Evaluation Or Peter Senge’s Measurement Model Case Study Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

Peter Senge’s Learning and Development Model

Strengths and weakness of Senge’s model

Applicability of the Model

Revision and Possible Changes to the Model

How Organizations can use the Model

Reference List

Introduction Organizations operate in an environment that requires some changes to remain competitive. Consequently, they cannot operate efficiently in the long term without learning and development either wholly or at an individual level (Easterby-Smith, Crossan


“Deathtrap” by Ira Levin: What Lurks in the Background Essay essay help: essay help

When comedy is mixed with a detective story and the elements of a thriller are added to the recipe, taking the eyes off the highlight of the show and looking closer into the settings is practically impossible. However, it cannot be argued that these settings add considerably to the characters and their development, the storyline and the atmosphere altogether.

A very graphic example of such interaction between the settings of the play and the rest of its elements is Ira Levin’s masterpiece commonly known as Deathtrap, or Deathtrap: A Thriller in Two Acts. Despite the fact that the setting and the costumes never change throughout the entire play, this persistence in setting and costumes affect greatly the scenes, the themes and the characters.

When talking about the recurring themes in Deathtrap, one must mention the one motif that the entire play is devoted to, i.e., a play within a play. Indeed, the key twist of the detective story revolves around a play written by one of the lead character’s students, Clifford. The setting, therefore, serves as a perfect backdrop for the intrigue to be developed.

Since the characters never leave Sidney’s den, the focus remains on the fact that the play written by Clifford, which keeps the reader within the play-within-a-play virtual reality.

Moreover, such details as the copies of Xeroxes mentioned in the phone talk, the fact that the very first scene opens with Sidney in his den, pretending to be reading a play (Levin 3), etc., keep the reader’s attention nailed to the fact that (s)he is reading a play about a play.

However, it is not only the plot that nails the reader’s eye on the details of the play. Characters are also a lot of fun; very enjoyable to watch, especially when they interact, the people in the play definitely leave an impression. The psychic lady, whose “sixth sense” leads her to Sidney’s house, is, of course, a parody on the popular “psychic” cliché; as weird as she is, she makes a wonderful contrast to the rest of the characters.

The twist with Sydney, Myra and Clifford comes as completely unexpected; however, as soon as the shock values drop down a few notches, the reader feels that Sydney and Clifford being lovers makes the story darker and, for that matter, more entertaining.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The last, but definitely not the least, the scene with the arrow from a crossbow, which parodies every single cliché in a book – in a detective book, that is – is outright hilarious. Sydney and Clifford stabbing each other in turn must be the most confusing scene, yet it mocks so many stories in which the seemingly defeated villain rises to deliver the final blow that it automatically becomes comedic gold.

Therefore, Deathtrap offers a fantastic example of how a good comedy can be turned into a brilliant comedy with the help of an efficient use of a single setting and costuming. Still, it must be admitted that most of the humor and drama in Deathtrap comes not from the original settings, but from the characters with distinct personalities being put into these settings and wearing these costumes.

Therefore, it is impossible to consider the setting apart from the characters and the storyline. Even though there is only one setting, it still offers a unique environment, which works not only for the comic relief, but also for the plot, the themes and character development. Working each character off in an individual manner, the setting of Sydney’s den is a perfect spot for a perfect comedy.

Works Cited Levin, Ira. Deathtrap: A Thriller in Two Acts. New York, NY: Dramatic Play Service. 1978. Print.


Family Owned Business in the United Arab Emirates Report essay help

Introduction Companies owned by families are believed to be the current forms of business activities. Family companies dominate the economic background of various key global economies especially in developed economies.

For instance, across the globe, two thirds of the currently existing commercial businesses appear to be managed and owned by families. The success of these businesses is dependent on how succession is managed by the stakeholders including the potential successor, the incumbent leader and the business owners.

This study explores succession of family businesses particularly in the United Arab Emirates’ context. It considers the factors that prevent successful intra-family company successions and whether such corporations are successful of not.

The paper explores a variety of causations starting from the precursor factors to the immediate general causes hindering succession by a family member. By examining a wide range of literature, the study explores the issue facilitated by focusing on the United Arab Emirates family owned businesses.

Research indicates that there is an emerging consensus regarding elements that are anticipated to play a central role in successful family owned business successions. The processes and participants involved play essential roles in ensuring the success of successions in view of uncertainties that typically derail the process.

This view is in respect to the fact that succession is not an event, but a complex procedure that occurs over a long period. It requires the ability to be dynamic and adapt to the changing circumstances particularly in the increasingly competitive business world.

Problems of the research Despite the prevalence of family owned firms across the world, their lifespan appears to be comparatively short. Often, barely a third of the few family owned corporations manage to survive the shift to the third generation while just very few such companies survive the change to the second age group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given the significance of family owned corporations in the economic development and growth, researchers have realized the importance of conducting studies in this field. However, the management field researches have hardly given keen interest in the family owned corporations’ practical as well as distinctive theoretical problems.

On the other hand, the growth of interests in the family owned corporations have improved exponentially. The result is the emergence of a distinctive and legitimate business research field.

However, most family owned companies are intended to pass the business of a given family to the subsequent generations in order to reinforce the bonds existing in family relationship. Given the order of succession from the founder to other generational family leaders, running family owned corporations have proved to be a complex process.

Globally and particularly in the UAE, top managers of any business are considered the essential determinants of a company’s strategies and the ultimate performance of the company. In this view, the selection of the successor of an establishment is critical for the future of the company and its effectiveness (Rajagopalan and Zhang 335).

Contemporarily, family owned businesses are essentially the bedrock of many economies and businesses. However, the pervasiveness usually goes unnoticed relative to other forms of businesses. It is hence imperative for research to be conducted regarding this important topic (Wallace 3).

Objective and importance of the research There are unique challenges facing family-owned businesses. One of the main problems confronting family business is the capacity to make sure that there is competent leadership across generations.

The research to unravel the challenges to succession in family business is important as it helps owners, top executives and consultants to put effective measures in place to ensure that businesses do not stall due to the transfer of leadership across generations. Inherently, it has been discovered that slightly more than one-third of family businesses make it to the secondary generation.

We will write a custom Report on Family Owned Business in the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More disturbing is the fact that less than 20 percent of the businesses survive to the third generation (Breton-Miller, et al. 305). This study investigates what it takes in order for family businesses to succeed upon succession across generations. In most cases, poor succession is the main source of failure of businesses to survive to the third generation.

Literature review The ownership of family businesses with respect to control or management of firms as well as the relationship with other the preferred stakeholders has recently received substantial consideration in the governance literature. Inherently, family businesses contribute to the economies worldwide. Family businesses in developed countries contribute significantly to economic development.

Most of the businesses in these economies are family owned, managed and directed (Anderson 1303). They have become the spine of many newly developed economies. These businesses remain a vigorous element in the old industrializations. Experts state that family businesses encompass a majority of businesses in the private sector in the Gulf region.

These businesses account for more than 95 percent of the profitable activities in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In other global regions, family businesses account for between 65 and 80percent. The interest to study family businesses stems from the fact that it is challenging to approximate the size of family businesses’ revenues and assets.

Additionally, there lacks relevant published data making the estimation of family owned businesses in the Gulf region. Inherently, a universal definition of family business has not been arrived at given the existence of a wide range of definitions as there are studies exploring the subject.

The issue of succession of family businesses raises significant aspects that may lead to the success or failure of business establishments. De Massis et al. assert that few family owned businesses move into the next generational leadership due to the problems that may arise. For others, the intergenerational transitions collapse soon after the taking of control by the second generation (De Massis et al. 183).

Naturally, the management succession of family business is a central concern for leaders of family business. Even though consultants are often engaged in the succession issues, little systematic attention has been paid to the molding of the features that prevent effective transfer of management control from one family member to another.

Under such situations, the prevailing problems deny the chances of the family growth and development in both social and economic fronts. In addition, such wrangles also derail the efforts of the current leadership and demoralize the stakeholders’ inputs into the business (Barnes 111).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Family Owned Business in the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Breton-Miller et al (2004), challenges in the effective succession are complicated considering that there are significantly a small pool of competence and talent to draw from. There are usually complicated emotional aspects on the part of the incumbent-successor relationship. Besides, the complexity in the family ties also influences succession.

In fact, the succession procedures are typically interpreted to entail the activities, incidents and corporate mechanisms through which leadership and ownership of the family business is transferred. Breton-Miller et al state that successful succession entails the ensuing positive performance of the business and the eventual feasibility of the establishment.

Additionally, it entails the gratification of the stakeholders with the entire succession process. Typically, the drivers of the outcomes of succession differ. Political appointments to the positions of family business leadership may gratify business stakeholders while hurting the bottom-line. On the other hand, appointing a technically proficient but independent leader may lead to anger among controlling business owners.

The attributes of an incumbent in Dubai family business context plays an essential role in the success of the succession. The attributes are characterized by readiness and job motivation of the sitting leader to handle over the leadership mantle, the value of the rapport with the successor, needs and personality of the incumbent. Another aspect important for successful succession is the successor’s attributes.

The pointers to the attributes include the relationship with the sitting leader, drive, concern and the commitment of the successor to move the business to a higher level of performance. The ability of the successor in terms of management is also important. The incumbent often plays a significant role in fostering and development of the successor.

Critical variables for the success of family business succession include career development, placement outside the family business, formal education and training of the successor. Competent family members appointed for succession makes a variety of considerations before accepting such appointments.

Failure of such individuals to pay appropriate attention to the activities and progress of the business often leads to the failure of the business to survive through generations. Proper attention, commitment, training and apprenticeship leads to success of the succession.

According to an article by Corbetta et al, family ties, personal objectives of the incumbent, the prospective successor and conflicts at the management level play a role in the success of succession of family business leadership. The distinctive overlap between the top management and ownership positions at the top of families consider successions as a disturbing moment.

This presents risks to aspects such as long investment plans and publicity of the firm. When professional managers hired from outside the family circles succeed family businesses, the successions are associated with improved operational returns.

Top executives appointed from outside families inherently have advanced competence given that the appointments are not based on heir-ship, but professionalism. In this respect, the top appointees are able to introduce attractive bulge in terms of business opportunities subsequent to the transition (Bennedsen et al. 647).

Non-family top executives are essential for the growth of a business. The presence of such managers in the family business context may accelerate the development of the business through the provision of the needed competencies and introduction of new ideas.

It is imperative to mention that such managers in collaboration with competent and committed business owners are the contributing factors to the success of the business after succession. Family successors require the advice and support of non-family managers to ensure the success of the business.

According to De Massis et al (2009), the aspects that contribute to the succession processes are not essentially the aspects that thwart succession from taking place and becoming successful. The nature of business, the objectives of the incumbent and the successor as well as the existence of a strategic plan for the business contribute to the absence of essential conditions for effective succession to take place.

The authors point out that succession problems arise due to aspects that are operational at the individual level either successor-related or incumbent-related. The successor-related factors include low ability, lack of motivation, personal sense of attachment, unexpected loss of the successor and conflicts among family members.

Research methodology Substantial effort has been extended to this study as it seeks to explore family businesses in the Gulf region, particularly in the United Arab Emirates with regard to succession. The research on the United Arab Emirates family businesses has been challenging but essential facts have been established by this survey.

One of the core issues that deserve scrutiny in the United Arab Emirates context of family business is factors that prevent intra-family succession.

To facilitate the identification of such issues that significantly avert intra-family leadership progression from occurring, the study has reviewed journal articles in family owned business particularly in the perspective of UAE. Additionally, questionnaires were distributed to the stakeholders in family-owned business.

Two sets of questionnaires were used. One questionnaire was intended for family firms where succession had not taken place. It entailed questions associated with the businesses, performance and the environment. The respondents were requested to answer questions related to corporate governance of the companies such as the existence or lack of a formal strategic plan.

The respondents were also required to offer their views regarding succession planning such as the current generation running the business and whether there are designated successors or not. The family relations such as official family meetings and attitudes were also to be addressed in the questionnaire.

The attitudes included whether the stakeholders would accept a female chief executive officer as leader of the company. The second set of questionnaire was intended for family-owned business where succession had already taken place. The same sets of questions were asked.

The questionnaires were distributed to the redundant and successful business. Redundant businesses were important in the research as the information generated helped in establishing the effects of succession on the performance of the businesses. The researchers used the information gathered to establish important facts about success or failure of succession through qualitative analysis of the information.

A variety of factors was established as having significant impact on the success of family business succession. Businesses where succession had not taken place were observed to be significantly impacted by the external environment of the business industry. Potential successors were observed to be influenced by the industry in which the family owned businesses operated.

Inherently, potential successors with formal education and external placement were inclined to refusal of taking leadership positions in the family businesses. This was as a result of the successors considering working in other businesses as presenting additional opportunities for career development and better paying jobs.

The move is also influenced by the qualities of the interactions within the family including cooperation, accommodation, management approaches, cordial relationships and sibling interactions. When the interactions are harmonious, there is greater prevalence of confidence, mutual understanding and knowledge among stakeholders according to Breton-Miller et al.

Sample and population In this particular study, all the family owned businesses were deemed viable. However, only a small number of participants including successors, the managers, and employees, and stakeholders were selected depending on the frequency with which they had been involved in the departmental management as well as other personal attributes including gender, age, experience and positions held.

From the five family owned corporations sampled, just 50 managers from these organizations were selected via a technique dubbed as convenience simple random sampling strategy. The well-designed research questionnaires were administered to these respondents to help in addressing the formulated research questions.

Data collection methodology In exploring family owned businesses in UAE, it is imperative to explore factors that lead to success and failure of successions. The information exists in family business literature. However, to generate data in the United Arab Emirates context, it was essential for the researcher to develop questionnaires to be filled by non-family business managers, incumbent managers, business owners, employees and potential successors.

Although family members in top positions manage a majority of the United Arab Emirates family owned-businesses, some companies are managed by non-family managers hired to streamline and ensure the success of the business. However, the incumbent and prospective successor exercises immense influence on the hired managers.

These managers were a resourceful source of information regarding succession in United Arab Emirates family businesses. The selected managers were instrumental in aiding the researcher to gather information regarding the nature of businesses, the industry of operation, the attitudes of the owners and potential successors as well as strategic plan for operation and succession.

The incumbent business owners assisted the researcher in establishing the basic factors regarding family business ownership in the United Arab Emirates context. The potential successors and business owners who filled and returned the questionnaires within the requested timeframe played similar roles. Additionally, it was necessary to review family-business succession literature in United Arab Emirates.

This did not prove challenging as substantial amount of literature is available in books, published article and the internet. The published articles were particularly important, as the authors had carried comprehensive research regarding specific issues of concern in family business’ successions, successes and failures with important aspects about the history of family businesses in different parts of the world.

Data Analysis The data collected through questionnaires was analyzed according to relevance and the responses given. That is, content analysis technique was used in the analysis of data. By using the responses, the study identified the family control over businesses as a fraction of the equity owned by families that allow significant control of the businesses by professional managers.

This was particularly the case for businesses where succession had successfully taken place. On the part of businesses where succession had not taken place, the data was used to establish factors that contributed to the prevailing condition.

In these companies, the attitude of stakeholders seemingly plays a central role during successions. Where necessary, graphs were used to establish whether family owned businesses are successful or not.

Discussion According to the findings, various family owned companies in UAE indicated success in the management of the businesses. The successes of these firms clearly indicate that family owned business should not wholly be done away with but strengthened and opened up for non-family members also to be major stakeholders (Lang 83).

For instance, the information taken from firms such as The Al Habtoor Group clearly indicates the factors that show the success of such businesses.

The Al Habtoor Group

The Al Habtoor group is a family owned firm founded in 1970 with its headquarters in Dubai. The business continuously realizes massive growth within the United Arab Emirates and is famous for construction services. In addition, the company is internationally identified through its participation in hotel, automotive and education sectors. Further, the firm is involved in real estate, insurance as well as publishing services.

The family members have possession of ninety percent proportion of the firm’s ownership. More importantly, the firm has laid down a trust scheme aimed at smoothen the succession at the company. In essence, the scheme would enhance the company’s continuation beyond the current chairperson’s lifetime. The firm carries out its operations within the UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Egypt and Jordan.

Over the years, the group has assembled a firm and devoted client base ranging from the open to private sectors. The group has diversified its operations on five major subdivisions comprising infrastructure, building, rail, oil and gas together with mining.

Moreover, the firm’s commitment to develop and grow business in diverse segments has ensured its growth all over the globe. Worth noting, the group’s executives are exploring the prospects of venturing the business operations in the Asia-Pacific expanse and specifically in Indonesia, which is currently the most steady and fastest budding market in Asia (Lang 83).

The recent global financial crisis put the firm in a dangerous economic switch. In fact, just like the other international firms, the group faced huge challenges in restructuring the debts that accrued during the financial crisis. Through the group’s hard work, honesty and strong team attitude characteristics of every echelon of the management, the firm realizes escalating growth and success as well as the achievements of its target goals.

Further, the group’s increased investment in the training and development of its employees has enhanced and reinforced the company’s management as well as the overall quality of services since the personnel have the necessary technological advancements needed in the modern operations of the firm.

The Emiratization program also enables the company to ensure the government’s initiative of employing the most proficient personnel with the necessary expertise. Further, the group’s introduction of the automated continuous monitoring solutions is vital in monitoring the financial control and data of the company effectively.

The management of Al Habtoor undertakes a pro-active approach in the management of the firm. The group is also investing $1.6 billion on its projects. Further, the group’s ventures depend on the cash flow strengths. Profits are also expected to rise by sixteen percent in the year two thousand and eleven.

Moreover, the groups Habtoor engineering together with the Leighton Holdings Limited of Australia operate a joint venture of which the former has a twenty-eight percent stake. Of more importance, the firm is valued at $6 billion.

Al Ghurair group

Similar findings are also observed in the other family owned business Al Ghurair group. The business was established by the owner and founder 40 year ago and operates in the whole of UAE particularly in Dubai. The group specializes in retail businesses, investments, manufacturing and real estate development. The group businesses are diversified with the manufacturing sector specializing in metals and packaging materials.

The Al Ghurair group is owned and managed by the Al Ghurair family. The group operates the eight core business units categorized as manufacturing, real estate development, retail and investments. Among the core business units includes Gulf extrusion, the only firm that specializes in the extraction of aluminums in the gulf region as well as the packaging and corrugated board.

The diversified business strategy has enabled the firm to remain competitive within the UAE and ensured that the group satisfied a wide range of customers. Though the group is still owned by the owner and the founder, most of the management positions and senior employees originate from the Al Ghurair family.

The family owns ninety percent of the stake in the firm with the rest left to the close members. The conglomerate serves the whole of UAE as well as the international market.

The environment in which the firm operates is highly competitive particularly from similar family owned businesses. Diversification was adopted by the family business particularly to reach a wide range of customers within various sectors. In addition, the business faces various economic and technological challenges.

Besides repaying the huge debts incurred during the financial crisis, the company faces various market challenges particularly due to the fiscal imbalances in Europe as well as the nations within the gulf region. The economic crisis and the market uncertainties have resulted in the slow growth of the family group particular in the financial year 2009 to 2011.

However, the fast recovery of the economic growth of as well as the government’s increased spending in the infrastructure has enabled the family business to experience sustainable profits over the turbulent periods.

In addition, the UAE government’s support of the privately owned businesses has enabled the firm to operate without any political huddles. The UAE government’s policy that the members of the family must have at least 51% stake in the family owned businesses has also provided the company with good political climate to operate.

As indicated, the family owns ninety percent of the stakes of the group with ten percent left to non-family members particularly the royal family as well as other members from countries in which the group’s businesses operate.

Financially, the firm’s total investments are valued approximately at 12.3% while the shareholders equity is valued at 14.6%. The group is among the major employers in UAE. The company employees are approximated to be around 21 thousand working within UAE.

Besides, the family group has good corporate administrative structure based on the good industry practices as well as the UAE regulations. The industry best practices and the good corporate administrative structure has enabled the firm succeeded in the sound controls of its finances as well as ensure transparency and accountability in its operations.

In addition, the management of the company consists of board of directors who are majorly non-executive and are family members. The only executive and non-family director is the company chief executive officer who is a foreigner. However, the two directors are also non-family members and have no relations with the company shareholders.

In essence, the board of directors consists of the chairperson who is the owner of the business and the close family members, the two non-family members and the chief executive. The directors have three-year term and are selected by the company stakeholders.

Abdulla Al Masaood


Product Design and Modernism Essay college essay help: college essay help

The principles of modernism affected many areas of human activities, including product design. It is necessary to focus on the following important distinctions of this style, namely:

the absence of ornamental elements and minimalism;

pure geometrical forms;

the use of new materials;

the suitability of the modernist designs for mass production (Greenhalph 1990).

At the beginning of the twentieth century, these features were very innovative and only few designers were willing to adopt this approach. This is why they can be called modern, at least if one speaks about the design which existed at that time.

Yet, nowadays there techniques are viewed as something conventional and very widespread. This is one of the main issues that should not be overlooked.

Overall, it is possible to argue that the principles of modernism are of great relevance to contemporary designers who attach importance to such criteria as utility, aestheticism, and cost-effectiveness.

These are the main questions that should be examined in this essay. They are vital for describing the principles of modernism.

In order to discuss the innovative aspects of modernist product design, one should first mention that the aesthetics of this movement which mostly rejected those elements which did not serve any practical purposes.

This approach is described as minimalism or functionalism which means that every element of design should perform a certain function (Bertens 1997, p. 92).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, purely decorative components are considered to be redundant by the supporters of the modernist movement (Bertens 1997, p. 92). These principles were particularly applicable to architecture and interior design.

Yet, this idea also appealed to many manufacturers of that period because they wanted to make the products available to a great number of clients (Bertens 1997, p. 92). This background information can throw light on the influence of modernism on product design.

This is one of the main aspects that should be taken into account. Overall, the absence of ornamental elements can be best illustrated by looking at the piece of furniture that was created during this period.

For example, the following photograph exemplifies the principles of minimalism and functionalism:

Figure 1: The armchair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Raizman, 2003, p. 189)

On the whole, this armchair highlights the way in the idea of functionality influenced the work of designers who tried to combine utility with aestheticism. In their view, these elements could be reconciled with one another. There are virtually no decorative components.

This is one of the main distinctions that explain the principles of modernism and its influence on design.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Design and Modernism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One should mention that this approach to design differed dramatically from the techniques that were used during the earlier periods.

For example, the furniture, made by the supporters of the Art Nouveau Movement, could contain tracery, carvings or the use of acrylic painting. In most cases, these components did not play any functional goal and their utility was usually minimal.

In contrast, modernist designers did not want to include these components because in their opinion, decorations were superfluous. This is one of the main points that should be considered. The design of furniture was not the only area that was transformed by modernism.

There are many other fields of product design that were changed by this aesthetic movement. For example, one can speak about the design of dinnerware created in the early fifties

Figure 2: Dinnerware designed by Trude Petri (Raizman, 2003, p. 189)

Again, it is important to remember dinnerware created in the pre-modernist period usually created a great number of decorative elements. Furthermore, one should focus on the use of pure geometric forms such triangles, spheres, or squares.

On the whole, this technique enabled the designers to emphasize the minimalism or austerity of their products. Moreover, in this way, the designers could illustrate the novelty of their work and its difference from previous artistic styles and movements.

As it has been said before, many critics and buyers could not readily accept this style because these forms were deemed to be very unconventional (Bertens 1997). This is main peculiarity that should not be disregarded when examining the forms that are associated with modernism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Design and Modernism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is possible to look at the photograph taken in 1930. To a great extent, this picture was aimed at popularizing the new approach to the product design.

Figure 2: A Model for the New Living Style (Greenhalph 1990, p. 98)

This picture indicates that that modern designers preferred clear surfaces and pure geometric forms that have no irregularities.

One should take into account that in the first half of the twentieth century, this technique was perceived as something very innovative because the majority of architects and designers avoided the use of pure geometric forms.

In their opinion, this technique was too simplistic or even crude (Greenhalph 1990). Moreover, this form was not readily accepted by buyers who were accustomed to the presence of decorative elements.

However, the development of modernist design popularized the new methods of production and aesthetic styles.

Therefore, it is possible to say that the principles of modernism are no longer regarded as something very innovative. This is one of the main peculiarities which should be taken into account by people who study the role of modernism.

Additionally, it is important to pay close attention to the use of materials that became very popular during the age of modernist design. Among the most popular materials that were applied in the pre-modernist era, one can distinguish wood, glass, and metal (Raizman 2003).

However, the situation began to change at the beginning of the twentieth century when scientific changes widened the opportunities that were available to designers.

One should focus on such materials as polyester, stainless steel, polypropylene, heat-resistant glass, aluminum, and even silicon (Raizman 2003; Ross 2008, p. 132). They could be employed for the production of furniture, home appliances, vehicles, and many other products.

One can also say that they greatly contributed to the rise of mass production (Cresswell


Women and reproductive health Analytical Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Issues affecting woman reproductive health

Violence against women

Caesarean Section (CS)

Wrongful stereotyping

Stereotype as a major health reproductive issue

Theoretical perspective



Introduction Various health issues tend to affect women across the globe. In the last few decades, these issues have gradually proved to be very important given that they not only affect women, but also affect men and the entire society.

However, even with concerted efforts, insecure abortion and childbirth still lead to the death of women. Most women seek the intervention of birth control to manage their sexual and reproductive lives. On the other hand, millions of people live unhappily due to infertility.

Other issues such as infection of the women reproductive tracts affect many women globally. The universal agreement is that women reproductive health is impacted by the correlation between different compounded factors (Hull et al., 1996).

Consequently, children and men experience the impact of these issues either directly or indirectly.

Issues affecting woman reproductive health Every human being is entitled to his or her opinions, convictions, emotions, apprehension, and worries concerning sexuality and reproduction.

Despite having rights, beliefs relating to reproductive health are often influenced by personal experiences, relations, religion, peers, and media (Liamputtong, 2000).

The influences are in fact socially constructed. By extension, these perceptions affect the health of women in different ways. The perception of the society concerning the reproductive health of women often influences the subject of social policy in many societies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reproductive health incorporates the conditions in which the reproduction cycles are realized in the whole body, psychological and communal well-being. It is not the sheer lack of disorder or illnesses of the reproductive cycles.

For most women, the ability to be in good reproductive health means having the capacity to reproduce children successfully (Liamputtong, 2007). It also entails giving birth to healthy infants, survival of the child, and retaining the mother’s good health.

However, this begins with safety throughout the pregnancy and child delivery. It also includes the freedom to regulate fertility devoid of health hazards. The right to perform and take pleasure in harmless sexual relationship is also a critical element of reproductive health.

In order to experience good reproductive health, women deserve the right to healthy sexual development. They should be able to decide the number of offspring they want to have and the spacing between them.

They should be free from illnesses and be able to receive healthcare when needed. In addition, women should be free from cruelty and injurious practices including domestic violence and stereotyping (Cusack


“The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros Synthesis Essay best essay help

The interconnection between individuals, society and local communities is a network that defines life and choices people make.

Every situation is individual and people and their actions are framed by the conditions and circumstances of their personal lives, as well as those of people in the close circle.

“The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros describes the life of a child who goes through hardships of being poor, having personal dilemmas and understanding the surrounding world. It focuses on the great influence of community on an individual and vice verse.

From the very beginning, the reader is familiarized with the previous life and hardships of a character whose name is Esperanza. At twelve year old, girl talks about the constant moving that goes back far in the past, so that she does not even remember all the places of residence.

The start familiarizes the audience that both family and the little girl have grave financial problems, as well as problems with the community they reside in (Cisneros 4).

The close relationship between individual people and families is established within the community and it becomes one of the reasons people feel unable to continue living in the area.

In case of the family Esperanza describes, the financial resources do not allow them to move into a nice neighborhood or a house and thus, they are forced to find living quarters in communities that have detrimental life conditions and people are not very kind to each other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As parents want best for their children, the reason for Esperanza’s family to move out in a search of a better place becomes obvious.

Another theme mentioned in the book is the relationship between people’s background, race and how the outside majority community views others. Hispanic population has often felt pressure and unequal treatment form the American population.

The United States communities felt that people with Hispanic background influenced the economy and the state of affairs of workforce and general market demands.

Esperanza describes whole communities of people that affect the way minorities feel about themselves and such conditions have a negative result on individual securities and happiness of people.

It is especially noticeable, having in mind the insecurities that a little girl already has because of her family’s financial condition. Racial alienation and segregation from the rest of community has a lot of pressure on Esperanza.

While grouping up, a young mind is very sensitive when the whole nation of people presses on the psyche of minorities and makes individuals feel unwanted.

An interesting connection takes place between the way Esperanza feels about herself and the surrounding women. She observes how women are treated and experiences the community by herself. She starts noticing boys and begins to feel a want to have their attention.

We will write a custom Essay on “The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Esperanza is surrounded by girls who have had relations and this becomes a whole new world for her. This is the time when she looks deep inside herself to find out that she has matured.

It has been known that girls become developed earlier than boy and this is another issue that Esperanza has to understand and deal with.

Everything changes when she gets abused and she learns that reality can be extremely harsh sometimes. This has a direct connection to the way women are treated in her community.

One of the biggest examples is Rafaela and the way she gets treated by her husband. As she is not allowed to go out because she is beautiful, she is forced to be confined in her house (Cisneros 82).

This is representative of the society and how men have been dominating women for such a long time.

Esperanza understands her pain, just as other women’s. When she talks about Mamacita and her want to go back home, it is heartbreaking to the reader that she was unable to adapt to new conditions.

She becomes homesick and despises the new world and the English language. The fact that her child learns to speak American has a great effect on her self esteem and she becomes even more saddened (Cisneros 78).

Esperanza can feel the pain of all women in her community and she learns a lot by observing the social make-up and how women are treated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author draws a unique line between individuality, community and person’s independence. One of the signs is the way Esperanza talks about trees on Mango Street and how she admires them. This points to a theme of people feeling trapped and lonely, so far as to identify with trees.

The community that surrounds individuals becomes a heavy burden and a vicious cycle that does not allow anyone to escape. When Esperanza’s family moves to a house, she is still very much unpleased with the ways things are turning out.

Her dreams were filled with a beautiful house that has a garden, green grass and all the pretty images form themselves into the only goal Esperanza can think off. Her focus is to escape the life of poverty and buy the house of her dreams.

The home that the girl sees in her mind is an escape from the harsh reality of the world she lives in. It is representative of a sense of belonging and a corner where she can escape to.

All the major themes of the book unite into one that describes the external pressures on a young mind. Esperanza is an example of a person who notices everything around her but is unable to change things.

She becomes trapped by the community, the views of the society and personal understanding. As she spent her whole young life in moving and searching for a better place to live, she cannot compare any other way of life to her own.

All she has left is to imagine a beautiful house that is her only path out of the world she does not want to be a part of. Racial separation, poverty, social role of women and her personal determination to change the circumstances become a force that keeps reminding of itself.

Esperanza is unable to get used to such cruelties that people suscept each other to and she wants to get far away.

The book very precisely illustrates the lives of people who suffer all around. The majority of the population does not notice that a lot of families have to struggle to make ends meet and feed their children.

The governments are mostly helpless in changing the social order that has been established for a long time. In the modern world, conditions have become better for those less fortunate but nonetheless, it is far from perfect, so books like this are very valuable and needed.

Works Cited Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street. London, Great Britain: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004. Print.


Building Material – Timber Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Timber in floor construction



Introduction Timber, as a construction material, is relatively eco-friendly. One analyses the environmental feasibility of a material on the basis of the effect it has on the environment during manufacture, construction of the facility and energy use after constructing the house.

This refers to the green house gases released by the product as well as the total amount of energy required during the lifecycle of the material. Some materials may consume plenty of energy during construction but may lead to energy savings during occupation of the facility.

Timber in floor construction Timber manufacture results in minimal by-products and even the relatively small amounts that do come about can be recycled. For instance, they can make mulch or generate heat in kilns (Hanson 2000). Members of the population are concerned about native plantations as well as forests.

Not only do these areas act as habitats for biological species like plants and wildlife, they are also important sources of recreation and stabilize soil properties in those settings. Forests serve a host of other functions in the country’s ecology.

Therefore, when architects choose the material, they may disturb these natural settings and the organisms that rely on them. Nonetheless, proper planning for their use can mitigate the problem. Plantation forests are an environmentally sustainable method of sourcing for timber.

These areas are well managed as pre-planned building sites that have been created specifically for manmade uses. Manufacturers would need to liaise with timber associations in charge of these areas to source the materials (National Timber and Development Council Australia 2001).

Energy requirements for preparing timber for construction are relatively lower than the ones used by other construction materials. The only process that consumes a lot of energy is drying. This stage accounts for three-quarter of the energy consumption.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a mill, workers often rely on wood cuttings from the same timber to provide heat energy. Only minimal gas and electricity is needed for this material. Usually, the latter sources account for 15% of the energy used.

It is possible to rely on kilns that consume solar energy as described by the Department of Conservation and Land Management. Timber in the form of clad can consume 31,020 MJ for construction and will need 24,750 MJ for a forty-year maintenance period.

Brick veneer timber requires 92,565 MJ for construction and 0 MJ for maintenance. Double-brick needs 141,900 MJ for construction and O MJ for maintenance. Aerated concrete consumes 76,560 MJ for construction and 24, 750 MJ of energy for maintenance.

Finally, steel takes up 75,900 MJ in production and 24,750 for a forty-year maintenance period (University of Tasmania 2013).

In comparison to the other materials, veneer timber is the most favourable because it has low energy needs. Steel may require much less energy than timber but it is not practical for floors.

In the manufacture of building products, timber has promising results with regard to green house gas emission. Steel releases about 5,320 kg/m3 of carbon into the atmosphere and retains no carbon. Aluminium has one of the most unfavourable figures for carbon emission.

About 22,000 kg/m3 of the element will enter the atmosphere during manufacture of the product/ concrete releases a relatively small amount – 120 kg/m3 will enter the atmosphere during the creation of this material but no carbon will be retained.

We will write a custom Report on Building Material – Timber specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, sawn timber only releases a modest 15kg/m3 of carbon. It is the only material among typical construction materials that stores carbon.

Construction allows timber to retain 250 kg/m3 of the element (Hardy 2008). The product requires minimal intervention during construction thus explaining why it produces very impressive results.

Timber causes negligible site disturbance as professionals can manipulate the material to accommodate environmental goals.

First, the material allows for planning flexibility. For instance, one can think about the number of trees that one intends on using and then work around it. Most timber floors are raised from the ground.

This means that one can follow the topography of a site without having to dig, fill in, or change drainages for the material.

In comparison, concrete floors would require disruption of the natural landscape of an area. If several buildings are constructed with such materials, then their topography will be altered (Tam


Business Events Management Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Planning

Stages of Planning and the required Resources

Leadership Skills and Actions to Administer an Event

How to Organise and Develop a Team

Importance of Team Coordination and Communication

Communication Systems for Managing and Monitoring an Event



Introduction The science of event management has become a necessity in today’s business world. Since events are occasional, proper planning is important to ensure that an event is successful. Although some of the plans are overridden by occurrences during the actual event, planned events are better in relation to the impromptu ones. Events management involves various stages of planning.

Moreover, various resources are necessary for different events. In addition, events require a certain degree of leadership skills that are necessary for the implementation of the event. Human beings require a certain level of control. Therefore, events managers have a duty to co-ordinate, organise, and develop working teams. Proper, clear, and concise communication is imperative in events management.

Constant communication between events managers and clients before, during, and after the event is important. Events managers are therefore charged with the responsibility of installing proper communication systems throughout the process. This paper discusses business events management in the modern business environment.

Importance of Planning Planning is an important skill in evens management. Planning is carried out in various stages during events management. The importance of planning is to ensure that the management is not caught up by eventualities during the actual event. According to Brenner (2009, p.26), with a good plan, the management team is able to respond quickly to various occurrences.

A well-developed and authenticated plan will enable the event management team to ensure better satisfaction of customers’ needs. Various resources that are necessary for a particular even are also delivered in time. The delays that are witnessed in most of the events are therefore eliminated through proper planning. The team is not caught unaware by various demands from customers.

A good plan enables managers to foresee the whole idea in a particular event. It is from such a plan that the management team carries out a systematic implementation of the program. De Snoo, van Wezel, Wortmann, and Gaalman (2011, p. 2101) confirm that plans act as a reference during the actual event. For instance, managers can use it as a checklist for various requirements.

Planning will also save time and money that events take. Time is an important factor in events management. A good plan enables planners to allocate a specific amount of time to particular portions of events. This ensures that there is no procrastination and/or mix up of events. A good plan gives every portion of the event ample and adequate time. Such a program enables completion of all components of the event with little or no rush.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stages of Planning and the required Resources Planning of events involves various stages. The first stage of events planning is the pre-planning meeting. This meeting enables events managers to introduce all stakeholders to be involved in the process. The pre-planning stage also enables the team to set rules and/or share roles and responsibilities. The team also gets an opportunity to know the members and to have them committed to the process.

De Snoo, van Wezel, Wortmann, and Gaalman (2011, p. 2101) reveal how event managers also get an opportunity to match every members’ skills with an interest. The second step is the setting of objectives. Events management team meets to set the objectives of the whole program. Objectives should be explicit, quantifiable, satisfying, practical, and time specific.

The other step is setting up the project, which involves the allocation of timelines and responsibilities. At this stage, the scope of the program is outlined and broken down. Job subdivision and elaboration to the individual employees takes place at this stage. The next step in event management is risk management. Makda and Bayat (2012, p.62) argue that the team have to assess the expected risks in the whole process.

Risk mitigation measures are discussed and set up. The next step is the monitoring of the process. Monitoring of the progress of events is a continuous process. Soteriades and Dimou (2011, p.371) show how a continuous assessment ensures that the time limits that were set during the initial stages are met. It is through the assessment that the management is able to work well with the providers, for example suppliers.

It is also important to monitor the progress of events in order to make changes in case of failures. The next step involves organisation of the actual event. At this stage, stakeholders are counter checked in the actual implementation of activities. Every stakeholder is also monitored to ensure full implementation of the project. The other step is the implementation of the event. At this stage, the actual activity is implemented.

The event is run and the management supervises every step. According to Brenner (2009, p.26), it is important to respect the needs and instructions of the client. Finally, the event management process is evaluated through a systematic assessment. The manager assesses the implementers, with the feedback being used to improve the future process.

Leadership Skills and Actions to Administer an Event Events management requires certain leadership skills to implement. The event manager must be able to plan for the whole event. According to Soteriades and Dimou (2011, p.371), planning involves forecasting, estimation, and implementation of the budget. Organisational skills are also required for one to be able to control and/or move the stakeholders. In an events management process, teamwork is important.

We will write a custom Essay on Business Events Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leader must be able to show leadership to employees. Supervisory skills are also important. Events managers should be able to supervise their staff members to ensure that they motivate them towards achieving their dreams.

How to Organise and Develop a Team Team building is important in events management. Leaders must ensure that they build working teams and that the teams are working together. Project leaders must guide their teams towards working together for the success of the event. Teams are built through various steps. The project manager begins by establishing common objectives.

During the establishment of common objectives, all people involved in the event come agree on what they want to achieve together with how they will do so. Team developers also train team members. During this training, members are furnished with certain important skills that are necessary for the specific events that they are to manage.

For example, if the event is cultural, team members are taught various cultural beliefs that they must observe in the event. In some communities, some members of the community are not permitted to consume some parts of animal meat. The team members must therefore be keen when organising the menu for the event. For example, they are taught to separate certain parts of animal meat for particular people.

In some instances, training of team members involves incorporation of clients or their representatives. In fact, if the organisation is planning for a local government event, it has to train its team members certain rules that must be observed during the event. The next step is the provision of the team with constant communication.

For a project developer to ensure that he or she comes up with a good team, he or she must ensure proper communication. Makda and Bayat (2012, p.62) observe that the developers have to plan and organise for clear, concise, accurate, and purposeful communication. At all times, the team members must be furnished with adequate information about the event.

The team is also trained to be enthusiastic. At this point, the team builder is also supposed to be very enthusiastic. Energy and vigour enable the team to work better. Team members develop a feeling that other team members are also working towards achieving a similar goal. All facets of the team must work together. For example, there should be equal participation by all members.

Team building also undertakes the execution of the initial plan as agreed. The team is charged with the authority to implement the event management plan. According to Richardson and Taylor (2012, p.475), every member of the execution team must clearly understand the execution plan.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Events Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Proper understanding of the whole picture is important at this stage. An individual team member should be able to correct his or her fellow employees in the process of executing the program. The team builder also recognises the achievements of individual team members. Recognition and reward are crucial in motivating team members to repeat a certain good behaviour.

In the same way, project managers should also punish any bad behaviour as a way of discouraging it. Punishment is also a way of rewarding employees. For example, if a team member is punished through salary deductions, he or she will ensure that the behaviour is not repeated. Team builders are also supposed to keep on evaluating the success and failures of the team concessionary.

Constant evaluation of the team ensures that the initial plan is implemented in every step. Evaluation will also enable the project developer to correct any errors that may happen during the process of implementation.

Importance of Team Coordination and Communication There is a need to have constant coordination of the team and its activities to ensure uniformity and coherence. During the coordination of team activities, communication becomes paramount. Proper coordination of the team ensures that there are minimal chances for confusion. Team members are also united in the performance of their duties when there is clear and constant communication.

It is important for the team developers and managers to provide avenues for communication. Soteriades and Dimou (2011, p.371) affirm that every team member should be given an opportunity to voice his or her opinions towards the achievement of the plan. Communication ensures that there are less or no conflicts between team members and/or between the teams and the management.

Certain levels of autonomy are also enhanced when there are high levels of communication flow. It is through communication that openness is promoted. Team members can share ideas and/or consult each other in case of errors or mistakes. Team members should also be able to communicate properly to clients during the implementation of the event program. Event involves people of a different nature or character. For example, some people are easily angered. Others are peaceful while others are troublemakers.

It is also possible that some visitors turn arrogant at service providers in some events such as cultural and individual events. In such cases, team members should be patient enough to communicate well and even to manage any crisis that may arise. According to Kose, Argan, and Argan (2011, p.2), chances of misunderstanding are also minimised through proper communication.

Communication enhances trust between team members and/or between the event managers and the client. Openness is a key driver of proper communication. When there is openness, anxiety is reduced even in case of a crisis. The client, team members, and even visitors are able to understand any eventuality when there is clear communication.

Communication Systems for Managing and Monitoring an Event Establishment of proper communication systems during the process of events management is important. According to Kose, Argan, and Argan (2011, p.2), every adopted communication system should be clear and easily understood by the target audience. In most cases, messages are misinterpreted, thus leading to confusion among team members.

Understanding of the target audience is important in ensuing clarity and proper interpretation of messages. Encoding of messages relies on the understanding of the audience. With a clear understanding of the recipient of the message, the encoder is able to package the information in a way that the recipient can easily decode the message. Communication is said to have taken place if the intention of the sender is correctly interpreted.

Events managers can easily communicate different information to different stakeholders using various modes of communication. For example, Richardson and Taylor (2012, p.471) observe that, when communicating to internal publics, event managers can use a verbal mode of communication. For example, the manager and supervisors can call for meetings and/or deliver the message orally.

These can be one on one meeting with individual team members or a meeting with the whole team. It is easy to communicate orally with internal publics. Internal memos are also a good means of communication. The events manager writes the memo and posts it on the notice boards. The memos can also be delivered to the individual employees. Memos are simple and clear.

Hence, team members can be able to understand the message directly without the need for interpretation. The firm can also make use of intranets and the internet. Intranets are wire communications that are installed to work within the organisation. Managers can therefore use this system to communicate with the internal publics. For example, a manager can call the supervisors directly on the intranets.

Intranets ensure less exaggerations since messages are conveyed directly to recipients. Messages are not mediated. Hence, it is easier to eliminate noise and interference. On the other hand, the project managers can communicate to the external publics through several ways. For example, they can use e-mails, videoconferencing, letters, television, and radio advertisements.

Various factors are considered when choosing the mode of communication. In fact, if the project manager wants to use a certain mode of communication, he or she must consider the frequency, the reach, and the speed. A good communication system will have people, communication devices, and the environment. All these facets are made to work together in the project management.

Conclusion Project managers require a high level of skills in administering and coordinating the process. Team building skills are important since team members have to work together for the success of the events. Managers have to ensure a clear and an easy-to-understand communication strategy to enhance the success events.

Events manager are also supposed to choose a communication system that is frequent, speedy, and with a wide reach. Internal communication systems such as intranets and the internet are important. The project managers can also use televisions, radios, and print media to reach the external publics.

References Brenner, K 2009, ‘Life-Event Segmenting Offers Optimisation of Benefit Effectiveness’, Journal of Financial Service Professionals, vol. 63 no. 3, pp. 26-29.

De Snoo, C, van Wezel, W, Wortmann, J


Comparison and Contrast of The Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd Compare and Contrast Essay online essay help: online essay help

The Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd1 highlighted the person who needs to be held liable in case an employee injures a third party while performing the duties of his employer. The trial judge upheld the decision that the bicycle courier was an employee of Vabu Limited and the company was responsible for his actions.

The bicycle courier had been negligent in his duties, a trait which was shared by other bicycle couriers who worked for the company. The judge observed that Vabu Limited had not taken enough precautions to make its employees observe crucial safety standards whenever they performed their duties.

The court ruled that the courier was an employee even though Vabu Limited had made a claim that he was not the firm’s employee. The court ruled that the firm was liable for the injuries suffered by the plaintiff because of the relationship it had with the courier.

The case of Australian Air Express v Langford2 highlighted the issue of whether a respondent was an independent contractor or an employee. The case highlighted the relationship between an independent contractor and a firm contracting for service. The plaintiff in the case had a delivery enterprise with networks in the whole of Australia.

The respondent was a driver who delivered various goods on behalf of the plaintiff. He could hire a different driver to do the work for him under the terms of agreement between him and the plaintiff. The respondent got an injury as a result of the negligent actions of a fork lift driver working for the company.

The District Court observed that the respondent was an independent contractor working for the company. It also ruled that he was injured as a result of the negligent actions of the firm’s employee. The District Court found the appellant liable for injuries suffered by the respondent.

The two cases show the relationships between independent contractors and their employers regarding the issue of liability for negligence. The two cases demonstrated that companies are responsible for their independent contractors and are liable for any negligent actions done by them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd 3 case shows that an independent contractor who dons the uniform of his employer while performing work duties is considered to be an employee. Any negligent action done by him on duty involves his employer as well.

In this case, the bicycle courier had not been made aware of safety standards, he was required to observe, as he performed his duties. These cases reveal the level of liability which is conferred to companies and people who work for them based on the level of responsibility bestowed on a worker.

The Australian Air Express v Langford 4 showed that an independent contractor needs to be protected from any harm in the environment where he performs his duties. The ruling for this case has a lot of implications because it assigns liability to the employer for negligent acts that result in an independent contractor getting harmed.

The above case showed that Lanford had a close working relationship with the company and this exposed him to different types of risks within the work environment. The contract for service relationship between him and the company gave him some form of independence in the way he discharged his duties.

The contractor had ceded some level of control to the company which showed that they had a strong mutual professional relationship. The contractor was given instructions on how to perform his duties every morning which showed that he had a specific work schedule.

The two cases showed that the relationship that exists between a contractor and the contracting firm is determined by the nature of duties the contractor is supposed to perform. The intention in the agreement between the two parties does not hold as proof of whether a person should be considered as a contractor or an employee.

The two cases show that a firm has to meet the legal obligations that influence the relationship it has with its contractors.5

We will write a custom Essay on Comparison and Contrast of The Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that a firm has to take responsibility for negligence claims, which are caused by one of its contractors; if it is established that the negligent action took place while the contractor was performing responsibilities assigned to him. The working terms which are explicitly captured by the working agreement may not be enough to absolve employers of their responsibilities to their workers.

These two cases showed the changing nature of employment relationships in different workplace environments. This is influenced by the belief that an employer needs to give a person working for him fair employment terms to ensure that he is able to discharge his duties effectively. These cases have shown why employers need to put in place measures that help reduce accidents from happening at the workplace.6

This will help them reduce risks associated with different work procedures which are performed by both their employees and independent contractors. Therefore, they need to have effective supervisory functions to enable them limit the impact of negligent actions done by their employees and contractors.

The two cases show that employers expose their employees and other people to a certain amount of risk arising from their activities. This shows that they will be held responsible for any risk that may arise at the work place.

If an employer exercises a large degree of control over an independent contractor, then their relationship will be taken as one that exists between an employee and an employer. In these two cases, the employers controlled activities which were performed by these employees which showed that they performed duties which normal employees were expected to perform.7

In essence, an employer who determines the time a contractor should report to work an the number of hours that contractor has to work will be liable to meet basic requirements of employment.

All these considerations help to uncover the type of relationship that exists between a worker and an employer. If a dispute arises between the two parties, then this relationship will be assessed to find out how it affects the two parties involved.

The two cases also impact on the way workers who are employed to perform temporary duties are treated by the law. The Victorian WorkCover v Game 8 case upheld that Game’s decision to dig trenches on behalf of another employee showed that he was still employed by the firm.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison and Contrast of The Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The court ruled that even though Game was an independent contractor, the level of control which his employer had over him showed that he was an employee. Therefore, the employer needed to fulfill obligations which were stipulated under the law to his employee.

If an employer directs an employee closely over what he needs to do and how he needs to do it, it shows that the two parties have some level of understanding. This is construed that the contractor follows a definite schedule which has been put in place by the employer.

The two cases show that the totality of the work agreement impacts a lot on the relationship an independent contractor has with an employer. They way a worker performs duties assigned to him and the benefits that he is entitled to form the basis of an agreement between an employee and an employer.

Deductions made on an employee’s salary, membership in a trade union, annual leave and other compensation agreements are indicators of the relationship between a worker and an employer.9 All these issues make a person to be associated with a particular organization which is accountable for any harmful action that is experienced by him and other parties close to him in the course of performing his duties.

If an employer requires a contractor to wear attire that identifies him with that company, then he will be considered an employee of that company.

These landmark rulings have a major impact on labour relations in Australia. They show that employers have to take precautions in their dealings with contractors. Employers cannot use complex contract agreements to evade their responsibilities to their employees.

They need to be more aware of consequences which they expose their workers to, whenever they assign them duties to perform. The two cases show that the totality of the relationship between a worker and a firm shows if the worker is an employee or not.

References Australian Air Express v Langford (2005), NSWCA 96.

Giliker, P 2010, Vicarious liability in tort, Cambridge Universtiy Press, Cambridge.

Hollis v. Vabu Pty Ltd (1999), 207 CLR 21.

Murray J 2003, Work, family and the law, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Riley, J 2005, Employee protection at law, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Stewart, A 2011, Stewart’s guide to employment law, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Footnotes 1 (1999) 207 CLR 21.

2 (2005) NSWCA 96.

3 Ibid., 21.

4 Ibid., 96.

5 Jill Murray, Work, Family and The Law( 2003), p. 67.

6 Joellen Riley, Employee Protection at Law (2005),p. 110.

7 Ibid., p. 115.

8 Andrew Stewart, Stewart’s Guide To Employment Law (3rd. ed, 2011), p. 89.

9 Paula Giliker, Vicarious Liability in Tort (2010), p. 77.


The North American City on the Ground Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

The North American continent is located within the Northern, and Western Hemisphere and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the East, South America to the South-east, Arctic Ocean to the North, and Pacific Ocean to the West.

North America precedes Africa and Asia in largeness and accommodates twenty three states with diverse population and cultures. North America comprises such great cities as New York, Ottawa, Washington, New Orleans, Detroit, etcetera.

These cities have different features that shape environmental and economical growth (Berry


Recruitment and Selection Plan and Report Report college admissions essay help

Executive Summary The process of recruiting, selecting and evaluating employees for this project will take an approach that would enhance success for the project awarded to DataCo by the government of Singapore. Singapore Elite HR Company has been keen to ensure that it balances the projects needs and the law and regulations in this country.

This assessment team was keen to ensure that employees with the desired skills and ability to perform are the ones selected in this project. It is through this that the project can be considered a success. In this project, Elite will ensure that employees that DataCo require in different position are gotten using a competitive process. Also important is to ensure that this recruitment process is done within the budget limits.

This would help ensure that the entire process is undertaken within the expectations of DataCo. The evaluation process would further enhance the ability of the management and the hired employees to work in an integrated environment where giving directions would be easier.

Introduction Human resource forms an important aspect of any project. According to Boselie1, for any project to succeed, there must be a carefully selected workforce that will carry out various duties within the project.

This scholar further reiterates the importance of selecting the workforce that understands the project properly as a way of making work easier, and cutting such costs as that which would be incurred when the workforce has to undergo some form of training in order to understand the requirements of the project.

DataCo must realize these facts in order to succeed in this massive project that has been awarded by the government of Singapore. This two year project should be carefully planned by having the right workforce that will be able to meet the targets set by the project management team.

As Singapore Elite HR Company, we offer a solution to DataCo by helping in the selection of the most appropriate workforce that will be able to help this firm meet its objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that the positions have already been identified, Singapore Elite HR Company has a comprehensive plan on how to select various officers depending on the importance of the office. According to Budhwar2, every level of office has a different selection plan that is most appropriate.

This scholar says that the selection procedure used when hiring a secretary will always be different from that used when hiring a projects manager. Singapore Elite HR Company took this into consideration when coming up with this plan. All the planed recruitments are expected to be complete by 1st June 2013. This project must be based on the budget of $65,000 which has been assigned to it.

Job and Person Descriptions According to Cutcher3, before determining who to employ in every given position within a project, it is important to describe the job of that particular parson. Job description entails what the office should achieve, roles and responsibilities of the occupier of the office, the person the officer in that office will be answerable to and the remuneration that the office caries.

Evans4 says that job description helps in matching the skills of the occupier of the office, and the expectation of the entire project. It helps in determining the office that will be responsible for every single activity within the implementation process. Job description form is attached in this document at the appendix (Appendix A).

Fey5 says that person description involves describing the person that would hold a particular office within the project. This scholar says that when describing the person, care should be taken to ensure that there is a match with job description.

Person description would simply be the characteristics of the person who would be fitting into an office whose requirements have clearly been stated. The characteristics of the person would always be analyzed based on the descriptions given when describing the job. Person description form is attached in this document at the appendix (Appendix A).

Recruitment Method Recruitment is a very important stage in looking for the right workforce for a given project. According to Grobler6, recruitment involves gathering a pool of potential employees who have the capacity to undertake a given duty within a firm.

We will write a custom Report on Recruitment and Selection Plan and Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that when recruiting, the human resource officer must ensure that all the necessary qualities of the potential candidates for every position is gotten from the final list of the candidates to be selected.

Singapore Elite HR Company has a comprehensive plan of how to recruit the most qualified candidates for various positions within the project. Given the nature of the job market in Singapore, the management plans to use three methods in recruiting potential candidates for various positions in this project.

Advertisement using the Newspapers Most of the job seekers in Singapore always rely on newspapers to get job opportunities.7 This is especially so with those who have advanced level of education. In this project, the newspapers will be used when recruiting Data Entry Team Leader (DETL) and Data Entry Operators (DEO).

Newspaper will reach many people within a very short time. The newspaper will be appropriate for this position because of its geographical coverage. The leading national newspapers have a national coverage. Given the nature of these two positions, the candidates would be sourced from any part of this country. The newspaper will help in reaching the right candidates from all over the country.

The management plans to use Strait Times newspaper in reaching out for these candidates. Guest8 observes that this newspaper is one of the widely read newspapers in this country.

Online Advertisements According to Guest9 most of the job seekers are currently relying on the online job advertisements when looking for jobs such as CareerOne. Online advertisement is suitable for all the five identified positions for this project. This is because of the fact that through this means, it is possible to reach a wide number of people. Guest10 says that online advertisement would always reach people with or without computing background.

With the emergence of the Smartphone, online advertising has proven to be very appropriate when there are need to higher the right candidates within a shorter period of time, and with limited finance for the recruitment process. This is the predicament where Singapore Elite HR Company is in currently.

According to Guest11, most of the job seekers in this country have turned into the social media and the internet in general when looking for jobs. They have signed up to various agencies which would send them updates of the available jobs on a daily basis through their e-mails.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Recruitment and Selection Plan and Report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reaching out for these agencies and using them to send these job opportunities to various job seekers within the country would offer this firm the best opportunity to recruit the best employees in the market.

Use of Professional Associations Guthrie12 says that use of the professionals associations to get the right candidates for various tasks offers the best opportunity for a firm to get the best qualified candidates. In these associations, there is always opportunity to pass a communication of the availability of jobs in various firms.

Members can easily be reached using this forum. Database administrator, specialist librarian, and IT help desk operator can be found through this means. According to the report by Guthrie13, most of the professional bodies are always trusted by the experts. Using this forum will help in convincing the best workforce to make application for the various positions available.

The specialist librarian positions will be advertised through Library Association of Singapore (LAS). This is a large and respected body of professional librarians within Singapore. This body will help reach out for candidates with enough experience in this industry. This body has a bulletin blog where it posts various events and job opportunities as they arise within the country.

The IT Help Desk Operator and Database Administrator position will be advertised through Singapore Computer Society (SCS). This society’s membership includes all the computer engineers and technicians who have qualified to work within this country. Through its daily bulletins, it would be easier to reach specialists that would be very appropriate for various positions within this project.

Selection Method According to Guthrie14, selection of the employees from the potential candidates is one of the most challenging tasks in the process of hiring employees. This scholar says that care should always be taken to select the best qualified candidates out of the applicants of the job. Hamill15 affirms that the selection panel should always be in a position to determine the best candidates within the short period available following the closure of the application period.

The decision should always be based on the testimonials of the candidates, ability to present and express self before the panel and the physical attributes. In this selection process, the panel will select The Data Entry Team Leaders and Data Entry Operators using Compensatory Point Method.

This will be done using Multiple Regression Prediction Equation. Hamill16 says that this approach helps in selecting the best candidates who will be satisfied with the compensation that the firm offers. This will eliminate cases of dissatisfaction of the employees once they are hired.

The specialists librarian, IT help desk operator and Database administrator will be selected using Successive Huddle Approach. In this strategy the applicants would be subjected to screening at various stages, starting with the simplest stages where most are expected to pass, to the most complex stage where only the best qualified specialists can pass.

The selection can then be done based the best qualified candidates, is described as the last man standing.

DETL and DEOs Compensatory Scorecard Approach Hamill17 says that when short listing candidates for an interview, it is always important to assume that three out of four will be disqualified, while one out of every three will be disinterested with the job when the salary is specified. As such, it is always important to shortlist at least seven for every single position that is available.

The management based the selection approach on this theory, and shortlisted 35 applicants for the five positions of DEOs and another 35 applicants for the position of DETL. The shortlisted candidates will receive application forms which will be sent online. The applicants will then be subjected to an online personality and skill test after which they will undergo a telephone interview.

The candidates will be awarded scores using Multiple Regression Method. The selection team will then rate the employees based on their scores. The team will select the applicants based on their position on the scorecard. In any case an applicant declines the offer the next best candidate would be given that position.

The approach will be used to select five candidates for each of the two positions. Application form is attached in the appendix (Appendix B)

Successive Hurdles Approach for the other three positions The positions for Database administrator, IT help-desk operator and the librarian will be selected using this strategy. This is demonstrated in the appendix (Appendix C). This approach would help get the most qualified candidate for these positions. This approach is very appropriate when selecting a few candidates out of a large list of applicants.

Substantiating the Selection Methods Reviewing Resumes and Application Forms

The selection panel will review the resumes of all the applicants for various positions to determine the levels of education and their experience in the various positions applied for within this project. Resumes always help employers understand an employee from the employee’s perspective. This is because it is in the resume that an employee will try to explain self in the best approach possible.

The resume presentation will also help understand the personality of an applicant. Grobler18 says that the resumes also help in understanding two most important qualities of an applicant: level of education and experience. This scholar says that the level of education of an employee would determine the approach taken in handling various tasks within the firm.

Experience is also very important in determining how well an employee can perform a given task. Employees with experience in a given field are always more efficient and can perform assigned tasks within a shorter period of time.

The resumes also help in determining an employee’s language, logic and mathematic skills based on their education and experience in a given field. This activity is further described in the appendix (Appendix D).

Testing of the Skills

Grobler19 says that it is always important to test the skills of applicants whenever this is possible. In this selection plan, the DEOs skills will be determined using Alpha-Numeric Data Entry Test. The test will be administered online and the scores will be in words per minute, and with a minimum allowable error rate of 98 percent. The applicants will be assessed at Assessment Center by relevant authorities.

The Cognitive Test

Cognitive test refers to the process of testing the strength of the mind. Evans20 describes this process as a test of the mind. In all the five positions, there will be a need to conduct a cognitive test in order to determine the mental capacity of the applicants. There are various scientific approaches that can be used in testing the mental capacity of an individual.

Cognitive test is always important in determining the capacity of an individual to perform a given duty within a specified time. This test is very important for managerial positions. This is because these positions would always demand that an individual makes a decision that will affect other employees and the firm in general. These individuals must, therefore, be in a position to make decisions that are rational.

The Database administrator and the librarian would be subjected to this test in order to ensure that only the best candidate for this position gets elected.

Personality Testing

According to Budhwar21 testing the personality of an applicant is always important in determining how effective an employee would be within a firm. This scholar says that personality testing helps determine how an employee would manage himself or herself within the firm when faced with varying situations. The selection team will use NEO PI-R test.

This test will help in understanding such qualities of the applicants as the attitude, the emotions, motivational style among other personality traits. This will help identify candidates with the capacity to control their emotions and attitude even when faced with difficult situations.

Data Entry Team Leader will be subjected to this test because of his or her role in this project. Anyone in the leadership position should always have strong personality that would enable them meet the challenges that come with their position. They should be able to control their emotions and be able to motivate others to work effectively.

Assessment Centre

The process of assessing these employees will happen within the assessment centers. The assessment centers will be under direct supervision of Lee and Vicky, the two permanent Human Resource assistants. Under them will be six temporary HR assistant. Lee and Vicky will ensure that the other HR assistants, who will be the assessors, understand the assessment strategies that are appropriate when assessing the applicants.

They should understand the matrix method used to assess innovation, influence, analysis, and empathy of the employees. These assessors will be focusing on the candidates’ leadership capabilities, oral skills, attention to details and persuasive skills. This is shown in the appendix (Appendix F).


According to Evans22, interviews have the highest validity of all the selection methods if done correctly. This makes it the most common tool for selecting the right candidates. The candidates will be subjected to interviews to increase validity and reliability of the selection process. This will improve chances of coming up with the right candidates for the identified positions.

The interview will take the structured format which will be guided by a series of questions. Evans23 says that structured interviews have higher validity levels as opposed to unstructured interviews. This approached is elaborated in the appendix (AppendixG).

Background and Reference Checking

According to Baruch24, reference checking is always important in the selection process. This scholar says that referencing helps in confirming the details given by the applicant with the help of the external sources. The assessors will confirm the details of the applicants by contacting external sources to determine the previous performance and academic qualifications.

Budgets and Timelines The Budget

The selection process will take place within the constraints of finance that were assigned to it. A detailed budget for this process is given in the appendix (Appendix H). The recruitment costing is broken down in this table.


The timeline for various activities which were carried out in this project are described in the Gantt chart in the appendix (Appendix K)

Evaluation of the Project

According to Barney25, selection method should be evaluated to determine its effectiveness in achieving the desired result. The method should be fair, reliable, acceptable, valid, easy to use and cost effective. Evaluation will look at these factors to determine appropriateness of the selected method. It is only through this that the process will be considered fair and acceptable.

The method taken should be able to evaluate the aptitude test taken when selecting the candidates for various duties. Arthur26 says that the final employees should be 85 percent or higher in performance of their respective duties. An average employee should be performing at a percentage higher than 50%. In this case, the percentile would be used to defined standard deviation below and above mean (SD). This is demonstrated in the appendix (Appendix J)

Training Evaluation

The training that will be given to the successful applicants after the selection process should be assessed. These employees should be in a better position to perform their duties then they were before the training. This will also help in analyzing the selection method validity.

The final applicants should be able to understand the instructions given during the training with a lot of ease because they were selected as the best following a rigorous recruitment and selection process.

Conclusion Selecting the most appropriate employees for a given project is always a complex process. In this report, Singapore Elite HR Company has clearly stipulated a comprehensive process of recruiting, selecting and evaluating methodologies for the project awarded to DataCo. The report has clearly followed the strict timeline and the budget of $65,000 which was awarded.

The entire process is based on the laws and regulations put in place by the government of Singapore and other agencies that takes care o the interest of employees. Emphasis was placed on selection of the best qualifying candidates who would demand the fairest remuneration. In all the five posts, care was taken to hire candidates with reputation of good performance. This would make it easy for the project to be a success.

Bibliography Arthur, Joan. “Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover.” The academy of management journal 37, no. 3 (2008): 670-687.

Barney, John. “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage.” Journal of management 17, no. 1 (2010): 99.

Baruch, Yusuf. “Response rate in academic studies-A comparative analysis.” Human relations 52, no. 4 (2006): 421-438.

Boselie, Paul. “Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research.” Human Resource Management Journal 15, no. 3 (2005): 67-94.

Budhwar, Prisca. “Rethinking comparative and cross-national human resource management research.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 12, no. 3 (2006): 497-515.

Cutcher, Gershenfeld. “Impact on Economic Performance of a Transformation in Workplace Relations.” Management Journal 44, no. 2 (2007): 241.

Evans, Paul. The global challenge: international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2011.

Fey, Cecil. “The effect of human resource management practices on MNC subsidiary performance in Russia.” Journal of International Business Studies 32, no. 1 (2012): 59-75.

Grobler, Pieter. Human resource management in South Africa. London: Thomson Learning, 2006.

Guest, Daniel. “Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 8, no. 3 (2009): 263-276.

Guest, Edwin. “Human resource management and industrial relations.” Journal of management Studies 24, no. 5 (2001): 503-521.

Guthrie, James. “High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand.” The Academy of Management Journal 44, no. 1 (2002): 180-190.

Hamill, Jane. “Labour relations decision making within multinational corporations.” Industrial Relations Journal 15, no. 2 (2006): 30-34.

Appendix A: Job and Person Description forms

DataCo Job Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Specialist Librarian

Reporting to: General Manager

Level: Specialist level

Salary: To be confirmed

Hours: Full time

Location: Parklane Office

Job summary The specialist librarian is responsible for developing, cataloguing and classifying documents and records, and making them available for scanning. The specialist must be in a position to accomplish the task using systems and databases, based on the standard legal search and reference tools that will meet the need of the organization.

This specialist should be reachable to other officers who may need his or her service. It is the responsibility of the librarian to barcode and catalogue the document for the purpose of archiving. The specialist should ensure that the conversion of the records is accurate to avoid any cases of contradiction or confusion of the records.

This specialist will be working in the offices located in Parklane building, 35 Selegie Rd in Singapore, with the standard working hours of 38 hours in a week).

Responsibilities and Duties of the Librarian

Duties and Responsibilities % time Collection of various documents and preparing them for a scan 25 Classification and cataloguing the documents 20 Using the databases systems in tracking the documents 10 Using reference tools and the standard legal search in attaching the search criteria to all documents 15 Verification and writing abstracts for the purpose of clarification to other team members 5 Cataloguing the barcode and preparing them for archiving upon completion of data entry. 15 Contrasting the converted records with the originals in order to maintain conversion accuracy of the records 10 DataCo Person Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Specialist Librarian


Essential Desirable Must be an Undergraduate in library and information studies (Post graduate in the same course or a related cause will be an added advantage.) LAS membership Work Experience and Skills. Behavioral traits and personal qualities

Essential Desirable A minimum of 2 years experience as a Librarian Experience with Oracle systems A strong knowledge of Microsoft office basics Essential Desirable Demonstration of interpersonal skills Team-building spirit Skilled in numeracy and literacy DataCo Job Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: IT Help Desk Operator

Reporting to: The General Manager

Level: Support level

Salary: To be confirmed

Hours: Full time

Location: Parklane Office

Job summary Help Desk operator is charged with the responsibility of to assisting staff members with hardware and software difficulties. This may be done through multiple mediums, and the results be documented for purpose of future reference.

This specialist will be expected to train all new members of staff on issues related to software or hardware. The specialist will be to maintain and update software and hardware when there is need. This includes the maintenance of the scanning devices. Help Desk Operator will ensures data is secure by managing and monitoring any issues that may arise.

The IT help Desk will be working from the offices in Parklane Office, and will work within the standard 38 hours a week. The officer will be reporting to the general manager.

Responsibilities and Duties

Duties and Responsibilities % time Answering inquiries from staff using available medium 25 Creating resolutions records for reference in future 15 Installing relevant software and hardware 15 Training new staff on the software and hardware 15 Monitoring and managing security of data 10 Maintaining and supporting remote computing applications 10 DataCo Person Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May2013

Job Title: IT Help Desk Operator


Essential Desirable Relevant degree from a recognized university Any recognized college within the country IT Dimploma or Certificate Work Skills and Experience

Essential Desirable Experience of over 2 years of experience in IT support role Experience in data security management Experience with Oracle systems (at least 4 months) A understanding of Microsoft office suite and Microsoft windows Excellent skills in problem solving Personal behavioral traits and qualities

Essential Desirable Excellent verbal and written communication skills (English) Team building spirit Competence in numeracy and literacy skills Ability to prioritize and multi-task DataCo Job Description Form

Last Updated: 1st March 2012

Job Title: Database Administrator

Reporting to: The General Manager

Level: Specialist level

Salary: To be confirmed

Hours: Full time

Location: Parklane Office

Job Summary The Database administrator shall monitor the performance of oracle database systems using custom made software. The officers will be responsible for ensuring that all staff members have access to desired data. They shall also develop standards for accessing the information and to monitor compliance with the standards.

The officers are also required to test and report any database changes to programmers and analysts in the head office. The Database administrator is expected to train all users and to answer any question that may arise. The officer will ensure that there is a back-up for all the data, and that there is a contingency plan for data recovery whenever there may be need for that.

The Database administrator will work from the Parklane office, within the standard 38 hours a week, and answerable to the general manager

Duties and Responsibilities

Duties and responsibilities % time Monitoring of the systems’ performance with the help of the custom made software. 10 Managing all staff access to the correct data. 10 Developing standards and ensuring compliance with data access 15 Test databases and programs for errors, make correction if there is need and then report to the relevant authorities. 20 Training the users on how to access database and being available to respond to queries. 10 Ensuring that data is properly backed up. 15 Developing, testing and implementing contingency plans on recovery of data 25 DataCo Person Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Database Administrator


Essential Desirable Bachelor’s Degree in IT related course or Certificate IV in Information Technology Oracle SQL Developer (Certified Associate) Oracle Database Certification IT Professional: (Database Administrator) Work Experience and Skills

Essential Desirable A minimum 2 years’ experience as a Database Administrator Experienced in VPNs Strong knowledge of Microsoft windows and Microsoft office suite Experienced in Oracle databases Behavioral traits and personal qualities

Essential Desirable Interpersonal skills Knowledge on safety and security skills Team-work capabilities Advanced literacy and numeracy skills Intrapersonal understanding DataCo Job Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Data Entry Operator Team Leader

Reporting to: To be Confirmed

Level: Supervisory level

Salary: TBC

Hours: Full time

Location: Parklane Offices

Job summary The Data Entry Operator Team Leader will be responsible for transcription tasks, and digitizing paper copies of documents. This would involve use of barcode tracking equipment and scanning equipment. The officers will also be responsible for motivating junior employees within the team. They will also train new staff members on administrative and systems procedures.

This officer will work from the Parklane office for the standard 38 hours a week. The reporting chain has yet to be established.

Duties and Responsibilities

Job duties and responsibilities % time Rapid transcription of Alphanumeric data 10 Inspection of transcribed data for any errors 25 Using of scanner equipment to digitise paper documents 15 Using of the barcode tracking equipment 2 Ensure high quality standards of team’s output 13 Teaching the new staff members on systems, the administrative procedures and work processes . 35 DataCo Person Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Data Entry Operator Team Leader

Essential Desirable A minimum of Bachelor’s degree from a recognized university Oracle University’ leadership courses Leadership training course Essential Desirable Keystrokes per hour of 7500 Experience with Oracle systems 95% Alphanumerical typing accuracy Experience in Data Entry positions Experience as a Team Leader Qualifications. Behavioral traits and Personal qualities

Essential Desirable Ability to pay attention to details High level oral and written communication skills High level of literacy and numeracy Ability to multitask and prioritize DataCo Job Description Form

Last Updated: 28th May 2013

Job Title: Data Entry Operator

Reporting to: Data Entry Operator Team Leader

Level: Subordinate level

Salary: To be confirmed

Hours: Full time

Location: Parklane Office

Job summary The Data Entry Operator is responsible for transcribing of tasks, digitizing the paper copies of documents. This will involve using of barcode tracking equipment and scanning equipment.

The Data Entry operator will work from the Parklane Office within the standard 28 hours a week. He or she will be directly answerable to the Data Entry Operator Team Leader.

Responsibilities and Duties

Job duties and responsibilities % time Rapid transcription of alphanumeric data 50 Inspection of the transcribed data for errors 20 Use scanner equipments in digitizing paper documents 15 Appropriate use of barcode tracking equipment 15 DataCo Person Description Form

Last Updated: 1st March 2012

Job Title: Data Entry Operator


Essential Desirable Bachelor’s Degree in the relevant field ‘Oracle University’ training courses Essential Desirable Keystrokes per hour of 8000 Experience with Oracle systems 98% Alphanumerical typing accuracy Experience in Data Entry positions Work Experience and Skills

Essential Desirable Capability of follow details Strong verbal communication skills Capability of working autonomously Able to perform repetitive tasks High level of literacy and numeracy Personal qualities and behavioral traits. DEO Compensatory scorecard

Procedures of selection Characteristics of Selection Procedure The application form Skills test Personality test Phone Interview The highest possible score 4 10 10 16 .15 .10 .50 .20 .20 Notes: M= 0.10X1 0.50X2 0.20X3 0.20X4 (M is expected performance, X1is for the application forms scores, X2is the score in skills test, X3is the score on personality test and X4is the score on phone Interview. The weightings of the individual was calculated based on job validities). Successive hurdles breakdown

Data Entry Operator Team leaders

IT Help Desk Operator

Specialist Librarians

Database Administrator

Resume and Application form sifting scoring charts

DEO, DEOTL and IT Help Desk

Qualifications The Score A relevant University Degree 5 Diploma or Oracle course or an equivalent 3 Cert III 1 Successful completion of high school 0.5 Work Experience Team leader or managerial experience (For DEOTL only) 2 Data entry experience / IT Help Desk Experience 2 Clerical work experience / Sales or service experience 1 no work experience in relevant field 0.5 Database Administrator

Qualification Score Certification in Oracle PL/SQL Developer and/or Microsoft Certified IT Professional: (Database Administrator) 5 Oracle Database or SQL Certification 3 Relevant University Degree 3 Diploma or oracle course 2 Work experience Score Oracle Database Administrator 4 Database Administrator 2.5 no work experience 0 Specialist Librarian

Qualification Score Library Association of Singapore Accredited Degree or Technical Qualification, 2 Not relevant degree or technical qualification 0 Work experience


Leadership and Organisational Change Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The mere mention of an organisation calls to mind two important aspects. The leader of an organisation and the type of organisation matter a lot. People tend to associate with organizations that have sound leadership because such leadership devotes time to effecting necessary changes needed to steer an organisation from one level or stage to the other.

Leadership implies a team that is under a leader, for such a leader cannot work alone. Various theories of leadership explain how a leader can influence change in an organisation and the steps required to effect such organizational changes. Conversely, poor leadership can lead to the collapse of an organisation.

This essay seeks to look at different leadership theories, the concept of leadership and how effective leadership effects organisational change.

The Concepts of Leadership and Organisation Leadership is a multifaceted concept that has attracted heated debate regarding its origin. Different schools of thought offer different ideas on whether leadership is inherent or learned (Grint, 2004). The different schools might not agree on the origin of leadership but they do agree on the definition of a leader based on the role in an organisation.

As such, a leader refers to a person who initiates the direction for a team in an organisation and who secures the team’s commitment to fulfil laid down goals (Grint, 2004). In addition, it is the duty of such an individual to motivate the team for better results in an organisation (Carneiro, 2002).

Such a person has both authority and legitimate power to influence desired changes in an organisation. Precisely, a leader is an individual vested with authority and power to carry out roles in an organisation and who executes change through other people (Carneiro, 2002).

How Leadership Theories Contribute To Effective Organisational Change Trait Theories

This group of theories stress that effective leaders exhibit various features or traits. As such, various leadership traits still exist in writing and individuals who become assume leadership roles are encouraged to follow them. Such traits range from physical features, intellectual capabilities, personality characteristics as well as mannerisms and skills (Senior


Human Resource Management: Workplace Shortages and the Related Issues Report cheap essay help

Introduction In the competitive environment of the XXI century globalized business field, the problem of lacking workforce might seem a very far-fetched issue; however, weirdly enough, workplace shortages have become a commonly observed phenomenon over the past few decades.

Fighting Workplace Shortages: Strategies Needless to say, a number of strategies preventing the given phenomenon from taking over the business world have been tested, yet none seems to have had any tangible effect on the issue. As reports say, among the most common measures, the following strategies have been spotted:

Raising the retirement age (Australian government);

Workplace mentoring (Jones, 2012).

Workplace mentoring Being the most promising strategy of all three mentioned above, workplace mentoring can be defined as establishing the specific models of behavior for the employees to follow in order to remain competent, growing both professionally and personally, and deal with the lack of enthusiasm or creativity (French, 2011, 136).

With the help of mentoring, employers will be able to bring the rates of workplace shortages down and manage to keep their more integrated, more invested in their work, and more enthusiastic about the future prospects.

Benefits of workplace mentoring According to what the recent researches say, the key asset of the specified approach is that it makes the employees perfect their skills without setting very competitive environment (Gallagher