Introduction It has been argued that, ‘While Environmental Planning emerged as a profession in the 1970s, the environmental planning movement was evident sometime before this.’ The main purpose of this paper is to explore the origins of environmental planning theory. The paper considers the major aspects in the evolution of environmental planning theory.
Today’s prototype in human settlement and consumption has greatly contributed towards environmental stress, and this has been manifested at local, regional and international level. The use of land for construction and development in many developing nations tends to degrade the environment with regards to continued increase in population.
Industrial set ups in urban areas have also resulted in increased air pollution and this has contributed to prolonged climate change. Endangered plants and animals are becoming extinct at a very high rate, leading to the loss of genetic biodiversity which is a threat to humanity’s environmental legacy.
Due to such factors and others not mentioned, but within the human adaptation to human natural systems, the public raised an alarm and implemented an environmental movement which over the past century has been able to regulate these problems.
Since the emergence of Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century, much of Western European nations, including North America, have seen many people migrate to urban areas. Cities in this period were transformed by technology; capital and labour force from different human settlements came from the social and economic interactions to sprawling cities at an unprecedented rate.
This rapid growth in the cities has created much pressure on the environment both within the urban boundaries and rural areas. Overpopulation, pollution, class struggles and social inequality are among many of the issues that resulted from such urbanization.
Therefore, planning theory was formulated out of the need to control the social decay that was so prevalent during the Industrial Revolution. Though not evident at its beginning, planning theory has evolved and changed into an international and multi-disciplinary subject. It now includes the concepts of societal, economy, environment, and political subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since mid 20th century, planning has been incorporated into institutional legislative frameworks, used and formulated by government and organizations to apply control over land use and other social, environmental, and economic sectors. In essence, environmental planning theory was widely accepted as an essential part of planning model after the World War II because it was now used for environmental protection purposes.
This paper will succinctly and comprehensively survey on the historical roots on the present trends in environmental planning – through theories which have been implemented in the recent times that endorses the reorganization and revamp of the land use patterns.
It will also check on the environmental regulation and the systems of production employed, and lastly have a review on some of the methods and processes used in environmental planning.
Planning Theory before the World War Urban and Environmental history are some of the latest subjects in the American and European history. The planning movement in the early 20th century was advocated by Ebenezer Howard, Le Corbusier, and Martin Wegner, among others. Ebenezer (1989) and his influential book To-morrow a peaceful path to real reform, advocated for restructuring cities to control environmental decal.
Environmental planners at the time were stressed on environmental concerns, central urban renewal, and low-cost public transportation. Modern scholars (Freestone, 2000, Hays, 1998) have argued that the planning movement sought to establish proper land and social reforms.
Within the English Channel and Atlantic Ocean, planners such as Le Corbusier in France and Frank Lloyd Wright in North America used similar approaches like those stated by Ebenezer in planning. Thus, planners in the pre-war period placed much emphasis on the social and economic aspects of the society. Environmental aspect was not entirely addressed in those early planning theories.
Evolution of Environmental Planning Emphasis on the urban history began its focus in the 1960’s and early 1970’s, while environmental history began much later between the 1970’s and 1980’s. Both concepts of study were propagated by the events that were experienced during the period, as opposed to independent analysis.
We will write a custom Essay on Evolution of Planning and Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The urban history reflected its focus and concern on the growth, crumble and the future prospects of the cities with the idea that the urban disruptions were to continue. On the other hand, environmental history came into being out of the increased concern over the eminence of the environment and the threats it posed to both nature and humanity in 1970s (Worster, 1990).
The ten years after the World War II proved to be a significant period in terms of planning and environmental planning theory. In UK, the passing of Town and Country Planning Act 1947 spearheaded new concepts and theories of planning paradigms in post war countries. Hall (2000) ascribed those activities to a continuation of the planning movement that was affected by the Great Depression and the Great War.
Additionally, those activities were affected by the rigorous post-war reconstruction efforts. As seen in the planning movement in early 20th century, those planning activities placed much emphasis on urban renewal and construction of new communities (Hall, 2000). Though, environmental issues were almost non-existent in those planning attempts, except where pollution was mentioned.
Until that time, the two fields were largely concerned on two different spheres; the urban history was all about the cities and the developed environments, while environmental history was largely concerned with the natural environments. As one of the environmental historian said, environmental history was all about “the role and place of nature in human life” (Worster, 1990: 1090).
An important juncture in the 1940s was when Aldo Leopold published his prominent book A Sand Country Almanac (1949), which aimed at raising awareness on environmental pollution. The book depicted images of degraded lands because of human actions within decades, thus creating awareness on the need to protect and conserve the environment.
Similarly, Rachel Carson’s book, A Silent Spring (1962) advocated for environmental protection, thus shifting the mind of people from reconstruction and construction to tackling environmental dilapidation issues. This meant that the increased reconstruction and construction without planning was challenged by the public because they wanted planners to focus on environmental protection.
Environmental planners believed that environmental design was prevalent in urban areas than the rural areas. This has changed since it becomes very difficult to talk about urban history without reflection on the environmental history (Platt, Rowntree,
Hegemonic Masculinity Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction This essay attempts to critically and comprehensively review the concept of hegemonic masculinity. The hegemonic masculinity theory is particularly significant in understanding concepts such as the predisposition of men to violence, the evaluation of social network analysis in relation to hegemonic masculinity and the links between social identity and the occupation that someone belongs to.
The essay begins with an introduction and an analysis of the concept of hegemonic masculinity and proceeds to critically analyze articles that address the concept in relation to gender and social change.
Hegemonic Masculinity Hegemonic masculinity, an influential theory in gender studies was first advanced by R.W Connell; the phrase is used to describe a social construct that is a benchmark for evaluation of all other forms of masculinity.
(Momsen, 2004 p.81-83) Hegemonic masculinity restricts and defines masculine behavior within a given social context and all other forms of masculinity are seen to be subordinate to it. In the society, hegemonic masculinity is not the prevailing form of masculinity; rather, it is a standard, endorsed by the society, against which, men are measured (Schipper, 2009 p.19-20).
Hegemonic masculinity is a theory that proposes that, there exists a normative standard for male behavior in society; men in the society are meant to attain these set standards of masculinity. The theory is characterized by the inclination of men to dominate other men and to subordinate women. Hegemonic masculinity is characterized by aggression, self reliance, and ambition, attitudes that are encouraged in men but are discouraged in women.
Several criticisms have been leveled against the Hegemonic masculinity theory. Connell, the original proponent of the theory cited his inspiration as being rooted in feminist theories that dealt with the concept of patriarchy and the associated issues about the role of men in altering the concept of patriarchy. Critics contend that the theory is responsible for fostering negative attitudes towards the concept of patriarchy (Howson, 2006 p.64).
It is claimed by critics of the theory that hegemonic masculinity is only a theoretical perspective and it cannot be translated in the real world situation. A critique advanced proposes that the theory can be conceived as a type of projection that deliberately victimizes women instead of men.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This victimization is done either collectively or limited to individuals. This is to say, the theory cannot be closely contrasted or applied in examining the lives of any real men. Furthermore, the critics of the Hegemonic masculinity theory propose that the theory fundamentally misconstrues the mental representation of male identity.
Critics also associate the theory with fostering attitudes of male superiority and negative machismo as manifested by excessive aggression and undue self reliance. (Ibid) The hegemonic theory has also been described as providing inexact, indistinct and inaccurate depiction of the concept of gender and masculinity because it does not take into account the unstable nature of all forms of masculinity (Howson, 2006 p.5-7).
In summation, despite the numerous criticisms that have been advanced against the theory, Hegemonic masculinity was and still is a significant theory that provides an in-depth analysis of the concept of masculinity (Speer, 2005 p.107-109).
To adequately discuss the theory of Hegemonic masculinity, it would be important to review a number of articles that address the concept and critically examining the related concepts of gender and social change.
Unlocking Men, Unmasking Masculinities: Doing Men’s work In Prison The article attempts to establish a credible link between hegemonic masculinity and criminality. There has been prior research that has been done to explore this link; however, what makes this approach different is that it seeks to explore the correlation between correctional interventions and the destructive effects of hyper masculinity in prison.
Hyper masculinity refers to the over emphasis on conventional male behavior manifested by strength, virility and aggression. (Kimmel and Aronson, 2004 p.503-507)
The article examines two related programs initiated in men’s prisons in California and Massachusetts. The survey was carried by consultations and observation with volunteer. Essentially, the article illustrates how the program attempts to deconstruct hyper masculinity in correctional facilities and its effects in assisting inmates in redefining the concept in order to produce pro-social outcomes.
We will write a custom Essay on Hegemonic Masculinity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These programs applied are branches of the Mankind project, a large voluntary organization that is founded on the philosophy of the mythopoeticmen’s movement that emphasizes psychological self help, therapeutic techniques and personal growth.
Essentially, the aim of the program is to reorient the inmates’ perceptions of masculinity in a manner that will serve them better both in prison and in their lives after being reintegrated into society (Karp, 2010 p.63). The report highlights the relationship between violent crime and gender.
The figures in the article reveal that more men than women get arrested and convicted for violent crimes in contrast to more women than men who get arrested for non-violent crimes such as prostitution and running away from home However, the statistics also indicate that in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of females arrested and convicted for violent crimes.
Research reveals that, this increase that has been witnessed can be attributed to the net-widening of the criminal justice system and not necessarily as a result of an actual increase in the commission of violent crimes by females (Karp, 2010 p.63).
A number of theories have been advanced in an attempt to explain why more women than men commit crimes. The strain theory proposes that criminality is a function of greed and excessive societal emphasis on material possessions. However this theory does not explain why more men than women commit crime seeing as women are subjected to the same strain as men are.
Moreover, the labeling theory proposes that criminality is caused by shame, stigmatization and out casting especially of members of minority groups. However, this theory does not explain why women, who are subjected to the same conditions as men, are not as inclined to commit crimes (Karp, 2010 p.64-65).
The article proposes that the disparate rates of criminality between men and women can be explained by the hegemonic masculinity conceptualization.
This implies that the hegemonic nature of masculinity that emphasizes strength and aggression predisposes men to violence and consequently violent crime (Messerschmitt, 1993 p.27-30). Hegemonic masculinity is the exclusive premise of men and this may explain why more men than women commit violent crimes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hegemonic Masculinity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In my opinion, the theory of Hegemonic masculinity as the possible explanation of the disparate rates of violent crime commission by men and women is to a large extent accurate. This is because; all other theories of criminality adequately address the causes of the phenomena but do not consider why more men than women commit violent crimes. The Hegemonic masculinity theory adequately addresses this question.
In recognition of this fact, the article examines the interventions being initiated in the penal system, for instance the mankind project, the inside circle foundation and the Jericho circle project. These initiatives are meant to offer the inmates an opportunity to experience self discovery and personal growth in an attempt to counter the negative effects of hegemonic and hyper masculinity.
A Social Network Analysis The article tries to involve important theory on social life brought forward by Connell’s in two schools. The social theory on gender was developed by Robert Connell to address the prevalent sexual, gender and power inequality between men and women. The theory examines the gender-based division of labor, power and the nature of carthexis (Connell, 1987 p.64-65).
The article uses arithmetical techniques to examine power affairs, violence and social connections in relation to the male supremacy beliefs of the students. In the secondary school in question; one demonstrated the validity of Connell’s theory in the fact that Hegemonic masculinity was placed on top of the hierarchy of other forms of masculinity.
The other secondary school has a different orientation that demonstrates the support for the other viewpoint that gender is relational and that the hypothesized effects are evident, even after considering and accounting for the rest of the explanatory factors. This illustrates the fact that there is considerable empirical evidence to support Connell’s theory (Usher and Robbins, 2010 p.23-25)
The study examines a ruling-class and a middle class school in Australia. The different hierarchical structures are explained by the fact that, the ruling class school fosters attitudes that are based on masculinity. The middle class school has a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach that considers the effects of male dominance, gay-male homophobia, anti-academic attitudes and attitudes of anti-feminism.
The article proposes to establish a relationship between gender and power inequality. The article is significant in that it is the first study undertaken using qualitative research methodology that takes into account the context of the local environment and cultural factors. The study does not work on the assumption that people act independently of the society in which they live.
Essentially, the theory attempts to explain the fundamental relationship between power and violence. This article proposes that, Hegemonic masculinity is an expression of power inequality between men and women. This implies that the power inequality contributes significantly to the commission of violence and the fostering of attitudes of subordination towards women (Usher and Robbins 2010 p.31-35).
Doing Hegemony: Military, Men, and Constructing a Hegemonic Masculinity This article proposes that Hegemonic masculinity is at the pinnacle of the gender hierarchy. Furthermore, the article proposes that Hegemonic masculinity subordinates all other gender constructs. Conventionally, Hegemonic masculinity is focused on the tenets of self discipline, sadism, belligerence and many other signs of control.
The article is based on a study that involved interviewing 43 men emphasizing the process of establishing Hegemonic masculinity constructs. The interviewees included military officers from different specialties, different rank levels and different levels of ability.
Essentially, this implies that men construct hierarchies that subordinate other people. At the same time, these characteristics show the way men place themselves in supremacy symbolism (Hinojosa, 2010 p.180)
Furthermore, the article examines the ways in which men that are aiming to join military service position themselves on the top of the hegemonic construct of masculinity.
The men present themselves as better placed in terms of intelligence, strength, skills and ability as compared to ordinary civilians. In so doing, this person panning to join the military construct a masculinity that is symbolically dominant over other forms (Hinojosa, 2010 p.181-182)
A critical review of the article establishes a conclusive link between the concepts of social identity and perceptions of the self and their relationship with the institutions that they belong to, in this case, the military. This implies that people who have a career in the military tend to derive a large extent of their personal identity from the occupation that they belong to (Hinojosa, 2010 p.184)
In my opinion, the assertion that people derive a large part of their social identity from the occupation that they belong to is accurate. The article cites conclusive evidence that people planning to join the military have a heightened sense of Hegemonic masculinity. This notion of social change can be directly attributed to their occupation of choice
In conclusion, a critical examination of the three articles establishes a tenable link between hegemonic masculinity, gender and social change. These three concepts are inextricably linked in that the perception of gender is affected by the theory of hegemonic masculinity. On the other hand, both gender and hegemonic masculinity are determined by social change.
References Connell, R. (1987) Gender and power: society, the person and sexual politics. California: Stanford University Press. p.64-65
Hinojosa, R. (2010) Doing Hegemony: Military, Men, and Constructing a Hegemonic Masculinity. P.180-185
Howson, R. (2006) Challenging hegemonic masculinity. NY: Routledge Publishing Inc. p.64
Karp, D. R. (2010) Unlocking Men, Unmasking Masculinities: Doing Men’s work In Prison. P.63-65
Kimmel, M. S. and Aronson, A. (2004) Men and masculinities: a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. CA: ABC-CLIO Inc. p.503-507
Messerschmitt, J.W.(1993) Masculinities and crime: Critique and reconceptualization Of theory. USA: Littlefield Inc. p.27-30
Momsen, J. (2004) Gender and Development. NY: Routledge Publishing Inc. p.81- 83
Schipper, W. C. (2009) Masculinity, spirituality, and sexuality; The interpreted, lived experience. MA: Proquest LLC. p.19-20
Speer, S. A. (2005) Gender talk; feminism, discourse and conversation analysis. NY: RoutledgePublishing Inc. p.107-112 p.107-109
Usher, D and Robbins, G. (2010) A Social Network Analysis. nd. P.23-35
Strategic Plan for a Library Coursework college essay help
Planning process Background
This paper presents a hypothetical strategic plan for a small public library. This library serves the community of approximately 20.000 people. At this point, its collection comprises 40.000 books and periodicals. This institution has recently encountered with such problem as the decrease in the number of visitors which subsequently can be explained by shortage of resources and in some cases poor customer service.
I was responsible for the development of the strategies that can help this organization cope with current problems. From the very outset, I realized that it was hardly possible to make any valuable recommendations without involving the employees of the library and readers into decision-making (Hayes, 2001, p 13).
My original premise was that every stakeholder has a right to contribute to this project, and my task was to ensure that none of them is excluded from decision-making process. This is the key issue that I had to take into consideration prior to starting the development of the strategic plan.
The steps taken by the committee
First of all, a committee was formed; its major objective was to analyze the origins of the difficulties, faced by this library and propose solutions that can improve the work of this library. This committee included four members: the library director, two assistants and one representative of the library board. While developing the plan, the committee strongly relied on partnership with the employees of this library.
We have interviewed every librarian of the organization and asked him/her for recommendations. Apart from that, the committee conducted a satisfaction survey among the readers who regularly visit this library. While interviewing the readers, we focused on such criteria as richness of the library collection, the use of information technologies, helpfulness of the employees, time management of the organization.
In this way, we tried to identify the areas which needed improvement. Additionally, while interviewing these people, we asked them about those expectation which they usually set for a library. It was of crucial importance to us to assume the customers’ standpoint since their major stakeholders of this organization.
This approach has greatly helped us, since we were able to identify those areas, requiring improvement. Without their recommendations this plan would have never come into existence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the committee research already-existing literature about the problems. In particular, we focused on those approaches adopted by small and midsize libraries in order to enrich collections and provide a better quality of services to the readers. Many books and articles have proved quite beneficial for our purposes.
The research which has been undertaken by the committee indicates that many public libraries have to struggle with budget limitations, but they can be overcome. In part, this goal can be achieved through active cooperation with other libraries, publishing houses and charity organization. Secondly, the main reason why many people are dissatisfied with the quality of library’s services is lack of self-sufficiency.
One has to speak about ineffective space and time management (Gothberg, 1991, p 350). For example, very often the readers are not allowed to check out books on their own, they have to wait several minutes until the librarian finds it. This process becomes very time-consuming especially if there are many visitors.
The research of academic service is useful to that extent that it enabled the committee to learn about the best practices used by the libraries within a relatively short time.
Judging from my personal observations and from the results of the survey, I may argue that these problems are typical of this library as well. These examples immediately attract attention and in part they prove that financial constraints are not the only cause of library’s difficulties.
These findings prompted the committee to the conclusion it is necessary to implement certain organizational changes. These changes should touch upon performance assessment and workplace relations.
For many public organizations this transformation is very difficult; however, academic literature indicates that small libraries can overcome these possible through changes in organizational structure and giving more autonomy to the readers (Park, 2005, p 168).
We will write a custom Coursework on Strategic Plan for a Library specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the plan proposed by the committee is based on the premise that the problems of this library should not be explained only by budget limitations. Overall, we are greatly indebted to every person who helped us with the development of this plan. Without active participation of employees, readers and library board we would not have been able to map out this strategic plan.
Mission and Goals The mission of this library is to offer adequate resources and services that would support learning and research needs of the community (The University of Chicago Library, 2010, unpaged). It is possible to single out several goals and objectives which are quite consistent with this mission:
Goal 1. To maintain a well-organized and balance library collection that contains only high-quality books and periodicals.
Goal 2. To promote the quality of library services and improve the skills of the library personnel.
Goal 3. To improve economic performance of the library and make it less dependent on governmental funding.
These are the key goals that this organization must attain. For each of these goals, one can set at least two objective which are more specific and tangible. Furthermore, it is vital to explain how each of these objectives can be attained.
The first objective is to establish long-term partnership with other libraries and organizations that can share resources with this organization. We can suggest several steps that one should take. 1) The most important step is to join both local and non-local library consortia, which are formal associations of libraries. These consortiums promote book and resource sharing.
For instance, it will be possible to obtain either digital or hard copies of books. 2) Secondly, this institution should establish an interlibrary loan service, for example, this library can borrow books or periodical from another library in order to scan or photocopy the materials.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Plan for a Library by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this way, they will be able to reduce the cost of procuring new books, and this particularly important for libraries that have to struggle with budget limitations. 3) The third step is to establish long-term partnership with publishing houses.
Some of these companies attach great importance to charity and they frequently donate books to the libraries. Each of these action steps is important since this library has to struggle with budgetary limitations and one has to use strategies of reducing or at least minimizing costs.
The second objectively is to make full use of information technologies that are available to the library. We can propose at least three strategies that may help the library in accomplishing this objective.
First, this organization should purchase subscription to various online libraries and databases, such as Questia, SAGE, Jstor, etc (Repman
Critical Issues in the Design and Construction of the Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Scope of Work
Scope of Work Qatar has been chosen as a country which is going to host FIFA World Cup in 2022. Many scholars express misunderstanding and dissatisfaction with this decision in a number of reasons.
The one of purposes of this research paper is to consider the issues related to buildings and other facilities the country is going to face and to identify whether the decision FIFA has made is objective and an Arabian country Qatar will manage to host such a great tournament as World Cup 2022. To check evaluate the decision made by FIFA, it is important to consider the following issues.
The main megaprojects and World Cup facilities are going to be discussed along with critical evaluation of the environmental factors, transport and communication, and other components required for providing successful World Cup 2022. The research is going to focus on the already built and planned to be built stadiums, hotels, and other issues which require change to meet FIFA demands.
The literature sources are going to be considered and the information will be analyzed to make it possible to relate the discussion to the critical issues in the design and construction of the Qatar World Cup buildings and facilities in 2022.
The following facilities should also be explored, environmental factors, transport and communication, assembly and disassembly and reconstruction of the facilities somewhere else, climate change and emission control.
Objectives The research which is going to be conducted has a number of objectives. First, to study the FIFA’s decision and try to understand what specific Qatar offers that FIFA has preferred it to USA, Australia, and some other developed countries.
Second, the managerial and design issues are going to be researched in construction of Qatar World Cup 2022. Third, being aware of the number of changes and innovative facilities used in the preparation of Qatar to World Cup 2022, it is natural to question whether the expected Cup is planned to be green and nature friendly or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve the desired objectives, the following related facts should be discussed. The main megaprojects which should be described are hotels and stadiums building. Still, Qatar has one more megaproject which must be mentioned.
Lusail is a city which does not exist on the world map, but in 11 years Qatar government is planning to build this city which going to inhabit 200,000 citizens. It is planned that his city will host the World Cup final (“Qatar to host football World Cup in 2022” 8).
Looking at the plans devoted to the stadium building, it is impossible to avoid the fact that their architecture and design impress with magnificence, innovations and beauty. The use of the innovative technologies is inevitable as the design issues predicted to be implemented require direct technological assistance.
Here are the stadiums which are planned to be built, Doha Port Stadium in Doha designed by Albert Speer
Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology Essay a level english language essay help
Discussion Actor-network theory is associated with the works of Bruno Latour, John Law and Michael Callon. The individuals were Science and Technology Studies scholars. It is a unique approach to the social research and theory.
The origin of the actor-network theory can be traced from the science studies. This approach is distinguished from other approaches for involving agency of non-humans in the network (Prinsloo and Baynham, 2008, p. 152).
This theory relates the materials relations as well as the relations between concepts. It assumes that in most of the relations we encounter in day to day life are semiotic and material. For instance, interactions in school involve students, their teachers as well as the equipments like desks, chairs and other forms of technology. Teachers and students interact with the help. The combination of all these elements forms a network.
The actor-network theory tends to explain how both material and semiotic concepts comes together to act as one. For instance, the school is an entity composed of students, teachers and the equipments necessary. However, these combine and act as one network. They all interact to make a functional institution.
On the other hand, the proponents of the theory of the social construction of technology argues that new technological developments takes place through negotiation and struggle over the meanings and material shapes involving the social actors (Barkardjieva, 2005, p.10).
This theory emanates from the field of science and technology studies. According to this theory, human actions are not directed by technology; instead, it is the human beings who shape the technology (Anonymous, 2009, par 1). The proponents of this theory argue that it is difficult to understand technology without first understanding how the technology is related in its social context.
This theory provides the procedure through which the cause of technological success or failure can be assessed. This is made possible by provision of a form of methodology through which this can be verified.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differences between Actor-Network Theory and the theory of the Social Construction of Technology One of the main differences between the actor network theory and the Social Construction of Technology theory is that the former involves objects and organizations in the framework while the latter does not. For instance, when buying a cloth in a shop, the actor-network in this process includes the person who is purchasing the cloth, the cashier, the cash used in buying, cash register as well as the produce involved.
On the other hand, the theory of social construction of technology recognizes the importance of human actions in shaping technology. It opposes the idea that technology can shape human actions in any particular way. This is unlike the actor-network theory which does not recognize objects and organizations.
Another difference between these theories is that the actor-network theory is diverse. This is unlike the theory of social construction of technology which overemphasizes on the human influence on technology choice.
The social network theory originated from the area of science studies while the social construction of technology is more inclined to the science and technology studies. Although the two methods are related, they differ from their emergence. This is the reason why they differ in various aspects.
SCOT has given a clear elaboration of the reasons why a certain technology may be accepted or rejected in the society. On the other hand, the actor-network theory does not give such an explanation. It considered every component in the network as equally important. In fact, this is one of the weaknesses of this method.
The actor-network theory makes an assumption that many relations are material and semiotic. For instance, the interaction between different people in a social institution as well as the equipments (technology) applied. On the other hand, the SCOT just identifies the influence of the human in shaping the technology. It does not recognize non human aspects.
Actor-Network Theory Strengths of Actor-Network Theory
This method has a number of strengths which contributes to its success. One of the main strengths of the actor-network theory is that it gives a logical explanation of how effects are produced (Jones and Graham, 2003 p. 20).
We will write a custom Essay on Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This theory goes even further to show the connection between effects with other different interests. By giving a logical procedure, it implies that this theory is verifiable. An experiment can be conducted to verify propositions.
Another achievement of the action-network theory is that the ties and the nodes imagery which is applied in the concept used in this theory helps in clarification. This is through the connection between these nodes as well as their connections.
Weaknesses of Actor-Network Theory
One of the main weaknesses of this theory lies on its inability to make a distinction between human beings and other objects. Many people views human beings as a unique creature that is very different from other animals and objects. By failing to draw a line between the human beings and other things, this theory contradicts a significant number of ideologies hence losing its effectiveness.
Another weakness of the actor-network theory is that it is a very difficult task to identify all the heterogeneous elements in an actor-network. The social network theory proposes that every actor in the network (either an object or a person) is equally important in the network. None of these components can be said to be more important than the other. This assumption is very critical as it compares human beings with objects.
This theory has also been criticized for its uniqueness of assigning agency to actors who are not human beings. It recognizes the presence of non-human objects in the network. There is a need to draw a line between human beings and other objects. For instance, it argues that the tables, students, and teachers are equally important in the network.
This theory has also been criticized for not taking into account the elements outside the realm of nodes and relations. In other words, it does not provide any space outside this framework. It does not allow anything to be outside the relations which are defined in the network. This theory has also been criticized on the point that it involves descriptions which are not useful since they make point.
Another weakness of this theory is based on its assumption that all the actors are equal in the network. This assumption does not recognize the possibility of power imbalances in the network. Most people have been arguing that people does not have the same moral status with machines or organizations and therefore should be differentiated from them.
Actor-network theory is also criticized for its value-neutral stand. The method has for long been challenged for not paying attention on the political and social context. By so doing, this theory undermines the efforts of having an effective political and social critique (Jones and Graham, 2003 p. 8).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, this theory provides an analysis which contrasts the major ideologies like the government, patriarchy or the government. Therefore, there is a need for improvement on this theory in order to avoid such limitations.
Social Construction of Technology Strengths of the theory of the Social Construction of Technology
One of the strengths of this theory is that it recognizes the importance of human actions in shaping the technology. This is unlike in the actor-network theory where human superiority is ignored. This aspect has significantly contributed in the effectiveness of this theory. This is because human activities have played an important role in shaping their environment.
Another advantage of SCOT is that it can be a methodology. In other words, it gives the principles and steps to follow in case someone wants to find out the causes of successes or failures of a particular technology.
Weaknesses of the theory of the Social Construction of Technology
Despite of these strengths associated with the social construction, it suffers some limitations.
One of the main weaknesses of this method is that it overemphasizes on social impact on technology hence ignoring the significance of the physical world. It is necessary to recognize the fact that the physical world constraints our actions in one way or another.
This theory has not made any attempt to explain such influence. This theory assumes that the human beings shapes the technology and notes the fact that technology can never shape the human beings.
This theory gives a clear explanation of how technologies come up. However, this method fails to identify the consequences of the technology after the fact. Therefore, this theory does not explain how such technological developments fit in the broader social context. Thus, there is a need to improve on this theory by considering the consequences of new developments in technology.
This theory fails to recognize the groups which do not take part in construction of technology process. However, these people are significantly affected by these developments. The theory recognizes only the groups which play a role in constructing technology. Such ignorance has undermined the effectiveness of this theory.
Another shortcoming of the social construction theory is that it is viewed as a form of social determinism. It pays more attention to the social factors hence ignoring other important factors which may also have a significant impact on the technological development.
This theory does not take any stand and it does not propose any judgment on the importance of different interpretations of technology. By failing to take any such stance, this theory proves impotent in solving important controversies on the role of technology in human activities.
Finally, this theory is also criticized on the basis that it fails to analyze deeply on the factors which influences technological choice. For instance, this theory only focuses on the influence of interests, immediate needs and problems on technological choice. It fails to recognize the impact of economic, cultural, or intellectual choices regarding technology.
Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly brought other differences between the actor-network theory and the social construction of the technology. This discussion has revealed that the main differences between these two theories are based on the fact that the actor-network theory fails to draw a difference between the human beings and other objects.
It treats all the elements in the network as equal. That is, none of the members in the network is more important than the other. This is also a primary weakness of this method.
These differences determine the effectiveness of each. The actor-network theory is criticized for failing to draw a distinction between the human beings and other elements in the network. On the other hand, the theory of social construction of technology has been criticized for overemphasizing the role of human beings in shaping technology hence ignoring the importance of the other elements in shaping technology.
Reference List Anonymous. (2009). Social Construction of Technology (SCOT). Web.
Bakardjieva, M. (2005). Internet Society: The Internet in Everyday Life. London: SAGE.
Jones, B. and Graham, J. (2003). Actor-Network Theory: A Tool to Support Ethical Analysis of Commercial Genetic Testing. Web.
art gallery Essay argumentative essay help
identify and describe the 6 dimensions of wellness.
How are the dimensions of wellness connected with your own personal health?
Discuss the 86 reasons art show by kimberly chapman.
Identify the wellness activity you attended along with what dimension(s) of wellness the activity aligned with. Explain and discuss using characteristics of the dimensions discussed in this class.
Why did you choose to participate in this activity (to inprove my occupational and social)?
How does the activity relate to your personal health and wellness?
What can you do in order to continue to develop this dimension/s of wellness throughout your life?
The written reflection should be well-written and demonstrate a thoughtful approach to the connections and relationships as stated above.
Conflict Management and Organizational Roles Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Conflict comes up when two people share different opinions regarding the same topic. Taking an example of two staff members working in the same office, with one holding a higher rank than his counterpart, we may experience heightened levels of hostility from the lower-ranked employee, if he feels that his senior is overworking him unfairly.
This kind of situation occurs regularly in workplaces factoring in the enormous amounts of stress levels and exhaustion.
Controlling organizational conflict To put an end to such misunderstanding in the office, the individual roles should be clearly established beforehand by the senior member of staff who overlooks the whole working body of staff members. This categorizes the duties that should be allocated to specific member on a specified level of practice.
However, if two staff members seem to disagree on their shared responsibilities working on the same deck, or in the same line of work, then the supervisor should intercept and consider each person’s opinion on the task at hand.
Where possible, the task should be handled by both on equal capacity to enhance the level of understanding; the more the two work together, the higher the chances they will get to learn each other’s character.
Given a situation where there is query beyond understanding, the supervisor could put the employees on different schedules so that the first handles the current task and the other employee postpones his duty to enable the first to work at that time. It would however be advisable to separate two rival employees from the same working station.
Generally, employers and senior supervisors should do whatever they can to avoid employee conflict based on office politics. Any defiant employee who seeks to incite others should be advised to desist from negatively influencing the working staff.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, some level of conflict is ok for competing employees. The managers in this situation cold use it to their advantage by allowing the competition to carry on while sustaining a high degree of behavioral management. A de-escalation strategy could work to harmonize the competing parties in case the conflict heats up to a hostile level (Lewicki et al, 2009).
It is quite fundamental to maintain clear communication lines within the organization as assumptions may build up and destroy employee relations from unmanaged conflict
The three conflict initializing factors include, office politics, assumptions that pass un-clarified, and healthy competition.
The different roles of the Executive director as compared to the Board Chairman The Board chairman presides over the organization’s corporate meetings with or without the presence of the executive officer. He can preside with the powers of the executive or just as the highest-ranked corporate board officer. He is usually the head of the board of directors, ad he determines the broader perspective of the company.
In short, he carries the organizations future vision and key criteria. He is different from the executive director at certain instances. For instance, the executive director can make decisions for the company acting as the director of marketing, finance or even the director of operations.
The director is also deemed liable by tax firms under their laws, and he is a fulltime member of the organizations employed staff. The director cannot supersede the Chairman’s directives, but he can call for a consideration at the committees meetings in review of a conflicting idea (Black, 2011).
References Black, K. (2011). What is a Chairman of the Board? Retrieved from Wisegeek: https://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-chairman-of-the-board.htm
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict Management and Organizational Roles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lewicki R. J., L. Roy, Barry B., D. Saunders. (2009). Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases. New York: McGraw Hill.
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule
Similar ethical dilemma or conflict currently in the news
Bribery/gift giving and other scenarios
Introduction Business ethics are obligations that the management of a business should follow in doing business activities. Reflectively, when a business fails to follow these obligations, ethical dilemmas are likely to occur and negatively affect such the business. Based on the code of ethics, the management of a business should exercise integrity.
Business ethics are presented as influenced by internal and external factors which when improperly aligned, result in an ethical dilemma. The main contributory factors to ethical dilemmas in the business environment include personal feelings and thoughts that are improper, especially on self-concept, motivation, attitudes, emotions and perceptions.
This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the OSHA benzene exposure rule in terms of business ethics.
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule An ethical decision can be defined as a decision with moral and legal appeal to the wider community. The aspect of commitment is a crucial element in examining ethicality of a decision. In precision, for these decisions to hold and be positively assimilated into the market environment, a series of tests are carried out by gathering facts and incorporating them in defined issues surrounding ethics to test the consciousness in application.
The aspect of competency is critical in separating the premises from assumptions in making ethical decisions. Thus, the suggestion is ethical since it considers the moral value of doing business.
Lowering the limit of benzene exposure to 1ppm is not enough since even an exposure of this small magnitude has effects of health of employees. Despite the lower exposure, the effects in long term may be as severe as higher exposure in short term. Besides, little health protection will be observed by companies or work environments that have lowered their benzene exposure to meet the1ppm standard (Harris et al. 34).
I disagree with the ruling since it creates a vacuum in companies to lower their strategies for complete work environment safety. Besides, companies that obey the lowered exposure will be very reluctant to compensate employees who are victims of benzene exposure in the long run. However, the lowered benzene exposure level will protect the employees from extreme carelessness on the part of the work environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, employees will be in a position to defend and sue companies who do not obey the benzene exposure limit and may demand compensation when necessary. The OSHA rule is currently for time-weighted average limit of Benzene exposure since it tracks the exposure limits continuously in work environments that use benzene (Harris et al. 34).
Similar ethical dilemma or conflict currently in the news The recent move to lift the tap water ban in some divisions of West Virginia after the chemical spill which was widely believed to have contaminated the water supply is an ethical dilemma. Despite Governor Tomblin’s assurance, it is apparent that the contaminated water is not fully good for consumption. It is unethical to make a rush decision of resuming consumption of water in West Virginia when the chemical spill is less than two week old.
The dual pillar approach to ethical leadership comprises of a combination of moral being and moral management skills. The combination of the two aspects is critical in building ethical leadership reputation since executive responsibility functions on moral codes that promote proactive leadership (Harris et al. 24).
In fact, it may destroy the West Virginia Water Company’s external market since customers will opt for other alternatives. Besides, it is the responsibility of the management team at the company to give the customers quality water products. This suggestion would betray the elements of trust between the company and the market.
The process of decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of options, and ethical control. Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem.
When faced with a decision dilemma that requires critical assessments, analysis resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage. Each option is assigned to a quadrant with predetermined response strategies and ‘follow-ups’ upon implementation. The water company ought to have considered the views of the customers before deciding to resume water supply after the chemical spill.
The economical consideration in making a socially responsible ethical decision is a dichotomous path. The social responsibility of a business is to make profit. However, reducing ethical behavior to solely economical consideration is not enough.
We will write a custom Essay on The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If companies are solely driven by profit motive, they will end up taking an unethical decision that may do society more harm than good. Today businesses are responsible in taking prominent roles in societal building and therefore ethical conduct devoid of profit motive becomes more important.
Bribery/gift giving and other scenarios Some ethical beliefs portend that necessary economic rationality leads to ethical behavior. In other words, such ideas of ethical conduct believe that unethical behavior is not profitable for the business such as bribery and gift giving. However, in case of the conspiracy, fraud, and misreporting, it must be understood that following the unethically correct path necessarily mean that it would be financially viable.
In order to make the whole process to be ethically right, it is necessary to understand that it would restore the faith of customers and employees. This is summarized in the diagram below.
(Source: Self generated)
Works Cited Harris, Charles, Michael Pritchard, Michael Rabin, Ray James, and Eliaine Englehardt. Engineering ethics: Concepts and cases. Alabama, Al: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Smart Business Networks Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
A smart business network is one that can create better results than its competitors can. In today’s business markets, competition has heightened and therefore any business with survival goals has to be more efficient and effective in its operations.
The attributes of a smart business network include strategic positioning, speed access to market information, excellent customer service, fast sharing of new information, exceptional ability to deal with emergencies, and to adapt to the changes.
Strategic positioning of a business determines the amount of success realized since it is through positioning that one can meet other people in the market.
According to Golden, Hughes and Burke, Kenny’s bookshop, a family owned business which traded in secondhand books, made a venture into online book selling and established strong links with e-retailers; Amazon, Bibliodirect, and Albris, which enabled it to expand its sales volumes tremendously (2005, p.65).
In view of the competition in the business market, for any business to attract customers it shall require to keep itself abreast with developments in the market. In addition, a smart business is also expected to disseminate speedily the acquired information to relevant participants in its network. The fast relaying and sharing of information will help to create an efficient and effective network thereby enhancing business.
Another aspect of a smart business network lies in its ability to establish great customer service relationships. To be able to offer quality customer service one needs to enhance his/her understanding of the business in which s/he is in, which will help in tailoring products and services.
Burt posits that, “a good Customer service relationship (CSR) would guarantee continued receipt of customers’ feedback, which will be used to develop or adjust products and services to meet customers’ specific needs” (1992, p.25). In addition, a smart business network should be able to capture and analyze objectively information from the environment and quickly generate an appropriate response.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More van Heck and Vervest in their proposal for a new business network approach to replace the traditional value chain approach identified several aspects in which the new network will dominate the traditional system (2007), Firstly, products offered and services rendered in the traditional value chain system are common and simple, unbundled, and usually take long time before reaching the consumer.
On the other hand, the new business network system approach is quite complex but ensures fast and timely delivery of products and services. Secondly, in the traditional approach value creation is achieved through value chains with very long connected relationships.
In contrast, the new business networks disregard this tradition and only allow for quick connect and disconnect relationships, which allow only relevant relationships for the business.
Thirdly, the traditional approach puts emphasis on hierarchical and centralized control systems; on the other hand, the proposed approach encompasses a large and distributed span of control and decision-making. Lastly, the new approach allows fast and wide information sharing whereas the traditional system limited information sharing to the business partners.
The new business networking approach places great demands for incorporation of information technology to enhance its capabilities. The Networked Business Operating System (BOS) comes handy for while addressing key networking issues such as, membership selection, linking, goal setting, risks and reward determination, innovation, and fault tolerance.
The main role that BOS plays is “to combine business networks insights with telecommunication dimensions” (Nohria
Negative Influence of Cell Towers Essay (Article) college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Prolonged research
What the negative effects are
Prolonged research The negative influence of cell towers is being debated in numerous countries worldwide. The extensive spread of these frightful towers evokes a lot of anxiety in public.1
The anxiety of people results in numerous researches which are being carried out worldwide. It is important to state that many researchers claim that there is still no 100 per cent evidence that people’s exposure to cell towers is that harmful.2 However, the majority of scientists state that health risks do exist and more deep research is needed.
What the negative effects are Admittedly, the main concern of researchers is the link between cell towers exposure and cancer development. Thus, some research proves that prolonged exposure to cell towers leads to serious genotoxic effects on the level of somatic cells which leads to the development of cancer.3 Notably, the research of the impact of cell phones contributes greatly to the overall research of cell towers negative influences on human health (Pic.1).
Pic.1 The Negative Impact of Cell Phone Exposure.
Reportedly, radiation from cell phones decreases blood cells ability to “repair damaged” DNA.4 Another research also states that wireless era has brought such health risks as cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, autism, etc.5 It goes without saying that if a cell phone exposure causes such serious problems, cell phone tower exposure also negatively influences human health (Pic.2).
Apart from radiation, electromagnetic field and electromagnetic waves produce negative effects on people’s health. In simple words, heating effect of electromagnetic waves is proved to be very harmful for people since it can burn human tissue (of course if it is intense enough).6 If a person has ever used a microwave oven, he/she can easily imagine possible threats to people’s health.
Pic.2. The negative effects of cell tower exposure. Retrieved from http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/letter-to-parents/
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More so, apart from quite explicit examples of health problems among people who were exposed to cell towers for a long time, it is proved that people are tend to feel cautious about cell towers exposure. Reportedly, people can start feeling worse only if they are told that they were exposed to some electromagnetic waves or field (without being exposed in reality).7
Research Limitations As has been mentioned above many people claim that there is not enough evidence against cell towers. Thus, many scientists argue that it is essential to continue research since at present it is possible to conclude that cell towers do not produce any significant effect on human health.8 Reportedly, such diseases as cancer have nothing to do with cell tower exposure.
Many scientists claim that the effects of cell tower exposure have not been studied for the necessary amount of time and it is impossible to draw any conclusions. For instance, it is still unclear what effects can cell tower exposure produce on children, or what are outcomes of long exposure to electromagnetic field and waves.9
Researchers’ Position Thus, scientists did not come to the same conclusion as for negative effects of cell towers exposure on human health. However, the vast majority of researchers claim that it is necessary to continue research in this field and at the same time it is important to limit people’s exposure to cell towers.10
Conclusion In conclusion it is possible to state that there is no certain evidence as for extremely negative influence of cell towers on people’s health. However, the majority of scientists suggest that it is necessary to limit the exposure and continue researching the issue.
References Ahlbom, A., Green, A., Kheifets, L., Savitz, D.,
HSBC’s Website Evaluation Coursework essay help site:edu
As mentioned in the literature review, it is necessary that every business organization that engages in e-marketing ensures that it has developed a strong customer loyalty. This can be achieved through an unmatched design quality of their website, quality of the service offered on line and the efforts put by the company to ensure trustworthiness.
In this respect, this paper will analyze the e-marketing services of HSBC bank and determine whether it is well developed or there are some aspects that need to be developed. The services, website and trustworthiness of the HSBC website will be used as the basis of judgment.
Website design can be a source of customer loyalty if it contains characteristics like easy navigation, how attractive in appearance the website is and the overall layout. While content is the main theme of any website, other aspects like graphics and multimedia should be given an upper hand because they make the website appealing and attractive. It also makes it easy to use.
This should work hand in hand with relevant content to ensure customer loyalty (Zhou, Lu
Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Scope or work. The present project is aimed at analysing and evaluating the resources and opportunities of the country Qatar with regard to the expected world cup that is sure to be held there in 2022 in accordance with the bid won by Qatar to host the world cup on its territory.
As such, it is necessary to evaluate whether the conditions in this country are appropriate to hold a green world cup there in terms of environmental issues and climate components.
Rationale for research. The investigation should be performed to assess the readiness of Qatar to host the world cup on its territory with regard to international rules and conventions. As representatives of different nations would take part in the world cup, extraneous stressors should not be imposed on them.
Objectives Problem statement. The problem for Qatar with regard to construction and design of buildings and facilities for the world cup 2022 is the environment, climate issues, and investment. So, Qatar is a country with emerging economy but everything can happen in more than ten years.
Besides, the climate of Qatar is hot and humidity is high contrasted to other countries that could have won the bid for the 2022 world cup. Finally, the environment should be green; so, it is important to reduce the pollution of waters and air and reduce the gas emission.
Justification of the problem. The problem of investments and environment is great because the country eligible to host some international events should provide its participants with adequate conditions similar to the ones provided in other countries for events of the same level as the world cup.
Methodology Review of projects. The projects designed for the Qatar 2022 world cup are magnificent with wide variety of modern materials and constructions techniques. So, the stadiums and buildings can be constructed in order to provide the participants and audience with the maximum of comfort.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, air conditioning applied to stadiums would reduce the temperature typical for climate in Qatar and make the conditions appropriate for the game.
Planning for world cup facilities. The facilities should be designed in accordance with the international norms of security measures for such type of events.
Besides, it is important to investigate whether the country and organizations that contribute to the construction of buildings and facilities in Qatar are certified to perform such activities. However, the projects of stadiums and facilities are aimed at bringing the world cup on the brand-new level of design and construction in term so architecture and tourism.
Critical issues. Environmental factors for Qatar include a great variety of factors such as hot temperature and high level of humidity. As such, the air conditioning would be an integral part of the construction of buildings and facilitites for the world cup in Qatar 2022.
The infrastructure in this country should be developed as well as the stadiums. Roads, airports, and other means of transportation and communication should be developed to ensure that all guests of the world cup would be satisfied. “some emerging market host countries (such as China, India and Qatar) are ramping up aggressively as project sponsors” (Orr and Kennedy 96).
The airways of Qatar are reported to be sufficient for the world cup, “…Qatar Airways created strong competition for well-established carriers” (Surovitskikha and Lubbeb 2).
The study by Al-Madfa, Abdel-Moati, and Al-Gimaly is aimed at researching the water pollution in Qatar of oysters. However, if water pollution influences water organisms, it would inevitably influence people that would bathe in the sea when they come to Qatar for the world cup 2022.
We will write a custom Essay on Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study by Abu-Madi et al. Focuses on parasites and other infections that are typical for Qatar and can develop in the human organism in such a hot climate as in Qatar. So, infections prevention measures should be taken in advance to ensure that no fans that would come to the world cup can be infected with parasites and other typical diseases.
The problem of health care was also investigated by Chouchane et al. who analysed the medical environment in Qatar. This means that health care should be developed as an integral part of the country’s infrastructure..
Climate change and emission control (green world cup). Piebalgs analysed the relationship between energy and air pollution and possibilities for reducing gas emission in Qatar with regard to their natural resources and possible use of alternative sources of energy that would be more environmentally safe and sufficient.
Expected Outcomes Summary of discussion. The emerging economy of Qatar is a good sign of developing opportunities to realize the projects for the world cup 2022. However, there are some obstacles that can interfere with the plans of the management of this project.
As such, analysis of infrastructure should include health care issues and security measures while planning the budgeting for the project. Besides, relationship between the gas emission and green world cup concepts should be drawn.
Possible limitations. The limitations of the project include investments and the increased level of infections typical for this type of climate.
Works Cited Abu-Madi, Marawan A., Behnke, Jerzy M., and Doiphode, Sanjay H. “Changing Trends in Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar.” Parasites
Strategic Management of Business Operations Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Situation and competitive analysis
Organization’s challenges in the global market
Introduction There has been stiff competition in the execution of business activities with each company implementing different and creative strategies to win over the market. The continuous advancement in technology has brought forth various new ways of handling various activities and issues in all field of business operations.
Technology has improved communication and transport which are among the many aspects having close relations to business growth and expansion. Easy transport and communication has enhanced by technology has made more and more transactions to be undertaken.
To ensure that the business survives the dynamic market forces in rendering its services to the customers and win more customers, there is need for proper strategic measures to be formulated and implemented. This essay seeks to analyze strategic management as implemented in the management of business operations so as to maintain good business performance and development despite the changes in market forces that may occur.
A specific example of Bay hotels will be used to make the discussion real in pinpointing out areas where attention will be required as the hotels tries to make their presence felt in the around the national and around the world.
Strategic management The history of an organization is usually important in checking the progress over the years. This usually helps in one being able to know the challenges a company has undergone and the way the challenges were handled then. The past challenges and successes usually form a platform for formulating new strategies depending on the future prospects.
It also helps a company management to avoid repeating mistakes which committed in the past. For the case of Bay hotels, the past has witnessed an excellence performance. Bay hotels are located in Britain. There are eleven regions where Bay hotels are in England, three in Scotland and one in Wales. Some of the regions have up to four hotels making the total number of Bay hotels in Britain to be around 32.
The Bay hotels are located in some of the best resort regions in the UK making them have a unique attraction to visitors. According to the company website, “Every Bay hotel has its own unique character and because we were the first to offer accommodation in many areas, you can expect out hotels to enjoy prime locations with some of the best views around” (Bay, 2009, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various strategy paradoxes that have different ways of approaching and solving problems. There are two main approaches to learning of strategies proposed by Abraham Maslow which are problem-driven and tool-driven (Meyer
Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The origin of Kashrut and Halal
Similarities between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism
Differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism
Introduction The religious aspect has greatly changed over the years and it has thus been proved that there is no single religion tradition in the 21st century that is an island. Islam and Judaism are among the religious traditions of the 21st century. The US terrorist attack on September 2001 has called for an understanding between the diverse traditional religions.
The following essay examines the relationship between Islam and Judaism. The essay specifically examines the similarities and differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism by comparing the Kashrut in the Judaism tradition vs. Halal in the Islam tradition.The essay also investigates the origin of Kashrut and Halal.The last section of the essay is comprised of a conclusion on the dietary laws of Islam and Judaism.
However, it is important to know the meaning of the words Kashrut and Halal.In Jewish. The term Kashrut means being fit i.e. foods that man is permitted to eat and if well prepared, the food is regarded as being Kosher. Usually, there are various reasons for observing the Kashrut law and the most popular reason is that it is unhealthy to take forbidden food.
Thus, holiness forms the basis of this law. According to Judaism, all things should be viewed from a spiritual perspective and therefore one must eat some foods and at the same time refrains form eating others. According to this law, it is important for people to have control over their appetites.On the other hand, Halal is an Arabic term that could be translated to mean something that is considered per4missible by law.
Haram, also an Arabic term could be translated to mean something not permitted by the law; it means opposite of Halal. These two words i.e. Halal and Haram are global terms that are used with regards to food products, food ingredients and meat products. The Halal dietary law is an aspect of Shari law.
In the Shari, Hall could be translated to mean that all foods are permissible with of exception of some foods like pork and related products among other (Cutis 165).
The origin of Kashrut and Halal The following is a brief history of the Judaism and Islam dietary laws; The Jewish dietary laws revolve around the prohibitions and regulations in the Torah i.e. the five books of Moses. The Judaic dietary law is thought to date back in the 1250 BC when Moses was given Kashrut law by God on Mount Sinai. The Jewish thus were obliged to follow the Kashrut law as a result of its divine source.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Kashrut law has over the years gained a huge symbolic significance to an extent that the Jews are prepared to offer their lives as a sacrifice rather than disobey God’s decree. The laws regarding the kind of animals, fish and birds that should be eaten is explained in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. According to the scripture, the Jews are supposed to eat animals which have split hooves and also those that chew the cud.
Such animals that have spilt hooves and also chew the cuds are domestic animals like sheep and cow. On the other hand there is no common formula that is stated with regards to the birds that may be eaten instead; there is a list of forbidden animals which includes the owl, the raven and the eagle.
Although there is no reason that explains the above choices, scholars have suggested that the birds that are forbidden are the birds of prey. Thus by refraining from eating birds of prey, man have been considered as cruel in that, he exploits the weak. With fish, the law of Kashrut states that man should only eat fish that has scales and fins. Also, there is no reason that is given in supporting this distinction.
The scholars have came up with various explanations regarding this law e.g. the argument that those fish that don’t have scales and fins are found in sea depths which is associated with such chaos and adultery( Lewis 30.
The Kashrut law also explains how animals should be killed for food. Despite the fact that this procedure is not explained in the Torah, it is believed that the procedure of killing animals has divine influence as God explained to Moses on how to go about it. This procedure is however explained by various laws and one is required to undergo training before he or she becomes a slaughter.
Studies by Maimonides in 12th century explained that, the main reason behind slaughtering procedure is to allow the animal to die a painless death. According to Judaism, animals should not be subjected to too much suffering during slaughter. Another aspect of slaughter law is that animals that has any kind of defect should not be eaten.Defect according to Kashrut is known as ‘terefah’ which means the state of being torn.
This provision of Kashrut law is contained in Exodus 22:31.Similarly, an animal that is found to have some defects after slaughter is usually taken to a religious leader in order to examine whether it is a kosher or not. Also, adequate salt should be added during meat preparation.
We will write a custom Essay on Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This law is derived from the Bible. Kashrut law also restricts people from taking meat and milk together and this law is stipulated in Exodus 23:19. The Bible usually does not explain the source of Judaism dietary laws but it associates these laws with holiness i.e. in Exodus 22:31, Leviticus 11:44-45 and Deuteronomy 14:21 (Cohn-Sherbok 556).
On the other hand, religious leaders in their studies about Kashrut held the view that, the mere observance of dietary laws helps to promote self discipline among the Jewish community. Maimonides in his studies argued that, the Kashrut laws plays an important role of teaching discipline and appetites mastery.
Other scholars argued that the Kashrut laws were based on humanitarian grounds due to the fact that the law requires animals to be slaughtered painlessly. However, the Kashrut laws were universally practiced in the 19th century. The prescriptions of Kashrus laws have largely been ignored by the Jews reformists while the Judaism conservatives have been adhering to the Kashrus laws (Rachel 48).
On the other hand, Islamic dietary laws also known as Halal determine the kind of foods that are permitted or lawful for Muslims and are contained in the Sunni and in the Quran. The Halal laws are believed to have been in existence since 620 AD. The Quran documents the ritual procedures of slaughtering poultry and animals. The Quran requires that dead animals should not be slaughtered.
The Halal forbidden the carrion and requires the windpipe and carotid artery to be cut off by using a sharp knife so as to not to cause much pain. Additionally, one is required to mention the name of Allah before he or she begins the slaughtering and to completely drain the blood (Deutsch
The United Nations in Africa Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo
United Nations Operations in Mozambique
United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia
Introduction The United Nations (UN) is a worldwide institute who’s affirmed objectives are assisting collaboration in intercontinental law, global security, economic progress, societal development, individual liberties and attainment of global harmony. The body was set up in 1745 following the Second World War to substitute the League of Nations, to bring to a halt conflicts involving nations, and to offer a stage for discussion.
It entails several auxiliary bodies to put through its undertakings. There are presently 192 affiliate nations, with each autonomous country in the world other than the Vatican City (United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance).
From its administrative centers around the world, the UN and its specific outfits settle on essential and organizational matters in normal conventions held right through the year. The body has six major organs and the Security Council is the organ tasked with fixing on given decisions for harmony and safety.
The UN has carried out several peaces restoration and observance missions in Africa since the 1950s to the present day. Following independence, several African nations have been involved in civil unrest and the UN has been the international body mostly involved in exercises to ensure warring factions stay in peace.
The progression from an armed clash to peace and tranquility is usually divided into four different exercises. These exercises are; conciliation, peacekeeping, peace implementation and peace building, in that order. The conciliation exercise is normally a diplomatic undertaking while the rest are enforced by armed forces (Anyidoho, 13).
United Nations peace exercises have been positive and gainful alternatives for dealing with some conflicts and humanitarian predicaments.
The greater part of the 35 mediation exercises carried out by the UN over the past five decades have been of great significance in ending regional conflicts, enhancing social equality, and keeping an eye on human rights. They have assisted stop expatriate flows and resulted in stability to areas of strategic and economic significance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo, truncated to ONUC, translates to The United Nations Organization in the Congo in English. This was a UN international relations military unit in Congo that was instituted following the United Nations Security Council Resolution 143 of July 14, 1963. From this period the name was changed to Opération des Nations Unies au Congo (Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001, 12).
Congo got independence on June 30 1960. However, the Belgian commander-in-chief declined to Africanize the administrators’ units of the armed forces. As a result of the there was disarray and uprisings broke out.
As the then head of state and the prime minister were engrossed in finding a middle ground with the radicals, the Belgian administration made a decision to get involved to safeguard Belgians that were still in the country. The Belgian administration was for the idea that Katanga Province, one of the most productive in the country be independent. This is where the majority of the Belgians stayed.
The Belgian administration sent its soldiers to Elisabethville, Katanga’s headquarters to safeguard Belgians on July 10, 1960. They claimed autonomy of the region. Two days later, Congo’s President and the Prime Minister requested for aid of the UN in resolving the matter (Anon).
The UN Secretary-General asked the concerned organ, the UN Security Council, to act on the issue as a matter of urgency in a meeting held on July 13th, 1960. The Security Council required the Belgian administration to take put its soldiers from Congo’s land.
The decision allowed the UN Secretary General to go ahead, in discussion with the Congolese administration, to offer that regime with the required forces aid until it felt that, by way of its labors with the technological help of the UN, the countrywide defense forces were in a position to achieve their responsibilities completely.
After the Security Council actions, the United Nations Force in the Congo (MONUC) was instituted. To perform these duties, the Secretary General put together a UN Force, which at its climax force added up to 20,000. The military unit was in Congo from 1960 to 1964, and remained a mediation force, not a war machine.
We will write a custom Essay on The United Nations in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They could only use their weaponry in self defense. Nevertheless, they in due course became aggressively occupied in repressing the attempted secession of Katanga. The pulling out of Belgian soldiers was accomplished by September of the same year.
Following this, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba went ahead in an effort to invade Katanga on his own, looking up to the Soviet Union for assistance. The raid effort never got to Katanga and resulted in discord within the Central Administration, the fall down of that administration and in the end to Patrice Lumumba’s apprehension in December.
The United Nations soldiers remained in the country until 1964 and during all this time they were assisting the administration to uphold tranquility and in strengthening the autonomy of the nation. After all this, Katanga remained a province.
United Nations Operations in Mozambique The United Nations operations in Mozambique in the early 90s are abbreviated ONUMOZ. The operations were instituted in December of 1992 to help in the enactment of the harmony accord involving the administration of Mozambique and the opposition faction RENAMO.
The nation’s post-independence civil strife took place from 1976 to 1992 and led to the death of approximately 1 million people (Handicap International). It also led to the devastation of the nation’s infrastructure and farming capability, and forced millions of immigrants into next-door nations.
Mozambique’s Portuguese colonial cream of the crop departed right away after independence. After a few years, the country, like a number of other African nations, got caught up in the area disorder fired by Cold War enmities and the procedures of the Apartheid administration in neighboring South Africa. Just about two decades of civil conflict at last ended in 1992.
The fall down of white administrations all through southern Africa, the coming to an end of the Cold War, and a destructive food crisis, offered the setting for the General Peace Agreement marked between the war factions in Rome.
ONUMOZ kept an eye on the truce and disbandment of armed groups and offered safety for humanitarian aid. The being there of ONUMOZ shored up safety and assurance as the conditions of the tranquility agreements were enacted and free polls conducted.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The United Nations in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Countrywide polls, conducted in October 1994, were confirmed to be free and fair by the United Nations. Up to 90% of entitled voters took part in the exercise and both competing sides honored the outcome of the poll.
The command of ONUMOZ came to an end with the putting in place of the freshly voted national administration in December 1994. All the United Nations troops were pulled out as of January 31, the following year.
In this country, the United Nations did well in disbanding armed foes exhibiting great hostility and animosity, getting immigrants back home, and building an atmosphere within which free and fair polls could be conducted (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs).
In this, it ensured better stableness all through the southern African expanse, serving as a case in point for continuing United Nations efforts to put an end to Angola’s lengthy civil strife.
United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia This is abbreviated UNOL and as instituted in November 1997 after the conclusion of UNOMIL’s command at the end of September of the same year. UNOMIL was the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia that had been running since 1993.
UNOL was led by an envoy of the Secretary General and was basically the first UN post-war maintenance organization whose task was to principally help the administration strengthen harmony after the July 1997 multiparty polls.
Civil conflict in Liberia took away more than 250,000 lives and resulted in a full collapse of law and order (The United Nations Statistics Division). A lot of civilians were displaced, both inland and beyond the nation’s borders.
There were about 850,000 expatriates in the next-door nations. Warfare commenced towards the end of 1989, and by the beginning of 1990, quite a lot of hundred deaths had taken place in conflicts involving government troops and opposition rebels of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, NPFL. NPFL was led by a previous government officer, Mr. Charles Taylor.
As of the beginning of the war, a sub regional association, the Economic Community of West African States, embarked on a number of ideas directed at a diplomatic agreement. The UN shored up ECOWAS in its labors. Some of the help that UN offered was instituting of an ECOWAS observer unit, enforcing an arms restriction on Liberia and providing a Special Envoy to help in negotiations involving ECOWAS and the groups in conflict.
Following ECOWAS’s negotiation of a peace accord in Benin in 1993, the UN Security Council instituted UNOMIL. UNOMIL was tasked with shoring up the enactment of the Benin peace accord, particularly falling in line with and unbiased enactment of the accord by all parties.
UNOMIL became the initial UN international relations exercise carried out in collaboration with a peacekeeping exercise previously instituted by another association.
Holdups in the enactment of the tranquility accord and restarted warfare among Liberian splinter groups made it unworkable to conduct polls in early 1994, as pre-arranged. In the upcoming months, some complimentary tranquility accords, adjusting and shedding light on the Benin accord was bargained (Johnson).
With the truce in effect, the UN effectively monitored the July 1997 polls. Mr. Charles Taylor emerged as the winner. He was sworn in and instituted a new administration and declared a course of action of ceasefire and national harmony. UNOMIL’s main aim was attained.
UNOL came in after UNOMIL and by way of complete back up by the Security Council, it made possible the endorsement of national ceasefire and first-rate administration and assisted in drumming up global back up for the enactment of restoration and growth agendas.
In the most up to date stage, UNOL directed its efforts toward accomplishment of the stipulations of a reworked consent, permitted by the Security Council on April 23, 2003.
Under the stipulations of that reworked consent, and to add to its original duties, UNOL was to lay emphasis on helping the administration of Liberia in tackling its articulated facility requirements in the areas of civil rights and the carry-out of polls, as well as on building up a peace building tactic putting together opinionated intentions, agenda aid and civil rights contemplations.
Nonetheless, the peace building labors of UNOL were badly deterred by the lack of ability of the administration and opposition party leading lights to settle their discrepancies over major issues of administration.
In the meantime, the endorsement of national squaring off was chip away at by organized maltreatment of civil liberties, the omission persecution of political rivals and lack of security sector reorganization and improvement.
These factors had a major role to play to the recommencement of civil strife in Liberia, propelling the international community to call on the fighting factions to go after a bargained resolution of the disagreement (Human Rights Watch Africa).
On July 8, 2003, the UN Secretary General assigned Jacques Paul Klein of the US as his Special Envoy to Liberia. This was a period in which the war involving Government troops and the various militaristic groups stepped up and the humanitarian catastrophe in danger.
Jacques was tasked with organizing the actions of the United Nations organs in Liberia and shoring up the up-and-coming changeover preparations. On July 29 of the same year the UN Secretary General charted a three-pronged set out of intercontinental forces to Liberia, directing to a multifaceted mediation exercise.
He also stated that, with the selection of Mr. Jacques, and the foreseen institution of a United Nations exercise in Liberia, the command of UNOL would of course have to be concluded.
Works Cited Anon 2004. “Can Africans keep their own peace?” Web.
Anon 2004 Strategic Comments. “African peacekeeping: Revival or relapse?” 2004 (5 Strategic Comments. Anyidoho. “Political Control and Guidance of Peace Support Operations in Africa: A UN Commander’s View” (2002). Ghana Armed Forces. p. 13
Grey-Johnson. “Beyond Peacekeeing; The Challenge of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Africa” (2006) (1) UN Chronicle Online Edition. Web.
Handicap International, 2010. Web.
Human Rights Watch Africa, 2009. Web.
The United Nations Statistics Division. “World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook, 2008.” Web.
United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Landmine Clearance Unit Report on Mozambique. 2003. Web.
United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance. 2008. Web.
Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001. “Copson RW Democratic Republic of the Congo: Peace Process and Background.” (2001). p. 12.
Nuclear Deterrence Essay best essay help
Both Thomas Schelling and Herman Kahn agree that nuclear weapons serve as efficient deterrence tools. However, the two have different ideologies on just how the weapons play the deterrence role. Schelling argues that nuclear weapons do not have to pose a credible threat in order to be an effective deterrence tool, while Kahn argues that the threat posed by nuclear weapons have to be credible in order to serve the deterrence role effectively.
This paper argues that though Schelling’s theory was more valid during the cold war, it is no longer applicable in the contemporary world. In fact, Kahn’s theory seems more relevant considering the different dynamics that has surfaced in the 21st century threat environment.
Schelling proposed that the power of deterrence in the nuclear age is pegged not only on the equality or balance of the nuclear-possessing countries, but on the “stability of the balance” (Pennings 314). This proposition is further supported by his argument that parties in a conflict need to “coolly and rationally calculate their advantages according to consistent value systems” (Schelling 18).
Combined, these two propositions suggest that the mere possession of nuclear weapons is not deterrent enough; rather, opponents need to be in an equal position, where a first strike the aggressor party cannot diminish the defender’s ability to strike back.
Clearly, Schelling’s views on deterrence were based on uncertainty. More specifically, the theorist suggested that both sides had to be vulnerable for deterrence to work.
Notably, Schelling’s theory appeared plausible in 1972 when the US and USSR signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM). According to the treaty, both parties could only have one ABM deployment area, located near each party’s capital city, or at a singled-out deployment area.
The treaty held until June 2002 when United States withdrew from it. If Schelling’s theory was indeed plausible, the withdrawal of the US from the treaty could have led to a disruption in international security and peace.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kahn argued that countries use nuclear weapons for two kinds of deterrence; “Deterring an enemy’s first nuclear strike,” and, “using the threat of [our] own first strike to deter lesser aggression” (Levine and Levine 3). (Garnett 76) however notes that Kahn identified three deterrence modes of the nuclear weapon.
First, Kahn hypothesized that countries feared that a direct attack on a nuclear state would lead to a second-retaliatory attack. On this point, Kahn and Schelling share the same views.
Second, he posited that countries feared that provocation could trigger the probability of a credible first nuclear strike; and third, he hypothesized that countries could encourage the use of tit-for-tat deal brokering, which could deter the escalation of conflicts and provocations.
The latter supposition is similar to Schelling’s view that opponents would try other means of resolving conflict, by maintaining some sort of ‘respect’ for the other party, in order to avoid situations where nuclear weapons can be used.
Notably, Kahn’s ideologies have been criticized for providing more than deterrence principles. Specifically, some critics have accused him of offering directives on “how to fight a nuclear war, how to win it, and how to get away with it” (Kahn
Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company
Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions
How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity
Introduction A supply network refers to interrelated business processes whose main aim is successful delivery of products or services of an organization to its end users or consumers. The aim of this task is to identify and describe the total supply net work of the Coca Cola Corporation and to identify factors that have influenced its determination of the parts of business to outsource or keep in-house.
The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company Coca Cola Company is one of the biggest multinational companies in the world, with business operations in virtually all independent nations. Busa and Wright (2007, p. 92) states that Coca Cola Corporation has for over a century been manufacturing and selling bottled beverages.
They further add that the actual manufacturing and bottling of its beverages is carried out by its world wide system of business partners. The Company has local bottling branches in various countries world over where its products are made and packaged for markets in the immediate environs.
In reality, success of the production network of a company like Coca Cola which acts globally relies mainly on how well the logistics collaboration between partners is working Stangford-Smith, et al. (2002, p. 640).
These authors argues that the Coca Cola Company maximizes the possible saving possibilities within the European food processing sector through an enhanced collaboration in production systems Stanford-Smith et al. (2002, p. 640). With respect to the supply section the company has automated order taking processes especially in the developed countries.
For instance, in USA its sales agents does this by entering sales on transportable terminals while out in the field which are in turn transferred automatically to the companies main database Scott (1986, p. 33).This enables the company to maintain a superior customer service and satisfaction.
Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions Business out sourcing process refers to situation whereby an organization’s part of its business is done by another partner as opposed to its actual employees. For example, a company can seek I.T services for its business from another organization specializing in provision of services in that field.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An organization’s decisions regarding business process out sourcing is influenced by many factors which can be economic, social, and political in nature. Russell and Taylor(2005, p. 245) for instance argues that the Coca Cola Company can not in its endeavors to out source reveal its formula to another partner even under circumstances where secrecy is guaranteed.
Most of the factors that have influenced Coca cola Corporation decisions on what parts of its business to out source and which to keep in-house are socioeconomic in nature in that most of the services outsourced are geared towards cutting the cost of operating and enhancing a superior customer service that guarantees satisfaction.
The company for instance aims at reducing its labour and distribution costs through partnership with companies that specialize in certain kind of business processes like distribution. Government policies also play a critical role in determining how Coca Cola Company makes its decisions regarding business out sourcing process.
How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity Coca Cola Company capacity is largely hinged on its ever expanding global market floor space and other competitive strategies such as purchasing of own premises like warehouses in its operational bases. In addition to expanding, the company partners with other organizations whose business activities impacts directly upon its activities.
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America for instance points out that various companies in the food and beverage sectors have been breaking into new markets by either competing or partnering with MNCs like Coca Cola UNECLA 2008, p. 67).
Reference Busa, R. and Wright. N. (2007) Total Supply Chain Management. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Russell, R. S., Taylor, B. W. (2005) Operations management: quality and competitiveness in a global environment. New York: John Wiley.
We will write a custom Assessment on Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scott, K. (1986) Data to go: Portables a profusion of portables permeate the market place, Net work World. Vol. 3, No. 23, p.33
Stanford-Smith, B., Chiozza, E. and Edin, M. (2002) Challenges and achievements in E-business and E-work. New York: IOS Press.
United Nations Publications, United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLA) (2008) Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2007. New York: United Nations Publications.
Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The education enables people to gain new skills in a formal and governmentally controlled way which then benefits the individual’s professional training and promotional ladder movement. Though some people think education to be a rudiment of the renaissance age when this was a concept available to rich people only, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of education on different levels and in different ages.
The age groups of learners vary regarding the essence of learning. For instance, elementary and secondary education is obligatory aspect of ordinary life in most countries of the world whereas ESL learning is the area available to people who want to learn English and master it to the degree of native speaking.
At the same time, many nations acknowledge necessity of learning other languages than the native one in the context of the globalisation and developing cultural diversity issues. The syllabus will include vocabulary, language focus, listening, and speaking sections that consist of specific topics necessary for adequate development of language skills in whole.
The present learning syllabus in Taiwan elementary schools was introduced to make the learning-teaching process more effective. Along with the new syllabus, a new assessment scale was introduced to functions as the following:
understanding the strengths and weaknesses of students’ learning ability,
assisting teachers in monitoring student learning progress,
evaluating students’ learning,
placing students in learning groups based on given institutional standards (Chan, 2006, p. 37).
So, the syllabus for the primary school in Taiwan includes interventions for reading (phonemic awareness), writing, listening, and speaking.
Reforms can be considered another important aspect of many sectors of human activity including education that should be adjusted to changing needs and preferences of the population with regard to the expansion of businesses into the global market, development of new areas in new fields of industry with the help of foreign partners or involvement of foreign investors.
In this respect, ESL learners in Taiwan are facing the necessity of introducing new English literature learning syllabus in accordance with the importance of being in the mainstream of the language learning. Besides, a combination of the most effective approaches to design of the literature learning syllabi can be more effective than the application of a single approach or in-turn application of different approaches.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, ESL learners can benefit from introduction of the new approach that is aimed at using the task-based and topic-based learning syllabi. The present project is designed in order to outline an English literature learning syllabus for ESL learners of 8-12 years old in Taiwan.
The subject will include reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation interventions for ESL students that would contribute positively to the development of language skills necessary for adequate academic development which is impossible without good reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
Background The English literature learning syllabus should include the features of the topic-based and task-based approaches because ESL students should benefit more from the introduction of new instructions. The syllabus should include clear instructions and be more oriented on gaining the knowledge on a specific topic rather than on a definite text that is aimed at developing knowledge in a concrete area.
General aims of the course include design of a new English learning syllabus or ESL learners in Taiwan. The social, cultural, and educational environments are under the influence of the political and economical ones because of the emerging tendencies in the economy and growth of globalisation.
Participants of this syllabus are ESL learners in Taiwan and well-qualified teachers who have experience in primary teaching and ESL teaching as well. The English literature learning syllabus is introduced for the primary EFL students in Taiwan to enable them to gain knowledge in English language and understand the peculiarities of culture better.
Theoretical Framework The globalization and the development of an international perspective have pushed English to become an international language or global communication language. Many countries see English as a basic educational requirement (Maurais and Morris, 2003). The motivation and environment have been examined as factors that influence the language acquisition progress by many researchers.
As reported in the study by Gunderson (2008), “Cummins argued that learning occurs in different contexts [that] provide substantial cues to the learner” (p. 41). Corson (1999) reviews the methods that can be applied to increase the language and literature learning efficiency in the ESL class.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, increase of motivation, reduce the level of anxiety, and increase the level of pupils’ self-confidence and others (p. 199). This means that environment and motivation are of great importance for the ESL students’ effectiveness in learning.
The current situation is such as the ESL learning syllabus is mostly based on the insufficient teacher training resources, content-based or topic-based approach to the presentation of new learning material in class, cooperative learning, and learning in groups when students are divided into smaller groups than the class usually comprises for better acquisition of the presented material.
In addition, the current situation with ESL students in primary school in Taiwan is such that students start learning English as a second language in a younger age than they used to before; so, students may experience difficulties related to associations built in the native and the foreign language. Moreover, students are taught to build analogies and simplify more complicated terms and concepts using new vocabulary.
Qualification of teachers plays one of the major roles in effectiveness of instructions and the expected outcomes of the teaching process. “Students who are not isolated in ESL programs are thrust into mainstream classrooms with teachers little prepared to accommodate them” (Flood, International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, 2003, p. 430).
As suggested by Carder (2007), “ESL teachers for primary (ages 6-11 or 12) should be well-qualified teachers of this age group, with additional training in second language teaching” (p. 38). Besides, the student teacher ratio should not exceed 8:1 (eight students per one teacher) if the ESL syllabus concerns the primary school (Carder, 2007, p. 40).
The history of ESL reading instructions was reviewed by Gunderson (2008) who analysed the approaches and reading programmes used by different scholars and practicing teachers of ESL learners with regard to effectiveness of each approach and benefits gained by learners.
The first approach includes a bottom-up model of teaching according to which “most teachers appear to believe students should be taught skills such as phonics and letter-sound relationship” (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36). The second model, in this case, concerns the top-down approach when students are “asked to read meaningful material” which excludes teaching the letter-sound correspondence directly (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36).
The compromise between these two models is reached in the third one called interactive which is supposed to combine the designs of both the top-down and the bottom-up models (Gunderson, 2008, pp. 36-37). Combination of different learning syllabi is welcomed in the educational system in order to promote educational level of ESL learners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Variety of views and approaches makes it easier for teachers to use and combine the most effective educational models for ESL students to benefit from them.
Ferris and Hedgcock (2005) report about the variety of views developed in terms of the ESL composition writing, namely the opinion of expressivists who think that expressing oneself in the process of writing is the most important part of writing and cognitivists who consider problem-solving and analysis the main components of the writing process (pp. 5-6).
Task-based learning can be useful in addressing conditions related to ESL students’ writing practice (Cumming, 2006, p. 163). Hinkel (2004a) reports about the varieties of instructions for writing classes and importance of writing skills for ESL students.
As such, opinion-based reports and essays are aimed at reflecting personal thoughts and vision of a student (Hinkel, 2004a, p. 10) whereas the fact-based exemplification allows the instructor to assess the cognitive concept and the knowledge gained by the ESL student (p. 24).
Topic- or content-based approach to the learning syllabus which was introduced in the late 1970s in Australia to cope with the problem of ESL students that should have been included into mainstream school curriculum became a real innovation (Evans, 1996, pp. 179-180).
As suggested by Evans (1996), the structure of the lesson was based on a topic, its visual presentation, building of a reading passage, analysis of the passage, and the final writing (pp. 180-182).
Besides, careful structuring of the task has been identified as the primary factor for effective teaching-learning process using the task-based approach (Clegg, 1996, p. 17). In addition, the pace of language and inter-language development should be increased to ensure that an ESL student succeeds in learning (Clegg, 1996, p. 18).
Different approaches used with ESL students enable the teacher to perform the teaching-learning process more effectively. The study by Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy (2004) enables the readers to understand the benefits of different models of learning.
For instance, ESL students are claimed to benefit more from lessons if they find the tasks a bit difficult and challenging and the instructions do not take the most part of the lesson (Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy, 2004, p. 2). A literature learning syllabus for ESL primary learners may focus more on topics and vocabulary rather than on specific works of literature (Carder, 2007, p. 55).
The process of reading is not only a part of the English literature learning syllabus but also an important element of second language acquisition that has a number of benefits (Carder, 2007, p. 59).
Language learning syllabus should be aimed at developing such skills as recognition and identification of definite “sounds, letters, lexicogrammar, sentence…”, “awareness of language”, and other useful components that would be applied during the entire learning course (Carder, 2007, p. 58).
Mississippi Department of Education (1998) insisted on the importance of instructing students how to read; so, clear instructions facilitate learning. Grade books may appear to be too difficult and easier variants can be used. The book by Barchers (1991) is structured in an interesting way including texts and explanations and clear instructions to each of them making it really simple:
Read the book aloud. Allow the students to fill in words as they listen. During the second reading, list a variety of examples of alliteration on the board. Find the 60 objects in the book that begin with the letter “f”. Then list all the foods mentioned in the story (Barchers, 1991, p.146).
The study by Honig (2001) advocates the importance of associating the typed text with the speech heard by students. Larkin (2003) insists on the importance of reading words correctly; this method “… helps students to improve their reading comprehension, increase their vocabulary, and work cooperatively with peers” (p.156).
Assessment of the ESL learners enables the teachers to thrust them into mainstream curriculum school so that they became an integral part of the learning process paying no attention to their previous achievement and gaining knowledge in other subjects as well as mastering their language skills.
The skills gained by ESL learners are assessed by the teachers in order to identify whether they are ready to enter the mainstream of the curriculum with other students whose native language is English; assessment includes measurement of listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills and pronunciation (McKay, 2006).
At the same time, some learners may feel anxiety while being assessed and demonstrate poorer skills and knowledge than was previously seen in ordinary classes without introducing tests and assessment scales.
The task-based curriculum requires students to be capable of fulfilling various tasks that are claimed to become useful for future learning; topic-based curriculum is supposed to be limited to specific topics taught through various visual aids and instructions to facilitate understanding of the topic and build bridges between the native language and second language.
Literature-based approach in teaching-learning is isolated in terms of the definite number of literary sources in accordance to which the ESL students are expected to acquire knowledge about the environment and cultural peculiarities of the second language.
Competency-based syllabus is designed in a way that makes the ESL students gain knowledge and experience in the areas that are believed to be of primary importance; for instance, students are taught to identify letter-sound relations in order to pas the text on this activity later.
Context Analysis The effectiveness of every model that has been in operation should not be questioned because it appeared to be effective for the period in which it operated. At the same time, the model or design is updated as soon as it becomes inappropriate for the audience, other methodologies applied to it, and the results anticipated from its work.
In this respect, the effect of the communicative language teaching model has been analysed by Hinkel (2011b), “The communicative competence model proved highly successful in broadening the scope of classroom teaching and applied linguistics” (p. 348). In this case, this model is worth being used for design of a new English literature learning syllabus for ESL students in Taiwan.
Needs analysis can be fulfilled using the needs assessment tool introduced in the study by Nunan (1992, p. 248), can be seen in the Appendices section. According to this tool, students should be surveyed with the help of simple questions that concern their language skills and language difficulties experienced in their ordinary environment.
So, this survey enables the teacher to identify without any stressful tests how a student feels about his/her progress in English, communication in different levels, listening skills, and other areas that might require more attention in the process of teaching-learning.
Material and visual resources should contain word cards and pictures where all the objects and most situations in different topics are depicted. In this respect, a teacher would not need to write down the words on the blackboard every time. Besides, it would be interesting for children to draw pictures on different topics by themselves to put those up when the teacher asks them in English.
Visual perception of the text as well association of words with specific objects is very important. Preparation for every lesson will take a lot of time if a teacher is going to provide every; time limitation would not be a problem in case of clear organization of the lesson with comprehensive instructions.
The use of vocabulary and other tools to enrich the students’ understanding of the language structure and meaning and develop ESL students’ desire to learn the language further are the primary tasks of the course.
Course Rationale, Organisation, And Approach Aims of the course include a variety of assignments aimed at developing listening and reading skills, writing and speaking skills, and pronunciation.
Besides, comprehension of the read material should be an integral part of the expected results of the learning syllabus because lack of understanding contributes negatively to the further learning achievements and influences the entire concept of language learning as it includes many aspects. The course is designed for the ESL learners in Taiwan taking into account the primary school aged 8-12 years.
Instructional language with a prevailing number of infinitive constructions will be used to provide instructions in the classroom. The lexical range of verbs will be developed as the class progresses including adequate translations as soon as the verb is introduced for the first time and repetition of the verb accompanied by specific actions.
For instance, if a teacher tells “take your books”, he/she should do what he/she says to show pupils, repeat the same phrase in their native language and repeat it in English again. The assessment of achievement will be performed right after the class (using a 5-10 minute period to find out what pupils got to know). In addition, every class should start with a brainstorming activity to recollect what was said and learn at the previous class.
The learning-teaching context will concern an ordinary classroom that will be steadily filled in with words and pictures on the walls referring to the topics studied in the language acquisition, in literature, and grammar. This course strives to help students to gain more abilities for reading, writing and speaking.
The following areas will be components of the syllabus analysis and justification: description of entry level to course, description of intended exit level, description of assessment, course description, and course goals.
Description of entry level to course
The entry level to the course will include needs analysis using the model offered in the appendices section and evaluation of the gaps students may have in terms of the English language acquisition and use in everyday life and activities requiring the use of English language. At this stage, it is necessary to recognise that a student has or might have problems and he/she needs help in coping with those issues.
Dividing the class into groups should not be fulfilled in accordance with the language competence level but on the basis of the types of information perception. For instance, some students may read and remember the typed text better while others are better listeners and understand the speech on the TV and on the radio better than their classmates.
Description of intended exit level
The exit level for ESL students that are going to finish this course include achievement of the goals enumerated below.
Description of Assessment
The assessment of the preliminary stage was already discussed while assessment of each student’s achievement in terms of language acquisition concerns the tests and quizzes aimed at analysis of the speaking, reading, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
The course includes information on topics to improve the ESL students’ speaking, writing, listing, reading, and pronunciation skills.
Course Goals Improve listing and comprehension skills
Develop students’ basic English communication abilities (speaking including formulation of their thoughts)
Raise students’ interest in learning English
Broaden students’ cross-culture awareness
The importance of grammar cannot be excluded from the learning syllabus. The study by Gordon (2007) contains analysis of different approaches used to teach grammar as a part of the language learning syllabus.
However, everything can be arranged in the following way: the first phase of teaching-learning should concern noun phrases (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, noun clauses, and infinitives) (Lester, 2008, pp. 3-119). The next phase of learning should enable ESL students to acquire verb phrases using basic forms of the verbs, special verbs, adverbs, and vary tenses of the verbs (Lester, 2008, pp. 119-273).
Finally, active and passive sentences including affirmative and interrogative statements should be introduced to the ESL students so that they could find the application of their knowledge on parts of speech in practice (Lester, 2008, pp. 273-334). In this respect, grammar can be arranged in the way that meets the topic of the speaking and reading parts of the syllabus.
The vocabulary should include the topics indicated in the appendices section in order to make the learning process more well-organized and structured for better understanding of the foreign culture by ESL students in Taiwan.
Speaking: The topics for speaking include the same as those for development of ESL students’ vocabulary because the topics should coincide in order to be effective in the learning syllabus. As such, the topics are the same as for vocabulary area:
Listening: The same as the speaking and vocabulary areas concerns the listening area because it is important to develop different skills using the topic-based approach.
Writing: This area of the learning syllabus should combine the grammar and vocabulary/speaking/listening topics in order to be effective. Nouns and pronouns should be introduced with the topic about ‘myself’ and family while the adjectives would be better used with such topics as weather and appearance.
Adverbs can be introduced together with the topic of directions and geography while differences between direct and indirect speech should be learnt in the framework of the discussion of literary sources.
Pronunciation: This area should include the same sources as for other areas such as speaking and vocabulary.
Writing Assignments 30%
Class Participation 20%
Anticipated Problems And Limitations Limitation of the course includes the number of teacher necessary to accomplish every lesson because the learning groups should consist of 8-10 students and no more. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the amount of materials necessary for every topic and importance of variety of assignments so that students were not bored.
Approach To Course Evaluation The assessment of the needs was already offered in the Appendices section while the evaluation of the outcomes should be performed after every class and after every topic using standard tests and evaluation sheets. For instance, Hedge (2000), uses 2 stages of textbook selecting process.
The syllabus is designed in the way suggested in this paper using specific topics for instruction and clear explanation of assignments for students. The further gaps of the syllabus can be identified in the process of operation and indicated by the teacher and survey aimed at analysing the students’ opinion and their satisfaction level.
Other limitations of the syllabus include the previous experience of the students in English language acquisition and their achievements. The course evaluation should comprise at least two approaches aimed at analysis of the achievements before and after the implementation of the new syllabus.
As such, it is possible to introduce a test based on multiple-choice questions for students of 8-12 age group so that a teacher could see their literacy level and divide them adequately into groups for teaching-learning a new syllabus.
The next step in the assessment should include evaluation of students’ achievements after being in the program for some time (at least two months); this means that evaluation should be performed in a stage-by-stage manner to understand the effectiveness of the syllabus and its influence on the learning process of ESL students in primary school in Taiwan.
Conclusion The reforms are always important for different sectors of human activity but education is one of the areas where reforms also can be either positive or negative. As a rule, the gaps in the methodologies and techniques are identified after their implementation into full operation. This also causes multiple problems and necessity for solving them.
As such, the importance of education was advocated in many studies while others think education to be a rudiment of the ancient ages when this was a method for achieving some goals.
At the same time, education remains the method of achieving one’s goals because it enables people to think differently, read books, and learn something new due to their skills. The age of learners can vary but the methodologies remain the same because of their proven effectiveness.
English is claimed to be an international language and every country attempts to introduce it as a foreign language into the system of education to develop the learners’ interest and desire to learn it in a more advanced level. Every syllabus should be designed in the way that facilitates understanding and learning of the material offered by the teacher.
Social, cultural and educational values may shift priorities but the desires remain the same and people often need formal education to go further up the career promotional ladder. In Taiwan, education has a strong basis for English language acquisition and instructions but they want to achieve more in giving their students the best practices and making them more experienced in English.
Reference List Barchers, S. (1991). Bridges to Reading: Grades K-3. Florida: Libraries Unlimited.
Brownlie, F., Feniak, C. and McCarthy, V., 2004. Instruction and assessment of ESL learners: promoting success in your classroom. 2nd ed. Winnipeg, MB: Portage
Migration and Development Essay essay help site:edu
Since time immemorial, people have always moved from their original or cradle land and found settlements in other places. This movement is caused by a number f reasons some of which are intentional while others are as a result of catastrophic occurrences.
This movement of people from one place to another is referred to as migration (Giddens, 1984). The aim of this discussion is to look at some of the impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around the immigrant and the community at large. In addition, this discussion will also focus on the link between migration and development.
There are quite a number of developmental issued that have emerged as a result of migration. This is because; most of the people who migrate are part of a workforce in a given society. This therefore means that their departure will leave a gap in the workforce of their society and will also add to the workforce of the so city where the immigrants will finally settle.
The United States of America for instance has continued to receive immigrants from many parts of the world with most of the immigrants to America coming from Mexico. This has created a relationship of dependency considering that America is a 1st world country while Mexico is still a developing country.
Many European countries have also seen immigrants from North America move into these countries permanently (Agunias, 2006).
During the boom period that was experienced in the 60s and 70s there were several agreements that were reached between the countries that were receiving labour and those that were providing labour. However, when this period came to an end, the needs of the countries that were receiving labour changed and this broke the ties between these countries.
Migration from various anthropological studies has been viewed in various angles some of which have been addressed in this discussion. Migration has been looked at from the angle of modernization. This is where anthropologists have argued that migration was used a tool of modernization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that since people in third world countries would migrate to 1st word countries in search of labour, they would get to earn of the new ways of life and when they went back to their native countries the would take back the new practices.
At the same time, by the immigrants providing labour in the 1st wor1d countries they would contribute to development and this enhanced modernization. Thus, if an immigrant from North Africa moved to Europe both the native country and the country that the immigrant settles in stand to benefit as a result of the migration.
On the other hand, migration has been said to create dependency between the third world countries and the already developed countries. This is because, the immigrants who are from the periphery countries always depend on the core countries to provide them with labour opportunities so that they can migrate and set their base of work there.
The immigrants therefore do not consider how they can look for ways to develop their own countries and develop a sense of livelihood without having to migrate. Therefore, an immigrant from North Africa would prefer to migrate to a European country in search of labour opportunities instead of looking for labour opportunities in his or her own country.
Migration has also been considered in two main ways. There is migration from a peripheral or a third world country to first world country that is the most common (Kapur, 2003). There is also a new trend whereby people from third world countries are migration from the rural areas into the urban areas of their country in search of job opportunities.
While the latter is different from the former, the concept is still the same. This trend has brought about other issues of development (Kearney, 1986). While on one hand this issue encouraged development and urbanization, there is also slow growth in the rural areas as almost everybody has moved to the big cities and towns in search of work.
Impacts of Migration The impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around him or her like the family members and the community at large can be looked at from two perspectives. There are some impacts that are negative while others are positive.
We will write a custom Essay on Migration and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, when an immigrant moves from his native country to another country, the society from he come from is deprived of one of the most important pillars of development that is the labour force (Kuhn, 1962).
This means that even though the immigrants is likely to come back with new concepts that could enhance development, already the native country of the immigrant is likely to suffer as far as development is concerned due to lack of sufficient labour force. As a result, the local and regional economies are greatly undermined (Rodenburg, 1997).
This situation leads to a continued trend of dependence on the first world countries to provide labour opportunities. The end result is that since the native country is experiencing sluggish growth or the growth is almost ground to a halt for lack of enough labour, poverty crops in, and this encourages even greater migration as people sort of seek refuge in greener pastures (Hass, 2010).
Migration is also seen as creating inequality especially in third world countries (Sen, 1999). This is because the labour opportunities that are provided by the developed countries are such that not every person in the developing country can qualify to take them up. This means that for those who are not able to take up the opportunities. Their fate is sort of sealed.
Looking at it from this angle, then one clearly concedes that migration is not a tool for development especially for the counties from where the immigrants come from. Migration has not in any way helped the alleviation or reduction of poverty in the developing countries. If anything, it has helped increase poverty levels by high margins as the productivity of the community has gone low for lack of enough labour force.
There is yet another argument that has been developed regarding the role played by migration in development (Myrdal, 1957). It is argued that most of the immigrants together with their families do not have a proper investment strategy of the money they earn upon migration.
Instead, they spend their money on various consumer goods since most of the 1st world countries encourage consumerism. This therefore means that when the immigrants go back to their native countries, they have nothing to shoe for their work and this paralyses development (Glick et al, 1991).
Migration and development are intertwined but whether migration has aided development remains a subject of debate and the controversy surrounding the subject does not seem to go away any time soon.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Migration and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Agunias, D. (2006) Remittances and Development: Trends, Impacts, and Policy Options. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Glick, Szanton et al. (1991) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
Hass, H. (2010) Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Kapur, D. (2003) Remittances: The New Development Mantra? Paper prepared for the G-24 Technical Group Meeting, September. 15–16. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Kearney, A. (1986) From the invisible hand to visible feet: Anthropological Studies of Migration and Development. California: University of California.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Myrdal, G. (1957) Rich Lands and Poor. New York: Harper and Row.
Rodenburg, J. (1997) In the Shadow of Migration: Rural Women and their Households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
The relationship between effective feedback and customer satisfaction Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary The following paper is a thought experiment, a work in progress that is unfolding as I observe today’s dynamic industries struggle to exploit multiple avenues to respond to customer complains. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of feedback system as one of the mechanism that supports functional element of organizational climate.
The study methodology uses a trail group consisting of 35 members from the United States, Philadelphia region dispersed across a variety of demographic location and environments to determine how companies A, B and C quickly respond to their complains.
The trial attempted to measure how fast companies A,B, C effectiveness responded to customers’ complains in relation to their defective devices in service industry perspective, and to evaluate the collective processes and outcomes.
To effectively measure feedback system performance and satisfaction, the study uses variables that included technical-customer support, action orientation, phone-based technical support and information exchange. Changes in subject cognition were assessed using a series of conceptual model to measure reliability of the results obtained.
Results of this study did however demonstrate that companies that engaged in feedback system and actively involved in strategic activities that requires introduction of innovative products and outreach program that mitigate customer problems before they occur reported high returns.
Our conclusive results reveal that all the variables that related to feedback system positively linked to customer satisfaction. This study provides evidence of a relationship between effective feedback system in relation to solving customers’ complains and customer satisfaction.
Introduction Feedback system remains to be the most significant factor of organisational climate in resolving customer complains. For example, majority of computer companies in the United States continued to expand their products through implementation of effective and up to date feedback system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since many companies are thriving to survive through the competitive markets, many new and efficient products are such as iPod, Mac, iPhone are being introduced to the markets everyday. These products are reported to be widely successful due to the organisations’ communication system. This requires the organisation to implement effective feedback system with eminent good customer support that quickly responds to customers complains (Kaplan, 2006).
The three companies assessment results present us an investigative framework to examine extend to which service firm utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism. The essay further explores the effectiveness of feedback system using a questionnaire methodology to find out the relationship between overall feedback and customer satisfaction in computer companies in the United States (Fred, 2001): Fox, 2004).
Literature Review Feedback system
Lately, the three companies have been using feedback system for paying out customers with defective machines. For example, one of the Company’s products “iMac” was widely reported for to be giving clients problems and the company responded by giving 15% refund bonuses to all faulty 27 inch iMac in the UK and was also reported to extend $300 apologies to all its aggrieved customers in the US.
In resolving the issue, the company responded quickly by offering free repairs to all the affected machines and launched a support page where it described how minor problems could be resolved and the resulting warranty extension for each affected machine. The company also reimbursed customers who used their own money to repair the faulty machines and advised them take their drives to official company repair channels (Moore
SimVenture Essay scholarship essay help
SimVenture is a medium sized company started in the month of January and thus has been in existence for the last several months. The business has been set up on a strong base of research and a fully understand the market as well as the product. This report explains the performance analysis for the few months of operation.
A comprehensive view if the business performance indicates a healthy business plan which has already helped break-even and offer a good return. In the month of January 2010, the profit and loss account could not be accurately prepared due to incompleteness of the records available. What is noticeable though is the fact that there was substantial expenditure in activities of research and development.
Most of the activities in the month involved setting up the business. However, estimates show that the company made a gross profit of about £61 from the one order which was delivered during the month. The net loss amounted to -£329.
It should be noted that under the expenses, the portion of research was the largest registering £300 of the £390. This is indicative of the solid basis on which the company is found. At this time, the product could only be priced at £460 due to limitations in quality, features, performance and style.
In February, 2010, the company made impressive sales revenue of £1380. The gross profit rose to £114 from the £61 registered in January. However, this time round, focus was on sales and marketing. Of the total expense totaling to £1590, £1500 was used to finance an aggressive marketing campaign geared towards familiarizing the products to the customers.
We were able to accurately identify our target market as well as fully understanding their needs. This was aimed ensuring that we focus all our energies on producing products which meet the needs of our target customers. Appropriate product designs were developed to suite the customer requirements.
A small IT business market was identified as the target market. Still many activities were part of the business set up. As a result, the company recorded losses amounting to £1,476. Notably, the products were now priced at £495 up from £465 due to improvements in product design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the month of March, the situation changed. We were able to make a profit of £177. This was as a result of an increase in sales as well as a reduction in costs. The turnover may have dropped to £990 but the gross profit rose to £267. Notably, overheads drastically reduced to £90. This was mainly as a result of the pay-offs from the marketing campaigns held in the previous month.
Again in a bid to improve efficiency, the company changed its supplier and engaged a cheaper source of materials for production. The company also increased its efficiency from 63% in February to 74%.
The number of features available in the Company products was also increased with the aim of appealing to an even wider customer based. By this time the quality of the product had significantly risen to warrant a higher price of £550. This significantly improved the gross profits.
In April, turnover rose to £1100. The marketing strategies were responding even better. Gross profits were a whooping £378. However, the company saw it fit to obtain feedback from the customers. The intention here was to establish possible areas of improvement. This necessitated significant expenditure in research a situation which resulted in a loss of £12.
Expenditure on research alone stood at £300. Therefore excluding the research element of the expenses, the company’s profits would have risen even higher than the previous month. Notably, efficiency level rose to 77% indicating the company’s commitment to improving efficiency both internally and externally.
The Month of May saw a drop in both the gross and net profits. The company produced too many products for the market which saw a rise in costs. This was done together with an aggressive sales and marketing campaign which accounted for about 90% of the expenses. Efficiency in this month fell to 74% mainly due to excess production. However, the order book showed significant growth as a result of the marketing campaign.
In June, the situation improved drastically. Net profit rose to £449. The situation was a show of the effectiveness of our marketing tools. Again, the number of orders remained high. Efficiency remained at 74%. Sales levels rose to £1650 and the number of orders kept rising.
We will write a custom Essay on SimVenture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In July, efficiency rose to 80% while gross profits rose to £1433 leading to a net profit of £543. From this point on, the company has managed to maintain profitability and consistently increase the level of efficiency. August saw a gross profit of £1577 which was the highest figure recorded. The company continued to record improved activities in production and even engaged in house research and marketing.
September saw a rise in the price of the product after improvement in product design and in consideration of market trends. The new price was set at £576. This made net profits rise to £1430. We managed to move to an even bigger premise.
Wages were also hiked as profits started streaming in to motivate the employees hence improves on productivity. However it is notable that as the production keeps increasing, the company continues to accumulate debts. Again, the company continues to get more orders hence requiring even higher production.
The entire first year of operation has proved profitable for the company. The overall profits add up to £5,401. 41. This is definitely a positive start which gives a very strong foundation to the company. The strength comes from the fact that the company has significantly engaged in research as well as marketing activities which have enabled it to not only learn valuable information about the market and the products but also grow the market significantly.
The following is a graphical representation of the trend in profits
Graph showing trend in profits
The fact that the last few months have seen consistent profitability tells strongly about the future of the company. It is thus prudent to inject further capital with the aim of achieving three main objectives. First is the need to maintain debts from creditors at manageable levels so as to win them over.
Secondly, there is an urgent need to increase the production so as to effectively cater for the increasing demand for the company’s products. This puts extra demand on the need to boost working capital. Finally, despite the expansions, there is the need to acquire even bigger space which will ensure higher production in the future.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SimVenture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the balance sheet, the company has accumulated a large portfolio of current assets and more importantly no long-term liabilities. This means that the company is lowly geared meaning that the company is strong meaning that risk of lending to us is significantly low.
The future presents great opportunities for the company. The market uptake of the company’s products is high as witnessed by the rapid rise in revenues across the short period of operation. Market research shows that the target market is still very lowly penetrated. This is got from the market surveys conducted during the in the last few months.
The penetration rate stands at a paltry 15% in within the locality of the company. Again new businesses are being set up a factor which is rapidly increasing the demand levels for the company’s products. There is also the need to invest in even better and more effective technologies which are likely to attract the clients even better.
The objectives of the company go beyond the region. The intention to go regional is very viable. There is the need to aggressively expand in the region where the company is based. This will give us an edge over the competitors and guarantee a much better and bigger growth for the company. Achieving these objectives will require us to raise funds but which will considerably present very low risk.
In the upcoming year we expect to expand our operations consistently to at least four times the current level of operation. This means that the balance sheet should go up by four times.
In February, we intend to scale up on production so as to generate total revenue of £11000. This will ensure that the gross profit rises to £3500 and that net profits rise to £2200. This trend is expected to continue for the next three months.
After this, we expect to relocate to an even bigger spacious building which under the current market prices should cost double the current rent. This amounts to about £376 monthly. This extra space should help us scale up production to at least five times in the next two years.
This being the case, the net profit for March is projected to be about £2600. This is after a rise in gross profits to about £3800. April net profits are projected to be about £2900. In May this is expected to fall due to the expansions expected to be undertaken then. The profitability stream is expected to follow at a much bigger scale.
Projections for profits expected for the next three years are as follows
To fund these expansions, we require a loan of at least £15000. £6000 is expected to be used to boost the working capital so as to make operations more efficient while the remainder will be used to improve technology as well as build on machinery and equipment after relocating to an even bigger space. A repayment installment of about £1,000 per month will be favorable for the company.
By the end of the year, the balance sheet extract should have changed to the following estimates:
Fixed Assets £9550
Current Assets £26000
Long term Liabilities £15000
I find that the above projections are fairly accurate and hence warrant the company a profitable future. This means that our engagement will be of mutual benefit.
Reflective report SimVenture offered a unique opportunity to interact and cooperate with a team with the aim of achieving the best results. Working as a team was a great experience due to a number of reasons. First, it offered me the opportunity to learn different application of different ideas in business practice.
Each member would come up with unique but informed interpretation of the situation facing the company a situation which would help me view the same issue from many different angles and thus develop the best way forward given the circumstances. Secondly, I was able to improve my skills in teamwork and cooperation towards achieving a common goal.
There were some difficulties especially in developing a common way forward on issues where the views of the members were too divergent. I think this was driven b the different personalities in the team. Some are gambles while others are conservatives. While the gamblers were less risk averse, conservatism made other team members reject rapid expansions.
Again, it was difficult to convince all the team members on the right amounts of money to apply in different situations. As can be seen from the report, there were several instances when an amount of money would be set aside for research or for marketing. Setting these amounts was a challenge.
We needed to undertake lengthy negotiations within the team before engaging third parties who would agree or disagree with our resolutions hence requiring us to go back and discuss again. In the month of April, many team members thought that it was too soon to obtain meaningful feedback from customers.
They wanted the research on customer’s feelings about the company’s products to be conducted much later in the year after the product had been widely tested. However, another group argued that getting feedback early would ensure prompt response to customer’s requirements hence a better future for the company. This issue brought in a lengthy but constructive debate and at the end the group proposing the obtaining early feedback succeeded in convincing the other.
Planning ahead was always a priority for my team. Before starting off in January, we developed a complete plan for implementation within the next six months. The plan included some set targets which were to be achieved within certain time frames. This greatly guided our decisions subsequently.
It is however true that in some situations we had to deviate from the set plans. The plans gave a clear indication of where focus would be during any period. In the early months, market surveys and marketing activities were prioritized in the plans. In later months the need for marketing was the focus.
The team constantly made trade-offs in a bid to achieve certain goals. In January, the decision to engage in research was a trade-off for profits. If the research was not done the company would have incurred a loss of a paltry £61. However, the research was in the long term interest of the firm. Again in February, we incurred a loss of -£1476 after spending £1500 in sales and marketing.
This trade-offs continued in the following months. They were informed by the need to achieve long-term sustainability of the business as opposed to short term goals. It is clear that activities such as marketing always paid off in the subsequent periods and also ensured that our products were able to penetrate the markets even better by creating awareness.
The commitment needed to run a small business is enormous. SimVenture may be a small business entity but it demands full attention from all the team members in a bid to ensure that correct decisions are made and implemented. As team members we had subdivided ourselves in groups of two and would alternate the running of the business on a weekly basis.
However, it required that all the members be present at least twice a week either to make important decisions or to assist in the implementation of the agreed ideas and strategies. An eight hour day is simply not enough to ensure things run smoothly. A great deal of personal sacrifice is required.
The exercise has helped me better understand the intrigues of running a small business. The first and most important lesson is that one should develop a plan way before starting off the business. This is very instrumental in guiding the subsequent decisions in a bid to build a strong business entity. Secondly, the plan should contain fairly accurate cash flows.
These helps establish the financial requirements of the business ahead of time. Such projections ensure that the business does not encounter problems of liquidity which are likely to hamper progress. Again, it is very important to give priority to long term growth as opposed to short term gains as this boosts the ability of the business to ensure continuity as well as growth.
Finally, I have learnt that achieving a successful business entails a great deal of personal sacrifices and commitment towards the implementation of decisions aimed at achieving set targets.
The experiences gained here are arguably the best teaching in business management.