Everest Mount 1996 Case Study Custom Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Peculiarities of the mount

Evaluation of the two leaders’ actions

The lessons to be learnt

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Everest has attracted many people throughout decades. Successful expeditions to the summit encouraged many people to try their strength. However, many people lost their lives in such attempts. For instance, the expeditions led by Rob Hall and Scott Fischer in 1996 illustrate dangers associated with ascent of Everest. On May, 10 five people, including Hall and Fischer, lost their lives during this ascent (Roberto

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Psychoanalytic Theory Term Paper essay help

Abstract The name personality has several meanings that suit various situations. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is one of the theories describing the personality in human beings. According to Freud, the theory seeks to explain why people behave the way they do, studies human’s brain, and explains more about their personality.

This paper discusses the various elements of the theory, its history, development and research. In addition, it takes a detailed look at Sigmund Freud who came up the theory and seeks to explain the various elements of the theory, and reliability of the research.

Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was developed at the end of the 19th century in 1880’s. It was based on the discovery made by Breuer, who studied a person who had a trauma in childhood, consequently affecting him during his adult life. According to this research, it was discovered that someone’s personality is related to his/her childhood experiences.

Freud states that it is through mechanical terms that people’s mental energy is released. Through various stages of child’s development, a person changes his/her character and releases his/her mental energy.

Psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud is arguably the most famous amongst the personality theories. According to Freud, family life has a subconscious influence on a human’s sexual drive. Family also affects the individual’s nonsexual development. According to the psychoanalysis carried out by Freud, there are other effects that affect our thoughts (Carver and Scheier, 2011).

The thoughts and the motivation we have around us are such factors that affect the way we act, as well as the way we do things. According to Freud, the main drives or motivators of an individual’s personality are related to the sexual and aggressiveness. The theory further explains that the problems experienced during a person’s adult life are as a direct result of the conflicts during their childhood experiences.

As a result, the theory breaks down the process of childhood growth according to the psychosexual motivators as a child develops. These stages of growth seek to show that at various stages during growth, a person (child) has various motivators that shape their behavior, and keep changing as they move to the next stage of psychosexual growth. Any faulty growth or unsuccessful/unhealthy passage of any of the stages is said to result in the adult life conflicts, which eventually determines a person’s personality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like any other theory, Psychoanalytic theory has its assumptions. One such assumption is the fact that humans have unconscious urges in their brain. The unconscious mind contains desires which the mind wish for, but the desires are usually limited by the world as they may not always be fulfilled.

The Psychic determination is the other assumption. It is assumed that everything that goes through people’s mind is as a resultant of an identifiable element. Through this assumption, things like accidents and miracles are eliminated. There is also the assumption that though the brain is an internal structure, it has several separate parts that are always competing amongst each other.

To learn about Freud’s theory, it is important to understand the basics the developer of the theory lays down first. One of the things he puts across is existence of a conscious and a non-conscious mind. The conscious portion of the mind is all about anything that we are knowledgeable about. Since this portion includes things we know of, it is usually easy to retrieve them whenever they are needed. Therefore, retrieving information from this part of the memory is usually very easy.

The section of the body that contains this information is referred to in Freud’s theory as the preconscious portion of the brain. The unconscious mind is like a reserve that contains thoughts, the feelings a person has as well as the memories that the human mind is not aware of. The main content of information of this portion is feelings of pain and anxiety. However, though we may be unaware of these feelings, it is evident that they are also involved in controlling our behavior (Beystehner, 2001).

Freud highlights three elements that are contained in a person’s personality; the super ego, the Ego, and the Id are the three elements that affect an individual’s personality. When a person is born, the id element of personality is in him/her. The id element is unconscious and contains primitive and instinct behavior of the person.

It is simply what would be considered as the primary component of a person’s personality. Notable about this element is the fact that it uses the pleasure principle (Carver and Scheier, 2011). The pleasure principle focuses on how the needs of a person are met. If for instance the needs are not met within the required time, anxiety and tension results. Id is important especially when it comes to children in their young age as it allows them to express their feelings through crying so that their demands are met.

However, satisfying the demands that we may have is not always possible. The pleasure principle is therefore not always applicable. However, according to Freud, a primary process results in a bid to ensure that the tension created by the pleasure principle is resolved. The second principle in this theory is the Ego. The ego component is all about the reality of life and it tends to express the Id element in the real world. Ego encompasses all the parts of the mind previously discussed.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Psychoanalytic Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principle incorporated in this element is the reality principle, which aims at fulfilling the Id element in an appropriate way. Through using the reality principle, the Ego basically tries to fulfill the images created by the Id element. Fulfilling the Id element is done by finding the solution in the real world by looking for an object to fit the image at the primary process level. Super Ego is the other element that forms part of the personality (Pervin, 1996).

It comprises of all the aspects that a person gained from the society or the parents and people around them. It is through this that a person learns what is deemed right and what is wrong. Judgment is developed from guidelines. Super ego may further be broken down into two main parts; the ideal ego and the conscience.

The ideal ego is inclusive of what is considered good behavior by people in the society or the parents. When a person gets to follow the rules laid down in the society or by the authority, a feeling of accomplishment and pride is the resultant.

On the other hand, conscience is inclusive of engaging in actions that are considered not right by the society or the parents. When a person does these wrong acts, the resultant is a feeling of guilt.

Interaction between these elements is different amongst different individuals. For a person to live what would be considered healthy living there is need to ensure that a balance of the three elements is reached. One must have what Freud referred to as Ego strength so that he can fight the competition brought about by these three elements.

Individuals who have good ego strength are able to strike a balance between these forces, while those people with low ego strength may succumb to this pleasure. Research shows that there exists a balance between explorations of the child with their safety for the exploration to be there. According to International Journal of Psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis therapy may be in single consultation therapy and may as well take about one year or more to achieve success on a person.

Psychoanalytic theory uses free association as a way of measuring the personality in humans. Free association entails the patient speaking out on a certain subject and then an analysis carried out from what the he says. It is from this analysis that a conclusion is later derived. However, there have been issues of reliability of this tool of measuring someone’s personality.

For one, it is hard for the analyst to be sure that the memories that he accesses are representing the actual memories or what the patient is imagining. Sharp criticism was bestowed upon this method of inferring conclusions. Those opposing the theory argued that by having patients talk out their issues to a professional and having them draw conclusion based on the information, there were no precise guidelines and predetermined checklist or comparing and measuring the information given so as to make reliable conclusions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another criticism based its argument in the fact that different patients of mental illnesses talked to different professionals, and there being no guidelines to gauge the information, interpretations were likely to vary between different professionals. Though there have been issues of validity of measurement of people personality, success may only be achieved through having the analyst inspect the transcript closely (Beystehner, 2001).

Research onto this theory has brought out the fact that there certainly is a relationship between an individual’s behavior and the subconscious portion of the mind. The theory forms a base of the modern day psychopathology. Research has also shown that, as a method of treatment for mental illnesses, psychoanalytic theory attempts to change and work on the unconscious part of the brain. Ultimately, the theory proposes that a person’s personality is dependant on the three main components of personality.

The Id component is all about the person getting gratification for the needs that he requires. On the other hand, Ego tends to fulfill the desire of Id but in a realistic way, since at times Id may not always be realistic. Finally, super ego aims at adding morality in ensuring that the ego is fulfilled.

One of the great cornerstones of Freud’s work was interpretation of dreams. Through interpretation of dreams, the subconscious mind is brought out. It also made it easier for analysts to learn and understand people’s personality well. The way a person behaves is entirely dependant on their experiences as they grew up as well as the environment one is brought up in.

Freud clearly outlined in the psychoanalytic theory that the particular way in which humans behave is determined by psychic energies and their experiences during psychosexual development. A healthy adult life can thus be achieved by successfully going through the early childhood experiences or psychosexual stages. Such are some of the things the theory talks about.

The theory emphasizes on how learning of the subconscious bit of a person can lead to the analyst unraveling important information about the patient (Pervin, 1996). By way of analyzing and understanding both the conscious and the non-conscious mind of a person, it is possible to infer the individual’s behavior as well as why they result in that particular behavior. Though there are various elements of criticism of psychoanalytic theory, its contribution to modern day therapy is undeniable.

Progress has been achieved in treatment of mentally ill patients through the bases of Freud’s work outlined in his theory. It would therefore be unfair to discard it since it offers much contribution to modern day science. Though some people dismissed psychoanalytic theory as not belonging to the science field based on its lacking methodology, the theory brought about a new branch in the science field called experimental psychology.

References Beystehner, K. M., (2001). Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html

Carver, C. S.,

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Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan Essay (Article) online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary Mountain Equipment Co-Op can be regarded as one of the best illustrations of an environmentally responsible company. In the late 1990 the company worked out new strategic plan which focused on increase of buildings’ energy efficiency. At the same time the company revealed its environmental responsibility.

This is, undoubtedly, a winning strategy which can be applicable in the contemporary business world as now people are more and more concerned with environmental issues. Though the strategy has certain flaws, the company will benefit from it. The company will only need to collaborate with likeminded companies and organizations. It should also launch a project to encourage talented designers to create new winning designs.

Background Mountain Equipment Co-Op founded in 1971 acknowledged the importance of environmental sustainability. In 1990s the company’s executives realized that MEC retail stores negatively affected environment. Notably, 1990 was the time when people started paying particular attention to environment issues.

Therefore, the executives decided to increase energy efficiency of its retail stores and decrease harmful emissions. One of the first buildings to be changed was the store in Toronto. The work had already started and the building was modified in terms of energy sufficiency. The project proved to be successful as the building was 35% more efficient than other buildings at that time. The company inspired by this successful project started constructing energy efficient buildings.

Situation Analysis Admittedly, contemporary society pays much attention to environmental issues. More so, companies that reveal their responsibility gain favorable image and additional publicity. Thus, when in 1990s people started being preoccupied with such environmental issue as emission of ozone-depleting substances, MEC responded to these concerns.

The company was committed to reduce the amount of such emissions produced by their buildings’ cooling systems. This was the right decision as people welcomed such changes and the company became one of the leaders of the movement. More and more companies started responding to the problem but MEC was still the first one to gain considerable success. Thus, the company gained a favorable image.

Strengths As has been mentioned above, the decision the company made was a winning one. The company obtained publicity. It also created a favorable image. The company attracted many consumers who appreciated the company’s environmental responsibility. MEC increased energy efficiency of its buildings. The company was among leaders of the movement which later involved many other companies and organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses Nonetheless, there are certain weaknesses in this strategy. For instance, though the company increased energy efficiency of its buildings, it was not always cost efficient. Thus, some projects would take years or even a decade to realize paybacks.

Opportunities However, there are quite many opportunities for the company. MEC will also attract many new customers as more and more people tend to purchase products from socially and environmentally responsible retailers. Besides, the company can co-operate with likeminded companies and organizations to work out new ways, e.g. ways to improve efficiency.

Threats However, there are certain threats. For instance, the company cannot focus on environmental issues only. It is essential to allocate funds reasonably. Thus, extra expenditures can negatively affect business. Remarkably, recent financial crises also limited companies’ ability to fund various environmental projects. Therefore, it is important to take into account various financial constraints as well.

Analysis of Alternatives Admittedly, the company should continue working on its environmental projects and continue constructing energy efficient buildings. However, it can be also effective to collaborate with other organizations and companies to work out new environmental projects. This will help the company to save considerable sums of money, and, at the same time, to remain in the mainstream of the environmental movement.

Of course, there is another option for the company. It can give up financing such projects as constructing new ‘sustainable’ buildings. Nonetheless, this will be the step backwards as the company will lag behind the companies which already reveal their commitment in the sphere of sustainable technology. This will negatively influence MEC’s image. This can lead to loss of customers, too.

Recommendation Therefore, the company should continue working on its environmental projects. It should go on constructing ‘environmentally-friendly’ buildings. However, the company should not stop developing new ways and strategies. Thus, MEC should try new (more efficient) designs. As has been mentioned above, the company will be able to save funds when collaborating with other companies and organizations. Thus, sharing experiences can positively affect the development of business.

Implementation First, the company can negotiate with other construction companies, other retailers and organizations concerned with environmental issues. The company can start a project which will be beneficial for the companies involved. This will reduce costs of technological development.

We will write a custom Article on Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, the company can launch the following campaign. It can encourage designers to come up with ideas concerning construction. The company can choose the most winning projects and offer the most successful designers a job in the company.

Finally, the company should analyze its own experience and other company’s experience in the field. This will help to work out new strategies and projects. Of course, the company’s executives should take into account the changes which are taking place in the contemporary society.

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History of the Great Chicago Fire Essay college admission essay help

Formal Outline Fire is one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to massive losses that it can cause to both individuals and property. Fire incidents may be categorized as either natural or man-made. For instance, the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871. This fire outbreak destroyed property and killed hundreds of people.

Reports indicate that the fire began in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn. Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its way.

Survey reports after the fire indicated vividly that the damage caused by the raging fire damaged dozens of property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. It is against this backdrop that the ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most fundamental practices in society bearing in mind that poor level of preparedness has quite often been cited as the main cause to massive loss of life and property in such incidents.

In addition, preparedness guarantees the needed security and prevention measures which is needed to promote higher levels of productivity. Due to the fire outbreak in Chicago, measures have been put in place to prevent another occurrence of the same.

Introduction Fire forms one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to its related losses to an individual, organization, and the country as a whole. In the year 2008 alone, the United States fire department noted that it had responded to about 1,451,500 fires in the country that resulted to 3,320 fatalities and over US $ 5,478,000,000 worth of property in terms of losses (Ethington, 2002).

At this point, it is imperative to mention that the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871 alongside destroying property and killing hundreds of people. Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) posit that fire codes and inspections for protection are very critical in this era of highly dynamic consumerism patterns. The only way to guarantee sustainable growth and development within a country is based on the holistic capacity to address all the incumbent risks factors.

It is from this consideration that fire safety becomes very critical in disaster management as a way of reducing its extended affects. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the great Chicago fire, its cause and whether it was a code or inspection failure. In addition, the paper examines fire prevention that would have been set in place to avoid massive fire outbreak of that nature and magnitude.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The great Chicago fire: Origin and spread of fire “ The fire that razed Chicago in the summer of 1871 was a conflagration that spread about nine square kilometers destroying property and killing hundreds of people (Ethington, 2002). Reports indicate that the fire begun in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn.

Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its wake. However, other reports on the origin of the fire point out that the cow story was not the cause of the fire. These reports from the Chicago Republican pointed out that although the fire came from the barn it was unclear whether it was by human agency or fire from the chimney.

Ethington (2002) posits in his article The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory that the spread of fire was enhanced by the nature of buildings that were erected those days in the city. Most of them were made of wood designs and were closely packed. Besides, there had been a drought in the land and most things were dried. With the southwest strong winds, flying embers of fire were blown into the city and the neighboring surroundings.

It is important to note that in the city, fire inspectors and fighters just as the citizens were not overly concerned when the fire began and made errors of not reacting immediately. Eventually, the fire became gigantic and overwhelmed fire fighters who after long and unfruitful struggles, got exhausted. The fire then spread to apartments, houses and mansions devastating everything on its path leaving over 100,000 homeless and over 300 dead (Ethington, 2002).

The Chicago fire department did not receive fire alarm until after the fire had began spreading. When the alarm came form a guard at a pharmacy, the firefighters were sent to fight fire on a wrong location giving room for fire to spread further. The fire spread to all corners of the city engulfing tall church buildings, theatres, the opera house, Chicago City Hall, department stores and hotels. When the winds and wood diminished, the fire ceased having wiped out 34 blocks from O’Leary property to the northern side Fullerton Avenue.

Aftermath Survey reports after the fire indicate that the damage caused by the raging conflagration property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. Most of the property that were destroyed were estimated to be about 17,500 buildings, 2000 lamp posts, a 190 kilometers stretch of sidewalk and a 117 kilometers of road all estimated to a loss of $ 222 million (Ethington, 2002).

At that time, the population in Chicago was about 300000 people of which 3% were left homeless (Ethington, 2002). Other important facilities which were destroyed included libraries and schools with over three million books lost. When the fire had died and the number of bodies had been counted to over 300, the city began setting up fire standards to prevent similar occurrences.

We will write a custom Essay on History of the Great Chicago Fire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of the fire- Code or inspection failure The ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most important concepts in the society that guarantees the needed security and prevention measures to promote higher levels of productivity. From the Chicago event, the risks from fire outbreaks that people face in their various homes and cities have been the core causes of suffering and loss of property as well as life.

As a result, these uncertainties are considered to be key threats that not only reduce their ability to be productive, but with key potential of causing major dependency in the society. It is from this consideration that fire prevention processes and codes should be well established to curb fire risks in the society. A risk that may lead to a disaster such as that experienced in Chicago would indeed be highly unwelcome to many.

The question that many analysts seek answer to is what was the major cause of fire and why were fighters unable to control the fire. Was failure on the aspect of inspection or was it on codes? While different analysts have at times tended to differ on what the failure was, the results presented by various investigations have proved that failure was on fire inspection.

In the case of Chicago fire, the risk that resulted to the massive damages and loss of people’s lives culminated from the poor fire emergency procedures. The claim is indeed very true as the systems to alert fire fighters and offer right directions were not effective. As such, inspection failure should be blamed for risks that individuals in Chicago faced.

Impact on codes and process As indicated earlier, the fire in Chicago initiated many major developments of preventing and fighting fire outbreaks. One such initiative was the emergency communication warning system. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), the effectiveness of fire protection systems in a country should be based on the holistic consideration of the entire fire protection capacity to effectively coordinate their detection and initial fire suppression as well as emergency operations to reduce loss of life and property.

One central factor that cuts across the whole process of fire protection, preparedness, and operations is the emergency warning communication system. They record that once fire has been detected, failure to offer the necessary emergency communication may lead to massive losses to life and property.

Roles and implications Emergency warning and communication system employs audio, visual, or both in alerting the people about the existence of fire in a particular area. Whereas different disaster management units for different organizations assimilate either audio or visual mechanisms to alert the people on the presence of fire in a region, Damon (2007) points out that a combination of both is important for higher efficacy levels. Analysts indicate that had emergency warning and communication system been effective in Chicago, it would have had the following major roles in fire fighting; To begin with, it would have formed a critical icon in alerting citizens in Chicago inside a factory or a building about the existence of fire in their premises.

At the notification, those alerted would have immediately tried to suppress fire in its point of origin using the available fire fighting equipments like waters pipes and fire extinguishers in their premises. However, citizens’ skills in using the different fire fighting systems and equipments in a nation are critical.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Great Chicago Fire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By informing individuals in Chicago on the presence of fire in buildings or premises, they could have been able to move away from the scene and therefore escape danger. Ferguson and Christopher (2007) indicate that one of the most important concepts employed by fire fighting protection is preventing loss of life for both the employees and public.

Slap (2001) explains that to the public, emergency warning and communication system informs them on the existence of fire and therefore requires them to clear from the site of incidence and allow fire specialists to operate with minimal struggle in rescuing life and property. Particularly, road users are expected to cooperate in offering the best access to the site of emergency for the fire fighters vehicles either ferrying extinguishing water, chemicals, or ambulances transporting casualties.

Types of emergency warning and communication systems

In his review of disaster management systems, Pinkowski (2008) indicates that modernistic methods are critical in perfecting fire control considerations. In the public domain, outdoor warning sirens, citizen alert systems, and radio broadcasting system may be employed.

These techniques among others should be able to reach the maximum number of people near the fire occurrence area. After the Chicago fire in Chicago, voice broadcasting as well as other communication technologies was employed to alert people to keep away from the site of fire (Pinkowski, 2008). Provision of emergency warning and communication to the public were designed to provide guidelines and directions to the public as opposed to leaving them shocked of the incidence.

Besides, they were to provide the public with alternative routes to use in order to reduce traffic towards the area of fire occurrence in addition to giving information on the dangers of getting closer to the site and the need to provide effective environment for fire fighters operations.

Impact on codes and process from Chicago fire on modern fire prevention Fire Detection and Suppression Systems

Over the years, since the great Chicago fire, the ability to address fire problems is based on a nation’s or society ability to effectively detect it at the earliest incidence possible. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), it is essential that organizations prepare themselves effectively for emergency cases by establishing the best fire detection systems. Fire detection and suppression over the years have seen great advancement towards more intelligent systems with higher levels of efficiency in detecting and suppressing fire at the earliest stages possible.

Fire experts have accredited the last decade reduction in fire outbreak cases and indeed losses to the increased ability to detect and suppress fire at early stages. Though application of modernistic methods as Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) indicate have been highly limiting due to its inherent costs especially for small business units and individuals, their efficiency have been cited to be very high compared to the traditional methods. Some of the methods employed in the modern systems include.

Aspirating smoke detectors This is a modernistic system that is based on smoke concentration to determine presence of fire. Damon (2007) indicates that this method employs a nephelometer which is fixed on an enclosed chamber within which smoke particles are sucked and detection recorded in terms of light scattering levels. Unlike the traditional methods where human sight was employed to detect presence of fire, aspirating smoke detector can be able to detect smoke even before the particles are visible to the naked eye. This method is highly effective when it is employed in a stable environment with a relatively constant air composition. It is critical that fire suppression system is established to prevent fire progression, extinguish it, and provide emergency service on time.

Vision based real-time early flame and smoke detectors Following increasing concerns based on devastation on economic and ecologic outcomes of fire whenever they occur, more elaborate systems that can cover larger areas and provide more accurate information is essential. Vision based real-time early frame and smoke detector are surveillance systems that provides automated coordination that rely on spatial temporal characteristics of smoke and frames to determine the intensity of fire.

To bring out the actual intensity of fire during the outbreaks, this method compares smoke and colour histograms models which employ Continuous Adaptive Means Shift (CAMSHIFT) to determine the spatial temporal probability of frames in real time. This method as Keating (2004) indicates, require specialized skills in smoke and frame characteristics through algorithmic models for efficiency.

In addition, it requires application of specialized equipments and full time response units that can attend to the fire warning. Like the aspirant smoke detectors, this method calls for strong coordination between a local society and members of an organization or the fire department to promote efficacy of reduce the affects of fires.

Heat detectors According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), fire detection can also be affected by assessing the rate of heat changes. The design of thermo detectors is based on the principle that in case of a fire outbreak, temperatures generally rise above the ambient levels which can be detected to either sign a warning or set on an automated suppression system. Notably, thermo detectors operate more effectively when located in indoor settings as opposed to the outdoor areas.

One major advantage of modern thermo-detectors is that they are able to record changes of temperatures in a progressive system that can be used to further ascertain presence of fire in a building. Unlike the vision based real time frame and smoke detectors, thermo detectors lack the ability to effectively establish the actual area that the fire may be originating from.

To add to that, there is need for constant maintenance to ensure high efficiency levels in detecting changes of temperatures and fires. To promote greater levels of efficiency using this method, specialists indicate that it should be employed alongside other methods of detection, suppression, and fire extinction.

Water-mist system Water mist system is a suppressive application that is employed to protect high risk equipment like machines in factories and companies. They are also employed in areas that have high probabilities of igniting fires like machine rooms, kitchens, and stores for inflammable chemicals. Water mist system operates in an automated system where detectors that sense onset of fire are fixed to set water sprays towards then fire in action. Pinkowski (2008) indicates that this method has high levels of accuracy as it is targeted at the regions which have the highest possibilities of causing fire in a building or an industry.

At instances when the water system may be unable to suppress fire from its onset, it is still considered to be effective as it reduces the acceleration rates which can give people time to move away from the site of fire; a consideration that may reduce fatalities, destruction and also provide the fire fighters with time to launch their fighting mechanism well on time before major losses are incurred. Therefore, it is very crucial that emergency response units are always on the alert to supplement the operations of a water-mist system as a mechanism of promoting efficiency.

Lift Control and usage in fire situations Over the years, lifts have been employed as some of the most effective mechanisms for climbing new heights of tall buildings with speed. However, the untold story of their operations is technologically complicated and can lead to malfunctioning during fires outbreaks. Control and use of lifts during fire outbreak is a critical component that dictates the efficacy that fire fighting units can achieve at any particular moment. In case of fire outbreaks, people should avoid using lifts and instead follow the emergency exits as a major precautionary measure.

After reports warning of fire outbreak through emergency warning systems, the lift controller should guide the lift to his point of control and immobilize it there after confirming that all the occupants are out. Though disagreements have constantly recurred over the best model to use lifts in cases of outbreaks, most of the emergency rescue experts give the following reasons. To begin with, operations of the lift may be affected by the fire and trap the occupants in it.

This may be very dangerous especially in cases where the fire is spreading with speed. Besides, use of lifts may pass through sections with frames and Smalley (2005) indicates that allowing use of lift during fire outbreaks would lead to overloading and possible malfunctioning during the emergency period. To guarantee efficacy in the rescue units, use of emergency foot stairs is considered the best option.

Though use of lifts is not recommended during events of emergencies, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that special cases may require their monitored use to perfect fire protection mechanisms. To begin with very tall buildings are inconvenient for the occupants to take stairs to the ground floor. Use of lifts in this case assists them to easily move down and escape from the burning site.

Secondly, when the occupants of the buildings at the time of fire outbreak were characterized of people with disability, their ability to move down the stairs may be greatly compromised. Failure to offer the disabled people with an alternative route down stairs as Keating (2004) indicates is like condemning them to fire since they are helpless. For other cases like hospitals, use of lifts is accepted to assist in moving the patients from the danger scene. It is critical that use of lift during emergency period is effectively monitored to avoid confusions.

Fire fighters and air traffic controllers should also have access to the lifts as their tasks require speed and coordination to address the fire from the source and communicate to the public respectively. To promote efficiency in fire protection, modern building codes require that special lifts are established to improve efficiency in their fire fighting mechanisms and evacuation procedures.

Building evacuation systems Evacuation systems entail removal of the people from the danger sites to regions of safety or hospital for treatments. Fire protection building evacuation systems seeks to ensure that all the people in a building are guided or taken to safety as fire is extinguished. Building evacuation systems requires strong planning, organization of the system, and careful supervision.

Organization of the building evacuation system requires a clear plan that defines the roles and responsibilities of different members of the evacuation team. Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the participating members’ duties are complemented with respective equipments that are necessary for use in case of the need for evacuation (Lewinnek, 2003). Besides, effective evacuation policies and plans could be established to enhance better management and coordination with other departments.

Diagrams and evacuation routes should be effectively provided in a building. The policy should also provide for imminent danger definitions and determine how the central control should operate during evacuation.

Then evacuation should also include an effective detection reporting system on the situation which culminates to the decision of conducting evacuation in the building. At this point, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the evacuation team should operate in direct conjunction with all the other departments to make them understand their tasks and the expected conduct during fire outbreaks.

According to Austin and Roger (2007), the evacuation team should have a clear outline of their expected movements and operation during their operations. This is perhaps the most critical part of the system as it gives the necessary information of the equipments for suppressing fire especially to keep the exit routes free for all the people. Depending with the nature of a building, evacuation system may require that the group effectively possess special equipments like parachutes for evacuating people in tall buildings.

However, it would be incomplete to talk about an evacuation system without emphasizing on their communication. One critical element that determines the ability of an evacuation unit is its capacity to communicate among them effectively. As indicated earlier, evacuation is done to facilitate faster removal of people from their areas of high danger to safer points; therefore coordination is very critical to reduce panic and confusion.

Finally, en evacuation system should have an effective inspection and command system that provides the central command for the operations. This becomes very critical especially on tall buildings where coordination has to be effected at different heights. In addition, inspection and evaluation is essential as it offers the evacuation process undertaken with an assessment to determine how effective it was and provide recommendations for improvement in later emergencies (Ferguson

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Dealing With Inmates Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

A towns’ image is vital for establishing a formal relationship with the outside world. A decent towns’ image will make it easy, for people living there to establish a long lasting relationship. The healthy relationship is beneficial for attracting investors who help in boosting the economy of the town. Investors get scared when the town is famous for having a poor relationship with outsiders. Therefore, a wholesome image helps the locals interact with outsiders and share ideas.

The major cause of increased investment in any town is security. The image of a town is crucial for creating and maintaining a favorable image. Therefore, the government should intervene in this situation so that it can make the town secure. An acceptable image is also notable for making the town a pleasant place for educational achievement.

The entire image attracts more students than a town that is famous for insecurity. A town that is famous for being a prison centre is seen by people as a highly insecure place that is not safe for investment. The town is seen as a centre of criminal acts because of the prison.

The mayors’ panel should comprise all the stakeholders of the town. The stakeholders in this case, are Alice Rugby, David Halloway, Arnold Kitchen, John Edwards and Angela Bakersfield. All these people have a key role in the security and proceedings of the daily activities in the town. The above people have different perspectives on the issue at hand.

The people of the neighboring community have an issue with the security caused by the existence of the prison in the town. The people have a negative view because of the existence of the prison, and will propose that the town be rebranded into a town focused more on education than now when they focus on prisons.

The media reporters will want people to learn to live with the fact that the prison is in the town, and claim that they have to make the proceedings available to the other parts of the country. All the stakeholders have a different view of the situation, and they only thing that one can do is to try making them come to a consensus is allowing them to share their proposals and perspectives then negotiating on the best way forward.

The town does not need to change its image; instead, the stake holders should negotiate and come to an agreement on how to handle the situation. In this case, the way forward is to negotiate with the prisons department to make sure that the prisoners change their clothes before leaving the prison premises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prisoners should also leave the premises at the time when their bus is ready to leave town so as to stop them from loitering in town. However, the media should also report on the other aspects of the town like the university and businesses.

The shift of focus from the prisons to the university and other will have a negative impact on the economy because many people come to the town to witness the executions which the media advertizes. This is impact can be reversed by the increase in the number of students who come to the university to study.

The people affected by the release of prisoners are the school children and the business people. However, it is better for businesses to lose a little amount of money and ensure the safety of the people.

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Grand Canyon Geology Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents The formation of the Grand Canyon

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks

Grand Canyon’s fossil

Reference

This is a great feature in the world. It is in the list of the most scenery worldwide.

The formation of the Grand Canyon “ Grand Canyon formation occurred an exceedingly long time ago. However, no one is pretty sure of how its formation took place. Nevertheless, geologists come up with some guesses about this. Some say that there was a combination of some forces that led to its formation.

One strong suggestion is that there was erosion who’s the main cause was water and wind. Other forces that also contributed to the formation of the Grand Canyon are; volcanism, continental drift, some vibrations in the orbit of the earth and many others.

Water had an immense impact on Grand Canyon since it occupies the largest percentage of the world’s space. This becomes a complicated issue especially because the Grand Canyon is found in the desert. The soil that is in the canyon is extremely hard and does not absorb water whenever it rains. This is what makes it truly evident that water caused that erosion.

Another cause is water in the form of ice. When it is hot, the rocks in canyon crack. After this, during the cold season, the water freezes inside the rocks. This causes expansion of rocks. As a result, the rocks may fall, which in most cases leads to the formation of a landscape in the canyon.

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks Geologists come up with a conclusion that the rocks formation was from the combination of forces like continental drift, and volcanism. The earth is not fixed in one place rather it floats on molten rocks (Beus, and Morales, 1990). The earth consists of layers “plate” of rocks. The North American rock is the one that contains the Grand Canyon.

During those old days, the canyon was located on further south side. The location changed gradually with change in climate. The earth’s continents are separate, although they move a bit on the molten rocks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is what enabled the North American rock move towards the west and collided with the Pacific plate. As this conflict took place, there arose a mountain at the point of contact. Mountains and ranges were formed like the mountains of California. These Rocky Mountains form the base of Grand Canyon.

As our planet’s climate warms, its median sea level rises and falls. This is caused by melting and freezing of the polar caps. The land that is close to the coast sometimes submerges when altitude is low. This is what caused the layers of rocks that exist in Grand Canyon. In conclusion, the Grand Canyon consists of sedimentary rocks, which were formed in the shallow coastal plains.

The Grand Canyon is formed at the bottom of the ocean since that is where sedimentary rock are present. The current top layer of the canyon is Kaibab limestone. The Kaibab limestone contains sandy limestone.

Grand Canyon’s fossil It contains fossils creatures that were aquatic like fish teeth, mollusks, worms, sea lilies, and many others. These make it less complicated when it comes to the fact that the Grand Canyon formation took place in the ocean. The shape of the Grand Canyon is due to many mountains that existed many years ago even before it was there. Its base is due to erosion of the mountains until a plane was formed.

Reference Beus, S. S.,

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The Case of Heineken Inc. Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Changing distribution system and opposition from people

Benefits of changing the distribution system

Possible effects of opposing change

References

Managing organizational change in a business has become one of the most important pillars supporting business productivity bearing in mind that through change, the performance of a business is enhanced, workers are motivated and new methods of innovation are introduced. Studies indicate that change management is an imperative structured approach that managers apply to transit organizations as well as employees to desired outcome.

Many individuals in organizations are quite often opposed to the process of change. They rather prefer status quo. Beugelsdjk and Slangen (2001) posit that by overcoming forces restraining change, organizations can make tremendous developments in terms of growth, sales and productivity. This paper examines organizational change in the distribution system at Heineken Inc. and its impact on the business.

Heineken’s distribution system has been considered to be one of the best among beer distributors in the world since its inception. Besides exporting its products, Heineken also sold its beers via agents to small and big pubs which were linked to consumers in the beer market.

After the Second World War, Freddy Heineken, the CEO at Heineken foresaw the forthcoming developments in technology where machines such as televisions and refrigerators would be introduced and revolutionize the market. On that front, he felt the need to radically abolish the traditional distribution system and initiate changes in distribution that would meet the expected changes in marketing patterns.

Changing distribution system and opposition from people In 1947, the traditional distribution pattern at Heineken was changed from pubs to wholesalers and supermarkets where more people frequented after television and refrigerators were introduced.

However, as indicated earlier in the paper, the move to create a change encountered massive resistance from other leaders of the organization who felt that by shifting from the traditional system of distribution via pubs, chances were that they would lose their crucial distribution channel.

Besides, change would interfere with the normal routine the business had of distribution by opening up to professionals from wholesaler groups and supermarkets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of changing the distribution system Mary Jo Hatch posits that change in the culture and normal practice of a business plays a pivotal role of enhancing performance and raising sales levels (Frimpon, 2011). The decision to change the distribution system at Heineken increased sales of beer by 35 litres per person in 1968 from the previous 10 litres in 1949. In addition, reports indicate that its market share also rose by 18% from a low of 21 to a high of 39% (Beugelsdjk

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Aristotle’s Philosophy Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Renford Bambrough seeks to express the importance of the discussions made by Aristotle with the aim of solving the problems that philosophers have struggled with throughout history. According to Bambrough, Aristotle made attempts to demystify the notion that philosophy is a continuing and a living activity which is separated from historical studies done.

Aristotle emphasized a need to incorporate classical works of ancient philosophers into the debates solving philosophical questions (Bambrough 378). This should be done with restraint and caution in order not to compromise the validity of modern studies and to avoid bias, as evident in the studies of some historical philosophers in their quoting of particular texts of Aristotle (Bambrough 381).

“There has also been hostilities extended towards the philosophers, not only those of the past, but also those of more recent times, in their exploration of the nature of the universe with specific dissatisfaction extended towards their theorizing instead of making empirical conclusions” (Bambrough 382).

This has encouraged some analytical philosophers to denounce the classical sources that their studies are based on, despite their dependence on the same, hence expressing bias in their deductions.

The author explains that though philosophy has enjoyed its fair share of interest over two thousand years, some philosophers argue that philosophy should now yield to science and religion. Aristotle’s work has served greatly to unite these fundamental specifications on the need to understand the universe as well as the need to understand the human being in a societal context” (Bambrough 382).

In this regard, philosophy should not be viewed as dominating the views of science and religion, but rather as their ‘hand maid’, as a reference point (Bambrough 382). This paper will discuss Aristotle’s views on human nature and , state in relation to and slavery. In addition, it will discuss the different partnerships mentioned in the books 1 and 2. Furthermore, the paper will discuss the concepts of citizenship outlined in the book 3 of Politics and compare the philosopher’s position regarding slavery outlined in his Politics and will.

A mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves Politics

Aristotle, like most Greeks who lived in his time and before him, did not believe that human beings could ever live a good life without institutions and social relationships. Aristotle defined a man as a creature adapted for life in a city-state or polis. This is in relation to Aristotle’s famous saying that man is a political animal by nature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aristotle’s saying that ‘who is delighted by solitude is either a wild beast or a god’ has become a proverb (“Whosoever_is). Aristotle points out that to lead a happy life, a man has to live in a community where each person should strive for the development of the community in general and not his or her selfish goals. He claims that the state has to exist since individuals or even the family unit is too weak and too limited to support themselves.

While there may not be much interest in saving lives of certain individuals, it is important for all people to live in cities because they were designed for living in the state community and cannot exist separately. from community (Bambrough 384).

The environment provided by the city is also helpful for personal development where individuals can enjoy personal happiness as they exercise their intellectual and moral virtues. It is also imperative that the city or the state is self-sufficient and can sustain itself and it doesn’t need to be a part of a group or a larger community.

In his teachings, Aristotle reiterated what his predecessor Plato had said that as to the aspects of planning and governance, the Greek polis would make the most natural and ideal form of society where man can give his best. Aristotle, however, disagreed with Plato by indicating that moral and political virtues should be branches of knowledge just like navigation and medicine.

In addition, Aristotle also disagreed with Plato’s concept of creating a happy community by proposing that happiness is an individual activity that cannot be shared though it can be enjoyed concurrently with others. Aristotle also identified that, it is up to individuals to attain happiness from the state and not the state to attain happiness from individuals.

According to Aristotle, this is because the state exists for the benefit of individuals and not individuals exist for the sake of the state (Bambrough 392). He also rejected the offer of the communal ownership of property, wives and children that had been previously suggested by Plato.

Aristotle noted that if everything is made up of everybody’s business, then it will be nobody’s business. This is because individuals would have very little personal attachment to what is declared state property and as a result would not be interested in preserving and improving it.

We will write a custom Essay on Aristotle’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another important aspect of Aristotle’s philosophy indicated his acceptance of slavery as one of the most important characteristics of the community of his times. One of the most important arguments provided by Aristotle for justifying the institution of slavery in Politics was a mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves.

Aristotle stated that slavery can improve the humanity in general. He Aristotle noted that some men are made to be slaves and therefore achieve their purpose in life by performing servile duties to those who are higher than them. Though these views may be disputed in modern times, it is important to realize that Aristotle made his statements on principles and details that were related to the city-states of his own time.

In his exploration of property such as slaves, Aristotle justifies this phenomenon by pointing out at the existence of persons who are slaves by nature and consequent justification of slavery. According to Aristotle, some people need to provide services to others whom they consider as inferior to them to achieve their own telos (life purpose).

According to AristotleFurthermore,, Aristotle noted that every household should consist of slaves and free persons to be complete (Bambrough 385). A complete household requires effective association between men and women and between masters and slaves.

Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians. For this reason, most of Aristotle’s work gives not only his views on how things should be, but also how things were at the time he lived.

Book 1 In Aristotle’s book 1, the author stated that states are based on certain partnership that is formed for the members to achieve certain desired good deeds. The author noted that, human beings are universally selfish and they always strive to achieve the goals which they perceive as advantageous for them (Bambrough 385).

Therefore, according to Aristotle, the state is a political partnership. Aristotle defined the state as a group of people who understand that they cannot live separately from this group and decided to create an association.

According to Aristotle, Tthe distinction between the a master, estate manager, statesman, and a slave is based on their nature and innate features. king has also been highlighted to be of contention, as some people base their definitions barely on the numbers that are ruled by people holding these titles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Aristotle’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aristotle admitted that the process in which an individual comes to power is of great importance. Like a king holds power on his own, while a statesman is one who follows the principles dictated by the science of statesmanship and takes turns with others to rule and govern (Bambrough 386). Slaves obey their masters because they tend to be ruled since their birth.

Therefore, the agreement between those who govern and those who are being governed is one of important principles of the science of statesmanship. Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered as a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians.

Aristotle noted that some people tend to be ruled since their birth (Bambrough 377379). For this reason, Greeks suggested that all barbarians were inferior to them and all barbarians were equal to slaves. Under the influence of stereotypes which were dominant among the philosophers of his time, Aristotle considered males to be superior to females.

Moreover, according to Aristotle, women in the barbarian community are equal to slaves and occupy the same position in the society (Bambrough 383). Aristotle concludes that it is right for Greeks to rule over non-Greeks because the latter are inferior and tend to be ruled by their nature. Therefore, in his Politics Aristotle defines slaves as weak creatures who tend to be ruled and includes all non-Greeks into this category.

According to the assumptions Aristotle made in his Politics, slaves are nothing more than tools which are needed for satisfying daily needs in the household. Analyzing Hesiod’s saying concerning the house, a wife and an ox which are needed for every man to run a successful household, Aristotle associates an ox with a slave as a tool required for performing certain household operations (Bambrough 383).

Taking into account the slaves’ natural desire to be ruled, it can be stated that that masters abd slaves have common interests which result in their mutually beneficial association. However, regardless of the obvious benefits of this association, masters should acquire an art of being masters for improving the effectiveness of this partnership.

Analyzing the assumptions concerning the innate features as the primary cause of the institution of slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics, it can be stated that the ancient philosopher accepted the institution of slavery as something that is taken for granted and is not disputable.

Comparing these assumptions to the decisions outlined by Aristotle in his Will, it can be stated that the latter are compatible with the philosophical doctrine included into Politics.

In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter marries, she shall be given 500 drachmas and the female slave she has at present” (Diogenes 64). Therefore, Aristotle left by will his slaves which were part of his household to his children so that they could become parts of their household in the future and the mutually beneficial association could continue.

Enslavement by convention As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle in his Politics justified the slavery by nature but questioned the justice of enslavement by convention. Aristotle admitted that his opponents claiming that slavery is unjust had certain right on their side.

In his Politics, Aristotle distinguishes between those who are slaves by nature and those who are slaves by convention or by law. Regarding the first category, Aristotle noted that they were designed to be ruled and even their physical characteristics are suitable for this task. In other words, slaves are physically stronger because they have to do the household tasks, whereas their masters are physically weaker because they were designed mainly for the art of being masters and political affairs.

However, the situation with those who were enslaved by convention is different. Aristotle discussed the counterargument to his theories, namely the position that the possibility to execute superior power cannot become a proper ground for justifying slavery. Discussing the enslavement as the product of war, Aristotle pointed out that it could be unjust if the beginning of war had been unjust.

Then, wellborn persons can be enslaved and their children would be slaves as well. However, Aristotle admitted that a person who did not really deserve to become a slave would never become a slave (Bambrough 389).

The ancient philosopher linked his assumptions concerning the injustice of enslavement by convention to the discussion of innate desire to be ruled as the main cause of enslavement. However, it should be noted that Aristotle’s assumption tat all barbarians are slaves is incompatible with his idea expressed later in Politics that there are people who never and nowhere can become slaves because of their innate virtues.

As an example, Aristotle discussed Helen’s words who admitted that nobody would dare to call her a servant because she had gods on both sides of her family tree (Bambrough 390). However, as it was further argued by Aristotle, the claims of those who are well-born or low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether they are or are not slaves. Aristotle admitted that not always good parents produce good children and even though it is frequently true, there are certain exceptions.

In his Politics, Aristotle noted that people who are slaves or masters by law not always are such by nature. Therefore, it can be concluded that nature and innate qualities should remain the main criteria to be used for distinguishing between slaves and masters, whereas people’s origin and the fact that they were well-born ot low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether a person can become a slave. Aristotle also pointed out at the negative consequences of ruling over those people who do not tend to be ruled.

Due to Aristotle’s assumption that a slave and a master in their mutually beneficial association are parts of a whole, the philosopher concluded that ruling over those who are not slaves by their nature can have a negative impact upon masters as well as their slaves (Bambrough 390).

According to Aristotle’s Politics, a slave can be defined as a separate animate part of his master’s body. A master and a slave have common interests if their relationship is natural and they have tended to be free or enslaved since their birth. However, if the association is based on force only, it is harmful for both of them.

Analyzing the assumptions made by Aristotle in his Politics and provisions for slaves the philosopher included into his will, it can be stated that the provision to liberate some of his slaves after his death is compatible with the arguments discussed in Politics. In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter is married, Tacho shall be freed, and also Philo, and Olympios, and his son. The executors are not to sell any of the slaves who looked after me, but to employ them.

When they reach the appropriate age, they should set them free as they deserve” (Diogenes 64 ). It is obvious that Aristotle asked to liberate the slaves, whom he considered to deserve freedom. Otherwise, the association between masters and slaves by convention but not by nature would have been unjust.

As it can be seen in the text by Bambrough, Aristotle stated that the principles of governing and being governed are significant for the science of statesmanship and existence of this association (382). There are several types of partnership ranging from the family unit to the village and in some cases a group of states where one state rules over others.

Aristotle went on to discuss the management of the state and then the property of the state, its nature and its administration. He concluded that the state occurs naturally and human beings are also naturally designed to live in the states. There are, however, individuals who by nature do not belong to any state and they therefore are either inferior beings or superior beings.

If a person is inferior, then the person is considered a slave, but if the person is superior he/she is obviously dangerous because all he seeks is war. Aristotle also stated that the state should be prior to families and particular individuals because the part cannot exist without the whole (Bambrough 385).

The relations between an individual and the state can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well. Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state.

Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64).

On the other hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories tended to be ruled. On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that his slaves were his property and he as a master could give liberty to them if he wanted to.

Book 2 In the book 2, Aristotle reviewed political partnerships in reference to good governance by identifying constitutions that are either theoretically beneficial or that are enjoyed by the states men. “In a good state, where there is a partnership, the people should commonly hold everything that belongs to the state that can be possibly held as so” (Bambrough 387).

In addition, as described in Bambrough’s text, Aristotle stated that, there is a single locality to the state and all citizens belong to it to show that state properties are commonly owned by its citizens as a partnership (Bambrough 394). The ancient philosopher suggested that a state ceases to be a state if it develops into unity.

This is because the state is naturally plural and if it grows in unity, the state becomes more of a household than a state. The state should also consist of individuals who are uniquely different. These people can come together because of their similar goals to form a state, but not due to their similar nature.

A group of states may come together to form an alliance of states. This is driven by the similarities in their goals. The most common goal in this case would be to avert aggression. This concept can be illustrated by an example of a difference between the state and the tribe.

Tribes may usually compete against one another, however in times of harsh and desperate times, they will unite together. The tribes are all strong when united together. As a result, the stronger they can combat and defeat a common enemy. This is related to States, which also form an alliance in a similar case and collaborate, due to their external needs.

As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle noted that if all individuals are equal, as suggested by Plato, where property, wives and children are owned communally, then the attention to things will be inversely proportional to the number of people who will take responsibility (386).

This is because people ignore the responsibility and assume that someone else will take it. Due to the selfish nature of a man, there might be a situation where nobody may come up to take the responsibility.

Aristotle also stated that “It is not easy for people living in this context to avoid troubles such as unintentional and intentional homicide, assault, insulting each other and fighting” (Bambrough 395). According to Aristotle, the main two rules which should be observed in a society include self-control in relation to women and generosity in relation to property.

Book 3 In book 3, the author explored the concept of citizenship by raising the question ‘what do we mean by the word citizen’ where he concluded that this term may be explained differently by different thinkers, as democracies and oligarchies define citizenship differently.

This question can only be answered through exploration of the process of becoming a citizen which leads to the consequent problem of whether these processes are just or unjust. Aristotle raised the question of defining a just citizen and wondered if a just citizen can be defined as a good person whereas the tenets characterizing just citizenship and goodness are different (Bambrough 398).

The conventional definition of a citizen is a child whose parents were both citizens. Aristotle stated that some people extend this requirement to two or three generations back (Bambrough 404) This raises the question of how the parents or these other prior generations became citizens in the first place, if they were also subjected to such a law. Will

Analyzing the provisions made by Aristotle in his will and comparing them to the assumptions made in his Politics, it can be stated that they are compatible because in both of them Aristotle distinguishes between slaves by nature and slaves by convention and recommends treating them differently.

The relations between an individual and the state similarly to those between a master and a slave can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well.

Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state. Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters.

Aristotle emphasized the link between slaves and their masters, admitting that association based on force can be harmful for both of them and a true art of being a master would exclude ruling over those who are free by their nature. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64). On the one hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories did not tend to be ruled.

On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that some people would never become slaves regardless of place and situation. Therefore, it can be concluded that Aristotle implemented his theoretical principles regarding slavery, association between a master and a slave and different categories of slaves when he provided provisions to give some of his slaves to his children and liberate other slaves after his death.

Conclusion Analyzing the philosophical assumptions concerning the human nature, the state and slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics and decisions he outlined in his will, it can be stated that the philosopher considered the state as an important condition for well-being of people who cannot exist separately from the stateslavery as a natural phenomenon of any community and an important element of any household.

According to Aristotle, people were designed for living in the states and can be regarded as parts of the state, while the state as a whole is prior to individuals and particular householdssome people were designed to be ruled whereas others were designed to rule over others.. Aristotle accepted slavery as a natural phenomenon because he hypothesized that some people tend to rule, and others tend to be ruled.

Additionally, as it can be seen from Aristotle’s will, the philosopher considered slaves as property of their masters who can give liberty to their slaves if they would like to.However, another important assumption made by Aristotle in his Politics is that slaves were designed to obey their masters and their purpose in life to provide services to masters who are regarded as superior to them.

The conclusion drawn by the ancient philosopher is that a master and a slave share common interests and the association between them is mutually beneficial. However, this association would be ruined if a master or a slave does not belong to their role because of their innate qualities.

Aristotle accepted the fact that in some situations slavery can be unjust and even harmful for the masters who rule over slaves who were born to be free. This assumption explains Aristotle’s provisions to liberate some of his slaves after his death. Therefore, looking at his slaves, Aristotle regarded some of them as slaves by nature and ordered to give them to his children, whereas others he saw as free people and ordered to liberate them. In general, the Assumptions made by Aristotle in Politics are compatible with provisions of his will.

Works Cited Bambrough, Renford. The Philosophy of Aristotle. New York: New American Library, 1963. Print.

Diogenes, Laertius. “The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers”. Trans. Charles Duke Yonge. Course Booklet. n.a. n.d. 64. Print.

“Whosoever_is_delighted_in_solitude_is_either_a.” Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press, 1996. 17 Nov. 2011.

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Wesfarmers Case Study college admissions essay help

Introduction The current position of Wesfarmers is largely due to the Global Financial Recession that threatened to grind its operations to a halt but thanks to the company’s broad conglomerates, it has managed to sail through, albeit with some financial shortcomings.

Wesfarmers’ acquisition in November 2007of Coles Group, which was one of the leading retailer chains in Australia, made it the biggest retailer and private employer in the country. However, the purchase, which was worth $19.3 billion, left Wesfarmers without adequate funds to operate its numerous businesses.

The global financial crisis further compounded the financial status of Wesfarmers between 2008 – 2009 (Huang, 2010).

Wesfarmers’ management and leadership style, however, has also enabled it to be the brand name that it is in the Australian markets. At corporate level, the company has directors who manage different functions and at the same time head various divisions.

This lessens the bureaucracy that would have otherwise existed between senior management, middle, and lower management levels. Moreover, the choice of these managers is made on merit and experience while underscoring teamwork for the success of the company. This paper, therefore, attempts to answer the CEO’s, Richard Goyder (Huang, 2010).

Macro-Environment Analysis Summary Political/Legal Forces

The politico-legal environment in Australia provides a good ground on which Wesfarmers can thrive.

The Australian government has provided good infrastructure for movement and communication within the country and given Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses it can easily communicate with customers, make deliveries, and receive supplies for its stores. Although it is headquartered in Perth, Western Australia, it is able to easily conduct its business all over the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sound infrastructure provides opportunity for Wesfarmers especially its online divisions (Coles online supermarket), which requires Internet thus making this division a viable project.

Trade liberalization has also opened up a wealth of opportunities in economies such as the European Union markets with un-entered and new target markets which the company can take advantage of (Mahadevan, 2004).

Economic Forces

With the global financial crisis behind it, Wesfarmers can exploit the budding post-financial crisis economy of Australia. The Reserve Bank of Australia has directed commercial banks to drop their lending rates from 10.2% in 2009 to 8.91% in 2011 (Juckes, 2009).

This is an indication of the brighter future for Wesfarmers because it can obtain loan cheaply to undertake its operations. Coupled with the low inflation in the country, people have money to spend and owing to Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses, at least one-half of its divisions must record increase in sales.

Equally important is the exchange rate against US dollar, which is AUD 1.08233 per USD. and AUD 1.35 per Euro (Juckes, 2009). International trade thus poses a great opportunity for Wesfarmers’ numerous businesses with relatively better returns.

Socio-Cultural Forces

The social dynamics of the Australian population provide an opportunity for Wesfarmers to expand its business and sustain its growth rate.

The company runs a total of nine divisions with various businesses and owing to the consumerist nature of Australians, they often flock retail stores to purchase food suppliers, home appliance stores, among others. In this era, the Y generation is the spendthrift customers who must be impressed by the products.

We will write a custom Report on Wesfarmers Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality issues emerge strongly and must be addressed by the company for it to cash in on this dominant group. Australians have become conscious about the effects of junk food and green energy both to their lives and to the planet.

Wesfarmers energy generating divisions face close down due to perhaps boycott if it does not generate clean energy in the near future. Similarly, the retail division that deals in human food must produce whole grain stocks and reduce the junk type in order to make the business sustainable in the long-run.

Technological Forces

Technology has an irresistible influence to the operations of a company’s activities. The advancement has been so rapid that a company that lags behind is working its way out of business.

The federal government in cooperation with state governments has ensured that there is sound infrastructure that facilitates the availability of technology in every corner of the country. Consequently, companies have adopted the use of technology to give them a competitive edge.

Wesfarmers can use its scarce resources to institute a management information system where technology is used to effectively and efficiently manage the daily operations of the company, more so given that it is a large conglomerate.

The acquisition of Coles, for example, enabled Wesfarmers to have an online supermarket where customers can place and pay for their orders upon delivery (Huang, 2011).

Environmental Forces

Issues dealing with environment issues have significantly affected the modern macro-environment for most companies, including Wesfarmers, in the negative. The reason being they have influence on the financial arena such as decline of profit for green and carbon compliance schemes deployed by the Australian government.

These forces, irrespective of the industry, are set on long-term basis hence their influence of a company’s growth cannot be underestimated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wesfarmers Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the cost of common resources increase such as the cost of crude oil, costs of other resources also rise thus increasing wholesale and supplier costs. Consequently, the potential profit and growth are reduced and felt by associated organizations (Baker, Graham

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Management Theory- The Tucker Company Case Study a level english language essay help

Introduction Reorganized Organizational Structure of the Tucker Company: Causes of Problems after Reorganization

The interdepartmental conflict between Mr. Hodge and Mr. Franklin, after the adoption of the above organization structure at the Tucker Company, had both personality and structural bases.

The Structural Basis

The new organizational structure adopted by the Tucker Company was classical in nature as many industrial oriented organizations are not (Spender, 1989). In following a structure formulated along product lines it adopted the basic principles of division of labor which is itself an integral aspect of the classical theory of management (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

In the classical theory of management, success is based on a few basic principles. Foremost, the notions of authority and responsibity are intimately intertwined (Almashaqba et al, 2001). In accepting to exercise your authority in a particular area, you also, out of necessity, accept the responsibilities inherent in it.

The second principle is that of unity of command. This principle states that each person should only receive commands from a single source (Almashaqba et al, 2001). This is because multiple commands would lead to confusion, and eventually conflict. A third principle is that of unity of direction.

It states that members of an organization should work towards the achievement of similar overt goals (Almashaqba et al, 2001). It is in the unity of objectives that harmony within the organization is achieved. Lastly, member of the organization are expected to harmonize their interests with those of the organization.

If there is conflict between the two, individual interests should be subordinated to those of the organization; this is called the principle of Subordination of Individual Interest (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

Due to its hierarchical nature, Tucker Company’s new structure falls in the bureaucratic subgroup of the classical theory of management which can be summarily characterized by a few features. Foremost, bureaucracy is typified by specialization. Job positions and the corresponding are offered to persons who are most qualified in carrying them out (Mullins, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also characterized by hierarchical authority which is reliant on levels that are vertically oriented (Mullins, 2005). For a bureaucracy to work, it is regulated by a system of rules and regulations. These rules are understood to be of utmost importance and as such they cannot and should not be subordinated to personalities (Mullins, 2005). These principles should have served to avoid conflict at the Tucker Company. They were however undermined by structural oversights, limited resources, divergent personality types and the neglect of these principles by members of staff as will be shown below.

To start with, the reorganization of the company into three main divisions whose vise-presidents were directly and independently answerable to the company president meant that they were autonomous from each other. This arrangement per se is not the cause of the ensuing conflict. Rather, it led to the fact that the company did not have access to unlimited resources to ensure that the implied concept of autonomy was not just theoretical. Since the company could not afford to equip and staff entire laboratories for each division, it carried on with the previously operational arrangement where the Laboratory, which was structurally under the Military Jet Engines Division, would serve all the other divisions. This was the mistake.

The resultant cross-departmental interaction had great potential for conflict. This is because the Classical theory of management is characterized by vertically oriented relationships. There were therefore no clear stipulations of how Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges, coming from different divisions and answering to different authorities, should have related.

In this respect, the conflict between the two can be blamed on either the incapacity or unwillingness of the company to actualize the autonomy of the three divisions or on the inability of the classical theory to facilitate healthy horizontal interaction.

As has been aforementioned, the classical management theory seeks to dispel ambiguity by regulating relationships by means of clearly laid down rules and guidelines. Such guidelines assist in reducing uncertainty in interdepartmental interaction which in turn aids performance (Hickson et al, 1971). This was however not the case in respect to Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges. In light of the probable efficiency of Mr. Hodges’ predecessor, there had never been need to establish such guidelines.

The restructuring of the company should however have been implemented as an opportunity to introduce the codification of such guidelines in light of the existing evidence that they are effective in reducing the number of opportunity for interdepartmental conflict and in providing means of conflict resolution (Smythe, 2000). The company management overlooked the potential danger of relying on the personal efficiency of Mr. Garfield and the risk of assuming that his replacement would be equally effective.

The Personality Basis

The conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges could also be looked at from the human perspective. Foremost, Mr. Hodges filled a position previously occupied by Mr. Garfield. It is significant to note that Mr. Garfield had efficiently fulfilled his duties and managed to satisfy all the departments that relied on his lab. The fact Mr. Hodges was unable to do this is a clear indication of a personality perspective to this conflict.

We will write a custom Case Study on Management Theory- The Tucker Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, Mr. Hodges was overlooking the authority and responsibility principle of the classical theory of management when he sought to have a say in the material selection process of Mr. Franklin’s department.

The fact that Mr. Hodges would not have been found answerable were something to go wrong is evidence enough that he should not have been accorded such authority. Having risen to the level of head of department Mr. Hodges would be expected to understand the workings of the new structure adopted by the company. Therefore, that he made such demands is a pointer to a personality weakness.

Lastly, the basis that Mr. Hodges raises for making these demands is that he feels he would be better at doing the job than Mr. Franklin owing to his training as a metallurgist. This constitutes lack of professional courtesy towards Mr. Franklin.

Implicit in this assertion is his questioning of Mr. Franklin’s capability to fulfill his responsibility and as well as the means by which he came to hold the position of head of manufacturing. Mr. Franklin also shows a weakness of character in hanging up on Mr. Hodge. This reaction might be attributable to the apparent perception of Mr. Hodges as a difficult man who only cares for his own interests at the expense of the company’s and others’.

Recommended Structure

It is clear that the conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges was a complex matter. However, it would have been avoided by restructuring the organization as follow:

The new Laboratory and Allied Division, coupled with a codification of regulations guiding its interaction with other divisions, would be advantageous in that it would eliminate structural and resource sharing problems discussed above.

Its main disadvantage is that it would be costly to establish a fully functional Laboratory and Allied Division. It would also still be beset by those that arise from personality differences and the neglect of observance of rules and regulations. Still, it would be the best.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Theory- The Tucker Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Almashaqba, Z., Alajloni, M.,

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Hospital Administrator Job Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Human Resource is one of the most important departments within an organization. According to Muller (28), employees are the most important assets to any firm. They shape the direction of the firm and determine its success.

A work force that has the right qualification is determined to achieve and receive the right motivation, which would most definitely steer the firm towards achieving its strategic goals. To have this kind of a workforce, there must be an appropriate leadership in the human resource department. This leadership should be impartial in hiring and managing the human resource. It is therefore very important to have the right person with required qualifications holding this office in an organization (Shawn and Mazin 23).

Job Analysis of a Hospital Administrator Hospitals are some of the busiest organizational units in any society. Unlike other organizations, hospitals deal with health of people. This makes it very sensitive. The employees, who are doctors, nurses and other subordinate staff, have the lives of their patients in their hands. They have the responsibility to ensure that patients brought to them get the right medication and get back to the right health. This is not an easy task because it involves working for longer hours than expected.

At times, employees may be recalled after they have left work, especially at times of emergency. This task is very stressing. It is therefore important to note that an administrator of these employees should be in a position to understand them in order to work with them appropriately.

This position requires an individual who is able to master the art of human management. Furthermore, an administrator should have a clear understanding of the requirements of various medical units within the hospital. Such an individual should have a clear understanding of the requirements of a medical officer.

An administrator in such an institution should be a medical doctor by profession or a nurse. This is important because it would be easier to determine the capacity of his or her workforce. It would also help in determining the scope of employees in terms of ability in handling health related issues. This administrator should have some additional qualifications in human resource management to help him or her understand the art of personnel management.

The officer should have at least six years experience as a medical doctor or a nurse in a busy medical institution. The individual should also have a two-year working experience as an assistant human resource manager, or an equivalent position. He or she should have good interpersonal skills and the ability to work under extended time limits as an administrator.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This position is very sensitive since it determines the success of any organization. It is therefore important to offer a competitive remuneration to workers in the department. Holders of this position should receive about four thousand seven hundred dollars in a month as the basic salary. Any extended time spent at the institution should be paid differently in an hourly basis. This should be about twenty-four dollars per hour.

As an appreciation to dedication to the organization, they should be given other rewards in order to motivate them. This may include holiday leave, a team building tour or other financial benefits. It is through this that a health facility may have the right candidate for the position.

Works Cited Muller, Max. The Manager’s Guide To HR: Hiring, Firing, Performance Evaluations, Documentations, Benefits And Everything Else You Need To Know. New York: New York Press, 2009. Print.

Shawn, Smith and R, Mazin. The HR Answer Book: An Indispensable Guide for Managers and Human Resources Professionals. New York: AMACOM, 2011. Print.

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“Winning” by Welch Essay (Book Review) best college essay help

The book “winning” is an all-inclusive guide targeting all the aspect of any business. The author emphasizes on the importance of being the pace maker in a particular business discipline. This book gives business managers, owners, average employees and associates advice on how to relate amongst themselves in order to create a conducive environment for business growth and stability.

Welch illustrate with mild and reasonably balanced opinions on how to create a better business environment for the business community, which puts a particular business establishment at the top of the performance gauge without compromising any party’s stake and comfort. The book illustrates various practices and regimes that have been the recipe for some of American companies’ cause of success, and other practices and moves that have brought about downfall and crippling of some businesses beyond redemption.

Welch does not draw any strict lines in business and even continues to say that business is a game with a dynamic range of maneuvers and moves. The author insists that there are no definite governing principles in business, but principles that largely apply rationality and balance are most appropriate. Welch describes the techniques that an individual in business must adopt despite their seemingly contradicting nature. Welch outlines areas that require strict practice and those that require liberal thinking and flexibility (Welch and Suzy, 2).

The book emphasizes the importance of business ethics for business survival. In addition to ethics, the book shows the need for focus as an important accessory to all employees’ ethics in order to thrive. The author has succeeded in presenting a non-radical stance while engaging in highly effective competitive business practices. A mission statement coupled with a plan on how to achieve the objective of that mission is a crucial ingredient for realizing success.

Every company employee or an affiliate of the company should be subconsciously aware of the organizations targets and goals in order to chart a common route and direction to achievement. Customers as affiliates of the company should be treated in a liberal and free atmosphere in order to create a sense of belonging. Taking advantage of the customer’s vulnerability or difficult situation has been cited as the undoing of some companies resulting in their instability and eventual collapse.

Enron Corp and General Electric (GE) have been discussed as examples of companies that through contrasting ethics realized different endings in their businesses. Quick profit making moves are not always the best and may not provide stable and lasting business architecture. However, practices such as candor are allowed to a moderate extent to facilitate success. This practice of being friendly to customers and business associates has an enigmatic ethical standing but is a necessary practice.

Although specialization has often been viewed as unfair, it has been recommended as a means of getting rid of business sectors that perform poorly, and encourage faster growth. Leadership is an important responsibility in a business organization according to the book.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders are advised to have qualities such as openness, transparency, candor, ability to stand their ground however unpopular, and the courage to make unbiased decisions for the sake of the organization. Implementing new ideas is an advisable norm for managers. These ideas may be implemented from within the company, and require the managers to be more enterprising.

The hiring process, according to Welch, is a challenging task and a lot should be invested in it to ensure that those hired are of upright morals and have the required skills, knowledge and discipline. Human resource management is crucial to the success of any organization (Collings 5).The author continues to point out that new employees should be subjected to a fair system of management and should be motivated in order to get maximum value out of them.

Motivation can be achieved through techniques that are not necessarily monetary based (Lawler 60). The author advises that a serious approach should be applied in problem solving. Although a business manager should be optimistic, he or she should have an open mind concerning the possible outcomes of a crisis. Welch say that careful planning is always a good strategy for the business advancement.

Maximizing gains and limiting risks are important factors to consider in drawing out a healthy budget for the business. However, too much caution is discouraged as unhealthy and calculated investments are deemed important. Welch encourages people to find good jobs where they can fit in. This does not necessarily mean the most paying job, but the one, which fits the individual’s passion and ideal job model. The balance between life and work is encouraged by the book.

An individual should be assertive and able to work within the scope of his or her responsibilities. In addition, the author advises on how to get along with superiors. Good relationship with superiors, while maintaining satisfactory results at work and a balanced life, are necessary. The author of “winning” has also managed to lay down fundamental practices necessary for any business to succeed and accomplish its mission while maintaining clean moral and ethical record.

Works Cited Collings, David G., and Geoffrey T. Wood. Human resource management: a critical approach. London: Routledge, 2009. Print

Lawler, John J., and Greg Hundley. The global diffusion of human resource practices institutional and cultural limits. Bingley, UK: Emerald JAI, 2008. Print.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Winning” by Welch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Welch, Jack, and Suzy Welch. Winning. New York: HarperBusiness Publishers, 2005. Print.

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Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The article written by Mr. Viscusi outlines characteristics of a good employee in work places. The four main characteristics that make an employee safe in his job are being visible, ready, easy and useful at the work place.

This is an advantage to the employee because when it comes to firing employees, the first people to go are those that the employer does not know. He encourages employees to be visible by coming to work before and leaving after the boss.

Employees should be smartly dressed, participate in volunteer works, make presentation and represent their boss in functions so that they can be recognized. Employees should be easy by giving the working conditions for the boss easy listening and following instructions given to them.

Otherwise, chances of being fired are high in difficult employees. Employees should avoid unnecessary complaints like the quality of chairs they use or the system of lighting. They should be contented with what is provided to them.

Employees are allowed to take part in office but they should measure their words before letting them out. Punctuality is very important, as employees should make sure that they arrive in their offices early but leave a little bit late. This is to say that they should be beyond time expectations of the company.

A good employer should set apart some time to train other employees on the importance of taking part in extra tasks in jobs, being responsible as well as giving support to their boss. Employees should be ready for issues arising unexpectedly by updating their resumes and networks, enhancing their interview skills, adding knowledge to their skills as well as maintaining good relationship with employers.

They should also have cash with them in banks. According to Viscuss, the most important factor in work places is the relationship between the employer and the employee.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He asserts that bosses hold the fate of employees and therefore employees should maintain good relations by looking and sharing interests common to both. Socialization is very important in work places. It is difficult for the employer to fire employees who are his friends.

Following those laws prevents an individual from being fired in a case where employees have to be reduced. All employees regardless of the position they hold in the organization should follow the rules (Little, 1986). Some of the aspects expounded in the article are good in work places but others are subject to criticisms.

Employees should take part in activities in work places such as presentations, representing their boss, arriving in jobs early and leaving late, for success of the organization but the reason behind good participation should not be for the boss to recognize you.

Firing employees should not be based on the level of interaction between employer and employees. Whether friends or not, this should be based on the quality of work done by employees. A good employer should be in a position to fire his best friend if they are not performing.

Employees have rights to demand what best fits them. They should be allowed to put forward their complaints that the boss should listen to. If they do not have say, then they lack freedom. These rules should make employees feel empowered.

These rules benefit labor because employees will be working to their best to produce quality and quantity work so that the boss can recognize them. The employer should discuss the regulations with his/her employees before passing them to be laws so that employees are not pressed up.

The advice given by Mr. Viscusi contributes to alienation in the work place, a condition in which an employee feels foreign. Employees are not comfortable in work places if they do not meet some of the conditions.

We will write a custom Essay on Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, employees who are not friendly to the boss are always insecure when it comes to reducing the number of employees because they stand at high chances of being fired regardless of the quality of their work. In addition, employees are not free to demand for their rights because if they do so, they will be the first to go. Such conditions make employees to remain in a condition of fear.

Karl Max argues that alienation in work places is brought about by capitalism. In the theory of alienation, he asserts that workers are deprived of their rights in capitalistic societies that make employees to lose hope in their lives and destinies.

In these societies, employees are not given rights to choose what to do or not, but are expected to follow laid down instructions that may be offending (Cutler, 1977, p. 227). The working is directed by rules and activities passed by those who own the means of production.

The bosses want the employees to work as much as possible so that they can get huge profits out of their work. They also ensure that the wages they pay to the employers is too low. The main beneficiaries of the work are the owners even though employees do most of the work.

It is obvious with employers that they want employees to work to their maximum for their benefit. The major role played by employees is not realized when it comes to payments. In the same case, extra work should be done for an individual to be recognized according to the article.

Creating a friendly environment with the boss is an added advantage to the employee. Employees who are not ready to adhere to the policies outline in this article are likely to be fired (Hindess

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Growth of China’s Economy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

It is obvious that within the past two decades China’s economy has grown. It has become the second largest economy in the world which was because of government initiatives into encouraging foreign direct investment, local entrepreneurship and real estate development within the country.

Also, the outsourcing industry has helped in improving the Chinese economy within the past 20 years causing rapid development and expansion of cities and factory complexes in China.

It was seen though in the study of Country Report (2011 ) which looked at the 70 million housing surplus units within China showed that most if not all if these units had price schemes well above what an average Chinese worker would be capable of affording (Economic forecast, 2011: 7).

In looking at the case of Country Report (2011) the rapid economic growth and development within China came also with an equally good expansion of China’s real estate with hundreds of thousands of construction projects expected to reach their completion periods by the end of 2012 – 2015.

The problem as explained by Country Report (2011) is that while there is a high rate of property development that is happening within Chinese cities there is a lot of housing surplus within the country with well over 70 million surplus housing units at the present.

The problem when looking at this situation based on the findings of Country Report (2011) is that while having housing surplus would be fine if such housing were created in order to meet expected demand within the near future the problem is that what is being made is not housing or subsidized housing schemes which are in great demand within China due to a lot of urban poor and urban workers but what is being made is high end property development which few people can afford.

Another way of looking at this issue is through the article of Lan (2011) which looked at changes in China’s social development. Lan (2011) points out that within recent years, as result of China’s increasing manufacturing industry, a relatively new segment of the population developed as a direct result of China’s progressive economic growth and development over the past 20 years and as such has come to become an influential factor in the local economy (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem as indicated by Lan (2011) is that this relatively new upper class is unfamiliar with the concept of wealth and privilege and as such have actually modeled their spending habits on that of the western world. It was seen in various instances that they spent a lot of money recklessly, lavishly and usually concentrated these purchases on high end real estate.

Data released by the Boston Consulting Group has estimated that the number of affluent/ middle class households within China will reach roughly 130 million by the end of 2020 (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

What is seen though in the case of China, as explained by Lan (2011) is that real estate development within the country has been that same as that of the affluent/middle class population growth but instead has gone past it with nearly 70 million homes/apartments meant for that particular population segment already having been built.

In the case of tier 2 cities Bennet (2002) explains that “the housing backlog (referring to the amount of unsold surplus units within buildings) was set for 1 year as determined by the developers during the initial phases of construction however in cities similar to Qingdao such as Dalian and Wuhan the housing backlog has reached 7.5 years to 8 years” (Bennet: 2002: 1).

A clarification of this particular statement by Zhang (2011) is that during project planning and construction developers thought that the apartments units that they had built would have been sold out within one year of construction yet the end result was that 2 to 3 years after construction barely 20% of units within apartment complexes in cities such as Qingdao were sold resulting in an excess in the amount of products present.

This particular problem is which is further worsened by the fact that even more properties are continuing to be built which few people can afford (Zhang, 2011: 514).

The problem with this is that there are too many homes versus too few people willing to buy which creates a potentially bad situation for China since up till this day construction projects of new homes continue to increase despite no one buying or too few people with money able to actually afford such places.

We will write a custom Essay on Growth of China’s Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shedding more light on this situation is the study by Wang et al. (2011) which looked at average home prices within China’s cities and the average salaries of workers within China.

Wang et al. (2011) showed that the average median home price within the country is equivalent to $114,900 while an average worker earns 2,000 to 4,000 Yuan per month and within an average year they could earn 24,000 to 48,000 Yuan.

Using XE.com to examine the current exchange rate it was seen that $114,900 is equivalent to 734,170 Yuan, as of the November 2011 exchange rate. When deducting the average cost of expenses that an ordinary Chinese worker has it can be seen taht it would take them a very very long time to earn even half of what is needed to buy even an average home with China’s current cities.

The underlying theme of Country Report (2011), Lan (2011) and Wang et al. (2011) is that there are too many surplus housing units within China since they focus too much on catering to the upper class instead of the lower class and the lower class is unable to buy because of the high prices.

This is connected to China’s current position in the multilateral trading system since as seen in the work of Zhang (2011) China has been using its current construction boom in order to artificially increase its GDP. The problem with this situation as explained by Zhang (2011) is that there is a limit to how much artificial GDP increase can be done which China has already clearly exceeded.

This leaves the country at the threshold of a possible real estate bubble burst which the Chinese economy must fix before things get much worse within the immediate future. The problem with China becoming a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system is that it would have to impose certain reforms in order to be considered “responsible”.

First and foremost among these possible reforms are issues regarding its manufacturing industry and its devaluation of its current currency.

Consumer Reports (2008) examined the spread of copied goods coming from China, it showed that the spread was a direct result of the outsourcing industry that China’s manufacturing industry was able to grow as fast as it did compared to other countries since China didn’t need to wait for technologies to develop within the country but rather copied the necessary technologies and processes needed to market their own goods (Real or FAKE, 2008: 12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth of China’s Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that due to the low cost of doing business in China local manufacturers that copied the technologies and processes of companies that had outsourced to China were able to undercut prices resulting in situation where more international consumers chose to buy from these new companies due to the relatively lower prices for the same product.

It must also be considered that China’s manufacturing infrastructure as well as the various manufacturing technologies and processes that were brought into China by various multinational companies that were copied by local manufacturers enabled them to produce the same type of product at a lower cost.

The Economist (2010) states “it was the culmination of these events that brought about the development of a new Chinese upper class composed of businessmen and entrepreneurs that increased local demand for high end real estate development as well as high class foreign goods” (Safe as houses, 2004: 41).

One of the current negative issues regarding China has been the issue of technology stealing, undercutting prices and the cheap labor in order to overwhelm markets. Based on the facts presented so far it can be seen that such practices have actually greatly benefitted China.

If China were to become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system it would need to implement reforms in order to ensure such practices are either abolished or limited in some way. The problem with doing so is that this would affect China’s local economy which is dependent upon the manufacturing industry to continuously churn out large amounts of goods.

Any slow down in the manufacturing industry would affect the current real estate market thus bringing about a housing bubble burst that would negatively affect China’s economy.

The same can also be said of China’s currency, if China were to correct it’s obviously undervalued currency the result would also create negative effects in the manufacturing industry which will also trigger another housing bubble from collapsing.

Becoming a “responsible stakeholder” in the current multilateral system involves having to conform to distinct guidelines, trade rules, international agreements as well as a variety of other possible regulations that would definitely affect China’s local economy.

You have to question whether a country would intentionally cause a widespread economic collapse within its borders all for the sake of “playing nice”. Another way of looking at this is by examining China’s previous course of actions over the past 50 years.

It can be seen that even in terms of being a “responsible state” it has considerably diverged from that due to reports of humans rights abuses, the limitations of human rights as well as an assortment of other questionable activities.

Even when China became a manufacturing hub for a large percentage of man-made products it as continued to disregard rules regarding the proper disposal of industrial waste as well as limiting the amount of C02 being released into the atmosphere.

Overall the country has continue to flagrantly disregard a lot of international rules all for the sake of continuing its activities. Now when taking into consideration the facts presented by the three articles presented in this paper it can be seen that not only has China not been a “responsible stakeholder” in a large percentage of its international actions but it seemingly only pursues actions which are to its benefit.

Thus, when presented with a situation such as a potential housing bubble burst should anything happen to its local economy it is can be stated that based on its previous history alone of non-compliance it is obvious that China will not be a responsible stakeholder in the near future.

One way in which China has been attempting to fix this issue is to implement stricter building policies however this has yet to actually affect the sheer amount of excess housing units within China.

In order for this to actually be resolved China needs time in order for either the units to get cheaper or for the government to come up with a way to fix the current housing problem.

As such it is very unlikely that China will seek to become a responsible stakeholder in the current international system but rather will continue along a route of destabilization since this is the only way it can prevent its local economy from collapsing under the weight of so many excess housing units.

Conclusion Based on an examination of the articles published in 2011 as well as the various articles utilized in supporting their arguments it can be seen that their underlying theme has been China’s overexpansion into high end property development within its local real estate market despite a majority of the demand being in affordable housing settlements.

While this particular action was in part precipitated by assumptions that China’s growing elite would buy the new properties the fact remains that estimates show that too many projects were built too quickly which many experts now agree could result in the worst real estate collapse in history.

Furthermore, due to the fact that any subsequent interference in China’s local economy would cause the housing bubble to burst it is unlikely that China would proactively become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system since this would result in a devastating blow to its local economy which China doesn’t want.

Reference List Bennett, JT 2002, ‘The Minimum Wage: Some New Evidence’, Journal of Labor Research, 23, 1, pp. 1-2, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Economic forecast’ 2011, Country Report. China, 5, p. 7, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Home truths’ 2010, Economist, 395, 8684, pp. 73-75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

LAN, X 2011, ‘China’s West: Generating Change’, China Today, 60, 4, pp. 47-49, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Real or FAKE?’ 2008, Consumer Reports, 73, 1, p. 12, MasterFILE Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 ‘Safe as houses’ 2004, Economist, 371, 8377, p. 41, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.September 2011.

Wang, S, Yang, Z,

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Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks Essay online essay help

Pre-historic Greek artworks have influenced cultures and arts in many countries around the globe, especially in the sculptural and architectural arts. Right from the Roman Empire in the West to the Far East including Japan, ancient Greek artworks are a source of inspiration (O’Kelly 1982, p. 88).

The Greek architecture left a lasting impression in the architectural design of public buildings. Contemporary buildings and the ancient Roman arts copied a lot of things from the Greek. This paper compares the Parthenon, a well known surviving building of ancient Greek with the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, which is a piece of contemporary architectural artwork.

The Parthenon building on the Acropolis, in 5th BC to replace an old temple destroyed during an invasion (Beard 2010, p.12). The temple building in Athens and it acted as a sign of Athenian dominance in the Greek Peninsula.

The War Memorial Opera House located in San Francisco on Van Ness Avenue opposite the City Hall opened its gate to the public in 1932 (Couret 1998, para. 2). The building was among the last main American building built in the Beaux-arts style. This style of art borrowed a lot from the ancient Greek and Roman architectures.

The Parthenon (Neils 2005, p. 3)

The War Memorial Opera House (SFWMPAC Online n.d, n.p)

The Parthenon building to served as a temple for one of the goddesses of Athens. It was built to offer thanks to Athena the goddess for their success and victory in the war. In fact, the name originated from a cultic statue housed in one of the rooms, in the temple.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building later invaded and turned into a church in honor of the Virgin Mary. On the other hand, the War Memorial Opera House was built to commemorate the people who died during the World War I. It also served to host the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center since 1932 when it opened its doors (‘Parthenon, Lovell Minnick and Fisher Lynch Conclude Acquisition of H.D. Vest Financial Services’ 2011, para. 2).

Classical Doric order or style, which, is normally calm and sturdy was used in building both buildings (Michos 2002, para. 7). The Parthenon, credited as one of the perfect Doric temple ever built in the world while the War memorial Opera House constructed using paired columns, an application of Doric order (‘The Webby Awards 2001(R) Will Take the Stage at San Francisco’s War Memorial Opera House’ 2001, n.p).

Doric style applied the directly standing columns on flat pavements known as stylobates and alternated metopes a feature common with the two architectural works under consideration. Ionic columns were also clearly used in both buildings.

The materials used to make the two pieces of architecture were different mainly because of the different in their respective location. Wooden roofs, marble tiles and marble statues made up the Parthenon’s interior. Other materials used in the building were ivory and gold, and it stood on a limestone rock.

Coffered ceiling; large aluminum and glass paneled chandelier made up the War Memorial Opera house’s interior. Sculptures are a common occurrence in the two buildings despite the difference in age (Clark 1997, para 5).

An explosion destroyed the Parthenon, but the War Memorial Opera house in San Francisco continues to stand. It maintains a lasting impression of the ancient Greek architectural designs, and buildings (Kaldor 2010, p 23). Technologically, the building has advanced, but it refuses to let go of its ancient world’s ‘theater feeling’.

Until late 20th century, the Parthenon laid destroyed, but the Greek government set out to revive the ancient building. Now it is meant to become a museum, but unfortunately, the original design cannot be recovered. Only an impression of it is possible.

We will write a custom Essay on Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Beard, M., 2010. The Parthenon, Profile Books.

Clark, A., 1997. After the quake: Andrew Clark attends the re-opening of San Francisco’s refurbished War Memorial Opera House Financial Times, pp. 08-08.

Couret, C., 1998. San Francisco’s historic opera house re-opens, The American City

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Innovations in Payment Systems: Square Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Description of company

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints

Analysis of possible solutions

Recommendation that need to be adopted

Works Cited

Description of company Square Inc is an innovative company that was launched in December 2009. Its president and the co-founder, Jack Dorsey, is also the co-founder of Twitter, a social network platform. The logic behind Square Inc. is to use paperless money as a mode of payment and transaction where every tweet would be a transaction.

The company is on the verge of changing the mode of payment in the U.S to ensure that payment is carried out through the use of smartphones (Romo 2). However, the president of Square Inc. has recently admitted that the company entered in the market prematurely.

Square Inc will ensure that payments are transacted everywhere since they are supported by android phones, iPads, and iPhones. According to the company’s president, the goal of Square is to enable customers accept payments instantly, everywhere.

Nonetheless, the company is wary of the anticipated competition from other emerging players like PayPal, Apple, and Google. The company has also devised a method of using the smartphones as cash registers whereby a squared credit card reader is connected to the Smartphone and transactions carried out easily (MacMillan 44).

Lastly, the innovative payment system of Square Inc. does not require fixed costs, hardware costs, and credit check like other credit payment systems. This makes it unique and competitive as people are on the lookout for the best mode of payment that is up to the current recession and changing market trends.

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints The problem is to determine whether Square Inc. is wary of, and ready to accept and face competition from other emerging companies that have adopted new modes of payments in the industry.

Square Inc. has to make sure that its new payment transaction system has no loopholes that could be used by other companies as a competitive advantage. However, their goal is to “enable people to accept payments immediately, everywhere” (Siegler 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, this has not been achieved yet since the company is facing hardware shortages, although it has ordered for the parts. Another constraint facing the company is the inability to carry out transactions in the quickest time possible as some incidents of delay have already been reported to the Square management team. This problem could have resulted from its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities (Siegler 4).

The company is also faced with the fear of customers caught up in fraud cases in the course of carrying out their payment transactions as this could dent their image. Although Square Inc wishes to execute a modern method of carrying out transactions through mobile phone innovations, the mode of payment faces a major blow if cheques re-emerge as a mode of payment.

The company also faces stiff competition from emerging competitors like, PayPal, Google, and Apple who could offer better modes of transactions and services than Square Inc.

Lastly, the company is constrained by its inability to handle risks associated with charge backs by determining the transactions limits (Siegler 4. This could lead to incidents of fraud and other malicious issues on the part of the users.

Analysis of possible solutions For Square Inc. to remain relevant and competitive in the market, it has to devise solutions that will help the company to address the current problem and constraints facing it.

The constraints act as impediments in realizing the company’s goal, which is to enable payments anywhere immediately. The solutions that follow would enable Square Inc. to solve the current problems as well as allowing the company to compete favorably and effectively in the market.

Square Inc needs to develop strong encryption software that would address the risks of fraud thus promoting security (Romo, 2011). This would ensure that crime cyberspace is reduced since hackers or fraudsters cannot access credit cards in the process of carrying out transactions.

We will write a custom Case Study on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also supposed to create awareness to its customers on the need to secure their phones and passwords as fraudsters could take advantage of their carelessness to commit frauds. The company has to address the issue of the hardware shortages by importing or finding a reliable supplier who will address the increased demand by Smartphone users.

This would ensure that customers are not swayed away by other payments providers like the NFCs system of Goggle or PayPal.

Customers have already filed complaints, and the President of the Square Inc has also acknowledged that there have been delays in carrying out transactions. The company needs to view the causes for delays during transactions immediately before consumers lose their loyalty towards the brand and adopt other modes of payments.

Square Inc needs to improve its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities to a competitive edge. This will increase its competence and the speed required in financial transactions. Technology improvement is the core solution to the problems facing Square Inc. Therefore, the company needs to address its problems before entering the market with full force.

Lastly, the looming problem facing Square Inc. is the emergence of other rival companies who are bound to introduce competitive rivalry through perfect substitute products. The company can operate at low costs by minimizing the transactional costs.

This would create a competitive advantage to the company, thereby increasing its profits margins. Through marketing methods and structures, Square Inc. can make the new mode of transactions acceptable by its customers and other people who posses Smartphones or are willing to adopt one. This would ensure that it gains adequate market share, making it competitive.

Recommendation that need to be adopted Based on the analysis of the problems, constraints, and the available solutions, it is recommended that Square Inc. adopts all the solutions because they address all the issues currently being experienced. No problem should be taken for granted as a single mistake would affect the customers affecting their loyalty.

Other than solving the problems, it is recommended that the company adopts a more efficient and the latest technology accessible to all customers. With competition increasing in the industry, Square Inc could operate under economies of a scale after reducing the transactional costs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would ensure that the company remains relevant and that it realizes its competitive edge. Square Inc has the capability of turning the whole industry into a technological hub. To retain its capabilities, the company needs to devise a means of improving its software and hardware to meet the changing consumers’ demands and the markets trends caused by technological advancements.

In conclusion, although Square Inc seems to be the latest option that will change payment transactions, the company needs to address all its problems in advance. This will ensure that it remains relevant in the market as it competes favorably and effectively.

Works Cited MacMillan, Douglas. Turning Smartphones into Cash Registers. Bloomberg Businessweek, February 2011. Web.

Romo, Venessa. Square Businesses ‘Square’Away Client Bill Pay. January 2011. Web.

Siegler, Michael. “Square Delays Mass Roll-Out, Admits They Began Before Things Were “Fully Baked””. June 2010. Web.

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The concept of space and time Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Everydayness

“Split-space”

Three Times

Sabu’s Monday

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Over the years, individuals have been baffled by the nature of both time and space. Kant was the first philosopher to doubt the existence of both space and time. He conceptualized that they (time and space) were mere ‘intuitions’ or perceptions invented by our own minds.

Later, in 1900s, Minkowski and Einstein were back at it again and found that time and space can be interchanged. For painstaking systematic reasons, they swapped time with ‘spacetime’.

In 1986, Szamosi delved into the subject again this time round detailing how the perceptions of space and time developed from earlier attempts of primitive life forms to understand their world to become the modern impression we have of space and time.

In this paper, I will show that dominant conceptualizations of Time and Space do not just exist, but are produced; I will base my arguments on 2 articles and two films which will be relevant to the understanding of space and time perceptions.

Everydayness The “Mystery of the Everyday”: Everydayness in History is an article build around an object of modern intellectual history. Harry Harootunian’s work on “the everyday” presents the reader with a strict definition of concept of time and space. Harootunian’s work is a critique of everyday life.

He wonders how people situate and frame the everyday as something to be experimented, thought, and to be analyzed critically. Lefebvre views modern artwork as not just obscure objects desiring explanation but rather as explanations. Under capitalism, modern artwork is nothing but multiple responses to the condition of everyday life.

Lefebvre focuses on political time. For example, he wonders why modernity, tradition, and postcoloniality are labeled as interventions in the field of political time. To him, modernization theory and post-colonial discourse are a group in the historical continuum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This article, which looks at modernization in Japan, argues that “modernity is a specific cultural form and consciousness of lived historical time that differs according to social forms and practices” (Harootunian 62).

Lefebvre opposes the various descriptions of modernities such as alternative modernities, divergent modernities, competing modernities, and retroactive modernities. According to him, this term is wrongly used to the existence of an “original”.

The terms were mere creation in the “west” but due to a series of “copies” and lesser variations, the terms acquired new meanings. These conceptions of modernities were only built upon transmuting a temporal lag into a qualitative difference.

The idea that Japan and other societies transforming into a modern order at different paces reveals that modernity is an idea of western capital. On the concept of space, Lefebvre refers to a unity called “West”.

To him, space is inexistent. He looks at the dyad term west and non-west and wonder exactly where is west on the world map. This idea invented by western capital tends to determine the geographical location of other places in relation to modernity.

“Split-space” In the article The Discursive Space of Modern Japan by Karatani Kojin, sheds light on how the concept of time and space is produced. His theory of “split-space” emphasizes inflection of certain terms and or concepts that brings the complex relation of philosophy and history into clearer focus.

Kojin argues how periodization and history are inseparable. Societies mark of a period by assigning a beginning and an end so as to understand the importance of events occurring in their life. Kojin begins by demonstrating how the Showa period began.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of space and time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He says that the word Showa and the dissertation concerning the Showa period began in 1987 during the time of the emperor’s illness. By the start of 1989, the Showa period came to an end. Afterwards, it came to be known that a “Showa period” existed. This is what he calls “periodizing history”.

Karatani in particular criticizes Japan for neglecting the possibilities present during its inception that were instead replaced by modernist ideology and the nation state system. According to Kojin, comparative history is not fit for measuring Japanese historical trajectory against another build upon European-based model of development.

Such a move, he advises, is likely to yield problems as it may endanger productive discussions. The Japanese ‘feudalism’, connected to Tokugawa political system, put Japanese history in a relative framework and pitted Japanese historians with those from medieval Europe.

Such a formulation suggests a comparison without connection; labeling Tokugawa Japan “feudal” imply placing Japanese development with events happening in Europe and in a different era. Terms like “Early Modern Japan” means an entirely different thing.

Karatani points to the Christian calendar and Japanese periodization saying that “both serve to make explicit the fact that each nation’s ‘era/world’ is only a communal, illusory space, and that a plurality of worlds (eras/worlds) exists simultaneously, maintaining relations with one another” (Kojin 77).

To Kojin, history relies on the marking of a period so as to understand the importance of events and occurrences. History is all about the question of periodizing and periodization has the tendency of altering the importance of events!

Kojin’s split-pace theory of reception as it appears tends to suggest that in the future, his own theory will be split and decentered. To kojin, centers and margins are a play of transposition. We cannot entirely argue that margins and centers do not exist.

The center is somehow blind and the peripheral or the margins do not necessarily need to cope with. Kojin fail to understand that the west has been marginal itself. Karatani focuses his theory towards the west rather than being post-colonial. It tends to get lost in concepts of time and space it is supposed to analyze.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of space and time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Three Times Hou Hsiao-hsien’sThree Times is the only of his many movies that delves into historical material. This is a triptych of stories of love that are narrated in different time periods but stared by the same actors.

In this movie, Hou Hsiao-hsien combines the past and the present in a way that he creates free floating narratives that are not tied to any chronological progression.

Hou Hsiao-hsien puts a lot of effort in the development of these semi-related tales and at no one time in the movie does he succumb to straightforward duplication. The film is entangled with its director’s conviction in the powerful influence of history on here and now (Three Times 2007).

The ‘Three times’ has a 1966 introductory segment titled “A time for love”. The plot however shifts backwards in time and tell of an actor named May’s maiden arrival at the pool-hall.

This is a way for Hou Hsiao-hsien to make his audience to revisit and reassess through their memory what led to the current situation. It is worth noting that this is only a primer to the following stories that are full of historical shading.

Part two of the movie-“A time for freedom” is yet another rumination of historical episode. The scene is set in 1911 in Taiwan reflecting the difficulties, and unbalanced realities facing mankind during the start of the century. Qi’s performance in this part reflects Taiwan as she struggled to free herself from imperial Japan rule.

The final episode – “A time for Youth” is a depiction of modern day Taipei youth mixed in the millennium Mambo’s pop music and juvenile aimlessness. When Hou Hsiao-hsien displays a suicide note on the monitor although having said so in narration, he makes his audience revisit the past again. This is a plea to the Taiwanese to embrace their history.

Hou Hsiao-hsien is a puppetmaster. “A time for Love” happens when Hou Hsiao-hsien was about the same age as two of the lovers. This could only be taken to mean that his age may not be the same to that of the youth of the present. However, he is looks more at ease in the future than in the past. With Hou Hsiao-hsien, time and space do not exist – they are notions created in the peoples’ mind.

Sabu’s Monday In Sabu’s ‘Monday (2000), the scene is a hotel room and a man, Takagi, wakes up not knowing how he got there in the first place. Takagi reaches over the table and pick a newspaper, checks the front page and realizes that it’s Monday. The last day he can remember is Saturday.

Takagi has no recollection of what occurred between Saturday and Monday! Sabu leaves the audience to work out the puzzle with him as he leads them through Takagi’s scrappy memory of his missing 48 hours. When a packet of sanitizing salt falls from his pocket, he starts recollecting what occurred.

We are taken back to a funeral scene, a graveside; the conversation turns out to be a shoot-out after Takagi disagrees with his girlfriend. The audience then shifts from the unsteady weekend of Takagi to the hotel scene. This makes flashback gain relevance. Outside the hotel, Takagi learns from a hotel TV that he is surrounded by police (Monday 2000).

From the story, we learn that after the quarrel following the burial, Takagi got angry and armed with a gun from a Yakuza club, he embarks on a vigilante killing orgy. Takagi not only killed the boss of the yakuza gang but also some street punks in the process. Takagi shifts from being sober and at times he becomes murderous.

The goal of Sabu’s movie is to show how the world is capable of drawing out the dark side that each of us possess. The movie lacks the aspect of time. To Sabu, we are capable of traveling anywhere in the notion of time.

Conclusion The four works have demonstrated how time and space are creations of the mind that help mankind understand the world. In the Mystery of everyday: Everydayness in history, Harootunian clearly demonstrates how the west created the term modernity and industrialization in the process of marking Japan and other slowly developing countries as lagging back in time.

He criticizes labeling japan underdeveloped in the sense of time because of its peripheral location on the world map. Karatani Kojin in The Discursive Space of Modern Japan argues that periodization – creation of time – is inherent in history, to mark the beginning and the end of a certain period of interest.

In Three times, directorHou Hsiao-hsien tells a story devoid of both space and time. His film is set in three different times and places.

Hou is capable of making his audiences traverse between different times with ease. He is not in any way restricted by timing in the setting of his movies as both are notions to him. Sabu’s Monday, is similar to Hou Hsiao-hsien’s ‘Three times’. Sabu makes his audience traverse between the past and the present in the process erasing the notion of both time and space.

Works Cited Harootunian, Harry. History’s Disquiet: Modernity, Cultural Practice, and The Question Of Everyday Life. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2000. Print.

Karatani, Kojin. The Discursive Space of Modern Japan. London: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.

Monday. Dir. Hiroyuki Tanaka.Perf.Shin’ichiTsutsumi, Yasuko Matsuyuki, Hijiri Kojima. download, 2000. DVD.

Three Times.Dir. Hsiao-hsienHou.Perf. Qi Shu, Chen Chang, Fang Mei. Ifc, 2007. DVD.

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