climate equal (Luthar et al., 1997).
In another study carried out by Kelley and Dorsch (1991), it was noted that women and men divergent views of how ethical behavior contributed to a positive business result. In addition, their study revealed that an employee being visible to integrative ethical education projected an optimistic approach on how the present ethical climate is and how it ought to be (Luthar et al., 1997).
D’Aquila et al (2004) discovered that female employees had a strong believe than male that ethical benchmark leverages an organization’s competitive position.
On the other hand, men alluded that ethical standards fades an organization’s competitive position. In his study among Turkish students, Akatan et al. (2008) found out that female students had a higher mean score that male in terms acting legally and ethically than exclusively economically.
But it is crucial to note that the organization’s moral standing is usually determined to a major extent by individuals. These could include the top management or the actual owners of the business.
Due to their position, they do come up with certain policies that trickle down to the whole organization, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization runs, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization stands out morally. This brings to the fore the importance of the influential individual in the organization.
If the individual in the organization has a high moral standing, this can impact the organization positively and, if the reverse is true, then the organization tends to have low moral standing. This means that the influential individual should not be one who tells the employees to everything they can as long as profit, work and customer satisfaction are achieved. This is quite a dangerous path to go.
Job satisfaction in the hotel industry Job satisfaction is a term used to assess an employee’s attitude and emotions towards his/her job and the how steadfast he/she is toward an assigned duty.
According to Wolf (1970), the job satisfaction definition has been stressed based on three major perspectives, that is, generality, the extent to which satisfaction and variance between an individual and returns and the required returns are realized and lastly, job satisfaction is defined based on criterion framework.
By embracing generality, Agho et al (1992) point out that job satisfaction labels the emotional reactions to one’s job as the most, that is, a job that guarantees one’s happiness, productivity and success.
The definition based on criterion framework alludes that job satisfaction is where an individual’s independent elucidation and perceptionis based on neutral qualities of the organizationsthat would be subjective by a person’s criterion framework. In some cases, Smith et al (1975) point out that job satisfaction can emanate after an individual interprets the job qualities based on the criterion framework.
Therefore, the influence that an employee receive from a given task can be mirrored to several other aspects such as making a comparison between a good and a bad job, personal competency and past experiences among others (Smith et al., 1975).
In the hotel industry, Cranny et al. (1992, p. 1) allude that literature has pointed out job satisfaction in several ways over the years. Wolf (1970) shares his views by illustrating that the amalgamation of environmental and psychological situations that make an individual to be satisfied with his/her work as one process in which job satisfaction has been determined.
On the same point, other research has pointed out that job satisfaction is a way of pursuing fulfillment through questioning whether the job meets their employee’s psychological and physical needs or not, as pointed out by Cranny et al (1992, p. 1).
Barsch and Lisewski (2008, p. 84) point out that job satisfaction may also be internally derived from mediated rewards such as opportunities enhancing growth, the job itself or success. Also, it can be derived externally by means of intrinsic rewards such as customers or organization policies, promotion opportunities, pay increase and support among others as stated by Walker et al. (1977).
Though these aspects have been vital in assessing job satisfaction; Walker et al (1977) point out that they have proved a challenge to researchers in determining the extent of measuring and calculating job satisfaction. Furthermore, these aspects have contributed to misinterpretation of results or coming formulating wrong judgment according to Walker et al (1977).
Barsky and Nash (2004) cite that many authors have strived to determine the elements that contribute to job satisfaction in the hotel industry. According to Aksu and Aktas (2005), in their study,employee satisfaction on the job was influenced by a strong confidence in their organizations and their emotions.
Similarly, a study carried out by on Turkish managers in first class hotels by Aksu and Aktas (2005) revealed that despite low salaries and long working hours, they were satisfied with their jobs. This was because they liked the job itself and had authority tied to their positions and to them, managing a first class facility in itself was a prestige as indicated Aksu and Aktas (2005).
Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that in the hotel industry, job satisfaction is closelylinked to the organization’s success. This is manifested in aspects such as higher innovation,reduced turnover and employee productivity. Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that the amalgamation of these components also relates to the organization’s improved general performance.
More specifically, Savery and Luks (2001) show that job satisfaction is tied to augmented organization’s performance as evaluated by improved employee productivity. Moreover, motivation also contributes to job satisfaction. However, as Sledge et al (2008) indicate, there has been little study carried out to establish the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation and the effect of culture in the workplace.
Barsky and Nash (2004) in their study, found out that job satisfaction has a positive impact on the employee’s intention to stick with the organization. Moreover, Sledge et al (2008) suggested that employees with high levels of job satisfaction are more productive and tend to stick with the same organization for longer time.
However, Choi (2006) explains that there is a strong negative link that prevails on the level of employee turnover and job satisfaction when individual optimism is in play. In his study focusing on Korean hotel employees, Chiang et al (2005) noted that there was a strong negative link between the intention of a turnover and job satisfaction.
On the same note, Chiang et al (2005) study confirmed that high rate of absenteeism emanated from low job satisfaction which in turn correlated with higher levels of deliberate employee turnover. Furthermore, in their study, Scott and Taylor’s (1985) showed that a negative link between absenteeism and job satisfaction especially the rate of absence exists.
They underlined that satisfied employees demonstrated lower levels of absenteeism than less satisfied employees. In another study carried out to determine job satisfaction on Taiwanese hotel employees, Hwang and Chi (2005) discovered that handling employees as customers of the organization was positively connected to organizational performance.
Similarly, in Florida’s four star hotels, Sizoo et al (2005) learnt that employees with higher rate of intercultural feeling showed higher rates of social satisfaction and jobsatisfaction. These studies showthat culture plays a key role in influencing employee’s perception on job satisfaction.
Yang (2008) cites that culture may play a role in promoting positive commitment, reducing employee’s intention to leave, influences the outcome of the organization and leads to low rates of turnovers.
Lynn (2010) has greatly looked at ethics in the hospitality industry. In this report, which involved a survey on 26 establishments, reflected that there was a relationship between leadership of the managers and the job satisfaction by the employees such that if managers were ethical, there was a marked satisfaction by the employees; hence, a decrease in the turnover.
In another study conducted on, about 788 Korean food service staff in hospitality establishments run and managed through contract to determine whether worker -organization fit would reduce subsequent turnover, it was found that the most reliable fit emerged when the values of the employees did match the company values (Lee and Way, 2010).
It was finally found that the turnover greatly reduced when the values of the employees were in line with those of the organization. When employees are inducted with ethics, they tend to advance the establishment’s image and even reduce the frequency to switch job.
In yet another survey by the same study in which about fifty employees in a casino were surveyed, it was established that distributive justice (that is a case where equal pay, workload, incentives etc.) leads directly to a marked rise in ethical behavior of the employee reduced turnover (Jung et a., 2010).
Further, it was found that frontline employees, who projected ethical behavior to their customers, ended up having a high level of job satisfaction. This means that the employees were able to explain to the customers why certain rules were applied and generally.In such cases, perceptions of unfairness were clearly minimized and this made the employees greatly satisfied.
However, in some related research the study above, one sees that satisfaction of employees has some relation with the nationality. This finding thus serves to be crucial in that this information will help this paper to probably consider the nationality mix of those to be interviewed in relation to the effect on the responses to the questionnaire.
The link between morale and the attendant ethical strategy of the establishment does come to the fore here. Again, this has got much to do with how productive the employees’ job satisfaction and the attendant commitment to the organization. If the employee is not committed to the organization, it loses in both productivity and image.
Ethical issues are varied and come with different expectations. For instance, employee satisfaction differs, some employees are motivated by intrinsic rewards whereas others by external rewards. Hence, a wide range of organizations have implemented far reaching measures to do with empowering their employees to promote job satisfaction among their employees.
This has entailed harnessing and nurturing the best there is in the market and urging the workers to try and implement. Empowering workers have required that they are able to make informed decisions. Marriot has been the champion of implementing this program of empowering its employees. But many players have not been able to implement this program.
The employees are well trained, mentored and authorized to make decisions and these impacts greatly on job satisfaction. With this program, barriers that do hinder employee satisfaction are minimized, hence the employees go out of their way to meet and even exceed customers’ expectations.
In a scholarly erudition entitled Job Satisfaction Among Information Technology Professionals, Ghazzawi (2008), it was found that professionals in the information technology found their jobs more satisfying if the organizations exhibited practical commitment to social responsibility and well-structured ethical standards.
It can thus be concluded that organizations that are ethical stood a higher chance of retaining their staff and hence more profitable in contrast to the organizations which do not consider social responsibility (Holjevac, 2008).
The above study is useful to this research in that on the top of adding to the body of knowledge to this research, it shows the relationship of employee satisfaction and ethics in relation to the American hospitality industry. The researcher is going to find out ethical foundations in relation general success as of the hotels (McGehee, 2009).
Common Organizational Ethics and Employee performance There exists a link between common work ethics and employee performance in the hotel industry. Most organizations take ethics as just any set of regulation. Incorporating common work ethics is in an organization is fundamental in sustaining projected growth and eventual optimal performance of that organization. This may apply to both to private and even public organizations.
Though a lot of literature linking ethics and performance in the hospitality industry is scarce, it is possible to note that there are obvious inter-linkages that show that with proper ethical climate implemented in the hospitality industry, the number of guests will be definitely on the rise.
Of great concern is the fact that absence of work ethics in any organization eats away into its core profitability as most clients will end up shunning the services that are offered by such an establishment.
Whenever there is a strongshared work ethic in anorganization, this is actually projecting a strong message that the establishment holds onto strong values andpride. This therefore shows that the organization deeply believes in the activities it carries out in the market place.
Work ethics, it is acknowledged, does place a responsibility and commitment on whatever any organization sets out to do.
The essence of ethical behavior is shared across cultures of the world. Whenever there are set ethos, it is expected that the employers and the customers will tend to be more receptive to the ideals of that particular organization (Lee
Brand personality on International scale Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Over the recent past, marketing has grown to become a critical part of any organization. This is because of the numerous changes that the business environment is forced to undergo in the quest to survive and/ or thrive in market as it seeks to attain its goals and objectives (Klaus, 2002).
One of the ways that marketing has helped organizations promote their products is by embracing the latest models developed by the marketing gurus in order to ensure that their products remain favorites among the consumers. This paper discusses whether a brand can have more than one personality in multiple international markets.
According to Aaker, a professor and a marketing scholar at the university of California, in order for a brand to undergo successful management, a brand identity for that particular product must be developed. His model incorporates four different attributes that a product identity ought to be built along that ensures the success of that particular product. One of the four attributes is the brand personality.
This seeks to present a brand that is stronger than the product attribute. It also seeks to present a brand as a product that connects to the consumers at a deeper level than the mere satisfying of the needs of the consumers (Knapp, 2000).
A common way that companies achieve this is through the use of personalities and public figures such as celebrities to identify with the brand. In the wake of globalization and the emergence of cross border trade, the question at hand is whether a brand can have the same ‘personality’ in multiple countries.
Globalization has brought both benefits and challenges in equal measure. Multiple international markets have emerged as a result of technology and globalization. Many products enjoy a worldwide consumption and this has been attributed to marketing.
However, an important aspect of promoting a brand the personality attribute of that particular brand. It has been found that the culture attributes of different countries provides a barrier to a brand having one personality across different countries (Upshaw, 1995). This is because of the fact that different cultures have different values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore, impossible for a brand to have one personality in multiple international markets. People have different laws, customs, beliefs, and ways of life that are significantly different from other cultures and as such, even with the world becoming a global village thanks to information technology, the different people will want to relate to a product in a different way.
The need for specialization in personality branding in the world still remains high due to the different cultural beliefs that govern the people’s ways of life (Park
Just-in-time learning approach Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Just-in-time learning is learning that occurs when it is needed by the learner. JIT learning is an important conception in the field of business and it is used mainly by students in honing individual expertise that they require so as to be competitive in the digital age (Harun, 2002). With the superfluity in technology E-learning is an important tool in advancing just-in-time learning.
People can now get information from the internet whenever they need it so long as they have a computer and internet connection. With the penetration of internet into homes and offices most people can now learn when and whenever they want. For instance in Canada most people are now E-learning from their offices and homes when they want to.
E-learning is adaptable hence people can improve their personal skills that they need. Learners don’t have to do full courses but only consume what they need. With E-learning employers can integrate learning with the systems at work for their workers. This is being adopted as the most efficient mode of JIT learning (Brown, 2009).
Just-in-Time learning is a modern approach to learning whereby learning is done only on a need basis unlike in the conventional ways of training. Just-in-time learning is mostly via the internet, E-learning and use of consultants when needed. This is an imperative breakthrough in learning as it has solved many training problems. JIT makes learners seek training when it is necessary unlike when they spontaneously seek learning.
The expenses that would be incurred in transportation are gotten rid of. Time that would be spent being absent from the work place is saved because learning can take place anywhere and at anytime so long as there is internet connectivity.
JIT learning also allows for customized content that will suit the needs of the user of the information. With JIT content is always updated hence one cannot depend on an outdated piece of information. In the long-term JIT is a relatively cheaper form of learning hence should be embraced in every organization (Murray, 2001).
E-learning has been lauded by many as a very effective form of learning; however it also has its own downsides. To start an E-learning program needs a huge start-up cost. There is also the concern of what can be presented using this form of learning. For instance some technical content may need practical learning hence may be unsuitable for E-learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More E-learning involves use of ICT hence some places that may not have access to these facilities will be at a disadvantage because they do not have access to E-learning facilities. Another drawback with E-learning is that there is non-existent or limited human interaction because the end-user most of the time interacts with the computer and not the teacher or instructor.
Thus it is not easy for the teacher to determine whether the student got the concept or not. It has been noted that some people in organizations are defiant to change thus may not be willing to appreciate E-learning.
Culture is also an impediment in this aspect as it can play a role in resistance to new ways of doing things including E-learning. Finally it needs personal initiative thus this poses a challenge as there is no one to push people to learn (Clark,
Social Exchange and Expectancy Theory Effects in Human Resource Development Research Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development
How Expectancy Theory Affects Human Resource Development
Introduction Before looking at the effects of both social exchange theory and expectancy theory on human resource development, it will be paramount to, first, describe what the theories are all about.
Social exchange theory is actually both a social psychology and a perspective of sociology that debunks the social changes and also the stability as a progression in relation to bargained social exchanges between two or more groups of individuals or parties (Rosenberg 1990).
Social exchange theory argues that all relationships between human beings are informed by what is referred to as subjective analysis of cost and benefits; this also involves the comparison of the best available alternatives. Social exchange theory is rooted in the ideologies of economics, sociology and psychology (Schellenberg 1996).
Social exchange theory utilizes some of the assumptions made in both structural and rational choice theories (Turner 2006). Social exchange theorists posit that human behavior is informed by the kind of reward associated with a given behavioral style. This implies that rewards play a significant role in determining a particular manner in which an individual should behave given a specific situation or condition (Rew 2005).
Meanwhile, expectancy theory is major associated with mental or cognitive processes that relates to making of choices or just choosing. It gives an explanation of the process an individual goes through in order to make a choice or choose from available alternatives. Both social exchange and expectancy theories are greatly related to each other. This paper examines the effects the theories have on human resource development (DuBrin 2008).
Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development It is important to note that the personnel of every organization have some minimum expectations to achieve; in case they fail to get these minimum expectations, they are likely to be de-motivated or under-perform in their organizational duties. In the process of human resource development, it is important to realize that the fact the human resource must be assured of their own benefits as they continue to be part of the organization.
The reality is that the more the employees are sure of getting out of their relationship with organization the more their productivity and the more the effort they put into their work (Dalkir 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The performance of individuals within an organization is very much dependent on favors they get from participation towards achieving the goals of an organization. For instance, for every achievement, every employee expects some favors that are comparable to the input they put in order to make the achievements successful (Marcic
The Incorporation of Venezuela into Mercosur Thesis college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Mercosur (Southern Common Market) initially started with the Asuncion Treaty which was inked by Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay in 1991 to establish a free trade province and finally to establish a common market. In 2007, Venezuela joined the forum. (Tondi 353).
The main aim of Mercosur is to offer the probabilities to expand exports, to augment investment and to create a greater economic development among member nations. (Dominguez
Budgets Management Reference to the Budget of Aardvark Company Report a level english language essay help
Introduction The management of any organization is charged with the responsibilities of steering the company or organization for continuing growth prospects. Most of the management activities involve the functions of planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing among others. Budgeting forms a way of controlling the organization’s operational activities as well as the resource allocation through forecasting.
Ideally, the environment conditions determine the budgeting process. Although budgeting is considered a very key function of management for effective control of performance, some opinions are also raised that budgeting focuses more on the past performance basing budgets on comparisons between the actual and budgeted amounts, which does not conclusively consider the dynamism of the business environment.
It is worth appreciating the changes that are diverse in the environment today due to factors of globalization, changes in consumer behaviour and technology among others. Budgeting is worth evaluating in the concept of a changing environment and forms the core part of the organization driving performance and controlling of resources through strategies and the setting of targets.
This report presents an analysis of the budget of Aardvark Company. It presents the standards used, ways in which it can be used for staff motivation for the improvement of performance, its strengths as well as the techniques for producing such forecasting. It also considers the behavioural issues of the budget and offers suggestions on how the negative effects can be averted.
The Role of Management in Budgeting Management determines largely the performance and growth of an organization. The role of management in budgeting is very crucial due to their disposition in making decisions for the organization. Decision making thus influences the growth of their organization.
Managers as leaders have to forge the budgeting process to enable them make crucial decisions that affect the entire organization and would affect the areas of planning, staffing, motivation of staff, performance measurement, and their role of leading and directing (Juchau et al., 2004).
Budgeting is an expensive process that involves the various stakeholders for it to be objective and informed. Management thus has the responsibility of financing the budgeting process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drucker (2001) asserts of the changing environment of the business and as such suggests that managers have the role of considering the changes in the environment such as the technology, consumer behaviours and globalization. He suggests that managers thus have the role of ensuring the budget is flexible enough to deal with such changes and that more emphasis is given to competitiveness.
The other roles of management in the budgeting process include creating a performance climate, devolving performance responsibility for decision making to operational management, motivation of staff, customers and other stakeholders, supporting transparency in the organization, empowering operation managers, organizing for customer orientation, setting goals through benchmarking, forging for streamlining of the coordination of resource allocation and encouraging the need for innovation (Drucker, 2001).
Analysis of Aardvark Company Budget This report analysis covers the format used, standards used, desirable characteristics or strengths of the budget and the behavioural issues addressed. It also offers recommendations of suggestions of how the standards of budgeting can be used in staff motivation for improvements in performance as well as the techniques for the production of forecast estimates and how they can used as standards in budgeting.
In addition, the report considers the behavioural issues that arise from the budgeting process and the ways of averting the negative ones.
Analysis of Budget Format The budget for the company is a cash budget with monthly actual and budgeted amounts of a cash flow format. The purpose of this cash flow format is to enable the company maintain the cash level requirements.
This format takes into consideration the cash changes in the actual sales in cash, accounts receivable, bank income, other incomes, sale of capital investment, payments of income taxes, accounts payable, purchase of merchandise, dividends payable, and other capital expenditure (Cunningham, Nikolai