There are a number of different programs funded by the government of the USA. The purposes of such programs and agencies may be absolutely different, like various science foundations, nature and environment protection agencies, transportation and agricultural agencies, pieces foundations, etc.
Federal funds are distributing to all those foundations depending on the main idea of the agencies and the contribution they make to the society. The US Peace Corp agency has been created with the intention to promote peace in the world and help people support friendly relations.
The main purpose of this evaluation synthesis is to consider the main idea of the US Peace Corps Agency, its needs and program, check the program assessment and its rating by administration, analyze the achievements the agency managed to reach via the evaluation of the prior periods of the agency functioning, and analyze the subsequent budget proposals the Peace Corps agency managed to get.
The needs for Peace Corps’ programs The main idea of the Peace Corps is highlighted in the mission of the agency. Thus, being an agency founded in 1961 by John F. Kennedy, the ex-President of the USA, the Peace Corps tries to promote the following mission.
It is aimed at helping countries to train people in the fields they really need, at helping people better understand Americans on the parts where they serve, and vice versa, at helping Americas better understand other nationalities on the part of Americans (Peace Corps). One of the main ideas of this organization is to provide a volunteer help for people in the developing countries.
Thousands of volunteers work all over the word in different spheres of human needs, like health promotion, HIV/AIDS help, environmental protection, information technology implementation, development of agriculture and business.
The Peace Corps has created projects which could help people in different countries collaborate by means of volunteers who learn the language and the traditions of the country they go to (“PEACE CORPS” 499).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The opportunities the Peace Corps offers for students are rather exciting. Different loans during deferment periods may be interesting for those who want to continue studying and help the organization on the volunteer terms.
There are numerous programs which offer students to incorporate their service hourly (Service Based Scholarships 12; Dunaj-Kullman). The Peace Corps functions worldwide and it is obvious that the organization needs a lot of additional volunteers to deliver a peaceful message to people.
The volunteers of the Peace Corps try to notice the needs of the people they live with and provide those with the necessary facilities. Thus, Elizabeth Spencer while servicing in La Lomota noticed that people there wanted their children spend more time on learning and socializing.
Searching for the appropriate decisions, Elizabeth Spencer decided to build a library in the area (Sood par. 2). This is the main idea of the Peace Corps, not only live in another country and to collaborate with people, but help those by means of specific actions.
The Peace Corps’ program theory The mission of the Peace Corps mentioned above is considered to be the basis for the company vision. Still, one should remember that the mission of the company provided above was established fifty years ago. The world is changing and the goals of the agency are changing as well.
Thus, the Peace Corps should pay more attention to the development of the innovative technologies and their use in the work they do. It is not just enough to come to the country and to work with people without being trained. There are a lot of different universities which deal with teaching volunteers to be the leaders.
Moreover, working in many countries in the world, the Peace Corps send their volunteers only to the places where they will be able to provide real help and will cope with the assignment, for sure. The Peace Corps is not the only organization which functions in this direction. So, the competition is high.
We will write a custom Assessment on Evaluation Synthesis on the Peace Corps Agency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To be able to achieve the set goals, the Peace Corps should make sure that the federal funding is enough for them. To make sure, the agency should recruit the best volunteers which perform their task in the world on the highest quality (The Peace Corps: A Comprehensive Agency Assessment 2).
To increase the federal funding, the Peace Corps has to review the program it has. Here are the assignments the agency has put before it:
Improve the strategies for recruitment and the process of selection of the best highly skilled volunteers.
Provide training medical care courses for the volunteers and the staff of the agency.
Adjust volunteer placement with the purpose to meet the US interests and the needs of another country.
Work successfully with other international assistance organizations.
Lower termination rates.
Increase monitoring other volunteers’ work by means of management strengthening.
Improve the quality of independent evaluation.
Ensure that the actions provided by the Peace Corps effectively use the resources of the government (The Peace Corps: A Comprehensive Agency Assessment 3).
Thus, it may be concluded that Peace Corps agency tries to meet its mission by means of providing numerous goals. Increasing its influence, the agency should care of the number of volunteers which should be enough for coping with the tasks put before the Peace Corps.
What PART rating did Peace Corps receive from the administration? Such big organizations like the Peace Corps which function by means of federal funding are usually thoroughly evaluated and assessed. This is one of the ways to monitor whether the organization managed to direct the resources properly or not. There have been created a Program Assessment Rating Too which was aimed at evaluating the federal programs and assessing those.
The motto of the tool is “expect federal programs to perform well, and better every year” (Program Assessment). Having considered the mission and vision of the organization, the administration gave an effective PART rating for the agency for its performance. Considering the Peace Corps assessment details, it is necessary to cast light on the following.
Supporting international volunteerism, the Peace Corp operates all over the whole world sending its volunteers to support people in different developing countries in various fields, like education, health care, agriculture etc. The volunteers of the agency are perfectly trained in the specific spheres.
The assessment administration also paid attention to the level of cooperation between Americans and people all over the world (Program Assessment).
Dwelling upon the rating, it should be explained that stating that the performance of the agency is effective, the PART administration gives the highest rating to the Peace Corps any program can achieve. This rating highlights that the agency has put ambitious goals and managed to achieve the effective results.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation Synthesis on the Peace Corps Agency by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The program is well managed and the efficiency is improving. Still, it is important to consider some specific reasons why such a high rating was given for the agency. The administration provides some specific examples which support their decision.
How was the PART rating justified by the administration? The administration points to three main reasons for such high PART rating. Firstly, the Peace Corps agency wanted to increase the number of volunteers up to 7,920 volunteers by September 2007. It should be noticed that the number of volunteers increased in the agency up to 8,079 till the end of 2007.
This number points out to the fact that the services offered by the Peace Corps are extremely necessary. Secondly, the agency has exceeded its purposes of skill transfer. Moreover, the cross-cultural understanding has improved as well. The volunteers, having returned from different countries, reported that they had managed to collaborate with other nationalities and transfer the knowledge they had in different fields to them.
Thirdly, the development of the Coverdell World Wise School website was a significant step ahead as the agency received an access to the classrooms. The predicted number of visits was about 1.3 million while the real web visits managed to reach 2.1 million in 2007 (Program Assessment).
The federal administration has positively assessed the work of the organization, still, it is impossible to bring to perfection everything as the world development and the emergence of different innovative technological facilities creates new and new goals which should be achieved.
Is the rating consistent with prior evaluations of the program found in other sources? Having considered other evaluations of the program, it may be concluded that the PART rating is consistent. After the thorough analysis of the Office of Inspector General’s Semiannual Report to Congress, it may be concluded that the understanding between Americans and other people has improved. There are a number of violent cases occurred several years before the PART rating.
The appearance of those cases and their absence now may be a good example of the change in understanding between each other (Americas and other peoples).
Thus, according to the report 206 total violent cases have been there, among which 16 attempted assault cases, 1 attempted burglary, 2 cases of attempted rape, 48 cases of burglary with volunteer present, 3 incidents of death, intimidation (36), 3 kidnappings, 12 major and other physical assaults, 5 major sexual assaults, 12 protect acts, 14 rapes and 65 robbery incidents (Semiannual Report to Congress 23).
Moreover, the Office of Inspector General’s dwells upon the results of their work which had been done by 2008-2009 fiscal year. The training courses were estimated as the results had been seen. The leadership qualities of the staff had been noticed as well as they helped organize the work on the post.
The positive results had been achieved in the health case sphere, and in President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in particular. Thanks to this plan HIV/AIDS activities had been implemented better.
Moreover, the report represents the results of the independent audit which stated that the financial information represented in the Peace Corps reports was fair. The resources were used properly with generally accepted accounting principles (Semiannual Report to Congress 10).
Analysis of the budget proposals for the program Analyzing the fiscal year 2009 report and considering the information known about fiscal year 2010, it may be concluded that 2010 is considered to be the year when the Peace Corps agency has received the highest financial support ever. The Gross Costs of the program was $ 327,233 in 2009.
Considering the main sources of the financing, it may be concluded that the program is financed by general funds, special or trust funds, deposit funds, and general fund receipt accounts. According to the performance and accountability report, cashier imprest funds were $1.6 million.
On the 30th of September 2009 the agency owned the checks on the sum of about $8.4 million (The Peace Corps Performance and Accountability Report Fiscal Year 2009 68). Having no real personal quality, the agency’s financial report is rather positive.
Still, the amount of money given to the Peace Corps in 2009 cannot be compared with those in 2010. The funding of the program has increased by $33 million in 2010 in comparison with 2009 (The Peace Corps Performance and Accountability Report Fiscal Year 2009 65).
In conclusion, the Peace Corps agency is a federal funded foundation which is aimed at providing the peace all over the world.
The main mission of the organization is provided by its goals, to train people all over the world with the skills they need, to increase the collaboration between Americans and other nationalities both on the territory of the USA and beyond its borders. The agency has been highly assessed by the government. It is also proved by the amount of financial resources the government gave for the Peace Corps functioning.
Even though the results of the work conducted by the Peace Corps agency was positive assessed by federal administration, and the efficient results of its work were noticed, there is always the goals one should try to achieve. Thus, the federal administration offered a kind of improvement plan.
The administration offered the Peace Corps to identify and to set new strategic objectives which could be aimed at aligning the agency’s mission statement. These objectives with outcome-oriented targets could measure the level of how the Peace Corps meets the stated mission.
The federal administration also offered for the Peace Corps to conduct a research and to create a number of baselines which would measure results of the volunteers work in the countries where the Peace Corps operates. This data would also help understand the level of the promotion of Americans on the countries they served in (Program Assessment).
Besides of the assessment program offered by the federal government, the Peace Corps agency has created a strategic plan (2009-2014) and performance plan (2009-2011). In accordance with this plan, the following recommendations should be stated. Firstly, the agency should increase the number of the similar organizations which can be helpful for the Peace Corps in skill needs.
Secondly, the understanding of Americans in different parts of the world should be better promoted by volunteers. Thirdly, to promote more outreach directed at Americans and their attitude to other people on the territory of the USA.
Fourthly, the volunteers in the host countries should better understand the technological needs of people there and meet those needs. Finally, to meet the Peace Corps’ mission by means of implementing better health service, effective management of resources and security support in the host countries (The Peace Corps Strategic Plan 5).
Works Cited Dunaj-Kullman, Diana. “Peace Corps offers ASU students global opportunity.” Arizona State University News 21 Sept. 2007. Web.
Peace Corps. 2008. Web.
Program Assessment. “Peace Corps: International Volunteerism”. ExpectMore.gov. 2010. Web.
“PEACE CORPS.” United States Government Manual (2007): 499.
“Semiannual Report to Congress October 1, 2010 – March 31, 2009.” Peace Corps Office of Inspector General. 2009. Web.
“Service Based Scholarships: Military, Peace Corps, Teach For America, Americorps, and City Year.” Sitemason.vanderbilt.edu. Web.
Sood, Kiran. “Peace Corps volunteer in need of help.” McClatchy – Tribune Business News 29 July 2010 ABI/INFORM Complete, ProQuest. Web.
“The Peace Corps Performance and Accountability Report Fiscal Year 2009.” Report. 2009. Web.
“The Peace Corps Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2009 – 2014 and Performance Plan Fiscal Years 2009 – 2011.” The Peace Corps. 2009. Web.
“The Peace Corps: A Comprehensive Agency Assessment.” Final Report. June 2010. Web.
Pragmatic Development Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Discussion of Results
Abstract The present study is the actual replication of the study of Chang (2010) on the analysis of developmental pragmatics and evolution of speech acts of L2 learners with the increased proficiency levels in English. The speech act of apology was analyzed with the help of tools and analysis instruments similar to those of Chang (2010), but with the introduction of a new sample of L2 learners with the levels from moderate to proficient.
The purpose of the study was to enlarge the body of knowledge in developmental pragmatics and to investigate the order of linguistic acquisition in combination with the theoretical account of interlanguage pragmatics.
The article specifically deals with the acquisitional pragmatics field, investigating the development of such pragmatic competencies as expressing an apology in the L2 at various proficiency levels. The conclusion reached in the present study is fully consistent with the replicated study of Chang (2010) on the direct impact the increase of linguistic proficiency produces on the speech act competencies and variability.
Introduction The current attention to interlanguage pragmatics results in the necessity to conduct deeper, more grounded and expanded research in the field of language acquisition and pragmatic performance of L2 learners. There is much research being held nowadays in the field of developmental pragmatics, though the field itself is rather young, and findings in the discussed area of scholarly attention are scarce.
There is much incongruence between the actual pragmatic performance and the development of pragmatic competence, as it is discussed from various angles in the currently available studies. Hence, more attention is now paid to the developmental pragmatics as a science able to help unveil the hidden cognitive and learning processes occurring in the L2 learners’ knowledge base during the English language studies.
The most significant findings in the field pertain to the studies of apology, request, and gratitude expression evolution by L2 learners.
However, only students with high proficiency levels have so far been subject to research; different age groups and specific speech acts have to be researched to achieve a much more profound understanding of the evolutionary processes in self-expression and variability of speech acts of L2 learners in the process of language acquisition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present study is the continuation of Chang’s (2010) work on identifying the apology expressions found in the responses of Chinese students.
While the focus of the present study is on the same study design and instruments, it offers a clear step forward in enriching the idea of developmental pragmatics because it intends to provide data on other age groups, enabling the further comparison and generalization of results in communion with the results of Chang (2010).
Literature Review The present study takes the interlanguage pragmatics findings and interlanguage competencies as the theoretical framework for the research.
The works on which the theoretical and practical inferences are based are the one of Cheng (2005) that represents a cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of gratitude speech acts, the study of Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1986) dedicated to the theoretical and applied domains of pragmatic failure, and the work of Cohen (2004) explicitly explaining the subject of developmental pragmatics and pragmatic ability of L2 learners.
Such researchers as Bataller (2010) who investigated the immersion technique as a contributing factor to the development of interlanguage competence, and Trosborg (1987) discovering the importance of sociolinguistic competence in the formatting of communicative appropriateness awareness have also contributed to the theoretical basis of the present research.
The book of Trosborg (1995) on interlanguage competence offered much theoretical material for consideration in the framework of the present research. The scholar decomposed the notion of the communicative competence and outlined the main components contributing to the formation of interlanguage proficiency for L2 learners.
These essential components include the linguistic competence (the mastery of the target language code), the socio-linguistic competence (informing the L2 learner about the socio-cultural rules of the native-speaking society), the socio-pragmatic competence (enabling the L2 learner to assess the appropriateness of contextual meanings), and the strategic competence (helping the speaker to bridge the gaps in language knowledge and fluency by other communicative strategies) (Trosborg, 1995).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Pragmatic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some other findings of Trosborg (1995) are of great value for the whole field of developmental pragmatics research; the author outlines the psycholinguistic competences that enhance the L2 learner’s interlanguage proficiency acquisition, including the knowledge and skills component.
Methods Participants. As the purpose of the present work was not to create a new body of knowledge on the pragmatic development of L2 learners, but to extend the existing body of research on the issue, a group of L2 respondents was chosen for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data for the study.
The present group of 12 students represents a new age category as compared to the study of Chang (2010), thus enabling the comparison of results obtained in the present study with those of the original study’s author. There are various levels of proficiency within the group resulting from various backgrounds of respondents (China, Taiwan etc.) and hours per week previously allocated to the English language studies.
The proficiency of the respondents is from intermediate to advanced (according to the researcher’s estimate), and they represent older ages than the respondents used by Chang (2010) do. The respondent sample is based on Taiwanese and Chinese immigrants to the USA, mostly female (n=11), with only one male.
The respondents have been living and studying English in the USA for a different number of years (from 1 to 22 years), and started studying English at school in their native settings at the age of 10-17 years old. Only one woman reported studying English on her own, at home, from 32 years old; she is 46 years old, which implies that she has been studying English for about 14 years until the moment of the study.
To assess the proficiency levels evident in respondents participating in the present study, one can see the self-reported proficiency levels indicated by them in the questionnaires, systematized according to the respondents and categories of competencies. The figures in the present table should be decoded the following way: 1 – Very poor; 2 – Poor; 3 – Fair; 4 – Functional; 5 – Good; 6 – Very good; 7 – Native-like.
Table 1. Proficiency Levels of Respondents.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Reading proficiency 5 – 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 Writing proficiency 5 – 6 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 Speaking fluency 6 – 6 5 4 4 6 6 5 5 5 7 Listening proficiency 5 – 6 5 6 4 6 5 5 5 5 7 Instrument Design. Since the present study replicates the study of Chang (2010), the instrument design of discourse completion tasks has been borrowed from the original study. The construction of tasks included consideration of participants’ understanding of scenarios and their ability to respond to them adequately.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pragmatic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The scenarios were altered slightly, eliminating the figure of the teacher and substituting it by an abstract high-status partner, either an elderly person or some other respectable acquaintance. However, the four scenarios were generally retained and included bumping into people, losing a borrowed book, being late or rude to someone.
Each scenario was used two times, with one variant including the peer relationship of a student to another student, and the second variant containing the student – high-status person relationship. Description of context is provided to each scenario, with the opportunity to give the answers to open-ended role-play questions. The unified set of scenarios applied in the present work may be seen in Table 2.
Table 2. Scenarios for the discourse completion task questionnaire.
Item Speaker-Hearer Apology Situation 1 Student-co-worker You lost a book that you borrowed from a co-worker. 2 Student-supervisor You lost some paperwork that you should submit to your supervisor. 3 Student-supervisor You complained to your co-worker about your supervisor being very demanding. The moment you finished complaining, you found that your supervisor has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 4 Student-friend You complained to your friend about another friend – Judy’s English being very poor. The moment you finished complaining, you found that Judy has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 5 Student-co-worker You were one hour late for a scheduled meeting with your co-workers. 6 Student-friend You were one hour late for a planned get-together with some friends. 7 Student-high-status person You bumped into an elderly person on the street and he/she fell down. 8 Student-friend You bumped into a close friend and he/she fell down. Data Collection. The method of data collection was chosen similarly to the one of Chang (2010) – it is the discourse completion task questionnaire (DCT). The DCT is still seen as the most effective tool for the students to produce an L2 apology reflecting their linguistic proficiency, and for teachers to investigate the pragmatic competency in L2 apology.
The DCT also involves written replies, which adds material for consideration in the process of data analysis, driving some competence conclusions from the given replies and grammar, spelling and other mistakes students may make.
The first stage of the DCT questionnaire fulfillment included the completion of the form with biographical data pertaining to the study; the students were to indicate the country of their birth, the period of studying English both at home and in the USA, and finally they had to state by which means they thought the prime portion of language acquisition occurred in their life.
The second portion of data they needed to provide was their self-assessment on four competencies, including writing proficiency, speaking fluency, listening and reading proficiency as well.
The DCT for the present study was distributed to participants asked to write down that they would respond in English to eight role-play situations. Similarly to Chang (2010), no rejoinder was available for the students. The percentage of replies equals 100%, expect the second respondent who did not indicate her proficiency levels in the studied competencies.
Data Analysis. The theoretical findings on analyzing the speech act of apology were used to generate the coding scheme for analysis; Chang (2010) consulted a professional in the sphere of coding, thus ensuring the unified coding scheme for speech act evaluation, and ensured the reliability rate of 91%.
The discussed coding scheme completely fits the requirements of the present study replicating the one of Change (2010), therefore the same coding scheme will be used; it may be seen in Table 3.
Table 3. The Coding Scheme of Apology Strategies of the present study.
Source: from Chang (2010), p. 413.
Upon coding the data, the researcher intended to conduct similar analysis procedures as those ones applied by Chang (2010) – the frequency of apology strategies usage, and the content of strategies used by respondents. To assist the first data analysis task, all apology strategies were grouped into ‘IFID’ and ‘Adjunct’ categories, according to the pattern utilized by Rose (2000).
Frequency of each strategy’s usage was calculated on the background of the whole number of strategies used by all respondents in all situations. Secondly, the frequency of each strategy’s occurrence in the responses of each participant was counted to identify the most frequent and widespread apologies.
Finally, the number of apologies used as well as the number of strategies used in general by category was calculated to generate a rating scale of popularity and usage of certain apology strategies by the indicated group of respondents.
To answer the second question, the researcher needed to assess the order of each strategy’s usage in certain proposed scenarios. In this case, each scenario was researched for the number of various strategies applied by respondents, with the proper summary of the results on the expansion of apology repertoire with the growing proficiency level.
It was necessary to disregard the contextual requirements of the scenario offered for the sake of answering the present research question.
Therefore, ignoring the situational context, the variety of strategies was arrived at by using two means also borrowed from the study of Rose (2000) – first of all, the usage of each certain apology was counted across all eight scenarios, with the proper rating scale generation to see the emergence of each strategy in the whole questionnaire context.
Secondly, the occurrence of each particular strategy was assessed in each separate scenario, to investigate the patterns of occurrences and to produce relevant inferences on apology usage aimed in the present study.
Discussion of Results Frequency of apology strategies. As it has already been mentioned, the approach generated by Rose (2000) and borrowed by Chang (2010) is also applicable for the present study; the apology strategies were broadly divided into two categories, IFIDs and adjuncts, to calculate and compare their usage in all scenarios disregarding the context.
The analysis of coded qualitative data showed that the number of IFIDs used is really high (66; 28.4%) as compared to any other apology used. However, it is also evident that adjuncts are used by the present group of respondents are also varied, and they are utilized in multiple contexts, with the most popular ones being the intensifier, repair offering, and concern (13.3%, 12% and 10.4% respectively).
This finding supports the conclusion of Chang (2010) that students with higher proficiency levels employ many more adjuncts in their expression of an apology than smaller children and people with lower proficiency levels do. It is hard to say whether the usage of the discussed adjuncts is influenced by the contextual specificity of scenarios, since no tendency of such kind could be observed, as one can see in Table 4.
Table 4 also shows the distribution of each strategy in each given scenario, giving the figures from 6 to 12 strategies applied in each scenario. The figures 6 and 7 prevail in the majority of scenarios, leaving only scenarios 4 and 5 with the largest number of apologies invented by the respondents.
Scenario 6 shows the implementation of 8 various strategies, which implies that it is the third most diverse situation for respondents to make an apology.
Though the results are not the direct breakthrough in the number of apologies investigated by Chang (2010) and showing that high school students gave from 8 to 14 different apologies in each scenario as compared to schoolchildren of the 3rd grade who stopped at 8 strategies in scenario 8 being the most diverse in responses, it is still clear that the evolution of apology implementation is in place.
The present finding may be derived from the fact that the respondents with higher proficiency levels managed to use from 3 to 5 strategies to respond to each scenario, which implies a certain measure of progress in self-expression.
However, as it has already been mentioned, the IFID type of apology has been detected as the most frequently emerging reaction, which is consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that IFIDs were dominant in all grades researched, and were used indiscriminately often by representatives of each focus group.
The fact that they are common for all groups investigated by Chang (2010 and in the present study presupposes the universality and the first apology coming to mind to all L2 learners (which is also natural for native speakers as well).
However, the correlation of the 1st IFID “I am sorry” or “Sorry” met 63 times in the responses with only 3 occurrences of the 2nd IFID “Please forgive me” also draws a parallel with the former research of Chang (2010) indicating it to be rare and practically non-occurring in the written and oral practice.
Table 4. Comparison of the use of apology strategies in eight scenarios.
Reaction/ Strategy Scenario1 Sc.2 Sc.3 Sc.4 Sc.5 Sc.6 Sc.7 Sc.8 Total IFID Regret/ Apology 8 6 5 7 10 9 9 9 63 Forgiveness 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 Admission of fact 9 6 0 0 0 2 0 0 17 Blame 4 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 10 Lack of Intent 0 0 2 3 1 0 2 2 10 Acknowledgment 0 1 2 3 3 2 0 0 11 Intensifier 8 4 0 1 4 3 6 6 32 Repair 10 10 2 1 1 3 2 0 29 Forbearance 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Concern 0 0 1 2 2 0 10 10 25 Explanation 0 1 2 1 1 7 0 2 14 Minimize 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 7 Justification 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 2 10 Alerter 0 2 2 2 2 0 1 0 9 Total no. of strat. 41/6 32/7 18/9 27/12 30/11 30/8 31/7 32/7 241 Proceeding to the discussion of adjuncts, one has to note that they are surely both proficiency and situational, since the inventory of apologies used in the scenarios 7 and 8, as compared to the scenarios 1 and 2, will be completely different for all group members disregarding their proficiency level.
Thus, for example, the most commonly met strategy for the scenario 7 and 8 is concern for the bumped person, with the majority of respondents showing equal concern for the elderly person and the close friend. The present study provides further evidence of this fact because it shows the incidence of concern apologies usage the highest in the 7th and 8th scenarios (10 times in each).
Sub-strategies of ‘admission of the fact’ and ‘lack of intent’ were commonly used in the scenarios 1 and 2, which is also consistent with the findings of Chang (2010).
The figures 10 and 11 for acknowledgement and lack of intent apologies respectively show that the respondents from the present respondents’ group applied the apology revealing their responsibility for the incident practically in every situation, though not every respondent did that.
Intensifier being on the second place after apology and regret shows that the higher proficiency level group often adds intensifiers to the apologies voiced, which is fully consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that the increase of intensifier usage was observed only with higher grades of respondents, being totally unpopular with the 3rd grade students, and being much more common in the 10th grade.
Table 5. The comparison of respondents’ usage of various apology strategies.
Reaction/ strategy R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 R 6 R 7 R 8 R 9 R 10 R 11 R 12 IFID Regret/ Apology 0 6 8 5 4 3 7 7 8 7 6 2 Forgiveness 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Admission of fact 1 2 2 0 1 6 2 3 0 0 4 3 Blame 2 0 3 0 2 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 Lack of Intent 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 Acknowledgment 1 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 Intensifier 2 1 5 4 2 1 2 4 3 5 2 1 Repair 0 2 1 2 3 2 3 6 3 4 2 2 Forbearance 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Concern 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 Explanation 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 0 1 Minimize 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Justification 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 1 0 Alerter 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Total no. of strat. 12/8 18/8 33/11 16/7 16/8 24/12 23/9 31/9 21/7 21/6 19/7 13/8 The content of the apology strategies. Proceeding to the discussion of the apology content, one needs to note that the regret-apology forms were mostly used in 90% of situations first, then followed by other categories of apologies; they were used in the forms “Sorry”, “I am sorry”, “I am so sorry”, and “I am very sorry”.
The phrase “I apologize” was met only twice, which implies the indisputable popularity of “sorry” and its derivatives in voicing an apology. No misinterpretations were noted in the responses of the discussed sample, with no usage of ‘excuse me’ phrase in the described scenarios.
The strategy of ‘admission of the fact’ is used more often in all scenarios by the present group of respondents, which supports the hypothesis of Chang (2010) on the evolutionary usage of apology forms by students with higher proficiency levels.
As a matter of fact, admission of the fact is recognized as a more complex form of an apology, hence its more frequent usage supports the idea of the findings arrived at in the present group being a logical support and continuation of Chang’s (2010) research.
The ‘lack of intent’ strategy was also used predominantly in the scenarios 1 and 2, as well as 7 and 8. The overwhelming incidence of that strategy’s correct usage supports the idea of the developmental patterns of apology as a speech act of L2 learners.
Table 6. Frequency of apologies implemented by respondents in all scenarios.
Regret/apology 26.14% Intensifier 13.3% Repair 12% Concern 10.4% Admission of fact 6.27% Explanation 5.8% Acknowledgement 4.56% Blame 4.15% Lack of intent 4.15% Justification 4.15% The innovative apology tool of older groups – emergence of avoidance strategies. The present study revealed an interesting tendency in the responses of the present sample that had not been previously investigated by other researchers. While no rejoinder was available for the usage in the DCT questionnaire generated for the present study, no deviations from the coding scheme were expected.
However, the incidence of avoidance strategies was viewed in several scenarios applied by 3 respondents. One of the respondents reacted the following way to the scenario 4, when the friend of hers heard her complaining about the poor English she had: “Sorry, I have to go”.
It is a clear avoidance of the need to give apologies. Another situation was observed in the scenario 8: “Oh, I am so happy to see you that I bumped you. We have to see each other more often!”. It is the strategy of turning the offence into a humorous situation and avoiding saying anything similar to an apology.
Scenario 4 also showed several responses similar to assuming that the friend Judy did not understand any of the complaints because her English was really bad, which means that no fault in the situation was detected by respondents.
Avoidance of complaints is also widely spread in scenarios 5 and 6, where the respondents voiced their hope that nobody had noticed their absence and lateness. 3 respondents stated that in case nobody asked them about lateness, they would just join in and say nothing.
Such absence of the wish to apologize may be presupposed by the age of respondents, experience in life and the unwillingness to pose themselves in a weaker position by searching explanations, justifications, and offering repairs.
However, another most common strategy used in the same scenario was offering to pay the bill, without even mentioning an apology, which notes the practical attitude to lateness, and the wish to compensate the fault with food and drinks, and not an apology for the offense and lack of respect.
Conclusion The present study represents the continuation of research in the field of L2 learners’ communicative competency development research on the example of the speech act of apology.
The findings refer to the developmental processes in the apology reflection field of Taiwanese and Chinese L2 learners of moderate to high proficiency levels, and contribute to the findings of Chang (2010) on the expansion and variability of apology strategies applied by various proficiency groups of L2 learners.
The study was based on the written DCT data collected from L2 learners in the classroom, taking a step forward in the interlanguage pragmatic development research. The discussion of results obtained in the course of the present study indicates that students extend and enrich their apology strategies, use more complex strategies more readily in various scenarios with the higher proficiency levels of English knowledge.
However, the research produced seems rather isolated from the common body of research in the developmental pragmatics, as the necessity to introduce the longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in a combination was repeatedly indicated by researchers and practitioners of the field.
Lack of the ability to compare the L2 data with a similar sample of L1 speakers represents the major limitation of the research, thus preventing it from generalizations. Context specificity research is also potentially beneficial for acquiring better understanding of the internal incentives of L2 learners to choose the apology strategies, so it has to be attributed more attention in the future research.
References Bataller, R. (2010). Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 43, Iss. 1, pp. 160–175.
Blum-Kulka, S., Olshtain, E. (1986). Too many words: length of utterance and pragmatic failure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 8, 165–180.
Chang, Y.- F. (2010). ‘I no say you say is boring’: the development of pragmatic competence in L2 apology. Language Sciences, no. 32, pp. 408–424.
Cheng, S.W. (2005). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. PhD Diss., University of Iowa. Retrieved from https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/104/
Cohen, A.D. (2004). The interface between interlanguage pragmatics and assessment. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference. May 22-23, 2004. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Keizai University.
Rose, K. (2000). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 22, pp. 27–67.
Trosborg, A. (1987). Apology strategies in natives/non-natives. Journal of Pragmatics , no. 1, pp. 147–167.
Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Literacy Linguistic Usage Qualitative Research Essay online essay help: online essay help
The concept of language is a complex one; it has been long ago discovered to be not isolated from the communicative situations and individual differences of speakers. The linguistic discourse has hence become a subject of close scrutiny, and the socio-cultural, individual, institutional and other implications of language usage have come to the forefront of scientific attention.
The connection of language, identity, and social practices of individuals has to be studied in the whole complicity of their revelations in the overall discursive essence.
There is much empirical evidence nowadays on how identity is reflected through language, and on the ways language becomes and indispensible part of the human social practices and experiences. There are also findings on how the connection between language and identity can be used to enhance language learning and acquiring linguistic proficiency.
The article of Joseph (2006) summarizes the main ideas of how language has become a useful tool in both expressing one’s identity and evaluating the identities of other people on the basis of their language usage peculiarities.
Joseph (2006) emphasizes the fact that language is now used more in the function of representation than communication, and that the transformation derives from the cultural and individual diversity of speakers evident nowadays.
One more useful finding of Joseph (2006) is that the conventional vision of realization of only national identity in language is now actively debated because of the need to take into consideration the individual contribution every person makes into the linguistic usage and identity formation as well as realization through linguistic means.
The opinion about language representing identity in action is shared by Lane (2009); the researcher has made this conclusion based on the results of the survey conducted with two immigrant Finnish groups residing on the territory of Canada.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their national identities reflected through language turned out identical, but the social practices they implied by language usage differed substantially, thus making them distinct. Therefore, individual identity becomes a significant component of linguistic usage patterns and is reflected though symbolic attributes in linguistic practices worldwide.
Language is also based on identity realization through the individual practices and experiences, both within the language learning and usage framework and beyond it. This point can be well illustrated by the work of Darville (2009) proving that true literacy in language learning can be acquired only in case when learned items can be tied to the learners’ real life experience.
It means that literacy should be perceived as practice, with the language representing a social construct that is exercised in the context of learners’ lives, perceptions, opinions and feelings (Darville, 2009).
Another finding in the field of tying the learning process to the students’ identity is provided by Hamilton (2009) – the author investigates the role of individual educational plans, and the role of teacher as a mediator formulating the plan according to the students’ educational needs, ambitions, and state requirements.
Another powerful work on the significance of identity considerations in language studies has been provided by Atwood (2007) – it is an account of the Nunavit training camp in which Indigenous women were taught their ethnicity, traditions, customs and crafts. At the same time, they were taught literacy, which was hard for teachers because of lack of self-esteem and understanding of the literacy’s importance for Nunavit women.
It became possible to engage the camp participants in learning to write and read only when the parallel between their customs and literacy was drawn, making them realize the power knowledge could give them (Atwood, 2007).
The author finally makes a conclusion that identity is a part of people that defines their paths, and the Nunavit historical context of oppression and traumatic educational experiences are also barriers in learning hard to overcome within knowing the history of each particular group.
We will write a custom Essay on Literacy Linguistic Usage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, it is vital to apply the findings on the relationships between language and identity in the practical sphere of learning and teaching languages.
The serious step forward was made by Fairbairn and Fox (2009) who outlined the major barriers in studying English for immigrants and non-citizens in Canada and the USA, and marked the regressive attitude towards their cultural, social and individual identity taken by the North American governments.
Their account shows how seriously the distinction in understanding and learning English is revealed by immigrants becoming victims of standardized and unified principles of learning and assessment.
The set of key changes needed to restore the adequate access to English learning for non-English speakers is provided on the basis of identity, social background, and individual peculiarities’ considerations. This account proves that identity reveals itself in speaking one’s native language, and at the same time in learning a foreign language as well.
The topic of learning a language being indisputably connected with social practices is pursued by Alderson (2006) in his overview of the diagnostic testing type and its role in the adequate language testing.
The author makes the specific emphasis on the fields of knowledge tested by diagnostic and other tests, making a conclusion that the diagnostic test is of particular importance in language testing, providing the framework for assessment of the way students may apply their language knowledge, their reflection of knowledge obtained etc.
Because of the long time it takes to take the test, and lack of facilities for testing at educational establishments, the diagnostic test is not popular with teachers; however, it possesses the highest potential in multi-faceted testing and adequate assessment of knowledge farther from the formalistic, unified testing types that do not reveal the true knowledge of students.
Drawing a conclusion from the present set of articles, one has to note the close, organic relationship existing between human identity, experience and language (often realized through human literacy).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Literacy Linguistic Usage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On finding out that relationship, researchers and practitioners in the field of linguistics have obtained a set of tools to assess the impact of identity on language usage, to identify the most constructive experience-based methods of learning and assessment.
In addition, nowadays literacy linguistic usage are obtaining social significance, so the application of various communicative means as well as their choice by speakers may add much useful data for the applied linguistic research, and enrich the modern vision about the discussed relationship and its causes.
References Alderson, J.C. (2006). Diagnosing Foreign Language Proficiency: the Interface between Assessment and Learning. London (UK): Continuum.
Atwood, M. (2007). The Alphabet of Hope. Writers for Literacy. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Darville, R. (2009). Literacy as practices, teaching as alignment: A message in a bottle. Literacies, No. 10, pp. 14-18.
Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
The number of theories considering the teamwork of a teacher and a student is really uncountable. Thus, the approaches that have been used so far can hardly be calculated. Still the process of learning is far not that effective as it is desired to be. That is what has made Paul Greenbank consider the ways of improving it once again.
After conducting a research in this field, the author has come to the conclusion that this method of organizing cooperation between a teacher and a student has its certain advantages that not all people know about and that makes them withdraw from using this method in their practice.
As Greenbank proceeds with his conclusions concerning the given method of working in a team, it becomes clear that the suggested way of teaching can be an actual way out of the situation when neither the student has will to study, nor the teacher has the wish to teach.
Indeed, the mutual interest in the study can improve the situation much, and the eagerness of the teacher can balance the unwillingness of the student, so this is what could make the fairy tale of a student studying the given material with a heavy interest or at least without showing his disgust.
The collaborative method of research is the road paced together, a teacher guiding his student and correcting his mistakes, and encouraging him to go on further and continue the progress made (O’Doherty, 2008).
This sounds like a dream that we have never had in our lives but the future generation might, and making the educational committee work in the direction of approving the idea of collaborative research as the basis for education can be a goal to strive for.
However, it is far not that easy as it might sound, Greenbank warns. The research of his (which, in fact, was not collaborative), shows a thorough work on the topic, and the results that he has drawn up are far from being satisfying. It has turned out that the method works right only with those students who are initially aimed at serious and fruitful work, the students who are resourceful enough and ready to work on their own as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is, such method of organizing work will not be efficient in case the students are not willing to make their contribution as well. In such a case, it would be a mere one-man-show where the teacher would be the researcher, the guide and the editor at once.
This very moment has driven Greenbank to make sure if the results of the research conducted in such a way are good enough.
As it turned out, the method works only with the students of a particular temper. These are the people who, once starting the task, are bound to take it to the very end and find the solution whatever it might take. In this case the teacher plays his part of a spectator and a guide that can be of some help at the particular moments when the student is confused about the further actions.
If the student’s character does not feature the qualities in question, and the temperament that provides them is the sanguine one, the research is doomed to a failure.
However sad it might sound, it seems that the mankind, or at least its studying part, is not yet quite ready for such experiments.
Meanwhile, most of senior schools and higher educational establishments have been practicing the given method for quite long, and the generations of students brought up on the basis of the collaboration with the teacher have transformed into diligent and creative workers who have achieved certain success in their fields.
The question of whether such way of conducting research is reasonable remains open. Still it seems to me that we are not developed enough to level the student and the teacher.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This might be achieved further on, as the students get used to the idea of getting necessary knowledge on their own, the teacher being simply a guide and a consultant on their way to the cognition. But nowadays that sounds far too idealistic and driven too far from the facts of the reality.
Maintaining the notorious momentum that has been spoken for so long and so much about (Harris, 2007) only works right as long as you have this very momentum, as long as you feel the feedback. In this case, the work can be handled within a minimum amount of time. However, it takes too many qualities combined to be able to achieve this very momentum and to get it to the full spin.
Just consider the following: to be able to work on this very level a student must be organized, creative (the given two already pose a contradiction to each other!) and resourceful. The student must be able to concentrate on the subject as fully as the teacher does, moreover, he has to be just indulged into the process as the teacher is, otherwise it would be a mutual torment.
To sum up, Paul Greenbank has the point discussing the drawbacks of the new method of conducting researches. It might look like a good idea for teachers, but the students might simply not be ready to address to the teacher as to a peer in a research.
However, the possible way out could be not changing the structure of education, but trying to bring up a child so that he or she could possess the wanted qualities. Being resourceful and responsible is not reaching for the stars, actually. The idea is that we still have a long way to go to improve our selves and change our ways of cognizing the world.
Reference List Harris, T. (2007) Collaborative Research and Development Projects. Heidelberg, Berlin: Spindler Verlag. Print.
O’Doherty, E. (2008) Education in a Changing Environment: Conference Book. Vol.4. New York, NY: Informing Science. Print
High School Bullying Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction High school bullying manifests in more ways than one. It may be perpetrated through emotional, verbal, or physical abuse. Basically, those who bully their fellow students exert some level of subtle coercion on their subjects and do it repeatedly such that they dominate their subjects in a social or physical manner (Levinson, 2002, p. 1).
Bullying is usually outlawed and discouraged in many schools in the United Kingdom (UK) but currently the country does not have any clear legal definition of the term (Oliver, 2003). However, other countries such as the United States (US) have a clear-cut definition of bullying and those proved to have committed the act usually face legal action at a school or state level.
High school bullying normally takes the form of group or individual domination over vulnerable targets and usually involves the witnessing of unfair acts by bystanders who most often condone such actions so that they do not become the next victims (Swearer, 2009, p. 4). Nonetheless, USA Today reports that:
“school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do, and may even derive enjoyment from it, and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if brings them joy on some level” (p. 5).
This complicates efforts to tackle high school bullying because some students often see it as a normal occurrence and therefore do not collaborate or take part in initiatives to curb the vice.
It becomes extremely surprising that bullying is not only perpetrated by fellow students but by teachers as well. This often occurs because of the imbalance of power between students and teachers that which leaves room for subtle coercion from the teachers (Swanwick, 2010, p. 349).
This study further exposes this topic but with the assertion that bullying can only be stopped if student cooperation is fostered and if moderators are introduced into the school system so that dispute resolution can be easily enhanced. This study will however accomplish these goals in a professional context such that the contents of this study can be considered for publication in a professional journal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering this unique goal, we will establish the professional journal to be considered and why it is appropriate for this study. Emphasis will also be made on the kind of audience to read this article because the contents of this study need to be at par with other similar articles in the journal to be selected. This therefore means that this article will be developed in close similarity to the similar articles in the selected journal.
To achieve a precise outcome, we will evaluate some of the existing articles in the selected journal to establish the development criteria for preferred articles. Lastly, we will also evaluate the author guidelines in the selected journal and in so doing; we will develop a list of guidelines that outlines this study.
Journal Selection The Journal of human behavior in the social sciences will be the journal of choice for this study. Considering the nature of bullying as largely a social issue, this journal will best accommodate such a problem because it seeks to analyze developing issues relating to human behavior at all cognitive levels (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).
Moreover, the journal will provide an outlet where other schools can learn about the underlying human/ student behavior issues that dictate or necessitate bullying in the first place. In detail, the journal analyzes the complexities associated with social work and even categorizes the different levels characterizing human relationships in a social environment (which can be easily compared to a school scenario).
The journal of human behavior encompasses up to date research on human behavior and incorporates only groundbreaking studies based on empirical evidences or theories which dictate human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).
The journal also explains the complexities of human behavior in a conceptual and empirical basis through the outline of existing study frameworks explaining human behavior. Articles are therefore initially descriptive in nature and then later diagnose and predict human behavior with the provision of possible explanations to human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).
Authors’ Guidelines For consideration by Taylor and Francis (the primary publishing house for the Journal of human behavior), a number of guidelines ought to be adhered to by all authors for their manuscripts to be considered for publication. Firstly, authors should present an unbiased work where certain social parameters like age, race, culture, sex and the likes are offered a significant degree of consideration (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).
We will write a custom Essay on High School Bullying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The final work should therefore be purely based on merit. Secondly, all developed works ought to be developed in an efficient manner and also submitted in good time and in the best possible quality (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Thirdly, editors are at liberty to reject a given piece of work based on personal discretion.
However, in certain cases, the editor is also at liberty to consult with other stakeholders for a second opinion before a decision for consideration or rejection of manuscript is made (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Fourth, the peer review process done to all research articles should be done with a high degree of confidentiality and lastly, all manner of conflict of interest should be exposed before consideration for publication (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).
Article Review and Target Audience An article titled “Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work” by Gosallie Pockett, cited in the Journal of Human behavior sets precedence for this study’s article because it explains the Australian education system that fosters cooperation between students and external social agents in creating a good learning environment for Australian universities.
The article identifies the importance of teamwork and its impact on socialization and acculturation of students in Australian universities. The article also further goes on to indicate where professional standards can be emphasized to increase collaboration and improve teamwork among students; more like what is needed to eliminate bullying in high schools.
This article will therefore be largely similar to the article about high school bullying (to be developed in this study) because it will outline specific areas where professionals in the education sector can consider in eliminating high school bullying (Taylor and Francis, 2010, p. 1).
The target audiences for articles from the Journal of human behavior are majorly social workers and policy makers. Teachers and other educational stakeholders fall into this category and are therefore suited as a good audience for this journal because they deal with a high number of students with variable personalities in a social set up (school) (Routledge, 2010, p. 1).
Professional Paper High School Bullying
Bullying has become a key concern in the public sector for decades now. There have been increased concerns from obvious quarters such as the general public and educational professionals of high school bullying; specifically because it affects the emotional well-being of students and the academic development of victims/perpetrators (Vernberg, 2010, p. 2).
In a study done on primary and high school students in the UK, it was established that about half of all primary school pupils and 54% of all high school students sampled, thought that bullying was a big problem for the British system of education (Sehgal, 2010, p. 3).
Not sure if you can write a paper on High School Bullying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In related research, it was reported that about 60% of all students sampled thought their school was on the right track in tackling bullying but the rest thought that their schools either neglected or was on the wrong path towards eliminating bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 2). Other studies report that some teachers are better at dealing with the problem than others (Oliver, 2003, p. 2).
This especially manifests through the way teachers listen to their students because some are good at it while others are not (Savage, 2009, p. 238). In addition to policy development, many educational professionals, teachers and parents alike have sat down in various school committees to come out with viable solutions to the ever-present problem of child bullying in high schools (Anderson, 2010, p. 3).
The government has also been on the forefront in coming up with viable programs such as Bullying: Do not suffer in silence and anti-bullying policies (Thompson, 2002, p. 115). However, the biggest problem even in the development of anti-bullying policies and programs is the neglect of student views. This deficiency has therefore left a gap in the understanding of high school bullying.
A study done by Child line international (a non-governmental organization group dealing with youngster issues) identifies that bullying manifests itself in various forms. Its manifestation was however representative of power imbalances between students which leads to situations of vulnerability and inequality among students (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).
Some social parameters were also identified as elements that dictated the level of student vulnerability such as physical appearance, race and such like variables (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).
The most common type of bullying identified the world over is name calling (Oliver, 2003, p. 3). Contrary to common belief, physical aggression does not stand out as much as verbal abuse. Verbal abuse currently manifests itself in various forms like the common habit of students spreading rumors or gossip about other children. However, this type of bullying normally goes on among students of lower forms (Shore, 2006, p. 3).
Physical aggression and name-calling is however more observed among older students.
A small number of students usually report certain types of bullying on the lines of racial or sexist comments but equally small minorities of students in lower forms are usually more engaged in name-calling, on the lines of sexual preferences; like gays are normally called derogative names because of their sexual orientation (Macklem, 2003, p. 45).
However, the level of bullying in such manner varies across the type of school, culture or setting involved. On gender grounds, recent research affirms that girls are equally vulnerable to bullying as boys but the nature of bullying varies across the gender divide (Sanders, 2004, p. 78).
In this manner, it has been affirmed that boys are usually more prone to physical abuse than girls but girls are more prone to bullying on sexual grounds than boys; with many girls purporting that they have often been inappropriately touched in a sexual manner (Geffner, 2001, p. 66).
Responding to Bullying
A significant number of schools are noted to ineffectively respond to bullying incidences, majorly because they adopt one-off initiatives as opposed to undertaking long-lasting relationships through influencing ongoing programs (Davis, 2007, p. 3).
A good initiative among school management is through appointing anti-bullying counselors or assigning different responsibilities to different individuals regarding the type of role to play in eradicating bullying in high schools.
Key concerns in the responsiveness of schools to bullying, rests on the approach teachers take in listening to student concerns (Oliver, 2003, p. 4). Good teachers are noted to express some degree of empathy in addition to dealing appropriately with student concerns.
Conversely, schools which have been identified to have a poor record at dealing with bullying are observed to deal with the problem majorly at assembly grounds and in school councils, in addition to taking student concerns lightly without first listening to the students.
The emphasis on teachers is especially important because most students express the fact that teachers often have a huge responsibility of presenting themselves as good examples to which students can emulate and confide in (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). Teachers can therefore respond better to bullying by setting a good example to the students.
Effective Responses to Bullying
In trying to establish the most preferred strategies to eradicate bullying from the students’ points of view, cultivation of friendships, avoidance, and taking matters into ones own hands are important strategies that can be used. These strategies are further analyzed below:
Standing up for Oneself
In a research study done to analyze the effectiveness of talking back to a bully, more than half of the young students sampled thought it was more effective for victims to talk back or be assertive to bullies (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). The most common type of assertion was verbal assertiveness.
This kind of strategy was deemed effective because it broke the continuous cycle of bullying where students were constantly targeted by certain individuals because of their vulnerability. In so doing, it was established that talking back in an assertive manner was likely to reduce the appropriate profiling of victims by a potential bully.
However, some observers point out that adopting such a strategy is likely to leave the victim vulnerable to more instances of bullying; especially involving physical harm (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). A large number of identified students almost entirely think such a strategy is fully practical.
Ignoring a bully is expected to work because of the dynamism of human behavior identified among bullies. In detail, this strategy is expected to work because the primary intention of bullies on their victims is to make them angry and reactive.
If a victim doesn’t express anger, the bully is likely to experience some level of dissatisfaction, which may potentially break the cycle of bullying. Nonetheless, it has been established that this strategy has its potential weaknesses because in extreme cases, a bully may go to extreme levels to seek a response from his/her victim by committing a grave act to the victims.
Victims therefore run the risk of experiencing worse types of bullinf if they ignore the bully in the first place. However, this strategy is expected to work because of the psychological satisfaction associated with bullies when they bully their fellow students.
For instance in name calling, a bully gets more satisfaction by watching the victim get mad bout it but if such a reaction is absent, it potentially becomes dissatisfying on the part of the bully if the victim becomes blind to such provocations.
Unlike earlier forms of strategies identified in this strategy, a significant number of students believe that standing up to a bully by hitting them back is a good strategy to end the endless cycle of bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).
More specifically, students believe that hitting a bully back in the case of physical bullying or talking back in the case of verbal or emotional bullying is likely to deter bullies from further causing harm on the victims. This kind of sentiment is especially harbored among older students than in younger students (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).
Learning martial arts as a self defense mechanism is the number one strategy identified by students as the most appropriate form of self-defense against bullies. However, on a short-term basis, reacting to a bully in an unregulated manner is likely to deter a bully from further inflicting harm to a victim. Learning martial arts like karate, or self-defense tactics is therefore a long-term strategy in reducing the risk of bullying.
Nonetheless, this strategy enjoys varied support across gender lines because girls don’t give much support to it when compared to boys (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). Instead, girls, prefer a milder kind of strategy in tackling bullying.
This observation is almost replicated along racial lines because Asian and black children are normally observed to support the “violence with violence” strategy as a way to reduce the risk of bullying when compared to their white counterparts (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).
Some parents also support this strategy especially if they believe their children are not in a position to prevent instances of bullying or when school officials have neglected the issue altogether (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).
However, this strategy has its potential weaknesses just like the above-mentioned strategies because victims often risk suffering the risk of more violent attacks from bullies who are more determined to instill their superiority on their subjects.
Talking to Someone
Many students find it easy to talk to a friend when they are experiencing bullying from fellow students. However, it is established that students in lower forms are likely to talk to their mothers instead of fellow classmates or friends.
This fact has an implication on the type of policies or programs to be developed to curb bullying because policies and programs built around friendship networks are likely to be more effective than those built around other parameters such as teacher-student relationships (Smith, 2003, p. 165).
It is therefore established that if students have a strong network of friends, they are likely to wade off bullying tendencies much easier than students who don’t have the protection of such networks.
Friendship networks do not only provide a safeguard against bullying but also help victims cope better with bullying. In fact, there have been reports where students often don’t know how to cope with bullying and then end up taking their own life (Osborne, 2001, p. 1).
These are the kind of students who don’t share strong friendship networks because they lack the moral support from external parties (Garrett, 2003, p. 138). Friends have therefore been identified as the most important link to the success of anti-bullying campaigns because they are usually in a position to witness bullying in and out of the school.
In this context therefore, friends are better placed than adults and teachers in tackling bullying because they can provide the necessary support when needed. Moreover, students normally cite friends as easier to talk to when it comes to speaking out against bullying.
Some friends have even been identified to stand up to certain bullies on behalf of their friends and protect them from violent attacks. However, the biggest problem with involving friends is that they can be picked on by the same bullies when they stand up for their friends.
Seeking External Help
When students are faced with compromising situations or when they feel that they have no other alternative to dealing with bullies, external help from agencies like the police, or child services should be sought.
In as much as these agencies give the necessary help, some students often cite certain concerns with approaching agencies like child line because they may not really understand the kind of bullying they are going through in the local context.
The police have also been identified as a bureaucratic institution because students cite concerns such as going to court or the fact that the police would have to bypass parent involvement in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).
Nonetheless, student counselors are a better pick than the police or child line services because they are better placed to understand bullying in the local context and can therefore give the necessary advice in tackling the problem.
The UK Child mental service has also been cited by many students as one of the most effective agencies in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). These external agencies provide professional help for helpless victims of bullying.
Conclusion It is clearly evident that before any agency decides to tackle the problem of bullying, they ought to understand the fact that students often engage in a process of risk analysis before they report bullying instances in their schools. However, there are no clear-cut solutions to the said problem because human behavior is largely unpredictable and different solutions normally work in different contexts.
This study has analyzed and provided remedies to the problem from a student point of view with the aim of representing what may actually work on the part of students (who are both the victims and the bullies). Collectively, this study points out that anti-bullying policies and programs may fail to materialize if they fail to acknowledge the intrigues that happen in the students’ social world.
In this manner, it is important that all stakeholders involved in tackling high school bullying engage the process from the “bottom-up” approach instead of the “top-down” approach. Moreover, students should be involved in every step of the policy making process because they offer the key to the sustainability of such initiatives.
References Anderson, J. (2010). How to Stop Middle and High School Bullying. Web.
Davis, S. (2007). Schools Where Everyone Belongs: Practical Strategies for Reducing Bullying. London: Research Press.
Garrett, A. G. (2003). Bullying In American Schools: Causes, Preventions, Interventions. New York: McFarland.
Geffner, R. (2001). Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions. London: Routledge.
Levinson, D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. London: Sage.
Macklem, G. L. (2003). Bullying and Teasing: Social Power in Children’s Groups. New York: Springer.
Oliver, C. (2003). Tackling Bullying. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit.
Osborne, E. (2001). Citizenship and PSHE. London: Folens Limited.
Routlege. (2010). Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Web.
Sanders, C. E. (2004). Bullying: Implications for the Classroom. New Jersey: Academic Press.
Savage, T. V. (2009). Successful Classroom Management and Discipline: Teaching Self-Control and Responsibility. London: SAGE.
Sehgal, N. (2010). 50% High School Students Admit Bullying in Last Year’s Survey. Web.
Shore, K. (2006). The ABC’s of Bullying Prevention: A Comprehensive Schoolwide Approach. London: NPR Inc.
Smith, P. (2003). Understanding Children’s Development. London: Wiley-Blackwell.
Swanwick, T. (2010). Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory and Practice. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Swearer, S. M. (2009). Bullying Prevention and Intervention: Realistic Strategies For Schools. New York: Guilford Press.
Taylor T. and Francis, L. (2010). Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work. Web.
Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective Strategies for Long-Term Improvement. London: Routledge.
USA Today. (2010). A water shed Case in School Bullying. Web.
Vernberg, E. M. (2010). Preventing and Treating Bullying and Victimization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach Qualitative Research Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The contemporary society faces the concept of globalisation. As every issue, globalisation has its advantages and drawbacks that cover all sectors of human activity.
Cultural issues should be taken into account as well as peculiar features of every language including teachers who would teach certain languages and approaches applicable to different categories of students in terms of age groups, skills for learning a second language, and implementation of those skills into practice.
One of the burning issues for the linguistic sector of cultural heritage are the methods used in class for teaching people whose native language is not English. In this respect, drama used in class to facilitate the process of acquiring English language can be effective when all criteria are followed. For instance, active participation should be combined with a thoroughly prepared plan to follow during the class activities.
The discussion of the effectiveness of drama implementation for second language acquisition will include such issues as theoretical background and adaptation of certain methods for use with second language learners, concepts and strategies used by the great English educator Dorothy Heathcote, training teachers to use drama with second language learners, effectiveness and limitations for implementation of this approach in class.
The discussion will exclude explanation of lessons and will not provide examples of plans of lessons for use of drama for more effective second language acquisition. The literature selection is based on the effectiveness and readability of sources and their practical use for the discussion.
The review is organised in accordance with an essay structure where an introduction present the scope of the review, the body includes the basic themes for discussion with topic sentences opening each new paragraph, and a conclusion containing a summary of the review with some recommendations for further research and analysis.
Historical Background Approach by Dorothy Heathcote
Though many researchers present their vision of the second language acquisition process, it is necessary to emphasise the importance of contribution made by a distinguished English educator Dorothy Heathcote. In this respect, this educator can be considered a pioneer in adjusting drama to the class implementation and analysis of the method’s effectiveness and applicability to different settings and categories of learners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training teachers to use drama
Training teachers to use drama in class is very important because a failure can result in inadequate interpretation of information by a student and inadequate assessment of learning efforts by a teacher. In this respect, one of the most brilliant statements by Dorothy Heathcote can be regarded the following: “Teaching is creative work…” (Heathcote, 1991, p. 26).
In other words, the author means that training educators can be considered a part of teaching and an important aspect of implementation of drama for learning.
The teaching-learning activity is analysed as a flow of energy surges by Armstrong-Mills (1997) who shares her personal experience of acquiring knowledge on using drama in class and implementing it with children: “Whatever was happening seemed to be related to an increase of energy and concern with the events we were making” (p.93).
The main idea in this case is that educators learn to do something and then can try those methods and approaches immediately with children in class by implementing theory into practice. In other words, teaching can be considered equally important for educators and learners.
Nature of educational drama
Drama and its implementation in class is the changing issue that progresses as far as the educational methods and techniques progress every year. As reported by Heathcote (1991), the changes in the use of drama have shifted the emphases from individual learning to improvisation:
There has been a shift in direction from an interest in the personal development of the individual pupil, through the acquiring of theatrical and improvisational skills to the recognition of drama as a precise teaching instrument, which works best when it is part of the learning process (p. 42).
In this respect, drama can be used in a great variety of ways and treated differently by different educators who support different views on education. So, Cook (1973) suggests a brief but extremely clear explanation of drama as educational method and justifies its use: “The natural means of study in youth is play [while]… a natural education is by practice…” (p. 145).
We will write a custom Essay on Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this respect, drama provides educators with an opportunity to teach children in the most effective way that can be used with second language learners as well as with monolingual children (Kao
Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation Argumentative Essay essay help
Introduction A balanced score card is a tool used by senior management to measure organizational progress in attainment of set goals and objectives (Smith 2007, p.166). This does not imply that other tools cannot be used to measure performance and therefore, management is at liberty to use other tolls even where balanced scorecard has been used.
A balanced score card focuses on four areas namely financial, internal processes, customer as well as learning and growth (Schniederjans 2007 p.163). These are also known as the four legs of a balanced score card and without any of them, the whole system is incomplete. Financial perspective enables a firm measure where they want to be in terms of finances and the image that they create to the shareholders.
The firm main financial areas of concern are operating income and return on investment (Matthews, 2002, p.107). Customer perspective focuses on serving customers in a satisfactorily manner and the image that the firm portrays to the customers.
Internal business processes focus on how the firm can improve its internal processes and operations in order to achieve efficiency while learning and growth focus on how can the firm can improve on the skills and abilities of the employees.
This paper will discuss on how a balanced score card can help management in developing new organizational goals, how to integrate corporate vision and values with the four perspective of a balanced scorecard. In addition, the paper will also look at how the scorecard can be used to communicate organizational goals to employees and the role played by the compensation mechanism.
Development of New Goals for UNUM Corporation by Chairman and Chief Executive
The chairperson and chief executive of UNUM realized that their goals by then were not sufficient to achieve success in the organization. He therefore focused on achieving goals that are more meaningful by engaging balanced measures that would incorporate the interests of all the parties who had a stake in the organization.
He realized the importance of teamwork in achieving meaningful goals and therefore formed a team of thirteen senior managers who were to engage in the process of designing and implementing balanced goals and measures. A balanced scorecard was to be used and the four legs of a balanced score card were the focal point.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The chief executive therefore informed his team that he wanted them to develop a customer scorecard, a financial score card and an employee productivity score card. He then acknowledged the importance of education and knowledge and gave the team ample time to learn about the balanced score card since it was a new concept (Hannabarger, Buchman and Buchman, 2007, pg. 9).
James Orr therefore sought to develop new goals by use of a balance scorecard that has four different but closely integrated aspects and failure or negligence on one aspect might lead to business failure.
Relationship between Development of Corporate Vision, Corporate Value and Balanced Score Card
UNUM has a vision to achieve leadership in business. Integrated in the vision is the desire to serve the customers in a satisfactorily manner and have therefore incorporated in their values aspects that will make customer satisfaction a reality. They therefore intend to respect their customers and deliver what the clients want as well as what they promise to deliver.
To assess their efficiency in customer satisfaction, a scorecard has been designed to measure how customers appreciate the quality and performance of their product. Achieving goals need employee support and employees therefore should be equipped with necessary skills and knowledge as well as remuneration packages that match their skills and expertise.
In achieving business leadership, UNUM must make sure that employees are equipped with appropriate skills through adequate training and that they understand their roles properly. A scorecard has been developed in which employees’ opinions can be assessed to see how organizations vision is being met while still upholding the values. In its vision to achieve business leadership, the firm must achieve operational effectiveness.
In its values, it focused on the importance of proper, open, and clear communication that will allow free flow of operations and emphasized on improving and reengineering their processes. A balanced score card was developed to that would be used to measure growth in operating costs. The benchmark being that in the year 1998, the total operating costs should have declined by at least a third.
The shareholders are integral part of UNUM and achieving business leadership implies that the shareholders will be a part of the success and should enjoy and celebrate the success. The firm has therefore established values that focus on performance and setting individual goals that are in line with organizational goals.
We will write a custom Essay on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To ensure that the shareholders feel as part of the success, a balanced scorecard has been designed to measure shareholder value. The benchmark is to have the company as a top 125 in the Stand list.
How UNUM use the Balanced Scorecard to Communicate Its Corporate Goals to Employees throughout the Organization
The process of implementing a balanced score card requires that the organization communicates to employees constantly in a way they understand. To ensure this, UNUM started by defining what each score card vision meant. The UNUM people vision ‘we will have the mind of a customer and the pride of an owner’ explained the company’s expectations from the employees.
The scorecard established a measure that would be used to give feedback on employees’ perception. UNUM organized workshops to determine or the reasons why employees did not trust the managers and the results based on employees’ perception were communicated to the organization.
The firm also uses a 360-degree appraisal system that is used to give feedback on how managers are in line with corporate behavior (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997. Employees are encouraged to think and act like owners by use of a goals stock option plan.
For example, in 1998, if the balanced score card goals were met, employees would be given a grant to purchase shares and incase the goals were not realized, the employees would miss the grant.
The employees are made aware of how the stock works and they are given financial information on quarterly basis in order to understand how the plans works through a guide known as ‘know your options’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).
The annual bonus that are given by the firm achieving the annual goals also serve as a communication tool since employees work hard to meet the annual target goals in order to benefit from the bonus. In achieving, operational effectiveness, the firm uses statements such as ‘Bending over Backwards’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).
Revisiting achievement and the way they were achieved is used to motivate employees to work and commit themselves to making things better by ensuring that resources are deployed effectively and the company performs better than competitors do. The chairperson has also developed some questions that are for use across the organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The questions focus on the firms’ goals in terms of overall goals, customer satisfaction, and people goal, operating effectiveness and shareholders value. The questions seek to understand how employees understand the firms’ goals, what they are doing to ensure their success and seek their opinion on what they think should be done or not done.
Role of Compensation Mechanisms in the Balanced Scorecard at UNUM Corporation
Compensation mechanisms act as motivation to the employees to work towards achieving organizational goals (Niven, 2006, p.213). The goal stock plan that gives employees a grant to purchase shares in the organization motivates workers to work as if the business is theirs.
They strive to achieve the best since they know that failure to achieve the goals that have been set will not be a loss to the organization alone but rather they will miss that golden chance of getting a grant to purchase the shares.
In pursuant with their goals of getting the stock plan option, employees are able to understand how the organization works in terms of generating revenue and eventually invest it to achieve company growth (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).
In the long run, the company grows as a result of outstanding performance from the employees who work and take pride in it as if they were the owners and employees benefit from the compensation scheme.
UNUM does not focus on company and employee growth only; it takes into consideration the welfare of other stakeholders such as the shareholders. Shareholders are paid their dividends in good time and they are first made to understand how the company runs in terms of its operations. This gives other investors confidence to invest in the company and this enables the company to generate more capital when needed.
The company therefore has greater potential to expand since it is not limited by capital restrictions. It also serves to improve the company reputation and more customers and investors can believe in it giving it a better competitive edge over the competitors. The compensation mechanism therefore draws employee attention to focus on areas that are of great significance to the organization.
Balanced Scorecard as either a Diagnostic Control System or Interactive Control System at UNUM Corporation
prior to making a conclusion as to whether UNUM uses balanced score card as either a diagnostic control system or a interactive control system, a distinction between the two systems of control will be given for purposes of better understanding. According to Simmons as cited in (Kellen, 2003), a diagnostic control system is a system that assists organizations in monitoring and evaluating their present and past state.
Management set thresholds within which performance is acceptable, beyond the threshold, whether on the upper or lower side calls for management attention to diagnose the cause of deviations and attempt to rectify the situation.
This system enables a firm to keep in line with the set or target goals, as management is control through constant monitoring of progress. On the other hand, an interactive control system gives the firm additional control measures that makes the firm ready to handle strategic uncertainties in case hey strike.
Simmons as cited in (Kellen 2003) defined them as “the formal information systems that managers use to personally involve themselves in the decision activities of subordinates.” These control systems therefore create room for newer information and learning in the decision making process.
After understanding the difference in the way the control systems work, it can be said that UNUM Corporation uses integration of both control system. This can be justified by the fact that the firm measures performance against some predetermined targets.
For example, there are annual targets that are to be met and incase of deviation, management has to establish the cause of variation and design mechanisms to ensure that it will not happen in the future. This indicates use of diagnostic control system.
On the other hand, management tries to get new ideas and opinions from employees on how the can improve the process and their performance thus making employees’ part of the development. Such activities involve use of interactive systems where new ideas are welcome.
Balanced Scorecard for UNUM Corporation
Cause and Effect Relationship between the Four Perspectives of UNUM Corporation
UNUM people perspective serves as the learning and innovation perspective of the organization. It requires the employees to think like customers and act as owners and this challenge them to be very creative in everything they do in the organization. They look for additional information and newer ideas that will help other employees grow as the company grows.
This helps the organization achieve efficiency and have improved performance as all employees work towards achieving common goals. The operating effectiveness perspective focuses on ensuring that the company’s resources are utilized in an effect and efficient manner.
If all resources in terms of labor and capital and other resources were to be utilized in the best way possible, then it implies that the firm would achieve its goals and even exceed them. This gives the firm an advantage since with lower costs it can be able to price its products better than the competitors can. The customer satisfaction perspective aims to ensure that the firm’s customers are satisfied.
To achieve customer satisfaction means that the firm must first understand the needs and wants of the customers. Then come up with a marketing mix that will meet these needs in a satisfactorily manner by ensuring the right quality and using the appropriate mechanism to deliver the products or service.
Once the firm does this, it is almost guaranteed of customer loyalty from all the satisfied customers ceteris paribus. The company will therefore continue to enjoy increased sales and have more customers as this will earn it good reputation.
The shareholders value focuses on creating a good image to the shareholders and maximizing their wealth. This can be achieved through being able to meet organizational objectives and especially in terms of returns and profitability.
The firm will then be able to pay attractive dividends to the shareholders and have prices appreciate and this would happen if the total return on investment and profitability were favorable (Matthews, 2002, p.107). This is an incentive to potential investors, who will have confidence in the company and invest in it thus attracting more capital.
How the Corporate Vision is reflected in the Goals and Performance Measures with Reference to the four Perspectives
The corporate vision of UNUM Corporation is to achieve business leadership and not just being market leaders but also being leaders or achieving success in everything that they undertake. The UNUM people perspective goals are have improvement every year in their scores against the benchmark survey. The benchmark survey acts as the measure for this perspective.
Having the desire to constantly improve is a progressive aspect that shows the desire to succeed. The firm does not just wait for the success to come but engages in continued monitoring to assess how well they are working towards their success. In the operating effectiveness, the firm has set a limit beyond which the costs should not exceed as the measure.
The firm has also set a time limit within which they want to achieve their goal of reducing costs by one third. This two aspects blend into the corporate vision well as the firm should be able to define what it calls success in each case. As for this case, the firm knows that success will be achieved if costs are reduced by one third by 1998.
The firm wishes to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they deliver quality products to the customers. However, they will not just sit back and assume they have delivered quality but will rather seek opinions of the customers to know whether they are satisfied.
The firm also intends to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they have more customers who prefer their product and feel that it is among the best. The firm is focused on having good share prices that will maximize shareholders wealth and be able to pay dividends to the shareholders.
A firm that is doing badly cannot afford to pay dividends and this means that the firm will have achieved success. The firm also wants to achieve leadership by being ranked among the top 125 companies listed on the standard
Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Corporate philanthropy is the contribution that business makes to the general population using its finances as part of its corporate social responsibility. The activities undertaken by the organization will have a positive impact on the lives of the beneficiaries and sometimes even the business itself.
Most businesses are involved in various philanthropic activities, which vary depending on the community’s main problems and the business’s interests. In addition, the philanthropic activities are usually focused on improving the quality of life of the workforce of the company, their families and the general population where the company operates or may be intending to operate in future.
It may also be targeting the environment in which the organization operates through the improvement of the natural resources of the area that the organization operates in. primarily, corporate philanthropy can be undertaken through various means, which include giving gifts (products of the company or other company’s product), and having the employees of the company doing various activities which benefit the general community e.g. cleanup of the area near the organization.
In addition, an organization can directly be involved in the philanthropic activities or may form a foundation to carry out its philanthropic activities. These foundations are not involved in any business activities; their sole purpose is managing the philanthropic activities, with funding from the parent organization (Anheier, H K and List R 2005 p 67).
However, corporate philanthropy is not only a means of giving back to the community it also benefits the company in various ways.
Principles of Business sustainability and development Principles of sustainability explain the measures that an organizations need to put in place to ensure that they are to able cater for the current needs without having to compromise their ability to meet the needs in future (Landrum, Landrum and Edwards, 2009, p 3). In addition, organizations can ensure their sustainability by properly controlling and improving their main assets. These assets can generally be classified into:
Capital provided by nature: the organization should ensure that its activities do not create damage to nature. The organization must ensure that its activities are nature friendly. A good example is where a company produces or uses of products which are recyclable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human capital: this refers to the people who are affected by the company’s activities or its products. These may be the consumers of the products which the company produces, people who live near the organization, or the employees of the company.
Primarily, the organization should safeguard the interest of the above groups; by ensuring that the products do not harm the consumers directly when they use them, or the products do not harm employees when they are making them.
The products may also harm people indirectly if they lead to adverse environmental condition in the area where the company operates. Indeed, human capital is important since it provides both the workforce and the consumers for the organization.
Social capital: this refers to the social structure of the people who use the products, are affected by the product or the employees of the company.
Manufactured capital: This refers to the assets which the company uses its production.
Financial capital: The Company must also ensure the sustainability of its finances. The organization must ensure that it puts measures in place to ensure that it continues to have desirable profits. The organization must also ensure that the sale of its products continues to improve as well as the value of its shares (William, 2007, p 19).
Corporate philanthropy as a sustainability and sustainable business practice Corporations that involve in corporate philanthropy may do so due to varying reasons. They may be involved in philanthropy if the activity will lead to an increase in its profit either directly or indirectly. The corporation may also be involved in philanthropy as a corporate citizen so as to improve the quality of life of the respondents regardless of whether the activity will lead to an increase in its profit or not.
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the organization may be involved in philanthropy so as cater for the social and political influences in the region within their operation. This means that they may be involved in philanthropy so as to self-regulate its activities and avoid government controlling its activities (Anheier and List, 2005, p 68).
Corporate philanthropy improves on the human capital of the organization. Employees who engage in corporate philanthropic activities of the company help their leadership skills and are therefore important assets to the company (Shepp, 2010). The philanthropic activities of a company also lead to improvement in the relationship between the employers and the employees.
This in effect leads to improvement of the motivation and loyalty of the employees. Improvement in the above attributes will lead to increase in productivity of the employees. The philanthropic activities also lead to improvement in the relationship between the customers and the corporation due to the direct involvement between the employees and the consumers.
The money spent on philanthropic activities is not used in vain; and this may act as a form of advertising to the company. The philanthropic activities help to improve the image of the company by showing that it cares for the needs of its consumers and the general population. This helps improve the loyalty of the consumers towards the company since the company caters for its needs as a consumer.
In addition, corporate philanthropy attracts media attention towards the company, helping it to raise its corporate image. The activities that a company undertakes in corporate philanthropy may also improve its image towards the government.
This may lead to its tax exemption or reduction in the tax that the government charges its activities. All these lead to improved financial position of the company; hence, corporate philanthropy, apart from taking money away from the company, also helps in generating money for the company though in an indirect manner (Neryan, 2009).
Corporate philanthropy may also strengthen the human capital of the organization. This may happen if the organization engages in programs to provide education and training of the people who are in institution that offer training for the professional requirement that the organization requires or any other institutions that offer education.
This may be in the form of bursaries and scholarships to students who are in high school or even in colleges (Porter, 2008, p 461). These scholarships and bursaries enable the organization get high quality employees who will as well be loyal to the company since the company helped them acquire their skills.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization can also help improve on the quality of products that it produces indirectly through investing in the research and training activities of universities or colleges which deal with its products.
This helps to improve the products of not only its company, but also the product of other companies, thereby making the consumers to get high quality products. Eventually, this will lead to the company having a competitive edge over its rivals even if the initiative benefits even the competitors (Porter, 2008, p 456).
Corporate philanthropy can also help in improving the quality of life of the people who live in the area where it operates. This is through the improvement in the infrastructure, provision of better housing and through support of initiatives which help in improving the environment of the area (Porter, 2008, p 462).
This initiative not only benefits the organization, but also helps in improving the environment in which the business operates. Moreover, improvement in the quality of life of the residents of the area in which the organization operates helps in improving their social welfare, as well as improving the environment in which the organization operates.
Conclusion Corporate philanthropy is a very vital practice of business sustainability and sustainable business development practice. The benefits that the company gets in engaging in corporate philanthropy outweigh its disadvantages if the corporate philanthropy is carried out in a strategic manner. A company can engage in corporate philanthropy as a means of enhancing its sustainability and improve on its image.
This is highlighted by the fact that, even with the economic recession, companies are still willing to be involved in corporate philanthropy.
This is clearly highlighted by the fact that even after it financial crisis and ultimate bailout JP Morgan Chase, an American investment bank which triggered the economic crisis promised $1 million to the victims of the Haiti earthquake even though the company may have tight budgets to meet its financial obligations (Schepp, 2010).
References Anheier, H. K. and List, R. (2005). A dictionary of civil society, philanthropy and the non-profit sector. London, Taylor
International Negotiations Term Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Opportunities of negotiations
Introduction This memorandum is aimed at planning the forthcoming negotiations between India and Pakistan. It will discuss the way how the representatives of India can act during the negotiations, the applicable strategies to follow, the possible opportunities and obstacles for the negotiations. We hope that this briefing paper will be helpful in the preparation for the negotiations and will contribute to their effectiveness.
First of all, it should be said that the future negotiations between India and Pakistan can play an important role in the development of the history of the both countries.
In case the parties manage to find a consensus, the existing problems will be solved, and the war of interests that lasted for more than a century can finally end. This is a considerable motivation for arranging a sufficient negotiation strategy, which will be prolific and will let the both countries move forward from the standstill they appeared at.
Framework Before discussing the opportunities that the negotiations can bring it is worth thinking of the pre-negotiation work that can be done by India. First of all, there is an undisputable need for social network to be done. In case of intractable conflicts management, it is vital to create a peace infrastructure, which will be responsible for preventing the military actions or violent attacks.
This infrastructure should better be represented by an independent organ, in order to be impartial in attitude to the parties. What is more, India may consider involving civil society of its own and of the confronting party, in this case of Pakistan, into the peace establishing program. Such network can serve as a profound basis for successful negotiations.
This is due to the fact that the studies have shown, that the introduction of unofficial third parties into the conflict can contribute significantly to its resolution (Chigas, 2008).
There is also an option of introducing an independent agent, who will be able to produce fresh views on the problem and offer some new solutions (Salacuse, 1999). In addition, the independent mediators can help to design a coherent political strategy for the parties (Crocker, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, while the representatives of government have a power to negotiate and make decisions, there are some spheres which can only be controlled by the civil society (Saunders, 2001). For instance, only the citizens of Kashmir are able to establish certain attitudes towards Indian and Pakistani rules, and only the citizens of the opposing sides are able to be either tolerant or confront each other.
Therefore, in order to achieve the desired results at the negotiations, you need to consider the interests of the mentioned nations, which can both serve as a support for your ideas or prove an impediment to achieving agreement.
Opportunities of negotiations Obviously, the representatives of India should be ready to present the ideas about what innovations can be implemented in the current policies. In order to produce these ideas, it is important to analyze the interests of the two parties. Lying on the surface are the opposed interests, which have been the reason of the multiple controversies between the countries.
For instance, both India and Pakistan are willing to take political control over the territory of Kashmir, and none of the parties is ready to give up this target. Each of the parties has a solid ground for its position, and it seems that there is no resolution that I going to meet the requirements of the both sides.
Therefore, at this point the negotiations can either leave the issue unresolved or lead to the acceptance of one of the party’s options. However, in case one of the sides weakens its position or expresses a will to compromise, there can appear new options for the conflict resolution. However, in order to do this, there have to be some stronger interests found.
For example, for both countries the interest above sharing Kashmir may be a will to establish peace and respect after more than 50 years of disagreement. Therefore, you need to know exactly what the hierarchical order of Indian interests is, in order to be able to define the primary and secondary ones during the negotiations.
There are also compatible interests; to be specific, on one side India demands the stop of the terrorist attacks, which, according to the country’s version, are being organized by Pakistani people. On the other side, Pakistani government has been trying to unite the Muslim professionists, which is impossible again because of Kashmiri conflict.
We will write a custom Term Paper on International Negotiations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is more, the both parties show impartiality in response to each other’s demands, and refuse to take the responsibility for the ongoing events. Indeed, Pakistan government rejects the fact that the terrorist attacks are organized or anyhow sponsored by them, stating that this is a choice of Kashmiri to take such measures (Cheema and Nuri, 2005).
Similarly, India denies the conflict of religions and expresses an opinion that the religious differences do not prevent Kashmiri people from peaceful coexistence with Indian citizens (EPDMA, 2007). In this case, the compatible interests are connected with the domino principle. This means that in case either of the parties refuses from its position, the other party will also have to give up.
Therefore, the possible options here for India are to agree with the division of population and territory according to the religious preferences, or to convince Pakistan to contribute to the preservation of peace on the territory of Kashmir.
The both variants exclude the need for terrorist attacks in future and can bring agreement on this level. Thus, your task is to decide in advance, how flexible, or, in contrast, how strong are you going to be in respect to this issue.
However, the negotiation theory states that “all-gain agreements an only be achieved when the parties stress the cooperative, and not just the competitive, aspects of their relationship” (Cruikshank, 1989). This, our task is to search for some common interests, if such exist. The deeper analysis of the struggle for Kashmir shows that the territorial distribution is not the ultimate purpose of the conflict.
In fact, both India and Pakistan express an opinion that the citizens of Kashmir should not have their rights violated. On one hand, Indian government states that Kashmiri will have their rights and liberties defended under Indian rule, motivating it by the contrast with Pakistani rule where human rights are being violated (Wirsing, 2007).
On the other hand, Pakistani government argues that the citizens of Kashmir should be able to choose the ruler for themselves; the representatives are deeply convinced that Kashmiri seek either to gain independence, or to become a part of Pakistan rather than be a part of India (PA, 2010).
Thus, despite the different points of view about the situation, both India and Pakistani are eager to protect the political and social rights and liberties of Kashmiri people. From this perspective, the interest of protecting the liberties of Kashmiri is common for both of the negotiations participants.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Negotiations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The last mentioned interest, shared by the two parties, increases the possibility of finding the zone of possible agreement (ZOPA). Indeed, there is a multitude of point where India and Pakistan agree, for example:
Kashmiri people should choose the government themselves
The citizens of Kashmir are free to confess any religion
It is essential that both India and Pakistan take part in helping to determine the development of Kashmiri politics, due to the history of the countries.
Taking into consideration the named arguments, it can be derived that the Kashmiri conflict can be weakened if not resolved by setting the ZOPA at the protection of rights and liberties of the Kashmiri people. With this purpose, you could offer Pakistani government to organize a set of activities, which will be supported by Pakistan and India, and will be aimed at helping the citizens of Kashmir to make their choice.
These activities can include creating a Constitution of Kashmir, offering the country the options like separating into an autonomic Republic, or dividing into pro-Indian and pro-Pakistani parts, etc. This approach will also need a series of studies and social investigations to be carried, and their costs can also be shared between the parties.
In this way, neither India nor Pakistan will have to give up their positions, and the resolution of the situation will be determined by Kashmiri people as by an impartial member.
However, the main point about ZOPA is helping Pakistani government to see it and to motivate them to reach it, as the consensual knowledge is vital for establishing agreement in negotiations (Hampson, 1999). You should keep in mind that the opposed site has a skeptical attitude to your offers, so it is important to prepare a solid foundation for your arguments.
The mentioned decision is only one of the options available for the negotiations. It is worth remembering that your task is to achieve joint gains, and for this purpose you will need to (a) be able to share information effectively; (b) be ready to deal with the new appearing problems, and (c) be eager to continue improving the decision during the negotiations (Brett, 1998).
These three factors can make the negotiations prolific and bring benefits to all its participants. However, you should remember that the mentioned joint gains need to be seen by Pakistani government, and if they are not, your task is to show them.
In order to do this, you have to be ready to present to the Pakistani government a list of advantages they would face in case of reaching the ZOPA. This will increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.
Possible obstacles Besides the mentioned above opportunities of the forthcoming negotiations, there is a number of factors, which can prevent the negotiations from being successful, in particular for India. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to be managed during the negotiations process.
The very first barrier to the negotiations progress is the general rule, which claims that “the prolonged nature of intractable conflict gives rise to self-reinforcing escalatory dynamics” (Chigas, ). In case of India-Pakistan conflict, which lasted for more than 60 years, this rule is likely to work.
The situation suggests that the absence of progress in the conflict has lead to the deep convictions of the both sides of their rightness and of the incontestability of their decisions. Due to this fact, there is a little chance for any party to weaken the opposing BATNA, or to prove the dominance of their own ones.
This inflexibility and unreadiness to accept another position increase the deep-rooted nature of the conflict and prevent it from being resolved with the negotiations.
As for the measures that can be taken in order to overcome this barrier, one of the options is to call for bringing the relations between the countries to a new level. You can demonstrate Pakistani representatives all the negative consequences of the long lasting conflict, and show them the promising perspectives of accepting a new, flexible position.
Another possible obstacle for the negotiations success is the divergence of ideology and belief systems of the two parties. This factor belongs to the ones that usually create additional conflicts and make it harder to settle the agreement (Hampson, 1999).
Besides the political conflicts, there is an underlying foundation of cultural peculiarities, which determine the religions, social attitudes, moral rules, norms of behavior, etc. In other words, what seems to be a perfect solution for Indian people, might be viewed as absolutely unacceptable by Pakistani people, and vice versa. Tolerating these differences is often hard because of their significance for each of the parties.
The ideology also affects the perception of the situation by the parties, suggesting that the war of interests is becoming even more intense. For instance, while India took a liberal position in attitude to Religion, for Pakistani people this issue is a matter of life. Indeed, it is known from the history that Muslims are famous for their devotion to faith, which is often proved by violent means.
Moreover, violent attacks are often seen as the only way to demonstrate one’s faith. In contrast, Hinduism rejects any form of violence, and treats the means of Muslims as unacceptable. Similarly, the differences in value systems affect the perception of Kashmir conflict by the parties, which suggests that there is an increased risk of misunderstanding in the negotiations.
Due to the two obstacles mentioned above, there appears another one, which is a mistrust between the parties. To be specific, Indian government accused Pakistan to sponsor the terrorist attacks for many times. However, Pakistani government keeps rejecting this version and in addition to this refuses to contribute to providing peace.
Thus, until the guilty ones are found, there will be a mistrust from the side of India, which can hinder the negotiations. In order to overcome this, Indian government has to do everything possible to make sure that Pakistan is not motivated to organize such kinds of attacks. It should also be noted that Pakistani government also has some bias towards Indian rule.
The reason of their distrust lies in the fact that Indian government failed to carry a referendum for Kashmir independence, promised more than 50 years ago (The Economist, 1999). In order to remove this condition, the government of India has to provide a guaranty of implementation of all the resolutions accepted at the negotiations; for example, with this purpose a corresponding contract can be signed.
In addition to the discussed impediments to reaching a compromise, there is one that can be decisive for the negotiations. This impediment is the existence of many official parties. You should take into consideration, that there is a number of fundamentalist groups, which are fighting either for Kashmir independence or its joining Pakistan. These groups will most possibly be used by Pakistani spokespersons to support their arguments.
The parties like US or China are also likely to support Pakistan, while the UN is on the side of Kashmiri and their right for independence. These multiple parties introduce the newer and newer views on the situation, which, as a result, hampers making one right decision at the negotiations.
With the addition of new interests, the task of the negotiations is not to finally resolve the Kashmir conflict in Pakistani or Indian way, but to meet all the requirements and leave nobody dissatisfied. The existence of multiple parties has always been one of the main barriers to decision making, and the more parties are there, the more complex the conflict becomes (Hampson, 1999).
What is more, even when the third party has a benevolent intention to help to resolve the conflict, it is often doomed to fail because of its inability to consider the non-objective factors (Chigas, ).
For instance, even though the UN tries to evaluate the situation objectively, it will never be able to realize the deepness of the cultural differences and values, which suggests that there is a very little chance for the UN to introduce a solution, satisfactory both for India and Pakistan.
It has to be utmost clear to the both parties that their conflict has a very deep and broad nature. Besides the Kashmir conflict, there is also a number of other problems of political, economical, social, religious character, which make the relations between the countries tense. Therefore, an expectation to resolve all the issues at once is rather unrealistic, and can bring above disappointment.
The main mistake here is the strong belief of each party that the successful negotiations are those which can meet all their requirements. Thus, in order to overcome this obstacle, you should be ready to accept a different negotiation scenario, which will suggest making quick decisions right at the place if it is needed.
After all, the experience of the composite dialogue of 2003-2005 suggests that the step-by-step problem resolution can be more effective than rapid efforts to introduce dramatic changes (Kux, 2006).
Strategy advice Now that all the opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations have been discussed, and the needed framework was mentioned, it is important to plan the way of handling the negotiation process. In order to do this, you need to choose a negotiation strategy that would be appropriate for the situation.
Obviously, in the conditions of a prolonged and complicated struggle of interests, it is impossible to find one appropriate resolution for all the existing problems. However, several aspects can be considered, which can help to improve the general situation and increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.
In case if your only task were to reach your aims at any costs, the appropriate strategy would be positional bargaining. However, in the modern world, where the civilized society suggests that there is a need to tolerate differences and compromise, this strategy is unacceptable. In addition, in case of conflict with Pakistan, positional bargaining would only aggravate it and cause the greater resistance from the opposing side. That is why, integrative bargaining is much more beneficial for both parties in this case.
The essence of integrative bargaining lies in searching for optimal decisions, which can fully or partially satisfy the needs of the two parties. One of the options for implementing this strategy is dividing the main interests into several minor interests, or trying to find a number of meanings in one idea. Thus, the will of both India and Pakistan to administer Kashmir covers a number of other wishes, such as:
gaining more territory
becoming a more powerful country
gaining political authority
resolving the religious issue
In this way, we can see that the controversial ideas often have some underlying motives, which have a chance to be conciliated. That is why, you can try to apply this method to India’s interests and offer Pakistan to do the same. This will make the situation more clear and increase the chances for finding a fresh solution for the two sides.
Try to show Pakistani spokespersons, that the interests of their country are being considered, and that the both positions are equally important in this situation. Your task is to remove the mistrust that has been existing for decades, and make the opponent open to new solutions.
In fact, there is a multitude of approaches which can be helpful to lead the negotiations in this way. They include the basic speech patterns, or the way in which your speech can be organized in order to sound more persuasive. Integrating politics with linguistics can be helpful, as the “critical thinking and interdisciplinary research” can contribute into the success of the negotiations (Eagle, 2009).
For instance, sometimes such tools, as ad hominem or bandwagon effect can be used, in case if they are relevant and supported by the facts, of course (Wright, 2001). You can also use an appeal to authority, for example by mentioning how the prominent countries of the world managed the similar conflicts.
In addition, one of the most persuasive strategies is putting the interests of the community before the interests of an individual. Thus, it is important to clarify that the India-Pakistan conflict is caused because of the citizens’ interests, and that its resolution should also be based on it.
One more good strategy is to postpone the denial, or, to be more specific, to agree before rejecting the opponent’s idea. Whatever is said at the negotiation, try to show understanding of the Pakistani position and respect for it, and only after that start to give opposing ideas. All these techniques can help you to achieve the desired goals and to make the negotiation results beneficial for India.
Apart from the mentioned strategy, you should consider organizing the requirements and needs of India in hierarchical order. In addition, the general advise is to start with the minor issues, and “put Kashmir on a back burner” (Kux, 2006). This approach is based on the idea that the aim of the negotiations is to improve the relations between the countries, make them less tense and more trustful.
That is why, a gradual approaching of the countries may serve as a basis for a natural Kashmir conflict resolution in the future. Of course the main points should be discussed; however, working on economical and social problems should be put first. This will also guarantee that the negotiations will bring at least some changes for better, even if the main issue will remain unresolved.
As for the decisions you are going to introduce, remember that all the ideas should be fair, efficient, and feasible (Cruikshank, 1989). Fairness means that it is necessary for the two parties to agree on the uprightness of the decision. What is more, such conclusion is not to be left for a third independent party; otherwise, the decision is to be worked out until the both parties accept it as fair.
The decision efficiency points at the fact that its implementation will satisfy all the parties. Here not only India and Pakistan should be taken into consideration; the other parties in the face of other countries and fundamentalist groups also should agree with the efficiency of the decision. Finally, the feasibility of the decision has to provide the possibility of its implementation.
Therefore, it is not advisory to show too much expectations about a certain decision, and count on its magic effect. For example, expecting that the next day after negotiations Pakistan and India will turn into the closest political and economical partners is far from feasible.
However, making steps in this direction and gradually improving the relations between the parties is a feasible expectation. Therefore, try to be realistic, and support this attitude in the opponent.
Concerning the approach to problem solution, it is obvious that the key point for you is to look for joint gains for India and Pakistan. It was proved that even in the settings of cultural divergence, the joint gains are able to unite the countries for achieving shared aims (Brett, 1998). Therefore, even in case of inability to find a compromise, finding joint gains can be helpful in conflict resolution.
What is more, your task is not only to find the joint gains, but also to present them as advantageous to the opposite side. This is due to the fact that the attitude of Pakistan to India is rather biased, and it would be irrational to count for their instantaneous support of all your ideas.
That is why, be ready to (a) find the new joint gains in the process of negotiation, and (b) show them to Pakistani spokesperson and motivate them to reach these gains together.
Conclusion This memorandum contains the information needed for India spokesperson to lead successful negotiations. It discusses the possible opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations, and gives suggestions about the party’s behavior during the process of negotiations. The paper is based on numerous studies about negotiations and international relations, and thus will hopefully help India to gain satisfactory results at the negotiations.
Reference List Brett, J, Adair, W (1998). Culture and Joint Gains in Negotiation. Negotiation Journal, 1(3): 61-86.
Cheema, P, Nuri, M (2005) The Kashmir Imbroglio: Looking Towards the Future. Islamabad: Islamabad Policy Research Institute.
Chigas, D (2005) Negotiating Intractable Conflicts: The Contributions of Unofficial Intermediaries. Ch. 6 in Crocker, C, Hampson, F
Responding to “Marketing Shapes Consumers Needs and Wants” Coursework essay help online free
Taking position It is certain that needs and wants exist that must be satisfied by human beings in the course of their survival. Various marketers; therefore, endeavor to gratify the needs of the populace, and they do it through advertisement to inform the public that they stock what they want. I, therefore, disagree with the statement that marketing modifies the consumers’ wishes and wants.
Instead, marketing simply imitates the needs and the wishes of the clients. “A defender of marketing would maintain that the marketing system merely reflects society’s needs and wants” (Reynolds
Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting
Role of ethical standards in the workplace
How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective
Introduction Ethical behaviour can sometimes be tricky in its form; how a business carries itself can leave a good or bad impression on consumers and other production business associates. Most businesses are today interested in profits than anything else, thus failing to check on critical aspects such as ethics and social responsibility, consequently this is the reason for their downfall.
Evidently, companies that practice ethical values are incomparable to businesses that just want to make profit (Crystal, 2010). Implementing Business Ethics in a company’s strategic plan enhances the work environment. Additionally, it leaves benefits that include improved job satisfaction, a higher degree of organizational commitment and reduction of employee turnover.
Right things are not always easier to deal with since small quandaries in a firm are particularly the major challenges. Staff should know the right ethical act and the action to accept as appropriate form of promoting integrity and professionalism.
Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting The benefits in practicing business ethics in the workplace are wide depending on the organizational culture and policies. Business ethics can lead to employee satisfaction, flexible work schedules and more responsibilities. Improved job satisfaction is a major benefit for boosting employees’ morale, in the aim of completing tasks correctly and in a timely manner.
Making sure the employees are happy can result in a more productive environment and the employee feels appreciated as opposed to over-worked. According to Carpenter and Sanders (2009), one solution could be a simple change of the work schedule to allow flexibility in the employees’ lives.
For example, giving employees the option to create their own schedules satisfies the employees, because they are able to balance time from their structured work.
Flexible working hours are a great start to increase employee satisfaction but it is not the only option. There are other strategies to boost employees’ loyalty and determination while increasing the turnover rates (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Role of ethical standards in the workplace The main reason to include ethical standards in a business plan is to enhance social responsibility for protection of company’s assets. How well do the employees protect their company’s assets? The treatment employees get highly influences their behaviours. The employees are usually proud of the company and its assets if the company accord they respect.
The opinions of the employees at the firm are evident from their behaviours at workplace. The employees’ pride blossoms when the environment delivers respect and the staff are valued as individuals and, treated with fairness and equity in general.
The employees need to perform with unquestionable ethics and integrity. Assigning responsibilities to employees and showing respect by praise or rewards them improves their efforts thus leading to job satisfaction, since they know that the management appreciate them.
Today the most damaging acts emerge from the most obvious ethical problems and irresponsible situations. The subversive acts employees practice in order to protect their own turf at the expense of colleagues affects the working relationships, environment, productivity, trust, and, job satisfaction.
Violations concerned with ethical standards are a high cost to company’s economical performance as well as, cultural reputation. When implementing a business strategic plan, the management of a firm must provide solutions to the small-scale problems. This involves an analysis to make ethics a core value in various departments, other than just having some code of ethics as an organizational culture.
Enhancing the ethics as core values involves setting up an executive tone in the policies or business ethics. This means that the leader has to lead by example (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).
He/she adheres to the highest ethical standards or behaviours as a guide. Mistrusting and lapse over judgement of the leader causes the negative consequences to the company. Displaying a message that implies dishonesty as an acceptable act, is asking the subordinates to practice the act.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, it is important to have written guidelines in the strategic plan. This outlines the ethical policies for instance, a group can engage in a brainstorming session in translation or customization of general code of ethics to fit relevant aspects of the department. This code will serve as a helpful reference for the employees when they meet common ethical quandaries and thus enhance employees’ morale.
What holds together commitment in organizations? Employee involvement, motivation, and attitude are a few antidotes that contribute to the dedication of the organization. A higher degree of organizational commitment can result in dedicated commitment of the employees’, organizational structure and the factors involved in the commitment of the organization.
According to Hahn (2007), “The alteration of commitment is possible if people recognize its factors; personal characteristics, job-or role-related characteristics, structural attributes and work experiences.” This statement is true to its saying; treat people the way you would like them to treat you. A manager will thus respect and trust that employees will do what they are committed to do.
How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective Can an ethical organizational structure influence the commitment of the employees’? Well, understanding that the culture and structure places employees’ on jobs so that work is completed and goals achieved. The structure of the organization influences the level of commitment.
Hahn states that (2007), “formalization, functional dependence, and decentralization are all related to commitment.” These factors affect the employees and therefore managers should consider personal attitudes, work experiences, and organizational characteristics by altering needs to improve commitment (Hahn, 2007).
Thirdly, it is important that the strategic plan communicate a leadership vision. The written code of ethics requires orientation and training programs through video, role-plays, games or other regular addresses in meetings, presentations and, speech. It is also important to enhance ethics of reporting the wrong acts. There ought to be an easy and safe way of reporting violations and questionable proceedings.
In line with Hahn (2007), “The employees should be in a position to deliver bad news to the management without the fear of negative career repercussions.” They also need to be reassured of immediate actions or investigations.
Several tasks can reduce employee turnover. Receiving employee feedback, applying attractive compensation packages and job stability will assure long-term ethical performance by existing employees.’ Carpenter and Sanders states (2009), “The business that neglects the feedback of its employees is doomed.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to research, employees who are involved in the day-to-day operations of their organization receive attractive compensation packages such as health benefits, and healthy work environments and this assures increase in company’s turnover and proper work ethics (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).
Lastly, consequences of unethical behaviours ought to apply equally at all levels. A manager who violates the policies must face similar consequences as the level-one employee with a similar offence.
References Carpenter, M. A.,
The Prosperity Gold Copper Project Report college application essay help
Introduction The Project under consideration would be situated in the Cariboo-Chilcotin District where Williams Lake is a regional service centre. Many people in the district consider as an opportunity to enforce the economy and to decrease the employment rates. The mine would cover 35 square km territory in Teztan Yeqox watershed that includes Taseko River, Fish Lake, and Little Fish Lake together with surrounding area Nabas.
The First Nation together with Environmental Assessment Office in British Columbia expressed their strong opposition to the Mine Project admitting that it has considerable adverse effect on fish and grizzly bears habitat.
In particular that Panel states that the public hearing being the main tool for gathering date from the indigenous people about current use of lands and impacts on cultural heritage. The results of the Panel revealed that the Project would turn out to be significantly adverse environmental effects on fish, navigation, resources for traditional purposes, and on cultural heritage of First Nations.
Background The presented project was submitted to the Minister of Environment by Fisheries and Oceans Canada under the auspices of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act for the Panel Review (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).
The chief issues for Fisheries and Oceans Canada consisted in the Project proposition to use lakes as storage areas for waste rock and tailings within the Teztan Yedox. The federal review panel discussed this project for 30 days at public and committee meetings, including such questions as land use, cultural, economic, and social problems with regard to this Project.
It should also be noted that British Agreement on Environmental Cooperation presented in 2004 also took responsibility for checking and regulating the Project. Environmental Assessment also proved to be controversial and provides a lot of ambiguity over the Mine Project. Additionally, the quality of assessment was overall ineffective.
The objectives Analyzing the case, it is necessary to point out to what extent Taseko Mining Project follows all requirements of Environmental Assessment process and what adversities and effects it would have in regional context. More importantly, the focus should also be made on the analysis of First Nations opposition to the Project and what measures were taken to consider the requirements of the aboriginal population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proponent description/Project description Taseko Mines Ltd. introduced the Prosperity Gold-Cooper Mine Project in British Columbia. The project would include building, operation, abandonment and decommissioning of a large mine destined for a 20 years operating life. In order proceed with the Project, it is necessary to gain the permission from the authorities and to obtain a license on conducting the planned operations.
The Mandate of the Panel Review. The Panel Review Mandate is to provide an evaluation of the environmental effects of the proposed project, including any alterations that the Project can introduce in the environment with regard to socio-economic conditions and health issues, physical and cultural heritage, land and resource usage for traditional goals of the aboriginal population.
The Panel shall also aims to provide conclusions and recommendation on the importance of the environmental impact of the Project on the Territory (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 265). During the hearing, the Panel rejected the project because it did not manage to meet the needs of First Nations and because it has adverse effects for environment.
Regional context It should be stressed that the project will have a considerable impact on aquatic environment. In particular, it would include the re-routing of surface flows and the impoundment of the aquatic habitats, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake in order to construct a Tailing Storage Faculty. Hence, the Prosperity Lake would be located to south of the TSF and to the east of Wasp Lake.
The lake would be built by constructing a water retention dam. The eastern side of the Upper Fish Creek will be surrounded by a headwater channel system that would be composed of north and south flowing channels (Levy, 2009, p. 5).
These water channels would be controlled and diverted into the Prosperity Lake through erected spawning channel. In its turn, the Prosperity Lake would deliver water to the TSF and to the open pit that would delivers water to Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 5).
Evaluating the introduced alterations, the project would provide permanent changes to the Fish Creek baseline hydrology. Such alterations involve the total removal of Little Fish Lake and Fish Lake. As a result, surface water stream flow will be decreased by 65 % within the period of operating in the Fish Creek watershed which will lead to diminishing of water area.
We will write a custom Report on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, the main effects on hydrology involve water diversion channel by 1, 25 Mm3 annually in the direction to Lower Fish Creek and resumption of water flows in the post-closure of Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 8).
The assessment have revealed that the proposed mitigations would turn out to be negative for the territory under consideration because it would have an irreversible impact on surface water hydrology until the post-closure stage when the flows are re-routed in Lower Fish Creek. The flow re-routing would take a time span of about 27 years period that is necessary for filling up the pit.
The Panel Review also concluded that the Project would have adverse effects for the population of grizzly bears. This is explained by the fact that this species is under the threat of extinction due to excessive ranching activities and rapid development of logging due to the rise of the operation industry. The point is that logging continues to influence the habitat due to the rise of human activities (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).
The Prospect Employment Perspective for the Population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. The economic analysis has revealed that the Project provision involve a simplified version of the population assessment that can led to unequal allocation of labor force. As a result, there is a probability that the unemployment rate will increase.
In addition, there are rough calculations of mineral resources preserved on this territory and there are no guarantees for the population to be insured by work places on a long-termed basis (Kuyek, 2009, p. 4). According to socio-economic impact assessment, the mineral resources of gold and copper are 0.41% and 0.21% correspondently.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that the gold is distributed throughout the mine and it is impossible to retrieve it until the copper is mined. Besides there are some other valuable mineral resources that are not included into the Project provisions, but will be still mined and damaged.
According to the consideration of the Review Panel did reach a consensus concerning the economic benefits of the presented Project due to the fact that its Terms of Reference restricted it to regarding only social-economic impacts of the alterations the Project would have on the environment.
Nevertheless, the panel admitted that the Project would create 275 jobs annually in operation and constructions stages and nearly 600 indirect places only during the 20 years operation period.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the construction has ambiguous perspectives for the employees for a period of more than 20 years, which creates more concerns with the Project and its environmental impact assessment (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).
Discussion First Nations’ participation to the EA process While evaluation the effects of the project on cultural, social, and economical issues related to this territories, numerous ambiguous questions have appeared. In particular, there are serious concerns with Assessment of Socio-Economic Impact. First of all, it is difficult to precisely identify the territory on which the project will be located.
In addition, the information about the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment is quite confusing. The failure to consider some significant provision in accordance to pertinent legislation can have a negative impact on health of the indigenous population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. More importantly, the cost-benefit analysis revealed that the Project failed to examine the people’s needs, including justice and equity in activities.
The Socio-Economic Analysis has also discovered that the Project would have considerable problems in cultural and social terms. In particular, the project does not guarantee that long-term period of dislocation and disruption will not worsen the cultural and social situation because the project fails to analysis the social infrastructures and communities located on this territory (Kuyek, 2009, p. 5).
The projects have also failed to take into consideration the destruction of social system caused by the disruption of natural ecosystem.
The inconsistency of project procedures and plans also consist in a failure to understand the impact on the Aboriginal people. There will definitely be serious effects of the Tsilhqot’in people who were initially against mine development, believing that its construction will damage their economy, cultural heritage, and their lifestyles (Kuyek, 2009, p. 7).
Additionally, First Nations’ concerns with the current land use were not in vain because the Project provided considerable and irreversible shift to the landscape and to the navigation. They were deprived of the places for hunting, fishing, and agricultural activities and, therefore, they had to introduce considerable changes to their lifestyles.
The First Nations also expressed their resentment towards the Project because Taseko’s plan to destroy the chief rivers, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake was not acceptable. In this respect, it is quite difficult for Taseko to gain the trust of aboriginal people because the knowledge about these peoples was adolescent and irrelevant.
Conclusion Challenge for Sustainable Development
Regarding all issues, regulations and proposals, it should be admitted that the Project has faced a great number of challenges and problems (Sallevane, n.d). In particular, the project has turned out to be adverse to the environmental, cultural, and social issues because its constructions and water flows re-routing has considerably influenced the ecology and hydrology of the examined territory.
Secondly, due to the lack of economic and social date, the Project failed to conform to the First Nation requirements as the indigenous population stands against any cultural, social, and environmental changes. Third, the Project failed the community’s needs for employment and development (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 26).
What Can We Learn from This Case Study?
A thorough analysis of this particular Case has revealed that any Projects providing changes to the environment should consider a bulk of issues because considerable shifts in the natural ecosystem can lead to the destruction of firmly established cultural, social, and economic norms within a community.
The Panel discussions and decisions have made us learn a lot of information and legal issues that protect the environment from adverse effects on the part of the industrial field. Moreover, the Assessment has provided a lot of facts about Project’s gaps to present their emergence in future.
Reference List Environmental Assessment Office. 2009. Prosperity Gold-Copper Project Assessment Report. British Columbian.
Kuyek, Joan. 2009. Rewiew of the Proposed Prosperity Mine Socio-Economic Assessment. Mining Watch Canada.
Levy, David. 2009. A. Review of the Prosperity Mine Aquatic Impact Assessment. Levy Research Services, Ltd. Web.
Sallevane, John. n.d. Giving Tradition Ecological Knowledge Its Rightful Place in Environmental Impact Assessment. Web.
Western Economic Diversification Canada 2009. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Web.
Information System Design Reflective Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Abstract The future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011 sets new tasks before BIF specialists who deal with the hooligan groups in the UK. The main idea of this report is to consider possible solution to the information systematization from different countries via the computer system.
This computer system is aimed at collecting, evaluating, analyzing and disseminating information before it is used by the BIF specialists. The program is rather useful and may reduce specialists’ time on dealing with the information.
Still, many obstacles may be faced while implementing it. Thus, the computer system should be created, but before this the information should be collected, the work planned and the difficulties analysed. This report dwells upon those aspects.
Introduction People got used to the information technologies which became an essential part of their life. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without those facilities. Omitting the part where informational technologies help people communicate with each other, search for information and entertain, it should be mentioned that the information technologies are helpful in more serious affairs.
First of all, information technologies help people run business, enter into cooperation with different companies worldwide and support human security. It is important to remember that all the security systems of any organisation are based on the innovative technologies. All the video cameras in different organisations are connected to the computer systems which help follow the situation.
Moreover, there are a number of different computer systems which help collect and analyse information in such a way that it may be used in catching some criminal groups further.
The main purpose of this report is to provide the analysis and express personal opinion on the computer system which may be helpful for collecting, analysing, and disseminating information more effectively and efficiently than it was made before, relating it to the future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main purpose of this computer program is going to be the more effective identification of the hooligan groups and their organisation with the purpose to reduce the violation actions.
Initial Thoughts on the Feasibility of the Proposed System When the Home Secretary asked me to conduct a research and write a report devoted to the computer system directed at the improving the situation within hooligan groups up to the European Champions League final in May, 2010 in London, I thought that the task is rather complicated, but due to the modern technologies it is feasible.
Thus, the Home Secretary wants to consider whether it is possible to create a system which would help BIF specialists make decisions on the basis of the collected, analysed and disseminated information which is going to be generated by the “fully computerised system”.
The proposed system is feasible, still the concise purpose and utilisation of the system should be carefully considered. It should be noted that the European countries have already created such systems, that is why it is unnecessary to dwell upon the importance and the convenience of the similar systems in other countries.
I suppose that it would be useful to create such system which would help BIF specialists collect and arrange information. It would reduce their time on the operations mentioned above and would increase it for judgment and functioning. My personal initial judgment of the proposed system is that it would not too difficult to create it, and at the same time it is going to be extremely useful.
But, the necessary computer system design is not the only thing which should be completed. After the system is utilised, the system designers should think about its security. This is one of the first things which I thought about when I became to check the controversial points to the proposed system feasibility.
The information is of unique importance and should be properly protected as the hooligan groups in the United Kingdom have rather useful relationships with international hooligan groups and are linked with some right-wing political groups.
We will write a custom Essay on Information System Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This causes some problems for the proposed system feasibility, still, it may be corrected. The computerisation of the collected information is an ideal tool for processing that data. It is important to remember that the information processed in this way should comprise only the part of the decision.
The Kind of Information to Seek, the Sources to Seek It from, and the Fact Finding Methods to Employ in Order to Get it, in Order to Gain A Full Appreciation of the Problem Situation
Before getting down to designing a proposed system a thorough research should be conducted. On the basis of the main idea of the further system, we should check what functions it should perform. The problem seems rather easy, still, the supporting clarifications and elaborations may cause a number of problems.
First of all, it is important to understand what kind of the information we are going to collect. The design of the system should be based on this information as well as on facts where this information should be collected.
Thus, system requires the information about the members of hooligan gangs, their names, address, places of their work, family, interests and contact information. These facts will help the BIF specialists identify the psychological type of each person and implement some actions which could prevent them from violence.
Moreover, the collection of this information may help BIF specialists get to know the further plans of the hooligan groups and prevent those in the European Champions League final in London. Moreover, it should be remembered that it is not so easy to gather this information. The UK services should contact their colleagues in other countries and ask them to get access to the protected information about hooligan groups.
The channels via which the information is going to be delivered should be properly protected. Furthermore, it may be useful to check different social networks for the useful information. Facebook may contain some information about the friends and the future events the groups plan. The contacts may be considered from these nets as well.
The BIF specialists may use the information they manage to get from the reliable sources delivered to UK and European police forces. All the information mentioned above and the sources where it may be considered should be properly understood while computerisation of the information and creating a system requires from the designers to be strict and attentive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Information System Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to remember about the technology and the equipment, necessary for proper functioning of the system: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, network, and the Internet, people, and procedures. Thus, it may be concluded that it is necessary appreciate all the facts mentioned and correlate those with the system design.
Even the slightest change in the source of the information may change the effectiveness and efficiency of the work. It is also remember the stages according to which the work on the computer system is going to be completed as about one of the ways to understand the problems situation, feasibility, analysis, design, implementation, test, and maintenance.
A List of Personal Thoughts on the Task Which Has Been Asked to Undertake The Difficulties Which Might Be Faced
There are a number of problems we may face while designing the computer system for information collection and analysis. One of the first problems is the equipment. The implementation of such a great plan requires high quality equipment which will be able to support the necessary software. The information protection may be a great challenge for the system.
There are so many different threats on the Internet, starting with the viruses which may attack the system, and finishing with the computer hacker who may crack the computer program and avoid the authorised access to the system.
Moreover, the information leakage may prevent the proper work of the system as well as some problems which may appear at the testing stage. One more difficulty which may be faced is my inability to get the whole information as limited access is a guaranty for the project’s success.
The Suitability of the Resources at the Disposal
The resources which the organisation has in disposal are huge. All the European organisations which work with hooligan groups are ready to provide it with the information for the sake of the human security from hooligan groups and the violence actions they usually provide. Moreover, the information resources are suitable. Still, it is impossible to say the same about the equipment.
On the one hand, I do not have access to some facts which are protected due to the security considerations. On the other hand, I may say that the computer equipment which was used before did not require such high standards, so it is natural that the organisation does not have it. Thus, it is impossible to say that computer equipment as well as software is suitable for now.
Recommendations to Make to the Home Secretary with Regard to This Proposed System
There are a number of recommendations I want to provide the Home Secretary with. First, it is necessary to employ the computer specialists who are going to deal with the computer design of the system and the implementation of the ideas considered above. Second, the costs should be considered, both on the sole costs and constant costs aimed at supporting and serving the equipment and software.
The contacts with organisations which deal with the hooligan groups in different countries should be established. The principles of the computer system design should be followed in order to protect it from any of the problems which may appear, like the problems with “emergent properties, propagation of effects, incommensurate scaling, and trade-offs” (Saltzer
Samsung: Market Expansion Towards Year 2025 Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Globalization has resulted in an improved trade among different countries. There is movement of goods and services from one country to another. The policies of comparative and absolute advantage are economic tools which have facilitated the development in international trade. Electronic industry is drastically changing with many phone making industries on the increase.
This has resulted in making of different models of phones, laptops and other electronics. One of the world leading electronic makers is Samsung. It is located in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea, and forms the world’s largest conglomerate company by revenue. The main products by the company are Television sets, Radios, phones, Camera tape recorders, and recently it has diversified to a growing laptop market.
The idea to have such a company was coined in 1969 by Lee Byung-chull and started as a small electronic workshop. The company’s main mission is to inspire the world to create a better future for human species. The company aims to introduce its laptops to Australia. Australia is the world’s smallest continent but Samsung has not tapped the market with its new development.
This paper evaluates the decision to venture in Australian market, the focus on developing/forecasting options for 2025. It will also undertake this task by evaluating social, economic, political situation of Australia. In the last pages of the report, it will give recommendations on the leadership style to be adopted in the venture.
Brief background of Samsung
Samsung is an international South Korean company which was established in 1969 in Daegu, South Korea as a small electronic shop. The first venture of the company was to manufacture Television sets, radios, Calculators and other home electronic appliances like refrigerators.
This was in the era of black and white T.V. sets and in 1981, the company had made over 10million black and white T.V.s. as opportunities arose the company diversified to other electronic ventures and in 1988 merged with Samsung Semiconductor
Strategies of Leadership Report (Assessment) college essay help
In the order to become successful, an established manager and leader, I need to look at all elements encompassed in the roles of a leader. To begin with, I will concentrate on the communication skills I possess. As I have rated myself overtime, I have found out that, while listening to people, I do so without interrupting the speaker.
As a leader, one needs to understand my means of communication, (my verbal communication, accent, and my body language). A leaders mind is not supposed to wander of when one talks to him/her, moreover a leader needs to send signals that he/she understands, and that is what am learning to nature (Elerts, 2006).
In addition to this, I have come to learn that decision making should be effectual (Cameron, 2009). In relation to this, I regard myself as a reflector and a pragmatist. Therefore, all I decide on must always make sense and stand in the taste of time.
Priority is mandatory when one is to make up a personal development plan (Mathews, 2000). Things that are not of urgency should come last and urgent matters should be prioritized (Stoner, 2010).
This helps to maximize and make the most out of time. Over the years, the people I work with have received motivation from me. This attitude regardless of how small or big, makes one have the zeal of carrying on (Garner, 2001). In my plan motivating is essential as I have seen it work.
Whichever status one acquires, he/she needs to report to those above or to relevant authorities (Lee, 2004). These things though small carry up so much weight in ones personal development plan. In order to perfect and become one successful entrepreneur, I have realized that there are things I can’t avoid. One of these is time management. I have realized the need to incorporate time management skills in my development plan.
For successful leadership to occur, time should be spent sensibly (Brown, 2002). Time is not only a resource but is also very limited. Therefore, I have recognized the essence of ensuring I don’t misuse my time, all activities must be in writing and each allocated its own time (McVilly, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my plan, I noticed that, the aspect of technology is necessary. For success, I need to be aware and conversant to the changing technology (Masons, 2001). My plan outlines the exact technology I should put in place, and how I should achieve this and get it in to the system. This means that I need to learn more and more frequently on the changing trends of technology to be up to date.
As a reflector, I have noticed the need for research as it is a key to success. Apart from researching, my development plan points out specifically what I need to do with the research without wasting time (Smiths, 2008). To be above or ahead of the pack, regular research programs must be initiated. Since this is a personal development plan for the whole year, it is of absolute importance to focus on my strengths and my weaknesses.
To begin with, I want to highlight my strengths that will help me in achieving my goals. Among my strengths I do have excellent communication skills. Nothing can be done without communication and therefore I do capitalize on this strength.
I do listen to what others have to say and work on bettering it. I also have a positive thinking towards life, and in particular about what I want to achieve. My passion in knowing new things is what keeps me in achieving the “unachievable”.
My weaknesses are that I fear venturing into uncertainties. I also lack the patience when no results seem to come in my way. However, I receive feedback from time to time from people and so I have decided to be calm when results trickle in slowly. Moreover, I have the zeal to venture in to the uncertain fields after giving it more thought.
Nothing is achievable without goals (Metzner, 2000). Hence I have set up goals in two categories. This includes:
Short term (in the next three months)
Develop my communication skills to perfection
Work on two researches every month
Develop a test product for the market
Long-term ( in one years time)
Have a customer base of 100 people per day
Achieve my higher diploma in printing technology
Establish a printing firm in my home town.
Subsequently I must have a system of monitoring these goals to come into reality (Clancy, 2005). This can be called my checks and balances unit. The plan clearly expects me to do thorough study, get a place where I can access capital for the business, go back to college, and make sure everything is according to plan.
We will write a custom Assessment on Strategies of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since we live in the world of uncertainties, it is important that in my plan I put measures that will counter any arising problem. In case of an unexpected occurrence, my plans must proceed or switch to plan B. This not withstanding, risks involved must be outlined. In this case, my plan should show clearly the next source of funding, the move I must take to counter my competitors and so forth.
My plan clearly outlines changes also found in current plan or rather deviation from current planning. Specific measures are in place to explain what exactly will lead to a change of plan from original plans (Haggers, 2006). On the other hand, it also outlines clearly things expected in the future. I need to explain my vision and make sure that all those who help me in achieving my vision are much aware of what is expected.
Again I need to lay out strategies in place for achieving this plan. To add on this, my plan has put in place management measures for implementation. Everyone involved is aware of what is required of them. There are tools in place to monitor the smooth running so as to hit my target.
Again, there is regular communication of what is happening. This helps in letting people know the status of where you are and how far from the goals you are (Johnsons, 2001).
In a synopsis, it is important to have a plan that clearly outlines and guides you towards achieving what you want. No prosperity in life comes from nothing that is not written down (Wisker, 2010). This is so because the writings will be as a reminder in your day to day life knowing that you need to achieve the set target.
References Brown, G. 2002. Time Management Skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cameron, G. 2009. The business students study: skills for study and employment. London: Prentice Hall.
Clancy, M. 2005. Managerial achievements. London: Pitman Publishing Limited.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategies of Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elerts, G. 2006. Communication skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Garner, P. 2001. Motivating People at the work place. London: McGraw Hill.
Haggers, M. 2005. Managerial Planning. New York: Dover Publication.
Johnsons, B. 2001. Setting managerial goals. Sydney: Krieger Publishing.
Lee. C. 2004. Chain of Command. Chicago, McGraw Hill Publishing
Masons, K. 2001. Technological changes. London: Pitman Publishers.
Mathews, W. 2000. Prioritizing management. London. McGraw Hill.
Metzner, H. 2000. Achieving the unachievable. Berlin. Dortmund university press.
McVilly, D. 2009. Time Management. London: Longman Publishers.
Smiths, A. 2008. Research in management. London. Pitman Publishers.
Stoner, H. 2010. Allocating Priority. New York: Oxford University press.
Wisker, G. 2010. Achieving prosperity. Palgrave: Macmillan Publishers.
Current Economic Climate Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Strategic change is an important concept for all business organizations that want to survive in the constantly changing global economy. Strategic change is defined as the change that takes place in a company’s strategy. It is the organization’s attempt to align its strategies with those of the external environment.
It involves changing the organizations vision, mission and objectives as well as the strategies that are used to achieve these objectives. Changes in the external environment such as economic changes, political changes and environmental factors require organizations to adapt in-order to survive.
Adapting to the external environment will require companies to change their business strategies so as to remain relevant in today’s economy. There are a number of approaches that can be used in carrying out the strategic change process.
These approaches have to take into account the employees of the organization, the cultural setting and value system that are in use within the organization and the business environment that the organization operates in. The next section covers the various strategic models that can be used by managers in the strategic process (Hughes 2006).
Strategic Change Tools and Models Strategic change models and approaches are used to reflect the intentional and strategic changes that take place within organizations. Clear goals and measurement scales are used in these approaches to gain some feedback on how the change process will affect the business operations of the company. The type of strategic change model that is used should be in line with the process of change implementation for the organization.
The change process involves preparing the organization for the change process. This will involve communicating the changes that will take place to the important stakeholders of the company such as the employees, investors and shareholders to ensure they that they are all prepared for the change (Gunn 2009).
Once the necessary changes have been communicated to all important stakeholders, the next phase of the process will involve implementing the change management plan. The changes will be implemented in accordance with the agreed business goals, objectives and strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next stage after implementation will involve providing ongoing support to the implementation process as well as undertaking improvements to the change management plan.
The purpose of this stage is to ensure that there is a continual support of the changes that are taking place within the organization. The last stage of the change process is important as it ensures that the changes have been implemented successfully within the transformed organization (Gunn 2009). There are a range of strategic change models that can be used in initiating change within organizations.
These models include Lewin’s three step model, Kotter’s eight steps for organizational change, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Beckhard and Harris’ approach to organizational change, the Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, Carnall’s change management model, Stacey and Shaw’s responsive processes, Senge’s systematic model and William Bridges model of managing transition in an organization (Cameron and Green 2004).
The models that will be focused are Lewin’s three step model, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, William Bridges model and Kotter’s eight step model.
Lewin’s Three Step Model The first model which is the Lewin three step model was developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951 for use in the organizational context. His model for organizational change is the most recognised and used by many company managers today. Lewin introduced the three step model for organizational change as a result of a study he conducted to determine the phenomenon of group change amongst an organization’s employees.
He noted that organizational change amongst employees lasted for a short time as employees returned to their original behaviour after the change was implemented. Lewin concluded that for change to be more permanent, the old habits of performing work had to be completely eliminated. His solution to permanent change saw him develop the three step model of change (Robbins 2009).
For organizations to achieve effective organizational change, they had to employ the three step model which is made up of unfreezing, change and freezing. The unfreezing step involves ensuring that the organizations employees have a need or desire for change. This need is usually achieved by conducting a confrontation with the employees or employee education that will ensure their perception of organizational change is different.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Current Economic Climate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stage ensures that the organizational members understand the need for change as well as create a desire for change amongst these members. The unfreezing stage also ensures that employees are made aware that the old way of performing business is unacceptable and they should therefore embrace the new system of change (Robbins 2009).
The next step was where the actual change occurred. This stage ensured that the organization moved to the desired state of change that had new policies, procedures, structures and goals. The refreezing stage involved reinforcing the changes into the organizational system by ensuring that these changes were consistent with the employee’s behaviour.
To demonstrate the three step model an example will be used of a call centre that has been receiving poor customer evaluations. The company’s managers have realized good customer service is important in achieving success and therefore want the company to be more customer-focused (Mills et al 2009).
The use of the three step model will see the company unfreezing the current status of customer service in the call centre. This will be done by conducting staff meetings and reviewing customer surveys to determine how to improve customer service. The change step will involve providing the customer service representatives with the necessary training that will initiate a change in how they interact with customers.
The refreezing stage will involve rewarding the representatives on an hourly basis as well as rewarding them with bonuses for any positive customer feedback and surveys (Mills et al 2009).
Lewin’s model for organizational change basically requires a significant commitment on the part of the organization before, during and after the change. This model is suitable as it considers the organizations, internal and external environment (Kritsonis 2005).
Bullock and Batten’s Planned Change Model The change model was developed around project management activities which included exploration, planning, action and integration. The exploration stage involves identifying the need for change and acquiring the specific resources that will be used to initiate the change. The planning step involves including decision makers in the development of the change management plan that will be used in the change process.
The plan is then implemented which results in the action stage. The integration phase is initiated once the change plan has been fully implemented and aligned with changes that have occurred within the other areas of the organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Current Economic Climate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This approach of organizational change views the change process as a technical problem that can be solved with a technical solution. This method is suitable for less complex organizational problems and in dealing with isolated cases (Cameron and Green 2004).
Processual Model of Organizational Change This approach to organizational change ensures that the complex nature of change is managed in an ongoing and dynamic way. The task of managers who use this model of change is to navigate through the complexities of change by examining the available options and resources.
Instead of directing change, the manager’s role becomes that of ensuring the organization’s members respond to the change by embracing the necessary skills and knowledge to effect the change. The processual model is based on the premise that organizations facing change go through a variety of dynamic states that interlock and overlap forcing the change process to be analysed on emergent character context (Ramanathan 2008).
Understanding organizational change under this approach therefore involves studying the events that lead to the change and how the change affects the overall processes of the organization (Ramanathan 2008).
An example of this approach in an organization that is undergoing a major change in all of its business processes will be to conduct staff meetings, staff education, training and communication networks that will ensure that the complex components of the change process have been broken down into manageable and simple components.
Kotter’s Eight Step Model This method of organizational change was derived from Kotter’s study of 100 different organizations that were undergoing change. The results of the study highlighted eight key lessons that were later modelled into the eight steps of organizational change. These eight steps were used to address some of the power issues that arose during the organizational change process.
The first step of the model involved the creation of a sense of urgency which involved studying the market trends and changes after which the requirement for change within the organization would be analysed, the second stage involved the formation of a powerful guiding coalition that would be used to steer the change process, the creation of a vision was the third step in the eight step model.
This stage involved developing a vision that would be used to bring about change within the organization (Sabri et al 2007).
After coming up with the vision, the next step involved passing on the set goals and vision to the important stakeholders of the company after which they would be authorized to proceed on the set goals. This involved getting rid of the obstacles to change within the organization. The next step of the model involved planning and creating short term wins.
This would involve looking for short term visible improvements that would be used in the change process. After this was done, the improvements would be consolidated into the change process so that they can continue producing more change within the organization. Once the changes were consolidated, they would then be institutionalised into the culture of the organization (Singh 2010).
An example of how this approach can be used in effecting organizational change in a consultancy company that is facing a decrease of business is to create a sense of urgency that will assess the competitive nature of the consultancy’s environment after which a team will be formed to deal with effecting the necessary changes to the firm’s business operations.
A vision will then be developed to empower the team members and the rest of the employees within the organization to act on the vision which will see the actions being consolidated and institutionalized into the company.
Nadler and Tushman’s Model for Organizational Change This approach to organizational change emphasizes the importance of the transformation process and how organizations are made up of different components and parts that interact together. These components exist in a state of relative balance that ensures they fit together.
The four important elements that make up this model include tasks which encompass the work to be done, the skills and knowledge of individuals, the formal organization which is the explicitly defined process of the organization and the informal organization which encompasses the less explicitly defined understanding of the organization’s processes (Bezboruah 2008).
According to this model, the successful handling of change inside an organization means ensuring that all four components of the model have been identified and controlled. If a change takes place in one component, changes have to be effected on all the other three components to reduce the chances of organizational homeostasis from occurring.
Homeostasis refers to the organization returning to the old way of doing things which leads to a lack of congruence. This model is therefore important in dealing with the power and control issues that arise due to the homeostasis condition within the organization. An example of the application of this method is when a production company has a market demand to produce a new product.
The demand will require a specific task to be performed in order to produce the required output. This will involve incorporating the other components of the model which will be the individual’s skills and knowledge, the formal and the informal processes of the organization (Anderson 2010).
William Bridges Managing Transition This model of organizational change focuses on the transition process that takes place during change. William Bridges’ focus on transition creates an extensive understanding of what happens in an organization during the change process. He views transition to be a process that involves eliminating the old way of doing business and adopting new methods/techniques.
This model engages three stages which are the new beginning, the neutral zone and ending. The ending stage involves completing the old system of company operations before the new changes are initiated.
The neutral zone involves dealing with employee reactions once the changes have been implemented while the new beginning involves defining the purpose of the change and what the outcomes of the changes will be (Bridges 2009).
Conclusion The above models and approaches to organizational change demonstrate that change can be implemented in a just and fair way within an organization that is undergoing change. The methods can be used depending on the type of change the organization is going through.
The basis of these methods is to ensure that the change process is not cumbersome and complex to the people who have been charged with the responsibility of initiating change within organization. The strategic change models ensure that the change process has been broken down into more manageable processes and components.
References Anderson, D.L., (2010) Organization development: the process of leading organizational change, California. US: Sage Publications
Bezboruah, K.C., (2008) Applying the congruence model of organizational change in explaining the change in the Indian economic policies. Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, Vol.5, No.2, pp 129-140
Bridges, W., (2009) Managing transitions: making the most of change. Massachusetts: Da Capo Press
Cameron, E., and Green, M., (2004) Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers
Gunn, S.B., (2009) The essential management toolbox: tools, models and notes for managers and consultants. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Hughes, M., (2006) Change management: a critical perspective. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
Kritsonis, A., (2005) Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, Vol. 8, No.1, pp 2-7
Mills, J.H., Dye, K., and Mills, A.J., (2009) Understanding organizational change. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers
Ramanathan, T.R., (2008) The role of organizational change management in offshore outsourcing of information technology services. Florida, US: Universal Publishers
Robbins, S.P., (2009) Organizational behaviour: global and Southern African perspectives, Capetown. South Africa: Pearson Education
Sabri, E.H., Gupta, A.P., and Beitler, M.A., (2007) Purchase order management best practices: process, technology and change management. Florida: J. Ross Publishing
Singh, K., (2010) Organizational behaviour: text and cases. India: Pearson Education South East Asia
Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Dickens is regarded as the master of style because he has the ability to describe scenes in colorful detail thus making the scenes being described to come alive. The two pieces of work that will be the main area of concern in this analysis are ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’.
Analysis Charles Dickens’ writing reflects his extraordinary gift of observance. Not many novelists can accomplish what this author has managed to achieve in his books. He has the capacity to lay out images of things and people in a manner that the ordinary human being would not envisage.
Dickens’ writings integrate what he observes with what he remembers and imagines. Seldom does one miss even the most trivial of details in his work. It is these trivialities that bring out his most critical strength in literature (Gissing 63). In ‘Oliver Twist’, the following passage exemplifies this feature:
“his gaze encountered the terrified face of Oliver Twist, who, despite all the admonitory looks and pinches of Bumble, was regarding the repulsive countenance of his future master with a mingled expression of horror and fear too palpable to be mistaken even by a half-blind magistrate” (Dickens Oliver 18).
The capacity to describe vividly probably stemmed from Dickens’ attention to detail even in his real life. In letters that he wrote to his colleagues, Charles often noticed the most peculiar things about people. One particular letter was written to Wilkie on the 17th of January 1858. He describes an incident in which he had gone to visit a mental asylum and found a man who was dumb and deaf.
It was only during the late stages of his illness that others began to notice his insanity. Dickens asked about his occupation and found that he had worked as a telegraph operator.
He speculated about the nature of messages that he sent to different parts of the world in his mental state. Charles did not think about the obvious things; he looked as the mentally-ill patient’s perspective from a totally unexpected angle. It was this talent that he transmitted to his novels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Something else that comes to mind when reading this author’s classic tales is his propensity to find romance in unpleasant or routine scenarios. Dickens can find something valuable out of even the most wretched of places. He takes a seemingly insignificant and disagreeable occurrence and then relates it with the story in a manner that enriches it.
For instance in ‘A Tale of Two Cities’, he describes a battle scene in Bastille as a “vast dusky mass of scarecrows to and fro, with frequent gleams of light above the billowy heads, where steel blades and bayonets shone in the sun” (Dickens A Tale 244). Through this description, he brings out the tense and belligerent atmosphere so effectively, and thus enriches the story.
In ‘Oliver Twist’ several descriptions of drudgery and filth fill the chapters. In one scenario, he describes the tenements as “fast closed and molding away… houses had become insecure from age and decay and were prevented from falling into the street by huge beams of wood reared against the walls” (Dickens Oliver 5).
It is clear from this description that the state of poverty in that tenement was excessive. The author emphasizes this state of affairs by adding the description of the beams. Such creativity makes one feel like one is in those establishments, and thus enhances the narrative.
It is easy to find unforgettable scenes in Dickens’ work. The reason behind their impressiveness is his ability to paint them rather than merely narrate them. For instance in “A Tale of Two Cities”, the author refers to France for the first time in chapter five. At this moment, he talks about a broken wine cask. He then backs up the picture of wine casks with some descriptions of the surrounding noise.
In another instance, the author paints a picture of the grindstone scene. He talks about the men who sharpen their swords and knives elaborately. Such scenes make the work appear as though it is an actual painting rather than mere prose. The author thus manages to affect the audience’s responses through these spatial representations (Stange 384).
Like any other great writer, Dickens drew inspiration from a number of historical occurrences or figures. However, he was not interested in recapturing these crucial moments of history in every detail possible. Charles simply wanted to draw lessons from them.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he often told his biographer how he had read the book “French Revolution” by Thomas Carlyle hundreds of times; most structural elements of “A Tale of Two Cities” come from this book. Instead of reconstructing the past, Dickens chooses to tell the story of his characters through these historical patterns.
When describing ancient practices, such as the whipping post, Charles reminds the reader that he is talking about an extinct practice. As such, one does not feel lost in a bygone era. Everything that takes place in the lives of his characters resonates with the social order of the time (Hutter 448).
Therefore, the suffering and death that took place gains a lot of relevance in the mind of reader. This serves to keep all scenes highly relevant and thus captivating. It is these sorts of tactics that make Dickens’ work exceptional.
On must realize that it is not just the great description of these scenes that makes Charles Dickens novels so remarkable. He also has an instinctive skill of integrating disorderly events into one remarkable and united tale. The story of ‘Oliver Twist’ exemplifies this strategy; throughout the narration, there is a mystery that must be solved by the protagonist.
He needs to find his true identity, and when he achieves this, then he will find his true position in society. All of the adventures in the book are tied to this goal, even though the ambition does not seem to be so obvious in the beginning.
It is these overarching themes that make the words and descriptions in the book so meaningful. Charles Dickens does not just write ‘Oliver Twist’ for the sake of writing; each description is filled with meaning. The scenes have a huge impact on the outcome of the story. For instance
“Mr. Brownlow went on from day to day, filling the mind of his adopted child with stores of knowledge, and becoming attached to him, more and more,. And his nature developed itself and showed the thriving seeds of all he wished him to become” (Dickens Oliver 53).
This passage captures the very essence of the book. Oliver always wanted to be independent; having grown up in the streets, he had to adopt a certain degree of self determination. On the other hand, Oliver still wanted someone else to make choices for him since the latter option would cause him to be accepted by the middle class or other respectable members of society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Brownlow fills him with knowledge, he is allowing the boy to reconcile these two needs. It takes a stroke of genius to capture such conflicting goals in small passages such as the one quoted above. Charles Dickens was able to combine verbal prowess with meaning-making perfectly in this excerpt (Miller 83).
Charles Dickens’ style also elicits emotions from its audiences owing to its directness. ‘Oliver Twist’ is quite a poignant tale, but only the author’s descriptions create these effects. For instance when Dickens talks about Oliver’s imprisonment, one fully identifies the plight of this young boy. He is in an underground prison, which could fall at any time owing to its weak foundations and decaying structures (Dickens Oliver 3).
Furthermore, the room is absolutely dark so that Oliver cannot see his surroundings. If one cannot see the walls, then it is almost as if one is covered by nothingness. A picture of gloom and hopelessness may take over one’s life. It is no wonder Oliver went to the corner so that he could at least touch something real.
Dickens then contrasts the coldness of the walls with the gloom in the room, and asserted that the protagonist preferred the cold. The loneliness and isolation that this boy feels is unmistakable; Charles cleverly uses two highly undesirable elements to bring out the magnitude of Oliver’s troubles.
If the boy was in such as state as to prefer a cold, hard surface over the nothingness, then it must have been completely unbearable for him. The witty choice of words draws out audiences’ emotions.
It is only when an author is able to wear the characters’ shoes that he can think about his reactions to them. If Dickens had not imagined himself to be Oliver in that dark room, he would not have thought about the temporary comfort that the walls accorded the protagonist. Such vividness and capacity to draw out people’s emotions is what causes many readers to admire Dickens’ work.
Any novelist should aim at pleasing his audience. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’ are some of the most pleasant novels in English literature (Baysal 14). Therefore, in this realm, Dickens has succeeded as an artist. However, it should be noted that not everyone admired this style of writing during Dickens’ lifetime.
Some critics such as James Stephen thought that appealing to audiences’ emotions rather than their sense of reason was crude and corny. These critics classified ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ as historical fiction, so they presumed that it should be philosophical in nature. Other critics of his time such as Aldous Haxley claimed that it was vulgar to fake emotions as Dickens had done because sincerity was a talent in literature.
While these criticisms may be valid to a certain extent, they do not address the root-cause of Dickens’ stylistic preferences. Dickens wanted to write ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ in a manner that would educate the masses about an important historical event.
He was not writing for the historians or the scholars, so it should come as no surprise that these audiences found his work unsatisfactory. The dates and events were accurately stated in his book and that is what mattered. Fictional writers must prioritize the needs of their readers as it is not possible to satisfy everyone.
Many readers were drawn to Dickens’ work because he used characters that they were already familiar with. For those who did not about such characters, Dickens always made a point of introducing them ever so carefully.
It was this element that constantly won them over. In doing so, Dickens would use habits that are common to all in order to achieve this aim. By drawing on common humanity, Charles was able to make his scenes come alive (Forster 125).
“Now that he was enveloped in the old calico robes… he was badged and ticketed, and fell into his place at once – a parish child-the orphan of a half-starved drudge.. to be despised by all and pitied by none” (Dickens Oliver 8).
Dickens was aware that all human beings have experienced indifference or disdain. Using phrases that captured these sentiments ensured that even the middle class could understand Oliver’s status.
Conclusion Dickens was a master of style because he had a talent of observance, which manifested itself in the form of intricate details. Furthermore, he would find romance in the most unexpected places. As if these were not enough, Dickens often painted images of his scenes rather than just describing them.
Perhaps the most important aspect of his work was his emotional appeal. He achieved this by putting himself in the shoes of his characters. He also introduced unfamiliar audiences to the world of his books using common humanity. It was these stylistic strategies that made him a literary genius.
Works Cited Baysal, Alev. Caryle’s Influence upon A Tale of Two Cities. 8 Jun. 2007. Web.
Dickens, Charles. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1867. Googlebooks. Web.
Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. NY: Bentham, 1859. Googlebooks. Web.
Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1872. Googlebooks. Web.
Gissing, George. Charles Dickens: A critical study. 2001. Web.
Hutter, Albert. Nation and Generation in A Tale of Two Cities. PMLA 93.3(1978): 448-462. Web.
Miller, Joseph. Charles Dickens: the world of his novels. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1958. Googlebooks. Web.
Stange, Robert. Dickens and Fiery past: A Tale of Tow Cities Reconsidered. English Journal 2009: 381-390. Web.
Allure Cruise Line Essay essay help
Who will be Allure’s main competitors in this market? Cruise lines are one of the fast growing companies in the USA and each year the number of the competitors is going to increase. Working in one and the same industry, the companies are going to create as many specific offers as possible in order to win. The main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line in the industry are the similar companies which provide the clients with the similar services.
There are a lot of different companies in the USA which offer similar services, however, most of them cannot be considered as the company competitors as they are big international company and do not have the contradicting interests with Allure Cruise Line.
Costa Cruises, Windjammer Barefoot Cruises and The Maine Windjammer Association (Cruise Lines? 2009) are the main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line as the spheres of their interests coincide. Working in Florida and having the similar tours these companies compete severely.
Each of the companies wants to become the leading one and that is why more and more practical and innovative decisions are made. Moreover, the competition becomes stronger as the sphere is interesting and attracts more and more participants.
How will Allure distinguish itself from its competitors in these markets? One of the main spheres of impact the Allure Cruise Line is best into and is going to compete in is the number of tours offered for the clients. The comfort and the services the clients of the company are offered cannot be compared with any other one. The company distinguishes itself from other similar companies by the quality of the services, the comfort of their ships and the possibility to choose the place of destination and departure.
The customers are offered a range of services which are going to be satisfied within the shortest period of time. The location of the Allure Cruise Line offices is one more distinguishing features as the company has the representations in many countries.
Additionally, the company is planning to expand into Mediterranean and make sure that it occupies more and more territories. Therefore, one of the main distinguishing features of the Allure Cruise Line is its desire to expand not only nationally, but also internationally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How will they position themselves differently? The positioning of the services is one of the most complicated affairs in the changing environment. The service positioning relies on the company customers who are to express their desires and demands in the relation to the company services. When the demands and desires are expressed, the company managers are to access the costs on the realization of those desires and the service positioning strategy.
“The service positioning strategy is a choice of which client segments the organization wants to serve, how it intends to attract and retain those clients, and what methods/know-how it uses to deliver the intended benefit” (The Berkeley Consulting Group, n.d., n.p.).
The opportunities and threats are to be considered before applying to the service positioning strategy. To be successful, Allure Cruise Line should apply to al its resources and refer to the capabilities it has. Financial resources, staff skills, facilities and assets, and knowledge are to be applied to while implementing the service positioning. The mission and the vision of the organization are to be met.
Reference List Cruise Lines. (2009). List of Official Cruise Web Sites. Retrieved from http://www.raynorshyn.com/cruises/#Lines
The Berkeley Consulting Group. (n.d.). Berkeley Methodology. Web.
Magical Realism: Garcia Marquez Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Magical realism is explained as the desire of the author to show the ordinary life of people with the instances of unreal, fantastic events. In most cases the desire to present the magical realism in short stories is explained by the desire to create a fairy tale, however, the reasons are deeper.
Garcia Marquez used magical realism to write fascinating short stories such as “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” and “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” that captivated his readers and kept them interested up to the end of the stories showing human attitude to those who seem strange or not look like others.
The stories under consideration are absolutely different, however, they show human attitude to absolutely strange people. The “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” tries to show people how they usually consider others knowing about them nothing. A man is found dead and strange people express a desire to bury the body in accordance with the rules.
Reading the story it becomes obvious that strange people are ready for much when they do not know a person, but they like him/her. The main idea of the story is to show how people who absolutely do not know the body make everything for him just because they feel sympathy to him, just because they like the appearance of the man.
The villages know nothing about him, but his appearance helps them create the whole story of his life, they imagine that he had a wife and many other aspects which make sure that he was a good person. The imaginary realism plays the role of human consciousness and the desire to think about people only positive and good things.
The next story has almost the same meaning, but in this case the judgment of people is shown. In “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez discusses human opinion about a person they do not know. The magical realism is aimed at presenting more vivid picture, to express human thoughts more powerful and with specific images.
People always have personal opinion about others, and the author tries to make this opinion better. Reading the story, a strange man appears in different images. Some people believed that he was an angel as he had the wings. Others believed him to be a poor one as he was dirty, etc.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it may be seen that different people created their opinion about this person on the basis of the particular images. The transformation of the hero depended on one particular thing either in the cloths or on the face expression of the man.
Therefore, it may be concluded that referring to the magical realism Garcia Marquez tried to show the inner world of human beings their relation to strange people and the aspects which create the opinion of different people. The social public opinion is created on the basis of the points of view people express.
The more similar ideas, like in “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” the more guarantee that the society will accept the person on the basis of this opinion. However, the general social opinion may be absent as there is no common opinion about a person, like in the short story “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez by.
Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Females and Poverty
Employment and Economic Dependence
Introduction Although our society has made positive steps towards reducing discriminations and inequalities, a considerable proportion of people around the world are still living under discrimination and inequalities. Usually, such inequalities are often based along gender, racial, ethnicity, religious and among other discriminatory lines.
The United Nations and civil right groups, among other positive parties have been active in fighting for the reduction of global inequalities. Many programs that have been precisely designed to mitigate global inequalities have thus been started in many countries.
Among the forms of discrimination that have been of concern to human rights groups is gender discrimination. We are now becoming aware that some forms of global inequalities are gender based. As such, understanding the link between gender and global inequalities is fruitful in mitigating global inequalities.
Females and Poverty Has global poverty been taking a global dimension? Although there is no sufficient data to support this particular assertion, we can still observe that compared to men, more women have been sinking into poverty (Dhongde 2007). According to a 2005 United Nations report on gender inequalities, about 50% of women in developing countries have become poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011).
On the other hand, about 30% of men in developing countries became poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011). Here, the trend has especially been bad in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. A total of about 140 million women became poorer in Africa (during the period mentioned), while about 500 million became poorer in Asia (Dhongde 2007).
Thus, we can see a worrying trend where poverty is increasingly taking a gender dimension in the developing world. Due to the presence of multiple programs in the developed world that have helped to empower women there, the number of poor women has not been increasing there as fast as in the developing world.
However, the overall proportion of women that live in poverty is still high. Since global inequalities are measured on the threshold of poverty and on empowerment capacities, we can observe that global inequalities are (at least to some extent) based on a gender.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the factors that have helped to drive gender inequalities is the existing family model. Often, when compared to men, women have a more economical and social burden in raising families (Chen 1994). For example, although the number of single parents has been increasing, it is often the women who usually continue to feed, educate, and raise their children.
Without help from their former male couples, women are thus taking an economical burden here; hence, increasing the number of poor women around the globe (Kapan 2009). On the other hand, on separating with their wives, many men do not bother to finance the needs of the children that they leave behind.
Although many developed countries have designed laws that have been tailored to protect children and their mothers from such situations by compelling fathers to financially contribute towards the needs of their children, the challenge has not been completely overcome yet.
Moreover, due to limited financial resources, many women (even in the developed world) are finding it difficult to seek legal redress in such matters of parenting. Since women are increasingly and unfairly given the burden of meeting the financial costs of the society, many of them have thus been sinking into poverty (Deaton 2011).
Education Another factor that has been exacerbating poverty levels among females is gender stereotypes on education. Unlike the western culture, multiple cultures across the globe have been against the education of females. Even in developed countries, the prevailing environment had been against the education of females.
Such an environment has an origin from previous cultures, which had regarded the education of females as unnecessary since women were expected to stay in their homes and do domestic work. Many developed countries had to develop affirmative action, among other programs that were tailored to help the girl child excel in academics (Kapan 2009).
Gender disparities in education are especially prominent in developing countries. Most countries in the developing world are still associating with cultural beliefs that regard a female as a person that should solely prepare for marriage, stay in her home and help in domestic work (Chen 1994).
We will write a custom Essay on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even in exceptional situations (in developing countries) where some level of liberalization has been observed, and the female has thus been allowed to pursue education, multiple factors have still hindered the academic excellence of the girl child (Kapan 2009). For example, when not in school, many girls here are still expected to do domestic chores at their home; thus, limiting the number of hours that they can spend on their studies.
Moreover, there is also a gender stereotype that girls cannot excel in academics as their female counterparts; hence, deteriorating the confidence of girls and thus limiting their capacity to excel in academics. The usefulness of education in economically empowering a populace is known.
For example, people that have university level education earn an average of about 30,000$ more (per annum) when compared with those that do not have university education (Deaton 2011).
The same case is true in the developing world where people with university and college certificates are more economically empowered than the uneducated. With a disadvantage in education empowerment (when compared to males), females are thus disadvantaged in economic empowerment; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.
Employment and Economic Dependence Compared to males, many women undergo discrimination when seeking for employment. Again, such a direction is especially prominent in the developing world. Often, crooked employers will seek to sexually exploit females that seek employment opportunities at their firms; hence, limiting the capacity of women to seek for employment on an equal basis as their male counterparts.
Exacerbating the problem even further is a common stereotype that females cannot especially perform well in certain kinds of jobs; hence, limiting the capacity of females to acquire certain types of employment (Chen, 1994).
Moreover since many women in the developing world depend on their husbands (and, or males with an income) to meet their economic needs, many women have found it hard to venture into economic generating activities. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa have also been limited in economic empowerment due to the HIV/AIDS disaster (Pritchett 2006).
Here, the number of women that have been infected by the HIV virus is twice the number of men that have been infected (Pritchett 2006). Due to their deteriorating health, women that have been infected with the HIV virus have thus become less able to participate in income generating activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With a decreased capacity for women to obtain employment and other income generating capacities, the capacity of women to economically empower themselves is thus limited; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.
Political Leadership The political leadership of most (if not all) countries is male dominated. Due to multiple factors (including those that we have seen above), it has been difficult for females to rival their male counterparts in acquiring political leadership. With a poor representation at the government levels (where important decisions on policies are made), it is not very difficult for the wellbeing of women to be compromised.
Knowingly or unknowingly, it is possible for a male dominated leadership to align with policies that silently discriminate on the empowerment of women (Pritchett 2006). Thus, with poor representation in leadership at government levels, the capacity of women for self determination has been limited; hence, creating a loophole that can be used for gender discrimination (Dhongde 2007).
Conclusion The issue of global inequalities is one that is becoming a concern for any person that believes in equality and human rights. With progressive steps having been made towards mitigating global inequalities, several challenges remain. As it has been seen, the challenge of tackling global inequalities has persistently been differentiated into the developed world and the developing world.
Thus, gender discrimination is common within countries that are still developing. Still, developed countries have a number of steps to climb before they can completely eliminate the challenge of gender discrimination within their countries.
Generally, females are disadvantaged in multiple areas that relate to their economic empowerment. Hence, when compared to their male counterparts, higher poverty levels can usually be observed among females. Therefore, to the extent of dis-empowering women in the areas that I have discussed, global inequality is gendered.
References Chen, S., 1994, “Is poverty increasing in the developing world?” Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 359–76.
Deaton, A., 2011, “Counting the world’s poor: Problems and possible solutions,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 125–147.
Dhongde, S., 2007, “Measuring the impact of growth and income distribution on poverty the developing world,” Journal of Income Distribution, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 25–48
Kapan, T., 2009, Patriarchal households are unitary: New evidence, Columbia University Press
Pritchett, L., 2006, “Who is not poor? Dreaming of a world truly free of poverty,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 21 no.1, pp. 1–23.
How customers behave when they are in a Hotel Reception Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction New customers are often disoriented when they are in a new hotel and therefore need assistance to find their ways around the hotel or have their needs met. They usually do not know whom ask for a help or advise or where to begin from.
Taking an example of foreign tourists who often visit different countries all over the world, and have to deal with people with different cultural backgrounds and speaking different languages, they normally tend to shy talking to natives or ask them something due to the feeling of indifference.
The visitors, when they arrive to the hotel for the first time, may meekly look for ways to sort them out but to the contrary, some customers may act thoughtlessly in a manner that is impolite and end up disrupting the other ongoing activities. An understanding between the customer and the receptionist is therefore vital for each party to meet the desired goals.
Behaviors demonstrated by foreign tourists in a hotel reception Foreign tourists tend to be curious or have the desire to acquire new knowledge about the hotel they are in. This is demonstrated in the way they look around for posters or pictures which would add to better know the place place. They gaze on everything seeking for new clues to make sense of their new surrounding.
They go forward to seek information about the new things by asking questions to the receptionists about the hotel offers, charges, norms and services. They prefer hanging out with big groups, often consulting each other about this or that thing or service and they often take flash photographs even of other customers. They also push their wais into queues and it takes them a long time to get consultations from hotel staff.
By seeking information, they reduce uncertainties about the hotel, which clarifies expectations and therefore gains them social acceptance. Feedback is also observed in the process of information seeking. This is seen in the customers’ efforts to gauge how to behave themselves in the new hotel.
They may in turn ask the receceptonists on what behavior is expected from them, what to bring or not to bring into the hotel, or rather how to behave in the hotel surrounding.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another form of observable behavior is seen when the customers select among the different forms of alternatives on what they want to consume. The customers order various products for comparison before making the final decision. They may first consult by asking the receptionists or other visitors to be reassured that they get the best of what they want (Hallowell, 1996).
Considering a group of foreign tourists who get into a hotel seeking accommodation services within a defined time frame, they would first ask for a list of options on what kind of accommodations are available in terms of their space, charges and quality.
Some tourists like Italians are quite used to sophisticated services and would usually abide to hotel expensive tastes. Some would totally be annoying by disregarding and openly criticizing the services being offered (Dick
Price Strategy as a Major Element of Marketing Mix Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Price is one of the major elements of marketing mix. It is a fundamental strategic issue, which is also link to product positioning. Moreover, pricing affects other elements of marketing, such as channel decision, promotion and product features. At the same time, there is no clear cut formula to that is used to determine pricing; some general steps might be followed to arrive at pricing a new product.
Pricing must factor in the legal and competitive environment that a company operates upon. From a competitive ground, the firm must take into consideration the implications of pricing on competitors.
For instance, setting a product at a very low price may generate a price war, which isn’t going to be of benefit to either side. On the other hand, from a legal ground a firm is not exempted to price their product at any desired level. For instance, there is a possibility of price control which prohibits product from being over charged
It is imperative to identify pricing objective in order to decide on the optimal pricing. Current profit maximization is a common objective; it aims at minimizing current profit and brings about revenue and costs.
Maximizing current revenue is another objective that seeks to maximize the present revenue without regarding profit margin. Consequently, maximizing quantity should be considered as well since it minimizes the quantity of customers served and the quantity of units sold, so as to minimize long-term costs as experience curve would have it predicted.
There are various ways or strategies to price a product. Some of the policies include; premium pricing, economic pricing, promotional, geographical and value pricing. However it is entirely depend with the satiation on the ground when it comes to implementation.
Johnson and Johnson is an already established company or brand for that matter. Hence, some of the strategies may not be fit for them. Value pricing could be the most appropriate strategy. The approach is applicable when external factors like increased competition or recession compels companies to offer value on products, in order, retain customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It simply means getting value for your money, for instance, the amount spent makes it a worthwhile experience. In some ways, it is same as economic pricing. However one must never mistake value added, in regards to product and services. Price reduction does not normally increase value.
Promotional pricing is another strategy that could be used especially as a marketing tool. It is a very common approach. There are quite a number of instances of promotional pricing, for example, free offers, discounts and vouchers. A promotional pricing item tends to create controversy. A number of countries all over the world have stipulated laws that administers the period which a product can be put up for sale.
Geographical pricing is a must to be considered form of pricing, bearing in mind that Johnson and Johnson is an international brand. It observes pricing variations in different spheres of the world, for instance, rarity value, in other words, where the cost of shipping increases price.
In some places more tax is demanded on a particular type of product, hence, it makes them either more, or a little less expensive. Laws that limit the number of products to be imported again increase the revenue. Jonson and Johnson implementing both or either of these strategies can greatly increase market in the Baby care line.
References Kotler, P.
Sony Corporation Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Macro economic factors
Introduction Sony is the global leader in electronics industry with operation in over 140 countries. The firm is involved in designing, improving, manufacturing and sales of electronic equipment and instruments, marketing of softwares and game consoles to final markets. In addition, it is involved in distribution of recorded music both at business format and musical genre.
The company is also engaged in financial service provision in Japan where it provides non life and life insurance, internet banking services, rental and credit financing. Finally, through its subsidiaries the company provides network and advertising business services.
Industry analysis In U.S.A., electronics industry is one of the leading and the fastest growing sectors with electrical and electronics subsector contributing an estimated 10 percent of all produced goods. In 2008, the total sales were valued at an estimated US $ 244 billion, annual growth of (3.2) percent and employment size of 389,257.
Telecoms was the most active sector recording an annual increment of 18 percent while computer line slipped 5 percent due to global drop in computer prices and weak demand from Asian continent (Raymond
The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important countries not only in the Middle East, but also in the globe. This is because this country is known for the quantity of oil that it produces in the world. Furthermore, this nation is recognized for two important mosques and key in the lives of the Muslims across the globe.
Due to this, this republic is working towards ensuring that it bears a sufficiency in all fields. Especially in this time and age, this country is working towards ensuring that the defense and security sectors are catered for. In order to achieve this, this nation has entered into agreements with the British aerospace in order to supply the kingdom with the most modern technology in the defense.
During my cooperative training I had the opportunity to work with the British Aerospace. During this period I was able to get more information about the tornado Aircraft. This aircraft is the nucleus of Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF).
This report consists of a summary of my experience during this training period. It provides details about the Tornado engine, its maintenance, and some of the problems that were encountered and suggestions to set them right.
Organizational history The British Aerospace Company is a company which is located in Europe. It is a company which is regarded as Europe’s largest and it is the third largest aerospace company in the world. This company has a turnover of 10 million pounds and booked orders which are worth more than 11 billion pounds. The number of staff who is working in this company total to 88,300 qualified personnel.
The main operations of this company dwell in the commercial and defense aircrafts. Alongside this, the company is also involved in aircraft maintenance, flight training, advanced navigation and communication systems, rockets, arms and ammunition, civil engineering, optical systems, satellites, ground defense systems, and the ship services.
The company has or is divided in three divisions. These divisions are the helicopter systems, naval systems and the Al- Yamamah project. Tornado Aircraft
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aircraft is a two seat supersonic combat aircraft which is capable of great flexibility of purpose and design to fulfill a wide range of operational requirements. It has variable geometry wings, multi – spool, reheated turbofan engines, giving it a speed in excess of Mach 2 at high altitude. The variable geometry wings together with high lift devices, ensures that it can land and take off at slow speeds at dispersed sites.
During the time I was in this company, I realized that there are two kinds of Tornado Aircrafts. That is the Tornado Air Defense Variant (ADV), and the Tornado Interdictor Strike (IDS). The difference that exists between these two aircrafts is that the ADV and IDS, is based in the reheat section.
Furthermore, the IDS is 1.39 m longer than the ADV which is the main external difference in front fuselage section to accommodate the AL radar, Sky flash missiles, avionics and extra fuel tank. It also has wing nips which sweep at 68 degrees rather than 60 degrees as on the IDS aircraft.
The Tornado is not a pure British design, but Italy and Germany also joined in designing and producing this aircraft. The Tornado weapon system represents the closet approach yet to an ideal multi –m role combat aircraft, sought by military aircraft design engineers. Its success is attributable to the skilled application of a number of high technology features incorporated into a basic airborne vehicle. The major roles of Tornado
The Tornado is designed to fulfill a number of roles. These roles include close air support, interdictor strike, air strike superiority, interception, land based maritime strike and reconnaissance.
Characteristics of the Tornado The Tornado has got specific characteristics which make it stand out from the other aircrafts. This is based on the fact that it is designed in order to fulfill the above stated functions.
The main characteristics of this aircraft include the short takeoff or landing and the ability to accelerate rapidly to a high subsonic speed to permit operation from dispersed or damaged airfields in forward areas and immediate reaction to quickly changing battlefield conditions. High speeds at low level so that the enemy defense receives little warning during the time of attack.
We will write a custom Report on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The smoothness of the low gust with the wings swept at low levels ensures that the crew maintain their fighting efficiency. High specific excess power or rate of climb and good acceleration ensure efficient interception or, in the reconnaissance role, evasion. All weather capability enables the Tornado to maintain round the clock pressure on enemy targets and to intercept enemy aircraft by day or night, or in bad weather.
Good load carrying ability and flexible weapon or fuel load interchange ensures that most effective interdictor or close air supervision use over a wide range of target distance combinations. This plane has a good sustained maneuverability which ensures excellent self defense and attack capability against enemy aircraft.
Lastly the multi – spool engines ensure that the aircraft has got a good specific fuel consumption which produces a long range in the strike reconnaissance roles and a prolonged loiter capability in the air superiority role. The table below gives a summary of the IDS and the ADV aircrafts in terms of their specifics. (See Table 1 and Diagram 1)
Tornado Aircraft dimensions: The aircraft construction During the study, I discovered that the aircraft has got an elaborate structure which demands the construction process to be elaborate. In essence, the aircraft structure can be divided into a number of major components. These parts include the Fuselage, wings and the tail unit. The fuselage is further divided into the front, center and rear fuselage sections.
The method which is used in the construction of this aircraft known as the, “Semi – Monocoque.” This method utilizes frames, sub-frames, lonegrons, diaphragms, webs, beams and skins in the construction of the fuselage, with spars and ribs used in the construction of the wings, fin, ailerons and flaps.
The frames, longerons, spars, ribs and skins are designed to withstand the bending, twisting, compression and torsion loads that an aircraft feels during flight. It is worth noting that the materials which are used in utilizing this aircraft should be able to withstand the loads which the aircraft feels and at the same time be light.
Front Fuselage The fuselage consists of frames, diaphragms, webs and skins, manufactured to form an assembly consisting of pressurized structure, forwards equipment compartment, the left hand gun avionics compartments, left hand gun compartment, liquid oxygen compartment, rear equipment compartment, right hand avionics compartments, right hand gun compartments, nose landing gear compartment and the spent cases compartments.
The center fuselage This extends from the forward transport joint at the frame 9 to the rear transport joint at frame 16, and it is constructed of closely spaced frames and skin assemblies. The frames vary depending on their functions. The wing box contains the wing pivot bearings which are mounted in the top structure. This wing box is usually manufactured from high strength machined titanium alloy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internal frames are located between the forward and the rear face walls to provide additional strength to the structure. The wing slots seals exist to maintain the fuselage shape. They are also used in order to reduce drag. These pockets are closed by inflatable seals. The wing pocket has got two seals, that is, the upper and lower seals on each side of the Tornado.
There are usually interconnected to allow for pressure variations due to the various altitudes which are attained during flight. The main landing gear is usually placed in two compartments. These compartments are located on the underside structure of the center fuselage.
The main landing gear retracts forward and inward, the struts being rotated to allow the wheels to be housed flat within the shadow compartments. Fuel is usually stored in the fuselage which is located in the center of the tornado. There are a total of 16 fuel cells in two groups, six in the front fuel group and 10 in the rear fuel group.
Rear fuselage This fuselage extends from the transport joint which is located at frame 16 and extends to the frame 19. This is done so that two engines can be mounted in the compartments which are on each side.
In addition to the makeup of the engine, the rear fuselage also provides fittings for the fin, air brakes the engine doors and the arrester hook. The rear fuselage consists of frames which are divided by beams. The hydraulic system components are located in these regions.
The engine bay is a part of the Tornado which is enclosed by two doors. These doors are locked in position using a mechanism which is known as the release shoot-bolt. Air breaks are also mounted in the recesses of the fuselage. They are made up of aluminum alloy. The air breaks are located in a closed position sustained by a hydraulically operated lock units.
Wings Wings are crucial components of the Tornado Aircraft. Their ability to sweep wing and rotate a pivot axis by means of an actuator is one of the aspects of this aircraft that makes it outstanding. The wings are designed in such a manner that they can carry two wing pylons for the carriage of external stores.
The wings are attached to the trailing edge flaps which are installed on the lower side of the trailing edge. These flaps are equipped with carriage rib and a roller system which has two screw jacks.
Damage evaluation and inspections There are two main categories of this section. These include the reference system and the inspection of damages. The reference system is a method which is used in defining surfaces, positions and contours. It is a system which operates using a basic system which is supplemented by an auxiliary system. This system is used to locate places on the plane which might be having repair issues.
On the other hand the inspection of damage is an action which takes place when a person seeks to establish if there are aspects of the aircraft which are not in good working condition. There are several aspects which are taken when carrying out this inspection. These include the access for inspection. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the structural damage of the aircraft is assessed.
The preliminary visual inspection is the process which involves the visual inspection of the exterior surfaces of the aircraft. Detailed visual inspection involves the deliberate process of establishing the actual problems which may be noticed on the airplane.
Tornado systems The Tornado has got several systems. These systems include the fuel system, the environmental system, the electric system, and the wheel or tires system. The fuel system; the aircraft fuel load is usually located in the front fuselage, the center fuselage, the fin and in the wings. The main fuel tank is usually located in the center fuselage.
The main fuselage consists of numerous fuel cells which are interconnected in a way that form two separate groups which are designated in the front fuselage. The environmental system; the main task associated with this system is to convert the liquid oxygen into a form that can enable the pilot to breathe in flight.
The oxygen system is made up of two parts. These parts are the main oxygen system and the oxygen emergency system. During the emergency cases when the pilot needs to come of the plane, this system ensures that the pilots get 100% oxygen.
Tornado Engine The study process made me realize that the Tornado has got a very unique engine. This engine matches the unique characteristics which are used by the engine. The Engine KB 199 was developed by Turbo Union in order to ensure that the Multi – Role Combat Aircraft is realized.
The required characteristics demanded the engine to have a bypass engine. This should have a capability of reheat for both the hot and cold gas streams. The thrust reverser is basically fitted with the intention of short landings.
In addition, for the sake of maintenance, the engine is divided into several basic modules. These modules enable one to be able to note what they are working on at any given point.
It is worth to mention that when removing a module, its identification plate must be kept with its own module, and when refitting a module, that plate must be refitted to the carrier. This eases the process of maintenance. See (Table 2: Table of engine modules, Diagram of the engine and the attached diagram)
Types of engine modules During my experience I learnt that the Tornado has got sixteen modules. Some of these modules include the Low pressure compressor module. This is a three stage axial flow unit which comprises two main assemblies, that is, the engine and the rotor. See (Diagram 2 Compressor module (M01).
The intermediate pressure compressor module is a compressor which comprises alternative rows or rotor and stator blades. These consist of an integral disc assembly to which the blades are secured by dove tail roots and retained in the discs by the segmented plates.
The high pressure compressor module consists of an outer casing and an inner casing. The outer casing is a part of the intermediate casing module. The inner casing consists of a number of rings bolted together in each pairs. See (Diagram 3 Intermediate pressure compressor module (M02)).
The intermediate casing module is a module which forms the foundation unit of the engine which is known as the Master base Module. Their thrusts are attached to the outer case of the module. Engine performance parameters
There are several parameters which are used in establishing the functionality of an engine. In this case the parameters include the engine thrust and the specific fuel consumption. The thrust is a gas jet exhausting at a high velocity from a nozzle in the opposite direction of the jet. I later realized that the aim of the designers of these natures of engines is to aim at having engines which have higher thrusts.
The specific fuel consumption may be considered to be what is next to thrust. This is because it is one of the most important aspects regarding the performance of the engine. This aspect is used to determine the amount of fuel which is used to achieve pone unit of thrust over a finite period of time.
Engine maintenance procedure The maintenance of the Tornado engine is carried out at the engine shop. When the engine arrives at the engine shop it is subjected to various diagnostic tests to check on its functionality. In this case they include the baroscopic, hardness test and the MCD check.
Conclusion Just like any other machine or aircraft, the Tornado engine has got its share of the problems which have solutions. When I was under training in this company I realized that some of the problems which are associated with this engine include the interference with the foreign objects which damage the engine (FOD). The high hours can also lead to bearing debris circulating in the engine oil system.
This leads to massive wear and tear of the engine. Other problems are associated with thermal fatigue and operating in an environmentally hostile environment.
Despite the challenges and problems, one of the sure ways of maintenance of these engines is through subjecting them to thorough inspection and system evaluation. Consistent servicing of these aircraft reduces the risk of the problems which are associated with them thus they are able to function properly for a much longer period of time.
Works Cited Rouhollah, K. Ramazani and Joseph A. Kechichian. The Gulf Cooperation Council: Record and Analysis, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 1988. Print.
Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs Report cheap essay help
Introduction Preliminarily, the market plan outlined below is for a Skagen Designs, a renowned international design company that is based at Reno, Nevada in the U.S. and specializes in the making of quality and affordable watches, jewelry, sunglasses, clocks and other related products.
Having been humbly founded in 1989 by Henrik and Charlotte Jorst, the company has been able to grow from a small wrist watch shop to a revered multinational company with an international reach and huge profits being realized by the founders.1
Even more importantly, Reno, Nevada has been able to provide a good avenue for Skagen design’s products in terms of its rich history, vibrant trade and economic industry, unique geographical set-up, shifty—but amiable—weather patterns and above all; a well established system of governance that ensures a positive economic progress.
It is these reasons—amongst many others that will be expressively stated later—that the Skagen designs was established in this locale. However, in spite of their unmatched success in the watch-business; there has been an increasingly growing need for expansion based on the fact that they have outgrown their current market jurisdiction as well as the need to set up more branches and become a global outfit.
The fundamental purpose of this marketing plan is, therefore, to help getting investor funds that can be used in spreading the market tentacles of Skagen designs while intermittently laying down a simple, yet exhaustive, plan that can be used in these expansion efforts. For the purposes of this paper, this marketing plan is intended for branching out to South Africa.
Executive Summary Before making a marketing plan for an organization; it is extremely important that we begin by assessing the current nature of operations, their nature of profitability and the challenges being faced. It is only by having knowledge of such that we will be able to construct a circumspect plan able to deal with past, present and future prospects of the organization.2
Therefore, in the bid to make a fitting plan, there are several marketing dynamics at Skagen designs that need to be assessed. Such factors include productivity, profits, growth, turnover, stability and cohesion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These measures of effectiveness may vary depending on the company, its mission, environmental context, nature of work, type of product or service and customer demands. It is based on the above viewpoints, among many other issues that this Marketing plan for Skagen designs is proposed.
Company Description (Overview of the Company) 23 years ago when Charlotte and Henrik Jorst made the bold decision of venturing into the unchartered waters of the watch-selling-business, no one would have guessed that the company, which was started in an apartment in New York, would grow to the highly esteemed international design company it is today.
However, after starting the business on a rocky foundation of selling relatively expensive watches, Charlotte and Henrik made a milestone move in 1990 when they found a manufacturer who could design their custom-made watches at a lower price than their previous manufacturer.
By 1992, Charlotte and Henrik had already designed over 30 different models of watches named Skagen Denmark and towards the end of that year; these two entrepreneurs (through a couple of marketers and advertisements) had sold everything they had made and realized a turnover of $800, 000 just from the comfort of the apartment in New York.
Based on the almost-zero tax rate of businesses in Nevada, the couple, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst, decided to move there and continue with their watch business in1993 which was, at this time, gaining more and more reputation.
After another milestone break in 1995 when the couple took their designs for trials and sold everything, all that followed was the periodic change of offices from big to bigger apartments with their sales also growing steadily. This, probably is the reason in 1998 and 1999, the company was named by the Inc. Magazine as one of the 250 fastest growing private companies in America.3
As of 2000, the company began to Branch out in countries like Netherlands and Germany and by 2003, it had expanded greatly, having its outlets in Ukraine, Kuwait, Italy, France, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Belgium and the UAE, just to mention a few.
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, the company deservedly enjoys huge success while operating as a subsidiary of Fossil, Inc. which completed making an acquisition of Skagen designs on 12th April 2012 at $231, 7 million.4 In spite of witnessing immense progress, the company still faces stiff competition from many other companies. In addition, the company needs to continue branching out since it has already exhausted the potentials of its current branches.
This, therefore, calls for progress and establishment of a marketing plan that will be able to see them through their plans. It is with this in mind that the plan below, which is targeted for South Africa, is formulated.
In doing so, principal focus is going to be on analyzing goals, aims, objectives of the marketing plan, strategic actions of the plan, situational analysis, risk analysis, feasibility study of the plan, budgetary estimate, stakeholder analysis and potential benefits among many other macroeconomic facets.
It is only by viably assessing these salient facets that the marketing plan will be able to lay down a concrete foundation on which future implementations can be made by Skagen designs.
Strategic Focus and Plan Vision
Skagen designs has the vision of being an influential force in the world of watches, jewelry and other related products—especially with regards to reaching its uniquely designed and high quality products to its highly esteemed clients.5
In doing this; the company prospects to transform open up new branches that will enable it to serve thousands of people in different regions all at the same time with ease. Additionally, the company needs to cooperate with other like-minded companies and individuals so as to tap into the richly flowing market potentiality offered by this multicultural society.
Essentially, Skagen designs’ main mission is to achieve a multifaceted success in various regions by designing impressive and unique, yet affordable products, while ensuring that the customers are given outstanding customer service.6 Essentially, this calls for delivery of quality products and service to its highly esteemed customers.
Moreover, the management is also charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the staffs are, deservedly, treated. Of course this policy, just like respect, is a two-way traffic. Consequently, the staffs in the company are compelled to ensure that the management, as well as each customer, is individually treated with utmost professionalism and respect.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By observing these salient statutes, the company’s mission not only ensures that the primary role of financial success is achieved; but it also makes certain that everyone associated to the company has a sense of purpose towards the well-being of the company and to one another.7
Goals, Aims and Objectives
To propose a plan which will be able to help the company expand its business tentacles to South Africa in an easy way
To establish the importance or value of marketing the company in a better way
To assess the risks that may be faced while marketing the company
To source additional resources that can be used to further the marketing plans while also creating a budget for the same
To delineate problems being faced in the organization (with regards to its marketing endeavors and grope for ways of forging ahead while intermittently outsmarting these problems/challenges.
Strategies and Action Plan to Achieve the Objectives and Avoid Risks
In order to ensure more financial profits, we plan to introduce more quality products together with other relevant services which will, eventually, total into better profits. As for the aspect of getting more clients and accommodating them; the plan of going into South Africa, and many other countries that will duly follow, will take care of this challenge.
Finally, to siphon the strength of our competitors, we plan to market Skagen designs in a more robust way. This will, undoubtedly, give Skagen designs substantial leverage—on top of the fact that the good performance of the company will give us dominance and a more respected name in the international market.
Marketing Analysis Financial Analysis
Despite enjoying good financial success over the recent past; Skagen designs still requires some hefty amount of investment to be injected so as to make it possible for the effectuation of its marketing plans.
In order to satiate this need, the company’s management recently got into a business partnership with Fossil, Inc thus creating better prospects for the company in terms of better goods and services thus more profits (Citybizlist, 2012).8
This will greatly help in raising more funds for the extra costs needed for more branch out to South Africa and the marketing funds that will be needed thereof.
On top of that, the good relationship between the management and other financially empowered people promises good tidings in terms of financial prospects for the company. However, Skagen is not entirely banking on this as its ultimate source of funding. It is for this reason that other viable money-getting schemes are being sourced.
Human Resource (HR) analysis
As was glimpsed earlier, the company’s management got into a partnership with Fossils, Inc. This, therefore, necessitates for changes and plans to be made be made on areas such as the human resource department and how the company will function bureaucratically in its leadership endeavors.
According to Citybizlist, (2012), Charlotte and Henrik Jorst still enjoy the mandate of overseeing the productions in the company while Fossils, Inc mostly handles the financial aspects of the organization.9
In the branch prospected in South Africa, this chain of command balanced between the management at Skagen designs and Fossils, Inc. will be maintained. However, a branch manager will be appointed in South Africa to oversee the operations of the new branch, just like it has been the company’s tradition in other branches.
Moreover, the operations of the human resource department in the new branch will, essentially, be in the same format like that of the current parent branch—with a few positions and provisions being created for joint meetings with the management, stakeholders and other concerned parties.
The similarity in the operations of the HR department simply means continuity to the already existing HR precepts thus increasing efficiency.1011 The only slight variation will be that, overall decisions will be made by the CEOs, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst in conjunction with the relevant personnel at Fossils, Inc.
A keen assessment by market analysts indicates that Skagen already has a substantial amount of clients just like its umbrella company, Fossils, Inc.
The partnership between these two companies will therefore be a welcomed idea by most clients who already know the nature of products and services offered by these two revered companies. However, a few managerial changes might have to be made, as has been detailed in the HR management section.
Consequently, the clients may have to get used to the blended leadership between Fossils, Inc and Skagen designs. In the new branch at South Africa, this managerial change will not have a huge impact based on the fact that it will be the first outlet to be established there. In fact, starting the South African branch will be a good opportunity for the management to see a fresh and first-hand impact of their merger with Fossils, Inc.
Yet still, studies on the South African market—specifically in Johannesburg where the new branch will be based—show that the country has a rich blend of middle and high class people. Based on the fact that Skagen’s products usually target middle and highly economically-empowered clients, South Africa thus offers high chances of success and viable economic markets.
Additionally, Johannesburg has always been a great attraction site for both local and international tourists. In their touring endeavors, there are usually high chances of people shopping for products such as watches. The opening of this branch thus offers huge positive marketing prospects for Skagen designs.12
Even more importantly, most African countries look up to South Africa as a trend-setter in the continent based on its highly industrialized nature. Opening a branch in Johannesburg can therefore lead to increased demands for Skagen’s products thus leading to the opening of many other branches in Africa, and beyond.
Moreover, the dynamics and highly sophisticated nature of designer shops in the modern world calls for and the raising of market standards to meet the needs and wants of our clients.13
In relations to this, the prospected branch in South Africa will incorporate state-of-art furnishings, a wide range of watch brands, clocks, sunglasses together with hippy and well-designed jewelry. These products and services will be present in both simple and sophisticated forms so as to accommodate the current diversity of modern shoppers.14
More importantly, the designers will ensure that the buildings and other related designs included in the South African branch are modeled in a classy and trendy way that will, appeal to the aesthetic-loving modern day shoppers.
This is also based on the fact that the South African branch targets classy—yet averagely financially empowered clients. It is for the same reason that there will be price-friendly services at this branch; just in the same way it has always been in the most Skagen outlets.
Stakeholders play a very important role in any organization—and in Skagen designs, it is no different. As a matter of fact, expansive consultations have been constantly made with the stakeholders so as to know their take on this marketing plan. So far, they have been in full support. Nonetheless, more consultations are yet to be made since this marketing plan is still at its baby stages thus does not require a lot of input from them.
Sustainable Competitive Advantage Assessment (SWOT analysis)
An assessment of the sustainable competitive advantage of the plan based on the business principle of SWOT analysis is done below.
The strengths of our prospected plan include the following. Firstly, Skagen designs Ltd. has been in the watch business long enough to know the red and green lights of its operations. Our firsthand experience gives us much advantage over our competitors.
Secondly, we have a professional strategists and planners who have successfully planned and successfully done other projects. This project is, therefore, bound to be a success story just like the other projects they have planned. Thirdly and lastly, our brand name and that of Fossils, inc. are highly respected in US and the world at large thus laying a firm foundation for the success of this plan.
Some of the weaknesses, or rather the challenges, of our plan include the following. To begin with, in spite of the market research projections prospecting a good reception for our plan, we are not entirely sure whether they will respond in the same positive way as we hope.
The presence of many watch businesses in South Africa may also provide a tougher competition than we anticipate. Finally, despite raising immense funds for the plan; we are still not utterly sure about getting the remaining funds.
The opportunities here include: the expansion of our customer bases. The expansion may also bring more profits which would then be used for opening even more branches thus actualizing the vision of us having branches all over the world. Finally, the new marketing endeavors will offer employment opportunities to several people.
The most basic threat of this plan is the incapability to raise funds which might thwart everything that many people have tirelessly toiled for. On top of that, the current rigid and bureaucratic regulations regarding marketing and advertisements in South Africa may drag the implementation of our plans.
Also, the rather dynamic and unpredictable nature of our targeted clients may additionally inhibit the company from achieving its full potentiality.
As a rejoinder for the various points that come up in the SWOT analysis, it is noteworthy to state that the management of Skagen designs Ltd, and Fossils Inc. by extension, have several contingencies in place to mitigate the abovementioned weaknesses and threats while augment the strengths and opportunities. We can, therefore, boldly say that the plan is bound to offer sustainable competitive advantage.
Marketing Plan Budget Much of what is entailed in the budget to be used in achieving the objectives of this project are yet to be representatively disclosed by the finance experts to the relevant parties. Nonetheless a rough estimate of $4 Million (for the entire year’s expenditure)—as is given in the table below.
Remarkably, the budget is highly confidential for obvious reasons such like the need to protect our investment ideas.
This high confidentiality is, essentially, the reason it will only be sent to the relevant leadership in the company—as well as to those people who have affirmed their interest in participating in soliciting funds for this project. A highly detailed and informative budget will be sent or hand-delivered by our financial personnel to such people.
Activity Previous year’s Expenditure Proposed Expenditure Sales Expense