Evolution Of The Chilean Government After The Ruthless Regime Of Augusto Pinochet Research Paper Custom Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Augusto Pinochet

The Chilean Politics After 1990

Candidates and Political Campaigns after 1990

General Changes realized after Pinochet

Chilean Governments after Pinochet




Introduction Augusto Pinochet was a Chilean president. He got into power by overthrowing a democratically elected government in the year 1973 and exercised a dictatorial rule until the year 1989. This paper seeks to discuss the evolution of the Chilean government after Augusto. The paper will discuss Augusto Pinochet and his rule, the politics of the Chilean government after Augusto with specifications on the presidents and their political parties.

Augusto Pinochet Pinochet was born in November 1915 to a civil servant father who was a customs office. The father was therefore able to afford a private school for Pinochet though he (Pinochet) never performed well academically. Childress (2008) recounted that Augusto always failed in majority of subjects in his classes.

In school, the later to be president and army commander preferred classes that were related to fencing. He also had great interest in boxing. His involvement in politics started early in life as he attended political rallies in his teenage life. As a young man, Augusto was persuaded by his father to study a medical course while his mother wanted him to be a soldier.

Following his mother’s interest, Augusto tried to apply into military school but was only successful on his third attempt in the year 1933. His first two failures to join the military are claimed to have been due to his poor grades from school though he is reported to have given different explanations to the failures. In the military, Augusto was very committed to his call. His first posting was to San Bernardo infantry school where he was later reposted in the year 1940. He got married to Lucia in the year 1943.[1]

Augusto slowly rose through the ranks of service and was made a prison commander by the year 1948. He then proceeded to lecturing a military school before being offered the post of director of the institution.

In the year 1970, the then Chilean chief of general staff was shot and succumbed to the injuries in what appeared to be an assassination. Augusto was then appointed by the then president, Salvador, to fill the vacancy of the chief of general staff. With the help of the CIA, Augusto planned and successfully led a military coup that killed Salvador and he became the president.

The reign of Augusto was characterized by massive murders which were believed to be assassinations of personalities who were former allies of Salvador. The murders included the deaths of former vice president and former foreign minister of Chile. Pinochet also ensured the collapse of the national trade union by using international trade to weaken the local industries and the country’s agricultural sector.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Pinochet’s government was highly criticized for poor economic policies that marginalized income among people and human rights violation that led into mass protests in the year 1983. He however tried to cling to power in the 1989 elections which he lost to Patricio Aylwin. Despite losing the elections, he retained his position as the commander in chief of the armed forces until in 1994 when he resigned and got a position in the senate.

He was arrested in Britain while on official visit and further judicial proceedings were initiated against him on his return to Chile. The administration of Pinochet was marred with high level dictatorship that ensured assassinations of people who were a threat to the administration.[2]

The Chilean Politics After 1990 The political system in Chile has experienced significant developments since the end of its dictatorial regime in the year 1989. In its response to reclaim democracy, a notable transition has over the years developed with regard to the nominations to political offices right from political parties’ posts.

One of the developments in the Chilean politics is the transition from reserved politics in which people were seemingly handpicked into positions rather than being selected based on the democratic support that they received from their parties supporters. Following the change from the dictatorial rule of Pinochet, party politics has democratically evolved to yield political leaders with grassroots support from their political parties and coalitions.[3]

The system of electing a president was one of the areas in the Chilean politics to experience reforms. There was a change from a previous simple majority presidential elections system to a condition of at least more than fifty percent of the casted votes in a presidential election. Prior to this reform, there was a provision that the Chilean legislature would choose from among the first two candidates in cases where the fifty percent majority was not realized.

The legislature would however occasionally choose the leader in the held elections to hold the presidency. On the contrary, the current provisions outlines for re-run elections between the first two contenders in a general election if no candidate manages to get more that fifty percent of votes. Party nominations have also been democratized, especially among parties or coalitions in government prior to elections.

The nomination processes are conducted through open grass root processes. Opposition parties and coalitions have also been democratic, though a bit inclined to partisan attitudes. The general development however is the fact that the ability of an incumbent to cling to power was checked by the constitutional provision that a president can only be elected into office for a single term.[4]

We will write a custom Research Paper on Evolution of the Chilean Government after the Ruthless Regime of Augusto Pinochet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Candidates and Political Campaigns after 1990 Political involvements in Chile have been dependent on a number of factors. Political “status is obtained from kinship ties, education, networks and marriages”.[5] Education status has for example been identified as a critical element in the presidential elections. A past survey on legislators indicated that a majority of them were well educated with at least an undergraduate degree and a significant number had post graduate degrees.

A person’s relation and position in a party has also been identified as influential in party nominations. However democratic the nominations are, popularity and loyalty to party seems to play an important role in delegates decision making when they go for party primaries. The presidential election held in the year 1989 was worn by a coalition movement. Though the country was seen to be in a transformational state, its leaders were more or less the same old politicians, and this called for political tactics in the general election.

Aylwin, who won the election, decided to depersonalize his campaigns in order to broaden his support and to distance himself from his past. Consolidation of his coalition and being liberal to the electorates’ views also played a critical role in the campaigns. Developments and transformations in the political atmosphere however ensured the political detachment from personalities who were closely related to the former regimes of Salvador and Pinochet.

This transition signified change from the dictatorships of the two regimes to a new dawn of democratic establishments. Governments have also been formed on the basis of political and regional balance. The system of balancing government positions has also transformed over time with a notable change from mere loyalty to political figures to real balance that included gender considerations.[6]

General Changes realized after Pinochet At the end of Augusto’s rule as the president of Chile, the country got an opportunity for involvement with the international world. The post Augusto Chile moved to develop policies that were meant to “pursue regional cooperation, establishing peace and security along its borders and developing new trade opportunities”.[7]

The military rule that had even engaged in assassination of foreign citizens had alienated Chile from global diplomatic ties. The transition from the Augusto’s military regime into democracy led to improved international relations between Chile and other countries. As a result, a number of international agreements have since been negotiated by Chile leading to its membership in “Asia pacific economic conference and the southern common market”.[8]

Trade negotiations have since been made with Canada, the European Union and the United States. Political stability has also been realized in the region following resolution of border conflicts that existed between Chile and its neighboring countries. Following the democratization of the country, Chile has established itself as an influential country in the region. The political transformation reestablished diplomatic links with other nations allowing it to participate and realize benefits of globalization.[9]

Chilean Governments after Pinochet The first administration after Pinochet was the government formed by Patricio Aylwin. Patricio was elected into presidency after Pinochet stepped down following a no vote that rejected his bid to stay in power. Patricio was born in the year 1918. He undertook his university studies at the University of Chile and graduated with a degree in “judicial, political and social sciences with the highest distinction”.[10]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evolution of the Chilean Government after the Ruthless Regime of Augusto Pinochet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He then proceeded with education and later worked at Chile and Catholic universities before serving National institute of Santiago as a political economy professor. Patricio started his political engagement in the year 1945 before joining the Christian Democratic Party which he served as the party president from the year 1958 up to the year 1989. Under his presidency, Patricio is credited for “wisdom and compassion, guiding the reconstruction of Chile and reconciliation of its people”.[11]

The presidency of Patricio was under a coalition of a number of parties. Inclusive in the coalition were the Christian Democratic Party which Patricio belonged to, socialist’s party and the radicals group among other small parties. While in power, the government headed by Patricio sought to improve welfare of the people of Chile through a variety of measures and policies. Establishment of “truth and reconciliation commission”[12] and policies that would improve the country’s economy became prime agendas of his government.

He also made efforts to improve the living standards of the Chilean citizens who were languishing in poverty by establishing conditions that were favorable and attractive to investors. Increased investments created employment opportunities in the country. Being the first president after dictatorial regimes in Chile, president Patricio became the first Chilean president to visit the United States in a span of thirty years.

The visit was in the steps of involvement of Chile into global community following its earlier isolation during the military governments who had cut links with other countries. In this particular meeting, the Chilean president stated, not only to the American government but the international fraternity, that Chile was seeking cooperation, and not helps in its transformational process and period. The government of Aylwin also established proceedings to ensure justice to killings that were committed under the military rule of Pinochet.

Former key military figures who were accused of murders like the assassination of Orlando among others were put on trial. Although he made significant steps to pass legislation to liberalize the people of Chile and to improve their welfare, some of the initiatives by Patricio were unsuccessful due to the involvement of military personalities in his government.

The then constitution provided for inclusion of the forces to the executive, a move that the military used to hinder reforms there by protecting their members who would be prosecuted. A constitutional provision that limited his presidency to four years saw the end of his power in the year 1994. He however made significant progress in the democratization of Chile.[13]

President Patricio was succeeded in a peaceful transition by Eduardo Frey in a democratic process that took place in the year 1994. Like his predecessor, President Eduardo was a product of the Christian Democratic Party. He was a son to a former president and an engineer by profession. Under his leadership, the Chilean government shifted its attention to development of social amenities and infrastructure.

Through the involvement of private sectors, the government of Frey succeeded in developing transport facilities and educational and reformatory institutions. The Christian Democratic Party however lost much of its popularity during the time of Eduardo as the party’s flag bearer. The Christian democrats lost the next election that was held in the year 2000 to the socialist candidate, Ricardo Lagos.[14]

In his reign, president Lagos integrated economic developments and judicial efficiency in his main agendas. He aspired to translate the economic development that had been realized to people’s domestic wellbeing in townships and provinces.

The period of his reign witnessed improvements in welfare of Chilean people as his government established schemes to take care of its unemployed citizens. The Lagos government established compensation program for victims of torture under the former military regime. It also developed health care policy to ensure improved quality and accessibility to the services.[15]

Lagos was succeeded by another socialist candidate called Michelle Bachelet. She was the first woman president and was widely criticized for a weak government. Her administration however picked up in the second half of her presidency and was recognized for effectiveness in agendas that related to economy and social welfare. In her recognition in these areas, Michelle was honored in the year 2009 for her effort to ensure fast economic recovery of her country after the recession that occurred at that time.[16]

Conclusion Augusto Pinochet became Chilean president in the year 1973 by overthrowing the then government. He was a military officer who had just been promoted to fill the vacancy left by assassination of his predecessor. Once in office as the president of Chile, Augusto Pinochet established a dictatorial rule which was characterized by gross violation of human rights. Augusto also destroyed diplomatic ties between Chile and international communities and even caused boarder conflicts with the country’s neighbors.

His rule was however terminated when his campaign to continue as the country’s leader was defeated in the year 1989. He stepped down as the country’s president but retained his post of the commander in chief of the armed forces. He was however later arrested in Britain and also on his arrival back in Chile for human rights violation that occurred during his time. The post Augusto Chile has been under four presidents, the first two from the Christian Democratic Party and the latter two from social democratic party.

The four presidents, who were democratically elected, have been credited for their steps that have established and developed democracy, economy and social welfare of the Chilean people. The governments have also strengthened foreign policies of the country to open Chile to the globalized world. Their administrations have moved Chile to better standards of democracy as well as in other aspects.

Bibliography Altman, David. Political recruitment and candidate selection in Chile (1990-2003) The executive branch. Institutio de ciencia politica, n.d.

Childress, Diana. Augusto Pinochet’s Chile. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty first century books, 2008.

Demcoalition. Defending democracy: A global survey of foreign policy trends 1992-2002. Demcoalition, n.d.

Encyclopedia. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. Encyclopedia of world biography. 2004.

Kennedy. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. Fulbright association, 2011.

Minnis, Natalie. Chile. New York, NY: Langenscheidt publishing group, 2002.

Spartacus. Augusto Pinochet. Spartacus, n.d.

Zissis, Carin. “President of Chile Michele Bachelet Honored at AS/COA”. American society website, 2009. https://www.as-coa.org/articles/president-chile-michelle-bachelet-honored-ascoa .

Footnotes Childress, Diana. Augusto Pinochet’s Chile. (Minneapolis, MN: Twenty first century books, 2008), p. 28-30

Spartacus. Augusto Pinochet. (Spratus, n.d.).

Altman, David. Political recruitment and candidate selection in Chile (1990-2003): The executive branch. (Institutio de ciencia politica, n.d.) p. 3

Ibid, p. 3

Ibid, p. 15

Altman, David. Political recruitment and candidate selection in Chile (1990-2003): The executive branch. (Institutio de ciencia politica, n.d.) p. 15

Ibid, p. 5

Ibid, p. 1

Demcoalition. Defending democracy: A global survey of foreign policy trends 1992-2002. (Demcoalition, n.d.) p. 1.

Kennedy. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. (Fulbright association, 2011) p. 1.


Encyclopedia. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. (encyclopedia world biography, 2004) p. 1

Encyclopedia. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. (encyclopedia world biography, 2004) p. 1

Minnis, Natalie. Chile. (New York, NY: Langenscheidt publishing group, 2002). P. 64


Zissis, Carin. President of Chile Michele Bachelet Honored at AS/COA. (American society website, 2009). P. 1


The Elephant in the Room: Existentialism and the Denial of Death Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Existentialism and the Denial of Death In Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilych, Peter Ivanovich experiences a chilling moment as he contemplates his own mortality in light of the long and painful period of torture and agony that befell his colleague Ivan Ilych before his eventual demise. “Three days of frightful suffering and the death! Why, that might suddenly, at any time, happen to me,” he thought, and for a moment felt terrified.

But – he did not himself know how – the customary reflection at once occurred to him that this had happened to Ivan Ilych and not to him, and that it should not and could not happen to him, and that to think that it could would be yielding to depression which he ought not to do…After which reflection Peter Ivanovich felt reassured, and began to ask with interest about the details of Ivan Ilych’s death, as though death was an accident natural to Ivan Ilych but certainly not to himself” (Tolstoy 24).

In this passage Tolstoy illuminates a dilemma central to the experience of being human – how to live with the understanding that death can happen at any moment. The answer, for many people, is to do as Peter Ivanovich has done here: repress it. The reality of death and the yin yang relationship it holds with life is rarely viewed as such. Rather, the perspective on death is as an unfortunate circumstance that befalls others.

The individual’s experience of death as somehow unexpected, accidental or independent of his or her life affects the quality of life, since the repression requires so much effort to maintain. This essay examines the treatment of death in most Western cultures and highlights some of the means in which it is denied, hidden, sanitized, covered up, and, most importantly, deprived of its existential import.

As evidenced by the reaction of Peter Ivanovich, awareness of mortality comes in flashes which manifest as moments of sheer, unadulterated terror, quickly rationalized and then suppressed again with renewed vigor. Among the Western cultures death remains denied and camouflaged by numerous secular contemporary practices including plastic surgery, euthanasia, homes for seniors, funeral homes and life insurance commercials that tout the advantages of leaving money to loved ones if “the unexpected” happens.

This essay takes as its main thesis the idea put forth by Heidegger in Being and Time that even the person who is dying cannot experience death, because he cannot view it in its proper context – i.e. as part of life. In Heidegger’s words, “when Dasein reaches its wholeness in death, it simultaneously loses the Being of its “there”. By its transition to “no-longer-Dasein”…it gets lifted right out of the possibility of experiencing this transition and of understanding it as something experienced.

Surely this sort of thing is denied to any particular Dasein in relation to itself. But this makes the death of Others more impressive. In this way a termination…of Dasein becomes ‘Objectively’ accessible. Dasein can thus gain an experience of death, all the more so because Dasein is essentially Being with Others. In that case, the fact that death has been thus ‘Objectively’ given must make possible an ontological delimitation of Dasein’s totality” (Heidegger 281).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This opportunity that Heidegger points to however is rarely grasped. Rather, like Peter Ivanovich, the living ignore the elephant in the room, completely repress their fear of death and continue on as though death will somehow affect everyone else except them.

In his Pulitzer Prize winning work The Denial of Death, Ernest Becker details the important function repression serves in the psyche of the Western cultural mind. “Repression takes care of the complex of the complex symbol of death for most people. But its disappearance doesn’t mean that the fear was never there” (Becker 20).

Strategies to keep death unwitnessed and denied include plastic surgery, the persistent erroneous language applied to death as accidental, and, in Becker’s understanding, the “large dimension in which the complex symbol of death is transmuted and transcended…[is] belief in immortality, the extension of one’s being into eternity” (Becker 24). Essentially, death’s removal from everyday life makes it too difficult to reintegrate. If the fear of death were conscious, Becker argues, human beings would be “unable to function normally.

It must be properly repressed to keep us living with any modicum of comfort. We know very well that to repress means more than to put away and forget that which was put away and the place where we put it. It means also to maintain a constant psychological effort to keep the lid on and inwardly never relax our watchfulness” (Becker 17).

What this leads to is a dimmer, numbed experience of life. Every time a person dies unwitnessed, a life affirming opportunity is lost. The opportunity that a mindful and conscious witnessing of the death of another human being, as Heidegger argues, that might honor the existential importance of death, specifically the transition from Being, most people are simply too afraid to accept.

Heidegger asserts that “when someone has died, his Being-no-longer-in-the-world…is still a Being, but in the sense of the Being-just-present-at-hand-and-no-more of a corporeal Thing that we encounter.

In the dying of the Other we can experience that remarkable phenomenon of Being which may be defined as the change-over of an entity from Dasein’s kind of Being…or life…to no-longer-Dasein. The end of the entity qua Dasein is the beginning of the same entity qua something present-at-hand” (Heidegger 281). A true understanding of death’s proper place as the partner of life rather than life’s enemy would naturally lead to richer experience of living.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Elephant in the Room: Existentialism and the Denial of Death specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The elephant in the room of life is death. Like birth, it is a universal human experience, however as the former continues to be celebrated, the latter continues to be shunned in the majority of Western cultures.

As a whole death remains denied, hidden, sanitized, covered up, and, most importantly, deprived of its existential import, because it continues to be kept apart from living, instead of shared as part of the human experience.

In Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilych, Peter Ivanovich represents the common reaction to mortality – terror – quickly repressed, and culturally camouflaged by numerous practices including plastic surgery, euthanasia, homes for seniors, funeral homes and language that consistently labels death as “the unexpected” happens.

As Heidegger aptly points out in Being and Time, in this repression, an opportunity becomes lost, as even the individual who is dying cannot experience death, because he cannot view it in its proper context, namely, a part of life of life to be witnessed, appreciated and accepted.

Works Cited Becker, Ernest. The Denial of Death. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1997. Print.

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1962. Print.

Tolstoy, Leo Nikolayevich. The Death of Ivan Ilyich. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.


Debenhams Company Integrated Marketing Communications Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is an approach that incorporates all the marketing communication strategies and launches them at the desired target audience. This approach allows the maximum impact on the target audience as all the marketing mix is strategically employed for the marketing campaign.

Although IMC has become a popular jargon among practitioners, its applicability is low among companies, even though, they technically are using IMC. This is because most companies end up utilizing one or two of the marketing mix and omitting the rest in launching their marketing strategy.

This paper is a case study of the IMC employed by Debenhams in the UK. The paper takes a portfolio approach in understanding the degree of adoption of IMC by the company. This paper will first provide a brief background of the company. Then the paper provides an understanding of the marketing strategy employed by the company through portfolio approach.

Company Background Debenhams is a leading retailer in the UK. Established in 1778 by William Clark it was listed on the London Stock Exchange on 2003 (Debenhams, 2011).

The company has 147 across the UK and Ireland and has an e-commerce section that operates a completely transactional website (Debenhams, 2011). The company operates in the mid-market retail segment of the country. The retailer sells a total of 21 brands in its stores. In 2010 the company enjoyed a turnover of £2119.90 million that has been constantly increasing through 2007 (Hemscott, 2011).

The company mainly sells apparel for men, women, and children, cosmetics, and house wares. 70 percent of the overall sales of the company are accounted by the in-house brands such as Debut, Maine New England, and Red Herring (Yahoo Finance, 2011). Apart from the third party brands, Debenhams sells label brands, Designers at Debenhams. The company has embarked on a multi-channel business that allows it to consolidate its in-store and online selling strategy.

The company manages its sales through three channels – company stores, franchising, and online stores. In order to expand its global presence, Debenhams entered into franchising with various international partners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the annual report of 2010, the company’s newly adopted multi-channel strategy helped in increase of sales by 88.4% (Debenhams, 2010). Apart from this the company has undertaken an aggressive expansion plan through acquisition of departmental stores in Denmark and expansion of retail space. Further, the company has launched newly owned brands and extended the Designers portfolio.

From the annual report it is clear that Debenhams is less competitive in casual wear market, while it is a much larger market than formal wear. Therefore the company intends to expand in this market category. Further in shoe market, Debenhams lags behind in women’s shoes sale than competitors. Therefore, the company aims to exploit the opportunities available in this market.

Given this background of the company, the paper will now demonstrate the integrated marketing strategy of the company through portfolio approach.

Integrated Marketing Communication Integrated marketing approach aims to unify all the communication strategies of marketing and handle them in a unified manner. Traditionally, these communication strategies operated separately, with no interconnection between each other. However, recent marketing trend has shown that with integration of the marketing strategies results in better performance.

Debenhams follows an integrated marketing strategy that takes into account all the different channels of marketing. This section will first provide a detailed understanding of the communication schemes undertaken by the company using portfolio approach and then provide a detailed understanding of the company’s multi-channel model.

For the portfolio analysis of the marketing communications of Debenhams, the marketing communication strategies that are considered are advertising, sales promotion, events, public relations, and direct marketing. Table 1 will provide the different campaigns that were undertaken by the company under these strategies.

Table 1: Integrated marketing Communication Portfolio

We will write a custom Essay on Debenhams Company Integrated Marketing Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Communication Portfolio Campaign Portfolio Advertising Sales Promotion Events Public Relations Personal Selling Direct Marketing TV advertisements Retail stores Special Events Social media Shopping experience to customers E-mail marketing Print advertisements Online store Competition Reporting – Financial and Social Audit Social media presence Online advertisements Loyalty Scheme Pop-up stores CSR activities Mobile advertisement campaign Seasonal Sales Sponsorships Online sales promotions In 2008 the company had spent £1.7 million on promotional activities (Debenhams, 2010). The company adopted a multi-channel marketing strategy that is described in the company Annual Report as the process of producing “clear and consistent messaging across our stores and all customer communications” (Debenhams, 2010). Following this strategy, the company has adopted various strategies to integrate all of their communication channels.

Figure 1: Multi-channel strategy (Debenhams, 2010)

Advertisement The company has undertaken advertisement campaigns through all available media channels like television, print (i.e. newspaper and magazine), online, and mobile advertisements. The multi-channel strategy of Debenhams demonstrates in figure 1. The company aimed to integrate the sales and promotional activities in its stores, websites, kiosks, international franchise stores, mobile campaigns, and promotional videos.

In 2011, the company launched its latest Mother’s Day campaign on television (Debenhams, 2011). It also launched its campaign for targeting all possible customer groups of various shapes and sizes in an advertisement campaign that featured disabled, petite, tall, and black models (Debenhams, 2010).

Debenhams also launched a print campaign targeting older customers (Debenhams, 2010). In 2010, the company launched its new iPhone application to launch its first effort into mobile marketing as shown in figure 2 (Debenhams, 2010). Apart from this, the company undertakes e-mail marketing directly to the customers. The company has enhanced its presence in Facebook and Twitter in order to increase their online presence.

Figure 2: Mobile application (Debenhams, 2010)

Other advertisements are done through sponsorships of TV shows like Neighbours in Channel Five and Sex and the City 2 (Debenhams, 2011). Other than this Debenhams actively participates in fundraising functions and social issues campaigns like Breast Cancer Campaign. The company also sponsors fashion events.

Sales Promotion Sales promotion is a vital aspect for retailers. On the spot promotions in retail shops increases sales largely. Debenhams have integrated the sales campaigns for the online stores and retail shops. This can be seen through the campaign pictures presented in figure 3. Other store events that are provide Apart from this, the company provide customer loyalty schemes in form of Plus Card.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Debenhams Company Integrated Marketing Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Debenhams also started beginning of season sale that is unusual practice in retail as sale is usually given on end-of season or during festivities like Christmas. This start-of-season-sale campaign of the company was done through all media channels as like TV and print advertisements and online in the company website and Facebook.

Figure 3: Sales Campaign (Online campaign on left and in store sales campaign on right) (Debenhams, 2011)

Events The company undertakes various events to support its marketing campaign. Debenhams presently undertakes three events – Half the Price sale in all of its stores in the UK and online, Edition pop-Up Store, and Free Coffee with Foursquare (Debenhams, 2011). The first is a sales promoting event that allows customers purchase products at half the price. The company held this event on both its physical and online stores.

Pop-up stores are boutique like stores that are opened by the company as a promotional event to sell its designer brands. These are stand-alone stores with a small boutique feel and sell high fashion products at low prices.

Other events held by the company are competition for its customers. One such competition currently held by Debenhams is “April Review”. This competition asks customers to provide a review of any product. The company chooses a winner every day and gets a gift card of £25. In order to promotion Debenhams’s travel insurance, the company offered a prize of a trip to Berlin for those who bought travel insurance before 31st March (Debenhams, 2011).

Further, in another attempt to increase its customer information and database, the company asks customers to sign in for company newsletters and win a television set (Debenhams, 2011). Such events not only increases sales, but also increase customer engagement and customer database. Other events are staged on specific occasions like Christmas Spectacular Competition, Valentine’s Day Competition, or competition during Easter (Debenhams, 2011).

Public Relations Debenhams has increased its presence in social media websites like Facebook and Twitter in order to maintain its public image through social websites. Further, the company has been providing financial disclosure and governance disclosure since 2003.

The company provides information and pledges to maintain an ethical supply chain, maintain environmental safety standards, and responsively act toward its workforce and community. The company also provides corporate social relations (CSR) report to demonstrate the social endeavours of the company. In order to maintain its public image Debenhams donates in fundraisers and participates in social awareness events (Debenhams, 2011).

Personal Selling In all retail companies personal selling is important as salespeople become a company customer interface. Therefore, it is important for Debenhams to maintain a personal selling standard. However, this personal selling is experience is becoming less important with increase in online sale. Recognizing this, Debenhams has launched Debenhams Direct that allows customers to purchase products online from select UK department stores (Debenhams, 2011). This definitely enhances customer experience and convenience.

Direct Marketing The direct marketing strategy of the company is through its online marketing strategy like e-mail marketing and online store www.debehams.com. The customers get direct purchasing opportunity and comes across marketing promotions online and can buy products from department stores online using Debenhams Direct.

Further, the company’s email marketing allows it to directly reach to the customer. Further, the customer management program of the company gathers information regarding customers in a database allows direct marketing to the customer possible.

Conclusion Debenhams has integrated its marketing channels through multi-channel marketing strategy employed by the company. This strategy has reaped financial success to the company (Debenhams, 2010). The online store of Debenhams gained sales by 88.4 percent in 2010 indicating the great success of the integrating program (Debenhams, 2010).

In 2010, Debenhams.com has become the company’s largest store and they have made an online presence (Debenhams, 2010). Without an integrated marketing strategy that could combine the online and in-store marketing communication and deliver it simultaneously, this would not have been possible. Therefore, the integrated marketing strategy has been employed by Debenhams and it has enhanced its performance.

References Debenhams, 2010. Annual Report. Web.

Debenhams, 2011. Debenhams. Web.

Hemscott, 2011. Debenhams PLC (LSE:DEB). Web.

Yahoo Finance, 2011. Industry Centre – Department Stores. Web.


Chomsky/Herman propaganda model Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The propaganda model which was developed by Herman and Chomsky puts special emphasis upon the role of the mass media propaganda in manufacturing biases in the public consciousness for preventing the resistance of the masses and achieving certain goals of the privileged minority.

Implementing Madisonian framework for explaining the main principle of democratic states, Chomsky collects evidence for illustrating the instances of propaganda and offering a practical solution for Orwell’s problem of voluntary censorship and intentional confusion of the majority.

Chomsky stated that Madisonian framework was often misinterpreted because of its vague formulations. According to Madison, the main concerns of the government include the rights of persons and the rights of property, while the emphasis should be put upon the latter parameter.

The main priority of the state should be the protection of the rights of property because the majority can endanger them by overusing the power they possess in a democracy. In Chomsky’s opinion, the conclusion that the tyranny of the majority can threaten the rights of persons, including the rights for freedom of speech and conscience, was the result of confusion caused by the vague formulations (Chomsky, “Powers and Prospects” 171).

Thus, Chomsky admitted that Madison’s concern is much more restricted and focuses mostly on the protection of the rights of the opulent minority, while the comparison of the rights of persons and rights of property is merely inappropriate. Theoretically, according to Madisonian framework, there are rights shared by all and there are additional rights that are assigned only to a certain group of persons which always would be a minority and need to be protected by the state.

According to Madisonian constitutional order, the Senate which represents not only the wealth but also the intellectual elite of the nation, understands the importance of protecting the rights of the opulent minority (Chomsky “Hopes and Prospects” 233). Thus, Chomsky points out at the vague formulations and confusion in the following discussion as the main reasons for which Madisonian framework was misinterpreted.

Analyzing the experience of the past generations and the current social and economic modes, a sociologist can make predictions concerning the future tendencies in the world development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first tool which is required for making the reliable predictions is consideration of the actual national course as opposed to the analysis of historical records. “Realist scholars explain that appeal to the historical record confounds the abuse of reality with reality itself” (Chomsky “Powers and prospects”146). The national identity and the corresponding functioning of the state institutions and the foreign policy course need to be taken into account for outlining the future prospects.

Thus, along with the analysis of the past achievements and mistakes, a comprehensive understanding of the shifts in the society, the ongoing processes and their main underlying causes is important for making certain forecasts. Thus, evaluating the historical records critically and giving serious consideration to the national values, the traditional sense of national identity reflected in the national course, Chomsky makes predictions, and most of them appear to be correct.

One of the main Chomsky’s predictions was his assumption concerning the escalation of the cycle of violence. Analyzing the level of the American state terror and the chosen course of the foreign policy justified with the peacemaking mission of the USA, Chomsky concluded that the proclaimed war on terror after the events of 9/11 will intensify the violence circle.

Providing evidence that the war on terror is pursued for the reasons which differ from the announced objectives, the scholar claims that the military actions taken by America along with the terrorist attacks create endless circle violence and the urgent measures are required for changing the current situation.

If Madison with his theory of democratic society that was discussed above was sincerely astonished at the fact that the government can overuse its power, at present Chomsky concluded that the tyranny of the privileged ruling class is obvious even notwithstanding their limited public accountability which does not allow estimating the extent of their power abuse.

The American attacks in Pakistan are treated as an example of the military actions of the United Sates which are justified with noble goals of peacemaking or protecting the Israel’s rights for self-defense in this particular case.

The fact that the issues of Pakistan and Afghanistan were omitted in Obama’s election campaign clearly demonstrates the limitations of the public accountability and the lack of the public awareness on the state foreign policies (Chomsky “Hopes and Prospects” 249).

We will write a custom Essay on Chomsky/Herman propaganda model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, giving special consideration to the US national identity as the world’s peacemaker and recognizing the hidden goals for continuing the so-called war on terror, Chomsky used his expertise on the US foreign policy and particular military campaigns for predicting the escalation of the circle of violence.

The continuing military conflicts and the dominating mood of desperation and anxiety can be regarded as the evidence that Chomsky’s predictions on the escalation of the violence circle were correct.

The scholar’s assumption that if the traditional strategies of the US government do not change, it can result in long-term consequences of extreme violence and destruction is compliant with the available data on the ongoing military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Moreover, the lack of the public accountability and the use of propaganda for distorting the public views and justifying the implemented measures have become effective instruments used by the US administration for pursuing their goals.

The propaganda and mass media played an important role in creating the so-called Orwell’s problem, the term implying the measures which are imposed by the government for hiding their true motives by distorting the public perceptions of reality. Orwell is known for discussing the voluntary censorship as the pattern used by the ruling minority for treating the information at their discretion, either mentioning a certain fact or concealing it.

Thus, possessing the power for making decision what information and in what key should be presented to the masses, the minority group can not only foster the desirable biases but also manipulate and control the masses. The phrases national interest and peace processes can be regarded as typical Orwellisms (Chomsky “Powers and Prospects” 192).

In other words, proclaiming the war on terror for justifying their military operations, the US government justifies its actions and makes attempts to prevent the public resistance to their policies by hiding the truth and emphasizing the fictional noble goals. Along with the excuse of self-defense, the labels of peacemaking can be assigned to certain military operations for the purpose of concealing the true underlying causes and distorting the public opinion. Thus, the means of propaganda are widely used by the US government and played a significant role in the intensification of Orwell’s problem in the American society.

In Chomsky’s opinion, Orwell’s problem requires practical solution, while the construction of a profound scientific theory would be inappropriate. The scholar suggests the practical program of intellectual self-defense for settling the issue of biased mass media and overwhelming propaganda strategies implemented by the government for hiding the underlying causes of the ongoing processes and their political decisions.

Taking into account that the problem is rooted deep in the public consciousness, Chomsky concludes that it cannot be solved through removal of the conventional Orwellisms, such as the terms national interest and peacemaking. The practical solution requires active involvement of the masses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chomsky/Herman propaganda model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The program consists of the three main components, including the collection of the information which was distorted by the mass media for complying with the government’s demands. The second stage presupposes exploration of the main motives of the privileged minority to make certain decisions and conceal them from the community.

The third component is the practical implementation of the acquired skills and knowledge in evaluating the TV news and other means of public propaganda. Enabling the masses to become rational observers by providing them with the necessary information is the practical solution which was offered by Chomsky for handling the Orwell’s problem in a democratic society.

The propaganda model developed by Herman and Chomsky can be used for explaining the patterns which allow the privileged minority to control masses in democratic societies. Collecting evidence on illusions and biases constructed by the mass media and explaining the true underlying causes of these strategies, Chomsky makes correct predictions concerning the escalation of the violence circle and offers intellectual self-defense as the practical solution for the problem of propaganda.

Works Cited Chomsky, Noam. Hopes and Prospects. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2010. Print.

– – – Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order. London: Pluto Press Ltd, 1999. PrernaLal.com. Web.


Retail and Supply Chain Management Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Product Offering, Target Market and Customer Service

Supply Chain Management and Logistics

Technology, Its Impacts and E-Commerce

Store Design and Location

Pricing and Promotion

Reference List

Product Offering, Target Market and Customer Service Fair Do’s is a non profit company. It offers cheap and unique products from third world countries which are not well-off economically. Therefore, underpinning its operations on fair trade, Fair Do’s offers the populace from these countries a chance to trade their products. The company’s range of products is not well-defined. This is considering the fact that the suppliers do not come from the same geographical locations.

Fair Do’s, therefore, offers products ranging from compact discs, clothes, foods and beverages, and toys among others. It is crucial to note that these products are not modified, whatsoever. They are stocked in their original form in the shops. These shops are approved by the British Association for Fair Trade Shops (BAFTS) and/or the World Fair Trade Organisation (WFTO) (Fair Do, 2011).

The suppliers of this small scale company are not distinct, either. This is because the company has a policy that guides its operations. It must source its products from suppliers or people who do not have well-off backgrounds. However, the company gets its products from Europe and the Americas sometimes.

It is important to note that creative products are the focus of Fair Do’s. These products include designed pots from Africa, hand-made ornaments from Egypt, Somalia and Kenya, beauty products made from people’s hands, among others. This is in line with the fact that economics should be mixed with Fair Trade. This is the belief of the company, hence, its line of interest in suppliers and customers (Fair Do, 2011).

All these products are sold all over the world. But, mainly, the target market is developed countries. These countries are the focal point from which the market base of fair dos is situated. The company believes in putting people first. This includes its customer base, supply base, workers and volunteers. The argument is that they provide the company with the needed impetus in its policy application.

This explains the reason why the company is so particular with the quality and uniqueness of products it offers in the market. Its customer service is unique in its own way. There is also belief that the company offers products at different prices. Firstly, the price is fixed. However, a customer can offer to buy at a higher price going by the company needs to promote the direct producers from whom it buys the products (Fair Do, 2011).

Supply Chain Management and Logistics Fair dos supply chain and logistics management is quite complicated. As noted earlier, the company does not offer products from specific suppliers. It only sources products from fair trade accredited companies. The accreditation is received from British Association for Fair Trade Shops (BAFTS) and/or the World Fair Trade Organisation (WFTO).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This essentially limits the planning of this department. Fair trade means that the company believes in paying a fair price to the suppliers. Hence, it cannot pass on the burden of supply costs to the suppliers. Therefore, although it is a company it essentially makes no profits. Most of the costs are associated with supply and logistics (Boyer, 2010).

The suppliers of these products are mainly from third world countries. These are the countries where the balance of trade is grossly against. However, there can be second tier suppliers who are also accredited for fair trading that can supply to fair do. However, these suppliers do not last long and may occasionally close down. An example is the recently closed shop where fair do was buying Peruvian hand made ceramics.

This partnership is also witnessed in its trade with Rwanda and Kenya. In Kenya there is a second tier supplier, Kazuri, which stocks the Masai and Kambas necklaces and hand products. In Rwanda the company coalesces with Cards for Africa, a company that sponsors orphans. These orphans make beautiful welsh cards. Once the company gets these products it stocks them mainly in its canton (Cardiff) based shop and in Wales. From there the company can buy the products (Fair Do, 2011).

From the above, it is notable that the company’s supply chain is two pronged. This means it can buy directly from the makers of the products or from second tier suppliers (Chen, 2004). The company does not, however, depend on these suppliers so much. This is because they might get wearied by the fair trade requirement and closed own. Therefore, it establishes contacts with direct suppliers (producers) and customers to remain afloat (Larson, 2004).

Technology, Its Impacts and E-Commerce Fair do has a remarkable online presence. Its website https://www.fairdos.com/ provides the necessary transition for people who want to trade with the company online (Fair Do, 2011).The company as with most companies has a face book and twitter page. It has ensured that the page is interactive enough and has updated information concerning its operations (Haag, 2006).

Through these two internet applications the company keeps its customers and suppliers posted at almost no cost. It also is able to promote more involvement with fair trading: a concept the company upholds. A perfect example is the upcoming Easter holidays (Fair Do, 2011).

Fair do’s has informed its stakeholders in advance of the imminent closure during that period. This is going to happen during the wedding of prince Williams and Kate (Fair Do, 2011).This is quite important as customers are able to make gift purchases in advance. It also improves the interactive nature that it operates. The company is very particular with its customers. Its customer service is unrivalled in Wales along with its product offering (Kouvelis et al. 2006).

We will write a custom Report on Retail and Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has not exactly focussed on e commerce. Experts argue it is because of the complications that it may bring. The company will have to align itself with the policy of fair trade. This is quite hard when you do not know who you are dealing with. E commerce is usually faceless. This is only possible in the upstream side of the supply chain: where only selling takes place.

It is however almost impossible on the down stream side (suppliers) because accreditation is needed (Fair Do, 2011). Prove of accreditation and the risk of counterfeits is quite possible. Although the company can immensely reduce costs associated with direct dealing, it has other pressing needs to uphold. Hence, it opts out in that area. The impact is basically on costs and the issue of missed opportunities which can present competitive supplying to the company.

Technology is crucial in the growth of current businesses. This will keep the businesses relevant even in future. The company hence, plans to have a modified e commerce application to its business and to improve internet presence. This will present the company with insurmountable numbers of customer base and opportunities for expansion (Fair Do, 2011). Therefore, although it is a company it essentially makes no profits. Most of the costs are associated with supply and logistics (Boyer, 2010).

Store Design and Location The company’s physical location is in Cardiff in canton along 10 Llandaff Road. This is where you find the main office which is registered (Fair Do, 2011). However, the company is a federation of small businesses located in almost every part of England. These small businesses have a particular store design that they operate. This is to give fair do’s an identity both from the customers and other stakeholders (Halldorsson, 2007).

The company has a theme where its stores are painted in happy colours. This is inline with the various unrelated products that the company offers. The size of the stores is always small. This is because the type of products stocked does not occupy large amounts of space. The company has two service people inside and a cashier. A customer has space for manoeuvre inside and this is crucial in the sampling of the various commodities (Fair Do, 2011).

Products are arranged according to origin. Products from Philippines, Kenya, Egypt and Somalia are kept in different places. It is also common to arrange them according to a large area of origin. This means products from east Africa, West Africa at cetera are kept together. This makes customer shopping experience greater. The products do not have price tags except for the most expensive ones (Hines, 2004).

The colours range is determined by the products. Basically, these products come from communities who use hands to make them. The raw materials range from sand, clay, ivory remains, bone among others (Fair Do, 2011). The paintings are also quite different inline with the diverse cultures of the people.

This is what the company essentially promotes in the design of its stores. Experts say that the company does it self proud by employing the sustainable mantra (Lavassani, 2009). What they argue is that the company is in tandem with the global call for sustainable development. This clarion call which asks organizations to go green has been received, or pioneered by fair dos. It is replicated in its store design also.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Retail and Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pricing and Promotion In actual business world, this is what would largely determine the success and or failure of a business. However, this is not the main factor for operation of fair do. The company‘s main focus is on sustainable development of economies (Fair Do, 2011). It also focuses on improving the lifestyles of people in less developed countries whose products do not find their way in mainstream markets. This is despite the fact they are unique products.

The pricing of the products at fair do is hence, focussed on this. This is considering the fact that the suppliers do not come from the same geographical locations. Fair do, therefore, offers products ranging from compact discs, clothes, foods and beverages, toys among others (Misiura, 2006).

In some cases the company prices its commodities highly. This is because they are unique products very suitable for expensive gifts and prizes. Therefore, people who love unique things especially artillery, ornaments and handicrafts find solace and perfect places for shopping at fair dos.

It is quite important as it is a two pronged approach which services the less privileged people in the world. It also works for the environment. These small businesses have a particular store design that they operate. This is to give fair do’s an identity both from the customers and other stakeholders (Fair Do, 2011).

The company does not focus on making profits. The costs associated with the companies operations are staggering. This is especially true in the logistics and supply chain management. The company does not however make losses. This is offset by fair pricing (Fair Do, 2011).

The company believes in offering the best deal to both the customers and the suppliers. However, on the customer side it gets better deals by offering products at different prices. The company also invokes the human side of the customers with the message of helping the developing world (Nagurney, 2006).

Fair do’s does not promote its products in the mainstream media. It, in fact does not promote products. This is because it does not have a distinct line of products. Therefore promotions may be an act in futility. The company however promotes its goal, mission and vision. This brings in volunteers from many departments.

It also works magic in word of mouth marketing. According to experts it is more productive when a company grows through buzz marketing than any other form of promotion. The company enjoys the services of students who work in the company for free. This way they reduce the overall overhead costs associated with operations. It is also important to note that the company will enjoy so much support form the government. This is inline with the governments plan to go green (Ketchen, 2006).

Reference List Boyer, K. (2010) Operations


Racism in U.S. Criminal Justice System Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Racism in U.S. Criminal Justice System

Clinton and incarnation

Race discrimination in courts



Works Cited

Introduction In ensuring that people interact and live in harmony there are rules and regulations that are usually stipulated. This is usually the case for all countries around the world.

The police are the ones who are mostly entitled to arrest the offenders before taking them to courts. In most countries, parliament is the ones mandated to formulate the laws. The laws are usually approved by the president of a country. Once one has been arrested by the police and taken to court, he or she can be released on bond or remanded before their case is over depending on the type of crime they have committed.

In administering their duties, the courts are supposed not to discriminate people according to their race, religion or economic wellbeing. This is not usually the case and discrimination is usually evident in many cases. This paper seeks to examine racism and racial disparity in the criminal justice system with special reference to the United States of America justice system.

Racism in U.S. Criminal Justice System Racism, which has been persistent in the United States of America, dates from the time of slavery. African American and Native Americans among others were highly discriminated against by the whites (Love, 2004). Racism has been found to be evident in all aspects from schooling to the administering of justice by the courts.

There has been continuous fight against racism in the US but it has not yet been totally eradicated. This is mainly because it is deep rooted in the administration structure and thus requires total cooperation from all parties involved in the success of its eradication (Cronkhite, 2007). The election of Obama as the US president irrespective of his roots in Africa is a good indicator of the good progress achieved so far although much more has to be done.

Clinton and incarnation A country administration is mainly mandated in maintain law and order in all aspects of human interaction. In the United States of America, Clinton was the only president who passed very strict law on drug trade. These laws led to the arrest of more people who were charged at courts and imprisoned.

During his term, more tough penalties were formulated and more prisons constructed. This led to more African American being on the increase in comparison the whites. This raised query on the possible cause of the difference despite them being the minority in population.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The treatment given to blacks in the United States is different from that offered to the whites. This is evident in the administering of justice. Despite the small number of African American in comparison to the whites in the United States, the number of blacks imprisoned is very high.

It is said that the number of blacks and white men participating in drug trade is almost equal. The number of blacks arrested and charged for drugs is higher than that of the whites raising questions about the way justice is administered in courts. In courts, the blacks and Latinos usually do not get fair trial. The drug policy in US is biased so that it does not favor small groups of people such as the blacks and Latinos.

The problem of racism gets its roots from the policy makers whose minds are filled with the notion that the minority are the ones who usually commit crimes. This has brought failure in the fight against drugs. To ensure that justice prevails, there must be appropriate changes in the judicial system. The provision of proper education on drugs could give positive results in drug fight. Fair award of punishment should be done irrespective of one’s skin color or financial status.

Race discrimination in courts In the recent years the number of people in jails or undergoing correction measures has been increasing. Out of this large number, the blacks form the majority despite them forming the minority in the population. There have been questions on how this can be a possibility which has led to a general feeling that double standards are being applied on some races.

In the courts, the suspects are supposed to be well informed about their rights. The availability of public defenders is found to be mainly influenced by race with the African American and the Latinos being discriminated. According to Gerhard Falk (2004):

The bureau of justice statistics reported in 2008 that in 2007 there were 4618 black males sentenced to prison for violent crimes for every 100,000 black male citizens. This number compares to 1,747 Hispanic males and 773 Euro-American males per 100,000 in the population. Since the African American population is only 13 percent of all Americans and the Hispanic population is just 12 percent of all Americans, there is indeed a great overrepresentation of blacks and Hispanics in our prisons. (Falk 2)

The issue of racism in the US criminal justice system is evident in all its levels. This stems down from the judges offering at the courts to the way the police interact with the citizen (Young, Greene and Gabbidon 153). It has been shown that the police interact with the whites better than with the blacks.

We will write a custom Essay on Racism in U.S. Criminal Justice System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is evident through the large number of blacks and Latinos being stopped and frisked in comparison to the whites. Over the years it has been observed that the probability of a black man being stopped and frisked is much higher than that of the white. In all these cases, the male is usually at higher chances of being harassed by the police than the females.

The judges depend on the law in administering justice. In courts, there are groups of people who are usually mandated by the court to argue a case from facts. In the US, there has been discrimination in the administration of jury services to the African Americans. This indicates a big failure in the judicial system in administering justice to all.

According to the law, any person is entitled to undergo a trial before they are sentenced by the court. A large number of African Americans usually do not get tried in accordance with the constitution in fear of being given heavier penalties on the crimes committed.

Recommendation Generally speaking it is possible that most of the colored and black people get involved in committing crimes due to their financials status. Most of them might not have some means of livelihood and therefore as a means of sustaining themselves they resort to criminal and criminal related activities. The government should find a solution to empower these people instead of passing strict laws on drugs. By empowering this population, the problem of drug trafficking would have been solved automatically.

Conclusion The racial discrimination in the US is observed as a way of social control. The issue of overlooking the African American and the Latinos as criminals has been used as a great weapon in the discrimination. This could be viewed as an internal war on the marginalized. The main reason behind all these is dominance by the whites in almost all the organs of justice.

The best way of overcoming this problem is through intensive revolution of values. This thus requires looking into the root cause of the problem and finding the best way to handle the situation. Increasing the number of prisoners in our jail does not ensure our security but a better approach should be undertaken.

Works Cited Cronkhite, Clyde. Criminal justice administration: strategies for the 21st century. Massachusetts: Jones


Power Struggle: “Doubt” Movie Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

In the movie Doubt there is a conspicuous power struggle that rages strongly in an elementary Catholic school in Bronx, New York. The power struggle is between Sister Aloysius; the school principal, and father Flynn, the school’s a priest cum games master.

The power struggle rests on the fact that Sister Aloysius is a very strict principal who believes in instilling discipline and religious virtues to the students. As the principal, Sister Aloysius is very strict in ensuring that nuns become watchful to note any emergence of unbecoming behavior amongst students. On the other hand, Father Flynn seems liberal; he holds that students need freedom to enjoy secular music to connect with the ever-changing world.

The differences in the perception of discipline and management lead to power struggle in the school. Dargis posits, “The winds of political change are sweeping through the community, and indeed, the school has just accepted its first black student, Donald Miller” (Para. 11). Conflict arises when the school accepts Donald Miller; Sister Aloysius accuses Father Flynn for allegedly having sexual relationship with the boy on top of letting him (Miller) to drink wine whilst in school.

The discussions surrounding the school matters revolve around the interests of the two conflicting powers. In the church, Father Flynn gives an inspiring sermon about the nature of doubt and its unifying effect; a teaching that Sister Aloysius finds unusual as she later seeks the opinion of other nuns regarding the same.

She is afraid that Father Flynn is referring to some indecent behavior she has noted amongst students of late; consequently, orders all nuns to be watchful. Since Father Flynn is critical in his sermons, Sister Aloysius does not want to give him a chance to criticize her. In response to the sermon, Sister Aloysius orders nuns to observe keenly the unique relationship between Father Flynn and Donald Miller; the black student and allegedly Flynn’s ‘lover’.

Dargis argues that, “Sister Aloysius sets off on a personal crusade to unearth the truth and to expunge Flynn from the school, now, without a shard of proof besides her moral certainty, locking into a battle of wills with Father Flynn” (Para. 5). This implies that, Sister Aloysius is looking for an excuse or opportunity to expel Father Flynn from the school because he antagonizes his powers.

After Sister Aloysius’ instructions to nuns to investigate the relationship between Father Flynn and Donald Miller, Sister James reveals that Father Flynn has close relationship with the boy; actually, he is sexually molesting the boy! Sister James reports that Father Flynn called the boy from class and offered him some wine to drink. Moreover, Sister James allegedly saw Father Flynn place the boy’s shirt into his locker.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This information is very substantial for Sister Aloysius to accuse and expel Father Flynn from the school. Hearing the rumors and allegation leveled against him, Father Lynn attacks Sister Aloysius and nuns during a Sunday sermon by preaching on gossip; he says, “stopping gossip is like putting all the feathers back into the pillowcase, which is impossible to do, it bears false witness against neighbors, ruins reputations, and is a sin” (Doubt).

The power struggle continues until Sister Aloysius manages to have Father Flynn expelled from the school. However, the Parish does not discipline Flynn; actually, to the chagrin of Sister Aloysius, Flynn is promoted to a pastor and the only thing the poor principal can do is to rue and cry as her attempts to prove her power in the school prove futile. Nevertheless, Shanley manages to underscore power struggle by using Sister Aloysius and Father Flynn.

Works Cited Dargis, Manohla. “Doubt: Between Heaven and Earth, Room for Ambiguity.” The New York Times, December 2008. Web. <https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/12/movies/12doub.html?mtrref=undefined


Replacing of Physical Artefacts on the Digital Version Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Digital version cannot replace physical artefacts


Reference List


Introduction With the advancement in digital technology, various approaches of digital versions in arts have come up. The condition has made different versions of digital art such as online art fairs and Google art among others readily available to art lovers through different art applications such as smart phones.

While a few artefact lovers have shifted to consumption of the digital version, most people still prefer the physical artefacts. However, the debate over the subject of digital versions of art has risen in the recent past among the literary critics and philosophers on whether the digital technology can actually replace the physical artefact. Proponents of digital technology argue that technological revolutionary in the contemporary world is inevitable in every sector of human survival including fine arts.

They argue that digital technology promotes ease and accessibility of the artefacts. Opponents however, assert that digital technology cannot replace physical artefact. Opponents such as Walter Benjamin note that, physical artefacts are unique and any attempt to reproduce or replace using digital technology distorts almost every aspect of it and therefore losing meaning.

In fact, there are physical aspects, which digital technologies cannot display. This debate has left arts consumers puzzled on which style of art to consume. Can the digital version ever replace physical artefact, and should it be our goal in creating digital collection? This question is what separates the opponents and proponents to the digital versions of art.

The purpose of this essay is to argue that digital technology cannot replace the physical artefact. Based on disadvantages presented by the digital versions in support with arguments by opponents to digital version, I will demonstrate that digital version cannot reproduce the physical artefacts. The essay focuses on digital versions of fine arts.

Digital version cannot replace physical artefacts The aim of fine art is to represent or to display certain information. Creators of physical artefacts do so with a view to display specific information. In such a case, accuracy is very significant. Reproduction of an artefact in any form therefore interferes with the accuracy of the desired information. Digital reproduction cannot achieve the accuracy meant by the artist during the creation of the physical artefact. Physical artefacts in fine arts provide first hand information to the art lovers.

A carving for instance may seek to illustrate the skull of the early man in history. From such fine artefact, the artist focuses on creation of the tangible real picture of the early man. Attempt to reproduce this artefact distorts some of the aspects. First, the digital version cannot provide a tangible impression of the information, thereby distorting the initial meaning of the art. Secondly, digital version cannot provide the authenticity of the original work[1].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authority the original work (physical) commands will fade during the reproduction[2] due to the difference between the original and the reproduction process of the artefact. In digital creation, due to versatility of the graphical environment, artists can add some aspects, which are impossible to achieve in manual creation. Addition of such aspects would constitute into inaccurate information by the artefact.

Again, some aspects of the physical fine artefact are difficult to include in the digital version. Size variation of the artefact also contributes to inaccuracies in the displayed information. Since digitalized processes provide for enlargement and reduction on scale of the size of the artefact, it is therefore difficult to give accurate impression as meant by the physical artefact.

In digital version, it is possible to display aspects, which the naked eyes cannot see in the physical artefact. Although this may seem to compliment digital technology, such aspects are not necessary to convey the desired meaning. In any case, it is an additional aspect and therefore compromises the accuracy of the artefact. As Benjamin notes, reproduction “may not touch the actual work of the art”[3].

It therefore, implies that the quality of the original work depreciates with digital reproduction. Depreciation in quality of the fine art work interferes with the meaning of that work. This in turn results into inaccuracy in the reproduced work. Digital version depreciates quality and hence the accuracy of the artefact. In their article on “Cognitive Artefacts in Complex Work”, Jones and Nemeth established that physical artefacts provide “current and valid” representation of the actual state[4].

The physical artefacts provide logically true impression to the artefact lovers while digital versions provide ‘invalid’ impressions due to depreciated quality and authenticity of the original work. In fact, digital equipment such computers and cameras aid and improve cognition but such devices do not provide originality.

How could digital versions of art then replace the physical? It is indeed impossible. Apparently, digital versions results into different meaning and style of the art. Since digital versions distort the accuracy of the original meaning of the artefact, it suffices digital reproduction cannot replace the physical artefact.

Digital versions are unreliable forms of artefacts. As aforementioned, fine artefacts aim to display information[5]. Lovers of these artefacts depend on the artefacts for entertainment. Entertainment is information. Others like literary scholars depend on these artefacts to accomplish their researches. Artefacts should be readily available whenever required for the information. As Jones and Nemeth notes, “computer-based displays that go down” prevent access to this information[6].

We will write a custom Essay on Replacing of Physical Artefacts on the Digital Version specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Breakdown of the digital systems in which the artist has reproduced the artefact impedes such people from accessing the artefacts. In fact, the 21st century technological advancement has led to innovation of high destructive software programs to the digital systems. The digital artefact systems are not exceptions of this malice; on attack, these systems or software may alter the nature or destroy the artefact making it unavailable to the users.

On the other hand, physical artefacts are ‘hardware’ and to some extent permanent. Officials preserve them in museums and other places for easy and formal access. To access the preserved artefacts, one has to follow the formal procedures; therefore, the physical artefacts are indeed reliable, that is, available when required. Digital versions cannot replace the physical versions since they cannot actually provide this reliability.

In versions such as Google art, there is extreme degree of unreliability. To explore such works of art, people have to access the internet. It is outright that internet is not yet cheap to all art lovers; most people will contend this assertion but majority living in regions where art appreciation is high, have no access to frequent and cheap internet.

Again, those who have access to the internet lack sufficient skills to manipulate the graphics of the Google project to acquire the required information. In addition, internet speed required to access such high content graphical web pages is not realizable to most people in the world. In fact, only the Western nations and the United States have access to such levels of internet speeds and reliability.

Reliability means available when required to those who require it. With the limitations of internet in terms of speed, accessibility, and cost, digital versions will not replace the physical artefacts on this basis. It is true that the developed countries create most of digital versions of the artefacts; however, art lovers are not confined in these countries. In fact, according to McLuhan, Africa and Asia are the leading regions in creation of fine arts[7].

This implies that, people in Africa and Asia therefore appreciate fine art more than anywhere in the world; unfortunately, internet availability, access and reliability is low in these regions coupled with biting lack of appropriate computer knowledge. What the developed countries are doing is to reproduce what African and Asian artists have physically created.

These reproductions are not readily available to the said regions due to limitations mentioned earlier. As a result, digital versions of artefacts will not replace physical artefacts particularly in Africa and Asia, where fine art enjoys major appreciation. Therefore, for digital versions to replace physical artefacts in fine arts it should prove reliable to the lovers of the fine arts. Therefore, since this reliability is unrealistic due to the growing destructive technology, digital artefacts cannot replace the physical artefacts.

Digital artefacts cannot replace physical fine artefacts due to the uniqueness and finesse of the physical versions. Benjamin asserts, “A work of art is inseparable from its being imbedded in the fabric of tradition”[8]. Most of the famous fine artworks in human history have had either cultural or religious roots at one time in history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Replacing of Physical Artefacts on the Digital Version by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the Roman Catholic crucifix and monument of mother of Jesus underscores this assertion. Although the crucifix signifies the Ancient Roman tradition, its meaning has transformed considerably to religious kind. Scholars impute the traditional transformation to the attempts by the Catholic Church to reproduce this fine artefact of Ancient Romans.

Traditions, as per Benjamin’s assertion, are unique to every single group of people. Since artefacts have strong traditional roots, it is justified that every artefact is unique and it is difficult to copy or reproduce traditions. Physical artefacts represent traditions and reproducing traditions borders impossibility.

The same way, it is almost impossible to reproduce a physical artefact through digitalization. The reproduction of Mary’s monument throughout the world has also proved difficult, with major variations on her veil. The way of dressing is a tradition and since traditions vary considerably, creating a similar physical artefact manually has proved impossible. How is it possible with digital technology? A two-fold response will satisfactorily answer this question.

First, since the imitation has been impossible with a similar process, (manual carving of the monument) it is very impossible with different processes. Secondly, fine artefacts illustrate the mind and nature of the artist. In fact, artists express their thoughts through these works.

The generation responsible for digital version of artefacts has limited knowledge of most of the traditions before the 19th century. Therefore, the tradition represented in these artefacts is not in their mind. They cannot therefore reproduce these artefacts. Different traditions have unique materials for creation of these artefacts. In fact, the art is useless with a different material of creation. Others have to conform to specific paintings and decorations.

Although digital versions have successfully imitated the feature of colour and decoration, it cannot reproduce the original material of the artefact. Every physical artefact aims to convey a meaning, may be to certain groups of people[9]. These meanings vary depending on the creator and target group of people. For instance, the famous liberty artefact in the United States aims to unite all the states into one nation, a dream of the American ancestors. Other countries may use this artefact to symbolize unity but in different perspectives.

No matter how people may attempt to reproduce am artefact, it is indeed impossible to retain the uniqueness of the original artefact-tradition. The versatility of the digital graphics during creation of these artefacts introduces changes in several aspects and therefore loses the unique features of the physical fine artefact. Therefore, digital versions cannot reproduce the uniqueness of the physical artefact; hence, they cannot replace the physical artefacts.

Digital versions of artefacts are inefficient. As mentioned, fine arts aim to accomplish certain objectives in the society, it may be traditional, cultural or entertainment, whichever way, it should do so efficiently[10]. To accomplish its objective, an artefact should be easy to ‘use’ by the art lovers. Digital versions of artefacts dictate the use of high tech equipment such smart TV, phones and digital computers.

The use of these gadgets presents complications to most artefact lovers[11]. In order to benefit from the artefacts, users should have capabilities to manipulate such gadgets. To view an artefact in certain plane for instance, one has to zoom and navigate within the graphics carefully[12].

The implication here is that, those who cannot operate and manipulate these gadgets therefore cannot achieve the intended meaning of the artefact. The problem becomes worse for those who have sight problems. They cannot see and hence cannot manipulate the features of the artefact. In case of physical artefacts, problems associated with technology are not there for art ‘users’.

For the physically challenged people, they can at least have a feel by touching the artefact. These underlying problems contravene the efficiency of the digital artefact. Complications in viewing the artefact are also notable in digital versions. In order to have a view of some planes of the artefact, one has to zoom, revolve, or even move the artefact within the virtual planes. This however, does not provide the required information clearly.

Zooming may only be efficient to certain scale; otherwise, the view becomes blurred. Revolving the artefact sometimes confuses the user and may end up not realizing the desired view. All these processes in digital versions interfere with the meaning of the physical artefact. In fact, the lovers of art cannot realize the actual feeling brought about by the physical fine artefact through digital versions.

Cost of digital version of artefacts significantly impedes the replacement of the physical artefacts with the digital. Although proponents argue that digital versions of artefacts reduce the cost incurred in travelling to museums to view these artefacts, higher costs are involved in the digital versions.

First, creation cost of such artefacts is very high. It requires specialized skills in graphics or technology. If the artefact is corporate, then the owners have to incur high costs to higher the skill. Secondly, the equipment required to create the artefact is also expensive.

It really requires high capacity computer systems to accomplish the reproduction process. Software is another significant aspect of the cost involved. The process requires specialized software to enhance human-machine interface for excellent outcome. This cost translates to the user of the artefact making it expensive to access some of the art projects online. Internet, as mentioned earlier, also constitutes to the cost; users have to access internet, which might not be available in many places as noted earlier.

The above discussion, proves the digital artefact expensive than the physical artefact. Technology focuses on value addition and cost reduction, which is contrary to the digital version of artefacts. The implication is that, lovers of the art will cling to the physical artefact since they pay less than the digital versions. Therefore, as we create digital versions, it is important to comprehend that it cannot surpass the physical artefacts. Cost is a crucial factor in the lives of many people.

People strive to survive at low costs as possible and that is the human nature, which is difficult to change. High costs of accessing digital artefacts therefore mean that very few people will be willing to access them. This renders the digital artefacts useless to the ‘users’ and therefore cannot replace physical fine artefacts in the market. Because of technological advancement, some malicious people are likely to interfere with the software of the digital systems impeding access to the art.

This scenario accounts for more cost of repair of the systems. Digital artefacts cannot therefore replace physical artefacts due to their high costs of maintenance. For the physical artefacts, the only notable cost is that of the initial creation. Its maintenance and repair is relatively negligible. With cost advantage over digital versions, it is therefore impossible for digital versions to replace the physical fine artefacts.

Again, due to the attitude people have towards cost, the digital version will continue to receive high resistance from the art lovers. This means that physical artefact will enjoy support for considerable period in future. In turn, it implies that digital versions of artefacts will remain in the run up position.

As mentioned earlier, reproduction of the environment of original work is impossible. As a result, digital versions are non-informative. According to Jones and Nemeth, physical artefacts “contain information that pertains to interest” of the art lovers[13]. In physical artefact, there is the feeling of the actual environment of the represented scene.

This artefact illustrates the information, as the ‘user’ would need it. However, on reproduction, the artefact loses some of its aspects, which are important sources of information. Since there is no authenticity in reproduction, the original environment, which would have represented the desired information, is difficult to reproduce.

Although, digital versions enhance convenience for museum tour without travelling, lovers do not achieve the information of their interest. The digital version of artefacts provides difficulties in accessing some aspects of the artefacts[14]. As a result, it does not enhance acquisition of the required information. Since it is still a challenge to most of people to manipulate these systems effectively, majority of the artefact lovers cannot achieve their goals.

It is difficult to create the actual environment as it is for the physical artefact. Environment is very important in depicting the traditions and the cultures illustrated by the physical artefact. Therefore, it is impossible to retrieve information from most of the digital versions. Some people acquire satisfaction through touch. Physical artefacts enhance the art lovers to touch them and contemplate on the feeling.

Touching can also provide information to the lovers of the art. However, this aspect lacks conspicuously in digital artefacts, hence proving it as non-informative. The reproduced digital artefact may also be unclear. Due to complexity of the creation, the artist may truncate some of the aspects difficult to include into the artefact. The difficulty may be a result of the technological challenge.

Truncation therefore implies that ‘users’ cannot access the full information as it would have been in the physical artefact. The complex graphics of the digital systems may also result into ambiguity and confusion of the artefact. These, again impede the ‘users’ from acquisition of the information from their points of interest. Simply, reproduction results into unclear and truncated information of the artefact.

Unclear information is a result of difficulties in reproduction. In addition, lack of some aspects of the artefacts resulting into non-informative nature of digital artefacts illustrates how problematic it is to reproduce an artefact with digital systems. As mentioned, technology is challenging to most people than the manual process.

As one these technologies, digital systems offer significant challenges (technologically) to reproduce the physical fine artefacts. It is therefore justified digital version of artefacts cannot replace the physical artefacts.

Digital technology transforms the structure of the physical artefact. In his essay on “from codex to screen”, Chartier posits that, “Digital version does not only modify the text but the structure as well”[15]. In fine arts, slight alterations of the structure of the physical artefact results into different meanings, culture, and art altogether.

Digital versions, as noted, significantly deform the structure of the physical artefact during reproduction. In order for the artefact to fit into the digital environment, artists have to scale it down. Scaling modifies the structure and as Chartier notes, it results into “a totally different form of art”[16].

Since scaling is inevitable in digitalization, it is difficult to reproduce the physical artefact. Again, some shapes are difficult to illustrate in these digital systems. In order to illustrate them however, artists have to approximate using the possible graphical solutions. Such shapes compromise and alters the structure of the physical artefact.

Due to complexity of the working digital environment, artists may commit unnoticeable errors, which subsequently affect the structure of the artefact. Alteration of the structure of the artefact compromises the originality of the art. If written text with easy codex cannot retain its originality by just copying, what about the complicated art such fine artefacts? It is indeed difficult to reproduce an artefact. Therefore, digital artefact cannot replace the physical artefacts.

Finally, digitalization involves coding and data transformation for the purpose of convenience. Tan and Ong note that these conversions interfere with the originality of the artefacts[17]. The coding involves compression of the size of the original artefact to suit applications for various digital systems. The result is therefore distortion of the physical artefact-what the digital system illustrates is different from what is physically available.

Data transformation of these artefacts, as Basith and Stephen found, further transforms the structure of the artefact. It behaves as series of reproduction such that by the time the internet art lovers view it on the screen it has undergone series of reproduction. As a result, the digital version of the artefact is very far from the original artefact. Therefore, digital version cannot replace the physical artefacts in fine arts.

Conclusion It is impossible to portray the original version of artefacts in fine art through digital version. Original means the reproduction of the aspects of the physical artefacts to the digital version. Paraphrasing Benjamin’s assertions, transfer of these aspects is indeed difficult. Physical artefacts in fine arts have a meaning, which a successful reproduction should reveal.

Accuracy, efficiency, reliability, informative and clarity, uniqueness, structure and cost evidence the implied meaning here. Reproduction should precisely transfer these aspects to the digital version. However, due to difficulty in reproduction, some of the details disappear resulting into inaccurate meaning of the artefact. The digital systems are subject to invasion by malicious people proving the digital versions unreliable. Unreliability also results from inefficiency of the digital systems.

The complexity of the digital creation environment for the artefacts also presents chances of ambiguity in the information displayed by the digital versions of the artefacts. This complexity may result into truncated details of the original artefact. Since every physical artefact has connections with traditions and culture for the artist who created it, any attempt to reproduce it looses the unique features tied to a given tradition.

It is indeed difficult to copy or reproduce traditions. Reproduction into digital version results into alteration of structure of the original artefact. Structure alteration also occurs because of coding and data transformation within the digital systems to ensure that the artefact various applications. Data transformation results into series of reproduction and hence losing the credibility of the original artefact.

Reproduction should maintain the aspects of the original artefact (physical artefact), which is not the case for digital reproduction of the physical artefact. As a result, it is evident that all the aspects of the physical (original) artefact change on reproduction into digital version. It is therefore justified that reproduction is impossible. In fact, what results as Chartier puts it, is a different kind of art, not fine art, on digital reproduction.

With high costs of internet and the digital systems for creation of the artefacts, it is vivid that digital versions of artefacts are not likely to replace the physical artefacts in fine arts in any near future. Possibly, like Chartier argued, the arts, particularly physical, could in future transform into digital technology. At this point in future history, the artists will communicate with their ‘fans’ through digital graphic in the name of ‘digital artefacts’.

However, literary scholars such as the likes of Roger Chartier and William Benjamin (philosopher) will have to come on board to develop the name to the ‘newborn type of fine art’. At this time of the history, the internet and virtual reality addicts will have dominated the world. At the same time, the idea of physical artefacts will be buried deep down into the minds of the great artists; however, for the time being, physical artefact dominates and digital versions of these artefacts cannot replace the physical artefacts in fine arts.

Reference List Basith, S,


Pearson International Australia Branch Report online essay help: online essay help

Introduction When in operation, a business is faced with external and internal factors that influence decisions and the trend of an industry. In Australia, a number of external factors affect businesses operating there in different ways (Fred, 2008). To evaluate the external factors and affect their effects on Pearson International Australia branch, this paper undertakes an S.T.E.E.P. (Social, Technological, Economic, Environment and Political) analysis, Porter’s five forces Model and Competitor’s assessment.

S.T.E.E.P. analysis Social Factors

A business operates in an environment with people who have different cultures, way of doing things, economic and cultural beliefs. A combination of these forms a social environment; in the case of publishers the operating process and quality of books as a result is of great importance. It is important for business coordination be in harmony with the social function of the larger society.

There should be coordination between the values of the company as well as the community. Social norms are considered essential by the business organizations as the purchasing behavior of the customers living in a particular society is dominantly affected by these norms. In the case of Pearson International Australia, branch products offered and the services should be of high quality and responsive to education needs of the people.


Australia has legislation laws that a firm must comply with if it has to undertake business in the country; publishing companies not only need to comply with general legislations but they also have to abide to international quality standards of published material. Companies have to follow the companies’ laws and acts of the international business as well as domestic business.

While working on the global level, the companies have to consider three types of the legal systems including common law, civil law, and theocratic law. The non-compliance with such laws creates critical legal issues for the company, which has an adverse impact on the business performance as well as corporate image of the company. Pearson International Australia branch has minimal influence on the legislations in the country, but is left with no option other than complies with the set legal laws (Haberbeg and Rieple, 2001).


Australia has a monarch kind of government, this does not mean that the country’s political wave is one sided but the resultant is that there is an influence that it has on the business environment. Political environment includes the government systems and judiciary systems, which influence the business of the international organizations.

The political way may determine things such as where the roads are going to be made, who maintains them among other factors. Due to this, the company is required to work according to the government regulations of the foreign countries. Pearson International Australia branch should not take sides in the political scenes of the company; it should as much as possible stay neutral to the system.

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The world is under recession out of world financial crisis that hit it at the end of 2007. This has affected the economic growth of countries that in turn affects a business. Economic environment greatly affects the hospitality business.

The interest groups in a particular geographic area have different levels of prosperity and preferences. This is to be considered by Pearson International Australia branch in its business process. This is because the more economically developed nations can be, the helpful it is in making the company achieve its objectives behind attaining direct marketing.


The publishing industry is affected by technological levels in the world; in Australia, the country has developed reliable technological equipments that have assisted the company to print quality materials. On the other side, technology has shifted the demand for written material books to electronic books. Schools as well as individuals have shifted to written materials; though this is offering the company a challenge, the company has diversified its businesses to other sectors of the economy (Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland, 2003)


Concerns about taking care of Australian environment are in the forefront in government and non-governemental programs. The publishing industry depends on trees and vegetation to get the printing materials, it is the same vegetation the country aims at protecting, this poses a challenge to Pearson International Australia branch; however, it has developed some trees plantations to ensure they have supply of materials.

Porter’s Five forces In 1980, Porter developed a structure for analyzing the nature and extent of competition within an industry. His argument was that, in every industry, there are at least five competitive forces, which establish the nature of competition within that industry. These five forces are discussed below:

– Threat of new Entrants

– Bargaining Power of Buyers

We will write a custom Report on Pearson International Australia Branch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More – Threat of Substitute products or Substitutes

– Rivalry among Existing competitors


Diagram 1

Buyer’s Bargaining Power

The success of a business is dependent with the buyers; they are the customers of a business. They shape the kind of products that a business makes; in the publishing industry, buyers shape the materials and products to be published.

Buyers have the ability to determine which products will move first and which will not. It is through buyers that a company realizes its competitive advantage in the market. The increasing population of the continent have different demands, the demand of certain category of books determine the publishing that the company will have.

Supplier’s Bargaining Power

In the publishing industry, suppliers can be categorized in terms of material suppliers and business suppliers (writers). Australia has a number of suppliers in either category and since Pearson International Australia branch has a good reputation, getting business is easy. To be certain that it gets materials, the company has developed good business relations with the suppliers, and it has also planted plantations of trees to ensure constant supply of raw materials.

Competitive Rivalry in the Industry

Within an industry, there are businesses that compete with one another for the available market share. These businesses either specialize in the production of similar products or differentiated products. In laptops, a number of international companies who specialize in their production, they include Blake Education, Blue Angel Gallery, Borghesi


State Unions in Wisconsin Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Trade unions or workers unions are employees’ organizations that bring the employees together for common objectives that relates to the improvements of various aspects of their work. The unions can be viewed as a collective media through which workers air their grievances.

These unions are normally legally recognized and their existence provided for by the constitution of a country. State employee unions are unions formed by or for workers who are employed by state government in public sectors. These could include unions for state employees such as the police officers, teachers, nurses and other workers in the public sector. This paper seeks to discuss state unions in Wisconsin.

The paper will examine the existence of state unions in Wisconsin, their activities and nature of operations, their challenges in the quest to achieve their objectives and the kind of treatment that the state unions receive from government. The paper will also look at the state’s budget with respect to state union issues with the aim of identifying the motive of the state regarding the unions as well as the nature of relationships between state unions and states. A comparative of the unions in Wisconsin will be made with those in other states.

History of Trade Unions in Wisconsin The state of Wisconsin is recognized for its high living standards and developments. Services provided by the state such as education, health services and water among others are of high quality. Other elements such as scenery have also been developed by the state. It is, however, notable that state unions have played a fundamental role in shaping the nature of the state of Wisconsin.

The effectiveness of labor organizations in the state came to its affectivity following struggles and sacrifices that were made by workers to establish a ground for initializing change in their work environment and even beyond. The history of trade unions in Wisconsin dates back to the nineteenth century. By the year 1865, trade unions had started being formed in the state. A trade union was for example formed in the very year of 1865.

In the year 1867, another workers’ union was formed by shoe makers. This particular union developed to about fifty thousand members in the region of Milwaukee. One of the first impacts of trade unions in the state of Wisconsin was felt in the year 1886 when workers mobilized themselves to halt industrial operations in an attempt to air their grievances in a process that was seen as workers’ protest in the whole nation.

The then action by the nation to counter the workers’ protests by use of military force culminated into formation of an organized movement for workers’ interests. Movements to ensure regulations in the labor force in the state with the interest of protection of workers continued leading to a full fourteen weeks strike in the city of Oshkosh in the year 1898. Some workers were arrested over the strike but their defense won the case (Germanson, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The formations of organizations such as “council of the American federation of labor” (Germanson, 2011, p. 1) and other federated trade councils had by the year 1893 started campaigns for employee protections (Germanson, 2011).

The workers’ organizations included demands for “abolition of child labor, workplace safety, and health protections, the eight-hour day, workers compensation, an end of company stores and requirement to pay wages in cash, not company script” (Germanson, 2011, p. 1). Though not immediately, the demands of the worker were later realized through a series of legislations that established workers’ rights in the state of Wisconsin.

Legislations such as “workers compensation law” (Germanson, 2011, p. 1) in the year 1911, “unemployment compensation” (Germanson, 2011, p. 1) in the year 1932 and “Wisconsin employment relations act” (Germanson, 2011, p. 1) in the year 1937 were formulated to ensure that the welfare and rights of workers were safeguarded (Germanson, 2011). The more than a decade depression that started in the year 1929 motivated registration of workers into unions, a move that employers greatly opposed.

The movement of trade unions then triggered the development of unions among workers in public employments. By the middle of the twentieth century, public sector employees had developed unions that were legally recognized in the state of Wisconsin. Developments in the year 1963 aided by state laws accorded the workers in public sectors more rights that further spearheaded the formation and strengthening of workers unions among the public sector employees.

Some of the workers’ unions among public sector employees formed in this period included unions among teachers, firefighters, police officers among others. State legislators, however, started moves to control the strikes that were witnessed among the state unions offering oppositions to the organizations (Germanson, 2011).

State Unions in the Current Wisconsin The number of state unions in Wisconsin is more than forty five. Most of the state unions are organized on the basis of the types of state departments of employments. Some of the state unions in Wisconsin include “American federation of government employees, American federation of state, county and municipal employees, American federation of teachers, amalgamated transit union, international association of bridge, structural, ornamental and reinforcement iron” (Wisconsin state unions, 2010, p. 1)

The state workers’ unions in Wisconsin are organized and managed in a particular way. The state unions, like other trade unions have representatives who are the links between the government, the employer, and the public employees, the state union members. The representatives act as advisors to both the state and the employees to ensure consensus between the two parties.

We will write a custom Research Paper on State Unions in Wisconsin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The representative’s duties are majorly oriented towards the defense and the protection of employees against the employer. One of the roles of representatives is presenting and negotiating the employees’ interest with the employer, which in the case of public service employment would be a relevant government agency.

In cases where an employee has been summoned for a disciplinary process, union officials or leaders accompany the subject employee into the disciplinary venue and process with the aim of ensuring that the employee is accorded a fair treatment in the whole process.

In cases of disagreements over payments or the nature of environment at work, the unions through their representatives ensures negotiations with the state or state agency to ensure that the demands or needs of employees are considered in the best interest of employees.

The union representatives also take measures to ensure that any form of dispute arising among employees with respect to elements of their work is addressed by the employer. These roles of union representatives are achieved through authoritative powers vested upon the representatives, by employees to bargain with the employer on behalf of employees (Direct, n.d).

Running of State Unions in Wisconsin State unions in Wisconsin and other American states are actively run by officials who are elected by member in meetings and sessions where such elections are held.

The union leaders of particular unions act individually or in collaboration with other unions’ officials to ensure that rights of their members are not violated. The union leaders normally engage the state in dialogue on behalf of their members. The union representatives, however, resort to mass actions involving all union members when negotiations by the unions fail to bear fruits.

Whenever negotiations fail on substantial issues in which rights of union members are at stake, then the officials call upon union members to join them in the fight. The course of action by union members involves demonstrations that call for the state to look into their interests. The calls for mass actions have been characterized by uniting statements such as “together we can turn a new page in the history of Wisconsin’s labor movement” (Wisaflcio, 2011, p. 1).

The strategies for mass actions are normally organized in systematic ways by involving expertise in organizations of such actions. Expertise services are recruited to ensure the organization and mobilization of union members is undertaken successfully for the objective of particular mass action. These specialized organizers also help unions in developing support among union members (Wisaflcio, 2011).

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Even though workers’ movements started a long time ago and have so far made some progress in regard to establishment and protection rights of workers, issues have been currently emerging that negatively impacts the status of workers in public institutions in Wisconsin. State unions have been under constant pressure from the state government a move which has been interpreted as an attempt to undermine the objectives of state unions.

State employees have been faced with a number of difficult circumstances regarding their public service. There have been reductions in workers remunerations as the state moved in to control its expenditure following the economic crisis. Allowances allowed to state workers have similarly been reduced by the state for similar reasons of balancing the state’s economy. Other major issues like loss of jobs by some state workers in retrenchment circumstances have also been witnessed.

In spite of the fact that the rewards offered to these state employees are much less compared to those offered to workers in private sectors, the state employees have had to face this fact and continually offered their services to the state. There have also been issues of laws which have over time been enacted by state legislations to check on the rights of state employees. These legislations have been successful in reducing the rights of the state workers and their ability to bargain over their rights as well as their wellbeing.

State Power Problem The legislations have empowered the state to more authority than that possessed by state trade unions resulting to undermining of state workers by their government employer. The government has for this reason made moves that benefit it in its economic planning while the state workers are on the other hand becoming victims of lower remunerations and reduced benefits together with ineffective bargaining power.

Legislations have also been made to repeal former laws that protected wages of employees. Under the previous regulations on wages, workers both in public and private sectors were protected and ensured reasonable pays in terms of remunerations alone. Regulations were, however, made to repeal the wage protection that previously existed over workers.

The impact of the new laws has been the lost earnings in terms of lost jobs or reduced remunerations. Such losses have impacts on union members at personal levels especially if the affected members are sole bread winners of their families. It is also notable that income distribution is not uniform among state employees in Wisconsin with higher level of state government officials receiving very high remunerations while the middle class employees are poorly paid.

Experts argue that the state would have been more justified if it had regulated the salaries of the exorbitantly rewarded high class public servants in a bid to fairly harmonize wages of public service employees. The state has on the contrary put the burden of the wage regulations on the middle class employee whose are averagely lowly paid (Wisaflcio, 2011).

State unions are currently being faced with problems originating from the state government. Andy Stern (2011) warned that the crisis between the state and its workers is indeed a complex issue. The Republican Party that governs the state is seen withdrawing the rights of employees in the state. The crisis between the state and its employee is however hinted to be a political battle between the two American heavyweight political parties.

The crisis has raised political lines with Rahm Emanuel, a democrat and chief of staff to the United States president Barak Obama making such statements as “this crisis provides the opportunity for us to do things that that you could not do” (Stern, 2011, p. 1). The statement indicates a political motive of disapproval among the democrats and the republicans.

With similar problems experienced or expected in states governed by republicans, according to Stern (2011), a warning may be raised that the crisis is not of a natural cause but rather a product of political ideologies of either the democrats or the republicans. Stern (2011) claimed that the campaign is not just an isolated problem in the state of Wisconsin, but a move that has been engineered in some other fifteen states that are governed by the Republican Party.

If this is the case, then a number of claims, based on party politics, can be made with respect to the nature of this particular conflict. A question can be raised as to why Mr. Emanuel said that he is just watching the crisis like any other American citizen yet he is a member of the federal fiscal commission. The main questions being raised in the Wisconsin crisis are budgetary, and being a member of the state fiscal commission, one expected Mr. Emanuel to present a solution to an American state that is in a crisis.

Whether a direct legal move or a simple implied advice to the Wisconsin state, Mr. Emanuel is expected to have made a statement towards a solution to the crisis rather than a neutral statement of him just watching the crisis. Stern (2011) further raised issues of calling for the dismissal of some state employees such as “teachers, nurses and firefighters” (Stern, 2011, p. 1).

One of the causes of the conflict in Wisconsin is the large budget deficit that the state government has faced. The state of Wisconsin is reported to have projected a budget deficit of close to two billion dollars in the 2012 fiscal year. Analysts have claimed that although other states have equally been faced with deficit forecasts, the state of Wisconsin has made reactions that were uncalled for.

The state is making a step to sacrifice its workers in a step to offset its budget deficit while the expenditure on the public sector servants and their unions does not bear a realizable relationship. The lack of correlation between the budget deficit in Wisconsin and the state servants and state unions mean that the move by the state to cut its expenditure on these two subjects would not really solve the state’s budget deficit (Stern, 2011).

The problems facing public sector employees and the state unions in Wisconsin are similarly attributed to recurrent factors that started long time before the current state governor came to office. The economy of Wisconsin is reported to have been weak for the past one decade.

The impacts of globalization that negatively impacted wage rates and employment rates are claimed to be a significant source of the current crisis in the state of Wisconsin. Economic policies that had been implemented in the state during earlier regimes are also blamed for the establishment of poor investment strategies.

Reports also indicate that in the state of Wisconsin, a majority of state corporations have been exempted from paying taxes and that the contribution of these corporations into the state’s economy has been significantly declining over the last one decade. These observations give a wider view of what could have been the cause of the conflict in Wisconsin state; it has been claimed that these problems have been in existence for almost a decade.

External factors had long caused general loss of jobs in the state as well as reduction in wage rates that were being offered in different sectors in the economy. When state cooperation are operating in competitive markets that are infiltrated by globalized business activities liaising to lower prices of products and revenues generated by the corporations, the state bodies can as well join the private sectors in their attempt to reduce their losses.

If the state bodies failed to take the measures of streamlining their operations, then a time would come when a leader would move to cut the expenditures on the state bodies which are not being productive to the state’s economy. These views would rather defend the position of the Wisconsin governor to reduce the states expenditure on state corporations and state unions.

Management opinions would advise the state government that in the absence of revenues to finance the state corporations, state workers and state unions, the state government ought to take measures to reduce the expenditure on these subjects. Changes in systems are bound to be resisted but whether done by the current governor or another regime, measures must be taken to realign state revenues and expenditures in a manner that will ensure a stable economy (Stern, 2011).

Another school of thought expresses the concern that although there is a problem in Wisconsin that has made the government to make a move against the interest of public workers, the main problem is not the public service expenditure such as pension plans among other benefits. It has been argued that government expenditure on such schemes only requires proper planning coupled with sufficient analysis.

With proper implementations of these two elements the state would be able to fund these benefits as it has been successfully done in the past. Cases of exaggerated or inflated benefits or the dependence of either unreliable or unrealistic investments to fund the benefits are however pointed out as being the main source of problems into the crisis. A question would therefore be asked as to the nature of investments that the state of Wisconsin should venture into.

hether the government should identify the state corporations that have proved unprofitable to the state and reduce or cut expenditure into these institutions leaving them to private sectors or whether the government ought to uphold its expenditure and fail to meet the benefits that its employees are entitled to, is the main problem to be solved. Either case will depend on the current row between the state and its workers and unions. Closing or privatizing the corporations would lead to possible layoffs that would worsen the crisis.

On the other hand, maintaining the workers and failing to finance their benefits would also be seen as infringement of the rights that have all along existed for the state workers. The governor has therefore been put in a situation where he has to choose between pleasing the state workers by maintaining the status quo or by taking initiatives to steering the state’s economy to self-reliance (Stern, 2011).

In consistency with a previous representation in this paper, opinions have also been raised over political aspects of the move by the governor to cause changes affecting his workers as well as their state unions. In his move to review the terms under the power and responsibilities of state unions, the governor chose to exclude some departments of the state’s corporations.

Notably exempted from the governors changes are the “police fire fighters and other and other safety workers” (Stern, 2011, p. 1). These categories of state employees are reported to have some of the highest benefits yet they have been excluded from the governor’s changes. There are further reports that this group of employees showed significant support to the governor and his republican party in the former elections.

This discriminative move, as it could be perceived by the rest of the public employees, could have played a major role in the move by the state unions to resist the changes that were proposed by the governor. An alternative case where changes in legislation are identified to be based on general aims of saving the state’s economy could have raised different reactions among state employees and the state unions.

It would be easier to convince the trade unions that the changes were meant for the general good of the public as well as the state’s economy, convincing the state unions and workers to sacrifice their interests in the spirit of patriotism. The selective application of changes by the state, which are further identified to be discriminatory and revenge oriented, are more of a provocation on the state workers.

The general exemptions of groups of people from the changes indicate a direct partiality in exercising authority of the governance office. State unions especially the ones whose professions have been affected, owing to the fact that most state unions in the state of Wisconsin are based on professional background of workers, would therefore fight the governor’s changes on the basis of discrimination. It is in the first place against the constitution to discriminate people based on their opinion.

The changes, being political, could enlist the support of the main political opponents of the Republican Party (the democrats) into a battle of disapproval. Agents of the democrat’s party could for example incite and finance state unions just for the sake of overshadowing the Republican Party on the basis of poor policies. Another point of view could be raised over the exemption of the above mentioned departments in the changes. It has been evident that some exemptions are generally necessary in the application of law.

A case example is the constitutional limitation of the drinking age to twenty one years in most if not all of the American states. A similar view could be posted on the governor’s exemption of these state departments. It is evident that all the state departments that were exempted from the changes were departments that deal with security issues.

The exemption could have been just on the mere basis of the sensitivity of their area of work, or due to the fact that their line of duty has not been infiltrated by the private sector’s investments. The sensitivity of their line of duty to the state as a whole would warrant their exemption from the changes since their protest and further boycott of duty would put a lot of state aspects at great risks.

If their line of work has not been ventured into by private sector investors, then these department would be among the few government corporations that are still been generating revenues to the state government. In this case, the governor would be justified to uphold their status in order to continue getting the revenues obtained from these state departments (Stern, 2011).

The Situation in Wisconsin and how it correlates with other states Supporting the opinion that the crisis in Wisconsin has been politically motivated is an idea that other states governed by Republican Party members have experienced; this has been especially for the states which have effected similar changes. The concept is therefore that even though the Republican Party won the governor seats, they had not been favored by state employees.

This could be due to the fact that the Republican Party was previously in power and they failed to consider the plights of employees in the public sector. It could also been argued that the republican win was due to support they received from voters who were not state employees while receiving direct criticism for state unions. This could have fuelled the hatred among the Republican Party officials leading to the unfair treatment that they have now plotted against state employees (Stern, 2011).

The state budget is identified to have a deficit and this fact is acceptable to most of the citizens and eve state workers in the state of Wisconsin. The only issue that people seem not to agree upon is if the state employees were the best group to bear the burden of the deficit in the state budget. Statements from personalities such as Kevin Gibbons expressed fears that “Governor Walker is using this financial crisis as an excuse to attack unions” (Davey and Greenhouse, 2011, p. 1).

It has further been noted that other states governed by the Republican Party are most likely to emulate the actions witnessed in the state of Wisconsin. The new York times recorded Mr. William giving his opinion that although the issue of budget deficit was a national problem, republican governors were noted to use state workers and state unions as the sole strategy of cutting the budget deficits (Davey and Greenhouse, 2011).

Conclusion A budget deficit has been notable in a number of states in the United States of America. This deficit problem has led to the Wisconsin governor taking steps to make changes in public sectors, affecting state employees and state unions. The specific step of changes in the public sector has however raised protest among state unions and even experts who comprehend the move as an excuse to punishing state employees on political grounds.

Other states that are governed by republican candidates are also seen to have adopted similar moves to that in Wisconsin. The issue of offering the state workers same salaries as other employees in private sectors would not be feasible though it is justifiable. This follows the changes in economies that were affected by factors like globalization.

The state unions are seen to be at high risks of falling into the changes initiated in Wisconsin and the other republican governed states following the fact that these states have majority of republican legislators in the states. The unions might therefore not survive in these states.

References Davey, M. and Greenhouse, S. (2011). Angry demonstrations in Wisconsin as cuts loom. Web.

Direct. Trade union representatives. Web.

Germanson, K. (2011). Wisconsin labor history society. Web.

Stern, A. (2011). Wisconsin union fight is really a 15-state GOP campaign to strip workers off their rights. Web.

Wisaflcio. (2011). Wisconsin state AFL-CIO. Web.

Wisconsin state unions. (2010). Wisconsin state unions. Web.


Types of Questions and Interview Structure Essay best college essay help

Introduction All human resource professionals appreciate the fact that attracting and retaining the best manpower for a specific job depends largely on the effectiveness of the recruitment, short listing, selection and interview criteria. There are a number of factors that affect the effectiveness of these stages and hence the decisions regarding the “best applicant.”

The success in every of the stages depends on both the job seeker and the employer through the human resource section (Buckley, Norris, and Wiese, 2000; 116). The types of questions asked in the interview as well as the structure of the interview process itself is one of the many factors that play a crucial role in selecting the best applicant for the specified job.

Upon being shortlisted and possibly securing a chance to interview with the desired company, it is important that the candidate prepares adequately to deal with questions that may be asked in the interview. One has to practice how to respond to a number of questions put forward by the interviewing panel. This helps in gaining confidence when the day comes. However, interviewers are usually turned off by answers which sound as though they have been rehearsed.

Therefore, it is the good type of questions that can positively affect the selection of the best applicants for a given position (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994; 8). It is important to note that different interviewers have different interviewing approaches. There are, however, three main types of interviews; structured interview, unstructured, and behavioral interviewing style.

Types of Questions It is evident, therefore, that the types of questions asked in an interview determine the quality of candidates selected for employment. Most human resource professionals encourage the use of specific questions which are tailored to suit the goals of the company/employer (Barclay, 1999; 138). Interview questions may be categorized into main subjects of interest.

These include; intrinsic and motivational factors, skills and abilities, knowledge of the organization, career goals and objectives, experiences in the desired area, extracurricular activities and college experiences, academic programs and achievements, hypothetical questions, accomplishments and achievements, geographic preferences, and salary and benefits. Asking the right questions in each of the category will go a long way in getting the best from the pool of applicants for a given position (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002; 21).

Intrinsic and motivational factors Under this section, the interviewer gets to know the interviewee through the primary interaction. The interviewer may ask the candidate to describe him/herself, describe who or what had the greatest influence on his/her life, the greatest challenges that he/she has ever faced in life, personal strategies of handling rejection, and factors which motivate him/her to deliver the best in any given situation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By asking these and similar questions, the interviewer is able to identify the source of motivation for the applicant (Dixon, Wang, Calvin et al., 2002; 397). This knowledge is paramount since it determines the suitability of the qualities exhibited by the interviewee for the job on offer.

Skills and abilities Any employer is interested in knowing the skills and abilities possessed by the applicant since this is one of the major reasons why people have to be hired (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002; 19).

The interviewer will be interested in knowing some of the skills and abilities that the candidate has that will give him/her a cutting edge in modern competitive job market, the reasons why the applicant thinks the organization should employ him/her, the interviewee’s opinions about working in a team, the opinions of the interviewee as far as the relationships between members in the hierarchical structure of the organization, the applicant’s experience of dealing with a very difficult person, personal ways of organizing time especially during school/work/play, individually perceived strengths and weaknesses, the most preferred organizational structure, communication or problem-solving skills, and leadership styles, perceived challenges when it comes to new ventures like a new career, and personal consideration of what an ideal job would be (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002; 24).

Knowledge of the company The interviewer uses this category of questions to find out if the applicant has done his/her homework as far conducting a research of what the organization is all about is concerned. The interview panel would want to know the reasons why the applicant chose their company, the individual’s expectations of the given company, the motivation behind selecting the industry, and most importantly they would want to know what new contribution the applicant will make to the organization (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994; 9).

By asking such questions, the interview panel would end up getting the most desired employee(s) who has broad knowledge of the company and hence making it easier to undertake induction sessions once employed.

Career goals and objectives This category of questions is crucial in determining whether the interviewee has career goals and objectives which are in line with the mission of the organization. In order to achieve this, the interviewer would to know the applicant’s short-range and long-range goals and aspirations including the strategies of achieving them, goals and objectives over a specified period like 3 years or 10 years, and the interviewee’s personal feeling about the profession of interest.

The responses from the interviewee would be useful in enhancing the effectiveness of selecting the best applicant for the open opposition (Hagevik, 2000; 61).

We will write a custom Essay on Types of Questions and Interview Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work experiences Virtually all job advertisements have a requirement on past experiences and this has proved to be a turn off for many potential applicants. Employers would want to employ someone who has an idea of what is expected of him/her. Work experience in the same or related job would be an added advantage for any applicant.

The interviewer may ask the interviewee about prior work experiences, past major accomplishments, opinions about what former employers would say about the applicant, the projects that were achieved during the interviewee’s time on the job, the strategies and challenges when it comes to meeting deadlines, the most and least enjoyed job experiences, the toughest job assignment ever handled, and the personal experiences of solving what may be termed as conflict situations (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994; 10).

Other important areas The interviewers are also usually interested in knowing the applicants’ academic programs and achievement, extracurricular activities and experiences while in campus, asking hypothetical questions, other important achievements and accomplishments, geographical preferences, and lastly about salary expectations and related benefits. These help in getting more information from the applicant that would enhance the selection process (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994; 11).

Interview structure Different organizations adopt varying interviewing structures and styles but all are designed to achieve the same mission; selecting the best applicant for the open job. There are three major interview styles: structured, unstructured, and behavioral interview style. They are differentiated by the ways of engaging the applicants during the interview process particularly the interrogative aspect.

In situations where structured interview is used, the interviewer asks the interviewee a given set of questions (Barclay, 1999; 135). In some instances, the recruiter may note the responses to specific questions. This type of interview is quite rigid as well as formal in that answers to some questions are straight forward. The interviewer may ask the applicant to state his/her career goals and objectives.

In an unstructured interview, the interviewer will interact freely with the applicant in a conversational manner (Kennedy, 1999; 110). The questions are asked in a random manner without necessarily referring to a list. Questions for clarification may be asked by the interviewer.

In this type of interview the recruiter may just initiate the conversation and allow the interviewee to discuss his/her qualifications and suitability for the job on offer (Kennedy, 1999; 110). “Tell me about yourself,” is a common question by the interviewer in an unstructured interview.

The third type is the behavioral interview where the interviewer asks specific questions of how the applicant may have dealt with a given kind of conflict situation (Hagevik, 2000; 61). The applicant would also be interrogated on how he/she would respond to a challenging situation in the process of doing the job on offer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Types of Questions and Interview Structure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interviewer would be interested to find out how the applicant may have handled a conflict situation in the recent past. The information obtained would be used to predict likely behavior of the applicant in future experiences.

Conclusion From the above categories of questions asked in an interview, some may be behavioral, structured or unstructured in nature. This implies that there is no single style that may be used during the interview process (Barclay, 1999; 147). Interviewers have been known to ask the same or related questions in most occasions. The interviewer, in an attempt to judge temperament, may ask improper questions which may arouse the applicant. This may include reference to; ethnicity, age, family and religious background, and or some form of disability.

Due to the positive impacts that these questions have on the quality of the selected applicants, it is necessary that human resource professionals and selectors tailor their questions according to the nature (mission and goals) of the organization. The human resource professionals should, therefore, ensure that the applicants are aware of the type of interview that is going to be used. This will ensure that the best applicant is selected for the advertized position.

References Barclay, J. (1999) “Employee selection: a question of structure,” Personnel Review, 28 (1


The Play “Fifth of July” by Lanford Wilson Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction As the title dictates, the play was first acted during Independence Day which falls on the fifth day of July, 1978 in Lebanon. The theme of the story focuses on the rebirth of America. The rebirth can be connected to the launch of new events in the lives of the characters. The characters in the play are Talley’s family, and some of their friends.

The play cast includes Sally Talley (Ken and June aunt), Kenneth Talley Jr. (June’s brother), June Talley (Shirley’s mother), Shirley Talley (Ken’ niece), John Landis (Shirley’s father), Gwen Landis (John’s wife), Jed Jenkins (Ken’s friend) and Weston Hurley (Gwen’s guitarist).

The beginning of the play depicts mixed feeling of deception and self- denial among the characters. For instance, Ken Talley denied himself the progress his disability state for thirteen years, everyone was kept in the dark about Shirley’s biological father (apart from John, June and Ken) and aunt Sally has refused to let go her dead husband’s ashes (Wilson 14).

The play’s climax with the tussle in the selling of the family house, which Ken had decided to sell to Landis for recording purposes, but his Aunt Sally Tally, manages to sell it to Jed Jenkins for botanical purposes.

Minor characters Shirley Talley

Although John Landis is currently married to Gwen, Shirley is his biological daughter with June Talley. Shirley is portrayed as being disobedient to her June, a characteristic which can be linked to the fact that she was brought up by Sally Talley and not her biological parents. Shirley does not know her biological father and mother and regards Matt as her father and Sally as her mother. Wilson (29) asserts that,when Mr. Matt dies, she becomes hysterical about the proposed scheme of dispatching his ashes in the river.

Like her mom June, she abuses drugs though the concept of sexual intercourse makes her go berserk, maybe as a result of witnessing John making love to Gwen. The idea of art fascinates her and is seen as being involved in the art industry in the future. Her biological father is in a legal melee to take complete control of her custody but his efforts prove futile and she remains with June.

It is seen that Gwen is a sterile as to the main reason probably to why john wants full custody of Shirley. Shirley eventually gives in to the idea of calling June mom. Shirley, being the youngest in the Talley’s in the play, is seen the progression factor of the Talley’s family tree (Wilson 74).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weston Hurley

Weston Hurley is Gwen’s guitarist-composer. He is portrayed as being an voracious reader, and his Eskimo story is an complete interpretation of the entire play. He is also painted as an conscientious man who drives across his points by the use of figurative speeches. He is a reserved man who prefers mostly to play his guitar than indulge in lengthy conversations with others.

Weston’s Eskimo tale can be directly connected to the unfolding in the play, whereby the frozen meat may be linked to the uncertainties surrounding everyone (Wilson 89). For instance, aunt Sally’s refusal to discard the ashes, Ken’s self-denial of progress for such a long time, Shirley’s denial of June her motherly obligations towards her, John’s seeking custody of Shirley and self-denial of conjugal rights between Jed and Ken.

It can be established that unlike in the Eskimos story where the family perished due to hunger due to decay of the meat, the play casts managed to eat the rotten meat and survive. This can be connected to Aunt Sally, eventually agreeing to discard the ashes on Jed’s garden, Shirley, agreeing to call June mom, John allowing June custody of Shirley, Ken agreeing to win back his teaching career and Jed and Ken reviving their gay relationship (Wilson 94).

Gwen Landis

Gwen Landis is the wife of John Landis who is portrayed as one who cannot foster children. She is a very rich woman and the beneficiary of a copper mining company from her parents (Wilson 126). She claims to always enjoy sexual intercourse whenever there’s an audience.

She is fascinated by sex so much that she takes an active role to encourage Ken that his state of disability should not deter him from enjoying sex. She even goes to the extent of thanking God for sustaining Ken’s sexual performance after he lost his legs in Vietnam. Gwen is also determined and hardworking, in that, despite experiencing tremendous moments in her music career, she never gave up (Wilson 104). Also, she was able to manage the copper company on her own to the amazement of her husband John (Wilson 135).

Her husband John had planned to delink her from the copper business but we see Gwen under covering his intentions and publicly declaring his evil intentions. Gwen has a phobia when it comes to death matters. This is seen when she cannot contain herself in Matt’s funeral, thus she begs her husband to comfort her. She quickly brushes the idea of Matt’s remain in the box and substitutes it with chocolate waiting to be fed to the fish as affirmed b Wilson (114).

Conclusion The play highlights the principle of always taking what is at hand when faced with a hard situation. The righteous can be directly linked to Weston Hurley Eskimo’s tale, that instead of giving up and allowing hunger to kill you, you should at least feed on the stale meat to survive. We are reminded that, we should not give up simply because we fear that we have come to the end but we always modify the present situation out of the existing problem.

We will write a custom Essay on The Play “Fifth of July” by Lanford Wilson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Wilson, Lanford. Fifth of July. New York: Hill and Wang, 1979


International Market Entry Strategies Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

Relation between emotional intelligence and employee performance The intellectual process that is pertinent in the management of an individual’s state of emotion as well as ability to recognize feelings and experiences of others are all important elements of emotional intelligence. Besides, emotional intelligence enables a person to achieve, plan and motivate others who may be in need.

Similar to myriad of definitions and applications of other organisational behaviour terms as adopted by different scholars, there are various viewpoints that have been used to define emotional intelligence. In spite of the fact that human emotion has been presumed to lack coherent organisation, disruptive and equally characterized by inability to adjust, some of the latest theories on human psychology underscore the integral role played by emotions in organizing and directing human activity.

In this paper, the relationship between emotional intelligence and the overall performance of employees in organizations has been discussed. Empirical research models have been applied throughout the essay in order to obtain objective reporting from various viewpoints.

In a research study by Rangriz and Mehrabi[1], the Red Crescent Societies employees were surveyed on their work performance in relation to individual emotional intelligence. In the empirical study, questionnaires were used to collect data. The four part questionnaire sought to gather data both on employee performance in the organisation as well as their emotional intelligence. In the first section, a total of six questions were asked detailing the Red Crescent Societies in terms of organizational structure and employee population statistics.

In the second section, the emotional intelligence of Red Crescent Societies employees were featured. Organisational competence of each of the individual employee was addressed in the third section while the fourth section sought to gather information on the performance of employees. The research study incorporated a total of 116 employees derived from across the organisation, namely top managers to subordinate workers.

The marital status of the respondents was also an important factor to consider in the survey. Out of those interviewed, 25% were not married while the remaining 75% were married. Those who were between the ages of 20 and 30 constituted only about 19 % of the total respondents while the age bracket of 31-35 made up of 33.3% of the respondents while the remaining percentage were adults aged above 35 years.

In terms of working period, respondents who had been in employment for 15 years and below were slightly over 70%. Only 30% had exceeded a working period of 15 years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As already mentioned, there were two main parts in the research survey. The first part dealt with demographics of the organisation while the second part utilized five point Likert- type scales as a way of obtaining the right correlation between employee performance and emotional intelligence.

Perceptual measures have been employed by several researchers in the past in an attempt to establish the correlation between emotional intelligence and the performance of employees.[2]

On the same note, this empirical research study conducted in Iran used a similar approach albeit slight modifications to fit the unique working environment and organizational structure. In order to obtain a qualitative measure of emotional intelligence, a multi-dimensional measure was used. This measure utilized self-reported ratings as the benchmark of the survey.

Using the five point scale, both the employees and managers were asked attach some degree of importance to the given ratings namely 5= “always” to 1= “never”. The four emotional intelligence dimensions would later be used to rate each one of them in relation to their performance at work. The dimensions included in this self-reporting included relationship management, social awareness, self-managerial as well as self-understanding.

This study also made use of perceptual measures that had been earlier applied and unanimously adopted by researchers on emotional intelligence and employee performance.[3] Similar to the above analysis, employees were requested to do self reporting based on two employee performance dimensions.

The first dimension in the survey was the satisfaction of the organisation with employee performance while the second dimension used was the level of employee performance in the organisation. The employees were supposed to attach their individual level of importance of each dimension. The inevitable variances that featured in the survey were explained using some controlled variables. Both gender and age were employed as controlled variables.

In order to compare the emotional intelligence between males and females, a “U- Man Vitni” testing measure was employee. From the research findings, it was evident that gender does not significantly contribute towards emotional intelligence. In addition, employee performance was found to be not reliant on either the male or female gender.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on International Market Entry Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, the emotional intelligence of managers and employees are not significantly different.[4] However, it was found out that employee performance has a direct correlation with emotional intelligence.

In another separate study by Shahzad et al., the researchers attempted to relate emotional intelligence efficacy with the performance of employees in a Pakistani telecom employees.[5] After the process of data collection, the effects of the four pertinent components of emotional intelligence were reviewed. These were relationship management, the ability to be self and socially aware as well as being able to manage one self.

Questionnaires were used to gather information. As suggested by the researchers, it was pertinent for the telecom organisation to put into consideration the role played by emotional intelligence in determining the performance of employees. A growing body of research is also laying more emphasis on the momentous role that emotional intelligence can play in the overall performance of employees.

Some of the latest research on this subject suggests that cognitive ability or general intelligence does not have any major influence on the performance of employees at workplace. One of the latest meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and performance involving a total of 69 research studies that were carried out independently revealed a lot on the relation between the two parameters[6].

In the research survey, a total of 4158 participants took part in the 69 studies. Out of the survey, 23 were directly linked with the performance at work while cognitive ability only accounted for 22. Hence, it imlplies that job performance can be slightly predicted by emotional intelligence and success in ones career. Similarly, employees who are not well endowed with both emotional and social intelligence tend to perform more poorly at workplace than their peers who have a higher emotional and social intelligence.

Such groups of employees are also found to be highly conscientious and as a result of their relatively low emotional intelligence, their productivity at workplace is equally low. For managers who are highly performing, it has been concluded that they have a higher emotional competence compared to those whose performance are lower.

In another meta-analysis study, the satisfaction of employees was investigated against the outcomes or return levels of 38 different companies.[7] From the survey of 38 companies, it was evident that productivity and profitability of each of the organisation under survey relied heavily and significantly on employee satisfaction, a managerial element closely tied to performance at an individual level.

The level of engagement of employees at the place of work and their eventual output was found to be practically of substantial value, suggesting that emotional intelligence was a significant factor in the output of performance of employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Market Entry Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another research study was undertaken in the city of Belgaum to determine some of the latent and visible factors that determine the level of performance of the top management team.[8] In particular, the study targeted supervisors and managers. This group of employees were both working at an automobile retail outlet.

The most important parameter that was being investigated was the impact of emotional intelligence on their performance at work. The slightly modified perceptual method used in the research study concluded that emotional intelligence plays a significant role in determining the work output of these supervisors and managers.

Senior level managers amounting to one hundred and ten were also incorporated in an empirical research study in a study conducted to determine their differences in leadership styles and performance as top level employees.[9] Three types of leadership and how each type affects the performance of a leader were considered in this study. In the prediction, questionnaires were used to gather information on self reporting of each individual manager.

After the analysis of the raw data, the empirical evidence suggested that transformational type of leadership style among the 110 senior mangers interviewed was highly compatible with vivid elements of emotional intelligence. This implied that mangers who embraced transformational type of leadership were highly likely to e high performers at workplace more than those who favoured laissez faire or transactional leadership.

In a separate but similar research study conducted by William and Carol, varied industries consisting of 24 different project managers were investigated against their different abilities in project management and styles of leadership.[10]

From the research results, the researchers concluded that the performance of each of the project under the managers was largely dependent on the type of leadership employed in running the project. It was evident that transformational leadership accelerated project performance more than the other two types of leadership. Additionally, it is a clear indication that emotional intelligence has a direct bearing on the overall output level of any given project.[11]

A study by William Brown et al. attempted to establish the relationship that existed between desirable outcomes in an organisation as well as emotional intelligence.[12] The type and nature of leadership was also incorporated in the study with the need to investigate whether leadership style would affect organisational performance at any level. In the empirical study, some 2,411 workforce participated in the study. This pool of employees comprised of the professional staff, engineers and workers positioned at the manufacturing level.

Contrary to other previous studies, this empirical research did not find any correlation between emotional intelligence and expected or valued outcomes within an organisation. Nonetheless, this single research study cannot overrule several concluding findings which agree that organizational performance is highly favoured among employees with high emotional intelligence, and that intelligence quotient is not a visible factor when investigating desired organisational outcomes.

In a participatory research survey involving a sample of 225 employees drawn from Lebanon, it was found out that emotional intelligence was an inevitable variable in the determination of employee performance.[13] Four main components of emotional intelligence were used to analyze the data gathered from self-reporting questionnaires.

Social awareness and social skills in addition to self-motivation and regulation were important emotional intelligence parameters in the study. Besides, both the managers and low level employees were incorporated in the research so that a balanced scorecard could be found. Basic competences of each of the employee were well captured in the questionnaire.

From the research results, different emotional intelligence scores were depicted among females and males. For instance, while self-awareness was highly scored by females, self-motivation and regulation was the strongest emotional intelligence among males. The female participants were also found to be highly skilful in their social life while the level of managerial position depicted the magnitude of emotional intelligence.[14]

In summing up, it is imperative to reiterate that while some studies have failed to establish a strong link between employee performance and emotional intelligence, most of the recent empirical research studies unanimously agree that the latter plays a vital role in determining the desired organizational outcomes among workers at all levels.

Additionally, while the impact of emotional intelligence on profitability and growth of an organisation may be insignificant in some cases, it has been concluded beyond any reasonable doubt that emotional intelligence and transformational type of leadership go hand in hand, and will highly favour organizational growth and individual output of employees.

Bibliography Bob, Wall. Working Relationships Using Emotional Intelligence to Enhance your Effectiveness with Other (1st ed.). New York: Davies.

Black Publishing, 2008. Gerald, Matthews, Richard D. Roberts,


Product Development Management Report essay help online

Table of Contents Summary

Maximizing Customer’s Needs

Product development


Summary For any manufacturing industry to make any meaningful success in the competitive market, proper management of the new product development process, is a must to ensure the correct products are rolled to the market at the right time at a reasonable cost otherwise the industry has to make losses. Production is a multi-factorial process involving much planning and management which must be done with the aim of maximizing product fit with market need, shorten development process, and minimize development costs.

Maximizing Customer’s Needs Maximizing customer’s needs ought to be the first priority and this must be achieved with extensive market study and research. This will enable delivery of not only customer requirements but also at an affordable price. Apple’s Newton Message Pad failed due to failure to meet customer’s need while on the other hand Phillips failed due to production of both very sophisticated and expensive product.

Massive losses can be minimized by cutting down on development time society that the products hit the market at the optimum time neither too early nor too late. Bringing products to the market brings customer loyalty and early market capture while late entry may find that market has already been taken. In addition production costs are likely to be cut in the process though rushing may compromise on quality of the products. The whole process of development must be both effective and efficient for profit maximization.

Product development Product development takes place in stages which may occur either sequentially or concurrently and it is the work of production managers to make sure that product design, concept development and manufacturing in every stage is coordinated for optimum results and also for early detection of flaws or feasibility.

Project championing is important in that project managers can take the challenges and responsibility of the project. Project managers are better positioned to integrate communication and cooperation from different branches and levels of production. They can provide the drive and the motivation needed to take the risk in the project. However precaution must be taken to ensure that too optimistic managers do not push projects further into losses even when it is evident the project is failing.

Development process will bear much result if both customers and suppliers are involved in the development process. Most manufacturing industries involve customers in the manufacturing process by releasing semi finished or beta products to access the response of the customers. Suppliers are also involved in order to make sure that different supplies are incorporated in the manufacturing process whilst at the same time checking on timeliness and cost.

Improving new product development process can be made through techniques such as stage gate processes whereby the viability of the whole project is rigorously checked at every level. Design for manufacturing involves techniques such as making of prototypes, use of Computer-aided design (CAD) to build and test new design before the actual manufacturing. Computer aided manufacturing enhances quality product manufacturing by use of computer controlled automated production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Measuring new product development performance is important in ensuring that the goals previously set are actually met and making timely corrections when the need arises. By use of various product development process metrics different dimensions of the firm’s potential to complete a given project successfully as per previously set targets are analyzed. All this concepts, stages and processes are important in ensuring effective new product development process.


International monetary systems Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Exchange rate regime is a system applied by the countries to administer their respective currencies against other major currencies of the world (Rogoff, 2004:9). Exchange rate regime has three basic types. Floating exchange rate is rate determined by the market demand and supply forces of a country currency. Usually the central banks intervenes the exchange rate in order to check or regulate depreciation or appreciation of the currency in the market. The floating exchange rate is used by some countries like USA, UK and Japan (Quirk 1987:12).

Pegged exchange rate pegs a nation’s currency to a given value. The currency value is monitored to avoid it from deviating from the pegged point. The Last rate is the fixed exchange rate which ties the currency to another currency and the rates can be directly converted into other currencies. Fixed exchange rates regime is important in reducing country inflation (Chamberlin


Impact of IMCI Implementation in Kenya Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Increasingly, a number of parents are reported to be seeking children healthcare provision in hospitals, healthcare centers, traditional healers, and doctors just to mention but a few. However, research report affirms that many children are insufficiently attended to by the aforementioned providers and their parents are not well educated in the process (WHO 1).

This is more compounded in the developing world like Kenya where some healthcare systems are dysfunctional or not existing, and drugs are sometimes unavailable.

Broadly speaking, most of the services provided do not offer comprehensive services, and oftentimes, rely on history and obvious systems in their course of treatment (WHO 4). Because of these factors, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF are seeking to mitigate these dilemmas by introducing the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Strategy (WHO 6).

Simply defined, ICM refers to an ’integrated approach to child health that focuses on the well-being of the whole child’ (WHO 6).

The objective of this system strategy is the elimination and maintenance of diseases and conditions leading to reduced child mortality and disability within a child’s first five years. It encompasses both ‘preventive and curative’ methodologies of disease prevention, treatment, and management incorporated in families and communities (WHO 9).

Components of IMCI Strategy Generally, the components are three as follows:

Improving Case Management Skills of Health-Care Staff;

Improving Overall health Systems;

Improving Family and Community Health Practices (WHO 8).

IMCI in Kenya In Kenya, good steps in implementation and evaluation of the progress of IMCI strategy have been made. Regardless, full implementation of it remains largely narrow (Goodman and Mullei 2). Government priority in IMCI implementation is key in reduction of deaths.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, regardless of this implementation details and attempts, child mortality has not been fully tackled and remains high, indeed, statistically, 115 of every 1000 children born die before they are five years of age (Goodman and Mullei 9). The causes of the child mortality have been identified as mainly associated with pneumonia, malaria, measles, malnutrition, and diarrhea. These have remained largely problematic killers for children due to lack of proper primary healthcare in the country (Goodman and Mullei 9).

In the year 2007, most districts in the country were already executing IMCI, with a saturated bias towards enhancing skills in Case Management and ‘Health Care Delivery Systems’ (Goodman and Mullei 8). The good news to this has largely been that a number of developmental organizations working in the country have training anchored and facilitated to main healthcare workers and managers in most marginalized parts of the country (Goodman and Mullei 8).

Basically, the Components of IMCI, which are being implemented, are as identified the World Health Organization as follows.

Improvement of Case Management Skills

This entails attendance by health workers training course that lasts 11 days. The training usually encompasses illumination into the common diseases and conditions that affect children. In the process, assignments related to the training are given and followed up within a period of 6 to 8 Weeks (Goodman and Mullei 7).

Improvement of Healthcare delivery systems

This is done through the enhancement of quality facilities in terms of quality and appropriateness of drugs and health care equipments. Beyond this, health care providers are sufficiently supervised.

Community IMCI

This is about Community and Family education, as well as their participation in health matters. It involves among others, awareness creation and campaigns against practices that facilitate some disease acquisition or inhibition of seeking health care when some diseases are discovered. Moreover, it fights both cultural and religious impediments towards better health practices and promotion.

Challenges of Implementing IMCI in Kenya Claeson


Creating Improvements through Incentives Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction



References List

Introduction While cash rewards programs are an essential factor in many companies’ employee retention strategies, they do not alone guarantee satisfied employees. In every organization, there are managers assigned to ensure that employees complete their assignments in an efficient manner.

In order to achieve this obligation, the managers should have the capacity to motivate the employees. (Rosenbloom


Disney Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Transformation of managerial skills Walter’s period

For over the decades, Disney has experienced significant transformation in successful managerial skills. The transformation has been due to change of individual managers and the existing market conditions. There are two major transformation illustrated in this case. The first occurred during Walter’s period while the other came during Eisner’s period.

The managerial skills have changed from participative management to scientific management. In fact, in some instances managers have used almost all known skills of management. This has transformed into the blended form of management with hybrid managerial skills. On its formation, the then management applied various skills in operation of the organization.

Specialization and division of work was the first managerial skill used. As evidenced by Walter and his brother, Roy, the organization extensively deployed specialization (Walter Disney Co, 2011, p.1). Roy headed the finances while Walter led the creative department. They also divided the organization’s roles among the employees based on skill and talent. These skills led into strategies, which enabled the employees to focus their energies and talents to their areas of specialization.

The managers used people-oriented leadership blended with some aspects of task-oriented leadership to administer their respective departments. Non-hierarchical organization in which the management put the interest of its employees first, manifests this kind of managerial skill. However, the management also focused on the individual performance of its employees.

There was also the element of participative management, in which the managers emphasized on cooperation and teamwork among the employees. Walter encouraged teamwork and cooperation (Walter Disney Co, 2011, p.1). The managers also used the scientific skills of management, as illustrated by Walter’s common saying that every employee should be dedicated for creativity. As a result, the organization grew to become among the best in the entertainment industry.

Eisner’s period

In his period, as the chairperson, Eisner transformed the management skills into the concept of learning organization. Learning organization aimed to empower the employees to enhance their creativity for the growth of the company. During this period, the management was a blend of variety of management theories such as participative, scientific, administrative and learning organization.

Learning Organisation

Learning organization is very critical for the Disney’s organization due to several reasons. First, learning organization concept enhances innovation. Application of learning organization empowers employees thus enabling them to cultivate self-efficacy (Samson


Craig’s Crocodiles, Inc. Report (Assessment) cheap essay help

Table of Contents Mitigating punitive damages

Discussing the Evidence for Damages

Works Cited

Mitigating punitive damages After one year of leading, the president of the Craig’s Crocodiles, Inc. Mr. Cravath has informed the Pauly Property Management that about the termination of leasing the current office space and warehouse. In response, the Management has sued Craig’s Crocodile to compensate the punitive damages and the lost rent.

In this situation, the Pauly Property Management had leased its properties to the Craig’s Company for a three year period. Nevertheless, Mr. Cravath infringed the lease agreement and left the facilities unpaid for the two years that remained. Looking at these facts, a court can try to resort to the Compensatory damages and the plaintiff may recover the lost rent.

However, there is another very important fact that should be taken into the deepest consideration to put the above-presented act into force. In particular, it is possible to find out whether Pauly made efforts for releasing the facilities, which will be an additional fact in the case (Financial Accounting Standards Board).

In other matters, the Management Company is not in win-win situation in terms of punitive damage compensations because there are no any facts and evidence fitting the Duty to Mitigate Damages (Financial Accounting Standards Board n. p.). According to this rules, the landlord should make efforts to release the property. So, if there are even the slightest attempts to do that, the company should not prevail in the suing process.

Another reason for ignoring punitive measure to the Pauly Property Management is checking the lawsuit for the evidence. The analysis will help to define whether there are obligations and duties that were violated and the ones that were followed. Checking the revenues and the FASB, it is possible to avoid legal liability and fines for the punitive damages.

Discussing the Evidence for Damages With regard to the case studied, it can be stated the Craig’s Crocodiles, Inc had the right to terminate the lease agreement in case of a due notice of termination. Certainly, the landlord can have claims against tenant because of the unpaid rent in case the lease does not expire and in case the landlord does not re-rent the premises. One way or another, the Management Company cannot hold Craig’s Crocodiles responsible to rent if they give a proper notification.

Due to the fact that Craig’s Crocodile left a rental unit earlier, the extent of responsibility directly relates on the reasons for leaving. In our case, the president had a sufficient ground for leaving the rental unit because he needed to expand their office space and facilities for increasing the revenues (Financial Accounting Standards Board n. p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this respect, Mr. Cravath had the right to leave the rental unit only after he properly notified the leaser. Under these circumstances, Pauly did not have substantial background for filing a lawsuit and for compensating a punitive measure because there were no problems with the facilities used.

Considering the above-mentioned facts, the only evidence on which the lawsuit was based was early termination of the lease contrast due the presence of much more favorable conditions for getting revenues. In this respect, irrelevant quality of facilities was a serious reason for breaking the contract.

So, if the landlord does not repair or somehow contribute to solving your problems, the tenant can properly notify the landlord and wait about 30 days until the notification is confirm. If is not confirmed, a legal entity will not be liable for the unpaid rent. Consequently, the Pauly management did not have evidence for filing a lawsuit; moreover, there are no evidence for the Pauly’s accomplishment of its duties and obligations.

Works Cited Financial Accounting Standards Board. FASB Formally Adds Project to Reconsider Lease Accounting Board Responders to Investor’s Request for Clearer Reporting of Leasing. 2006. Web. https://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/nr071906.shtml


Film Analysis on Masculinity: Let Me In Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Let Me In is an American horror movie that narrates the story about the bullied and reserved boy Owen who meets a girl Abby and develops a friendship; later he finds out that she is a vampire.

Owen is very lonely and unhappy because of his parents being divorced and because he does not have friends. He is also harassed by his schoolmates. This is specifically illustrated by the movie scene in the locker room when the main bully Kenny together with this fellows start insulting and beating him claiming that he is not a boy and that he does not swim in the pool because of the fear of being exposed.

The scene is quite cruel and realistic as it discloses typical relations between children under the age of twelve where each one wants to prove he is the leader and that he is much stronger than others Respectively, in the scene concerned, the author portrays the characters’ attempts to display their masculinity and prove their superiority and strength.

More importantly, the scene presents a wider cultural context depicting typical American school conflicts as well as psychological and gender development where juvenile aggressiveness is the main tool of control and power.

In order to render this idea, I need to define the role of cameral angles and light. Then, I will talk about the importance of sound and special effects to disclose the atmosphere of the film. Finally, I am going to define the influence of mis-en-scene to disclose the role of setting and costumes in delivering a wider cultural and social context.

Main body Scene Analysis: Discussing Film Language

Camera Angles and Light

Light and shooting angles are really important for delivering the director’s message. It is obvious that images and words are closely intertwined through connotative and denotative meaning where the former specifically refers to an interpretive nature and largely depends on cultural and social contexts rather than on a literal meaning.

This is the so-called social dimension of language that is predominantly used in films to render the main author’s idea (Turner 54). While discussing the film language, the author resorts to specific light effects, color, and camera angles to highlight the above-mentioned aspects and deliver a certain message to the viewers. Particular emphasis is placed on light which is quite heavy, dark, and even gripping and which contribute to thrilling and depressing atmosphere presented in the scene.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Owen is, apparently, weaker; he lies in the middle of the locker room whereas bullies are surrounding him, humiliating and looking at him coldly and aggressively. Perhaps, this aggressiveness and enormous efforts to conceal their feelings and emotions are believed to be the wrong images of masculinity, being the result of improper upbringing and false stereotypes.

Camera angles and lightning are one of the part of the film signifying systems that contribute greatly to the meaning and important messages. In the scene, Reeves makes use of all possible signifiers to render the stereotypical atmosphere of school violence.

Close-ups disclosing Owen’s frightened expression on his face, embittered tone and evil eyes of Kenny, abrupt knocks by the locker door, and forcing atmosphere created by light and sounding – all these are captured for the audience to understand what emotions are endured by the main protagonist.

Sound and special effects

I would like to mention several important contributions made by sound and special effects. The involvement of sound effects is specifically significant because they contribute greatly to creating a sense of emotional engagement of the characters and realistic display of the events.

In this respect, sound and music are always combined with language, atmosphere and setting; it is never separated from the main idea and theme of the film (Turner 66). Therefore, sound accompanying verbal language as well as specific effects constructs holistic pictures of movie characters as well as heterogeneity and multidimensional nature of the film (Aumont 159).

Referring specifically the described scene, sound adds to the overall depressing atmosphere; it helps characterize the heroes, define the climax of the episode as well as the final outcome. Sound also makes the viewers to empathize with the main hero and predict further development of the scene. What is more, sound enables the audience to understand that the boys’ intentions are evil and that they are going to hurt Owen.


Setting, lightning, locations allow the viewers to understand the significance of the scene depicted and suspend their beliefs about the action taking place.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Film Analysis on Masculinity: Let Me In specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Setting plays an enormous role because it renders specific devices by means of which the text is performed and socialized by actors and director (Pavis 199). While evaluating the scene from these perspectives, particular attention should be given to the set layout, lightning, and props that create a specific mood, underscore characters statuses and positions and reveal a sense of realism (Film Language Glossary n. p.).

Locker room is really dark, dim and grey, which enhances the forcing and thrilling atmosphere. Captions also provide a clearer picture of the situation allowing the audience to understand the real intentions of the characters and Owen’s fears (Reeves n. p.). Particular focus is paid to frame composition because it is more reminiscent of a cage where boys are placed within a narrow holding alley and there is no way for Owen to run. Closed space also reinforces the overall thrilling atmosphere.

It should be stressed that a film is a sophisticated mixture of signification and its multidimensional meanings and contextual layers are result of this interactions.

The desirable effect is possible to achieve by means of conflicting and complementing each part of the system, such as editing, sound, lighting, color, shots, and captions constructing a holistic image and the author’s main message. Each scene is, therefore, is a complicated interaction of these devices entailing the analysis of particular details that contribute to the creation of film language.

Disclosing Cultural and Social Context of the Movie In order to achieve the desirable effect and render the main idea of the film, all components of the movie should be combined in a way that the audience could perceive the sense of reality as well as emotions accompanying the movie characters. All visual and sound representations are also aimed at delivering social and cultural message of the film.

In this respect, the scene under analysis is endowed with all necessary features to interpret the message of about the suffering of the victimized boy who is under psychological pressure and who is unable to reveal his real problems to his parents and teacher because of the fear of being misunderstood.

The scene under consideration is culturally charged as well; it depicts the concept of juvenile masculinity that is revealed through aggressiveness aimed at suppressing any displays of weakness and emotion. The scene also interprets vices existing in the 80s of the past century when boys strive to independence, power, and possession.

All these cultural, psychological, and social problems are possible to conceive from the scene in interest even if without placing it within a film context. According to Turner, “[t]he complexity of film production makes interpretation…essential. We need to…scan the frame, hypothesize about the narrative development, speculate on its possible meanings, attempt to gain some mastery over the film as it unfolds…” (73).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Analysis on Masculinity: Let Me In by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Judging from this, the concept of masculinity displayed in this film scene is not accidental; it allows the audience to realize the hero’s major concerns and experienced problems and create cultural and social underpinning for explaining and reasoning his further actions.

Due to the fact that scenes in the films are not culturally isolated, movies can also be perceived through the prism of intercontexuality (Turner 73). To enlarge on this, the viewers often understand the film text via their own awareness, feelings, and experience.

In this respect, the chosen scene also renders conventions of the American schools in the 80s when the moments of school violence are much more understandable to the American audience. What is more important is that the scene also allows the viewers to suspend the reality and feel the atmosphere of the past.

Conclusion In conclusion, the film production is a complicated process requiring the director to skillfully combine all visual and aural effects to engage the viewers into the social and cultural meaning of the presented story. The scene chosen for analysis helps the audience to understand the reality of time and space of the event taking place. The concept of masculinity, hence, is revealed through aggressiveness, forcing atmosphere, and character’s superiority over the main hero.

The scene also represented a much deeper cultural meaning because it depicts typical American school conflicts where weaker children used to be under psychological and moral pressure and where aggressiveness and indifference were the main indicators of power. All this is possible to conceive by means of the close-ups, color, setting, lightning, and sound effects that complement the entire scene and make the audience foresee the future development of the events.

Works Cited Aumont, Jacque. Aesthetics of film. US: University of Texas Press, 1992. Print. Film Language Glossary. SlideShare, inc. 2011. Web. https://www.slideshare.net/nairm/film-language-glossary

Pavis, Partice. Analyzing Performance: Theater, Dance, and Film. US: University of Michigan Press, 2003. Print.

Reeves, Matt, dir. Let Me In. Hammer Films, 1 Oct. 2010. Film.

Turner, Graeme. Film as a Social Practice. London: Routledge, 1999. Print.


Contemplating Islam in the 7th Century Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Contemplating Islam

The Struggle to Accept the New Religion

Violence a Disturbing Trend


Works Cited

The new religion established by a man named Mohammed is stirring up the hornet’s nest in my hometown of Makka. There are so many questions that linger in the air. It is a challenge to reconcile what Mohammed said in comparison to the current events of the 7th century.

However, there is something about what he said that attracted people to his cause. A close examination of his teachings will reveal that although his ideas were patterned after Judaism and Christianity he said something that captured the attention of the people. This was achieved when he made a connection to Islam and the Kaabah a major religious structure in the city.

Contemplating Islam One of the problematic issues that I had to contend with is the fact that Mohammed patterned his teachings to that of Judaism and Christianity. Judaism is an ancient religion established hundreds of years before Islam. It can be surmised through the study of Jewish sacred scriptures that Abraham founded Judaism.

But it must be pointed out that Moses was the one who was instrumental in creating the religion that became the foundation of the Jewish nation (Forta, p.13). The distinctive feature of this ancient religion that makes it stand out above the rest is the notion that there is only one God.

But just like Abraham, Mohammed said something that captured the imagination of the people because he also taught that there is only one God. In ancient times this assertion is a radical idea. It is more practical and even more prudent to worship different idols. In a superstitious society it is better to have all the bases covered so to speak.

Polytheism is the answer to the fear of sea travel, mountain spirits, crop failure, famine, accidents, and the unknown. It is a ridiculous idea to suggest to ancient fishermen that there is no need to worship or offer sacrifices to the gods of the sea. The same thing is true for tree-dwelling people who are terrified of the darkness in the heart of a forest. Judaism just like Islam declares that there is only one God the creator of the heavens and the earth.

The Struggle to Accept the New Religion Islam on the other hand was established more than a thousand years after Abraham. The founder of Islam called himself the last prophet. Mohammed is his name. But before going any further it is interesting to examine what he meant by stating that he is the last prophet. This simply means that he is using not the beginning and simply a continuation of a belief system that started before him.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A quick comparison to the two great religions Judaism and Christianity will reveal similarities to Islam. Even Mohammed himself made mention in the Q’uran of the “People of the Book” in reference to the Jews and Christians. This raises serious doubt as to the authenticity of Mohammed’s vision and his claim that he is the messenger of God.

Mohammed said that he spoke with Gabriel the archangel who delivered the sacred scriptures of Islam. One has to ask how he knew about Gabriel. Supporters can of course reason that the angel simply appeared to him. But critics can easily counter that he had previous knowledge about it. Mohammed is not in part of any community or tradition that allows him to understand such things. Even the Jews had to learn spiritual things slowly beginning from Abraham to Moses and other prophets. It was not done overnight.

It is also important to note that Mohammed is illiterate. Since he is unable to read and write then the only way for him to document the supposedly spiritual transactions he had with a heavenly being is to dictate it to scribes. This is perhaps the reason why the Koran is difficult to read. Compared to the Jewish and Christian Bible, the Koran seemed to lack unity and the ideas are disorganized making it a challenge to figure out what it the central theme of the whole body of sacred writings.

Violence a Disturbing Trend For the Muslims the unbelievers are called “infidels” and no matter how they try to make a politically correct statement they cannot deny the fact that even the Prophet Mohammed had nothing but contempt for those who will not submit to the will of Allah. This can be seen in the Koran and therefore the Muslims are without any excuse.

The Prophet Mohammed’s contempt for unbelievers especially those he perceive to be doing immorality reaches a point wherein even the Koran provides the blanket authority to destroy them. Muslim scholars may have a different interpretation on what these Sura verses meant but it is clear that some of the followers of Islam had already interpreted it a literal way. Their interpretation of Mohammed’s directive to punish infidels can be seen in jihad or holy war.

The Q’uran is an interesting set of sacred writings. It was a book attributed of course to God but most importantly it was supposed to have been dictated verbatim to Mohammed. It would have been easier to believe that the Koran was God given if it was written well but the sad truth is that this book is an extremely difficult read (Andrae, p.38).

The verses, ideas, and concepts are disjointed. It lacks coherence. In one sentence it speaks of one thing and then the second sentence jumps to another topic. It is rare to see a short story completed from beginning to end (Shakira, p.1). There is no concept well written (Andrae, p.38).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Contemplating Islam in the 7th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But on the few times that the author of the Koran created one coherent argument, the messages are not about peace but anger and hatred (Darwish, p.14). Read carefully the following lines taken from the latter portion of the book in the section called The Disbelievers (Q’uran online by M.H. Shakir, p.1):

109.1 Say: O unbelievers!

109.2 I do not serve that which you serve,

109.3 Nor do you serve Him Whom I serve:

109.4 Nor am I going to serve that which you serve,

109.5 Nor are you going to serve Him Whom I serve:

109.6 You shall have your religion and I shall have my religion.

Excerpts taken from the Koran provides other disturbing ideas:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemplating Islam in the 7th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sura 2:178-179: “…retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain … there is life for you in retaliation” (Shakir, p.1) Sura 2:190-191: “fight in the way of Allah with those who fight with you…and kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out whence they drove you out, and persecution is severer than slaughter” (Shakir, p.1).

There are many more verses that speak of killing and inflicting pain on others (Natan, p.1). This is the irrefutable evidence that murderers that kill in the name of Allah were encouraged by the teachings of Mohammed. It is not from a political idea but from a religious one.

If these men were politically driven then they would go the usual route which is armed insurrection against their government and then stay within their borders as they try to uplift their nation using revolution (Darwish, p.13). However, Mohammed taught peace. Muslim believers believe in peace. It is possible to reverse the teachings about violence and the use of force to convert people and replace it with the message of peace and reconciliation.

There are indeed many objections to the teachings of Mohammed based d on three important facets of his life and religious activities. There is a great deal of information regarding the fact that Mohammed was greatly influenced by the Jews and the Christians. It can be surmised that he met believers from these two faiths during his travels and through commercial pursuits.

Critics focused on the issue of originality and question the integrity of the message of Mohammed. Thus, there is no need for him to establish a new religion because he simply had to align himself with Judaism or Christianity. But he did not. It can be argued that he was not given access to these religions. If he was accepted and given the chance to learn and grow in any of these two faiths then Mohammed need not preach a message that says he is the last prophet.

There are also serious doubts with regards to his qualifications. His being illiterate is a serious matter because he could not communicate effectively a voluminous amount of data without having to develop a system of recording this information. His supporters can argue that Mohammed used scribes to dictate what he said but this can be easily refuted with the argument that if he cannot read then how will he know what was written.

Aside from his illiteracy Mohammed cannot prove that he belonged to a particular community or tradition that enabled him to understand the complex nature of the ideological precepts given to him.

The Jews had to go through a lengthy period of processing what were supposedly oracles and messages from God. It was a long history that showed a slow and painful process of learning. Judaism did not develop overnight. Mohammed claimed that in one night or a few occasions of supernatural encounters he was able to understand everything.

However, Mohammed connected his teachings to the existence of a religious structure called the Kaabah. There are numerous idols there and the existence of diversified forms of worship encourages regionalism and strife. By accepting the new system of belief developed by Mohammed there is now a chance to unify all the tribes. It is also much better to accept the religion of Islam because it is a major improvement to the worship of idols and gods that were created by human hands.

Conclusion At first it was a struggle to accept Islam. There are so many questions to answer. However, there is something about the message of Mohammed that attracted followers. It can be traced to the connection that he made to the ancient religious structure in Makka and the concept of monotheism. By removing idol worship and replacing it with the idea that there is only one God Mohammed can create a system of worship that can unite the warring tribes in the region.

Works Cited Andrae, Tor. Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. New York: Dover Publications, 2000.

Darwish, Nonie. Cruel and Unusual Punishment. TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2008.

Forta, Arye. Judaism. UK: Heinemann Educational, 1995.

Natan, Yoel. “164 Jihad Verses in the Koran.” Q’uran online. Jan. 2011. 12 Mar. 2011 .

Shakir, M.H. “The Q’uran.” Q’uran online. Feb. 2008. 12 Mar. 2011 .


Movies in the American Popular Culture Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Movies in the American society



Works Cited

Introduction The evolution of popular culture has sharply etched in our societal imagination the effects of movies than any other product. Most of the American citizens swiftly recognize the diverse images related to movies: Charlie Chaplin, the prospector who eats his shoes in The Gold Rush. James Cagney, the notorious gangster in Public Enemy, and Paul Muni, the WWI veteran in the movie I am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang.

Also the depiction of Gloria Swanson in the movie Sunset Boulevard is a critical illustration of how movie has evolved. Movies outline an indispensable piece of cultural artifacts that provides an opening into the American traditions as well as societal history. As an amalgamation of art, commerce, and entertainment, the movies offer a host of understandings into the Americans changing principles, fantasies, and obsessions.

Like any other cultural artifact the movies have undergone a considerable change both in production and screening. From the wake of the 1890, the movies have faced technical, political and economic changes which have equally impacted on the American society (Entwistle 111).

Exploring the diverse changes that the movies have encountered they have moved from the typical entertainment to the broad scope of information. This is well demonstrated by the growth of motion pictures. Perhaps that is why sociological historians regards movies as sociological data that record the environment, look, and the mood of specific historical development and settings.

The movies are almost equated to the ideological developments that advance specific political or ethical values or legends; as emotional texts that address individual and societal anxieties and tensions. Or as artistic documents that stand for particular reflections of gender, customs, class romance, and aggression; and as illustration texts that proffer compound degrees of significance and seeing (Entwistle 74).

Movies in the American society Therefore, exploring the American movies they have gradually evolved from the silent era when the earliest productions revolved around the working class communities, and characteristically explored the concerns of the poor in their fight against the affluent and powerful.

The most outstanding features within the American movies are linked to the age of transformation when the popular culture was a foremost theme within societal and ethical issues revolving around progressive interlude: break ups, labor control, child labor, migration, political dishonesty, scarcity, prostitution, jails, and women’s suffrage (Barthes 104).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The nature and tone of the movies varied considerably-this saw realistic movies and others touched their subjects with sentimentality as well as humor. This progression changed after the WWII where the new concepts were introduced into the movies. Such changes included employing the movies to tackle or reflect on diverse complex social issues and this was significantly different with the silent era movies which were viewed to be less dominant with the social issues of the time.

Themes Economic, social, and political changes played a considerable role in affecting the scope of movies. As a major constituent of popular culture the movies absorbed diverse cultural and economic factors which changed the way it was perceived. From the wake of 20th century the movies faced other historical challenges which embraced the new dimension of presentation.

However, the wake of 20th and 21st century has seen the scope of movies growing from mere common aspects to more involving social issues. This can be testified by the fact that the previous generation of movies dwelt on the subject of female honor and other assorted elements of femininity.

Eventually, the themes of later movies as is illustrated by the 1960s productions which depicts progression from Victorian moralism,reformism,and sentimentality and positively expressed novel themes such as glamour, exoticism, sex, sophistication, and urban appeal (Barthes 104).

This was followed by a crop of new movie icons who personified and appealed passionately to the greater society effectively. Innovative genres too appeared: blustering adventures; urbane sex comedies rotating around the question of marital commitment; quixotic dramas probing the manners and ethics of the well-bred and well-to-do; as well as accounts of “blazing youth” in addition to the new sexual independence.

Conclusion Changing social and individual preferences helped the integration of the movies with other social features. From the eruption of rock, hip hop, to rap music, the movies acquired a new dimension. This illustrates why they stand as historical tools of reference as well as vehicles of popular culture.

Exploring the content of the movies they attempt to explain the origin and the meaning of diverse social aspects. Thus, characterized by fledging social, religious and political questions, the movies addressed the growing features affecting the entire community and more advocated the place of a woman in the community. However, the entry of 20th century saw the radical changes in the manner the movies explained and explored the American society due to the complexity of such issues as taste, fashion, style and preferences.

We will write a custom Essay on Movies in the American Popular Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Barthes, Roland. The Fashion System. London: Jonathan Cape, 2002.

Entwistle, Joanne. Modern Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.


European Union Emissions Trade Scheme Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Overview



Global Carbon Trading Scheme


Overview The Kyoto Protocol placed certain obligations on developed countries to reduce greenhouse emissions due to its adverse effects on the environment. In response to the impending international obligations, the European Union leaders came up with a program known as the European Union Emissions Trade Scheme (Delbeke, 2006). The Scheme was proposed in October 1, 2001. It was to be implemented in several phases.

The first trial period was 2005-2007 before the Kyoto Protocol rules become binding in the period 2008 to 2012. The objective of the scheme was to reduce carbon dioxide emissions significantly. There have been successes and failures in the eyes of critics who analysed the implementation of the scheme during the first trial period. The system started with only one gas, carbon dioxide gas, as it was a new system.

It was felt there was need to build knowledge and program architecture. In the later phases of the program more sectors that required reduction in emission of gases would be included. The second trading period covers the current period, 2008-2012. There are several features of the scheme. There is a cap on the quantity of carbon dioxide emissions that that was placed on over 12,000 locations in the European Union.

There are tradable allowances given to the facilities for free. Thirdly the facilities have to annually measure their carbon dioxide emissions. They have to report the level of emissions and surrender allowances for the tonnes of excess carbon dioxide emitted. It is a cap and trade market system. There is an overall cap but the participants are allowed to trade allowances. These allowances are also known as permits.

One allowance given to a company allows it to produce a tonne of carbon dioxide.

The permits were meant to be scarce in the market and are therefore priced. The pricing of the permits was to create an incentive for companies to use less polluting technologies in production of their products.

The cap and trade market offers flexibility to companies on whether to purchase permits or adopt lower emissions technologies or practices. Any company that produces carbon dioxide in excess of the emissions incurs a penalty of £ 100 per excess tonne of carbon dioxide emitted. Furthermore the company will have to surrender permits for the excess quantity emissions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government of the company the country operates in may also impose further penalties. After the first initial period, there have been amendments proposed by the European Commissions to the Emissions Trading Directive, the body responsible for the implementation of the Scheme. The amendments proposed were brought forward after consultations with several stakeholders.

Performance Despite the criticisms on certain aspects the European Union Scheme, it did work to abate the release of carbon dioxide gas. To measure the reduction in emission one needs to look at what would have been emitted with the absence of the Scheme. The measurement has to include items such as economic growth, weather and energy prices (Delarue et al, 2008).

It has been noted that the gas emissions were lower in 2005 and 2006 than the baseline emissions gap that had been given for the first National allocation plans (Ellerman


No Matter What the Beginning Is, the End Will Be the Same Essay college essay help

Life is not very different from a Hollywood film; in fact, it is even more unpredictable, changeable, and confusing. This is one of the main questions of our existence and this is the main point of “Happy Endings” by Margaret Atwood.

There are so many true stories told about people that can serve scenarios for Oscar-winning movies. However, the major theme of all films, as well as the main concern of our life is the relationships between men and women. Love, romance, family, devotion, betrayal, role of woman in the society, unrequited love and pure love, and all that drama is what everything else revolves around.

The only difference is that films almost always have happy endings and life always ends up in one thing for all people – the death. Atwood provides several examples of how the individual’s life can develop, and thus, the author suggests an idea that we should not think about what the result of our relationships will be , as life is very unpredictable, in addition, we must feel every moment of life, and live only in present.

A majority of the fictional narratives focus on the relationships between man and women; in fact, this is the most popular theme that provides ideas for discussions. Margaret Atwood “acknowledged as a foremost author” (Van Spanckeren and Castro 9) succeeded in this “task” and wrote a several different, but typical stories that revolve around this theme.

It consists of six parts that deal with different types of relations and various aspects of romance and love that people encounter in their everyday life. There are four main characters which are the subject matter in hands of the author, John and Mary, and Madge and Fred. In fact, it is not actually a story, but a guide on how to create one. It is “a permutational fiction in the if… then mode” (Wilson 22).

James P. Werlock comments on the form and style of the story: “Happy Endings” is a story about writing a story, with thoughtful advice to both readers and would-be writers (22). It provides several scenarios of the common life stories which can have different endings, however, the author provides that the outcomes will probably be the same.

The six possible endings to the story of John and Mary are written as a skeleton outline” (Werlock 302). The author introduces the story to the reader with a description of an ideal life story to which everybody aspires, but the successive several stories are not so happy, though the author offers the readers a choice, “If you want a happy ending, try A” (Atwood 724). It means that men and women are free to decide what life they want to have and what the “ending” of their relationships will be.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the ideas of fiction stories are taken from “life scenarios” which are so common. No matter, whether you are a man or woman, you want your life to have a “perfect Hollywood ending” (happy marriage, beautiful house, and wonderful children. But the reality is skeptical and ironical. Thus, the story B provided by Margaret Atwood is more look like a true one. It is a typical description of relations between man and women which can be observed in a real life.

This is a typical “meat” for feminists and it is a story that “an attack against societal conventions, particularly those surrounding the roles of women” (Korb 157). She loves him and he uses her, finally she dies because of the unrequited love. Where is a promised happy end? Well, a man marries a woman, isn’t it a good ending? But the discussion of relations of sexes is not finished yet. Let us focus on the relationships of an older man and a young woman. It is one more true life story when young girls gave love affairs with older men.

Why? Who knows! May be it is love, or money, or solitude, but the outcomes almost always the same… all continues in A. Another scenario is a story of devotion of women to men. She nurses him until his last breath and then devotes her life to volunteering. It is another perspective on the relationships between man and women, which also can find analogue in an everyday life. The characters are undeveloped and the stories are presented like facts, but everyone will find something familiar in every one.

Continuing the theme of the relations of sexes, we can assume that there is one more issue that the author explores in the work. She definitely addresses the question of what is the role of woman in the contemporary society. Indeed, as it has already been mentioned, the author describes different life situations and different social roles women perform.

But what is in the focus? What women should do in this life? If to refer to the endings that Atwood provides, we can conclude that woman should get marry. However, what is more important is what life she has before getting married. Thus, achieving her final goal (marriage) woman can be independent and live the life she wants having relations with other men, or building her career.

As opposed to this, she can also be devoted to one man during all her life and “devotes herself to charity work until the end of A. If you like, it can be “Madge,” “cancer,” “guilty and confused,” and “bird watching.”” (Atwood 726). Thus, woman can be the leader and can be a slave of her emotions and her man, the can be a perfect businesswoman or a great housewife, she also can be “slaver” and own men hears, or she can be a prey of the man’s charm. It is her responsibility to decide, but the end will be the same…

Another theme in the story is a theme of a pure love. The author begins her story with the description of a pure love that lasts forever and makes two people happy. But what do we see in the stories that follow? As it often happens, pure love is rare and the one who shares it does not have a respond from his/her beloved.

We will write a custom Essay on No Matter What the Beginning Is, the End Will Be the Same specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mary loved Fred and ended her life in suicide, in the next story, John kills Mary and James and himself as well, and Madge is unhappy in E after Fred dies. So, do you still want to feel a pure love? Of course, it is not necessary that everything will end up it death, eventually, there are “happy endings” in life and the author gives us a hope for better outcomes.

Interpersonal relationships are very tangled and they are the hardest to maintain in life. What is more important is the end of these relationships. The author points that “the only authentic ending is the one presented here: John and Mary die. John and Mary die. John and Mary die” (Atwood 726).

Indeed, every person’s life will end up in death. Thus, is there some reason to struggle or change something? “The point is that both of these characters will eventually die, what matters is how and why certain things happen in their lives. That is the real story.” (Woodcock n. p.).

Moreover, is there any “happy ending” at all? In the stories, the author provides the readers with the possibility to choose the ending for each story, thus, life provides people with the choice to arrange his/her life in any possible way, because, “so much for endings. Beginnings are always more fun” (Atwood 726).

Thus, the short story “Happy Endings” by Margaret Atwood is a collection of several life stories which people can encounter in their everyday life. The author explores the topics of the role of the woman in society, theme of pure love and relations of sexes. But the main intention of the author is to persuade people live their lives to the fullest.

Often, people do not take risks to make a desirable step to maintain relationships, such as ask someone to the date, or reject attractions. We often regret about things we did not do. The author provides that there are possibilities of risk and it is better to regret about things you did, than about things you did not do. No matter what you did in your life, you will meet the eternity. However, one should not think about it, but experience every moment of life, because middles are more interesting then endings.

Works Cited Atwood, Margaret. “Happy Endings.” Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry and Drama. Ed. Robert DiYanna. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008. 724-26.

Korb, Rena. “Critical Essay on ‘Happy Endings’.” Short Stories for Students. Ed. Jennifer Smith. Vol. 13. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001. Literature Resources from Gale. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on No Matter What the Beginning Is, the End Will Be the Same by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Van Spanckeren, Kathryn, and Jan Garden Castro. Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. SIU Press, 1988.

Werlock, James P. The Facts on File Companion to the American Short Story. Vol 2. New York: Inc. Infobase Publishing, 2010.

Wilson, Sharon Rose. Margaret Atwood’s Textual Assassinations: Recent Poetry and Fiction. Vol. 1. Ohio State University Press, 2003.

Woodcock, Leah. “On Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings””. Web.


Alcoholism Causes and Curing Problem Solution Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Dangers associated with alcohol consumption

Curing alcoholism


Reference List

Introduction Many people seem to have different perceptions about alcohol with many looking at it as a fashion especially in today’s changing world. However people may look at it, alcohol is and remains an addictive drug that is being abused every day by many people. Alcohol may be consumed for various reasons amongst them; relieving stress or evading a certain problem or for social reasons.

However, many teenagers engage in drinking due to peer pressure while other people drink, not for the above reasons, but because they are addicted to alcohol. Despite the dangers associated with alcohol consumption, many people just go ahead and use with many people being aware of these dangers.

Dangers associated with alcohol consumption One of the major effects of alcohol consumption is physical violence. Heavy intoxications due to alcohol consumption induce acts of violence such as abuse to family members, physical assault to anyone encountered or even killing. However, not all people get violent after consuming alcohol. Another very significant danger of alcohol consumption is the risks it poses to one’s health.

Long term consumption of alcohol increases the possibility of one getting heart related diseases especially heart failure. Failure of the liver is also a common health problem to heavy drinkers. Other health risks include improper functioning of body systems such as the circulatory system. Development of cancer and peptic ulcers is another risk to one’s health.

The brain may as well be permanently damaged. Besides health problems, alcoholics suffer personal problems including inability to control one self’s stability, poor mental alertness, lack of consciousness, inability to coordinate words into a proper speech and slurred vision. Sexual assault is also very common in alcohol abusers. Many people tend to behave in a sexual manner under the influence of alcohol because such people cannot control themselves and even think straight (Zegata, 1999, p. 1).

Curing alcoholism The initiation of curing alcoholism begins with the alcoholic himself by making that strong resolution of stopping drinking. Making this resolution is very important in helping one initiate the process of healing. One of the major ways of curing alcoholism is from the nutritional perspective.

This involves building nutritional values that leads to zero cravings for any of the stimulating drinks. First of all, fruity juices should be used in the initial stages of the process to get rid of the intoxications already in the system. Use of warm water alongside the fresh juice is also advisable. The juice is essentially useful when the patient craves for alcohol during time which he should be given the juice as a substitute.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With time the patients gets used to taking juice whenever he is craving for a stimulating drink. Certain foods should e avoided as well. For instance, sugary and meaty foods should be avoided since they are good compliments to alcohol. In addition, it is very important to strictly avoid smoking because it increases the desire to take alcohol. High consumption of apples is also highly advised due to its ability to reduce cravings for intoxications including wine as well as cleansing the system.

Besides nutritional interventions, physical exercise is equally important in this process. All this constitutes the natural cure for alcoholism which is a very important step in the whole process of healing from alcoholism. They are importantly required to get the body’s metabolism to normal since most of the cravings to intoxicated drinks are a result of malnutrition (Philips, 2010, p. 1).

Besides the natural method of healing alcoholism using nutrition intervention, counseling is also very essential in the process. One requires a lot of counseling and support from family members and friends as well to keep persuading the patient to continue undertaking medications because not everyone succeeds in the process as many people give up on the medication process and go back to alcoholism before getting cured.

In addition, professional counseling is equally important as the specialist can be able to access the level of alcoholism in the patient, how dependant that person is on alcohol and such information which would help the specialist decide on the most effective ways of curing the patient from alcoholism.

Most of the effective intervention methods involving a specialist should deal with both behavioral and preventive measures especially those that will lead to prevention of stress because, as discussed earlier, stress is one of the major causes for alcoholism.

Basically, psychological counseling is important in preventing the drinking exercise. Therefore, counselors should focus on helping alcoholics deal with life situation in other healthy ways rather than drinking. Such assistance should deal with better ways of handling stress, how to cope with social occasions especially those involving a lot of drinking or how to deal with peers for the youths.

Another very effective way of healing from alcoholism is participating in treatment programs especially those involving group therapy. For instance, one should attend to occasional programs such as educational lectures on alcoholism. One of the most effective programs in curing alcoholism is the alcoholics anonymous which involves gathering of alcoholics in a meeting from where they can talk one on one about their experiences and give their stories on how alcohol has affected their lives.

We will write a custom Essay on Alcoholism Causes and Curing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through these meetings, patients get to hear how their colleagues managed to quit and this gives them the morale to keep trying the healing process. They also get the opportunity to get advice from their fellow members on how to deal with life situations that drive them to drinking. In addition, support is given in such programs in case one gets the cravings for alcohol. For instance, alcoholics are given specific specialists to talk to whenever they are craving for alcohol.

These programs also may have other recreational activities that are aimed at focusing the alcoholic’s attention away from situational problems which would lead them to heavy drinking. Such activities may include sports or other activities for helping the society such as cleanup activities. Finally, there is the use of residential alcoholism cure programs where alcoholics attend a residential centre for a certain period of time during which various interventions are given (Philips, 2010, p. 1).

Conclusion Alcoholism is a very serious problem, not only individually, but also from the societal point of view. Quitting alcohol is a problem as well especially if one is trying to do it alone. Therefore, it is important for one to get moral and specialist support in curing alcoholism.

However, for the process to be effective enough, the process should begin with oneself by making that important decision of stopping drinking. This decision does not only involve the mind, but also requires psychological preparedness. A combination of the above mentioned interventions could work miraculously since diet, group support and specialist help are all equally important.

Reference List Philips, E. (2010). Quit alcohol – curing alcoholism guide. Web.

Zegata, D. (1999). What are the dangers of alcohol? Web.


Educational Plan For Health Care Students Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Along with pointing out at the existing gap between the nursing theory and practice, modern scholars emphasize the importance of taking into consideration the peculiarities of certain student groups while developing educational programs for specific groups of nursing students. This paper will discuss the most influential factors and the main steps which need to be taken for developing an effective educational plan for health care students.

Taking into account the diversity of student population, it can be stated that the flexibility of educators and programs is crucial for complying with the needs of the wide range of learners. The first step in constructing an effective action plan is reviewing the latest theoretical studies and defining the main parameters of the student learning preferences and the desired learning modes which need to be taken into consideration for selecting the most appropriate teaching strategies.

The study conducted by Chan et al (2006) in Hong Kong universities focused on the seven main factors affecting the learning outcomes of particular learning programs. These factors comprised the learning atmosphere, the level of learners’ autonomy, material, motivational aspects, direct instructions and structure of the programs.

All these parameters should be taken into account by nursing educators for exploring the specific needs of particular groups and adapting the programs to their peculiar demands. Chan et al (2006) concluded that most Chinese students have developed receptive skills, but may have difficulties with expressing their thoughts in English. Thus, even the ethnic origin and cultural background of learners should be taken into consideration for selecting the most appropriate teaching mode and strategies.

Choi et al (2009) emphasized the importance of giving serious consideration to students’ cultural and learning experience in constructing effective educational programs. The evidence shows that the effectiveness of the same strategies and learning exercises can vary in different classrooms, depending upon the learners’ peculiar features. Meehan-Andrews (2009) conducted a research for exploring the preferred and the most effective learning modes in nursing students.

Regardless of the findings that kinesthetic was the learning mode preferred by the majority of learners, and the practical session was regarded as the most effective teaching strategy, Meehan-Andrews (2009) concluded that there is no single right way for providing the materials to nursing students. Thus, the investigation of the learners’ needs and preferences along with the readiness to combine several different approaches is the first step in the action plan for designing an effective educational program for nursing students.

The second step after defining the cultural background, preferred learning mode, learning experience, and needs is the evaluation of the level of communication skills. Taking into account the specific demands of the nursing profession and the importance of successful team work and nurse-patient communication, special emphasis should be put upon the development of communication skills in students. Chant et al (2002) noted that the communication errors can cause a lot of troubles to the clinical setting.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, focusing on the development of communication and interpersonal skills in medical students, teachers will be able to improve not only the staff and patients’ satisfaction with the level of professionalism of the future registered nurses, but also improve the healthcare outcomes in general. While conducting a research on the student’s preferred learning styles and experience, a teacher can also identify the level of their communication skills and detect the gaps which should be filled in future.

In that regard, the role of nursing teacher is central to only structuring and organizing the learning process but also developing students’ interpersonal skills and cooperation abilities as a significant part of their professional expertise. Landers (2008) admitted that healthcare educators play an important role in bridging the gap between nursing theory and practice and can prepare students for the beginning of their professional career in real life clinical setting.

Recognizing the importance of not only acquiring theoretical knowledge, but also preparing for the implementation of theoretical data in professional practice, educators should provide students with opportunities for developing their interpersonal skills and designing the learning activities which would be favorable for improving the students’ communication skills.

Thus, the second step of the action plan is detecting the level of the students’ communication skills and incorporating the activities aimed at improving them into the educational program.

The third step is the choice of the most effective approach to the nursing education for designing the most appropriate activities. A wide range of recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL) for clinical nursing education. Conducting a study at a Swedish university, Ehrenberg


Wind Energy, Its Advantages and Disadvantages Research Paper essay help

Globalization and technological advancement has contributed towards an increase in the number of industries in the world. In the process of production, fuel is required to run some machines; however, this fuel is a major source of pollution to the environment.

Fossil fuels, for example, emit gases (when burnt) that are harmful to human beings and the environment at large. Kyoto protocol, which is aimed at reducing the amount of gases emitted in the atmosphere, noted that among the major emitters of green house gases is burning of fossil fuels.

To sustain production of goods and services to feed the world populations, there is need to have reliable sources of energy. Reliable sources of energy need to be renewable; they include wind energy, solar energy and hydro-energy; wind energy is a dependable source of energy although it remains the least used among the available renewable sources of energy (Burton 1-23). This paper discusses wind energy; it will look into how the energy is produced, its cost effectiveness advantage and disadvantages of using the energy.

Wind energy Wind is moving air; it is caused by non-uniform distribution of heat due to solar energy in different regions, which causes movement of hot from relatively hot places to cold areas. It blows from area of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Wind has a potential of producing approximately 100 billion watts per year of power.

The technology involved in wind energy is converting kinetic energy into electric energy. Wind has kinetic energy, which rotates turbines for electricity generation. When wind is “harvested”, it can be used to produce electricity energy to be used in industries, home and in offices.

How wind energy is produced

Wind power is derived from using the kinetic energy that wind has as it blows on the earth’s service, wind is air moving from one area to another; when in movement it has some energy.

Along the way of the wind, Wind turbines are set up; the turbines are rotated by the moving air; then convert the kinetic energy in the wind to mechanical energy, the mechanical power produced at this stage can be used for various purposes that include grinding grain or pumping water. Furthermore, the energy can be converted into electricity power by the use of generator or dynamos, after the conversion, it can then be used to provide energy to homes, offices and factories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wind as a Cost effective source of energy When compared with other sources of energy, wind energy is relatively cheap in maintaining the structures. To put up a wind energy generator, it uses a lot of money and resources; but to maintain the plant is cheap. This makes the net cost lower. The cost of electricity from wind is the cheapest in the world and thus companies and people can utilize the important product at an affordable cost. From an indirect approach, the following is the cost effectiveness of wind energy:

It is a renewable source of energy

The energy can be used today and in the future without reducing. The energy comes from natural occurring, which can be tapped to produce energy; the energy can be used repeatedly without limiting the potential that it has. It is also considered as clean technology since it emits minimal green house gasses. Examples of other renewable energy sources are sun, tides and waterpower. Non-renewable sources of energy on the other hand are sources of energy whose use depletes the level of utility that can be derived by future generation.

Wind energy leads to minimal or no pollution of the atmosphere, it is considered as a clean source of energy. Using of wind energy reduces emission of carbon to the environment; carbon is one of the green house emissions that lead to global warming.

Saves forests and form of sustainable development parameter Some industries and households use firewood as their source of energy; when this happens, they lead to deforestation. Deforestation has lead to numerous challenges to human nature. They include the occurrence of hot spots; a natural depleted environment that has been of great use by the people characterizes a hotspot but through the very people’s action, they have overexploited the natural setting and leaving it to affect them negatively.

It is characterized by exceptional levels of plant endemism. Sustainable development is about caring for the present generation and not limiting future generation of use of available resources. When using wind energy people do not need to cut trees, this is good for a good life on earth.

When using fuel like firewood, then trees is cut, when the forests are destroyed then large amounts of carbon dioxide, which is the main green house gas, are released into the atmosphere, which increases global warming. Urbanization and industrialization have also played a major role in deforestation where some industries like the paper factories use wood directly from forests to make paper.

Uses of wind energy Wind energy can be used in industries and in homes for various purposes; it is a reliable source of energy for heating, lightening and running of machinery. In manufacturing of goods and services, it is considered as one of the input costs incurred. This is in terms of lightening the factory, running of manufacturing and administrative machines and heating.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wind Energy, Its Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In homes wind energy is used for lightening, running of electrical equipments like television, electric fans and electric heaters among others. It assister in making life better as people can connect to the outside world through various equipments like computers, phones, radio and telegrams which are run by electric power.

Of late, the energy has been tapped in transport industry where it is used in electric tramways, railways, and new development of electrically charged motor vehicles.

Disadvantages of using wind energy Though the energy can be relied upon, it is not available across all parts of the world. Some areas do not have adequate supply of wind to be used to drive turbines and get the moving air energy good enough for generation of energy.

Secondly, wind energy like any other energy cannot be stored (although technology has come-up with methods of storing energy like batteries although they are only short term) ; it is used as it is produced thus the reliability of the energy is hampered by its very nature. The lack of storability means that it is possible to have some time that is needed yet the wind is not blowing.

Thirdly some places that wind pass through need to be left bare for an effective generation of energy, for instance when a massive land is used to generate wind energy, then plants like trees cannot be planted in the area, thus hampers other developmental and use of land purposes.

When the energy hampers the use of land for agriculture and planting of vegetation, it is seen to be interfering with efforts to conserve the environment. The environment needs to be protected to give live hood to humanity. Some of the big sizes of land used when the energy is produced can be used for other purposes that might be more beneficial than generation of energy (Hermann-Josef and Jyotirmay 12-56).

When a plant for generation the energy is made, it uses a big part of land that could be used for another thing like farming; this is not good for the community around there.

Wind energy as the less known used source of energy Although wind energy is cheap and can be used for various uses, the energy is less common to other sources like water, solar and tidal energy. The main reason for this is the distribution of wind patterns and their movement, not all places have adequate amount of wind that can be used for generation of economical energy. This makes governments, firms and individuals not fully interested in tapping the energy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wind Energy, Its Advantages and Disadvantages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When blowing on a large volume of land, it passes through property of different people and governing bodies, when the land is put on another use, they the project of wind energy tapping is hampered. The movement of wind varies with time and seasons, for this reason, depending with wind energy cannot guarantee that the supply of energy will be throughout the year. This discourages energy developers to depend with the energy fully (Wald).

Works Cited Burton, Tony. Wind energy: handbook. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2001.Print.

Hermann-Josef, Wagner, and JyotirmayMathur.Introduction to wind energy systems: basics, technology and operation. Boston: Springer, 2009.Print.

Wald, Matthew. Wind Farms May Not Lower Air Pollution, Study Suggests. New York Times, 4 May 2007. Web.


Film Studies Discussing Problems in Northern Ireland Essay essay help: essay help

A close examination of two separate films centered on problems in Northern Ireland, which are Patriot Games (1992) and The Boxer (1997) one is able to see the ways in which different filmmakers, making films for different audiences approach themes.

This can be evidenced by the use of violence to achieve political ends, the splintering of terrorist or freedom fighter groups over time, as well as the desire for revenge as the impetus for a variety of human behaviors. In the same context, each film sacrifices–or adopts–elements that contribute to its overall impact on the audience.

This is usually based on diversified factors such as budget, acting talent, the nationality of each film’s producers, broad ideological leanings, and, most importantly, the core cinematic experience that each set of filmmakers wants its audience to have. As a matter of fact any two films that deal with essentially the same political, religious or ethnic conflict could tread such different cinematic paths.

To begin with is the film, Patriot Games directed by the Australian filmmaker Philip Noyce, a Hollywood “old hand” who has specialty in expensive and large-scale thrillers. It is by far from a small-scale human drama as it is deemed to be. This does not mean that it is a “worse” film than The Boxer nevertheless fundamentally different. Patriot Games’ source material is the novel of the same name by spy-thriller writer Tom Clancy.

On the other hand, The Boxer, as Roger Ebert’s review is quick to note, is a small-scale drama, directed by the Irish man known as Jim Sheridan. The focus of this film is principally on the lives of two individuals caught up in tempestuous political events engulfing their community. Set in mid-1990s Belfast (which Ebert notes as “hungering for peace”).

The Boxer revolves around the lives of Danny Flynn (Daniel Day-Lewis), an IRA member who was a successful boxer until he was sent to prison at the age eighteen because of terrorist affiliations. Maggie (Emily Watson) on the other hand is Danny’s former love.

She is a woman who ended up marrying another IRA member after Danny was sentenced to serving a long prison term. As the film curtains are opened, Danny has been released. Having lost all the appetite for violence, he tries living a quiet life and eventually rekindles his relationship with Maggie.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both Danny and Maggie are tempting fate in this respect. The IRA has a firm policy forbidding extra-marital relationships with the partners of incarcerated IRA members. The pair, Ebert notes, is “star-crossed [but] not blind for they are too old and scarred to throw caution to the wind” (Ebert 2). By taking this track, The Boxer establishes itself firmly as a film about highly-vulnerable human beings.

Such people are prey to forces largely beyond their control and whose basic decency, self-awareness, and desire to simply continue with life allows them to function in an environment dominated by politically and religiously maneuvered violence. This film is a classic story of “small” people carried up in forces of history much bigger and more powerful than themselves.

Perhaps Daniel Day-Lewis has a special fondness for such roles, because it is impossible to watch his portrayal of Danny and not to be reminded of his role in The Crucible (1997), a film about a man who tries to maintain his sanity amid politically, religiously-driven as well as life-threatening issues.

Patriot Games, on the contrary is a film on the same basic groups, political and religious forces focusing very clearly on characters distanced from “small” and have no idea of being (or ever becoming) “too old”. “They are also afraid of throwing caution to the wind” (Ebert).

In accordance to Roger Ebert’s January 9, 1998 review of The Boxer there are many elements of the film that are identified to run parallel, at least superficially, to those in Patriot Games. At the same time, the review highlights elements of The Boxer to be entirely antithetical to those in films like Patriot Games which is a by-no-means accidental circumstance.

Yet, as we shall see, the two films have more in common, in terms of raw thematic material, than many viewers might initially realize. It is the cinematic treatment of that material that eventually leads to such divergent results. However, we should be careful about jumping into conclusions regarding which of the two films is “better” than the other.

As a matter of fact the protagonists of Patriot Games are larger-than-life and throughout the film they do nothing but throw caution to the wind. They are not controlled by an agenda thus they draw the attention to the CIA and are looked for by intelligence agencies over three continents. Both films are interesting in the way they work towards preserving, or reinstitution, of a status quo that existed prior to the machinations of “rogue” elements.

We will write a custom Essay on Film Studies Discussing Problems in Northern Ireland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the end of The Boxer, the IRA “takes care of business” by eliminating Harry—not Danny—implying a return to some sort of stability in the long-running conflict between the IRA and the British, which seems to be moving slowly toward peace. In Patriot Games, the entire thrust of the film is toward the elimination of out-of-control elements who are putting the mainstream IRA in an incredibly difficult position vis-à-vis fundraising in the United States.

The scene with Richard Harris captures this dilemma effectively. However, whereas the drama in The Boxer derives from the audience’s essential empathy with the various protagonists and their struggle to resist incredible external pressures and dangers,

But then, The Boxer is a film meant for entertainment. It is a decisively “human” drama that obeys the rules of the real world as most people would experience it. Its characters are flawed, worn out and tainted by compromise. In the film, Danny declines to name his fellow IRA men, and essentially turns his back on the armed struggle following his release.

Joe Hamill (Brian Cox), the leading IRA man in the community, is occupied with trying to negotiate a ceasefire with the British. Hamill as Ebert notes, has “killed and ordered killings”, but this does not preclude him from making a rational decision to engage in a talk with his enemy.

Danny and Maggie, Joe’s daughter, are betraying her husband in a very real, painful and conscious manner. Danny’s feedback to the prevailing atmosphere of uncertainty, fear, and paranoia is to join his old boxing manager, a desperate alcoholic, in reopening a local gym for fighters from both sides of the Catholic/Protestant divide.

In other words Danny concludes that what armed struggle creates in terms of pain and suffering at the local level outbalances any benefit that might crop up from the actual attainment of concrete political goals. Danny’s basic rationality wins out, in other words, and his subsequent actions are those of a man who realizes that ceaseless struggle, the quest for revenge, and essentially permanent anger and despair are “not worth it” in relative terms.

Danny wants to live the life he has, not sacrificial one to a larger and very likely futile cause. In becoming—as Ebert writes—“a figurehead for those in the community who want to heal old wounds and move ahead” (Ebert 5), he embodies the normal human tendency to weigh pros and cons and sacrifice idealism to pragmatism.

As noted from the above discussion, there is strong thematic common ground between Patriot Games and The Boxer on a number of incidences. First of all they Both concern themselves with vast pain, frustration and despair of terrorists or freedom fighters who have failed to achieve their goals and believe that some fundamental change in strategy must occur to produce a shift in fortunes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Studies Discussing Problems in Northern Ireland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The protagonists in The Boxer settle upon the path of peace while those in Patriot Games settle upon far more dramatic and lethal terror tactics culminating in an attack upon members of the British royal family in the United States. In both films, it is the extreme, radical element that is used to generate drama.

In The Boxer, for example, it is not the mainstream IRA per se that is the source of conflict, but the IRA faction led by Harry (Gerard McSorley), a committed extremist who hates Hamill, the sober and steadfast IRA representative in Danny and Maggie’s community.

Yet in rendering a figure like Hamill (a murderer in more than a technical sense) as complex and sympathetic, the film clearly suggests that such figures are comprehensible, rational actors who are not “bad” in a strictly moral sense but “wrong” on a technical, strategic level.

Hamill and the other moderates emerge as misguided figures increasingly aware of the damage they are doing, and have done, to their own communities—not as morally bankrupt people who think killing 1, 100, or 1000 innocent people is justified if it produces the political results they desire. Having lost a child to the British, Harry is very bitter to a point of revealing in the very permanence of the struggle against British control. This is the same permanence that causes such misery in the larger community.

Compromise is unthinkable for Harry because the struggle is what defines him. This dynamic defines the protagonists of Patriot Games as well. They too are radical extremists who see compromise as akin to defeat and actively combat not only the British but their more moderate IRA counterparts. They too are driven by the need for personal revenge, with at least one of the group witnessing the death of his brother during an ambitious terrorist operation and vowing to avenge the killing.

Nevertheless, the drama in Patriot Games derives from the terrorist characters’ essential inhumanity. They are impossible to understand, immune to the temptations of compromise, and entirely irrational in their demands and actions (and, as such, the objects of immense fear). Though hardly flat characters, they are not rounded in the way that those in The Boxer are rounded.

They occupy the role of “Other” in much the same way that Islamic fundamentalists dominate the “role” of terrorist in contemporary films and Communist agents dominated the same role in films produced during the Cold War—figures who may be biologically human, but who are in thrall to an ideology that renders them almost superhuman in their ability to withstand, and inflict, suffering.

Dark, shadowy, physically attractive, and mentally acute, they are somehow superior, in their stoicism and lack of mercy, to the forces of the West—or of ordered society—who are arrayed against them.

This is a theme that Desson Howe picks up in his June 5, 1992 review of Patriot Games, in which he deduces that the film lives up to its “mall-movie mandate, to defend American hearth and home against invincible boy-toy bogymen [sic]” (Howe 2). Howe also notes that the IRA splinter group is in no way defined by basic laws as they exist in the real world, particularly with regard to capabilities: This breakaway faction of the IRA…has an operating budget the Pentagon would die for.

They have top-of-the-line speedboats, infrared storm-the- fortress equipment, nasty car bombs and the usual glut of machine guns. They have easy access to London cabs and Libyan ships and Of course they are thick as thieves with Moammar Gadhafi (Howe 3).

The basic rationality and recognizable humanity of the IRA in The Boxer and the essential irrationality and apparent inhumanity of the central IRA splinter group in Patriot Games owe much to the conventions of film genre. The Boxer, as noted, is a small-scale human drama about complex characters and complex, often contradictory, human motivations. The film is clearly not interested in attempting to convey every aspect of The Troubles—from every possible perspective—nor does it have the budget to do so.

Instead, it attempts to “slice into” a single thematic vein (albeit a rich one) and to extrapolate larger truths from this small sample. Patriot Games, by contrast, is about simplified drama and conflict, which demands a “hero” and a “villain”, and preferably, a villain marked not by self-doubt, but by outrageous ego, confidence, and cruelty, such that that villain’s eventual comeuppance is suitably satisfying.

Interestingly, however—and counter-intuitively—this latter form of drama, in forcing thematic simplicity onto an ostensibly complex subject, has a way of laying bare certain uncomfortable truths that are sometimes invisible to those who aretoo close to a particular agenda.

Though this is naturally a controversial and politically-charged area, there is a strong argument to be made that the very act of “humanizing” terrorists or freedom fighters, or indeed any group that pursues an agenda through conflict, works to rationalize and “soften” barbarous acts and to smooth the wayinto a morally-relative universe in which even an al-Qaida suicide bomber (for example) killing a busload of children takes on the character of a rational and comprehensible, if regrettable, act.

This is not to suggest that The Boxer condones IRA violence; it does just the opposite. As James Berardinelli notes in his own insightful review of The Boxer, the film does go some way toward differentiating between the goals of IRA moderates and sympathizers on the one hand and hard-core zealots on the other (Berardinelli 3): “The message [of The Boxer] is that, in a struggle where violence is the weapon of choice for both sides, there are no winners.

Most of the main characters in The Boxer are pro-Republican, but this is no IRA recruiting film” ( Berardinelli 3). The moderates, who are weary of the violence, are the men and women we are meant to have pity on. In contrast, the hard-liners are clearly the villains. “Their case, as stated by a spokesperson, sounds as barbaric and outdated to other members of the IRA as it does to us” (Berardinelli 4).

On the contrary, a film like Patriot Games, in stripping away nuance and the complexity of human motivations, offers an arguable more “honest” assessment of what politically-driven violence really is in an absolute sense.

This is a point worth pondering, because it is often difficult to identify “evil” in human affairs, and, indeed, the very notion of evil is considered by many to be ridiculous, irrelevant and an entirely unproductive concept. Yet few people alive today would seriously quibble with the notion that Adolf Hitler and Germany’s Nazi regime were evil, or that Japan’s actions in Nanking during the Second World War were beyond morally bankrupt (Berardinelli 4).

Yet, undeniably, the policies and actions favored by these groups and individualsmade complete sense to them in a very detailed, wide-ranging and entirely defensible way. In other words, it is not especially difficult to get caught up in individuals, faces, romantic, abstract goals, historical injustices, national feeling, and other elements that distract from the essence of what violence against defenseless people really is.

Patriot Games offers a few details of personal suffering that help to flesh out the IRA members’ motivations, but even though this is largely for the purposes of high-octane, “mindless” drama, it actually has the effect of rendering the reality of what the IRA does (and what all terrorist groups, including the Protestant paramilitaries, do) much more transparent and vulnerable to well-deserved condemnation (Null 2).

Critic Christopher Null, reviewing the DVD version of Patriot Games, touches on this point obliquely when he suggests that, even though Patriot Games is ostensibly anti-IRA, the fact that it favors slick visuals over nuance actually has the effect of capturing the average viewer’s attention much more forcefully than a political piece eager to dispense its “message” first and entertain its audience second: “Patriot Games is at least a story well-told and impeccably produced. I can stand a little preaching as long as it’s well-made.

So many IRA films are preachy and ugly, so Patriot Games is actually a bit of a relief” (Null 3).Patriot Games is as handicapped as The Boxer is in trying to convey all aspects, and all perspectives, inherent to the political struggle in Northern Ireland. It has the budget, but such an examination is antithetical to the action/thriller genre.

Instead, Patriot Games chooses a “broad and shallow” examination over The Boxer’s “narrow and deep” treatment. It is probably safe to say than any film dedicated to the subject of politics in Northern Ireland must be selective in its treatment of the topic, given the constraints of running time. Perhaps television is the appropriate venue to examine the subject in intimate detail.

On the contrary, it can be argued that only a filmmaker with some sort of connection with a people and a cause is able to offer an accurate picture of individual human beings at the heart of that cause. If being too close to a political conflict endangers a focus on elements of individual human behavior, and individual human lives, at the expense of a firm grasp of moral absolutes, then a focus on “good versus evil” certainly precludes gaining a better understanding of unique and fascinating human beings.

Jim Sheridan, who is Irish, was a young man during the onset of The Troubles in Northern Ireland and has a long history of making films dealing with the Northern Ireland issue either directly or obliquely (Some Mother’s Son, In the Name of the Father, The Field).

He is uniquely qualified to investigate the lives of people at the heart of the conflict in a way that that the Australian director Philip Noyce is not. This is not to suggest that Noyce is incapable of doing so—merely that he is more likely to have a “shorthand” understanding of the characters and issues involved in a way that is better suited to high drama.

His is more likely to be a detached, objective, aloof assessment, whereas Sheridan’s is quite clearly more intimate, subtle and emotional. Patriot Games, as noted, is a big-budget film targeted at a wide, international audience (including an audience outside the English-speaking world) expecting well-made action entertainment.

The Boxer, probably made for 1/10 the cost of Patriot Games (or less), is clearly aimed at an older, more sophisticated audience largely confined to the UK, North America, and the rest of the English-speaking world. Far more than Patriot Games, The Boxer is interested in providing its audience a more intellectually-stimulating cinematic experience.

To conclude, The Boxer and Patriot Games treat similar thematic material in pretty different mannerism thus producing two films addressing the Northern Ireland conflict that occupy fundamentally opposed, but equally entertaining, film genres.

The Boxer is a small-scale drama interested in the complex, conflicted lives of people who are deeply invested, willingly or not, in the IRA’s campaign in Northern Ireland; Patriot Games, by contrast, is a classic Hollywood big-budget action film dependent on stock characters and high drama(Null 3).

Despite the fact that both films concern themselves with issues pivoted to the IRA’s decades-long military campaign, including the damage wrought by violence both on victims and perpetrators, the manner in which armed groups inevitably fracture in the face of setbacks and differing objectives, and revenge as a central driver of human behavior.

Produced by filmmakers from very different backgrounds, working within vastly different budgetary constraints, and concerned with conveying different messages to different audiences, both The Boxer and Patriot Games find politics in Northern Ireland a rich source of thematic and dramatic material.

Works Cited Berardinelli, J. The Boxer: A film review (dir. James Sheridan). Hell’s Kitchen Films/Universal Pictures. 1997. Web.

Ebert, R. The Boxer [A review of the film The Boxer] (dir. James Sheridan). Hell’s Kitchen Films/Universal Pictures. 1998. Web.

Howe, D. ‘Patriot Games’ [A review of the film Patriot Games] (dir. Philip Noyce). 1992. Web.

Null, C. Patriot Games [A review of the film Patriot Games] (dir. Philip Noyce). 2003. Web.


Night to his Day Analysis Essay essay help online

Introduction This paper analyzes the concept of gender as a social construct. Gender in general terms refers to the various characteristics used to differentiate between male and female humans. These characteristics are interpreted under different contexts. Thus the meaning of gender has always varied. Gender as a social construct can be explained as follows.

Gender as a Structure Gender as a social structure is based on the fact that ‘gender’ is a social construct. This means that the meaning of gender is socially created through interactions. Thus it can be analyzed at three levels in the society namely, individual level, institutional level and interaction level (Lorber, 1994).

At the individual level, assigning appropriate sex to a person is the first step in gender construction (Lorber, 1994). Gender status is then created through appropriate symbols such as naming, dressing and roles. For example, girls can be differentiated from boys through their mode of dressing. At the institutional level, gender determines organizational patterns of human beings in the society (Lorber, 1994).

It particularly influences the distribution of resources and the roles associated with different sexes. For example, a role such as taking care of babies is associated with women. Finally, at the interaction level, gender influences the way males and females interact. It achieves this by defining the mannerism or norms that guide interaction between males and females (Henslin, 2010). Gender is constantly created as people change roles, behaviors and patterns of interaction.

The Different Significance Gender Categories have for Individuals and Society The significance of gender at individual level is that it focuses on creating predictable gender statuses. This means that it aims at establishing a “limited number of gender statuses” (Lorber, 1994) whose members have similar attributes.

This is achieved through teaching the individual to be either masculine or feminine. For example girls are taught to behave in a particular manner as required by their culture. Thus members of a particular gender will be identified by particular characteristics. However, the characteristics vary from one culture to another.

At the society level, the significance of gender is that it focuses on identifying the differences in gender statuses (Lorber, 1994). The differences are usually based on the perceived roles of each gender status. This means that a gender boundary exists and differentiates various gender statuses. However, the boundaries are usually breached as roles change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ideas from the Film ‘Race, the Power of Illusion’ Ideas from the above film help in understanding how race and gender are constructed and this can be explained as follows. First, the film indicates that race is not natural but a social construct. Thus it can not be used to classify human beings based on their physical traits.

As a social contract, race is created by social institutions such as economy and politics. This helps in differentiating between race and ethnicity. While race describes the biological traits that distinguishes individuals, ethnicity categories individuals based on their cultural heritage (Henslin, 2010). Thus race is a physiological product while ethnicity is a social construct.

The same concept explains the difference between gender and sexual orientation. While gender is socially constructed, sexual orientation is a physiological product. Second, the film indicates that race has been used to justify inequality by assuming that it is natural. This helps in understanding the differences in gender statuses. In most cases, gender boundaries are established to marginalize females especially in resource allocation (Lorber, 1994).

References Henslin, J. (2010). Essentials of sociology: a down-to-earth approach. New York: Prentice Hall.

Lorber, J. (1994). Night to his day: the social construction of gender. New Haven: Yale University.


The evaluation of the argument from a bumper sticker Essay essay help online free

Regardless of its innocent surface, a bumper sticker including an equation with the word marriage in its left side and the components of 1 man and 1 woman united with a summation sign in its right side conveys a number of implied arguments. The overt argument of this sticker is that a legal union between a man and a woman is defined as marriage, but the form of the strict equation chosen for this statement implies that it is the only possible form of marriage, while the other forms are not admissible.

Though the statement of the bumper sticker coincides with the definition of marriage under the Defense of Marriage Act, its implied arguments concerning the inadmissibility of other forms of unions discriminates feelings of ethnical and sexual minorities. Analyzing this simple statement, it can be logically assumed that the marriage between the representatives of the same sex and marriage between more than two partners is regarded as impossible.

However, taking into account the fact that same sex marriage has already been legalized in five states, it can be noted that this argument can even not comply with the current legislation, depending upon the peculiar location. In other words, the contextual environment should be taken into consideration for evaluating at least the legal basis for making such an assertion in a specific community.

The implied meaning of the term marriage should be taken into consideration for understanding this message in its full context. Thus, along with the definition of marriage as a legal contract, another meaning of this concept as perceived by the modern community is a social union.

Then, treating the left side of the equation, namely the word marriage in its second meaning of a social union, the use of the legal restrictions for the construction of the argument would be inappropriate. In that regard, not only a same sex marriage but even a union of more than two partners justified either with religious or personal views appears as possible.

However, taking into account the strict equation as the chosen form for expressing the argument, the simple mathematical rules can be considered for evaluating the implied arguments. Thus, according to the rules of equation, the summation of other components can give the same value. It is possible to hypothesize that this bumper sticker shown only one of the possible forms of marriage.

However, then exhibiting the sticker to the wide audience as a form of expressing the views of the driver would be senseless. Thus, it can be stated that regardless of the original mathematical form of expressing the argument, the mathematical rules are inappropriate for evaluating all the implied meanings of the argument under consideration because some of them are created by the situational context and the driver’s intentions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of the driver and his/her intentionality as the ethos component of the argument should be taken into account for estimating the statement. It is obvious that the argument reflects the driver’s personal views. However, the bumper sticker as the form of sharing one’s views can be regarded as the mode of self-expression.

Exhibiting this sticker to the wide audience, the driver intends to affect the feelings of the surrounding and even expects certain reactions from them. Taking into account the driver’s motives in expressing the concern, it can be stated that the chosen form of expression reduces the persuasiveness of the implied arguments.

Analyzing the variety of possible implied arguments and interpretations of the message written on a bumper sticker, it can be stated that the situational context, the background information and the ethos element deserve special consideration for interrogating the argument under consideration.


Report on the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The Tangshan Earthquake happened in 1976 is considered to be one of the large-scale earthquakes of the past century. Occurred on July, 28, the quake had a magnitude of 7.5, about 15 km of focal depth, and an epi-centric intensity of XI in accordance with New Chinese Intensity Scale (Fang, 1979, n. p.). The natural disaster caused significant damages to the densely-populated city that lost about 250000 lives. Today the city has been totally reconstructed and renewed.

Tangshan is situated in the northern part of People’s Chinese Republic, 150 km east to Beijing. The seismologists had paid close attention to the region because it had characteristics typical of the places producing significant earthquakes.

In addition, the past record proved a seriously high seismic activity of the Northern China, like the earthquake happened in 1815 that marked the start of continuous anomalies in future (Fang, 1979, n. p.). Tectonic movement had been specifically intense since 1972 in the northern China and they revealed in the form of minor earthquakes.

In 1973, anomalous surface deformation, telluric currents, increased ratio of radon in water, and geomagnetism were observed at stations situated near Beijing and in southern Liaoning Province (Fang, 1979, n. p). The 1975 Haicheng Earthquake was the first marker of gradual and continuous intensification of tectonic activity in the identified region. In addition, seismologists are still debating on the reasons and preconditions of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake because no exact conclusions have been drawn on this issue.

It should be admitted, however, that certain anomalies, such as strange animal behavior and significant fluctuations of the groundwater level had been observed several days before the disaster, but these phenomena had not been taken into consideration because they were recognized as insignificant for a short-term prediction.

After the earthquake, mostly all structures were totally destroyed, including buildings that suffered serious damages as well. Bridging constructions were destroyed and rails were totally disrupted (Fang, 1979, n. p.). All these ruins and disruptions spread over 8 km in diameter, trending northeast. Most of the dwelling houses were also severely damaged; about half of industrial constructions were destroyed and some irrigation mechanisms ceased to operate. All disruptions and collapses were largely affected by ground matters.

Considering economical and political situation in 1970s, it should be stressed that the government paid little attention to scientific development. Insufficient research on tectonic plates in this particular region was one of the main causes of failure to assess the seismic activity in Tangshan before the disaster (Fang, 1979, n. p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this respect, lack of finance and government’s ignorance of situation contributed partially to the tragedy. The economic situation before the earthquake was largely controlled by the Communist Party under the regime of the Chairman Mao Zedong who failed to consider this issue properly. The government did not provide the population with sufficient earthquake protection shemes because it was more concerned with the mining activities taking place in the region (Geological Society of America, 2007, p. 393).

In whole, lack of reliable and effective techniques and scientific methodology and focus on coal-mining activity contributed to greater losses and damages during the earthquake. After the tragedy, the Chinese office was taken by Liu Shaoqi who introduced a number of economic reforms that partially improved the situation in the sphere of science.

Reference List Fang, W. (1979). The 1979 Tangshan Earthquake. Science for A Changing World. Web.

Geological Society of America. (2007). Continental Intraplate Earthquakes: Science, Hazard, and Policy Issues. US: Geological Society of America.


World Peace in Music Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction


Comparison of Songs

Music/Lyric Connection




Introduction World peace is an important topic that needs a serious consideration in the modern world. If there were peace in the world, flagitious occurrences like war, terrorism and gang violence among others world be just but a history.

Many artists in the music arena have attempted, through their lyrics, to call for actions that would help in fostering peace around the globe. An example is Imagine by John Lennon recorded and released in 1971 and Heal the World by Michael Jackson released in 1991. From the content of lyrics, these masterpieces are good campaign tools for world peace.

Discussion Peace, in the modern world is a sensitive issue that people in all circles should endeavor to achieve. Nations should avoid engaging in politics or actions that result in wars or acts of terrorism. In all Nations, the value of anti-war campaigns needs emphasis because it is only through fostering peace among nations in the world that people can coexist peacefully.

According to Mousseau the “existence of one democracy for all nations would help achieve world peace” (2003, p.484). Peaceful coexistence among nations comes with numerous benefits including international relations, free movement of people across international boundaries, sharing of knowledge, culture and religious values among nations and faster growth of nations among other pertinent issues that affect national and international relations.

The call for peace should not however be left to only influential people like politicians for in most cases peace is not an important agenda in their manifestos. According to Titze, “all religions over the world have a common belief about world peace” (1998, p. 121); that through prayer and supplication, people can achieve and foster peace in the world. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every individual to try their level best to contribute positively towards the attainment of world peace.

Even though the effort of an individual may seem negligible when comparing it with peace in the entire world, the overall effect of many individuals doing the same thing is great. For instance a musician singing about world peace in one of his/her albums, the number of people he/she will influence will be large, though the overall effect will be small. If all other musicians throughout the world emulated the same, there would be a significant impact.

Comparison of Songs John Lennon’s song, Imagine and Michael Jackson’s, Heal the World, have a good and common message aimed at promoting world peace. In both songs, the message is the same; world peace and how people can achieve it. John Lennon approaches the issue by invoking an idea into the human mind on how it could probably be if there was world peace (Lawrence, 2005, p.95).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Lennon, the world can be in a state of peace only in absence of things that hinder peace or create conflicts. The things that draw Lennon’s attention include countries, religion, and possessions. In stanza one, Lennon says “Imagine there’s no countries” to provoke an imagination about people living together without originating from any nation.

In stanza two, Lennon says, “Imagine all the people Living life in peace,” to imply that having only one country in the world would help foster peace. Jackson’s view of a meaningful world peace is the peace that comes from people’s hearts; a deep rooted desire to make the world a better place. In the chorus, Jackson says, “If you care enough for the living, make a better place…” Jackson also suggests ways through which people can achieve world peace.

He urges people not to fear if they have love because there is a way through which they can foster world peace. In stanza five, he says, “Love’s enough for us growing…” and in stanza six Jackson says, “We cannot feel fear or dread…” Therefore to promote world peace, Lennon gives the conditions that would favor world peace while, Jackson suggests the actions that those who love the living should take to ensure the world is peaceful.

Music/Lyric Connection The two lyrics have a strong connection as far as the message of peace is concerned. Even though they use different approaches to the issue of world peace, Lennon and Jackson seek to inform people that there is need to foster peace around the world. They argue that for peace to exist in the world, people have to make efforts geared towards changing this world for better. As a result, people should arise and start making the world a place of peace.

Referring to a time the whole world shall have attained peace, Lennon says, “…and the world will live as one.” By the world being as one, he implies that people will be united because of international peace that will exist. Similarly, when referring to a day when the word shall have attained peace, Jackson says in stanza nine that, “Together we’ll cry happy tears.” Here Jackson refers to the joy that will underscore the ultimate realization of world peace.

The musical instruments used in performance of these songs have played a great role in supporting the lyrics of the song. In Michael Jackson’s Heal the world, the performance employs the use of soft and low music. The aim of this type of music is to allow the listeners to pay more attention to the words rather than the sounds of the instruments.

As a result, the message carried in the lyrics would easily reach its listeners. In addition the soft and low music helps to create an impression of calmness, which is a symbol of peace. In John Lennon’s Imagine, the type of instruments used in performance equally supports the message that lyrics convey. The soft music from the piano not only creates an impression of peace but also allows the listeners to fully get the message that the lyrics carry

We will write a custom Essay on World Peace in Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion World peace is an important element that people in the modern world need to foster given the many benefits that accompany it. The song Imagine by John Lennon and Heal the World by Michael Jackson are good campaign tools for peace in the world. Even though they use different approaches, the composers have a common message to the world; people should promote world peace.

References Lawrence, K. (2005). John Lennon: In His Own Words. Andrews McMeel Publishing: McMeel Publishers.

Mousseau, M. (2003). The Nexus of Market Society, Liberal Preferences, and Democratic Peace: Interdisciplinary Theory and Evidence. International Studies Quarterly, 47(6): 483–510.

Titze, K. (1998). Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence. Mohtilal Banarsidass Press.

Discography John Lennon, The John Lennon Collection, Rovi Corporation (1990), R 78327.

Michael Jackson, Dangerous, Epic Records (1991), EP 89134.


The Koryo Dynasty Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Koryo Rule in Korea



Works Cited

Introduction The Koryo Dynasty (918-1392) of Korea developed from the need of protecting kingdoms of Silla, Kokuryu and Paekche Koryo from internal conflicts and attacks from China and Japan. This dynasty based on a military structure was generally damaging to the citizens for the following reasons.

To begin with, although the system was run by qualified administrators, the ruling class used their ranks to acquire massive chunks of lands which were rented to tenants who through forced labour did farming not for their welfare but for the ruling class. These tenants were subjected to heavy taxation from land owners.

Koryo Rule in Korea This type of rule was only aimed at enriching few members of the society and subjecting majority members to absolute poverty which is contrary to new dimension of governing.

This new orientation in governing stipulates that administrators as servants of citizens. Secondly the ruling class became hereditary thus positions in governing were not based on qualifications but on family relationships. Such kind of leadership promotes dictatorial tendencies characterized by oppression, misappropriation of state funds and general contempt among the masses (Kyotsu 184-198).

Lastly, the regime used religion to further its interests. Buddhism being the sole religion was considered supreme, resulting to social amenities like land being allocated to spiritual leaders. This does not concur with democratic governance that stipulates citizens are free to choose their own religion and that no religion be used to further interests of governing class.

Subsequently monks from Buddhists were entrenched to governance without due considerations of their qualifications. All these contempt led to a revolution from people ending koryo leadership in 1392 giving rise to Yi dynasty (Kyotsu 184-198).

Yangban In Korean culture, Yangban refers to two different social statuses: Mumban comprising of educated elites and Muban comprising of the married institution. Yangban were part of the traditional ruling class of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. A major factor leading to formation of yangban was succession of Yi generals and settlements of disagreements through administration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yangban status was conferred to citizens who passed national civil exams (gwageo). Gwageo was to objectively assess competence in Confucian classics and history. Limited positions ensured that success was skewed towards relationship to ruling elites and not competence, giving remote chance to members of lower classes.

This elite possessed massive financial resources and adequate time contrary to members of lower classes who spent most of their time working for the upper classes. Upon passing, an individual was appointed to a government position, effectively accessing the status of yangban. Families that were unsuccessful in having a government official for three generations were relegated to a “commoner” status (William 329-335).

The greatest privileges to yangban members included being members of royal court and military departments whom were exempted from several laws. Corruption in the yangban system was checked by rivalries among factions aimed to demote any faction linked to it. It only emanated during the reign of King Sunjor from Eastern faction.

Yangban status was passed from one generation to the next through intermarriages of members from upper classes. Gwangmu reform of 1894 that occurred after Korean War ended the yangban status. The new administration wanted to reconcile warring factions by using administrators who were law conversant (Kyotsu 184-198).

Conclusion In modern day Korea, yangban is based on educational status, family backgrounds and financial status. The practice of yangban exists in South Korea among the ruling elite whereas in North Korea yangban exists based on military and party alliances (Kyotsu 184-198).

Works Cited Kyotsu, Hori. The economic and political effects of Mongol wars” in Medieval Japan. CA: Stanford university press, 1985. pp 184-198.

William, Wayne. Heavenly warriors. Harvard Council of East Asian Studies. UK: Cambridge, 1992. pp 329-335.

We will write a custom Essay on The Koryo Dynasty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


First Impression in Recruitment Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

First impression

Short listing


Effects of First impression on short listing and interviewing



Introduction The recruitment of new employees into the company is usually very essential to maintain a productive labor force. The process should be taken carefully because making a mistake can have serious repercussions on the company. How the process is undertaken usually reflects the culture of the institution. The process can be undertaken by the company itself or through a recruiting agency. The process usually has various steps which include application, short listing, interviewing, selecting and training which a candidate must pass through.

All the steps of recruitment may be affected by internal or external factors. In ensuring that the process is carried out properly, the recruitment team should have the necessary skills and experience. This paper seeks to discuss first impression as one of the factors affecting decision making in the recruitment process. The paper outlines its positive and negative effects in regard to selection of best applicant in the short listing and interview stages.

First impression When one meets someone or a group of people, the way he/she presents himself is very important. This is because most people judge other people from their first impression (Lin, 2010). First impression has influence in decision making in the recruitment process (Skowronski


Etisalat’s Success in the UAE Essay essay help site:edu

Executive Summary This paper evaluates Etisalat’s success in the UAE. Some of the issues evaluated in the paper relates to how the firm has managed to attain an efficient market position in UAE. Currently, the firm is the leader within the UAE telecommunication industry. An analysis of the firm is conducted through incorporation of the SWOT model.

Through this model, Etisalat’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are identified and evaluated. Additionally, the paper illustrates how Etisalat has incorporated various marketing concepts and strategies. For example, the concept of market targeting and segmentation is used to illustrate how Etisalat has organized its target market.

Additionally, Etisalat’s marketing strategies are evaluated by incorporating the concept of marketing mix. The main strategies analyzed include the product, pricing, promotion and distsribution strategies. With regard to organization, the paper illustrates the organization structure adopted by Etisalat in its operation in UAE. Additionally, an evaluation criteria together with values incorporated in the firm’s operations are illustrated.

Introduction Emirates Telecommunications (Etisalat) is a public limited company which operates within the telecommunication industry in the United Arabs Emirates. The firm was founded in 1976.

As a result of the regulatory and control powers awarded to Etisalat UAE over other firms by the UAE government, Etisalat was able to operate as a monopoly. Over the years it has been in operation, the firm has managed to venture into the international market. Its headquarters are based at Abu Dhabi. Etisalat has managed to establish itself as one of the largest firms within the telecommunication industry.

In order to understand the reasons for the success of the firm, the researcher sought to conduct a comprehensive analysis of Etisalat UAE by considering a number of issues.

SWOT Analysis Strengths

Financial stability- As a result of its international operations, the firm has managed to increase its profitability. For example, during its 2010 financial year, the firm experienced a 46% growth in its sales revenue compared to the 2009 financial year. During its 2010 financial year, Etisalat UAE experienced an increment in its net revenue with a margin of 2%. Its total net revenue during the year amounted to AED 31.9 billion. Etisalat’s financial stability enables the firm to undertake international investments effectively. Its financial stability has enabled the firm to be rated AA- by Standard and Poors which is equivalent to A by Fitch and Aa3 by Moody’s.

Technological development- Etisalat has effectively positioned itself in the market with regard to technology. Over the years it has been in operation, Etisalat has been in the forefront with regard to introduction of emerging telecommunication technology in the local and the foreign market.

Comprehensive telecommunication provider-The firm offers a wide range of telecommunication services to individual and corporate customers both in the local and the international market. Some of these services include data services, fixed-line voice services and mobile services.

Strong management team- Etisalat UAE has a strong management team which has enabled the firm to be a leader with regard to telecom services provision. The firm’s management team is proactive with regard to strategy formulation. This is achieved through anticipation of market conditions thus enabling the firm to formulate and implement winning business strategies.

Customer focus- The firm has a strong and wide network and coverage front which enables the firm to offer its customers the best-in-inline services in the country and also in the MENA region. For example, in order to serve its customers optimally, the firm has the widest roaming network, while its 3G network covers approximately ninety nine per cent of the country’s populated area.


Despite the firm’s success, Etisalat UAE has a problem with regard to its customer care service. The firm does not have sufficient customer care representatives to serve its customers. As a result, customers wait for a long time to be served.The firm formulated a strategy to deal with the challenge. However, its implementation has not been effective which is evident in the increase in the number of customer complaints over the long hours they are kept on hold.


International investments-The firm’s long term expansion strategy with regard to international investments increases its potential to attain its profit maximization objective.

Tariff prices- As result of Etisalat’s profitably, the firm has been able to offer some of its products at low prices compared to its competitors. For example, in 2009, the firm lowered the price of its internet broadband tariff with a margin of 40%. This is likely to enhance consumption of its services.

Growth in population – UAE is experiencing a rapid growth in its population. This means that there is a high probability of the country witnessing an increment in the number of subscribers. Additionally, the country is witnessing an influx in the number of expatriates. This is an indicator for a growth in demand for international communication services.

Undersea fiber optic cable- There is a high probability of the firm increasing its customer base by rolling out the undersea fiber optic cables. This is due to the fact that the firm will increase international data service access.


Competition-The UAE telecommunication industry is increasingly becoming saturated. One of the markets which have been adversely affected is the mobile market. More investor is venturing into the industry thus reducing its profitability potential. For example, mobile penetration has reached more than 200% which means that there is a high probability of a decline in the growth of mobile subscribers.

Changes in technology- Considering the high rate of technological innovation, the firm has to continuously upgrade its network to avoid its technologies being rendered obsolete.

Competitive analysis

For a number of years, Etisalat operated as a monopoly in the United Arabs Emirates landline, internet and mobile phone market. As a result, the firm was able to charge high prices to its customers. However, the entry of another firm, Du which offers mobile services in the UAE market led to emergence of competition. As a result, there is a high probability of Etisalat’s market share with regard to the television and internet market shrinking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to Du Company, Etisalat also faces intense competition from four other companies which include Orascom Telecommunication Holding S.A.E, Qatar Telecom, KSC, and Mobile Telecommunications Company. In its wireless market segment, the firm faces stiff competition from Orascom Telecommunication Holdings which has a well established mobile communication network both in the local and the international market.

Despite the fact that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) within UAE’s telecommunication industry has been prohibited until 2015 through exclusion negotiated between the UAE government and the World Trade Organization (WTO), there is a high probability of the firm facing intense competition from the international market.

This arises from the fact that the firm has entered into a free trade agreement with the US and the European Union. As a result, the US and the EU members may insist that UAE should open up its market for their firms to access. This means that there is a likelihood of Etisalat facing intense competition.

Marketing objectives

In its operation, Etisalat UAE intends to achieve a number of objectives as outlined below.

It is Etisalat’s objective to offer its customers high quality services at a standard price. The firm has achieved this by implementing an advanced network which is capable of catering for huge voice traffic.

During its 2011 financial Etisalat intends to increase its market share with a margin of 15%.

In its marketing operations, it aims to make it possible for a large number of customers in the country to enjoy the most modern telecommunication technologies which include television, internet as well as telephone.

Considering the growth in technology, Etisalat UAE intends to expand its market operation through incorporation of new technologies. As a result, it will be possible for the firm to improve the level of its customer service in addition to enhancing the shareholder’s value.

Etisalat intends to enhance business connections between large and small business enterprises. This will be achieved by eliminating limitations which arise as a result of distance. The resultant effect is that the firm will enable businesses in UAE to exploit new market opportunities presented.

It is the objective of the firm to increase its customer base with a margin of 20%. Etisalat aims at attaining this by focusing on its internet users. The firm has developed a plan to improve its broadband access and bandwidth to its customers.

Target audience

In order to be profitable, Etisalat UAE targets the entire market. However, the firm has lays more emphasis on targeting customers who are mostly concerned with the quality of service. To be effective in its target marketing, Etisalat divided its market into a number of segments.

One of the variables which the firm incorporates in its market targeting is price. With regard to price, Etisalat UAE has developed a strategy which enables customers to call at a low price. This is usually possible during off peak hours. However, the customers are able to enjoy the same quality of service. The firm also targets international customers who require making cheap international calls during off peak hours.

The various segments which the firm has incorporated with regard to telecommunication includes casual callers, business callers, expatriates, late night international callers, mid night international callers, local callers, and office break callers. In order to be effective, the firm has developed a prepaid and a post paid plan.

We will write a custom Essay on Etisalat’s Success in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The prepaid connection caters for casual callers and office break callers. On the other hand, the post paid connection caters for business callers. In addition, the post paid connection which is inclusive of a discount is also applicable to local callers. However, the amount of discount is dependent on the duration of each call. The long duration of the call, the high the discount received.

Considering the fact that UAE has a large population of expatriates, Etisalat UAE has capitalized on them by designing a favorite country plan. To be effective in capturing the market share for the expatriates, the firm offers different tariffs for the various countries. In an effort to encourage late night calling in its network, Etisalat UAE has developed an off-peak tariff called super off-peak hour. Calling rates at night are usually at a lower price.

Organization structure

Etisalat has adopted a hierarchical organizational structure. The management team has organized the firm into a number of departments depending on the various functions. The firm is headed by the General Manager Assisted by the Deputy General Manager. Employees in the various departments report to their respective vice presidents. The chart below illustrates the organization structure it has adopted in UAE.

Figure 1: Etisalat UAE organization chart

In an effort to attain efficiency in its operation, Etisalat has integrated the concept of team work. Every department is organized into a number of teams. The teams are formed with the objective of attaining a certain goal. The various team members are assigned different roles in accordance with their skills and experience. Upon completion of the assigned task, the team is disbanded. Use of team approach has enabled the firm to be effective in attaining its goals.

Marketing Mix

In an effort to be effective in its marketing processes, Etisalat UAE has incorporated the concept of marketing mix. According to Ennew and Waite (2007, p.172), marketing mix enables a firm’s products and services to attain a competitive market position. By incorporating the concept of marketing mix, a firm is able to implement its marketing strategy.

Ennew and Waite (2007, p.172) further assert that the consumers do not have much interest on a firm’s strategy, however, their main interest is the utility they derive from a firm’s marketing mix. In line with this, Etisalat UAE has effectively integrated the concept of marketing mix. This has been achieved through incorporation of the 4Ps which include the product, promotion, place, and price.

Product strategy

Given that consumers have diverse products and services needs, Etisalat UAE has integrated the concept of product diversification. The firm has achieved this through formation of different business units. Its business units are dividend into two categories which include telecommunication and non-telecom business units.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Etisalat’s Success in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With regard to its services, Etisalat UAE deals with a wide range of services. Over the years it has been in operation, Etisalat UAE has developed a portfolio of services which include telephone services, landline services and television services. In line with its telecommunication services, the firm deals with mobile communication devices such as iPhones. In 995, Etisalat UAE ventured into the internet market (Beltone, 2008, p. 34). Etisalat UAE has managed to attain a substantial market share with regard to telecommunication network.

In order to remain competitive in its domestic market, Etisalat has incorporated the concept of innovation. This has enabled the firm to develop new products and services. For example, upon the entry of Du in the UAE market, Etisalat has rolled out a number of new products and services.

The main objective of the firm in its new product innovation strategy is to attract additional subscribers. One of the new technologies which Etisalat UAE has adopted is the 3G and 3.5G technology. The 3G and 3.5G technology has enabled the customers to benefit from other value added services. Some of these services include launching of the high-speed mobile data modems, credit transfer, area info service, mobile map, mobile cam, mobile TV service, pushmail and BlackBerry service.

By adding value to its products and services through innovation, Etisalat UAE contributes towards its customers attaining a high level of satisfaction. For example, the high-speed mobile data modem has contributed towards an increase in internet connectivity. On the other hand, credit transfer service which is available to the firm’s mobile subscribers enables them to transfer money within Etisalat’s mobile network. This service is provided to the customers for free.

Pricing strategy

Pricing is an important component in the marketing of a product or service since it affects a firm’s product positioning. In order to be effective, it is important for a firm to evaluate the price of its competitors. This will aid in formulating a competitive consumer pricing strategy. Etisalat UAE has integrated a number of pricing strategies. The firm has incorporated the concept of product and service innovation.

In order to compensate for the additional value received by the customers, Etisalat UAE has adopted value-added pricing strategy. As a result, the prices of Etisalat UAE’s products are relatively high compared to those of its competitors. Value-added pricing strategy has mostly been used in products that have value-added features so as to make them different from other products from competitors.

Etisalat UAE has also incorporated the concept of psychological pricing especially in the marketing of its iPhones. This is a pricing strategy which is aimed a appealing the customers so as to influence their decision making processes (Sutherland


Letter of appeal for reentry for school college essay help online: college essay help online

Guidelines for writing the Letter of Appeal:

1. The letter needs to begin with a paragraph addressing the following:

a. Last term attended at CNM

i. NMNC Course(s) failed in last term attended: NMNC 1235 Health and promotion

b. NMNC Course failure prior to last term attended:

i. NMNC course failed in previous terms for this current programmatic enrollment: NMNC 1235 and NMNC 1210

ii. Dates/terms of previous NMNC course failures (for this programmatic enrollment): Summer 2021

2. Circumstances surrounding the failures
( For this part you can add that I was suffering from an illness. my right side of my body was getting numb and I couldn’t feel that side of my body and this was happened durning taking my exams most of the time. I talked to my doctor and she gave me pills and some blood test and she told me I might suffer from sever anxiety disorder, but this happened during some sort of exercises at gym too, she had doubt I might have some heart issues and she recommended me to have put a device on top of my chest to monitor my heart for two weeks. I got accommodation for this from DRC at CNM but this was almost at the middle of last semester and I got behind on my grades already. Also You can add that this might be related to covid and also related to what was going on in Afghanistan. Because I still had family in Afghanistan and my attention was divided and I couldn’t focus enough on my classes. I also lost my job related to covid at the same time but i got my job back, I work full time right now to safe some money and I can move to part time when I be able to start school again. Please just add some more info from your own research.

a. Address the most current course(s): NMNC 1235

b. Address previous course(s) if course failure occurred in a previous term.: NMNC 1235 and NMNC 1210

3. Describe how circumstances surrounding the failures have been mitigated (fixed).

a. This is where supporting documentation can be helpful.

b. If you include additional documents, please ensure that the letter references these documents and explains their relevance to the appeal.

4. Success plan: I have the success plan at the end of this please find it.

a. Please look at the success plan before writing this section.

b. If you have not met with the achievement coach to develop a success plan, stop writing the letter until this step is done.

c. Include in the letter the following:

i. Your letter should address each success plan strategy.

ii. You should go beyond simply listing the strategies – instead, operationalize them. Show the committee what the strategy looks like in action. BE SPECIFIC!

iii. Examples:

1. Study in a quiet place.

a. I will go to CNM and use the learning center for quiet study on Mondays and Wednesdays from 1600-2000.

b. I will study at home from 1200-1500 on Tuesdays and Thursdays while my children are at school.

2. Decrease hours at work.

a. I will decrease my hours to 16 per week. (Include a photo of your schedule, etc)

b. I will

Student Success plan:
Reason for Success Plan (check all that apply):

☐Early intervention and retention

☐Returning to a course after removal

☒Repeating a course in a cohorted program-transfer student

☐Conditional entry to a CPE program

Personal strengths:
-Persistent, getting along with others, goal-oriented

Academic strengths:
-Hands-on learning, clinical skills, patient care

Challenges and concerns related to course objectives:
-Experiencing anxiety during exams
-Health challenges
-Loss of job and income contributed to stress
-Personal stress related to family impacted focus when studying
-Exam scores

Strategies to address concerns:
-Work with your doctor to manage medications and symptoms
-Utilize testing accommodations from the DRC
-Go to the gym several times a week to help manage Anxiety/ stress
-Return to work full time in fall term; work part-time in the future when classes are in session
-Review recorded lectures
-Meet with a study group
-Re-write important points to improve retention and memory
-Answer practice questions over the material

-Earn at least 85% on exams
-Use recommended strategies to remain calm during exams

Follow up:
-Review exams with instructor during office hours if a score is below 77%
-Meet with achievement coach after your first exam score posts


Development of the Sunni and Shi‘ite Theories of Law Research Paper essay help online

The Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims differed close to a thousand years ago or more. Whereas The Shi’ite Muslims believe in the fourth Caliph, Ali, The Sunni Muslims believe in all the Caliphs who were successors of The Prophet Muhammad. The Shi’ite Muslims belief in Caliph Ali springs from the fact that Ali came from the family lineage of Prophet Muhammad. (Esposito 67) The Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims share the same spiritual beliefs and practices.

The only differences between the two groups of Muslims are purely political or differences on leadership of the Muslims after the death of Prophet Muhammad .However, the political differences have also brought about varying standpoints that have a bearing on spirituality. Of importance though, is the fact that the two groups of Muslims believe in one God, the teachings of Prophet Muhammad and that there will be resurrection on the final Day of Judgment.

The division between the Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims arose after sharp differences of who should lead the Muslim brotherhood after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims held the view that anyone who had the right qualifications was eligible to carry the mantle of leadership of the Muslim faith.

Indeed, this was what was done as Abu Bakr, a close ally of Prophet Muhammad became the first Caliph of Muslim brotherhood. On the one hand, The Shi’ite Muslims believed in the view that leadership of the Muslims after the death of Prophet Muhammad should have remained with one of the family members of Prophet Muhammad.

This meant, an individual appointed by Prophet Muhammad himself or an Imam who was God’s appointee. The Shi’ite Muslims therefore believed that the leader of the Muslim faith should have been handed to a cousin or a brother in-law to The Prophet Muhammad. Throughout the course of history, Shi’ite Muslims have chosen to only recognize Imams from a certain lineage who they believe were appointed by The Prophet Muhammad or by God.

They are therefore opposed to elected leaders of The Muslim faith. It is worth noting that the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni Muslims who make up 85% percent of the total population of Muslims. Shi’ite Muslims are found in relatively large numbers in parts of Iraq and Iran. Small groups are found in Syria, Bahrain, Yemen and Lebanon.

Shi’ite Muslims regard The Imams as sacred beings and contend that their authority is supreme and infallible. It is for this reason that The Shi’ite Muslims undertake holy pilgrimages to their tombs in the hope that The Imams will intercede for them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Sunni Muslims do not see the need to make holy journeys or pilgrimages to the tombs of the Imams because they were initially opposed to a hereditary leadership of The Muslims. Shi’ite Muslims are opposed to the views of close allies of The Prophet Muhammad as featured in religious writings. Some of these allies include, Aisha, Abu Bakr and Umar.Shi’ite Muslims oppose their narrations which mostly border on the life and religious practices of Prophet Muhammad.

As a result, The Shi’ite Muslims do not base any of their spiritual practices on the accounts of any of the allies of Prophet Muhammad, previously mentioned. This brings about differences in spiritual practice between the Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims specifically on prayer, pilgrimage and fasting. As opposed to The Shi’ites, The Sunni Muslims do not have an elaborate hierarchy of religious leadership.

Historically; spiritual leaders of Sunni Muslims have been under the control of the state. Sunni Islam is not strict on who should serve during prayers or spiritual functions. The manner in which religious rituals are conducted between The Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims varies as a result of their differing interpretations of religious law. It is worth mentioning however that both groups come to appoint of point of agreement in terms of basic Islamic beliefs.

Sunni Islam offers four alternative legal interpretations that informs on the lives of followers of Muslim religion. (Halm 22). Throughout history, the study of Muslim law was done in special schools called asmadrasas.The four legal interpretations exploit the method of analogy to institute legal decisions.This also spells out a different dimension to the teachings of the Prophet and his allies(hadiths) within their jurisprudence.

In some countries such as Turkey, where secular life has largely been adopted, scholars on spirituality are responsible for issuance of a social and moral framework that guides Muslims on how they should practice their spirituality and the framework is not usually legally binding. The four alternative and varying legal interpretations range from the Hanafi which is the oldest order of law. (Hourani 89). It was founded in Iraq by Abu Hanifa.It is found in Turkey,Syria,India,Central Asia,

The Balkans,Iraq,Lebanon,Jordan,Pakistan, Afghanistan,and Bangladesh. The second legal interpretation is the Maliki.It was founded by Malik Ibn Anas in the Arabian Peninsula.

It is found in Bahrain, Mauritania, Kuwait and North Africa. The third legal interpretation is the Shafi’I which was founded by Muhammad Ibn al-Shafi’i.It is found in parts of Yemen,Sudan,Somalia,Egypt,Ethiopia,Malaysia and Indonesia.The fourth legal interpretation is the Hanbali.It was founded by Ahmad Hanbal.It is found in Qatar, Saudi Arabia, parts of Oman, The United Arab Emirates and Saudia Arabia.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Development of the Sunni and Shi‘ite Theories of Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In terms of religious practices, the two groups of Muslims differ in the length of time they take in prayer and in fasting. There is usually a head to head difference of fifteen minutes during the two spiritual rituals between The Sunni and The Shi’ite Muslims. The two groups also differ in the manner in which they conduct the marriage ceremony. Shi’ite Muslims believe in marrying a woman for a short while something that The Sunni Muslims totally disagree with because The Prophet Muhammad forbids it.

The act of pilgrimage as mentioned earlier also varies between the two groups of Muslims.Shi’ite Muslims pay homage to the tombs of Imams situated in Iraq and Iran. (Apidus 33). Sunni Muslims on the other hand follow the teachings of the allies of The Prophet Muhammad that the Shi’ite Muslims are opposed to. The Shi’ite Muslims bear a deep hatred of the first three Caliphs.

They recognized the fourth but did not recognize the other companions of The Prophet Muhammad. This hatred also brings rivalry between the two groups. Shi’ite Muslims hold the belief that Imam Mahdi who is the twelfth Imam has already been brought to life through birth and will emerge from his hideout. The Sunni do not believe this and contend that he is yet to be brought to life.

The main sources of Islamic legal decisions for both The Sunni and The Shi’ite are namely, the teachings of The Prophet Muhammad as conveyed to the Islamic believer by the Prophet Muhammad himself and his allies, the analogical interpretations of the law, jurisprudence through the method of consensus and the individual power of rational thinking.

In as far as there exist no codes that govern the interpretation of law for both the Sunni and Shi’ite, interpretation of law on the part of the Shi’ite allows room for rational thinking. In Shi’ite Islam, legal interpretation is centered around the teachings of the younger son of Ali, Hussein, a martyr who was executed by Sunni mercenaries at a spot near the ancient town of Karbala, Iraq.The Shi’ite usually pay tribute to Hussein in a special ceremony called The Ashura.

The Shi’ite found spiritual refuge in commemorating the martyrdom of Hussein, the moral teachings attached to his work and subsequent death. This strengthened the conviction of the Shi’ite Muslim and secured a foundation for spiritual practice and tradition. This also served as a foundation for Twelver Shi’ism the most dominant pillar of Shi’ite Islam.

Twelvers denotes a lineage of twelve Imams who are considered infallible and hail from the family descendancy of Ali.It is considered that the appointment of Imams is divine, right from birth.The twelvers are also considered to wield the authority of proclaiming legal and spiritual decisions.

Following the disappearance of the twelfth Imam, many twelvers decided to keep off politics and subtly await his return. A close look at Shi’ite Islam reveals that there have also been internal divisions and disagreements. There are sections of Shi’ite believers like The Ismailis who only recognize the first seven Imams of the descendancy of Ali .However, there is a general consensus within Shi’ite Muslims that Ali was the first legitimate Imam.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Development of the Sunni and Shi‘ite Theories of Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are other groups that also disagree with some of the other successors of Ali apart from The Ismailis. The Ismailis were exposed to war and territorial conquests earlier than the other groups affiliated to Shi’ite Islam. They were able to establish strong territories that played significant roles in shaping the history of Shi’ite Islam.

In present day, The Ismaili Muslims live in fragmentations all over the world and are found in bigger concentrations in Afghanistan, in Pakistan, and in India. (Daftary 116) .The Zaydis are another sect of Shi’ites who recognize the first to the fifth Imam but disagree over the fifth. They are mostly found in Yemen.

They are opposed to the idea of the infallibility of Imams and the concept of twelfth Imam. Other sects aligned to Shi’ite Islam include the Alawites and Druzes. The Alawites are found in relatively bigger numbers in Lebanon and Syria .The Alawites only have a symbolic attachment to Islamic law rather than an applied one. (Momen 45). The Alevis are a small sect of Muslims affiliated to Shi’ite Islam. They are mostly found in Turkey and are deeply embedded into the Turkish Society.

Their spiritual activities are not well known. The Druze society is also considered a part of Shi’ite Islam. The community is found in large numbers in Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Once again like other offshoots of Shi’ite Islam, their religious and legal practices are not well known

In conclusion, The Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims seem to agree on the existence of one God and The Prophet Muhammad as his only messenger. However, slight disparities in the interpretations of law and consequent jurisprudence emerge only on the issue of succession of The Prophet. Differences on the succession present a widening rift on certain spiritual tenets like prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage.

Works Cited Apidus, Ira. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Daftary, Farhad. A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, 1998.

Esposito, John. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Halm, Heinz. Shi’ism. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, 2004.

Hourani, Albert. A history of the Arab Peoples .New York: Warner Books, 1991.

Momen, Moojan. Introduction to Shi’i Islam. Yale: Yale University Press, 1985.


Americanization of Global Media Report (Assessment) online essay help

Table of Contents Summary


ICT and its influence

Internationalized Media




Summary The boom in the global media in the recent years owes much of its success to the integration it has made possible on the cultural levels. The paper tries to gauge the extent to which media has become global with special references to the web based media and then takes up the Americanization that the social fabric of the world has become enmeshed in. The paper also seeks the reasons for these phenomena.

Introduction “A Literature Review is a systematic examination of knowledge available on a topic”. It is further opined that as far as academic literature review is concerned “it involves the use of appropriate peer-viewed articles” (Dawidowicz, 2010). The paper therefore examines and categorizes various texts that fall under the purview of global media studies and analyses the context and magnitude of influence of Americanization on the media in particular and the general masses in general.

Today, in the wake of globalization, the world is no longer a discreet entity but is to be taken as an organic whole. The metaphor of a “melting pot” could have aptly described the situation (Storey, 2000). People across the world are in a state of constant drift and are trying to become world players.

Still, the indigenous cultures of these people and their roots can never be entirely annihilated and hence the world has become a “salad bowl” implying that though people from various cultures reside in a particular area, they still retain their individual characteristic features as in a salad bowl the various vegetables, though mixed, can be separately identified (Campbell


Sustainable Global Energy Options Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Solar energy

Wind power

Hydroelectric power

Nuclear options

Other sources


References List

Abstract In the recent past, nuclear energy sources have proofed dangerous to the environment due to the poisonous emissions they produce. Fossil fuels are also diminishing and their energy has become very expensive. Other sustainable sources do exist that are a bit cheaper, clean, renewable and long lasting.

Technology can be applied to make some nuclear sources safer. The only problem that exists is the level of advancement in production of these sources although some countries such as the US and Germany have successfully invented in these sources. If these sources are embraced in all countries, in combination they can be able to produce more than enough energy that is capable of meeting the demand.

These sources are safe and regardless of their technological advancement, they can be opted for in order to counter the inflation in the energy sector and save the environment from pollution. This is important as all irrespective of their financial status will be able to afford energy for various uses such as domestic and industrial needs.

Introduction A sustainable energy can be defined as energy that can be harnessed and used in a manner that ensures a sustainable development for a long period of time. It concerns how the available resources can be utilized without strain due to the number of people demanding for its use. Here sustainability looks at the three pillars of development that is social, economic and environmental (Kruger 2006).

Over the past, energy from nuclear emitters has been in use and it has been believed to be a safe form of energy, though in the recent, it has proved otherwise especially in matters concerning environmental pollution. The cost of fuel and energy has also gone very high. Therefore, there is a need for formulation of new policies that will encourage energy delivery in a more efficient and safer manner thus leading to an equitable, economic viable and environmental sound globe.

According to a research report on a sustainable global renewable energy system, it is possible to achieve renewable energy sources at a global level by 2050; these sources will put in mind the level of poverty in the developing world, available resources, population growth, climate change and the energy demand in various sectors such as transport, industries, buildings and services.

Energy is used in three major forms; fuel, heat and electricity. To achieve this sustainability in energy production, renewable sources such as solar, biogas, wind, hydropower, geothermal, waves and tides should be considered (Kruger 2006). Implementation and success of such sources of energy in various countries proves that options safer than nuclear energy exist and can be successfully implemented at their current level of development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Solar energy In this source of energy, two types are put into consideration, active and passive. In active, photovoltaic panels (PV) are used to convert sunlight into useful energy where as in passive, useful sun rays such as sunlight are trapped. In active type, the panels have cells that are composed of semiconductor materials such as silicon.

In its development, important to consider is the availability of space in which to erect the panels (Dawson, Spannagle 2009). The amount of energy produced depends on the amount sunlight heating the panels thus the angle of sun’s incidence and the duration in hours of sunlight availability is also vital. It is a cost effective system in that no raw material is required neither is a station necessary for its operation.

Maintenance is not required at a large scale and this makes it less expensive thus achievable also in the developing world. Solar energy is also inexhaustible as long as the sun is available. Apart from the disadvantaged countries where by the sun is affected by snow, hailstone and thick cloud cover and especially those at the poles, this energy are viable in many of the globe’s countries. The only extra cost that is incurred in harnessing this type of energy is the purchasing of storage facilities such as batteries and fuel cells.

Environmentally, there is no form of pollution experienced with this kind of energy or any hazardous material produced apart maybe from residues emanating from the manufacture of the semiconductors used. No noise is produced, meaning that these plants can be placed near residential places and other environments where no noise is permitted such as learning institutions and hospitals.

Apart from electricity, solar energy can be used to create fuel for example, by use of this energy to burn hydrogen and heat up biomass fuel. Generally, solar energy can be used for various uses ranging from domestic hot water (DWH) to industrial process heat (IPH), meaning that it can be able to cater for the current world energy needs (Dawson, Spannagle 2009).

Most of the developing countries are near the equator and they can therefore be in a position to harness as much as the solar energy as possible. An example of country that has embraced solar energy is South Africa where a group known as solar energy international (SEI) advocates for use of this form of energy to ensure sustainability, poverty eradication and to embrace globalization.

The group mobilizes development organization and other stakeholders by offering training and education on the use of the technologies involved. PV systems worth millions of dollars have been implemented in Indonesia and Philippines. Kenya is also mentioned among these countries. Although the initial cost for such projects is high, they become economical in their operational phases thus making it a viable source of energy even in the developing countries in the world.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Sustainable Global Energy Options specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wind power Wind is usually in the form of kinetic energy and through the use of turbines, is is possible to converse it into electric energy. Usually, these turbines are placed on a higher ground where the winds blow at a higher speed. Just like solar energy, wind power requires a large piece of land for the installations of the turbines (Kruger 2006).

There are no hazardous products or dangerous emissions by these turbines compared to nuclear sources. The aesthetic value of the places of installation is affected but this effect is harmless to the surrounding. No raw material is required and this makes it a cost effective project to handle especially with the developing countries and the rising costs of other available sources of energy.

Germany has heavily invested in this type of energy with 17,574 installations in 2005 which generated 4.3per cent of the energy required. If f more emphasis is put on this, it is a viable source of energy in the current world. Besides its advantages, it is clear that it has some obvious demerits such as noise pollution produced by the rotating turbines. Therefore, it is not appropriate to install such stations near noise sensitive environments.

Also, the wind is not available at all the times but this does not nullify its effectiveness because these turbines can be concentrated in regions such as off shores where there is a lot of wind that moves at a higher speed (Wengenmayr Bührke 2008). Canada has also invested in wind power with 97% of its energy production coming from wind in 2005.Several installations have been put in place both by the government and individuals.

In Canada a business turbine can produce up to 1,800 kW at a cost of between 2000-2750 Canadian dollars (Bernstein 2008).Though this source of energy is environmentally and economically sustainable, it has not been embraced by many nations, but with its success in some countries such as the above mentioned, it will be advisable for nations to consider this type of energy.

Hydroelectric power The main source of energy here is flowing water. It can be regarded as a source of free electricity though the cost is incurred in the harnessing and transmitting. Its harnessing involves either impoundment or diversion of some water from a flowing river, although dam construction is the most common method used.

Apart from distraction of the ecosystems such as migration of fish, this method is advantageous compared to the use of fossil fuels because the cost of operation is low and there no known forms of pollution experienced. To avoid much distraction to the fish ecosystem, propellers that are less harmful in turning the turbines can be used and ladders used to encourage fish movement upwards and downwards a river.

Large dams are not necessarily required as a micro one can produce enough electricity for a home or a farm, and this makes it affordable by a majority more so in the developing world (Green energy 2011). Although dam sites are determined by the available rivers and other uses such as recreational, industrial, settlement and other functions, the much that is produced combined with others can be enough for use.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable Global Energy Options by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Countries with big rivers are advantaged because the energy harnessed can be used for industrial purposes. The created dams act as resoviours and create home for both terrestrial and aquatic life, controls rate of floods downstream of a river and at times can act as a tourist attraction center generating foreign exchange to that country.

Hydro electricity can therefore be termed as a sustainable form of energy socially, economically and environmentally. It is used in most of the developed countries such as the United States of America where most of industries are located near water bodies in order to use the energy generated from this waters. Some good examples in the United States include Colorado River and Tennessee Valley.

Other countries include Kenya, Canada, Germany and others. Though this form of energy can be affected by climatic changes which has affected the amount of water in the rivers, it is a safe and cleaner form of energy which can be produced for a long period of time (Green energy 2011).

Nuclear options Nuclear energy production can be safe when especially the right technology is used; however, the wastes produced are what proofs troublesome. Nuclear fission occurs naturally and much can be gained by utilizing the natural process. If engineers can learn from their previous mistakes, then the improved design in power plant reactors can lead to a secure source of energy that is both environmental friendly and sustainable.

One of the technologies is Uranium reprocessing where by just like in a fuel refinery, coal and biomass are used for the production of electric power, liquid fuels and chemicals such as ammonia, a network of pipes is fed with hydrogen and carbon monoxide to produce fuel and other chemicals through various processes. The synthesis gas produced is used to burn coal and biomass in order to produce energy and chemicals.

This is a process that is cheap in the sense that there are no extra costs for transportation, no need for a gasolification facility and the gas produced is more or less the same as a natural gas. Because of its ease production, both large and small scale processes can employ this technology for energy production. Chemicals produced like ammonia are used as fertilizers. Such technologies have been successful in the US and they have several advantages as compared to coal and petroleum (Suppes Storvic 2007).

Other sources There are also other sources that can produce energy in a sustainable manner; such include the geothermal power where heat is harnessed fro underground through maybe a fluid allowed to flow through the porous rocks which produces heat. This heat is eventually tapped through a turbine and used for electricity generation, in this technology, other forms of gases that are harmful to the environment can escape into the air thus causing pollution, this include, nitric oxide, sulphur and carbon dioxide.

Energy can also be harnessed from the ocean, which is the use of tides and waves. In tides, water energy is used to drive water in and out of a dam thus driving an electrical turbine while the wave’s oscillations can be used to generate hydraulic pressure for driving motors which in turn can be used to produce electricity.

These sources are environmentally friendly because there are no emissions involved although they cannot be used in most parts of the world since not all of them have oceans or are close to one and in any case the available ones cannot be enough to produce enough energy to meet the demand.

Conclusion A number of sources for sustainable energy exist, but they have not been fully embraced. Though with the rising costs of fuel and the need to combat the effects rendered by the emissions produced during fossil fuel burning, there is an urgent need to consider all these alternatives in order to meet the energy demand in a more sustainable, effective, sufficient and environmental friendly manner. If all these forms of renewable energy sources are put in place, then it is possible to meet the energy demand at a global level.

References List Bernstein, S. Bernstein, F. (2008). A globally integrated climate policy for Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Cowie, J. (2007). Climate change: biological and human aspects. London: Cambridge University Press.

Dawson, B. Spannagle, G. (2009). The complete guide to climate change. London:Taylor


Revolution in physics and chemistry Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Revolution in physics

Revolution in chemistry

Impact of revolution in chemistry and physics


Introduction Chemistry and physics are among the major subjects studied in the world today. Historically, the revolution of science dates back between the 16th and 17th century. Europe is the mother of all scientific revolution for it laid the foundation of innovative and advanced science.

The urge to carry out a series of experiments and research led to the initiation and the ultimate breakthrough of chemical and physical revolution by ancient scientists. The chemical revolution led to different discoveries in chemistry opening doors to other scientific inventions in the medical and industrial setups. The following discussion focuses on the scientific revolution of two main sciences; physics and chemistry and its impact.

Revolution in physics Different philosophers contributed to the ideologies in chemistry and physics. Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who first initiated discoveries in physical sciences. The Aristotelian theory describes the earth as the center of gravity and the shape, size, movement or behavior of both living and lifeless objects on the earth’s surface. Additionally, he defines physics as a natural science composed of both living and non-living things. From Aristotle description of the earth as the central attraction of all objects, gravitational theory emerged.

In 16th century, Sir Isaac Newton pioneered the discovery of the gravity theory after studying Aristotle’s ideas. Due to the success of the gravitational theory, scientists discovered two other planets, Neptune and Uranus. However, the inability to locate the position hence orbit of Mercury was the main cause of its failure which pushed for a detailed research on gravity.

Later corpuscular model by Louis and electromagnetic radiation model by Lorentz explained the law of gravity and emission of electric charges by bodies. Unfortunately, in the 19th century, all the laws became invalid because they violated modern laws on conservation of energy and thermodynamics especially in physics. Although the gravitational theory is no longer applied, its concept has enabled calculation of gravity in the modern science.

On the other hand, the impetus theory redefined the physical concept on inertia force as described by Aristotle. The ability of a body to retain its continuous motion despite application of external force underscores the Impetus theory. Similarly, Hipparchan-philoponan theory describes application of force or motion against the gravitational force like throwing of a stone while Avicenna theory describes projectile force.

All these ancient theories redefined Aristotle theory, which describes physics in terms of inertia force, impulsive or momentum, and speed (acceleration). Galileo Galilei was a famous physician whose physical invention is still applicable in all modern learning institutions. He described and interpreted all experimental facts in physical science leading to the discovery of kinematics as a subject. Therefore, the mechanical and chemical philosophies describe the scientific revolution while Empiricism initiated revolution in physical science.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Revolution in chemistry As the physical revolution was taking part, the chemical revolution was also underway. A number of philosophers and scientist progressively led to the success of chemistry as an area of study. The major scientist who led to success of modern chemistry is Antoine Lavoisier through his presentation of chemical elements.

Lavoisier discovered the major elements in chemistry like Oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur. This landmark discovery was in line with the invention of oxygen theory which holds that most chemical compounds consist of different elements and oxygen is the common element among others.

Additionally, Lavoisier described the components of water as oxygen and hydrogen on top of discovering that air consists of gases like nitrogen, oxygen and other trace elements. Due to his description of the chemical nomenclature, there was derivation of different chemical compounds like sulfate and sulfuric acid among others. Using the single theory, Lavoisier described chemical balance which opened the way for stipulating origin and derivation of chemical equations in chemistry.

Apart from concentrating on chemicals, Lavoisier researched on physical chemistry and thermodynamic laws, which were part of physical science. Lavoisier’s radical theory describes elements and concept of allotropism in elements. The emergence of diamond and carbon are among Lavoisier’s major discoveries.

Unfortunately, most of Lavoisier’s discoveries and theories received rejection and criticisms from fellow chemical scientists. Priestly, one of the major scientists declined to acknowledge Lavoisier’s work especially the law on conservation of mass. Despite receiving objections, Lavoisier’s experiments are still applicable in the current world especially in the chemical and laboratory practices.

Other great contributors to chemical revolution include Jacob Berzelius who besides writing chemistry books, he drew tables on atomic weights. Additionally, Berzelius gave each chemical element a letter or notation for easier identification.

Other chemicals like silicon, selenium, lithium, and vanadium were among his discoveries. Luckily, he did not receive opposition from other scientists during his research. However, he opposed the discovery of chlorine in 1810 by Humphry Davy even though, his opposition ended in 1812 after discovery of iodine.

We will write a custom Essay on Revolution in physics and chemistry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides Berzelius, John Dalton was also a chemistry philosopher who discovered the atomic theory. According to Dalton, all chemical elements are composed of particles called atoms and they can neither be created nor destroyed; they can only undergo chemical reactions (changes).

Additionally, Dalton researched on the effect of heat or temperature on gases which led to the principles of pressure and expansion of gases or water evaporation. His research on gases like methane, ethylene, carbon dioxide and nitro oxide initiated the development of atomic theory. The Dalton theory is still applicable in contemporary world taught in scientific learning institutions.

In addition, Boyle’s law initiated chemical revolution in the 16th century. Robert Boyle’s research on water expansion (freezing), crystals, electricity and color blindness led to the publication of his book the Sceptical chymist, which forms the foundation of advanced chemistry. He defined chemistry as a science and not an art by describing composition of all substances in chemistry.

Impact of revolution in chemistry and physics The scientific revolution involved research on natural, chemical, and physical sciences. However, most scientists who initiated chemical revolution had knowledge on physics. Therefore, the revolution in chemistry and physics happened at the same time during the 16th and 17th century.

Consequently, the chemistry and physical revolution initiated industrial revolution in Europe and other western countries. In comparison, chemistry and physics are similar because they all describe the elements of nature either in the physical or chemical form. Currently, inventions in physics and chemistry are applicable in the medical and industrial industries.

Conclusion In a recap, the sixteenth and seventeenth century was the age of renascence which defines scientific revolution. Famous scientists like Aristotle, Boyle, Newton, and Dalton led to scientific revolution. Besides other discoveries like in medicine or psychology, there were tremendous inventions in chemical and physical sciences. In physics, there are different theories, which include gravitational, Avicenna, and impetus among others. The theories in chemical revolution include atomic, Dalton and radical theory among others.

All the scientific inventions in physics and chemistry are currently applicable in industries and all learning institutions. However, the works of early scientists like Lavoisier received opposition from fellow chemists or physicists hence obstructing adaptation of their discoveries. Chemical and physical revolution was the foundation of industrial revolution. In addition, most industries in food, medical or machinery base their research on elements of chemistry and physics.


Bath and Body Works Company Essay online essay help: online essay help

Bath and Body Works is an American retail store which specializes in producing and selling products such as lotions, Bath items personal care items and house fragrances. Founded in 1990 the company has expanded beyond United States and offers after sale services as well as customer care services as part of selling their products.

So how do the four I’s of service in the Bath and Body Works company? First it is worthy noticing that today businesses have realized that customer care service is an integral component in the marketing and maintaining customers. This is why Bath and Body Works, being a merchandise company cannot evade service provision.

The four I’s in the service provision includes firstly intangibility; meaning that after sale services and customer care services provided by Bath and Body Company are not physical commodities which one can carry home. The second one is inconsistency which implies that whoever provides the service may not be the one to offer the same service always.

The third component is inseparability of the service and the person rendering the service and the last component is the inventory part meaning that the service provider will always have enough stock of knowledge regarding the service to be rendered. Bath and Body Works ensures that inconsistency component is bridged by training all personnel so that they all provide informed quality services.

A gap analysis may be needed in the service and product relation whereby the service provided in terms of information regarding a product should be regularly evaluated so that improvement is done. Gap analysis involves evaluating the target of the company versus where it is at that particular time, this will enable the company to see loopholes that may hinder its progress to where it aims to be and take necessary measures.

According to the kind of products Bath and Body Company deals with, there are many other competitors in the market and therefore its pricing objective should be to maximize long run profit and increase sales volumes. Prices should be set at a competitive rate which should ensure consumers are sustained and the company benefit from economies of large scale. Competitive pricing will foster consumer loyalty in the long run although at first less profit per product will be made.

This strategy pricing will be the only best alternative because Bath and Body Company operates in a competitive type of market where many companies produce alternative products. In determining the prices therefore the cost of producing each product and the prices of alternatives products in the market should be considered. The products the company deals with are consumer products with relative elasticity and therefore any slight changes in price will bring about the high changes on quantity demanded.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The potential revenue will be determined by the total revenue generated by each product and the cost will involve the production and packaging cost including the cost of services provided. Maximum revenue is attained when there is the highest difference between the set price and the cost of producing the product. In this case there are six steps to this goal; the first step is to set a price low enough to be accepted in the market and high enough to maximize profit

The second step is to set a price that can stand competitor’s prices in the market by researching on other company’s prices for alternative products. The third step is to analyze the consumer characteristics so as to create a price that is acceptable to consumers. The forth step involves determining the company’s desired position to charge high for high quality products or otherwise.

The fifth step involves testing the market first with lower prices then determining consumer’s level by the sales made. The final step is to determine the optimal price based on market response and time should be taken to set the prices for maximum sustainable revenue.

Determining prices using competitive oriented approach is always the best for Bath and Body Works Company and because it operates in a competitive market, relying on step five and six above will be paramount.


Autism and Visual Thought Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Autism and Visual Thinking

Different Ways of Thinking

Variations among Autistics and Visual thinkers


Works Cited

Introduction The human mind is a critical component of human life because it is the control unit of not only the physiological processes of an individual’s body but also the social-psychological procedures. Social-psychological capacities are key to formation of meaningful and genuine relationships with others at the family level and the wider society. In spite of our inheritance of intellectual abilities our academic growth and development largely depends on our mental conditions and well being.

Unfortunately, some children are born with incapacitating mental conditions which adversely affects their growth and development either physically, academically and/or social-psychologically. One such condition is autism. This task is a presentation of my agreement with Dr.Temple Grandin’s assertion that there are individuals who think in vivid pictures but most of us think in a combination of words and blurred, indiscriminate pictures.

Autism and Visual Thinking According to Baron-Cohen and Bolton “autism is a condition that affects some children from either their birth or infancy and leaves them unable to form normal social relationships or to develop normal communication.”(1).Autistic children are normally cut off from social contact and always engaged in monotonous activities and interests that are fascinating to him or her alone.

They may have hearing problems which differ in severity in different cases.Bogdashina provides that there are autistic children who suffer from severe hearing processing problems who may either be late speakers or never speak throughout their lives while others may live with speech difficulties their whole lives (118).

Bogdashina explains that variations in perception between and among individuals including those born of the same parents lead to different abilities and thinking style (118). Visual thinking and verbal thinking are two of the main thinking styles recognized by psychologists. According to Bogdashina, autistic thinking is more often than not perceptual in dissimilarity to the verbal thinking of ordinary individuals (118).

Autistic individuals if put under remedial procedures in good time may have a normal life. However, they are usually visual thinkers. Bogdashina points out that the most common type of insightful thinking in autism is visual (118).O’Neill as cited in Bogdashina elucidates that visual thinkers express ideas as images that offers them a real basis for understanding (118).The world as well all that is around them tends to be fathomed in terms of what the psychological experts call visual images.

Visual thinkers experience problems understanding something that does not have an object or an image they can associate with and that is why some words are totally meaningless to them. In fact, the most meaningful words to a visual thinker are nouns while majority of adjectives and verbs may have no concrete meaning.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different Ways of Thinking There is overwhelming evidence that people have dissimilar thinking styles. As a already noted earlier, psychologists have established that autistic and non-autistic individuals have different thinking patterns On one hand non-autistic individuals are largely verbal thinkers while on the other hand have been confirmed to be mainly visual thinkers.Visuial thinkers as opposed to verbal thinkers have an associational kind of thought processes.

That is why they may talk of two things in manner that sound of context in their attempt one thing to another in a manner may not be articulate to verbal thinkers. For example, an autistic person may associate his or her lack of fear for heights with height at which aeroplanes fly and think that airplanes fly high because her she does not fear them.

Variations among Autistics and Visual thinkers Autistics and visual thinkers vary depending on their where they fall in the Autistic Spectrum (AS). So that it is not all individuals who are autistic in real life who are highly visual thinkers or who process information in the same manner.

Those with cases of severe autism as noted earlier take longer time before they can begin talking verbally or they may never speak the rest of their lives or have speech difficulties the rest of their lives.Diiferences in growth, development of the auditorial and verbal capacities eventually bears on the way individuals thinks visually.

Bogdashina argues that visualized thinking models vary from one individual to another (118).on one hand there is a category of visual thinkers who are able retrieve memory pictorial images in manner similar to searching through slides and are also able to manage the speed at which the pictorial images pass through their imagination.

On the other hand, others are unable to control the speed at which the images are retrieved and may end up filled to full capacity of his or her mind with too many pictorial images being retrieved at the same time Bogdashina (118).

There are o0ther autistics who have serious difficulties in terms of interpretation of written or spoken information into a visual form. Still others are unable to hold in their minds visual images together Bogdashina (118).Meaning that there are autistics who have speed problems in terms of converting a piece of information into pictorial images while others have mental challenges of putting together visual images in their minds.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Autism and Visual Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Suprisingly the quality of visual thinking according to Bogdashina is dependent on other factors like time and the state the autistic person is in (118). Example is given of Dr.Temple Grandin world’s moist popular visual thinker whose mind pictures are said to be more vivid and to have the most comprehensive visual images when she is drifting off to sleep (118).

It is important to note that visual thinking is not exclusively the only possible type of thought process in autism. In other words autistic individuals are not automatically visual thinkers.Likewise; there are visual thinkers who can not be categorized as autistic per se even though they may show signs of autism. However, research studies have shown that in most instances the greatest majority of autistic individuals are naturally visual thinkers but not absolutely all the time.

This fact owes largely to their auditorial and verbal challenges which if it is allowed to go unchecked in good time makes their autistic condition to worsen thereby making their communication the rest of their lives worse. Bogdashina points out that a relatively good number of people at the working end of the autistic continuum and a considerably big percentage of people at the more intellectually challenged autistic end of the scale may not necessary think in pictures oat all (119).

Bogdashina asserts that majority may not in reality be able to think in visual images and may in the end be denied what could work better for them and in such circumstances their intelligence is wrongly judged by their ability to link visual images with words [or even sounds (119).

The above line of argument is a stern warning to all especially teachers and parents dealing or handling autistics from rushing to assume and conclude that the individual should be able think visually at a given point of their lives. This is a call for unshakeable patience so that you may understand fully his or her thought patterns and be in a perfect position to decide the best help that befits their special condition. Bogdashina cautions that “…not all autistic individuals are visual in their thought-production process.”(119) see also Gray (56).

He points out that some autistic individuals think in kinaesthetic images that can not be converted into mental images and more often than not have problems learning nonfigurative things that can not easily be visualized through perceptual form Bogdashina (119).This sentiment is in a perfect harmony with Dr.Temple Grandin’s assertion that not all people with autism are necessarily highly visual thinkers and that not all process information in the same way.

Visualization skills are important but when coupled with mental conditions they pose a threat to the development of the communication abilities of the autistic individuals who are more often than not visual thinkers. Consequently there is need to understand autistic children as early as possible so that the necessary help may be accorded.

If helped at the right time those who are intellectually able like in the case of Dr.Temple Grandin can learn to appreciate their condition and be helped towards improving their verbal or articulation skills. Also they can be helped to nurture their visualization skills which can be utilized for the common good of the individual and the wider society Lichtenstein Creative Media (13).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Autism and Visual Thought by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bogdashina explains that children with autistic condition are actual thinkers and that therefore there is need to understand their associative and spatial thought patterns (119).

A spatial thinker understands things in his or her mind in a multi pattern which is usually the case with visual thinkers like Dr. Temple Grandin who has a unique ability to design live stock structures and equipments in her imaginations long before it is made in real life. She is also able to sense structural and design mistakes with many structures and equipments because her ability to represent them in multidimensional pattern in a manner that many verbal thinkers can visualize.

This argument is supported by Bogdashina’s assertion that spatial way of thinking brings both pros and cons in that on one hand it is easier to see certain patterns of the world and infer images from those patterns (119). On the other hand, he argues that spatial thinkers may have problems to things that are largely one dimensional particularly when that comprises taking a mono-dimensional line out of multi-dimensional alternatives Bogdashina (119).

Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident that even though majority of autistic individuals are usually visual thinkers not all of them are able to think visually. And as argued by Dr.Temple Grandin and other quoted in this essay, autistic individuals who are visual thinkers exhibit identifiable differences in terms of their visual thinking abilities. This is determined by factors like time as well the state that the individual is in.

Works Cited Baron-Cohen, Simon and Bolton, Patrick. Autism: the facts. Oxfor Lichtenstein Creative Media d University Press, 1993.Print.

Bogdashina, Olga. Theory of mind and the triad of perspectives on autism and Asperger syndrome: a view from the bridge. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006.Print.

Grandin, Temple. Thinking in Pictures. Grandin.com.Web.2011.15th April 2011. Gray, Carol (FRW). Learners on the Autism Spectrum: Preparing Highly Qualified Educators. Autism Asperger Publishing Company, 2008.Print.

Lichtenstein Creative Media. Autism: Beyond the Silence. Lichtenstein Creative Media,2001. Print.


Training crucial for hotels Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case study: hotel training needs and issues

Training solutions

VI. Best practice


Works Cited

Introduction Organizations all over the world have woken up to the reality that there is need to have employees that can help the organization meet client’s needs. This also includes hotels and other organization in the hospitality industry. Hotels being in the service industry depend largely on the impression they create on their customers for sustained business.

As such some of the major hotels such as the Ritz-Carlton and the Sheraton have gone ahead and invested heavily in employee training programs. Training of employees in these hotels employs various techniques and is concerned with building the employee capacity not only on customer service and public relations skills but also on increasing the employee flexibility to attend to guest and make on-the spot decisions.

Training for hotel does not only target service staff but also management a well as administrative personnel. To underline the need for constant training for staff some hotel have in-house trainer. The result is that there has been a reduction in employee turnover rates. Therefore employee training becomes important for survival in this industry.

Case study: hotel training needs and issues Hotels need to train employees for a number of reasons. Hotels like the Carlton-Ritz train their employees so as to have competent staff which will help in execute the organization business strategy. This kind of training thus involves educating employees on the hotels values as well as how to achieve its mission through its daily practice.

Therefore the training is aimed at increasing the employee’s capacity to competently execute their daily roles. This improves the hotels competitive advantage as it is able to offer quality service to its customers (Jackson Schuler and Werner 270).

Many of the hotel employee training programs are intended to equip and empower the employee with skills to efficiently meet customer demands. As such the employee is not only able to offer quality service but also make crucial decision without necessarily consulting immediate bosses (Enz 487).

To do this employee must be trained on the skill they need to acquire so as to understand customer needs and wishes. The employee will thus acquire the necessary communication skills and body language to enable them to provide sufficient support to any client. Furthermore the employees are trained on social skill such as how to interact with people from different cultures as well as enhancing their selling skills (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 271).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To add to this Blokdijk adds that training hotel employees is not only intended to enhance world class customer service but also enhance consistency such that there will be a continuous trooping back of customers and that it also includes how to control employees moods and emotions such that not affect the outcomes of their work (113). This customer focused approach creates a customer based culture in these hotels.

Most of the hotels also implement training programs that are intended to improve employee retention rates by reducing the turnover of employees. This thus becomes a way of enhancing recruitments and employee retention. Most of the employees are seeking latest job skill and competencies that are not taught in conventional hotel training courses. The only options left for hotel staff are to enroll in part time courses to improve their professional competences.

Better still, employees prefer when the employer offers such training as it is more contextual and also has more learning experiences as compared to classroom training. Employees also see such opportunities as highway for career growth and advancements. Therefore employees are more likely to own up their jobs and also increase their commitment to that particular employee. This increases employee satisfaction and is more likely to reduce the turnover rate of employees (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 270).

To produce the desired outcomes hotel training programs use a variety of methods. These methods are deliberately designed to produce certain kinds of skills and abilities. Such a method of train is the cross-training methods that have been adopted by many hotels.

This method of training is aimed at equipping the employee to acquire multi tasking skill. As such the employee can serve in more than one areas satisfactorily (Bardi 362). Some hotels also combine lecture methods with practical skill straining. Under such program hotel trainers simulate role play that give employees the opportunity to learn in controlled real life experiences (Hayes and Ninemeier 227).

Some hotels have gone a notch higher and engaged their won trainers. These trainers carry continuous in house training to employees. The trainers are also given the mandate to train and induct new employees.

Most hotel choose such a trainers from among a person in senior management and one who clearly understand the hotel model as well as one who is ell versed with employee training methods. Furthermore these trainers have also to be trained. Training the trainer is always necessary as the trainer must also be equipped with the latest industry trends and human resource needs. When hotels do this they become self sufficient and reduce significantly their reliance on outside sources fro their training needs (Bardi 362- 365)

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Training crucial for hotels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training solutions There are several training solutions that hotels can adopt in response to the issue mentioned above. Talent management is a terminology that is increasingly gaining popularity in human resource circles. It has become part of organizations human resource planning strategies. Talent management involves a number of activities and starts from the recruitment process, where that right personnel is identified and incorporated into the hotel human resource pool.

Such talent is chosen so as to fill in the hotel’s human resource supply/gap. The advantage of talent management is that it creates and prepares a reservoir workforce for the hotels future human resource needs as well as ensuring that the hotel has its own self-made resources. However finding talented people to fit in the hotel unique needs is not always an easy task. Moreover talented employees can be poached by competitive employers (JACKSON and MATHIS 292- 322).

Training for hotel human resource need an be a vain venture if there no motivation and reward mechanism to maintain and encourage top performance. While training hotel staff equips them with the knowledge and skills, rewarding these skills can make a big difference for the organization.

This is because employees will be motivated to apply what they have been trained on for gainful experience. Rewarding performance can include monetary as well as non monetary rewards. Monetary rewards are vital as they can be used to retain employees tempted by better offer elsewhere. Motivation and rewarding is howeever a complicated activity as it is more perceptual. When interpreted wrongly a reward can have detrimental effect on the organization (Sturman, corgel and verma 147-148).

VI. Best practice The best solution would be talent identification and management. Talent management training is a multifaceted approach. It main intention is to recruit and maintain a highly talented and gifted staff for the company’s well being. Other than this some hotels have acknowledged that this approach can be used for other purposes.

Talent management training is now being used by hotel as part of its future planning for its human resource needs. Hotel are identifying and training best staff so as to build a reservoir that will facilitate career succession planning for the hotel as well as for the individual employees. This ensures that there is continuity in the hotel management and leadership and as such avoid such uncertainties about future leadership (Jackson and Mathis 293-294).

Conclusion Training of hotel staff is increasingly becoming part of hotels business as well as a new strategy for other organizations. This has been necessitated by the facts that the hotel industry is in the service sector and demand keep changing as such hotel must keep up with the best industry practices to survive. Hotel need to develop their employees through training to increase staff capacity. The increased capacity enable employees help the hotel implement its business strategy.

This enhances better customer services thus ensuring consistent client base. To do this employees have to be equipped with among other skills, interpersonal skills as well as emotional intelligence. There solutions however that can help hotel meet human resource needs. Such efforts as talent management training are increasingly gaining popularity as they have more than one benefit. As the industry trend continues to change so will the training needs for hotel increase.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Training crucial for hotels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Bardi, James. Hotel Front Office Management. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print

Blokdijk, Gerard. Management Training 100 Success Secrets. Vancouver: Gerard Blokdijk, 2008. Print

Enz, Cathy. The Cornell School of Hotel Administration Handbook of Applied Hospitality. California: Sage Publication Inc., 2010. Print

Jackson, John and Mathis, Robert. Human Resource Management. Ohio: Thompson South western, 2008. Print

Hayes, David and Ninemeier, Jack. Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print

Jackson, Susan., Schuler, Randall and Steve Werner. Managing Human Resources. Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print

Sturma, Micahel., Corgel, Jack and Verma, Rohit. The Cornell School of Hotel Administration on Hospitality: Cutting Edge. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print


The Mobile Phone as an Electronic Wallet Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors in Favor of the Innovation

Potential Benefits

Cases Studies in Mobile Payment Systems

New Approaches in Mobile Payment Systems

Potential Success Factors



Introduction The initial attempts to make the mobile phone an electronic wallet can be traced to the efforts by Nokia around 1997 (Leavitt 2010). In that year the Company (Nokia) made attempts to allow people purchase soft drinks from vending machines through the use of Short Messaging Services (SMS). Soon after that initial effort another Finnish company, Merita Bank, offloaded the first mobile banking system based on SMS (Leavitt 2010).

A mobile payment system is one that facilitates transfer of funds securely for purchase of goods through a mobile phone based application (Quigley 2008).However, mobile payment systems did not make the expected impact owing to the fact that the use of wireless devices was still not widespread and the GUI’s for most of these initial devices were poorly designed (Leavitt 2010).

Technological advancement has seen the production of smart phones with many capabilities and significant changes in the capacity and bandwidth on the cellular networks around the world. Further dissatisfaction associated with credit card fees has worked to further increase the propensity towards mobile payment options.

Currently through the use of smart phones there are applications to make purchases such as music and videos possible online. It is in light of this that an innovation such as a comprehensive mobile payment system may go a long way in reducing the complexities associated with transfer of cash in Abu Dhabi. Such a system could be useful in activities such as the collection of charitable donations, purchase of air time, utility bill payment and mobile banking.

In this project the objective is the creation of a mobile payment system for use in Abu Dhabi. The proposed system could be used to pay for services such as taxi fare, make purchases and pay utility bills. The system could be especially useful for visitors as the region is typically inhabited by an Arab speaking population (Middle East Hub).

Factors in Favor of the Innovation Prior to making a decision on the innovation it was essential to establish the viability of the project. In this regard it was noted that the revenue fro telecommunications in UAE rose from $ 2.7 to $3.1 million between 2000 and 2004 (Shirazi


The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is Essay online essay help

One of the world’s most mysterious and at the same time elegant branch of arts, impressionism, is both a riddle and an answer to it. Suggesting people to take a closer look into their own minds, impressionism offered that the spectator could incorporate his vision of the world together with that one of the author.

Despite its seeming simplicity and inspiring shapes, impressionism conveys the most complicated ideas and bases on philosophical and cultural foundation that has a history of its own. Discovering the ideas underlying the impressionists’ paintings, on can open the whole wide world in front of his/her eyes.

Speaking of the techniques that the artists used in creating their impressionism masterpieces, one must note that the style which impressionists used ensued from the peculiar vision of the world which impressionism presupposed.

Oriented exclusively on the ideas and perceptions of the artists, this style of painting could not be considered as a separate trend in visual arts – this is rather a string of ideas embodied in paintings. Depicted on the paper, the world picture of impressionists turned into the door to the other world – the world where the reality mixed with the surreal to create one of the most incredible cocktails. As van Gunsteren explained,

We may, first of all, certainly discount the more loose or merely lyrical usage in which impressionism means anything ‘fanciful’, ‘disorderly’ or ‘illogical’. Having done so, however, it is possible to penetrate to a fairly solid core of the new ideas and methods, which gave the group cohesion even without the formalized rules of a ‘school’ of French painters. (29)

Thus, it is obvious that there is more to impressionism that merely distorting the usual forms and shapes, turning them into a chaotic something. With the powerful idea in the background, an impressionism painting obtains the meaning of its own. With help of the impressionism vision, one can see the reverse side of the world, the subconscious and the sub-real. Getting into the depth of people’s minds, these images depict ideas, not objects, which is why this style differs from what the mankind is used to so much.

It is quite peculiar that impressionists were a kind of rebels in the sphere of art, breaking all possible laws of painting to create the ones of their own. According to Salvi, “The Impressionists broke many rues of academic painting. One was their insistence on working direct from experience” (16). This was where the idea of the plein-air technique appeared from – trying to find the right environment to create the masterpieces of their own, impressionists tried to break the boundaries of space, which led them to creating outdoors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For them, painting did not mean staying behind closed doors in the cold light of a studio, but taking easel, canvas and paints and working en plein air (outdoors). This gave their canvases a feeling of spontaneity, but also required some new painting techniques. (Salvi 16)

Monet offered a perfect example of what the plein-air method of painting is. With his masterpiece called The Japanese Bridge, the author managed to represent not only the new idea of art, but also the new means to create it with. Painted with the plein-air technique, this was the essence of impressionism, the very spirit of the new art.

Breathing with the fresh ideas, this painting stirred the most unusual thoughts. Intriguing and capturing, this was the kind of masterpieces that gripped one and would not let go for another couple of hours. The creation required deep considerations and thorough meditations to understand the ideas underlying it.

Monet, Claude. The Japanese Bridge, c. 1919-24. Web.

Another perfect specimen of the new style of painting was the Water-Lily Pond that can be considered the perfect beginning of the impressionists’ triumph. With help of the peculiar open-air technique and the unusual, non-traditional approach to the art, the impressionism embodied in the Water-Lily Pond created quite a stir in the artistic circles.

This was a new and original way of expressing the ideas without fearing of being misunderstood – for impressionism could be understood in a million of ways; everything depended on the spectator.

Monet, Claude. The Water-Lily Pond, 1899. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the new art helped people to understand art in its new shape. Hiding beyond the disguise of the chaotic and the subconscious, the paintings created by impressionists made people open their eyes and see the reality the way it is. At this point, the definition of impressionism intertwines with the idea of ripping the world of its veil.

Lying bare and naked in front of the artist, the world took the most incredible shapes, which were depicted in the numerous impressionism paintings. Shockingly surreal and at the same time grotesquely true, these pieces broke new ground not only in the sphere of arts, but also in people’s lives.

Considering the three theories of art which Frank suggests, one can see clearly the way impressionism develop as the time passed by. Starting from what further on was called the theory of representation, the new style developed into the “pure seeing”, which later on evolved into the “experimental aesthetics” (Frank 2006).

Due to the organic and swift way in which the ideas of impressionism evolved, the latter shaped quickly and in rather natural way. Relying on their own vision of the world and their ideas concerning people and nature, artists embodied their impressions into peculiar and intriguing artworks. To understand the train of impressionists’ ideas, one has to consider the paintings by Monet as the founder of the new artistic tendency. For instance, his painting Irises is the very idea of impressionism itself:

Monet, Claude. Irises. c. 1914-17. Web.

To understand the essence of this peculiar vision, one has to consider the expressive theory. Painting their feelings on the canvas, artists could get rid of the haunting ideas for a while. But then the need to tell the world important truths took its toll on the artists again… Trying to regard “the flux of sensation in its totality”, as Holt brilliantly noted, they created the world of their own, the world that mirrored the reality.

In his creation Bathers at La Grenouillère, the artist also followed the famous representation style, with help of which he created most of his pieces. Like the rest of his pictures, this creation also featured the famous plein-air technique and followed the principles of the representation style. However, it must be admitted that this creation of the great artist also incorporated some elements of the traditional vision of the world as well.

Monet, Claude. Bathers at La Grenouillère 1869. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Taking a closer look at the picture, one case that the artist deviated from the way in which he began creating the impressionist works. It has gained certain sociological meaning, for it considers the society in general rather that the sufferings of an individual.

Thus, there are no doubts that the impressionist ideas were broadening as the experience of the artists grew, and the spectrum of the ideas that could be communicated with help of the paintings grew increasingly huge. This is the right time to start talking about the formal theories of impressionism.

It cannot be denied that the pictures that followed Monet’s innovation in the world of art were mainly inspired by the great author of the Water-Lily Pond. However, there are no doubts that the main source of the painter’s inspiration came from their observations of the world, their meditations and their philosophical approach to understand the nature of a human being and the place the latter takes in the great circle of life.

However, it would be erroneous to speak of formal theories as of something that fit impressionists’ ideas impeccably once applied. It would be better to suggest that the formal approach was to be tailored to the ideas of impressionism. Since the latter presupposed the denial of any norms at all, the formal approach could not be applied to the paintings strictly. As Lanier noted,

Although there are similarities in their [impressionists’] art, these artists had no “formal theory” and “abandoned any fixed program.” They diminished the importance of subject matte, denied the importance of genre and subjected everything to the stamp of their own personalities and sensibilities. (79)

Morrisot, Berthe. Summer’s Day. c. 1879. Web.

However, it cannot be claimed that the sociocultural element of the impressionists’ paintings appeared only as time passed; one had better say that it became obvious only as certain time passed. Therefore, it can be suggested that the impressionism paintings helped the society get ready for certain changes in the vision of the world and the world philosophy. Since such transition could turn rather painful and ever impossible without any links to the previous experience, impressionism served as a bridge between the old and the new.

Considering the paintings from the sociocultural point of view, one has to admit that the authors of the pictures were trying to communicate their opinion concerning the most important vents in the social life of the then epoch. With help of their attempts, the paintings opened a door to the world where people could face their most secret ideas and feelings and realise that these are integral parts of themselves.

Every single picture created in the period when impressionism reigned spoke of the floating world, the time of changes, the instability and the attempts to relate a man to the nature. As Frank himself explains, the expressive theory of impressionism is one of the means to approach the mysterious pictures of impressionists, filled with the meaning that only the authors could see distinctly: “All art works are made by people.

The skill level, persona; intent, mental state, gender, or mindset of the creator must play a role in the creative process” (Frank 96). Glancing at the creations of impressionists, one can understand that the ideas of the world as chaos were only beginning to appear in their creations, whereas most of the pictures conveyed the idea of beauty in the natural and the irrational, the blurred vision of the world.

With help of the new artistic tendency, people have managed to experience an escape to an artistic Wonderland, which they must thank impressionists for. Unless Monet, Morisot, Renoir and all the rest had not contributed their viewpoint to the world of art, the latter would have been incomplete.

Works Cited Frank, Patric. Prebles’ Artforms: An Introduction to the Visual Arts, 8th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

Holt, Ysanne. British Artists and the Modernist Landscape. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003. Print.

Lanier, Doris. Absinthe the Cocaine of the Nineteenth Century: A History of the Hallucinogenic Drug and Its Effect on Artists and Writers in Europe and the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2004. Print.

Salvi, Francesco. The Impressionists. Minneapolis, MN: The Oliver Press, 2008. Print.

Van Gunsteren, Julia. Katherine Mansfield and Literary Impressionism. Amsterdam: Rodopi1990. Print.


Embracing the Entire Globe: Globalization Is not to Be Feared! Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

No matter what one might say about the links between different people and different nations, there can be no possible doubts that certain countries stay miles away from each other. Preserving their cultural identity, they are still linked to one another, which cannot be considered but a positive state of affairs.

Despite the fact that globalization is designed to reunite people, restoring their economical, political and personal links with one another, there are certain suspicions that the effect of globalization can possibly harm the ethnicity and the cultural peculiarities of various countries, making the latter absorb the culture of the world leading states.

Considering the matter closer, one can see distinctly that the fear of the globalization effect comes from the strong feeling of national identity. According to the essay under the discussion, the fears that globalization would be the merging of cultures until they fuse into a single entity are completely groundless.

However, the author of the essay has sufficient arguments to back the statement with. It is quite clear that integrating into a globalized world will presuppose that certain traits of national character and identity might disappear. As the process unwinds, people will focus on the economical and political aspect of the problem, whereas the cultural one will be likely left behind. However, this is not a reason to be greatly anxious, the author of the essay claims.

Moreover, the argument of the essay is backed up with significant information concerning the plausible positive effects of globalization. Like in Ben-Rafael’s book, “globalization is seen here as an effort to build a world meta-culture sui generis, not by superimposing one culture on others” (280)

However, it cannot be denied that, once started, the process of globalization is bound to continue, not matter what people could think about it. Whether it is a negative or a positive “polysyllabic phenomenon” (Blanchette 71), it can be only hindered, not stopped. Like every other stage of people’s evolution, this process is irreversible.

Therefore, the only thing that people can do at the current moment is to try slackening the process of globalization down. With help of reasonable approach and considerable effort, people will be able to postpone the globalization process until they feel that the mankind will handle the complicated stage of self-development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike the rest of political and economical phenomena, this one embraces the entire world, which is already a reason for thorough considerations. According to the essay, the suppositions concerning the negative effect of globalization have been greatly exaggerated. Still, there are sufficient reasons that the threat of globalization was underestimated by the author of the essay.

On the one hand, globalization does have its effect on the world culture, encouraging the process of fusion. Yet on the other hand, it is obvious that the effect of culture mixing can lead to deplorable effects. As soon as the cultures reach certain point of globalizing, they will disintegrate into a mess that will represent the “globalized culture”. Wiping out the unique cultural features of specific countries, globalization is highly likely to produce an effect of a social stencil for the mankind.

Moulded according to the stereotyped pattern, people will not be able to keep their cultural values, which the author of the essay does not take into consideration. As El-Shibini claims, globalization can pose certain threat to the Islamic people with their specific culture and traditions, which means that the process of globalization must take another shape in this society to help them preserve their cultural identity:

Extremists fear the incorporation of Western Civilization into Islamic countries. Therefore, Arab communities need to take from globalization what coincides with the national interest for economic, scientific, cultural and technological development and to identify and abandon whatever conflicts with Islamic beliefs, traditions, social values and norms. (El-Shibiny 83)

It must be admitted though that the essay has certain strong arguments to support the idea that the globalization is bound to have positive effect on the world cultures. The thesis of the essay explains that the effects of globalization will not hinder the cultural development and threat the cultural values of different countries, since globalization will itself encourage the process of cultural growth.

Emphasizing that globalization enhances the understanding of cultural values and the national identity, the author does make an efficient use of logical arguments. Indeed, it cannot be doubted that with the globalization process, certain innovations that will enhance relationships between ethnic communities will appear:

For example, consider the existence of the electronic media. And, more recently, the Internet which allow members of national and cultural groups new and more effective ways of communicating with one another and of promoting their culture and traditions. (Hogan 415)

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Embracing the Entire Globe: Globalization Is not to Be Feared! specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it must be admitted that the essay under the discussion does have its point, yet these benefits cannot outweigh the negative effects of globalization anyway. Since the electronic media can be used both for finding like-minded people, and for promoting certain views, either cultural or political, into a different community and thus destroying their life pace.

Considering the effects of globalization, one must say that these are deadly for a number of cultures. Therefore, it can be supposed that the mankind s not ready for the globalization process yet. As soon as people are able to keep their traditions, the world integration will be possible.

Works Cited Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, and Yitzhak Sternberg. Identity, Culture and Globalization. Leiden, Netherlands: BRILL, 2002. Print.

Blanchette, Olivia, et al. Philosophical Challenges and Opportunities of Globalization, Vol. 1. New York, NY: CRVP, 2001. Print.

El-Shibiny, Mohamed. The Threat of Globalization to Arab Islamic CU. Pittsburg, PA: Dorrance Publishing Co., 2005. Print.

Hogan, John P. Cultural Identity, Pluralism and Globalization. Vol. 1. New York, NY: CRVP, 2005. Print.


The Management and Governance Structure of International Business Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction This research paper is a close examination of the international business. It has tacked the management and governance structure found in international business and how each relates to the success of the international business.

Those structures usually depend upon many factors when it comes to consideration of diversification of goods and services. They also (structure) dictate the kind of branding a business puts into the businesses across the globe. Still those structures have their strength and weakness which has been tackled as advantages and disadvantages.

International Business

International business is the business which describes all the transactions which are commercial in nature between the countries or regions. These transactions may include sales investment logistics and purchases. Many governments do engage themselves in international business as a collective decision or political reason which has been reached by the government officials. The government may sell the product or service in exchange of money for the purpose of completing the commercial activities.

Private company can also get involved in international business but unlike the government their main role is to get profit, private company may invest in goods and services across the boarder in form of economic resources e.g. capital. Import is simply moving of good and services among nations. Exporting is regarded as moving of goods and services to other nations.

Matrix structure

This structure considers the complexity of business most likely the geography the functionability of the business and the technology. Matrix structure deals with internal complexity in the business as well as external complexities this is done by reflecting those external complexities by analyzing the structure of the business internally. This structure realizes and considers the importance of geography functional grouping of the customer product and technology.

When using matrix structure it’s more emphasize on the clarity which yield more flexibility. Matrix cannot solve the complexities in business but working together of the people in the organization dictates the success or failure of the business.

Global market structure

According to Zinzaro (2010), this structure reflects the global philosophy which states that world is just one homogeneous market. The philosophy sees the world as a monolithic market with tastes and preferences which are similar. In Global structure it assumes that the national tastes and preferences are not different hence standardized products are put into consideration hence the structural process are integrated so that the coordination of activities are the same worldwide i.e. production marketing and planning.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decision making comes from the corporate headquarters and directed to the parts of the business. Hence decisions are centralized and for this matter the importance ones. For example they are decisions which are made at corporate level and not subsidiary level. These are the issues of research, product range and branding.

In some instances they are some services which should be closer to the customer but their policies still are set at corporate level.

Global structure does not consider geographical aspects but focuses on products and markets and how to globally implement success of products and markets.

Domestic structure

This is usually fragmented into some trends. Some are talked in this research.

Horizontal corporation

This is directed to eliminating vertical hierarchy and it bases its structure on process instead of functions the management is usually delegated to the teams which has been formed in the regions (Zinzaro, 2010). It usually assists in the close contacts to the customers.

Those teams do perform their tasks independently and makes sure that they include all the skills to accomplish their tasks.

Dynamic Networks

This is usually based on outsourcing where the hierarchy which is vertical is replaced by controls of the market as the core activities are kept by the organization.

We will write a custom Essay on The Management and Governance Structure of International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dynamic network has got low administrative overhead and very flexible in resources allocation. It has got some of weakness which sometimes makes it impossible to define the organization and its employees do not have loyalty.

Factors to consider when choosing appropriate structure for international business


When it comes to governance the structure to be considered should be taken into account because some business are governed by boards while some structures may require some legal restriction which requires the business to have another entity board for the diversification factors or to manage the international business.

Corporate veil

International business usually because of their size do separate the corporation from its owners hence owns liability is limited to the investment made by the new entity its like starting another company standing on its own so when deciding to look for the structure consideration must be into consideration.

Administrative costs

There is additional cost which comes hand in hand when a business has been diversified for example business taxes record keeping. Sometimes they are ventured if the international business is operating globally and from a centralized position. This factor should be considered on which structure to adapt.


Start up funds is taken into account when an international business wants to be diversified. Hence some structure like matrix structure will need a lot of funds because of its decentralized nature it also requires funds to cater for numbers of manages involved (Zinzaro, 2010). So it’s the decision of the business owners to lay out plan considering the cost involved in various structures and hence adopting the promising and profitable structure.

Advantages of global market structure

This can enable the international business to introduce the product by using a very powerful tool called advertisement due to present of global advertising tool like internet its possible for Global market structure to do the

There is presence of economy of scale due to the fact that individual needs and preferences are universal those markets produces good and services in large quantity hence the cost is reduced considerable consequently enjoying economies of scale.

There is informing in practices like marketing because this structure ensures that all individual are similar hence the information required should be directed as if it was going to a single person.

When it comes to branding it is consistent in the source that all the practices of branding has been centralized and all the decision comes from a single source but directed worldwide.

Disadvantages of global market structure

Global market structure sometimes its ‘philosophy’ doesn’t work at all instances because customers need and usage of produces is not always universal sometimes its different according to many factoring such as geographical factors cultural and many more.

Sometimes customer from one region may not respond to the products as the same way others may respond.

In international business the issue of competition usually occurs we find that some areas are more competitive than others in the brand and product development hence in Global structure this issue may not be put into consideration due to its philosophy.

In some regions away from home market there are some administrative procedures which might be different from the one from home markets this may affect the international businesses because of trying to adapt to those procedures which might Jeopardize the success of the business.

In some regions there is complexity difference when it comes to legal processes some are harsh than others for example in some regions operations of those business may be limited to a number of homes while others may be operating in 24hours system this may also be as a result of security issues environment and crime rates (Joshi, 2009).

Advantages of matrix structure

Matrix structure by its ability to consider the geographical set up is able to improve the access of resources across the geographical set up. This usually enhances the

Organizations using matrix structure usually have better coordination when it comes to the sharing of technologies for example information technologies companies who share technologies do have better coordination.

In matrix structure the governance is usually decentralized and this allows effective and fast decision making. This usually saves time because the consultation of each sector is put into consideration without the bureaucratic process which undermines other decisions.

This structure usually allows access to skills and perspectives which are diversified because of its nature we have seen that when it comes to management and governance it usually considers many sectors such as geography technology and functions.

Because of its diversification it usually improves projects which are regional and also global projects. This usually enhances the success of the business due to diversification of its resources.

People who are usually concerned in those businesses which have adopted matrix structure they usually develop in skills which are broaden due to a great exposure which matrix structure gives.

Matrix structure engages in decentralization of its governance this usually is very effective when it comes to communication and coordination of the business activities.

Matrix structure enhances a holistic outlook upon its customers whether regional or global it makes sure that their needs are met.

It also enables adaptation and responses which are instant to the complexity of the world because of the skills its participant has.

Disadvantages of matrix structures

Due to it decentralized nature sometimes it might be difficult to follow up the teams and their operations because decision making is independent of the sector. This form of independence may jeopardize the whole system most likely if there is a poor transition from one sector to the next.

Due to creation of many project teams this also gives the need to increase numbers of managers to lead those projects which consequently leads to increase in costs.

When it comes to allocation of resources and there is difference in policies between the line manage and project manages this may bring delay and conflict to a particular international business when allocation of resources id urgent.

It is also hand to reach into final decision because of number of managers involved (Joshi, 2009). If we compare with line management here we usually have double number of managers which makes decision making to delay.

Sometimes it’s regarded as an outdated method to organize a company because the top most sectors may not be aware of the activities happening in regional sectors and this may compromise the success because it lacks that chain of command which in some cases scrutinizes every sector of the international business.

When there is conflicting loyalties this brings about the confusion amongst the employees they do not know which policies to follow or the guiding principals in the business this can lead to failure of the business.

Conclusion It’s evident that we cannot survive without international business, many companies which are universal do usually have better terms than those which are domestic in nature as indicated above there is issue of economies of scale this assist the business itself and the consumer because goods manufactured at bulk will cost less compared to goods which are produced in small quantities, this is also reflected to prices of the goods and services to the consumers since the business produces more with less they will also reduce the cost (Joshi, 2009).

When it comes to management we have seen that in matrix structure there is decentralization this enable the policies which are set to favor the local because the managers on the ground have got the actual touch of reality as far as need and preferences of that region is concerned.

This also brings about good relations between regions because of universally of the management and governance of the business.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Management and Governance Structure of International Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand international markets also do have some negative effects towards a particular region because some of the needs and preferences might be different from what is known from the home company. Due to dynamic nature of society sometimes the international business takes time to catch up and make changes because of bureaucratic process involved.

Reference List Joshi, M., 2009. International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Web.

Zinzaro, F., 2010. Market Global Structure. Web.


Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Black culture


Works Cited

Introduction The United States is the world’s ultimate super power constituted by a diverse mix of different races. 13 percent of these constituents are pre-dominantly blacks. Even in this era, inequality and racism seem to be rampant in the country and in fact, capitalism seems to feed off these vices; as Malcolm X said, “You cannot have capitalism without racism”.

The aftermath of the Katrina disaster exposed these ugly trends in the country after many blacks were displaced and seemed to be neglected. Statistics show that the black community has decreased in terms of population in New Orleans; once at 67 percent, now is at 58 percent. Louisiana Republican Congressman, Richard Baker said, “We finally cleaned up public housing in New Orleans. We couldn’t do it, but God did” referring to the displacement of poor black residents in New Orleans.

Black youth seem to be the target of police harassment and imprisonment in addition to them being the most exploited and unemployed in the country. These inequalities have sparked social explosions as was evident in 1992 when there were riots in Los Angeles, a rich city having a large number of poor blacks. The past struggles which yielded the heroes of yesteryears have done little to improve the lives of many blacks who have not experienced any change.

Black culture Black freedom struggle has taken many shapes over time, but during this period shaped what is commonly and popularly referred to as black (African-American) culture. The struggle has taken various steps since the slavery days when Africans were shipped into America.

The march on Washington Campaign of 1940 is the earliest cited genesis of the struggle by “No Coward Soldiers” and subsequent struggles have taken the shape of bus boycotts (Montgomery 1955-56), freedom rides in 1960, Poor People’s March in 1968 and attempts at establishing a black political party in 1970. All these events exuded passion from the black community and have largely influenced black culture to this day.

“No Coward Soldiers”, has traced the development of the modern freedom struggle and attributes it to the need by blacks to have a distinct culture that uniquely defines and influences them. In an attempt to understand the modern freedom struggle, this paper focuses on the black culture which has influenced the struggle and is influenced by the black community today. The genesis of the distinct African-American culture is the fight against white hegemony.

This factor has probably singularly shaped most of what constitutes the black culture albeit not single handedly. The need to have a political structure that advocates the needs of the black community has also played a big part in the shaping of black culture. Politics and culture neither substitute nor determine one another but rather relate each other in a more complex manner. Politics can shape culture and vice versa. Therefore, in an attempt to understand black culture, the book attempts to analyze black internal politics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More African-American culture has its roots in sub-Saharan ad Sahelean cultures, it has however been greatly influenced by white culture in the post-slavery era. It is one of the most unique cultures which greatly influences mainstream American culture and that of the world evidenced in music, art, literature, cuisine and sport.

The culture aids in the removal of historical complexities from the mind. Take for example black music which is accepted world wide and is central to black culture as it a reflection of it. Politics are central in the influence of cultures and present modern day heroes for the common African-American in the likes of Obama, Rice and Powell. African-Americans consider themselves the saving nation of the larger American nation and this notion is captured in poems such as ‘My Blackness Is the Beauty of This Land’(Martin, 11).

Blacks are known for their interests in political processes compared to any other minority group in the US evident in the large numbers of registered voters. They also have higher education levels compared to any migrants in the country.

This helps to show that blacks are fighting on every front to level the playing field when compared to whites so as to better advocate their rights which they feel have not been wholly addressed. While upholding the doctrine of beating people at their own game, blacks have enrolled in all social areas and are striving to excel in those areas so as to offer themselves the opportunities that they previously have been denied.

The accent of Obama to presidency, the presence of sports heroes in the likes of Gay and Kobe, the wealth accrued by Oprah and Johnson of Black entertainment Television and other examples have been a driving force in empowering blacks and better placing them to advance their struggle for true and ultimate freedom.

They have not only black Americans with the impetus, but also provided white America with new ways of describing black bodies and sounds distinctively(Sklaroff, 247).

African-Americans largely favor the traditional American values. They cite their culture as the major determinant in their opposition to same-sex marriages and the upholding of traditional family values which discouraged divorce. Increased divorce rates among blacks, and increased single parent households evidenced by the fact that only 38 percent of black children live with both parents (McKinnon 2003), indicate an influence of white culture and changing economic realities.

We will write a custom Essay on Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “No Coward Soldiers”, draws parallels between the past freedom struggle and the present freedom struggles and argues it from a realities perspective. The past was characterized by fight for equality brought about by segregation whereas the present although still focused on equality is of a different nature.

“In black culture, we can find a history of American perfidy, American violence, American oppression and American racism, all captured for our delectation in a way that provokes reflection without spurring us into action” (Cashmore, 170).

He further adds that the culture of blacks is the source of comfort rather than a challenge. It is in the culture that blacks draw their inspiration as they reflect on the road they have taken to a form of freedom envisaged by the initial freedom fighters.

Conclusion “No Coward Soldiers” has discussed in detail the genesis and the continued proliferation of black freedom struggle. The fact that culture has played a major role in the shaping of this struggle over the years is not in doubt, in fact, both the culture and the freedom struggle have affected each other mutually.

It is the struggle that conglomerated blacks in the beginning and it has continued to umbrella them in institutions appealing to their course. For example, blacks initially were republican since Abraham Lincoln aided in abolishing slavery, they have since defected to the democratic movement as Johnson and Kennedy were sympathetic to the civil rights movement of 1960’s.

Works Cited Cashmore, Ellis. The Black Culture Industry. London: Routledge, 1997

Martin, Waldo E. Jr. No Coward Soldiers. Black Cultural Politics in Postwar America. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2005

McKinnon, Jesse. The Black Population in the United States: March 2002. United States Census Bureau, 2003

Not sure if you can write a paper on Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: the quest for civil rights in the Roosevelt era. Charlotte: The University of North Carolina Press, 2009


Product Advancement Trend Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Relevant consumption trends The onset of mobile technology has transformed the way of life of the modern day society. Every person out there wants to communicate. A cell phone is a convenient way to communicate due to its portability as well as cost. The information age has demanded more than just communication in the strict sense.

The consumer wants an opportunity to derive entertainment information access as well as the actual communication itself. The mobile phone companies have adapted to this demand by developing products that meet the average requirements in a satisfactory manner. The cell phone cuts across all the market demands and therefore offers the customer the benefit of a single gadget with several applications.

The cell phone market has been typically subdivided into two main segments. The first is the high end segment that comprises of business persons and the professional class. These customers are the most influential in as far as price is concerned since they have a high level of loyalty to the product as long as they develop a sense of trust for such a product. The second segment is the low end consumer class that is made of the blue collar as well as the personal end users.

The preferences of these customers greatly depend on the individual’s behavior and preference. However the actual purchase is mostly affected by the financial implication of the product purchased. The high end customers are more likely to purchase the more expensive versions of the black berry that have more features that assist them in their daily professional encounters.

Their spending may be motivated by either necessity or actual availability of finances. They are therefore more product-specific. For instance the professionals are more likely to go for a cell phone that has an operating system that will allow them undertake the duties that they would otherwise have waited to get to a computer in order to access such features. The general average annual spending among the first segment is higher than that of the second.

Customers from both segments have an opportunity to access these products from the certified dealers in selected selling points such as malls and supermarkets. There are also numerous specialized dealers who deal in electronic sale that offer the black berry based products. Customers have the option of also purchasing the product online from the various websites such as E-bay.

Online sale has gained credence due to its flexibility convenience and speed as compared to over the counter sale. The products are available on these sites with varying charges depending on the prevailing rates. The most recent statistics suggest that the customers buy more at the end of the month and before festivities. The levels of sales were also very low during cold seasons as most of the customers were indoors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The preference has been the purchase through online dealers who deliver the product after a given period of time. The percentage of people who ordered the product specifically as a present amounted to 20% of the general consumer base. With these customers the probability of purchasing this product again is quite slim. This would be because they were not actually getting the phone for someone else. They could either be creating an impression on the person or recommending the product.

The other percentage either went through the actual product acquisition model that involves gathering information, evaluation of the product, purchase and post purchase procedures. The market is affected by various variables and there can be no specific conclusive explanation of the current or future trend in the consumer’s behavior. On average however the loyalty of the consumer was motivated by advertisement and word from friends and alternative sources of information.

The black berry has been in the black berry phone specifically the touch 9800 mobile is a market leader that has been created to serve the interests of the consumer form both ends. The all too familiar receptiveness of the device to new applications and the removal of old ones give it a dignified prominence in the specialty.

The black berry company has made several efforts over the years to ensure that their products subscribe to the demands of the modern day consumer. The product has an inbuilt operating system that supports most document formats (Alba and Hutchinson 2000, p 123).

The core proposition of the brand is to ensure that the customer receives quality. The substance of the brand slogan suggests that the product inspires


Personal Reflection on the Self Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Self Concept

Self Efficacy

Self Esteem

References List

Self Concept Self-Concept, self esteem, self efficacy and self confidence are believed to have great influence on an individual’s way of life. Self-Concept, also known by self-image or self-perspective, refers to the way an individual views himself (Bong


The life and Works of Titian Research Paper college admission essay help

Introduction Art has been evolving for many years since time immemorial. One of the reasons as to why it is pretty difficult to date the time artwork began is because the practice is as old as human beings. However art gained its known exponential growth within the last one thousand years. This was the era when the famous Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci brought their paintworks into fame. It was also during this period that the famous painter Titan exposed his remarkable talent through paintings.

The real names of Titian are Tiziano Vecellio. He was ranked the best artist of the (sixteenth) century. He is well known because of his extraordinary use of color in his paintings. Titian used his paintings to influence the society greatly. Thus he contributed to all the major initiatives of art and related works. His paintings could touch on all sectors of life to exhibit the mythology and cultural practices of the prevailing environment.

Titian’s trainers were Giovanni Bellini (1459-1516) and Giorgione (1478-1510) of which Giovanni was influential because he used a tonal approach in his artwork and for his landscape styles that were quite evocative. Thus Titian and Giovanni worked in a similar way to the extent of making the situation hard for the artistic world to fix the boundaries between their works.

The works of Titan are celebrated way beyond the national border of Italy to the entire planet. His timely works include the drawings of landscape and goat and two Satyrs in a landscape which exemplified mythological figures in a fine landscape whose naturally occurring picturesque contrasts sharply with the ordered arrangement that is at equilibrium.

Early years The early years of Titian were marked with major achievements of his life. When he was nine years old he went to Venice with his elder brother to his uncle’s home for a stay. The other reason why Titan went to Venice is because he wanted to partner with Sebastiano Zuccato who was by then a master of mosaics, that is, Sebastiano knew a lot about the art of painting. Titian soon passed to the workshop of the Bellini the place where Giovanni became his true teacher (McKenzie 2003). By then Giovanni was the greatest Venetian painter.

During his school times, Titian’s works exhibited the nature of a young man who coupled up to be a student. Titan also became friends with another young student of Giovanni Bellini. The young man was called Giorgione and his hometown was Castelfranco. The two young men combined their efforts in major paintings during the time they were together. This explains why it is so hard to differentiate between the two artists in their early years. That was during the 16th century (NNDB, 2010).

As it is demystified, Titian’s first work which he was able to do independently was the paintings at Padua. These paintings are famously known as the three miracles of St. Anthony.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other exemplary masterpieces of Titian include the “Miracle Of The Speaking Infant” and the “Miracle Of The Irascible Son” in which the latter has a beautiful background landscape which has captured the eyes of many interested individuals. When Giorgione died Titian was involved in the duty of adding the landscape background to his master’s unfinished work, the famous Sleeping Venus.

Another work which displays the sexual relationship of a young couple which is hidden and there is also a tender and sad mood is in the portrait of the Three Ages of Man. This is also one of the most prolific works of Titan during his young energetic years.

The current work of Titan whose allegory is more hidden and is presented in a landscape of great levels of beauty is the work called Sacred and Profane Love. In this illustration it is explained comparatively to the Neoplatonic theory that the two women, the characters on the left side and those on the right side of the painting are particularly well known characters of that time. The lovely Salome is represented by a beautiful young lady instead of a cruel biblical woman.

In addition to this there are quite a number of paintings which were attributed to Giorgione, Titian’s master. However these works have been conceded to Titian, an action which makes it hard for historians to structure Titian’s early career. That is why until now his career has remained quite unclear with the correct sequencing of his work becoming more and more elusive to modern historians and artists (McKenzie 2003).

It is worth noting that Titian was hired by Federico in 1529 where Titian was paid on a commission basis. Federico had also done this to help Titian purchase land near Trevisco.

The land issue however, never materialized but the Duke compensated Titian with the gift of Benefice of Medole. This made Titian work for Federico for the next ten years (Reiss


Environmental Degradation and Poverty Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Environmental degradation has been on increase, thus raising the concern all over the world on how to compact it. It is defined as the declination of the environmental value in its quality. It is however important to understand the causes of the environmental degradation and the ways to reduce them, which will promote the improvement of the environmental quality.

Human activities are the major cause of this degradation, which are highly associated with poverty and dependence. Poverty is the state of deficiency in affording the basic material needs with ease thus leading to over dependence on the available resources for a short term intervention. This paper therefore is a discussion which illustrates the relationship between poverty and dependence to the environmental degradation (Ali-Akpajiak


Political Immigration as Addressed in City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Synopsis

How the Cubans Came to be

A Paradigm Shift

Implications of City on the Edge


Works Cited

Synopsis City on the Edge: The transformation of Miami authored by Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick sets out to study the trends of urban settlement in Miami, and to review the role played by Cuban immigrants in stimulating economic, social and political change in the region. The two authors study-other than the widely accepted trends in urban settlements- the effects of political immigration, and how these particular immigrants differ from other immigrants.

How the Cubans Came to be Cubans have been present in the United States as a minority group for over a century. The first major immigration occurred in the 1880s because of Cuba’s production of Cigars. The next major wave of immigrants came into America between 1959 and 1962 during Fidel Castro’s communist regime. They were referred to as the ‘Golden exiles’ because they were mostly professionals and educated people who wanted to get away from Castro’s oppressive regime (Portes


Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will Essay college essay help online

Film/Cinema, in the context of movies and documentaries, is a modern visual art form that has had intense impact on our daily life for humanity has profoundly been affected by what it sees and hears via film or the motion picture experience. It utilizes the concept of simple story telling via a mesmerizing technical medium and its ability to influence is rooted in the utilization of images/impressions and imagery. Cinema has a social as well artistic function.

Although the demand for imaginative entertainment is at an all time high, interest in the realities of the world is also on the rise. Documentaries address this interest because they are comprised of real people, world events, places, and social conditions – documenting history, reality. British film maker, John Grierson first coined the term in 1926. Prior to 1926, such films were referred to as “actuality” films and came on the scene at the turn of the 20th century as well.

Like American director, D.W. Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation/The Clansman (1915), German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will (1934) was considered masterful/innovative and ground-breaking for documentary filmmaking at that time. Triumph garnered her the accolade as one of the greatest female filmmakers of all time but most infamous.

Chronicling the Nazi Party Congress held in Nuremberg (1934), Triumph of the Will (1935) catapulted the documentary as mode of propaganda designed to specifically argue a point and influence public opinion.

“Documentary cinema is intimately tied to historical memory. Not only does it seek to reconstruct historical narrative, but it often functions as an historical document itself. Moreover, the connection between the rhetoric of documentary film and historical truth pushes the documentary into overtly political alignments which influence its audience (1993Rabinowitw).”

Triumph of the Will lionized Germany as a recurring superpower with Hitler at the helm as the authentic leader/savoir. This fundamental thematic message can be found in opening prologue – “20 years after the outbreak of the World War, 16 years after the beginning of German suffering, 19 months after the beginning of the German renaissance, Adolf Hitler flew again to Nuremberg to review the columns of his faithful followers (Triumph).” The opening scene further substantiates the message with an aerial view of Hitler’s plane flying through the majestic clouds and over various parts of Germany.

He finally arrives in Nuremberg greeted by ecstatic supporters. The consequence of war is a people spiritually, mentally, and physically downtrodden and inept. Riefenstahl’s revolutionary use of cinematography (telephoto lenses, aerial photography, moving cameras, etc.) and music (German composer, Richard Wagner) epitomizes this escalating German Renaissance which has freed the German people from such a plight. It explains their fanaticism with Hitler.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the documentary German militaristic power, political religion, unity, and pride are highlighted. With these four elements as an integral force, one cannot ascertain a distinction between the German people, the state, and the Nazi Party.

Riefenstahl vehemently denied the film served as a propaganda tool for the Nazi Party but rather was an historical film told through an aesthetic lens. Many critics purport differently.

Just as Birth of a Nation reeked of racist negative/stereotypical portrayal of African- Americans and shaped the America’s public’s attitude/image about race, Triumph contributed to heightened negative perceptions of European Jewry and anti-Semitism. Hitler’s conquest for German purity emanates from his speeches as well those of his featured compatriots – Goring, Goebbels, etc.

Could Riefenstahl have been that naïve and blind to Hitler’s maniacal plans that lay ahead? Objectivity has meaning but in reality it is greatly influenced by the filmmaker’s point of view via perceptions, emotions, etc. thereby determining the extent they can be biased or slant their point of view. Suffice to say, Triumph of the Will authenticated that film has the ability to influence as well as alter how people perceive themselves, aspects of their society/culture as well as other peoples and their culture.

Work Cited Rabinowitz, Paula. “Wreckage upon Wreckage: History, Documentary and the Ruins of Memory.” History and Theory, Vol. 32, No. 2. (May, 1993), pp. 119-137. Triumph of the Will (Video). Web.


Experiential Computing Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Conceptual Framework

Dimensions of Experiential Computing




Introduction Information technology has emerged to be a new discipline in the management of organizations because it predicts the outcome of computer applications in contemporary management systems. Computers have now taken over organizations and totally changed managerial practices to make them more digital; thereby prompting an understanding of experiential computing as a new discipline in management because it is currently part of everyday life.

In light of this development, it has become increasingly important that organizations adopt a new approach to information technology with a special emphasis on experiential computing as an emerging discipline in organizational management. In a practical point of view, experiential computing appeals to certain facets of human experience such as time, space, actors, artifacts and the likes (although the experience is virtually experienced in a digital world).

This study will borrow from both a design aspect and from a behavioral point of view to determine how organizations can improve their approach to experiential computing. Ultimately, this study will point out that various organizations ought to focus on their roots and emphasize more on the discipline of management in its artificial sense. This is to be accomplished through breaking organizational limits and exploring new domains of research in experiential computing and inculcating this technique into the organizational culture.

Conceptual Framework Yoo defines experiential computing as “involving digitally mediated embodied experiences in everyday activities through everyday artifacts that have embedded computing capabilities”[1]. Experiential computing is therefore a deviation from the superficial form of computing to represent a deeper relationship between the world, people and technology (all at the same time)[2].

This kind of relationship is embodied together and represents the manner in which everyday life ought to be perceived. The relationship experienced here (whether social or economic) is not abstract but rather experienced through real life undertakings[3].

Without experiential computing, humans would view the world in a symbolic form; but relating the world with human experience gives a deeper meaning to the relationship because the world is part of life and humans form a perception of it through their interaction with it.

In this manner, technology acts as a mediator of human experience with the world. In the same manner also, technology seeks to underscore the importance of physical human interaction with the world and instead, its mediation between humans and the world develops around the core areas of space, time, actors and artifacts. These facets form the experiential framework of computing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dimensions of Experiential Computing Experiential computing observes that the digital experience takes its first step of development through the human body which exists in space. The human experience cannot be easily separated from the body because it is a living part of human existence. Space is therefore represented by the occupation of the body in the world and it can only be represented as being in the present because it represents our current lived experiences[4].

Space should therefore not be perceived as a passive manner in which we evaluate our possessions or the way we view our bodies (in relation to the occupation these forms take in the world), but a framework of structured consciousness that enable us experience new things in the world[5].

In the same manner, we experience time differences through the analysis of our bodies because as human beings, we do not have the ability to be in two places at the same time. In fact, our experiences take a more definite way of analysis; like we are either in the present, going somewhere or have been at a given point in a given time. It is therefore correct to say that the digital experience we have as human beings should not be analyzed as one that’s here to stay because it is temporary and also in the process of being definite[6].

Time is not characterized by a given set of secretive actions but rather a conglomerate of intentional activities. Time is therefore best analyzed through the comprehension of the difference in our expectations and the experiences we have undergone as human beings (in the past). Through these experiences in this time frame, we experience other social actors in our analysis who bring us to another important facet of experiential computing which is core artifacts.

Experiential experience makes us digitalize artifacts through the development of simple forms of tagging such as RGIS chips or through the use of bar codes and other similar type of networks, within a spectrum of simple and sophisticated applications[7].

The digitalization process can take the form of a simple mobile device or embedded sensors which memorize data such as of an object (like a cup) which the user can therefore interact with through digital experience. In addition, users can enjoy mixed experiences through the Web 2.0 services which mean that different artifacts can be sourced and mixed in a simple manner to share the experience of different users with different artifacts.

For instance, the digitalization of actors has been greatly facilitated in the recent past through an upsurge of social networking sites like tweeter, myspace and facebook which enable users to share information, pictures and the likes (thereby interacting with different social artifacts).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Experiential Computing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The kind of relationships observed in such kind of social networking sites are not ordinary because they represent an exclusive kind of interaction; like a professional interaction, as can be evidenced through linkedIn. Moreover, users or participants in these kinds of social networking sites can be expanded from the basis of friendly associations to group affiliations.

At present, there are already existing relationships which are not only based on friendships but on locations as well. In the same manner, there have been other similar organizations like the association of people doing the same kind of activity in the same time period (association of time); the association of people on the basis of artifacts, or people who use the same type of tool for trade and the association of people based on a mixture of any of the above two criteria.

For instance, DOPPLR has been singled out to be the leading social networking site that best links users based on the element of similar travel destination in addition to the capability of linking its users or their friends to other existing social networking sites.

Experiential computing has found its foothold on the above basis for digitalization and it practically encompasses most or all facets of human interaction. In fact, most of the users or actors in this digitalized world have all internalized the system because of the acknowledgement that technology is part of our day-to-day lives.

From the above example of social networking sites, most human interactions within the context of business operations can almost entirely be done online. This includes the ordering process, purchasing, payments, and delivery. It is therefore quite difficult for such users to view experiential computing as any different from everyday operations.

In the same manner, considering current trends, the hype related with computers will be absolved within the context of experiential computing[8]. In this manner, computers will be used in devices like music players, cars, office desks but they will not be in the open for everyone to see because this new paradigm (experiential computing) in an organizational context is not to represent the world but to develop a newer and efficient world whereby everyone can take part in it with pleasure.

In this respect, the computing aspects are actually given real life forms, stored, and created in experiential computing through the involvement of conventional tools such as actors, artifacts or even through different locations. In this regard therefore, computing should not be perceived as an external factor to our existence but part of our day-to-day lives.

Conclusion Experience is an important part to the existence of any human being an indeed the success of any organization. In fact, through the experience we hold, we are able to inculcate specific ideals, values and principles within ourselves.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Experiential Computing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this study, we explore how organizations should take note of the fact that digitalization has the potential of transforming daily experiences because of its potential in merging human relationships with the real world. Many of the elements outlined in this study, such as space, artifacts, actors, and activities can all be of high importance especially in the analysis of information technology in organizations because they converge radical human experiences in a digital manner.

Bibliography Goldin, D. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. Routledge, London, 2006.

Meister, J. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. Walter de Gruyter, London, 2003.

Silberman, M. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2007.

Tedre, M. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective. Matti Tedre, Amsterdam, 2006.

Yoo. Y. Computing in Everyday life. Temple University, Philadelphia, 2009.

Footnotes Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 1.

Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 16.

G. Dina. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. London, Routledge, 2006, p. 324.

Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 15.

T. Matti. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective.Amsterdam, Matti Tedre, 2006, p. 169.

M. Silberman,. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 2007, p. 217.

M. Jan. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. London, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p. 116.

Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 17.


Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory Research Paper college essay help online

The use of cannabis is often associated with memory challenges in the short term and long term basis. Studies continue to be carried out to determine if chronic cannabis use affects long term memory by examining variety of cognitive functions. This paper reviews related literature on memory dysfunction in cannabis users (Parath, 2009).

The literature reviews includes studies that looked at memory function in cannabis users of chronic intoxication period (Austin, 2010). Specifically, it examines studies in working memory and verbal episodic memory. In addition, they have continued to deduce evidence indicating impaired encoding, storage, manipulation and retrieval systems in long term cannabis users (Allhoff, 2010).

Cannabis is extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa. Usually, Cannabis is taken in the form of dried leaves and female flower heads, or the resin secreted by these. This drug can be eaten, but is more usually smoked in the form of cannabis cigarette, or joint, often mixed with tobacco, or in pipe.

Cannabis is an illicit drug that is commonly consumed in Europe and approximately 10% of adults aged 16-59 years in the UK used it in the year 2000 (Solowij, 1998). Majority of cannabis users attribute short memory problems as the most prevalent and this forms part of the reason many of them seek help to quit or reduce its consumption.

Scientific literature in general avers memory impairment as often cited in relation to cannabis use (Wilson et al., 2002). Cannabis use has risen to become the most widely used drug in the developed world over the years. The memory function in general has been studied in acute administration studies of long term users of cannabis to humans and animals, and in long term studies of cannabis users (Pope et al., 2002).

Cannabinoid System and Memory

Endogenous Cannabinoid system is directly involved in the necessary functions of memory. This is because cannabinoid receptors happen in high density in brain areas critically involved in memory functions. Profoundly, cannabinoid affects synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, disrupting long term potential in hippocampus (Martin-Santos, 2010).

Cannabinoid receptors are metabotropic receptors which are the most common in the brain and are involved in multiple physiological and behavioural events. They are found on pre-synaptic terminals in locations concerned in cognition, especially learning and memory, critically in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated, basal ganglia and cerebellum (Miller, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Endogenous cannabinoid system guides the flow of information in the brain through retrogrades signalling, modulating inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release critical for synaptic plasticity, depolarisation-induced suppression of inhibition or excitation, long term potentiation, and hence learning, memory and other higher cognitive functions (Kanayama et al., 2004).

Structural Brain Changes Related with Chronic cannabis use

There is lack of concrete lack evidence in most undertaken indicating that structural brain alterations in cannabis users. There are no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volume or composition in some recent studies (Ries, 2009). Other studies have discovered grey and white matter density alterations globally or in para-hippocampal areas.

Utilizing more sensitive measures and assessing cannabis consumers with greater exposure to cannabis than previous research, critical reduction of hippocampus and amygdale volumes in long term cannabis users have recently been reported (Lyketsos et al., 1999).

Hippocampus volume reduction was related to dose, correlating with current daily dose, and cumulatively. Only excessive daily doses over long period of time, will lead to structural changes.

Another critical factor may be the age of onset of cannabis use. This has a devastating impact to the brain, specifically cannabis consumers’ start at the early stages of neurodevelopment (Allhoff, 2010). Evidence adduced recently of reduced neuronal and axonal integrity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex represented by magnetic resonance spectroscopic markers of metabolism (Solowij, 2009).

Changes related to dose were found in anterior cingulate and globus pallidum, but not in hippocampus. Solid evidence for dose related cumulative neuronal damage, neuronal and synaptic density. Since functional dysfunction is likely to precede major structural changes in the brain, or to show concomitant to more minor neural alterations. This presents good reason to think that long term effects of use of cannabis on memory function (Wilson et al., 2002).

A Review of Related Literature: Effects of Cannabis Use on Cognitive ability in the long term

Cannabis has the ability to exert prominent effects on the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, cannabis acts on an endogenous cannabinoid system that is concerned with regulation of mood, memory, emotion, attention, and other cognitive functions (Hall, 2009).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cannabinoid receptors play a significant role in memory storage and retrieval processes. Discoveries from human and animal research reveal that prolonged use of cannabis changes the functioning of the cannabinoid system of the brain. However, this does not lead to serious impairment (Solowij, 2002).

Observation for structural brain impairment for in humans following long term cannabis use has not been sustained generally. Some current research has discovered no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volumes. Other studies have however, shown grey and white matter density changes world wide undertaken to date lack evidence of changes in structural brain in cannabis users or in para-hippocampal areas (Wilson et al., 2002).

A recent study that used unique techniques of measurement to indicate that frequent but relatively short term use of cannabis creates neither structural brain abnormalities nor global or regional alterations in the brain tissue volume or composition that are assessable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Pope et al., 2002).

Several studies have indicated altered brain function and metabolism in humans due to acute and chronic use of cannabis using cerebral blood flow, positron emission tomography, and electroencephalographic methods. In sum, use of cannabis has deleterious effects on memory and attention (Solowij, 2009). Individuals who use cannabis show clear signs of cognitive impairments relative to controls.

More of concern about cannabis is that its use may cause neurological damage resulting in persistent cognitive deficits, but the evidence is currently inconclusive. The evidence, however, does suggest that early use of cannabis may cause long-term cognitive problems (Solowij, 1998).

Chronic Use of Cannabis and cognitive Dysfunction

Cognitive dysfunctions or impairments, specifically deficits in short term memory, are reported by many cannabis addicts who seek help to stop using cannabis, and are often advanced as one of the main reasons for needing to stop using cannabis (Allhoff, 2010).

However, evidence provided from controlled studies shows that long term heavy use of cannabis does not appear to produce severe debilitating dysfunction of cognitive function like that produced by chronic heavy alcohol use (Ries, 2009). Nonetheless, there is evidence that long term or heavy cannabis users exhibit more subtle types of cognitive impairment that are detected in well controlled studies using sensitive measures (Lyketsos et al., 1999).

Earlier studies of the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use have elicited major concern that cannabis users may have had poorer cognitive functioning than controls before they commenced to administer cannabis (Sadider, 2010). However, studies from the recent past have looked at this problem by matching users and non-users on estimated premorbid intellectual functioning or on test performance prior to the onset of cannabis use.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These studies have revealed cognitive impairments associated with frequent and long term use of cannabis (Solowij, 1998). Frequent cannabis consumers were showed impairment in tests assessing verbal expression, mathematics, and memory. Heavy users of cannabis were more susceptible to interference, made more perseverance errors, had poorer recall, and indicated deficient learning compared to light users (Wilson et al., 2002).

Solowij et al., (2002) discovered few dysfunctions when they compared neuropsychological performance of dependent, heavy cannabis users with an average 10 years of regular use to anon-user control group. Chronic cannabis users with a regular use averaging 24 years were discovered with impaired attention and had retarded memory in general with dysfunctional verbal learning.

Both groups of users indicated impaired temporal judgment. Solowij (1998) in a series of earlier studies applied more sensitive measures of brain function to demonstrate attention impairments in short term users. Solowij et al., (2002) deduced that long term use of cannabis escalated memory impairment.

Specific deficits in verbal learning, memory and attention continue to be the most consistently replicated impairments to cannabis users. These impairments are associated to the period, frequency, and cumulative dose impacts (Pope et al., 2002).

Differential effects of the various parameters of cannabis use such as, frequency, duration and dose, have not been investigated consistently. As a result, studies are still ongoing to determine whether memory impairments should be related or associated to acute, drug dose, and others occurring the brain memory due to long term cannabis exposure (Solowij et al., 2002).

Studies continue to be conducted to investigate the propensity for recovery of cognitive functioning following cessation of cannabis use. Solowij (1998) discovered partial recovery following median 2 years abstinence in a small group of ex-users performing a selective attention task. However, sensitive brain event related potential measures continued to indicate impaired information processing that was correlated with the number of years of cannabis use.

Solowij et al., (2002) showed persistent dose associated decrements in neuro-cognitive performance after 28 days abstinence in heavy young users of mean age 20, 5 years use. According to pope et al., (2002), verbal and memory deficits persisted in those who had started using cannabis prior to the age of 17 years but not in those who commenced later in life.

The sampled population was between the ages of 30 and 55 years at the time of research. This observation agrees with other observations of adverse effects in that beginning regular cannabis use before versus after the age of 17 years (Wilson, et al., 2000). There is still need for further studies to elucidate the effect of cannabis use in developing brain.

Solowij (2009) reported that hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum are main sections of endogenous cannabinoid activity and heavily implicated in the cognitive impairments associated with chronic cannabis use. Lyketsos et al., (1999) were able to report the only large scale prospective epidemiological study of the effect of cannabis use on cognitive functioning.

They made assessments on cognitive reduction on the Mini Mental State Examination in 1318 adults over 11.5 years. They deduced no relationship between cannabis use and decline in Mini Mental state Examination score, and this persisted when adjustments were made for sex, age, education, minority status, and use of alcohol and tobacco. This study concurs with other evidence that cannabis does not produce gross cognitive impairment (Pope et al., 2002).

Memory in Chronic Cannabis Users

A cute administration of cannabis can disrupt the working memory. Animal literature exists that reports impaired working memory following acute and chronic use of cannabinoid, including an impaired delayed matching to sample tasks that resembles lesions or removal of the hippocampus (Azzam, 2010). A growing number of recent literatures have continued to study working memory and related functions in chronic cannabis users.

Kanayama et al., (2004) examined spatial working memory in long term heavy cannabis users by using functional magnetic resonance imaging using relatively simple tasks. In this study non users made non significant more errors on the task, although few errors in both groups reflected the simplicity of the task and it has been suggested that performance deficits in chronic cannabis users are more likely to be elicited in complex tasks (Kanayama et al., 2004).

In addition, Kanayama et al (2004) studies revealed that cannabis users exhibited widespread brain activation with enhanced activation of areas utilized in spatial working memory tasks. They interpreted their findings in terms of cannabis users experiencing subtle neuro-physiological deficits for which they compensate by working harder and calling upon additional brain regions to meet task requirements (Mack, 2010).

In a study of abstinent adolescents aged 13-18, cannabis and tobacco smokers compared to tobacco only smokers (Hall, 2009). The group identified functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of changed neuro-circuitry during the performance of an n-back auditory working memory task in the cannabis group, but only during nicotine withdrawal.

Representative samples were tested twice, once during an ad libitum cigarette smoking condition, and again after 24 hrs abstentions from tobacco and cannabis users were in abstinence from cannabis for at least two weeks prior to testing. Cannabis users who abstained from tobacco revealed enhanced task biased activation, for instance, posterior cortical regions and others (Solowij, 1998).

A study using real world functions approach examined mood and cognitive performance in a sample of workers with and without recent cannabis use, before and after work at the start and end of the working week. There were scanty details regarding cannabis levels in the sample. A verbal reasoning task was used to measure working memory.

Other memory tasks encompassed immediate and delayed free recall and recognition of 20 words presented on a computer screen and a semantic processing task measuring speed of knowledge retrieval from general memory (Pope et al 2002). Poorer performance in verbal reasoning was apparent in cannabis users at the start of the working week and correlated and frequency of cannabis use.

Lacklustre performance in verbal reasoning in delayed recall was found in cannabis users pre-work at the end of the working week and was correlated with duration of cannabis use. Cannabis users also indicated slower response organization and lower alertness than non-users, and slower psychomotor speed toward the end of the week, reflecting a lack of improvement in the speed over the working week in contrast to controls, rather than a progressive slowing by cannabis users (Solowij et al., 2002).

Episodic Verbal Memory

Verbal learning and memory have been the most impaired cognitive functions in the studies of acute cannabis use as well as in chronic cannabis users. Cannabis users experience impairments in cognition in terms of the period of cannabis use and the frequency of cannabis consumption, and lastly, the impact of cumulative dosage.

Studies of acute cannabis use suggest that poorer performance can be seen in immediate and delayed recall of words. Recent studies have replicated dysfunction in learning, recall, and delayed recall, with some evidence of rot. The studies deduced 17 hour abstinent long term chronic cannabis users recalled fewer words than shorter term chronic users and non user controls over learning trials (Roffman, 2009).

Conclusion Satisfactory evidence has gathered from recent research of cannabis users in the unintoxicated state to conclude heavy cannabis use in the long term is associated with impaired memory function. This implies that impaired memory function goes beyond the period of acute use and is related to a variety of cannabis use parameters.

Studies deduce memory impairments to increase proportionate to frequency, dosage, and cumulative dosage of cannabis administration. However, the exact that lead to memory deficits remain to be determined. A collection of research of cannabis users abstinent for reasonably long durations suggest that dysfunctional memory may persist for some time after acute use (Solowij, 2009).

The overall evidence from the various reviews suggests that the use of cannabis does in a way affect negatively upon the function of memory. Greater deficits in memory may be apparent in tasks that are more complex and among chronic cannabis users. The kind of memory deficits in chronic cannabis users is not different to that observed under acute influence (Roffman, 2009).

Heavy cannabis consumers in the unintoxicated state also indicate impaired immediate, but further delayed free call of verbal information, poor retrieval of information from memory, and difficulties manipulating the contents of the working memory. Memory recognition is inconsistently reported and dysfunctional (Sadider, 2010).

Strategies of organizational nature within memory have not received sufficient research. Limited evidence is available for strategy use in spatial working memory. Several studies found similar dysfunctions in cannabis users in learning, on measures of immediate and delayed recall and to research where other verbal learning tests have been administered to cannabis users (Roffman, 2009).

In sum, there exist a wide range of individual differences in the propensity to create memory impairment associated with long term chronic cannabis use. The effect of multiple interpersonal factors on resilience to and susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction deserves greater attention. Such factors may involve personality and differing genotypes. A perspective to substance use in general may also confer enhanced vulnerability to cannabis related cognitive memory and needs further attention in prospective studies (Allhoff, 2010).

Generally, findings of changed brain activation from imaging studies of cannabis users suggest compensatory procedures activated to ameliorate cognitive deficits. A number of recent advances in techniques are beginning to interrogate pertinent questions; however, the field is still open for continued research. The specific nature of memory deficits in cannabis users has not been comprehensively elucidated. Evidence exists for dysfunctional encoding, storage and retrieval (Roffman, 2009).

Reference List Allhoff, F., Jacquette, D.,


Prohibition: War on drugs Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

When and why alcohol prohibition was passed in the United States Prohibition of alcohol in the United States took place between 1920 and 1933. The reasons for this move were to minimize crime and exploitation, provide remedies to social issues, reduce revenue burden enhanced by prisons and shanties, and make health and hygienic standards in America better (Thornton 1). In short, it was thought that less drinking would lead to better lives.

Some scholars have referred to the ban as a prohibition experiment, rather than a law enforcement action. This is because compared to all other reforms, it is the only one that was intentionally and decisively repealed (Burham 1). Whereas this perspective regards prohibition as a total failure, others regard it as a success. Nevertheless, the lessons learned from prohibition are relevant and applicable to the contemporary world debate over the war on drug and substance abuse, abortion, gambling, and other issues.

Alcohol prohibition was a failure According to Thornton (1), alcoholism declined shortly after Prohibition began. On the other hand, the Schaffer Drug Library (1) states that most indicators show alcohol consumption declined just before national prohibition began. However, by 1926, it had increased over its previous rates, leading to a rise in both crime and corruption that really strained the courts and prison systems.

There were also various newer problems; for instance, a drinking epidemic among children. The Introduction of Prohibition also triggered many drinkers into the use of other dangerous drugs such as opium, marijuana, and cocaine. This could not have taken place in the absence of the alcoholic prohibition.

In the workplace, Prohibition did not have positive effect on levels of productivity and absenteeism. American Labor Leader Andrew Furuseth spoke before Congress in 1926 and noted that just after prohibition began, there was a large change in the working population, but he also added:

“Two years afterwards I came through the same identical place, staying in Portland for about three days, and went to the very same place for the purpose of looking at the situation, and the condition was worse than it had been prior to the passage of the law” (Schaffer 1).

Prohibition did not only lead to a large loss in business revenue, it also affected the government spending. Primarily, tax revenues declined as alcohol traders closed shop or switched to underground market where the taxman could not reach them, while at the same time, production and distribution of alcohol business declined resulting to lower taxes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, as noted above, productivity and absenteeism at workplaces led to reduced income thus lower taxes to the government. In relation to government’s spending, large sums of money were spent on policy implementation and enforcement. In the perspective of its supporters, Prohibition related advantages were dependent on reduced quantity of alcohol consumption. Shortly after the ban, there were indicators that the quantity of consumption had indeed been lowered.

The iron law of Prohibition The Eighteenth Amendment was the culmination of a long campaign by church and women’s organizations; they wanted an iron law that would keep people away from alcohol and its immoral behaviors.

Four conditions that indicate a reduction of alcohol intake: first, there must be a decrease in alcohol usage after Prohibition began. Although it was discovered that the amount of alcohol bought had declined some years before the ban, Prohibition did not exactly eliminate alcohol consumption as speakeasies became an underground sensation and gangsters ran liquor everywhere.

Secondly, although the drinking of alcohol had initially dropped, this did not hold in subsequent years as consumption eventually soared beyond its previous numbers. The annual degree of consumption had been reducing from 1910; however, it reduced greatly during the 1921 recession and shot up again after the ban in 1922. Even investment in enforcement resources showed little results such that, despite the 1933 repeal of Prohibition, alcoholic consumption levels exceeded the pre-prohibition period.

Thirdly, increase in enforcement resources were directly proportional (rather than inversely proportional, as they should have been) to alcoholic consumption. Therefore, this did not discourage consumption either.

The fourth condition is the most imperative in that, a decrease in alcohol consumption does not actually equate to a success of Prohibition. In this vein, the overall social implications of Prohibition must be analyzed.

Prohibition did not only have degenerating effects on alcoholic consumption, but also on its production and distribution, leading to unprecedented repercussions in the whole system. The most notable of those repercussions is “the iron law of Prohibition” which states that the more harsh the enforcement law, the more potent the prohibited product becomes.

We will write a custom Essay on Prohibition: War on drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics reveal that prior to Prohibition, most Americans spent equally on beer and spirits; however, during Prohibition, beer became a liability because of its expense and bulkiness leading to increased consumption of both homemade and near beer.

Hence, the alcohol dealers turned their attention to cheaper and stronger liquors (whiskey) instead of beer in order to meet the needs of the consumers. The usual beer, wine, or whiskey was more highly alcoholic by volume during Prohibition than was during either pre-Prohibition or post-Prohibition (Thornton 4).

The production standards were compromised during Prohibition, resulting in largely non-uniform quality. Moonshine production by amateurs during Prohibition resulted to products that were detrimental to human health and contained dangerous ingredients. It was also reported that during Prohibition, the death rates due to consumption of toxic illicit liquor rose (Thornton 6).

Primarily, prohibitionists looked at alcohol related deaths as those occurring from cirrhosis of the liver. However, they did not count deaths stemming from other elements of prohibition drinking such as blood poisoning, fighting, car crashes, and other seemingly unrelated issues. These resulted in public relations constraints since the deaths were not necessarily accidental, though they were considered accidental.

In the 20’s there were no restrictions on the portrayal of drinking and smoking in film. Among the youth, the product became attractive due to its associated glamour. Young people gained interest in these vices by watching their parents and seeing glamorous stars drinking in the movies.

Apart from selling to the youth, the sellers successfully built up their businesses during Prohibition by selling to people who would not otherwise drink. Moreover, most old-fashioned Americans and new immigrants were unwilling to be left out making the whole period a moment when people drank more dedicatedly than at any other time.

One large deficit to Prohibition was that it changed the distribution pattern of alcohol. It eliminated the government-overseen bars and restaurants, replacing them with many covert speakeasies. In this, Prohibition increased the availability of alcohol such that, there were many places where people could buy alcohol from during this period than there were during pre-Prohibition.

Prohibition led to the elimination of alcohol production, location, and distribution regulations. Before Prohibition, the government had rules that could help deter selling alcohol; for example, near churches and schools on weekends and holidays.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Prohibition: War on drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, during Prohibition, the regulations and oversight were eliminated while speakeasies opened up and dominated various areas that were initially dry. Following Prohibition, more Americans turned to increased intake of other forms of ‘legally’ distributed alcohol such as sacramental alcohol and patent medicines.

This happened despite existence of new regulations. Although the prohibitionists’ intention was to help people change from using alcohol to using dairy products, what was witnessed was an increase in spending on both alcohol and its substitutes. Apart from alcoholic medicine, those who could not consume alcohol switched to the use of other more addictive and dangerous drugs such as marijuana, hashish, and tobacco, to mention but a few.

The harmful consequences of the iron law of Prohibition proved more hindrance than benefit, thereby resulting to greater consumption. By these standards, it was only a mirage that alcoholic consumption decreased.

Prohibition was not a healthy initiative Both American health and hygiene did not improve during Prohibition. This is indicated by the continued stream of deaths due to cirrhosis arising from increased intake of alcohol and other dangerous alcoholic beverages during the prohibition (Thornton 8). Those deaths, however, should not stand alone as indicators, since alcohol consumption went underground.

As noted earlier, there are other important indicators of drinking as well as cirrhosis. Contrary to the expectations of the prohibitionists that drunkards should be forgotten to let the young benefit from Prohibition, the health of young people was only at its best before Prohibition. For instance, during Prohibition, most young people’s lives were swept away due to increased alcohol intake.

Whereas it is medically proven that moderate alcoholic consumption is not harmful to one’s health but rather improves it, excess drinking on the other hand has devastating consequences on one’s health (Thornton 8). What took place during Prohibition was excessive alcoholism that had no positive impact on the American people.

Therefore, if the prohibitionists were concerned about the health of the public, they could have championed for moderate alcohol intake that has more health benefits, rather than banning alcohol as a whole. As we know now, to change the behavior of the people, one must change the sensibility of the culture.

Prohibition increased crime rate The proponents of prohibition expected it to be a solution to all social evils (Thornton 10). Early reformers were right to assert that alcoholism led to poverty, broken homes, tax burden, and suffering. In this vein, America had registered a decline in crime rate towards the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century (Thornton 10). That trend was disrupted by launching the prohibition on alcohol. Increased cases of homicide were noted during this time.

Records show that during this period, more funds were spent on police and many people were arrested for flouting prohibition regulations. Furthermore, although drunkenness and disorderly arrests increased, the rate of drinking did not decline. This meant that instead of helping to decongest prisons prohibition and its enforcement seemed to fill prisons. This in turn increased spending on police and prisons. Along with expected crimes, there were also increased cases of burglary, robbery, and murder during the prohibition period.

Prohibition raised corruption levels Thornton points out that there was increased bribery among politicians and the police, as they dealt with the cottage industry of moonshine, speakeasies, and organized crime bosses and their families. There was also corruption inside the bureau of Prohibition itself, leading to an influx of cases in the courts regarding corruption and lessening the efficiency of the judicial system.

Prohibition was a success To begin with, contrary to the views of many, the enforcement law was not all-embracing (Moore 6). The amendment banned the commercial production and distribution of alcoholic products; however, it did not ban both use and production of alcoholic beverages for personal consumption.

In addition, the enforcement was to be effected after one year in order to give people sufficient time to amass supplies. Secondly, Prohibition led to a decline in alcohol intake, reduction in deaths due to cirrhosis, and a reduction in admission to state hospitals for drinking psychosis.

In addition, alcoholic consumption declined leading to a drop in arrests that resulted from drunkenness and disorder (Moore 7). Thirdly, Prohibition did not contribute to organized crime because this existed before and after it. Moreover, other forms of crime did not rise dramatically during Prohibition (Moore 8). Fourth, after the repeal, there was increased alcohol intake. However, in the recent past, both thousands of motor vehicle deaths and homicides have been attributed to the use of alcohol (Moore, 10).

The modern war on drugs Modern prohibition on drugs began in the nineteenth century due to a rise in production of both potent and habituating drugs from the medicinal industry (DuPont and Voth 3). Initially, drugs like cocaine were used for medical purposes, but later on, their use by public increased to unprecedented levels, resulting to distasteful consequences.

However, this period of carefree sale and consumption of illicit drugs ceased after the first two decades of the 20th century (DuPont and Voth 4), with several acts requiring not only labeling but also prohibition of some drugs. This led to sparing sale of habituating drugs mainly for medical rather than addictive reasons.

This move by the social contract to regulate drugs of abuse also led to great reduction of drug abuse epidemic. Moreover, the United States drug control laws were internationally recognized and their enforcement led to a decline in use of habituating drugs between 1920 and 1965 (DuPont and Voth 7).

The non-use of both dangerous and alcoholic drugs continued until the culture of the ascendant youth who incorporated drugs as part of their life style. However, the use of hard drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and the hallucinogens resumed with increased calls for their legalization under allegations that they were better in comparison to alcohol and tobacco. This led to negative effects, a situation that continued until recent calls for legalization.

Lessons in relation to the current war on drug abuse Prohibition, which failed to reduce alcoholism in America, can be likened to the modern war against drug abuse. However, repeal of Prohibition led to a dramatic decline in many types of crime and corruption (Thornton 15). The result of this was that, not only were jobs created, but also new voluntary actions came in to help alcoholics.

In addition, the lessons on prohibition should be used to suppress the desire to prohibit. Current prohibition of alcohol and other drugs may lead to a rise in crime rate, corruption and increased use of other dangerous substances that may be a threat to people’s health. It may also lead to increased government regulation on its citizen’s lives (Thornton 15).

Conclusion Prohibition was supposed to lead to reduced crimes, reduced alcohol consumption, cut in taxes and generally a boost in the moral and economic aspect. However, although some theorists claimed that alcohol consumption declined following prohibition, others claimed that the consumption was lower before prohibition, and further claiming that the actual result of prohibition was an increase in other social vices.

For instance, prohibition led to increased crime, corruption, and use of hard drugs. From another perspective, alcohol consumption per se did not decline, as people turned to underground market for cheap and illicit alcohol. Modern war on drugs has however had some impact mainly due to regulations that have set up to regulate sale of addictive drugs. In this case, due to the failure of prohibition, legalization has been incorporated in regulation to provide a viable solution to the problem of substance abuse and related vices.

Recommendations America government has done a lot with regard to war against alcoholism drug use. This ranges from funding social initiatives that provide awareness on drugs to prohibition by establishment of laws through the office of National Drug Control. These efforts have not yet led to a drastic drop in the use of drugs as fighting drug use in most cases seems to attract violent war from dealers.

Neither prohibition nor legalization can end drug use as it will only aggravate drug usage, crime, death and other drug – use related consequences. The government reserves the right to protect its citizens from the adverse effects of drugs and alcoholism use. However, in regulating this, force should not be used as in prohibition.

In an attempt to regulate, two approaches are recommended. First, the government should devise policies that focused on drug harm reduction and in this way concentrate on dealers rather than users. This will allow production of drugs with reduced potency and toxic composition. Secondly, a policy permitting only doctors to prescribe drugs to addicts can be put in place.

Works Cited Burham, John C. “New Perspectives on the Prohibition Experiment of the1920s.” Journal of Social History. 1968. Web.

DuPont, Robert and Voth, Eric. “Drug legalization, Harm reduction, and Drug policy.” Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995. Web.

Moore, Mark. “Institute for Behavior and Health: Actually Prohibition was a success.” The New York Times. 2009. Web.

Schaffer Library of Drug Policy “Did Alcohol Prohibition Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Crime?” Staff Writer. Web.

Thornton, Mark. “Policy Analysis: Alcohol prohibition was a failure.” Policy Analysis, No. 157. 1991. Web.


Memory Scanning Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Abstract







Reference List


Abstract The key purpose of this study was to measure reaction time and accuracy of responses to a certain stimulus (digit) during a memory-scanning task. This research originates from a series of experiments, conducted by Saul Sternberg, who examined the relation between the reaction time and the size of the set. This research aims to test a hypothesis which postulates the reaction time is directly proportionate to the size of the set.

Introduction Mental chronometry has long been of great interests to psychologists and neuroscientists; in particular, they study those factors that determine the response time (RT). Such studies are usually based on the so-called stage theory according to which perception and reaction to a stimulus or irritant consists of multiple-processes or mental operations, and RT depends on the number of these operations (Donders, as cited in Sternberg, 1969, p 61).

Overall, RT may also be determined by the type of stimulus, its intensity, duration, or the type of reaction, needed (Rosenbaum, 2009). Furthermore, one should not forget about individual characteristics of a person such as his age and the state of his health. In this paper, I would like to describe an experiment that has recently neen conducted. Its key objective was to measure the reaction time, needed for a memory-scanning task.

This experiment is similar to that one conducted by Saul Sternberg in 1968. He hypothesized that the reaction time, required for a memory scanning exercise is influenced by the type and number of mental operations, performed by the respondent (Sternberg, 1969, p 454). The essence of this experiment lies in the following: respondents are required to memorize a set of digits (the number of items in the set ranges from two to five); afterward the subjects are provided with a stimulus also in the form of a digit, from 0 to 9.

The responds need to determine whether the probe was present in the previous set of digits or not (Sternberg, 1968). By conducting such experiments, Saul Sternberg ascertained that reaction time was directly-proportionate to the number of items within the set of digits; in other words, if the experimenter increases the digit set, the response time will also increase, and vice versa.

He also postulated that the subject usually conducted exhaustive serial search, rather than self-terminating search, which means that he/she checked all items in the digit set, even despite the fact that the stimulus had already been identified (Sternberg, 1968). This is the key hypothesis, which needs to be tested in the course of this research.

On the whole, his experiments support the stage theory, which relies on the idea that reaction time is a sum of mental processes and that it is possible to decompose the reaction time into several parts (Sternberg, 1969, p 421). Sternberg relies on the idea that the reaction time is determined by the total amount of mental operations, such as recognition of the stimulus and organization of the response (Sternberg, 1969). In his study, he excludes such factors as the type of stimulus or its intensity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology The subjects for this experiment were seven students from an experimental psychology class. They were briefed on the purpose of the study and the experiment. Afterward, each of them was directed into an individual cubicle so that their attention was not distracted to any other stimuli such as light or noise. In the course of this research, the following tools were used: Windows XP desktop computers, placed in each room, and such program as SuperLab Pro which is quite suitable for such experiments.

The participants were asked to follow instructions that flashed on the screen. At first, they needed to memorize a number, (the number of digits ranged from one to six). Afterword, they were digit a digit.

They were asked whether this digit was present in the previous number or not. If they answer was positive, the participants needed to press slash (/) located at the right side of the keyboard, and if the answer was negative they needed to push Z, located at the left side. The task of the subjects was to respond as quickly and as accurately as possible. Finally, the participants were completely debriefed about the experiment. These are the key steps, taken in the course of this study.

It should be noted that in this experiment, the participants were allowed a limited amount of time in order to memorize the digit set; namely, they had only sixty seconds. The thing is that this mental scanning exercise is designed specifically for a short-term memory, which lasts for several seconds.

Furthermore, short-term memory can only hold 7±2 symbols, as it was ascertained by George Miller (1956, p 344). Although this article is not directly related to Sternberg’s experiment, it is crucial for our understanding of short-term memory and its functioning. It shows that the individual capacity of a short-term memory varies, and subsequently this individual characteristic impacts the reaction time.

In this research, it is possible to single out two independent variables: 1) the size of the initial set and 2) presence or absence of the stimulus (digit) in the initial set. In turn, the dependent variables are the reaction time and accuracy of responses. This study aims to measure the relations between these variables.

It should also be noted that the focus of this study is on digit recognition, not letters or any other symbol. The thing is that digit recognition and letter recognition are separate processes, and different parts of human brain are responsible for them (Polk


The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

History of the white house

How the white house acts as a cultural symbol


Works Cited

Introduction Cultural symbols are often images that embody specific ideas amongst the populace thus denoting the culture of that group. These may range from national flags, buildings, monuments and the like. Usually, cultural symbols have an emotional appeal because they have the capacity to motivate and appeal to a wide range of people.

The United States has a diverse population and there is a need to bring together these variant groups through a cultural symbol synonymous to the entire nation. The white house has been instrumental in achievement of this objective from the early nineteenth century.

History of the white house President George Washington is credited with the idea of the white house. In 1790 this leader announced that there would be a residential area for all subsequent US presidents and their families and that this would be in Pennsylvania Avenue. He was responsible for selection of the architect who would build this historical building.

Ten years later, the building was completed and the first president moved in. There were several changes that the building underwent especially after the 1929 and the 1814 fires that took place. Some parts of the building have been altered but the main section remained as it was originally (Whitcomb, 33).

How the white house acts as a cultural symbol The white house is quite easy to recognize in Washington DC. It architectural design is rather simple when compared to other national buildings. However, it is this simplicity that has endeared it to a number of people. The founding fathers had intended for it to be that simple because they probably felt that this would be a representation of the principles and ideals that they had in mind for the United States.

When one sees an image of the white house, the first thought that is likely to come to one’s head is it is a residential home for the head of state. In other words, citizens often view this building to be synonymous with leadership because this is where the nation’s leader resides.

In essence, this can be translated to mean liberty and democracy in that the country has a leader who was elected democratically by the people of the United States and the place where he resides therefore captures these values. To many, the white house symbolizes power or the ability to control and influence such a large nation as the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The white house is able to trigger these deep associations because of plenty of reasons and one of them is its history. The white house was first completed in 1800 but its beauty was soon to be interrupted in 1814 when British soldiers came and burned it.

However, it was rebuilt with even better improvements. With time, a number of features kept being added such as the wings, green houses, offices and the like (Johnson, 83). These subsequent changes represented a critical aspect of the American culture; resilience. Even after the white house had been burnt down by the British soldiers, the country was still able to pick itself up again and rebuild.

Many Americans have carried forward that message into their lives because even when life presents certain predicaments, Americans can still pick up the pieces and try again. The continual redesign of the white house also illustrates the creativity inherent in many citizens. Most presidents who resided in the building would customize it so that it could suit their needs. Sometimes this necessitated tearing down certain elements and in certain scenarios it necessitated building others.

Therefore, most changes made to the building represented the character of the leaders that created it. Furthermore, interior decorations made almost always represent the preferences of the residing families. Americans have come to identify with this principle because most of them will utilize their creative talent in order to make situations workable. The white house is therefore able to appeal to citizens emotionally because most of them will reexamine the history of the building and relate it to their own lives (Johnson, 12).

Presidents usually have the prerogative of hosting visitors of the state in whichever way they would like. In the past, this was done very openly in that the public could enter the white house. Most often, the public would be allowed in after the inauguration ceremony. However, that culture changed because of security concerns for the president. Notable presidents who kept the white house open to the public included Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln.

With time, inaugurations came to be marked by the inaugural parade that is often displayed in front of the white house. Instead, most dinners are organized based on the preference of the leader in office. All these different ways of hosting reflect the diversity of American Presidents in the past. Consequently, this is also synonymous to the diversity of the American people; conversely, it also shows their hospitality.

The existence of a committee for the preservation of the white house illustrates how historic this building is. Every time a single president intends on making changes to the building, he must present the draft to the latter committee and wait for feedback from them. This is done in order to protect the historic integrity of the building.

We will write a custom Essay on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that most first families are aware of the fact that they are only in those premises temporarily although they still have the opportunity to make their mark in the country’s history. The relative ease with which one can recognize the white house today even after two centuries of habitation is a testament of how historical this building really is to the American people.

The white house is also unique to the United States because even though other countries of the world have official residents for their heads of states, none of them have designs like the white house. Indeed when receiving Presidential visitors from other countries of the world, it is the white house which is usually used for these purposes.

Therefore the contrasts between visiting nations and the host country often demonstrate how representative the white house is to the nation. Usually, visiting heads of state will be expected to land at the South lawn in the white house and their receptions will be carried out in a grand way through minor ceremonies (Whitcomb, 33).

It is quite interesting how many external developments in the country have been incorporated into the white house. In 1890, the white lawns were made up of green buildings where plants were grown through the use of glass buildings. This represented the growth and development of green houses around the country.

Therefore because of this, one can say that the White house epitomizes technology and development in the country because new inventions will often be tried out in this building. For example, in the carter administration, computers were just getting introduced into the world of work. This was the reason why President Carter felt it necessary to bring them to the white house.

He also did this alongside the laser printer. He also wanted to be proactive when it came to green energy and added solar heating panels in the white house. The subsequent president Ronald Reagan continued to improve computer technology within the white house and he therefore encouraged other people who were interested in making similar changes in their lives to do the same. The white house normally contains state of the art machinery and technology and therefore can be seen by many as an instrument of development (Seale, 11).

The white house also contains a press briefing room. Usually, when there is an important state development or some information that the President or his staff wish to give to the public then they will normally employ the press briefing room. With time, the white house has therefore become a source of news and information on public policy.

Many presidents have often stated their opinions on crucial issues such as public education and terrorism using this very room. In fact, it has been synonymous with policy dispensers. White house representatives are often politically oriented as most of them must be highly aware of the issues going on in the country and the presidential stand on them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It should be noted that although the white house is unique in its own right, its design was inspired by several Irish based buildings including the Leinster house in Ireland’s capital. The latter building used to host members of the Irish parliament. Other inspirations for the building include the Rastignac country house found in France.

Although it is debatable to what extent the white house borrowed from either buildings, it is essential to acknowledge that the work was not completely unique to the US and that there were foreign elements in it. This indicates that the United States, much like the white house, depends on other nations in order to survive. The country cannot deal with its challenges without networking with other partners in just the same way that it did when building the white house.

It should be noted that the actual construction was done by a number of immigrants with some coming from Scotland and others emanating from other parts of Europe (Seale, 40). The white house therefore needed input from different types of people without discriminating upon them. The same applies to the country which often requires input from a number of people so that the idea can be workable.

The white house can be seen as a representation of the independence of the United States. The country would not have been able to construct premises for its head of state if it was not independent. In deed the reason why British soldiers came and burnt the building in 1814 was because they opposed that independence and wanted to make a point about it.

Citizens of the country often reflect upon this history and think of the astounding progress that the nation has made through self governance. The residential home of these leaders who have taken the country through such a journey is therefore precious to the eyes of the Americans.

One may wonder why the white house has not changed much over the years especially since heads of state tend to be highly opinionated. However, for something to have sentimental value or to act as a cultural symbol, then it must remain the same or as close to the original as it possibly can be. The white house today still has very close resemblance to the white house of 1800 because most of it was preserved for posterity’s sake.

Conclusion The white house is in the same league as many cultural symbols of America. It is often identified with leadership, liberty, independence and freedom. Others think of it in terms of power while others appreciate the creativity incorporated by most heads of state in incorporating some of their preferences in the interior design. The white house also represents the resilience of the American people and their diversity as seen through the design’s influences.

Works Cited Whitcomb, John. Real life at the white house: 200 years of daily life at America’s most famous residence. NY: Routledge, 2000

Johnson, Micheal. A chateau fit for a president. International herald Tribune, September 2006

Seale, William. The White house, the history of an American idea. American institute of Architects press, 1992


Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

In every culture and era, death has been taken as an important period of human existence. This is characterized by the rituals, beliefs and items used during burial. The ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians also had their beliefs associated with death.

This is evidenced by the rituals and the items used during the funeral practices as pointed out in the excavations. Consequently, this paper intends to highlight the importance of the krater as a monumental marker in ancient Greece and the mummy mask as another item used in the burial rituals of ancient Egypt. It will also highlight the rituals and beliefs associated with the two items.

Hornung (7) indicates that the ancient Egyptians’ belief in immortality was the basic reflection of their richness of rituals. The goods and rituals, according to Hornung were necessary items that would prove useful in the afterlife of the dead person.

Similarly, the ancient Greek culture had an equally strong emphasis on the phenomenon of death. The rituals and beliefs associated with it led to the development of several practices that would clearly reflect the meaning of death in the culture. On the other hand, the burial rituals of the ancient Greeks in the period of 750BCE and 700BCE were affected by the age of geometry.

Most of the decorations on the items used during burial were designed to acquire some geometric form. The krater, for instance is one of the items used during burials. It was the monumental marker of graves during the 750BCE-700BCE.This vase was clearly decorated using geometric figures that depicted a ritual referred to as prothesis. The general presentation highlights a series of vertical and horizontal arrangements of geometric figures that, under close scrutiny, reflect a scene (Boardman 26).

The paintings on the krater depict a dead person laid on a bier. This farewell ceremony depicted on the vase shows the emphasis laid on burial by the ancient Greeks. For instance, they emphasized more on the deceased person’s life on earth and his relations. This is pictured in the paintings on the vase. Standing at the head of the bier is the priestess who is usually present to perform certain rituals that would assist the deceased to navigate in the two worlds.

At the foot of the bier is a woman seated on a chair with her feet rested on a three legged stool. On her lap she carries a baby. Probably, this is the deceased’s wife and a child. At the foot of the bier are two figures, one slightly larger. These are depictions of the other children of the deceased. Women are seen mourning by pulling their hairs. This was the original sign of morning in ancient Greece (Boardman 27).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paintings on the krater also show some gifts and presents offered to the deceased. Under the bier are animals both four legged and two legged. These are sacrificial animals that are offered during the ceremony to ensure that the deceased gets a decent farewell.

The presents of swords or other paraphernalia offered during the ancient Greek burial ceremony is a clear projection of their belief in life after death. They strongly believed that lack of decent burial would lead ghostly haunts (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, para. 3). The ancient Egyptians also offered items to the deceased.

Contrarily, the items were not meant for a decent burial but as Malek (351) argues, for a comfortable life after death, the ancient Egyptians buried their deceased with certain goods that would assist them carry on with life. The most basic goods that accompanied the deceased were everyday utensils like comps, cups, bowls and several other useful trinkets. In addition to this, the deceased would also be given food that would be necessary for his afterlife.

The economic status of the deceased also dictated the amount of items to be available for burial. For instance, wealthy people were buried with jewelry, furniture and anything that would add value to life. This however became a great attraction to tomb robbers. It was this ritual that led to tombs of the early dynastic period to be filled with utensils of daily use and other valuable goods (Murnane 63).

On the other hand, the ancient Egyptian’s item of burial was the mummy mask. This was a mask that covered the head and chest of the deceased. It was worn on the head of the deceased which would originally be wrapped. This mask was made from wet linen that was glued together and a thin layer of plaster applied. Once hardened, it could be painted or gilded (The British Museum, para. 4).

Just like the krater in the Greek culture, the mummy mask also had several decorations that had meanings. The decorations were a clear reflection of the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians concerning the afterlife. First, the Egyptians believed that the dead would live again after burial.

They strongly believed that the spirit, also referred to as Ba, would leave the tomb time after time. The mummy mask would therefore be the only way that the returning spirit would recognize its body which has its face wrapped in bandages. The belief in reunion with Re, the sun god is further evidenced by the presence of a winged scarab beetle. This was a symbol of the sun god and would therefore act as an identifier that would assist the mummy reunify with Re. it also symbolizes the issue of resurrection (The British Museum, para. 3).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Behind the mask are other symbolic depictions that highlight the ancient Egyptians’ funerary practices and beliefs. There is a picture of a human headed bird. This is a symbolic representation of what they believed to be the aftermath of life. This was the symbol of Ba, the spirit that would resurrect.

Finally, there is the picture of a hawk whose wings are stretched out wide. This bird is a sign of protection. It represents Horus who protected his father Osiris. This would offer protection for the deceased in the afterlife. Typically, this falls within the beliefs that form the practices of the ancient Egyptians. Their basic belief was to ensure that the deceased enjoyed his afterlife and that he was well protected (Malek 354).

Furthermore, the mummy mask was coated with gold as a clear reflection of the belief that the mummy would be reunited with Re, the sun god. The gold coat would be a form of identification as the sun god Re was made up of a body of gold. The formation of the broad chest and raised relief at the collar provided space through which the funerary text would be placed. The funerary literature marks another ritual symbol used in ancient Egyptian burial ceremony.

Due to their profound belief in life after death, the ancient Egyptians believed that information on how to start life and carry on with it in the next world was necessary. As a result, they buried their mummies with what is referred to as the funerary literature. The information contained in the literature gave the mummy directions on how to navigate through to the next life. This information was kind of a secret that was never availed to other people but the Pharaoh during the 1st intermediate period.

However, the information started finding ways to other high ranking officials during the middle Kingdom before becoming necessary for all burials in the New Kingdom. In the 1st Kingdom, it was referred to as the pyramid text by scholars because it belonged to the Kings; it became the coffin texts in the Middle Kingdom before ending up as the Book of the dead in the new kingdom. The changes in names were also accompanied by changes in the content of the text.

The newer versions carried over the original spells but also had additional spells and slight changes. These books played important roles in the afterlife of the deceased. For instance, the pyramid text ensured that the pharaoh attained a royal resurrection and that there were no malignant influences in his afterlife (Murnane 45).

A distinct contrast in the beliefs of the ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians is the destiny of the soul or spirit. The mummy mask contained a distinct wide open eye. This could be a clear reflection of their burial beliefs. It showed the mouth opening ceremony, another ritual involved in the preparation of a mummy in the ancient Egyptians’ burial. As mentioned earlier, the Egyptians believed in life after death.

They, therefore, wanted to ensure that the dead person would be able to perform his day to day activities in his life after death. The re-animation ceremony involved the mouth opening ceremony. This was a ritual conducted by a priest by touching the dead person’s mouth using a blade made of copper or stone also referred to as an adze. This practice was accompanied by utterance of certain words meant to cast a spell on the mummy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The meaning of this ritual was to ensure that the dead person would be able to speak and breathe in his life after death. Apart from enabling the mummy to speak and breath, the priest also uttered some spells that would re-animate the dead person’s legs, arms and other body parts that are necessary for a normal performance in his life after death (Forman


Psychology in Nursing and Elections Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Maslow’s Theory

Psychology and Elections


Maslow’s Theory Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs show the order of the fulfillment of the human needs under ideal circumstances. According to Simons and Irwin (1987), “if the environment is right, people will grow straight and beautiful; actualizing the potentials they have inherited and if the environment is not right, they will not grow straight and beautiful.” This means that the environment affects the satisfaction of our needs. Maslow’s theory applies to the educational and career development in the nursing.

The physiological needs are necessary to sustain life and they include air, water, nourishment and sleep. These needs are the minimum needs required to sustain life without which there is no life in this world. In education, for one to learn more effectively these needs must be satisfied as they are the integral components of the health, while in the nursing profession, the physiological needs are the basic needs necessary in the recovery of the patients hence the nurse ensure that these needs are not limited to the patient.

The safety needs in the education and nursing are the health security of patients, the safety of the nursing profession and the job security. The social needs of love and affection are very important in effective interaction with students, lecturers, patients and workmates thus forming health relationships in the society.

After the social needs are satisfied, one focuses on satisfying self-esteem through achievements in the education and nursing profession, hence, making one earn respect and recognition. Self-actualization is the summit of human needs such as wisdom, justice and truth. These needs enable one to achieve excellence in educational performances and become a passionate expert in the nursing career.

Psychology and Elections Politics and psychology are related because for a politician to win an election there must be a psychological correlation between the voters and the politician.

Politics is about convincing and satisfying the voters’ psychological interests, and if their psycho logical interests are satisfied, then a certain politician will win an election. “An election campaign that fails is one that could not understand the political psychology of the voter” (Comstock