Evaluating Grapple Mobile Technology Report (Assessment) College Admission Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Services Offered and Competitors

Organizational Chart and Functionalities

Information Dissemination

Boundary Spanning Activities


Managing Information



Introduction Grapple Mobile Technology is a full service solution and mobile application developer based in London, New York and Toronto. The privately funded company is a Red Herring top winner. Grapple’s main services include the building of applications for multiple devices and distributing these apps to leading app stores (Grapple Apps 2011).

This paper aims at evaluating the company’s performance in terms of services offered, organizational chart and functionalities, information dissemination system, boundary spanning activities, challenges encountered and managing information.

Services Offered and Competitors Grapple Mobile Technology’s main services include building and designing apps for mobile devices, distribute these apps to leading apps stores; these steps take days rather than weeks. Grapple has a unique award-winning technology that enables cross platform strategy to deliver the highest quality in building an app.

The company constructed the Grapple Technology which is a patented development environment for the building native mobile phone applications with standard web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

“Using a hybrid compiler and virtualisation technology, applications can be written once and run on multiple mobile platforms including iPhone, Android, Blackberry and Symbian” (Grapple Apps 2011).

Grapple’s main competitors in the App Development industry include Golden Gekko, Masabi, Always on Message and Yuza Mobile. Aside from developing mobile apps, Golden Gekko also provides mobile application development alternatives such as bespoke development, products for customisation and branding of mobile app studio which allows clients to create their own mobile app. (Golden Gekko About Us 2011).

Masabi, on the other hand, develops ticketing apps for the transport sector with its award-winning “Ticket Machine in Your Pocket” app. “The company’s technology allows transport operators to transform their passengers’ travel experience while also dramatically expanding sales capacity without significantly increasing costs” (About Masabi 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Always on Message works with leading businesses in developing innovative strategies to put these businesses at the forefront of engaging customers through mobile (Always On Message 2011). Lastly Yuza Mobile which was named the Top 50 Mobile Innovator by Mobile Entertainment, also develops mobile apps and provides competitive services in the app development industry (About Yuza 2011).

For Grapple Mobile Technology, the business service area that offers the most growth and profit is development of apps. With Grapple’s exclusive technology which reaches 97% of phone users, mobile apps can be produced for numerous devices allowing clients to reach their target audience easily. The technology also enables a speedy building for all native interfaces and mobile operating system.

This saves time and costs in development and production because apps can be created in a span of days rather than weeks. Grapple provides customers with the lowest cost available in the app development industry being more than 75% cheaper.

The company delivers a full service solution which helps clients from the conceptualization to the downloading of the app. This process enables customers to create an app that helps their businesses fulfil objectives.

Organizational Chart and Functionalities As a full service solution firm Grapple’s team is divided into 6 to accommodate the needs of clients. These teams are: App Management, App Analytics, App Technology, App Creation, App Delivery and App Distribution. Below is the mapped out network chart which represents the inflows of information from the conceptualization to the distribution of apps.

App Management Team Work with clients in conceptualizing new ideas to reach the target market. App Analytic Team Provide specific information on app usage App Technology Team Team that develops technology in making apps at a lower cost App Creation Team Ensures that apps push through boundaries App Delivery Team Futureproof newly created apps to keep up with trends App Distribution Ensures apps be distributed and handles paper works for third party distribution The Grapple team works systematically in terms of producing the best products and services needed by clients. The organization is composed of interdependent team working closely together. On the forefront the App Management team works closely with different brands, businesses and agencies to produce new and innovative ideas to reach their target market.

Once ideas have been conceptualize the App Analytics team will supply data on app usage from the number of downloads to interaction and frequency of app usage.

We will write a custom Assessment on Evaluating Grapple Mobile Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Then the App Technology and App Creation teams which will develop the needed apps requested by clients and ensure that they can push the boundaries through various testings. The App Delivery team will prove created apps making them available on all latest releases. Lastly the App Distribution team will be handling the signing and distribution processes.

Information Dissemination There are various ways of disseminating information about a newly created app. Grapple can distribute apps via vendors or third party app stores such as Apple iStore, Nokia OVI, Android or Blackberry. Vendors can advertise new apps in their store websites which is quite effective but other alternatives such as online blogging, product reviews and giving out free trial usage can be effective tools also in spreading information. Below is a chart of the information dissemination techniques done by Grapple Mobile Technology.

Grapple Mobile Technology Laboratory Vendor/ App Store Online Blogging Press Reviews Free Trial Usage Once apps are completed clients may choose to let app stores distribute their products. Grapple can blog about its newest developed apps but the scope will be limited to those who visit the company’s blogs.

Another way of marketing the app is through press reviews, by letting media personnel evaluate the app and in exchange they would write a literature on it. Lastly another viable source of app information dissemination is posting free trial usages of the new app where users will download a free trial version for a couple of weeks.

Boundary Spanning Activities Grapple’s technology which enables apps to be created in multiple devices and mobile devises, clients can reach their entire target audience by 97%. Grapple works with over 500 devices which exclude phone users from not being able to use newly developed apps by the company (Grapple Apps 2011).

With Grapple’s a hybrid compiler and virtualisation technology, the company can provide hosting services which stores all binaries on Grapple’s servers. Client’s target audience can download app from a centralised location and an URL is produced from which all versions of the app can be downloaded.

The company’s phone detection database which is constantly refreshed and enhanced to keep up to date with new devices, enables users to install only binaries on their phones. Also, the App Management group, with its experience in extensively working with brands, businesses and agencies can suggest newly formulated ideas to new or recurring customers.

They can be able to persuade new ones to grow the company’s network by pulling in more clients. The continuous exposure of team members to other developers, award giving bodies and media personnel can also help the growth of Grapple in terms of market share. Word of mouth and budding friendships among employees and third party groups can improve the company’s spear of influence.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluating Grapple Mobile Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Boundary spanning activities of Grapple should not be exclusive only to technological advancements and connections but people interaction also plays a significant role in increasing annual sales and revenues. Grapple’s blog also serves as a tool to connect its clients and probable clients. It is one of the best forms of boundary spanning activities conducted by the company.

Challenges As a young company which was founded 4 years ago, Grapple Mobile Technology has encountered its fair share of obstacles and difficulties.

In a time when the mobile device industry is becoming more and more saturated with big players such as Google Android, Apple iPhone, RIM’s Blackberry, Nokia’s Symbian and Window’s operating systems competing against each other’s captured markets, almost everyone owns a device whether be a smart phone or a tablet.

Grapple must face the challenges concerning the speedy demand for innovation of technology and creativity. Competitors who are more experience in the field and who have a larger client pool are at bay to capture Grapple’s market share. Customer satisfaction is the key to maintaining Grapple’s stability and growth in the industry not to mention the constant upgrading of technology in the company’s developmental laboratories.

Employing talents can also be a challenge with the presence of competitors pouching people from one company to the other. Grapple must also make sure that employees are happy in the workplace and continue to help them grow in terms of learning and experiences and at the same time satisfy employees’ compensation pays.

Constant innovation and creativity providing utmost customer satisfaction by capturing target markets and helping clients attain company objectives are very significant in running the Grapple business.

It is good that Grapple won awards in the year 2011, and got the Best App Developer award at the Mobile Entertainment Awards. This contributes to the strengthening of trust of the share holders and clients with the management team.

Managing Information In order to efficiently manage inflows and outflows of information, Grapple Mobile Technology should be organized. The company should pay attention to the key principles that are critical in Grapple’s success and stability in the industry.

These principles are: recognize and manage complexities, focus on adopting to changes, deliver tangible and visible benefits, prioritise according to business needs, take things one step at a time, provide strong leadership, mitigate risks, communicate extensively, aim to deliver a seamless user experience and choose projects carefully.

Improving information management practices should be a key focus for organizations to grow efficiently and demand competence from teams to deliver products and services in the market. First the Grapple management team should recognize and manage complexities in the work environment. When planning and deploying solutions for customers each team should avoid if not limit complexities.

“Organizations often adopt simple approaches and believe vendors when they offer silver bullet technology solutions” (Robertson 2005). Second, the company should focus on adopting to change. The carrying out of information is crucial in the execution of such knowledge by the team. In managing information systems active participation from all members is required.

However, the challenge here is that sufficient adoption of such information will be followed to ensure that the system (namely team members involved) takes such information and executes accordingly.

In a world where everything changes quickly the dissemination of information and tasks among teams must be efficient and swift not to mention that the team members should also be alert in the changes brought about by the climate of the business. In the app development industry it is important to acquire exclusive technologies to have an edge with competitors.

Whenever changes may occur be in the technology department or management, people from Grapple must be prepared to embrace such transformations and modifications. The company’s system must also be flexible for any improvements in the future thus projects must be designed to ensure that there is room for change and employee adaptation.

In dealing with clients, although systems are open for some adjustments, Grapple must make sure that the essence of the system must not be missing namely the advantages of clients in adopting to the newly improved agreement, purposes and benefits of the change must be communicated properly to staff, target projects to build another, extensive change management and cultural change activities and ensure that organized systems are useful and usable to the team.

Third, the delivery of concrete and evident benefits is a key factor in the management of information. Information management projects must always be devised to produce tangible and visible benefits thus operations should always target issues or needs that are visible within the organization.

In the public’s eye Grapple is a fast emerging apps developer company but internally the management has to look after the development of the workers in teams in terms of keeping phase with the company’s growth. From a start up company, Grapple is fast becoming a renowned organization thus as the company grows its workers must also grow. The management team’s organization of information system must improve continuously.

The delivery of solution indicate the improvement of the company, this must be heavily promoted throughout the company. The fourth principle is the prioritization of business needs accordingly especially with the challenged posed by not knowing where to start in managing the whole organization.

Most urgent business needs or issues must first be identified in managing information in Grapple Mobile Technology which is obtained from the overall business strategy and direction of the company.

An example is the continuous improvement of technology which is the core factor on how the company will operate and this also give the direction of Grapple on how it will position itself in the market in the upcoming quarters. Next principle in managing information is to take one step at a time letting go of the idea of designing a complete information management solution.

“There is no single application or project that will address and resolve all the information management problems of an organization. Where organizations look for such solutions, large and costly strategic plans are developed. Assuming the results of this strategic planning are actually delivered (which they often aren’t), they usually describe a long-term vision but give few clear directions for immediate actors” (Robertson 2005).

It is worth noting that organizations, like Grapple Mobile Technology, are too complex for the consideration of a planned approach. Instead of wasting time and resources making a plan for the whole company, it is advisable that management leaders recognize small approaches and make adjustments along the way depending on the situation the company encounters.

Management will encounter that changes may occur in quantity, sometimes it may be organization-wide but most of the time changes are implemented in smaller units such as individual teams. It is worth observing that when changes are added up together they impact major activities of the whole organization.

While this type of management can be difficult to impose with many groups to develop, this approach actually addresses the complexities of the first principle and it’s an effective way of justifying risks. The sixth principle is providing strong leadership in the organization. To successfully manage information means to create an organizational culture of leadership.

Leaders can influence workers to see the clear vision of the company’s target outcome. Along with this vision is the outline of how the organization will operate and what the steps of the workers will be in achieving such goals. In order to create a culture of leadership, the company’s share holders must be also involved in goal setting. This will create the atmosphere of unity and support and might even boost confidence in performances.

Focus on leadership and developing leaders can provide a clear understanding of goals and advantages in accomplishing such goals. The seventh principle for Grapple to function effectively in managing information is justifying risks.

Organizations in general have complex environments thus risks arise when implementing information management solutions such as selecting technology solutions, overruns in terms of time and/ or budget, revising business requirements, technical issues or staff’s failure to adopt to changes.

Risks should clearly be identified before an approach will be formulated. “Risk management approaches should be used to plan all aspects of the project, including activities conducted and the budget spent” (Robertson 2005). An example can be in the company’s cost cutting action plans where risks can be justified easily.

Eighth principle is to communicate extensively which is critical for the success of the initiative. Open communication breeds an environment of creativity with ideas. The next principle is to aim to deliver a seamless user experience by hiding the system that information comes from. Thus information presented to clients should be presented in a way clients understand them.

Lastly in order to manage the company information system, management must choose projects carefully ensuring that they show the value of Grapple’s information management strategy, create momentum for future activities and projects, increase interest from all partners, provide tangible and visible benefits for the client and the company, tackle urgent needs and issues; projects can be communicated to staff clearly and they must help the team in gaining further resources.

In choosing projects carefully Grapple will benefit because the right projects will lead the company to the right path by providing opportunities to satisfy the company’s goals.

Conclusion Grapple Mobile Technology has only been operating for more or less 4 years now. With its rapid growth, it may encounter threats from competitors in the app development industry. In order for it to be competent in its field it must enhance its organizational information management.

References Always on Me 2011. Web.

Golden Gekko 2011, About Us. Web.

Grapple Apps 2011, What We Do. Web.

Masabi 2011, About Masabi. Web.

Robertson, J 2005, 10 Principles of Effective Information Management. Web.

Yuza 2011, Our Vision. Web.


“The role of Innovation in achieving Competitive Advantage” Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of knowledge in innovation

Use of tacit and explicit knowledge in an organization

How does lack of tacit knowledge impact on an organization?

Capturing and transferring knowledge within an organization

A summary of the main body


Reference List

Introduction As a result of the current economic crisis, most organizations have been forced to downsize their workforce in a bid to reduce their operational costs. One way through which organizations can reduce their operational costs is by downsizing. However, this might result in the risk of losing the knowledge possessed by employees (Martins


Presentation of the Target Grammar Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Grammar Lesson According to Larsen-Freeman (1986) the way a teacher presents or introduces the target grammar in a more meaningful context plays a critical role in making a student understand what is being presented.

The presentation of the target grammar provides an opportunity for students to either memorize it or neglect it in the soonest time possible as in the case “when a count noun refers to more than one thing, we make it plural….. Adding an “s” or “es” “.

Here, the teacher introduces the target grammar in a meaningful context, explains the meaning, structure and provides tasks to check the students have understood what has been presented.


Presentation of grammar varies with the teacher. It may be presented in explicit or implicit forms. Clear presentation allows the teacher to begin the presentation by stating grammar focus and explaining it using grammatical terms. In contrasts, when presenting grammar implicitly, a teacher may start with an example that embeds the target grammar.

However, whatever the context, Stevick (1996) illustrates that a teacher must incorporate multiple styles of learning and creating a non-linguistic imagery which reinforces the learning process. The teacher may avoid or delay an explanation of grammar. Our model shows the comprehensive approach taken by the teacher in presenting the lesson.

The teacher begins by explaining the grammar focus when he/she says, “when a count noun refers to more than one thing, we make it plural… adding an “s” or “es..“. The teacher may further add, “When the subject of a sentence is plural, the verb must agree with it” The teacher also proceeds with the lesson by explaining a series of examples.

For example, the teacher says “Find some pencils. Where are the pencils? Where are they?” In this case, the teacher does not explain anything about the target structure, but, rather, prefers to obtain this information from the students. Hence, we can deduce that the teacher’s strategy is effective in aiding the students learn and memorize the words being explained.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Guided and Delivery Pattern

According to Hardley (2001) when the teacher has presented the target grammar and assessed understanding of the new form’s meaning, the teacher moves on to the guided phase. The guided phases allow a student with an opportunity to exploit the structure in the context while other variables remain constant (Stevick, 1996).

On some occasions, during this phase, students attempt to use the target grammar in its expressive form and controlled contexts. Here the guided practice in teaching grammar is essential. This is because it provides a significant bridge between the instructor’s presentation of new grammar structure and the student’s use of the new structure in a communicative environment.

By providing a controlling context in which a student uses the target structure, it enables them to gain control of the form without added distraction and strain of trying to use the form for communication (Hardley, 2001). The model has also effectively embraced effective memorization methods. Generally speaking, methods such as repetition, infection, restatement, and completion have been utilized by the teacher.

For example

Teacher: Find some pencils. Where are the pencils? Where are they?(Repetition)

Student: Pencil in bag.

Teacher: Ah, pretty good. Pretty good, but listen. Who can tell me something different?

Student: The pencil is on the desk.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Presentation of the Target Grammar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teacher: The pencil – listen- the pencil is on the desk. The pencil is on the – do we like that? The pencil is on the desk. I see something different. I see pencils. Do you see pencils? (Infection)

Student: Yeah, I see two

The guidance approach and the delivery method accomplished by the teacher demonstrates the effectiveness of the language delivery.

Teacher Roles

The teacher’s role in this model is active and prominent. This means that it is a teacher dominated process. The teacher is responsible for modeling the target language, controls the directions and place of learning and oversees and corrects the student’s performance. The teacher is responsible for keeping the students committed by varying activities and choosing situations to practice structures.

Student/ learner’s Roles

A student is viewed as an organism which can be guided or directed through skilled training methods to deliver needed responses. In tandem with behaviorist learning theory, the teaching focuses on the exterior expression of learning fairly than on the internal processes.

In this model, we see a student assuming a reactive position by responding to stimuli, thus; she/he has little control over the pace, style of learning or content. The student listening to the teacher, mimic clearly and try to respond to activities as illustrated by the teacher.

Teaching Vocabulary Vocabulary building is a key element to ESL students. It contributes to understanding of reading comprehensions (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). Without explicit vocabulary practice and teaching, ESL students are not able to win the right competence standards for readings.

According to the basics and tactics of incorporating vocabulary into teaching ESL students, this class will fail to achieve its value. This is because of several reasons. One reason is that the teacher should have prepared a pre-reading activity using the vocabulary in context. Pre-reading would have provided the students with many new opportunities to face the word.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Presentation of the Target Grammar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would have been easy explained with either showing the word using the flash card or a picture. For example; the students fail to distinguish between the library and the police. Teacher:” who would you call if there’s been a robbery, if thieves have broken into your house, who do you call?”

Students: Library

Teacher: Library? Police

This statement shows the students fail to recognize the library and the police.

Secondly, the teacher would have provided the students with more opportunities to identify the word in different contexts in describing pictures, using sentences and through using games.

Thirdly, there are no obvious signs of different learning styles. Vocabulary learning demands an array of materials such as audio recordings for dictation practice tasks, pictures, among others. Pictures and audio elements are required when a student is learning a new word for the first time.

According to Larsen-Freeman (1986) a student progresses well in gaining vocabulary by recognizing style activities to production based activities. This needs a student to accomplish something else with the word besides simply knowing or understanding its meaning.

In this example, we don’t see the teacher involving students in construction based activities. Hence, this limits the class effectiveness. Creative opportunities such as spelling bees or short original writings can encourage students to brainstorm around a targeted vocabulary or word list.

Stevick (1996) emphasizes that a new language should be introduced in dialogue. The dialogue should be organized around the theme of the language concept being taught, and should comprise useful vocabulary in the language.

The learners should be encouraged to mimic what the teacher speaks in class and listen carefully to the features of the language as spoken by the teacher. The dialogue should be repeated by the whole class at first and finally repeated in a small group or individually.

The dialogue as presented in class should be consolidated and applied to individual students’ own conditions. After learning and mastering the common concepts of the language, the students should be encouraged to attempt assignments comprising report writing for practice purposes.

Pronunciation Omaggio developed a method of proficiency to define a new approach to teaching a language. She termed this approach as Proficiency approach. The proficiency approach is a communicative approach which shares similar characteristics of the Natural approach, which is; teaching language skills in the order in which the student naturally gains them. It also adds by fulfilling some error corrections to avoid student fossilization.

Besides, the method involves utilizing the student learning by tailoring the language in tandem with genuine purposes which is encountered in the target culture. Omaggio Proficiency approach is a criteria anchored on five hypotheses forming a guideline for teaching language communicatively.

Omaggio Hypothesis

Hypothesis 1

Omaggio explains that opportunities should be provided to enable students to practise using language in various contexts which is likely to be met in the target culture. She points out that students should be encouraged to express own interpretation as early as possible after creative skills have been introduced during instruction.

In this theory, Omaggio asserts that a proficiency-oriented approach promotes active communication interaction among students. Also, the creative language practice (as opposed to only manipulative or convergent procedure) must be encouraged in the proficiency-oriented classroom. And, lastly, the genuine language should be used in instruction wherever and whenever possible.

In our model, the flyer points out various techniques that can aid a student express her/his own understanding of the pronunciation. This is suggested in the materials provided such as the 2 full colour 60 minutes video tapes, sturdy plastic binders with a table of contents which assist the student to pace his /her progress.

To develop the understanding more useful for the student and provides 46 sound lessons which include word endings. Besides, the flyers show special animations of the tongue and lips even inside the mouth.

Basing on Omaggio theory one, these activities/materials create interactions among the students, encourage creative language practice and enable a student to practice the language/pronunciation in a more meaningful discourse that flows logically.

Hypothesis 2

Omaggio’s hypothesis two explains that opportunities should be provided to allow a student practise carrying out different roles expected to be necessary in dealing with others in the target culture.

In our model, the Perfect English Pronunciation materials provided support the second theory of Omaggio. They give the students opportunities to practise the language in the best possible way. This is sketched in the pictures marking the way pronunciation should be succeeded.

The flyer consists of unique animation shows which suggest the motions of the mouth. These materials provide the student the “opportunity” that Omaggio draws in her hypothesis, allowing a student to practise and learn the new language with ease.

Hypothesis 3

The theory suggests there should be concern for developing linguistic accuracy from the beginning of instruction in a proficiency-oriented approach. Accuracy in our model has been captured clearly.

The flyer provides an easy to use instruction sheet, provides timing sheet, and each sound lesson is clearly labelled and each lesson provides a clear instruction on how to form a sound. Thus, these materials provide a benchmark for developing accuracy since they provide evaluative feedback and correction on the students’ part.

Hypothesis 4

Omaggio points out the proficiency-oriented approaches should respond to the affective needs of students as well as to their cognitive needs. A student should be motivated to learn and must be given opportunities to express their own meanings in a nonthreatening environment.

The materials come on video tape and animation, rather than the student embracing the conventional method of learning, which is boring, the animations and video tapes provide a motivation learning environment which encourages a student to concentrate even more.

Hypothesis 5

The final theorem Omaggio draws is Cultural sensitivity; it must be promoted in various ways. In this way, a student will be prepared to live harmoniously in the target-language community.

The model indicates that the materials can be used in schools, libraries, in speech/language pathologists, ESL instructors, a corporation with foreign employees, people who wish to learn English and ALL nationalities. Hence, basing on Omaggio’s theory five, the material embraces cultural diversity and sensitivity. This guarantees a student to live harmoniously with the target language community or in the society.

Earl Stervick

Stervick provides a practical manner in which the synthesis of the classroom material can be useful to a student. He asserts that memory is multi-sensual and multidimensional and therefore, language does not exist in isolation but is connected to other body senses. He also points out that winning a language is improved by understanding the holistic working of the memory. In this case, he favours different styles of learning.

Thus, the material present in the flyer can be improved by strengthening auditory images; this will confirm grammar and pronunciation. They can also be substituted or correlated with drill method. This method can improve student memorization process. Also, they can also be boosted by the 74 step exercise.

The 74 step exercise can increase the pronunciation and grammatical structure for students facing difficulties (Stevick, 1996). The 74 exercise illustrates the increments in word classes and constructions to a learner. It provides a teacher the experience in limitations and inherent difficulties of languages, thus achieving acquisition and learning needs (Stevick, 1996).

Pronunciation skills

The materials are useful in backing the students’ success or those students facing difficulties in pronouncing word endings, vowels, consonants and diphthongs.

For example, the flyer demonstrates how vowels can be pronounced [ee as in eat]i, [i as in it]i. Vowels form the basis of English learning, and if pronounced inaccurately, they can result in misunderstanding the word meaning. Hence, the flyer eliminates inability of the student to precisely pronounce the different vowels/words.

On consonants, the flyer illustrates the way words can be pronounced. For example, it gives a difference between “both and boat”. Some students often substitute English consonants for ones in their native language which seem similar but not alike. Hence, this can make the listeners to feel that is trying to say a different thing altogether. Hence, the flyer is helpful in assisting in this skill.

The flyer demonstrates the rules of word endings. For example; it asserts that a word ending with “t or d” sound have their ending achieved by adding “ed”. Hence, this rule can help the student acquire the skills of using individual consonants at the end of a word(s).

However, the material won’t be effective in pronouncing cluster consonants. This is because they occur in a sequence thus making the student fail to pronounce. Hence, students should be careful on how to pronounce cluster constants at the beginning, middle and at the end of words.

Reference List Hardley, O., A. (2001) Teaching language in context. New York: Heinle and Heinle Publishers Ltd.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986) Techniques and Principles of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Stevick, E., D (1996) Memory, Meaning


Organization as a Learning Organization Research Paper essay help online

Introduction Majority of the organizations have acknowledge the imperative of organizational learning and the concept of a learning organization has been the fundamental orienting summit in this. Researchers have tried to recognize the superlative forms that authentic organizations could try to imitate. This means that learning organization is an ideal, towards which organizations require to develop so that they can retort to various pressures.

As a result, the definition of ideal learning organization is indescribable. On the one hand, it is where people persistently expand their ability to construct the outcome that they truly desire, where novel patterns of rational reasoning are natured, where there is freedom of collective aspirations and where people are constantly learning to observe the whole as a group.

On the other hand, the learning organization is an apparition of possibility, which does not occur by just training individuals but through learning as a whole at all organization levels. This implies that a learning organization facilitates learning of every person as it transforms itself continuously.

Therefore, system thinking, personal mastery, mental model, shared vision and team learning characterize an ideal learning organization and consequently, the manager should strive to achieve these characteristics by determining and alleviating all the barriers against these characteristics through development of focused strategies that will enable the organization to exist in the competitive business environment.

Characteristics of ideal learning organization

System thinking is a conceptual framework that involves an approach of reasoning about, as well as the language for illustrating and understanding the forces and the relationships that mould behavior of the system (Serrat, 2009). For instance, system thinking assists the managers and the employees to know how to change the system effectively and acting in line with the economic world.

Personal mastery is the commitment that an individual makes to the learning process (Agarwal, 2007). For example, learning cannot take place in an organization until people start learning via defining what they want to achieve and how. According to a recent research, most workplace learning is incidental and not due to formal training hence, organizations need to develop a culture where personal mastery is a daily activity.

Mental models are the assumptions that the individuals and the organizations hold and the assumptions need challenge for an organization to be a learning organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because individuals possess theories that they aspire to follow and work theories that they truly adhere to while organizations possess reminiscences that conserve some behaviors (Ramalingham, 2008). Therefore, in constructing a learning organization it is significant to substitute confrontational attitudes with a culture that is open and that which facilitates inquest and conviction.

Shared vision encourages employees to learn since they possess universal identity, which bestow them focus and vigor (Agarwal, 2007). As a result, it helps the organization to triumph in a competitive business environment.

Therefore, the organization should build its vision from an individual vision. This means that the manager should not create the vision of the organization by himself but through the interaction with the employees.

Finally, team learning is the sum of the individual learning. It entails thinking skills, which allow people to build up intelligence, which is greater than an individual talent. Learning organizations possess structures, which enhance team learning, and they include boundary crossing and the openness (Serrat, 2009).

For example, employees and employers should develop open communication and shared meaning because it is a fundamental in a modern learning organization.

Observable behavior for the characteristics of ideal learning organization

In system thinking, people have embraced the notion that system thinking enhances individual learning and as a result, they focus on the system as a whole (Garvin, Edmondson,


Coping With Stress Essay essay help free: essay help free

According to Aamodt (2009) stress is the psychological and physical reaction to certain life events or situations. Fear, resistance, resentment, change, relations with others, organizational politics, and unfavorable physical environment are the main causes of stress (Aamodt, 2009). Even though stress affects different personalities differently, it could result to grave consequences if not well managed.

Many people often think there is little that can be done about their level of stress. However, the fact is contrary. Individuals should identify their stressors and develop coping strategies aimed at neutralizing and finally eliminating the effects of the stressors. I have in the past adopted various strategies in coping with stress.

There are many stress coping methods. However, individuals often find themselves employing unhealthy and unproductive methods, which end compounding the problem. Such methods include withdrawal from friends and families, use of pills, drinking, smoking, overeating, and taking out of stress on other people. Even though these methods can work, their results are temporary as individuals soon face the reality of the stressor.

Healthier and effective ways of controlling stress require either situation change, or reaction change. Every individual exhibits unique response to stress, which makes it impossible to have a common method of coping. The simplest approaches to coping with stress, which I have used in the past, include problem identification and solving, acceptance, alteration, self-nurturing, and anticipatory approach also suggested by Aldwin (2007).

Problem solving approach is a strategy that its applicability is dependent on the determination of the main cause of stress. Once the stressor is identified, it becomes easy to solve the stress as an individual directs his or her energy towards subduing the stressor. For example, if lack of finances is the main cause of stress, then an individual may seek for new employment to provide for the much-needed cash.

The identification of the stressor also opens a window for an individual to explore other adaptation methods, which can be of help in the future such as avoidance. In anticipatory approach, an individual prepares for possible causes of stress and consequently prepares for them before their actual occurrence. Past trends and acquired knowledge can help an individual in such preparations.

For example, a student subjected to last minute revision pressures and stress for failing to revise in time may expect the same, hence prepare early in the following semesters to avoid going through the same. This method is very effective as an individual can review and continually revise the best method to use every time the stressor reoccurs. Sometimes stressful situations are not only complex, but also impossible to avoid.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is only prudent for individuals affected to alter and adapt to such situations. This involves finding possible ways of changing an individual’s operation to avoid the stress from reoccurring. For example, stress caused by coworkers could be avoided by expressing ones’ feelings to the specific workers instead of bottling them up. If the desired change is not achieved, then one can go a step further by changing his or her own behaviors.

Stressors such as the death of people we love, fatal accidents, and illness are unavoidable and impossible to ignore. However, letting such stressors take tall of an individual’s life is also unacceptable. In such cases, the best coping strategy is acceptance. Though hard to take, acceptance is the only way out for individuals facing unchangeable life-threatening situations.

There are other effective coping strategies, which even though I have not used, I would consider applying. Self-nurturing is such “effective way of coping with stress” (Aldwin, 2007).

Creating time for fun and relaxing, enhance our ability to copy with life’s unending stressors. It is therefore prudent for an individual to engage frequently in healthy ways of relaxing such as, going for a walk, playing with a pet, going adventures, watching comedies, and lighting scented candles.

References Aamodt, M. G. (2009). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Aldwin, C. M. (2007). Stress, coping, and development: an integrative perspective (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Reflective Thinking: The Power of Innovations. Using Brand New Ideas Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction: The Issues Learned Among the issues that have been learned during the curriculum, I should mention the idea that the innovations in the sphere of hospitality industry depend considerably on the added value. Once creating the right strategy in the world where globalization is taking its toll, one should keep in mind that the innovations are the key to success; allowing people to adapt to the changes in the world, they provide certain stability at the same time.

It is also essential to mark that innovation is most likely to result in a superior process, which, in its turn, will contribute to the management of one of the 3 Ps, namely, people (out of people, process, and physical evidence). Once offering innovations into the modern world of hospitality industry, one is likely to attract more tourists, since the barriers for free trade and other limitations are eliminated with the help of globalization.

The Innovations in the Hospitality Industry According to the researches conducted by a number of scientists, the most essential innovations in the sphere of hospitality industry concern mainly the issue of and are induced by such phenomenon as globalization. Among the most obvious changes in the sphere of hospitality industry, one should mark such phenomena as the radical innovation and the incremental innovation.

According to what Martinez-Roz


Historical expansion of Islam Essay essay help

Table of Contents Religion ideologies and philosophy

Tolerance to other religions

Use of force


Works Cited

Islam is a belief that is grounded on the teachings of the Quran and the prophetical teachings of Mohammad. In the 10th century, Islam was the prevailing religion, covering above a half of the identified world. It is one of the religions documented to have spread rapidly over a period of three centuries. Hence, it was influenced by several factors.

Religion ideologies and philosophy The fact that Islam has held a dear place in the hearts of its followers supposes that force was not used to convert them. As observed in the world today, many Islam converts come from Christianity but never do Muslims convert to Christianity. Such observations are based on the ideology held and taught by the religion.

The Quran, their holy book has teachings that are moving with promises of better and realistic life in this world and after death (Arberry 12). The Islam sharia laws are inclusive and all-encompassing. They depict and cover the way of life of people, written and formatted in a way that accommodates all people. The Sharia laws appeared realistic than the laws that are taught in other religions and never followed.

Further, the unending efforts by the Muslims to spread their religion coined and ingrained in their hearts leaves a long lasting effect on the hearts of people who convert to it. The religion emphasizes on living and enjoying the good by living an exemplary life that appeal to diverse people throughout the world.

Tolerance to other religions Despite the criticisms and prejudices against Islam by the western civilizations and Christians, Islam proved to be tolerant religion (Toynbee 246). Muslims are also recorded to have tolerated Christians to a higher extent according to the teachings in the Quran more than the Christians tolerated them.

For example, in the 17th century, Russian Christians exposed Muslims to harsh treatment as compared to the Ottoman’s treatment of conquered Christians. Muslims also were more persuasive in converting other religions to Islam. It is argued that, if Christians could have controlled vast regions like Islam did, some religions could have been exterminated due to brutal force applied by Christians.

Despite, the obligation of Muslims to use force to compel and exterminate other religions, they seem to have been more tolerant, that led to its rapid expansion. New converts were given time to learn and apply the principles of Islamic faith in life exhibiting how tolerant it was to people. Due to such process, local variations of pre-Islamic customs remained and were practiced in many areas all over the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of force Although, many Muslims refute this claim, Islam used their religious obligation as explained in the Quran to forcefully spread their religion. Use of Jihad was common among the Islam fanatics that gave their life for the sake of their religion.

During the life of Mohammad, Islam was largely expanding through military conquests of neighboring cities and lands. Battles were fought and those conquered were either forcefully converted to Islam or killed. The rapid expansion of the Arab Empire is attributed to use of military force in the spread of Islam. This empire was ruled under sharia laws.

Trade Started by Mohammad’s wife, Khadija who grew wealthy out of the spice trade, trade in spices created by Muslims first began along the routes that linked Yathrib and Mecca but later expanded rapidly along pre-existing route expanding from the Mecca center and with it the Islam religion spread parallel to the expansion of the spice trade (Crone 308).

This approach seemed more convenient not only to the trade preservation but also to people who bought the spices. The trade route passed through Islam territories and therefore, gave the Muslims chance to convert other people.

In addition, the Muslims revolutionalized the trade that was initially done by merchants and made it direct as they travelled long distances to exchange their products, reaching to people far away from their regions and converting them. The spices only thrived at particular regions that maintained the trade (Miller VII).

Works Cited Arberry, Arthur, J. Aspects of Islamic Civilization. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1977. Print.

Crone, Patricia. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Historical expansion of Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miller, James, I. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Clarendon, London: Clarendon Press, 1969. Print.

Toynbee, Arnold. A Historian’s Approach to Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956. Print.


The Emotional, Psychological and Spiritual Impact of a Family with a Terminal Ill Child Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Crisis of Discovering that your Child has a Terminal Illness The Expectations from parents

Many parents and their offspring interact in such a way that gradually parent’s dreams and expectations are modified by recognition of their child’s actual capabilities. As the fantasy of the dream child is replaced with day to day living, parents will always hopefully accept the child for what he or she is and wants to be.

Many a times when a child’s health is impaired, parents can be confronted harshly and abruptly with a reality that allows little or no hope for fulfillment of their dreams. The highly fantasized child is lost and a process of grieving starts. Most parents do feel genuine sorrow for the child whose health is impaired, but, parallel to that, parents grieve for themselves in their state of loss.

Parents are usually much aware that something somewhere is not normal with their child, but after many doctor appointments and many specialists, still come up with no definite diagnosis.

However, it may take years to finally get an accurate diagnosis for a child with Batten Disease. Parents, by this time, start fearing for the worst case scenario. A multitude of different events and questions have entered their minds and they just want answers (Kalter, Lohnes


Clothing company HRM Case Study college essay help online

In contemporary business environments, companies need to adopt effective human resources management policies; an effective personnel management strategy goes further than ensuring that employees are motivated to perform their duties diligently to involve respecting their human rights and fundamental freedom.

This paper is a response to a case study of an international clothing company that has had issues of disregard of human rights.

The paramount factor for the company as far as human capital is concerned According to the case, the company saw employees as the line or pathway through which they would earn profits and revenue for the company. The main focus of the management was to have increased revenue and disregarded the way employees gave the results.

With the managing style, the management was kept to ensure that employees were loyal to the company and worked for the benefit of the company. However the challenge that the company had was that the management was not willing to listen to the demand of employees. The management never was willing to negotiate with unions and neither did it to respect human fundamental rights and freedom.

Business risk and Merits to Do nothing with the situation

When the company decides not to react on the demand of human capital and opt to retain the same method of operation, the company might get negative publication. Negative publication means that the company will lose business as it will be portrayed as an un-ethical company that does not respect the demand of its employees. Customer loyalty will be eroded by negative publicity of an organization; it will give competitors an upper hand.

Cease using contractors

Given a chance to control people directly, I will use an integrated human resources management system. The management system I would enact would ensure that human rights have been respected and employees have been motivated. When such policies are adopted, the company will gain positive publicity which will work for its benefit. The risk that would be there is to change organizational culture that the company already had.

Make changes to contractors

When the structure of contractors’ human resources management is changed to adopt an effective leadership method, the company will be able to adopt policies that will ensure human rights have been respected and staffs are motivated. What should be changed is the approach taken by the contractors and ensures that the policies adopted are quality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations for the best approach For an effective operation, organizations need human and physical resources; properly managed organizations have an appropriate number of personnel’s in number, experience and expertise.

To ensure that the right number of people is available when required, a company’s human resource management should develop effective framework of planning human resources. The following are the main objectives that the human resources management approach should have:

To ensure optimum utilization of human resources; this will be attained through effective personnel motivation and empowerment programs

To forecast future requirements for human resources.

To integrate the human resources plan with the organization plan.

To establish ideal management development programs and ensure it meets the needs of expansion and diversification programs.

To assess the surplus and shortage of human resources and anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and human resources.


The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Case Study essay help

While discussing the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder, one should become familiar with some basic points, concerning the symptoms and causes of the disorder.

As it was mentioned in a case background, Madam Y was diagnosed with “obsessive behaviors of checking things and obsessive thoughts.” OCD is characterized by intrusive thoughts as well as by repetitive behaviors. It is well-known that people who suffer from OCD frequently perform certain tasks to seek relief from an anxiety.

Thus, according to a case background, Madam Y “would makeup over and over until she felt satisfied, she was tired during the process but she couldn’t stop her behavior.” The citation is considered to be another example which confirms the diagnosis.

Thus, people who suffer from OCD must do certain compulsive rituals to prevent unpleasant event from taking place. At least, they believe that their actions will help them to avoid the situations they are afraid of. Thus, certain rituals are considered to be the so-called escape from the obsessional brooding.

The most widespread obsessive thoughts include fear of germs, fear to cause pain or harm, some violent thoughts, focus on moral ideas, fear of losing some things, etc. Madam Y’s obsessions are in the category fear of losing some things: “She is insecure and anxiety, she is always keeping a handbag in her hands even sleep, because she worried she would lost the money or stolen by others.”

The most widespread compulsive behaviors are double-checking of things, doing senseless things to be satisfied with smth, washing or cleaning all the time, arranging things, etc. Madam Y’s compulsives are in the category doing senseless things to be satisfied with smth: “she won’t switch on the light and close the windows to avoid touching with all kinds of lights in order to keep white.”

The causes of the disorder are also to be taken into consideration. While choosing the treatment, one is to analyze both psychological and biological factors which influence the disorder appearance. Madam Y’s OCD is based on psychological factor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is said that Madam Y’s father “was easy to get hot temper and would blaming and shouted to Madam Y.” The dominant character of the Madam Y’ father as well as his brute actions and coarse words gave rise to Madam Y’ complexes development, including “low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence”, as it was mentioned in a case background.

So, time is ripe for treatment. There are several ways to treat Madam Y’s obsessive behaviors. On the one hand, it is a behavioral treatment which is to be used. Thus, exposure and response prevention is recognized to be of great importance as a therapeutic effect is based on the fears confronting.

The second way is called person-centered psychotherapy and considered to be more appropriate method to treat OCD. M. Cooper says that “person-centered therapy is actualizing its potential in creative and original growth, forging new pathways and understanding.” (WAPCEPT, 2007) PCT is considered to be a talk-psychotherapy which appeared in the early forties.

The founder of the PCT is an American psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers.

Taking into account the psychological factors which caused Madam Y’s OCD, the therapist’s task is to provide Madam Y’s with non-judgmental environment to show empathy towards her personality. Thus, it is only a non-directive approach which may help Madam Y to solve her internal conflicts.

Of course, there are many contradictions concerning the therapy. On the one hand, some behaviorists and psychoanalysts suppose that PCT can’t be effective because of its conditional relationship; however, numerous investigations showed that the form of talk-psychotherapy is considered to be a vastly effective way of treatment.

So, let’s consider some points from the log. The actions are listed in consecutive order:

We will write a custom Case Study on The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To help Madam Y, the therapist must rely on the following basic steps: therapist-client psychological contact. Taking into account Madam Y’s complexes (low self-esteem/lack of self-confidence) the therapist is to show the personality importance.

Thus, Madam Y is to be convinced of the therapist’s good intentions. The next core concept is vulnerability. Thus, the contradictions Madam Y feels all the time (her internal conflicts) lead to the contradictions between her experience and awareness. The interdependence of Madam Y’s anxieties and internal conflicts impacts on her ability to think reasonably.

Genuineness means the relationship facilitating Unconditional positive regard is also one of the most important ways which is to be used to help Madam Y. Thus, her actions, words, ideas, thoughts should not be approved or disapproved. On the contrary, Madam Y must realize the uniqueness and utility of her own ideas for herself.

As far as Madam Y’s father attempts to psych out his daughter seemed to work, Madam Y’s low self-esteem was formed over the pressure. Madam Y’s self-regard must be increased through her ideas acceptance.

Therapist Empathic understanding allows creating fiduciary relations. Thus, it is accurate empathic understanding which plays the most important role in Madam Y’s treatment. Due to empathic accuracy, Madam Y is able to get a social support to adapt to certain conditions.

Perception is considered to be the last core concept of PCT which combines the empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard.

According to a case background Madam Y was diagnosed with OCD in 2009. ‘After the medical treatment for half year, Madam Y was feeling recovered and default treatment’. As far as the treatment was not completed, a little bit later the symptoms appeared again.

Thus, one is to make a conclusion that PCT can’t be considered to be the only method to help Madam Y as she feels “a negative emotion that involves feeling nervous, scared, afraid, or worried.” (Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 2010) In my opinion, PCT is to be combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to consolidate the effect.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Madam Y’s treatment defaulting gives us some misgivings concerning PCT reliability as the only mode of treatment, when Paul Salkovskis says that “CBT encompasses most areas of human behaviour and experience, and represents many different research methods, from randomized controlled trials to detailed case studies.” (Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 2011)

Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the methodology of Albert Ellis. Thus, Madam Y is to become familiar with Ellis’ model ABC. She must learn to analyze her obsessive behaviors through the scheme ABC. A means activating events Madam Y experiences, B means her thoughts, ideas and beliefs about A, C is considered to be an emotional consequence based on her thoughts only.

Thus, Madam Y’s obsessive/repetitive behaviors are based on her irrational beliefs (which are considered to be B) which upset her all the time and she is unable to confront them (depression is considered to be C, e.g. a consequence which is caused by irrational beliefs). There are three core philosophies Ellis defined. Madam Y’s case is based on the third type.

It was rather easy to define what type Madam Y belongs to, as her psychological complexes (low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence) gives us a prompt: I can’t ever enjoy myself at all (as my complexes prevent me to succeed). The belief causes the negative consequences, including discomfort, inaction and avoidance. So, the practice of REBT is considered to be effective, as it was empirically proved.

Providing a life-acceptance philosophy is one of the most important tasks REBT uses. Thus, Madam Y is to achieve mental wellness. REBT task is to show Madam Y that her obsessive behaviors needlessly upset her all the time.

Generally, cognitive behavioral therapy is related to the above-mentioned discussion, namely exposure and response prevention combined with cognitive therapy itself. Exposure and response prevention was listed before to show the importance of different methods combining.

Madam Y’s treatment must be accompanied with special home assignments. For instance, to speed up Madam Y’s recovery, the following steps are to be taken: relabel – Madam Y must train herself. For instance: I am at home, there is no danger, and nobody can take my money; reattribute – Madam Y must imagine that there are two I – the first I is Madam Y who is real; the second I is Madam Y’s OCD.

Thus, when obsessive thoughts appear, Madam Y is to say: It is not Me, It is OCD ; refocus – when obsessive thoughts appear, Madam Y is to concentrate on some other things, for instance, she is to concentrate on her hobbies or the things she is interested in/fond of; revalue – Madam Y is to convince herself of the thoughts meaningless.

The most important techniques Madam Y must use at home are her attention refocusing and reflections her thoughts on paper. Thus, when obsessive thoughts come, she is to write them down. The technique will help her to realize the frequency of the thoughts appearance.

So, Madam Y can see how repetitive her ideas and thoughts are. Madam Y’s obsessive thoughts/ideas are to be said aloud – she is to repeat them a lot of times to be able to neglect them in future. Madam Y is to create a mental picture to be sure that her actions were already performed before. “Creating an OCD worry period” is also to be taken into account.” (HELPGUIDE. Org, 2011)

Thus, Madam Y is to think about negative thoughts for ten minutes only. Interval choosing is up to her. When obsessive thought appears, Madam Y is to repeat it until she feels irritation. Mindful meditations and various relaxation techniques are of primary importance too. Madam Y is to keep her emotional balance and get enough sleep. Social isolation is contra-indicated.

Healthy eating habits mustn’t be omitted while coping with OCD. Madam Y is to communicate with people she likes. Aerobic activity or any other kind of regularly exercises is considered to be a good way to cope with OCD.

New methods of “computerized cognitive behavioural therapy” can be also used to treat Madam Y’s OCD. (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2011)

Reference List Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. (2010). What is Anxiety? Web.

Cooper, M. (2007). Person-centered therapy. Web.

HELPGUIDE. Org. (2011). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Web.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2011). Depression and Anxiety – Computerized Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CCBT). Web.

Salkovskis, P. (2011). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Web.


Levels of Government Essay essay help online: essay help online

Comparing and Contrasting Levels of the Government Various disparities exist in the distribution and spending, not only between the various levels of governance, but also within each level. However, a relationship exists between finance and budgeting in public organization and the level at which a governmental organization is operating.

As a way of example, as Yilmaz et al. reckons, “State’s and local government’s general revenues averaged $5,851 per capita and ranged from $4,694 per person in Arizona to $11,246 in Alaska for FY 2002” (2002, p.10).

Additionally, the general spending of the government was about $4,746 for every resident of Arizona to $13,172 for every Alaskan. Such disparities are perhaps indicative of the myriads of fiscal decisions that states need to either consider subject to necessity or alternatively out of preference in an endeavor to escalate revenues depending on the underplaying conditions.

Because of these disparities, the finance and budgeting in public organization suffers in the sense that the state and federal governments have a prerogative to ensure a more even distribution of the government expenditure in the provision of essential services. Yet, at the local government level, the revenue generation and or expenditures might be significantly different.

The revenue and the expenditures at various levels of governance may change depending on the resource endowments and or the productivity. Increased expenditure translates to a need to raise more revenue to fund the expensive programs.

Consequently, as Yilmaz et al. (2002) categorically states, “high revenues and expenditures reflect both the relatively painless cost to residents of raising revenues by taxing natural resources” (p.10).

The functions of the government organizations predominantly rest on the need to ensure a more unified distribution of wealth across all states. However, the functions of government organizations depend on individualized finance and budgeting plans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, states and their local governments may end up making decisions that would enable them hike their revenues to fund their differing budgets differently. One such ample strategy would entail focusing on increasing revenues and cutting on the expenditures. According to Yilmaz et al. (2002), one can achieve such a strategy by “promoting tax base growth or reducing long-term Costs of public service delivery” (p.11).

More often, states normally have fewer options available to them to ensure that they are able to cut costs or rather cut programs to enhance the increment of the tax rates in an endeavor to balance their budgets. Moreover, demographic economic traits immensely contribute to how states, federal and the local governments arrive at the necessary decision for raising revenues and cutting costs.

The key expenditures on the key government budgets appear within the various functions that the various levels execute. However, some clashes exist, meaning that some service provisions fall under the hands of several levels of government.

According to IRS (2010), Federal governments deal with “Defense, currency regulation, and foreign relations” (Para 3). In addition, the federal government “has a responsibility to health, education, welfare, transportation, and housing and urban development” (Para 3). Their budget must the incorporate all these expenditures.

On the other hand, states’ government has noble roles in allocating funds for the enforcement of “state criminal code, working conditions, internal communications, and regulations of the property, industry, business, and public utilities” (Para 3).

Finally, the local government budgets incorporate items such as housing, police, health regulations, public transportation, fire protection and education amongst others. Evidently, some similar expenditure appears in two or more levels of government.

Revenues and expenditures relate to different levels of government differently. One common trait among all levels of government is that they raise income through the taxation of the citizens.

We will write a custom Essay on Levels of Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the decision on how and on what to impose a tax is a decision made by every level of government independently. Good part of the federal government revenue comes from income taxes. Local and states taxes come from transaction taxes and property taxes.

Reference List IRS. (2010). Understanding Taxes. Retrieved from

Yilmaz, Y., Hoo, S., Nagowski, M., Rueben, K.,


Commander Abrashoff leadership Style Essay college essay help near me

The type of the leadership style applied in any working organization can contribute both positively, as well as negatively to an organization’s performance. Most of the common leadership styles practiced in the majority of the current organizations is visionary, affiliation, commanding, as well as democratic.

Majority of these styles of leadership have proved to be effective thus there is the need to practice some of them. Therefore, this script will provide a stance on some of the leadership styles and theories applied in this case.

In the previous classes, we have covered several leadership styles some of which relate directly to those depicted by Commander Abrashoff’s. For instance, one of the styles discussed in the previous lessons in class is the visionary leadership style. This category of a style is necessary, incase the organization demands a new course in its leadership.

According to a number of researchers with an enhanced interest on this topic, it is palpable that a visionary leader is able to predict an organization’s destiny (Hybels 2009, p. 20). However, such a leader does not specify the strategy to apply in order to accomplish the organization’s goals.

Such a leadership style allows the team members to conduct experiments, participate in some innovative activities that aid their process of identifying the most appropriate decisions to undertake. Therefore, in the Commander Abrashoff’s case, it is evident that his style of leadership is driven by his vision (Ihlenfeldt 2011, P. 1). He envisages the outcome of an effective leadership thus strengthens others to remain visionary.

He, therefore, instituted a new leadership initiative after assuming the commanding role at Ben fold. Consequently, its retention rate increased considerably from 25 to 100 percent and injuries also reduced tremendously. The current initiative also enabled the ship to run on a small ratio of its budget, but made higher returns.

In addition to remaining visionary, Commander Abrashoff’s practices affiliation, a leadership style that encourages team work. This has emerged significant as the workers harmony heightens. This is evident in the Abrashoff’s case. In an effort to enhance the crew’s affiliation, he incorporates any of the ideas presented by the crew’s member.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this, he can permit a vigorous involvement since members are aware that their contributions are vital for an effective functioning of the crew (Ihlenfeldt 2011, p. 3). Via this type of leadership, he creates harmony and a strong communication among the crew. This as a result boosts their morale thus bestows their entire efforts to enhancing the crew’s positive results.

The Abrashoff’s situation applies the following leadership theories. They are “Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory” and “House’s Path-Goal theory” (Williams 2006, p. 469). For instance, in Hersey and Blanchard’s theory, Abrashoff adapted this approach to devotee development style. This approach depends on the devotee’s proficiency and motivation.

He conducted interviews in the analysis of his crew. He advocates different styles that match the development level of the devotees. Initially, there exist those devotees possessing limited proficiency, a reduced commitment, with little capability, and disinclined. In this case, he reacts by sky-scraping chore focus and little link focus.

He establishes the cause of the devotees’ motivation, and whether there exists some restrictions in their capability (Raney 2009, p. 10). The next level comprises of devotees that show partial proficiency, inconsistent commitment, and aggravation.

The leader reacts by soaring chore focus and elevated link focus. He is an excellent listener, advisor, and aids the devotee in acquiring the necessary expertise through training. In the third level the majorities of the devotees are extremely competent and depict variable commitment.

In this case, the leader reacts by squat task focus and towering relationship spotlight. The devotees need much motivation. The leader thus emphasizes on listening them, praising them, and letting them feel acknowledged whenever they portray some commitment.

In the last level, there are those devotees who with soaring competence, towering commitment, able and inclined to work (Raney 2009, p. 12). Devotees at this level need no prop up, or recurrent commend although acknowledgement is always necessary.

We will write a custom Essay on Commander Abrashoff leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leadership style is the best for this situation because it helps the leader to utilize the workers to their full capacity. It also permits the leader to portray a good image therefore; he does not compromise his absolutes. He thus makes use of good judgment and strengthens others.

In the situation of USS Ben fold Abrashoff depicted outstanding leadership traits. For instance, he implemented a number of initiatives in the zeal to avert the situation. Therefore, his leadership brought numerous positive changes through the improved leadership styles. For instance, before acting on any problem, he had to establish the basis of the problem.

He reviewed the crew’s mission, as well as the vision for themselves and the navy. This helped him to identify the level of the crews’ motivation and the challenges that they were facing thus enabling him seek for new resolutions (Raney 2009, p. 15). In addition, he accentuated on the individual participation and incorporated their suggestions in performing some of the administrative roles.

The vital rewards of situational headship include its ability to facilitate easy understanding, as well as its usage use. A current research has revealed that an effectively functional situational leadership results in strengthened relationships. In addition, the followers’ progress enhances, and this results into an improved proficiency and assurance.

Although Abrashoff has the same authority as other leaders, he has to be concerned with his headship. This is due to his anxiety about the future of the organization, particularly through expansion and administration of the crew. Therefore, he engages himself in multifunctional and incorporative errands, he knows less than his efficient area experts exploits non-linear judgment, and he believes in tactical choice.

Consequently, he cannot just demand conformation for his commands. He is therefore, ought to be practical, figure ideas, and modifies the thoughts of the crew regarding what is enviable, achievable, and essential (Northouse 2009, p. 5). He is, therefore, certain towards risk taking.

He brings new approaches and resolutions to venerable problems, concerns himself with ideas, and hence relates to the crew in a discerning and compassionate ways. He feels detached from his working atmosphere though not belonging to his organization.

A valuable leadership style is essential for a successful management of an organization. Visionary leadership style is necessary in any organization since it allows a room for the establishment of new initiatives. It is only after Abrashoff, the crew leader utilizes this style that the crew’s performance enhances. In addition to the above styles, he also utilized a number of leadership theories.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Commander Abrashoff leadership Style by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two most commonly used theories are the Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory, and House’s Path-Goal theory. The two leadership theories applied by Commander Abrashoff works on the grounds of motivation and proficiency. Moreover, majority of the leadership theories demands a leader to establish the root cause of the problem before tackling it.

References Hybels, B 2009, Courageous leadership, Zondervan, Grand Rapids.

Ihlenfeldt, W 2011, Visionary leadership: a proven path way to visionary change, Author House, Bloomington.

Northouse, P 2009, Leadership: theory and practice, Sage, Thousand oaks.

Raney, H 2009, Understanding and managing public organization, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.

Williams, C 2006, Management, Cengage learning, Mason.


Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) Essay college essay help: college essay help

Performance measurement that is widely used among the non-profit organizations should be warranted to Wounded Warrior Project.

This proposal will provide the explanation of the main reasons for implementing the performance measurement system, the main benefits which are anticipated after its implementation, outline the main steps for the development of the performance measurement system and start the preliminary data collection that can be helpful for the getting the measurement process started.

Explanation of why performance measurement is warranted to WWP Performance measures are defined as objective quantitative indicators which can be used for evaluating different aspects of performance of non-profit organizations (Bryson, 2004). Performance measurement is increasingly considered as significant for the long-run survival and success of a non-profit organization.

By the early 1990s, non-profit agencies tracked their financial accountability by measuring the compliance of their products and services with quality standards and stakeholders’ satisfaction. However, within the recent decade, the emphasis has been shifted towards measuring the outcomes of activities.

A wide array of American non-profit organizations, such as the American Cancer Society, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, the American Red Cross and others, have already become involved into the outcome measurement process (Poister, 2003, p. 8).

Taking into account the specifics of the mission of the Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) and the goal of social betterment, it can be stated that performance measurement should be warranted to WWP with the main focus on major types of performance criteria, including program effectiveness and quality of services, operating efficiency of the organization and client satisfaction.

What benefits are anticipated after the implementation of performance measurement The engagement of WWP into the performance measurement process is expected to result in a number of improvements. The organization’s commitment to performance measurement would be helpful for providing a clearer focus on mission and strategies. The performance measurement plan would be helpful for enhancing the effectiveness of measurement and decision-making.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, performance measurement can increase the accountability of WWP to the external stakeholder, including its sponsors and society in general. Currently, the main corporate sponsors of WWP include Acosta Sales and Marketing, Under Armour, Raytheon, U-Haul and Overstock.com (Wounded Warrior Project, n.d.).

These corporate sponsors are coupled with numerous individual sponsors who decide to make a one-time donation or start a monthly gift program and make donations on a regular basis.

A detailed description of the recommended steps Notwithstanding the diversity of the performance measurement systems, most of them can be designed through a common implementation process. However, it is important to adapt the standard process to a particular purpose for which the performance system is designed and the overall mission of the non-profit agency (Poister, 2003, p. 23).

In that regard, the development of performance measurement system for WWP should include the following steps. The first step is to secure management commitment. In other words, motivation of the executives to support the performance measurement process is essential for its success. The second step requires organizing the system development process on different levels of the organizational structure.

The third step deals with clarification of system purpose and parameters. The fourth step presupposes identification of the outcomes and the rest of performance criteria. The fifth step requires defining, evaluating and selecting the most appropriate of the performance indicators. The sixth step implies developing the procedures for the collection of data. The seventh step requires specifying the system design.

The eighth step presupposes conducting a pilot of the system if it is necessary. The ninth step implies the implementation of the full-scale system. The tenth step would mean using the system, evaluating its effectiveness and modifying it if such a need arises.

Preliminary information gathering and analysis As it is proclaimed in the mission of WWP, the main goals pursued by this organization include raising the community’s awareness on the special needs of the wounded service members, to help injured warriors to assist each other and provide unique programs to assist them in their transition back to civilian life.

We will write a custom Essay on Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The outcomes which can be used to measure the organization’s success in achieving these goals include the number of wounded warriors who received support were involved into programs and received health care or psychotherapy services and/or found a job. This data is available and can be used as one of indicators for the performance measurement.

Another important indicator is the satisfaction of the warriors involved into the programs. The information on this aspect will need to be gathered through the interviews and surveys.

Additionally, the donation rates and public responses to the programs need to be analyzed to conclude whether the first goal of raising the public needs of wounded warriors is successfully achieved. A plan for indicator data collection would consist of two main parts, including gathering the available information and conducting the necessary research to cover the missing indicators.

Conclusion Performance measurement can be beneficial for WWP and should be started from ensuring the commitment of the main executives to the measurement process and enhancing their awareness on the potential advantages.

Reference List Bryson, J. (2004). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A Guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Poister, T. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wounded Warrior Project (n.d.). Mission. Retrieved from https://www.woundedwarriorproject.org/mission


Internet Technology, Marketing, and Security Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help

Advancement in technology and communication networks has changed how organizations market goods and services; the sales and marketing department are becoming computerized as a policy to attain competitiveness. The risk facing the globalized world is how to secure corporate and customer information; when using technology to market products and services, companies are able to reach a large number of target customers.

Balancing effective marketing, sales, and communication with security is a major challenge; however marketing managers should make strategies that address such issues if they are to remain competitive and earn customer confidence (Kurtz, MacKenzie


Events Management Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Globally, it is known that fashion shows are ways of introducing clothing lines, which are exposed to the general public or the community at large. Basically, it is also the best way of triggering an interest among buyers by just placing the clothing line in boutiques or beauty shops.

An organizing manager planning for a fashion show event must always pay attention to the details that are involved. In addition, he must have a general knowledge and understanding of the fashion show whereabouts and the fashion the community in that specific area prefers.

How to organize for a fashion show event Set date for the show

This is the first thing an organizing manager must always consider when planning for a fashion show event. The best way to do this is by choosing up to a maximum of three potential dates that appear convenient for audience to turn out in large numbers. Considerably, when selecting the date, the manager must ensure that there is enough time left before the show date.

As a manager, it is important to design a working budget which is composed of all necessary requirements to be used during the show. The manager must also select the venue where the occasion will take place early enough to be granted permission to access the venue at any time. It is always advisable that when selecting the venue, the organizing manager books at least two different venues.

This is because, incase the access to one bounces, there should be an alternative venue precisely to guarantee the success of the show (Braniac 2011). The organizing manager also has the duty of recruiting a team to ensure that the show is successful. Such a team can either be of a group of volunteers or hired workers to be paid based on the budget allocated.

Benefits and drawbacks of hosting fashion show at 02 arenas

The major benefit resulting from hosting of the fashion show among many other big events in 02 arenas is that the number of tickets sold generates huge income to the management of events. People visiting the show from all over the world pay a lot of money in foreign currency, hence boosting the economy of a country.

For example, the 02 arena of London that accommodates up to 20,000 people generates an awesome profit whenever an event is held. This primarily contributes to the successful development and advancements of the arena. As there are many sponsors who are willing to fund events, 02 arena benefit from renovations that are done without the management money.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drawbacks

The most common challenge the 02 arena faces is the damage done on venue facilities by the large crowds of audience. Hosting such a crowd leaves so much destroyed by the excited audience cheers. On the other hand, security operations within the arena is also very challenging especially when considering the crowd management and the general safety of guests.

In a previous incident, according to daily mail online, a VIP guest was left fighting for his life after an unknown person among the audience stabbed him with a knife in the chest. Crowd violence is another challenge that is experienced whereby people use champagne bottles to fight one another leaving many injured or dead (Daily mail 2011). These are common incidents occurring when organizing for an event.

Critical evaluations The nature and scope of festival studies

A summary of key issues raised by the author

This study is based on defining festival studies, whereby three main areas have been identified and fully discussed. The major objective of this research is to develop a framework of understanding and also create general knowledge about how to plan and organize festival event (Getz 2010).

According to the author, festival studies have also helped in development and improvement of global festivals. This is because it is becoming a fast growing field of studies in education centers like universities.

Discourses on the role, meaning and impacts of festivals in society and culture

According to the author, the term discourse means a conversation. It can also be referred to as a rule based dialogue among different parties (Getz 2010). It is clear that a festival study corresponds to anthropology and sociological studies. Moreover, it is clear that festival management and festival tourism are more recent and immature fields with few researchers.

This is because, the knowledge domains about this two sub-fields of event managements unfortunately came about and developed without any reference to the former classical line of theory (Getz 2010). The author also points out that there are beneficial outcomes after participating on a festival event. These include general learning, income generation and healthfulness.

Discourse on festival tourism

This is an important part of festival event tourism. The author has specifically focused on a few areas such consumer behaviors, market concept and moreover, and motivations for attending an organized festival (Getz 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Events Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author further has outlined the specific roles played by festivals in tourism. Such festivals contributes promotes tourism in a big way. They attract both local and international audience. Such tourist visit acts as a catalyst for local developmental reforms and also creating market for local products.

Discourse on festival management

This is the most recent or latest discourse to develop as far as research literature is concerned. Notable to mention is that, the literature pertaining event tourism is always considered to be of great help to festival managers globally. This is because it contains relevant information all the festival managers worldwide must know.

Such information include; how proper assessments are conducted and how important they are when it comes to strategic planning for an events. The author also insists that festival events manager must immerse themselves and gain knowledge in relevant fields of sociology and anthropology.

This is because, the two fields offer a classical approach and background information on culture and societies, which are part of festival event creativity (Getz 2010).

Main arguments

These are some of the evaluated themes the author strongly argues must be observed as far as festival tourism and tourist attraction is concerned.


Planning of how the festivals shall operate is another key consideration an event manager must always practice. Considering the strategic planning, most key consideration areas must contain measures and strategies to solve aspects such as whether the tourist potential can be improved, how the effects of climatic changes to the festivals can be avoided, health plans put forward for outdoor festivals, economic development and finally the risks and emergencies likely to occur (Getz 2010).


According to the author, it is clear that several researches have worked on determining the festival market orientation. Unfortunately, the art festival never displays such concern for tourism. Moreover, they take on a product orientation that precisely tends to ignore the other customers commercial needs (Getz 2010).


It is a very strong topic on festival events organization. Although evaluation is never considered to be very important, it is a strong step that must always be implemented carefully. Evaluation can be applied when evaluating the effectiveness or the efficiency of the festival events operation or even when determining the investments progress.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Events Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sponsorship, economy and financing

Based on this research, the economic and financing areas still remains underdeveloped. The issue of sponsorship is again categorized partly as a marketing topic and partly as relating to finances. Furthermore, many independent business and companies are ready to sponsor many event festivals.

This is because as traders, companies take festivals as an opportunity that they can use to market their products in a manner that many people will access (Getz 2010).

Finally, in my own opinion, after a systematic review throughout this research study, it is clear that festivals and festival tourism are just some of the events that need proper organization by an event manager. The three main discourses the author discussed are very clearly identifiable and are all related to the festival tourism and managements.

The strategic role of cultural and heritage tourism in the context of mega-events: the case of 2010 soccer World Cup Summary of key issues

The author admits that South Africa is still experiencing the effects of hosting the 2010 world cup long after the events (Steyn 2007). Some of these effects are directed to the major sectors like economy, tourism industries, environment, people, infrastructure and the general countries developments.

It is evident that majority of the developed and developing countries are struggling and bidding to be allowed to host some of the world mega-events, as part of the strategy of improving economy (tourists attraction) and other benefits. Most countries that have hosted some of the world mega-events acknowledge that such events can trigger a long term effect among its citizens.

The major aims that the research is to again explore and focus on developing a model bearing key guidelines that indeed will help host countries to fully leverage both cultural and heritage tourism opportunities as far as mega-event is concerned.

The main arguments

Cultural and heritage tourism within a mega-event context

The author in this chapter provides basic theoretical background of two main components. These are mega-events and cultural and heritable tourism. The author clearly defines the roles and importance of cultural and heritable tourism management principles, global competitiveness of the sector and profiles of a cultural tourist (Steyn 2007).

The study also explains the advantages of hosting a mega-event and also the socio-cultural legacies exhibited as a result of hosting the events. As part of the objectives, the author further examines the major concept of cultural and heritage tourism as a separate entity corresponding to mega events.

The contribution of cultural and heritage tourism in a mega-event context

The author argues that countries hosting any mega-evens benefit abundantly and gain new knowledge from the events experience. As part of the experience that is gained from the past events, the host country will always try and improve on the mistakes which might have been committed.

Strategic planning process is very essential in ensuring that such defaulters are omitted and that success is achieved. In this chapter, the author focuses on examining the best practical studies carried out, which contributes in promoting both cultural and heritable tourism in the host countries (Steyn 2007).

Cultural and heritage tourism in South Africa

The author points out that South Africa is one of the countries that possess rich and diversified culture. Such cultural diversity has helped the country by boosting the economic and social developments to a higher level.

Significantly, more employment opportunities have been created and social cohesion between locals and international tourists strengthened. The main objective of this chapter is to determine the strategies that South Africa need to employ in order to keep its tourism industry booming.

Based on the study, several gaps that generally keep on dragging South Africa behind were identified. As far as tourism industry is concerned. It is documented that in South Africa there are no variety of tourists attraction sites and that accommodation that is available is very expensive and of poor quality.

Moreover, there are no proper advanced conference halls that can host any international conference or meetings. Finally, the country also needs to improve on diversification of museums, niche tour and also development of international heritage sites that will frequently attract international tourists (Steyn 2007).

Conclusion This entire research paper strongly emphasizes on management of events and tends to clarify the roles of an organizing manager of any events. Furthermore it explains that events can be helpful and at the same time can bring both long term and short term disasters to the country.

References Braniac 2011, How to plan a fashion show event. Web.

Daily mail 2011, 02 arena security review. Web.

Getz, D 2010, “The nature and scope of festival studies”. International journal of events management research Vol 5, no 1, pp. 1-21.

Steyn, T 2010, “The Strategic Role of Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the Context of Mega- Events: The Case of 2010 Soccer World Cup”, National research foundation. Web.


E-Commerce and Digital Marketing Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Methodology

Opportunities in E-Commerce

Gainers and Losers of E-Commerce

Strategies of E-Commerce

Digital Marketing

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Problems with E-Commerce


Works Cited

The term e-commerce is used to describe businesses that are carried out over the internet. E-commerce describes how businesses are conducted using internet applications such as shopping carts, e-mails, web services, electronic data interchange (EDI), and instant messaging.

Electronic commerce can be carried out between two or more businesses; the online business involves transactions of funds, data, goods, and services (Syed and Raisinghani 11; Stahl 150).

The success and efficiency of e-commerce typically depends on digital marketing, which uses search engine optimization (SEO) as the main tool to promote the products and services in the e-market (Needle 107). The best way through which, an e-business can prosper is building a competitive advantage through relevant people.

E-commerce has brought about a new idea in the field of business and this concept is growing very fast and is almost bringing the traditional business techniques to an end. E-commerce has provided not only a quick way to exchange products and services, but also provided the most efficient and convenient way of accomplishing the transactions involved in this trade (Syed and Raisinghani 13).

E-commerce has today developed into a large industry with companies making huge sums of money. For instance, online retail in the United States, which comprises of business-to-consumer e-commerce, sports and fitness, online travel services, and media distribution, managed to generate over $201 billion in 2009.

In the United States alone, it is estimated that more than 75% of the total population uses internet every day for private and business purposes. The same trend is also evident in other countries, which implies that the growth of e-commerce is likely to continue rising and nothing can weaken it anytime soon (Stahl 152; Needle 108).

Many startup e-commerce corporations have now taken over the biggest share of the market from the traditional businesspersons. As a result, the traditional business people have been forced to alter the structure of their companies and to develop their own websites as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This phenomenon is evident in the sectors of consumer electronics and travel services, where more than 50 percent of the total bookings happen online (Stahl 152; Needle 110). This has in turn, led to a drastic fall in the revenues of the traditional businesses that offer booking services.

Since most e-commerce oriented companies have lower operating expenses and a highly efficient inventory management, they have created a competitive advantage to attract consumers and retailers as well (Qin 208).

Methodology This paper will address the issues surrounding the concept of e-commerce.; the paper will review a number of literatures in order to outline the aspects of e-commerce.

The e-commerce concepts to be addressed in the paper include the how the internet phenomenon has developed in the past decade, the companies that have gained from the online business concept, the losers, the opportunities and the challenges that have come with e-commerce among other issues.

These issues will be addressed by examining the experiences that the companies that trade their products and services online have had since the introduction of e-commerce. The strategies that such companies have implemented to enhance their productivity in the online business will form the platform of understanding the benefits and the disadvantages of e-commerce.

The paper will address the challenges that online companies have and will present recommendations that can be put in place to deal with the shortfalls of e-commerce.

Opportunities in E-Commerce There are several factors that have promoted the growth of e-commerce in the globe. One of such factors is the enormous internet penetration n many parts of the world. Since e-commerce is an online issue, the increase in the global internet penetration has had a great impact on it.

We will write a custom Essay on E-Commerce and Digital Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, more than 40 percent of the world’s population can access the internet, which implies that this number can also access e-commerce if it chooses to (Syed and Raisinghani 11; Briggs 141; Epstein 176).

Many countries have strived to make sure the internet becomes a basic commodity to their citizens by lowering the surfing charges and increasing the reliability and the speeds of browsing.

Other strategies that have made the internet easily accessible to many people include improved internet technology that also covers expanded bandwidth. The organizations, which have been able to capture a big share in emerging markets are at a great advantage to competitors with increased sales margin and profits (Syed and Raisinghani 14; Briggs 141).

Many e-commerce players have also enhanced their businesses by lowering the prices of the products and services they provide. The players have been able to compete effectively by improving the quality of their products and services, a move that has assisted them in ensuring high customer satisfaction.

These are the tools that the largest e-retailers, such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart Target, have relied on in their quest to gain a bigger share of the online market (Syed and Raisinghani 13; Briggs 144).

Gainers and Losers of E-Commerce There are several businesses and service providers that have gained a lot since the introduction of e-commerce. A good example of such players is the online retail merchants such as Amazon.com and Overstock.com.

These online retailers have made use of the concept of e-commerce to expand their businesses and to improve their sales. The online retail players have a better focus on consumer electronic products (Harvie and Lee 171; Meier and Stormer 189).

Online businesses that deal in financial transactions and consumer electronics have also been favored by e-commerce. Financial transaction service providers such as EBay, EBS, and Authorize.net are some of the top financial transaction processors that have heavily utilized the concept of e-commerce.

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Commerce and Digital Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their businesses require e-consumers to make an online transaction through their processing platform. Currently, close to 250,000 merchants rely on EBS and Authorize.net to convince their clients to accept electronic check payments and credit cards through the internet (Kamel 128; Harvie and Lee 175).

Other groups that also enjoy the benefits of e-commerce include travel and shipping industries. The manufacturers of e-commerce software have also gotten into e-commerce and are reaping the benefits of the current online way of trading.

Other companies such as hotels, airlines, and cruise ships are now selling their products and services faster than the way they used to before venturing into the internet as a method of trading. Shipping companies such as the United Parcel Services are now ferrying most of their products to the consumers who purchase them online.

The concept of –commerce has enabled the shipping companies to increase their profit margins, which depends on the volume of the products that e-consumers buy online (Kamel 130; Harvie and Lee 173; Meier, and Stormer 191).

The companies that deal in e-commerce software are thriving in their businesses as well. It is through the assistance of these companies that individuals and organizations that are interested in buying and selling products online, accomplish their goal. Examples of the e-commerce software companies include, GSI Commerce, Volusion e-Commerce, Digital River, and Web Cube.

These companies offer services that range from software to online marketing, web hosting and order fulfillment. The companies obtain their revenues from the sales of software meant for e-commerce applications.

Due to the software services offered by these companies, e-commerce has continued to gain popularity in the business sector. As a result, the e-commerce software companies will continue to make enormous profits (Harvie and Lee 174; Meier, and Stormer 191).

The companies that provide web analytics constitute another group that has been enjoying the benefits of e-commerce and that will continue making huge profits as the online business continues to prosper. The web analytics are tools that enhance the management of all e-commerce platforms and help e-companies in determining how their online businesses are performing in the e-market (Stormer 192).

These business tools enable the companies that conduct their business online to establish the expenses they incur in activities such as marketing and advertisements. They are the most effective equipments that the online companies use to optimize their expenditures and to promote sales.

Through these tools, the online companies can determine when sales increase and the factors that have effected such an increase (Harvie and Lee 175; Meier and Stormer 194).

Although many companies have been able to benefit from conducting their business online, there a few businesses that have not reaped any benefits. Some of the companies whose businesses have been impaired by the online concept include the traditional retail and direct retail marketing.

The traditional retailers such as Best Buy and Circuit City Stores have lost the biggest share of the market they once occupied before e-commerce came into being (Kamel 128; Harvie and Lee 176).

The most common examples of the direct retail marketers that have lost a considerable proportion of their market share include Systemax and CDW. The traditional retailers and the direct retail marketers are now working on a plan to develop their own websites to assist them in preventing any further losses in their businesses (Harvie and Lee 177; Meier and Stormer 191).

Strategies of E-Commerce Before a company decides to venture into e-commerce, it has to first determine and develop factors that will help it effectively sell its products and services through the internet. The strategies will determine the way the company would develop its structure, goals and staff in relation to the demand in the e-market.

These strategies would also assist the company to compete effectively with other firms that offer similar products and services (Plant 32; Fox 109).

The first strategy that a company that wishes to do its business online will have to address is resource expansion. Every company’s main goal of doing business online is to increase its revenues and minimize operational costs. The amount of revenue that a company wishes to generate will help the company determine the amount of resources it needs to allocate to each e-commerce activity.

Every company with a motive of making a profit not only wants to enter e-commerce to generate income to cover the expenses incurred in the production of goods and services, but also to produce revenues that it can use to support other plans; such companies will normally establish a strategy that will help it attract more clients (Plant 37; Fox 114).

The companies with so many goals to accomplish in e-commerce need to regard e-commerce as a means of expanding the resources they have. Such a strategy may involve activities that cover a full marketing plan. When developing a resource expansion strategy, a company should ensure that the activities it chooses do not impair its tax-free status.

The strategy should also be one that does not distort the company’s liability in case of a conflict or a disagreement with other companies. These are the issues that most development companies normally face when conducting their businesses through traditional ways (Plant 43; Fox 115).

Apart from the resource expansion strategy, staff and training and operational strategies also determine the way companies go about their businesses in the internet. A company’s success in e-commerce depends much on its administrative and technical personnel.

It is the workers who are responsible for proper maintenance of the company’s website. A company should ensure that its staff members are well equipped with the necessary skills and that they are willing to handle the company’s online transactions (Plant 63; Fox 109).

A company that does not have enough staff that can effectively handle e-commerce is forced to hire the services of outsiders who then sell the company’s products through the internet. However, hiring new employees is an additional cost that can be avoided by training the old workers.

A company is at a better position to develop more effective operational strategies if it has efficient employees, who possess the required skills that are necessary in conducting e-commerce (Plant 63; Fox 109).

Another strategy involves the determination of the capital costs. A company will need to decide the amount of money required in each e-consumer activity. The amount of money that a company directs to the e-consumer activities depends mostly on the level of complexity of the e-commerce platforms.

The company needs to ensure that the money it is willing to put into the e-commerce activities can match its revenues and ascertain the amount of money it can obtain from other sources such as donors (Plant 74; May 53; Fox 177).

The ability of a company to study the purchasing patterns of e-consumers may also a help a company in managing its online businesses. The companies, which sell and buy products through the internet, need to update new products on a regular basis.

This is instrumental especially when a company wishes to increase the number of goods purchased by the e-customers. It is also an effective way of attracting and retaining customers (Plant 74; May 53; Fox 181).

The ability to positively influence the e-consumers purchasing trend has a long-term effect on a company’s performance on the internet. This strategy can increase a company’s revenue by improving the sales volume of the goods that the company trades on the internet.

Therefore, it is recommended that a company adds a variety of new products to its websites as regularly as possible. Companies engaging in e-commerce should also consider placing different promotional offers regularly as a way attracting and retaining customers (May 62; Fox 181).

Digital Marketing An effective marketing plan will positively influence the way a company trades its goods and services through the internet. It is also through a good marketing strategy given that it enables a company to establish and maintain a steady trend in the sales of its products. This marketing strategy is categorized into two subdivisions, which include offline markets and online markets (Ryan 89; Wynne 242).

The offline markets comprise of the people and companies that can access the internet for other purposes, which do not include e-commerce. Such people and organizations can easily be converted into e-customers.

An e-company can capture the offline markets through newsletters, advertisements in publications, and mailing to supporters and members. A company can also turn an offline market into an online market through advertisements of promotional offers placed on the company’s website (Ryan 91; Wynne 242).

The online market is composed of people who can access the internet and who also have the potential to purchase products and services through the internet. In the case of an online market, the internet is the main tool that is used to capture customers.

There are several ways through which a company can develop an online market. A company can decide to identify a target e-market comprising of potential customers who like the products and services it is offering online. The company may also to decide to form a partnership with other firms, which are already in the e-market and that have well developed websites (Ryan 93; Wynne 246).

Besides promoting the company’s products through the internet, digital marketing also promotes the brand image of a company. The concept of digital marketing requires that a company’s management team be well equipped with knowledge regarding the behavior of the online shoppers and the general digital market.

In addition, the management team should be comprised of business executives who have an adequate understanding of the technology that is concerned with the internet, which can enable them to develop the most effective business plans and marketing objectives (Ryan 95; Wynne 251).

The digital marketing platform has many benefits; firstly, this type of marketing is cost efficient and it assists a company in cutting down costs spent on online advertisements.

In digital marketing, there are no expenses incurred on activities such as postage, printing, and distribution as in the case of traditional marketing. Secondly, there is high precision in digital marketing as it only reaches and lays more emphasis on the targeted e-market. This in turn, assists a company reduce the time and resources it would have wasted in mass marketing (Ryan 97; Wynne 247).

Thirdly, digital marketing has an extreme leverage in advertising a company’s products. It reaches a big number of potential e-customers at the same time. It is easier for a company to determine how its prospective buyers regard it through digital marketing.

This type of e-marketing has distinct measurable results; lastly, through digital marketing, a company can easily evade cases of costly pitfalls that are so rampant in the traditional types of advertisements (Ryan 98; Wynne 252).

In addition to the benefits addressed above, digital marketing can assist in enhancing a company’s image. This it does through a number of strategies; for example, this kind of marketing technique makes it easier for potential customers and the existing ones to identify themselves with the company. This type of marketing improves the visibility of a company in e-commerce.

Secondly, the marketing style increases a company’s credibility in the online markets. When a company has a strong digital presence in a market, it automatically becomes more credible in the eyes of many e-customers. Lastly, digital marketing helps enhance a company’s image by increasing the brand awareness of that particular company (Ryan 103; Wynne 261).

The principle of digital marketing is based on the various search engines that exist. Digital marketing uses these search engines to specifically target the prospective clients that are likely to purchase the company’s products, which are offered online. The search engines also help companies identify other organizations that are willing and able to do business with them through the use of the internet.

Unlike the traditional method of marketing that suffers from social and geographical challenges, digital marketing works to ensure that such challenges are addressed and properly evaluated to prevent them from negatively impacting on the company’s operations. Most companies apply Search Engine Optimization (SEO) in identifying and retaining their e-clients (Ledford 3; Wynne 261).

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) SEO is a technical method that is used to enhance a company’s visibility in relation to its website through various Google presentations. SEO does not have a short-term effect; the impact of its effects can only be felt after a long time of its application. SEO can take as long as six months to accomplish the task for which it is intended (Ledford 3).

However, the duration may be longer or shorter depending on the strategies, methods, and efforts applied in the engine optimizer. Even though the SEO effects are normally realized after a long time, the benefits attached to the engine optimizer are so vast and quite effective in enhancing a company’s image and productivity in the e-market (Ledford 3; Wynne 261).

SEO indexing and site maps are normally done through Google; before a company website is included in the Google index, Google has to verify and confirm the eligibility of the website. It is through the indexing of the site that Google is able to crawl and rank the site in search results.

The search result is a list that is created by Google and in which the companies’ websites are found by the potential e-customers who would wish to assess the products and services offered by the companies (Ledford 7; Wynne 271).

The Ad words make up the simplest way through which a company can index its website on Google. The company is only required to submit a manual website map, which contains other important details, to Google Webmaster Central. SEO contains other aspects such as tags, codes, keywords, and descriptions, all of which explain the situation and status of the company that is indexed on Google.

The SEO contents enhance the speed of indexing and improve the ranking of a company. Google can only list websites that are crawl-able, so it is upon a company to ensure that it submits to Google Webmaster account a site that meets this condition (Ledford 14; Wynne 273).

A company is bound to reap several benefits if it uses SEO to list its website on Google. Through SEO, a company is able to develop a proper content that will attract the potential customers to buy its products. The content can be made attractive by the use of the keyword phrases. SEO contains sites that are simple and easy to navigate through.

The simplicity of the sites helps in attracting more e-costumers, who find easy to get what they are looking for in such sites. SEO is one of the most effective ways that a company can use to beat its competitors, which offer similar products in the internet (Ledford 21; Wynne 281).

Problems with E-Commerce Even though e-commerce has helped many businesses solve most of the shortfalls that they experienced in the traditional business methods, it has a number of problems. Some companies have websites with so much detailed information that makes the buying procedure not only long but also laborious.

When the buying process becomes too long, it confuses the e-costumers, who would wish to complete the checkout process in less than three minutes. Such long processes are likely to discourage the buyers from purchasing the products since they normally experience problems with completing this process.

If some buyers happen to go through the long procedure, there is high probability that they may not come back to purchase from the company again (Meier and Stormer 121; May 43).

Some companies also run websites with very few payment options in the shopping cart. Customers would wish to be given a variety of payment options from which they can choose their favorite one. Companies with just one method of payment are likely to lose sales if the customers find the method tiresome or consider it inconvenient. One mode of payment can also make a company’s website appear monotonous (Kamel 131).

A company may also suffer from e-commerce if most of its potential customers do not trust its website. Even though it is not a common phenomenon in e-marketing, the targeted potential buyers may fail to develop trust on a particular company whose products are intended for them. If such a case happens, then the company is likely to experience a high volume of lost sales (Meier, and Stormer 121; May 47).

Recommendations There are various ways through which a company can modify it website to avoid the problems outlined above. For the case of the limitations in the mode of payments available, a company should ensure that it includes a variety of modes of payment to allow the buyers to choose the one they prefer. This is one the best ways to increase online sales since the customers will have many ways to complete their order (Fox 131).

In order to avoid long buying processes, a company should design its site in such a way that the important processes such as buying and payment remain concise. This not only gives buyers an opportunity to complete their orders in a short time, but is also a good way of attracting and retaining potential buyers (Epstein 74).

Lastly, companies need to make their websites as simple as possible. Many potential e-customers prefer simple sites to sophisticated ones. The customers tend to distrust the most complicated sites and they even shy away from them. A site that is simply designed contains sections that are clear and easily understandable, is what most prospective customers prefer (Epstein 81).

In conclusion, e-commerce and digital marketing have brought a lot of changes in business sector. Several companies have expanded their revenues and businesses by trading their products and services on the internet. The search engine optimization is the most effective equipment used in e-marketing. This tool helps companies in designing their websites in such a way that they attract a big number of customers.

Works Cited Briggs, Susan. Successful Web Marketing for Tourism and Leisure Sectors. London: Kogen Page, 2001. Print.

Epstein, Marc. Implementing E-Commerce Strategies: A Guide to Corporate Success after the Dot.com Bust. Westport, CN: Praegeer, 2004. Print.

Fox, Scott. E-Riches 2.0: Next-Generation Marketing Strategies for Making Millions Online. New York, NY: American Management Association, 2009. Print.

Harvie, Charles, and Boon-Chye Lee. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in East Asia: Sectoral and Regional Dimensions. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2008. Print.

Kamel, Sherif. Electronic Business in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2005. Print.

Ledford, Jerri. Search Engine Optimization Bible: Improve Your Site’s Search Rankings with SEO: Optimize for Mobile Web and Social Media; Target and Reach the Customers You Want. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2009. Print.

May, Paul. The Business of E-Commerce: From Corporate Strategy to Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.

Meier, Andreas, and Henrick Stormer. E-Business and E-Commerce: Managing the Digital Value Chain. Berlin: Springer, 2009. Print.

Needle, David. Business in Context: An Introduction to Business and its Environment. Andover: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Plant, Robert. E-Commerce: Formulation of Strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times, 2000. Print.

Ryan, Damian, and Calvin Jones. Understanding Digital Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. Philadelphia, PA: Kogen Page, 2012. Print.

Stahl, Bernd Carsten. Information Systems: Critical Perspectives. Milton Park, NY: Taylor and Francis, 2008. Print.

Syed, Mahburbur Rahman, and Mahesh S Raisinghani. Electronic Commerce: Opportunity and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2000. Print.

Qin, Zheng. Introduction to E-Commerce. Berlin: Springer Berlin, 2007. Print.

Wynne, Pauma. Pimp My Site: The DIY Guide to SEO, Search Marketing, Social Media and Online PR. West Sussex: Capstone Pub., 2012. Print.


Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship Essay college essay help online

Innovation and Technology A popular statement in the field of innovation and technology in organisations reads that “innovation is not the same as technological advances”. It is noted that the two terms are totally different when applied to business and organisations (Christensen 1997, p.12). Analysts are of the view that innovation is a term used to describe creativity in a business.

This is creativity of the business which is targeted at capturing the attention of the consumers in the market. Technology on the other hand is a mechanism that allows or helps to catapult the innovations initiated on any product on entry into the market (Terkel 1991, p. 14). For example, technology can be used to target a particular segment of consumers in the market.

It is a strategy that can help a company to expand its range of products. Therefore the advancement of the two concepts in the organisation or advancement of one concept at the expense of the other does not mean that the two are tied together.

Having analysed the meaning of these two terms, the author of this paper is now going to provide an insightful analysis of the two concepts by assessing how they affect business operations in a given organisation.

Innovation plays a significant role in the business processes. It is innovation which introduces new ideas initially generated by technology into the market. Innovation takes those valuable ideas and applies them in the market.

Thus, technology can be referred to as an aspect of innovation through which new techniques that touch on the services and products in the market are introduced. It is no wonder then that business scholars often associate business success with innovation (Terkel 1991, p. 16).

Innovation has become an important aspect of business organisations in the world today. There are many studies and research carried out today and which are aimed at improving the various products and services associated with the company. This has led to the emergence of innovative marketing strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, researchers in their efforts to experiment on the correct mechanisms to boost business have stumbled upon valuable ideas that they did not intend to get in the first place.

These ideas have turned to innovative marketing strategies that have been used to catapult the business organisation to the higher heights in the market. Therefore, research has adopted trial and error methods to boost the market using the innovative ideas.

The value of innovation to any business in contemporary society cannot be downplayed. Without innovation, the business will be trapped in a ‘Red Ocean’ instead of what Chan


A Streetcar Named Desire Essay essay help online

The story of the play A Streetcar named Desire focuses on love. The research centers on Blanche DuBois’ lies. The research includes determining why Blanche DuBois lied.

The street car named desire shows, in a certain sense, Blanche is a liar. In a sense, Blanche is a liar. Blanche DuBois gave several lies to hide her true situation in life. Blanche DuBois never stated that she is a drunkard. Likewise, Blanche DuBois hid under a life of delusions of grandeur (Williams 79).

As a girl wanting love, Blanche DuBois would lie in order to make herself attractive to male suitors (Williams 40). The lies included creating a false historical life of Blanche DuBois. Just like the women of today’s generation, most women would go to the extent of hiding their unfavorable past in order to attract the male members of the community.

Normally, women would hide their past love failures from their current suitors (Shea 17). Likewise, Blanche DuBois lied about her school job (Williams 81). She falsely stated that her school administrators had allowed her to have a vacation in order to calm her nerves. In reality, Blanche DuBois had been fired from her teaching job. She was fired for having sexual relations with her 17 year old student.

Having sexual relations with students is banned in schools. One of the school policies is for teachers to responsibly take their roles as the students’ second parents. Blanche DuBois hid her teaching past to prevent hurting her sister Stella from the humiliation of having a sister fired from her teaching job.

Blanche DuBois also lied by not telling about her failed marriage. Blanche DuBois was married to Allan Grey. Their marriage finally failed when she uncovered her husband had a homosexual affair. She did not tell the truth that her husband, Allan Grey, committed suicide (Williams 76). Everyone deserves another chance.

Blanche DuBois travelled to her sister Stella’s home in order to bury her unfavorable marriage behind. In addition, Blanche DuBois created a world of lies. Blanche DuBois did not tell the truth by creating a world filled with fantasies and illusions (Williams 132). The fantasies and illusions crept into and became part of Blanche DuBois’ real life environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Stanley uncovers Blanche DuBois’ lies, Stanley forces her out of their home in order to avoid bringing shame to the Stella household. Refusing to leave Stella’s home, Stanley rapes Blanche DuBois and calls the mental hospital to extract Blanche DuBois from the Stella household and treat her in the community’s mental hospital. The husband of Blanche’s sister, Stanley, uncovers her true secrets (Williams 79).

Stanley uncovers Blanche’s lies when Stanley’s friend brings news to Stanley about Blanche DuBois’ true life in Laurel. Laurel is the hometown of Blanche DuBois. Consequently, the uncovered lies infuriated Stanley.

The discovery of the lies discourages everyone. Stanley’s reporting to his best friend, Mitchell, the new discovery of Blanche DuBois’ prior unfavorable character in Blanche DuBois’ Laurel community discourages Mitchell. After hearing Stanley’s report about Blanche Dubois’ unfavorable past, Mitchell immediately drops his prior marriage promise to Blanche DuBois (Williams 73).

Based on the above discussion, the story of the play A Streetcar named Desire centers on love in general. The lies of Blanche DuBois were concocted to win male suitors. The research centers on Blanche DuBois’ past Laurel life creeping into Blanche DuBois’ current community life. Indeed, the play Streetcar named Desire shows Blanche DuBois lies to win male suitors.

Works Cited Shea, Rosemary O’. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Insight Press, 2011. Print

Williams, Tenessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Heinemann Press, 1995. Print


Kate Chopin’s Private Papers Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Kate Chopin is a personality which deserves attention. Being an interesting person, Kate Chopin has written many stories and her life may be considered as boring and usual except for the particular moments which make her biography deserve attention. Of course, the lives of famous people are always interesting, however, the biography of Kate Chopin attracts attention due to a number of reasons.

Being a person who wrote about the discrimination of women, their hard life in the patriarchy society and other similar aspects, it seems that Kate Chopin considered the society of her time unfair. Struggling for women rights and trying to present a woman as equal to men, it seems strange for me Kate Chopin described severe headaches once a month (each 28 days).

Such confession seems strange and unusual, therefore it is possible to conclude that Kate Chopin agreed on the role of a woman as the society believed was correct (Chopin, Toth, Seyersted, and Bonnell 10). One more fact from the biography of this woman seems peculiar and deserves attention is the fact that after the death of her husband, Dr. Chopin, Kate did not follow the tradition of six months of mourning.

This fact was rather confusing for the family members of her husband’s family (Toth 66). Considering the way how these people spent time together, one may say they fell in love with each and such behavior could not be understood in a proper way. Kate respected her husband, they spent much time together and her behavior seemed inappropriate.

Therefore, these are two facts from Kate Chopin’s biography which caught my attention. They seem strange and at the same time interesting. Such aspects in the biography of the author of Awakening make her life particular.

Poe uses both humor and horror to create the setting in The Cask of the Amontillado and this aspect is easily noticed. Reading the description of the catacombs and the way how Montresor makes Fortunato come there, doubtful opinion is created.

On the one hand, the setting is horrible paying attention to the final scene. On the other hand, it is impossible to miss the fun in the way how Montresor makes a fool of Fortunato making him go to catacombs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Montresor says that he wants a piece of advice from an expert in wine, a friend advice, stating that “The thousand injuries of Fortunato I [Montresor] had borne as I best could” (Poe). It is rather strange that Fortunato did not notice the fact of flattery.

The description of catacombs is also funny and horrible at one and the same time. The mentioning of human remains is horrible while the very fact of the inability of Fortunato to catch the atmosphere. The very process of immune seems rather funny. Being caught Fortunato repeats the title of the wine for several times, “The Amontillado!” as if he did not notice what happened to him.

But the reader understands what is happening and this awareness makes the whole scene more terrific and comic at one and the same time. However, the reader understands what Montresor is doing and it makes him/her terrified.

Therefore, it may be concluded that the surrounding atmosphere is funny while the background view is terrific. The author managed to make the readers smile while reading such a story, cruel and disgusting.

Works Cited Chopin, Kate, Toth, Emily, Seyersted, Per and Cheyenne Bonnell. Kate Chopin’s Private Papers. New Jersey: Indiana University Press, 1998. Print.

Poe, Edgar Allan. The cask of amontillado, 1846. Web.

Toth, Emily. Unveiling Kate Chopin. New York: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1999. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Kate Chopin’s Private Papers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Biomass Energy – A Reliable Energy Source Report custom essay help

Biomass energy is a reliable source of energy that can solve the many problems faced by rice farmers in Mekong Delta district of Vietnam. People in the region are faced with various problems, which are mostly related to the environment hence the government needs to come up with a permanent solution that would solve their problems.

In a developing country such as Vietnam, cheap source of energy would be required since it would boost the productivity of citizens, as well as government. The Bio mass source of energy is expensive to establish but its maintenance costs are cheap. The source of energy is usually developed using natural products such as trees, agricultural crops and oil seeds.

This means that it has both advantages and disadvantages over other sources of energy such as electricity. Some of the advantages include renewability, availability, disposability, usability by plants due to its production of carbon dioxide and employability. However, some disadvantages including the initial cost, pollution, it is complex and durability is associated with it.

The community would benefit from the strategy in case the government adopts the project to invest in biogas energy. This would reduce the rates of poverty in rural areas and the living standards of people would go up. Despite the initial installment costs, the state can utilize the new technology to protect the environment and provide energy to the locals.

List of References Altro, 2011, what is bioethanol 2012. Web.

Binod, P., Sindhu, R., Singhania, R. R., Vikram, S., Devi, L., Nagalakshmi, S., Kurien, N., Sukumaran, R. K.


Mitalio Software Case Analysis Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Case Facts Mitalio Software inc. was a key player in the business process management software industry with operations in North America, Europe and Asia. Its offices were located in United States, France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

The major product categories were divided according to the customers served and involved corporations in telecom, manufacturing, banking, financial services, healthcare and insurance.

A core product family was ProcessEdge which comprised multiple products that helped create new software platform, acted as a bridge between multiple platforms, and packaged business applications for specific industries.

These software involved many permutations and combinations of possible solutions, hence hard to implement.

Part of the revenue came from services as the sales people had to undertake extensive customer education and consultative selling.

Direct selling was the major determinant of Mitalio’s market performance.

Products were licensed and services sold through a direct organization in most parts of the world.

Selling through resellers was just a supportive sales force.

The direct selling was accomplished through sales professionals and sales support consultants who provided pre-sale technical support to prospective customers.

Mitalio Software put a special emphasis on marketing activities.

Market spending was about 7% as compared to the industry average which was between 2% and 5%.

Printing advertising in business magazine, industry events and tradeshows, and market services topped the list in the amount spent.

Online/Web-based marketing was bottom in the list with only 5% of the total spending.

Marketing productivity per employee was lower compared to peers and competitors.

The marketing focus was on educating potential customers, generating new sales opportunities and improving awareness of various products.

The marketing objective was lead generation or generating qualified leads that the direct force could pursue.

Lead generation was a great disadvantage to Mitalio.

Competitors had increasingly rolled out rapid fire promotion strategies.

Instead of enticing people to buy products, Mitalio continued to target an almost fixed set of customers.

In order to enhance brand loyalty, Mitalio was establishing thought leadership by increasing the time the sales people spent with customers.

Electronic marketing becoming more common over conventional forms of marketing, thought leadership faced a great challenge.

BEA acquisition was a great threat to Mitalio’s business.

BEA had been a long time competitor and the acquisition was an added advantage to the firm’s strength.

BEA had swiftly engaged in electronic marketing to advertise the acquisition.

People had begun to respond to the competitor’s call and traffic had increased significantly.

Mitalio had about 140 cases worldwide in the proposal stage and 60 pilot projects around the world which were directly threatened by the new wave created by competitors.

Mitalio’s marketing organizational structure: Director of product marketing (Carlos Pintera), director marketing manager (Susan Marakos) and then an MBA intern (Oscar Smith).

Director of product marketing

Carlos was a very observant person and was known for his quick response to issues that affected the marketing department.

One of his jobs was to oversee the development of marketing strategies.

Director marketing manager

Susan had been with the company almost since its inception.

Her responsibilities were to communicate, mentor and support the development of marketing initiatives.

The MBA intern

Oscar had great experience in hi-tech marketing with CPG.

He was to spearhead the team in developing a comprehensive e-marketing strategy.

Problems/Dilemmas and Recommendations Problems

Competition in the global market was intensifying as firms like BEA increasingly became stronger through acquisition and timely response to the changing marketing environment. The competitors were swift in adopting marketing strategies that aligned with the needs of customers and technology advancement.

Mitalio marketing management was still pursuing thought leadership which did not support or was in opposition to the current trend of e-marketing. Thought leadership was a way of creating brand loyalty by aiming to shape customer perceptions through long term service. Arguably, this could not compete effectively in the present environment where customers sort for speed, interactivity and efficiency.

The nature of Mitalio’s business did not allow for product diversification and most of the industry players offered similar product. This left the firm with no other choice but to maximize on marketing strategies in order to enhance brand loyalty and create a competitive advantage.

A wave of uncertainty about the success of the many deals Mitalio had with global customers was emerging as a result of intense competition. Many global customers were being taken by e-marketing which the company was yet to implement.

The BEA acquisitions might also take effect earlier than the six months Oscar claimed and surprise Mitalio. Indeed, the online communication of the acquisition was a surprise to Carlos and this could still happen for the implementation.

Carlos is already discouraged by the level of Mitalio’s e-marketing activity, yet he is expecting the marketing team to come up with a comprehensive e-marketing strategy. As a leader, he should be in the frontline to motivate his followers rather than leaving the effort to them.

The budget allocated to online marketing is the least and becomes a big obstacle to the success of the e-marketing strategy. The budget is just 5% of the total marketing budget.

Mitalio’s executives are not active in online activities since no blogs from senior company executives could be found. This is also an indication that the rest of the organization is not aware of the significance of enhancing e-marketing strategies and might oppose the proposal from the marketing team.

Susan is not ready to listen to Oscar suggestion that e-marketing is better than lead generation in term of expanding the customer base. As copartners in the development of an e-marketing strategy, this conflict of interest could have some negative impacts on the outcomes.

The number of marketing employees is also large and Carlos might not want to lose them as it is expected once the e-marketing strategy is adopted. Also, there might be a need to reorganize the whole department which might certainly face rebellions from employees.

Mitalio wanted to be a key player in the enterprise software industry, but did not make the necessary strategic changes on time such as revising and funding its marketing strategies appropriately. Also, competitors were more sensitive when developing marketing initiatives, forcing Mitalio to reconsider adopting e-marketing strategy.

Alternative paths of action

The marketing team implements an e-marketing strategy


Help Mitalio to lower the threat emerging from the BEA acquisition and the new wave of online communication. As Carlo noted, the present and a great concern was the increasing involvement of BEA in online activities.

Eliminate the risk of losing the 140 cases worldwide in the proposal stage and 60 pilot projects around the world which were directly threatened by the new wave from BEA acquisition. This risk results from the lack of involvement in online activities by the marketing team and the firm as a whole.

Increase the productivity per employee which is lower than the competitors as a result of ineffective marketing strategies. A change in the marketing strategies that responds to the situational needs might increase productivity as a measure of revenue.

Increase the speed of sending the marketing messages which Oscar thinks is too slow at present. The higher speed means that more customers could be enticed to make transactions with the company.

Addressing deeper, underlying problems at Mitalio that are probably the real reason as to why the marketing department is not doing well overall, such as employees productivity being lower that the competitors.

Reduce marketing spending especially because some of the marketing strategies will be dropped as well as a reduction in the marketing workforce.


Some sales people especially those doing consultative task will lose their jobs due to adoption of information technology. Also, e-marketing will eliminate some marketing strategies such as advertising through magazines forcing the company to reduce the workforce.

Extra spending will occur in outsourcing expertise, employee training and installation of the IT systems to enable online integration throughout the firm. This is because an integrated e-marketing strategy will require input from various departments to ensure that the customers get the confirmation on the marketing message.

Demanding restructuring of the marketing department: the e-marketing strategy will define new roles and eliminate others, hence the need to restructure the department to accommodate the change. Also, this will not definitely be accepted by the affected employees and might in turn affect their motivation.

The marketing team continues to focus on lead generation


Some employees will not have to lose their jobs neither will a restructuring of the department be required.

Expertise and experience will be maintained as the sales people will continue with their jobs. Mitalio has always performed better than competitors largely because of the expertise of the marketing team.

Avoid the risk of losing their competitive advantage which is embedded on the marketing strategies in place as defined by the marketing objective.


Allow competition to swell in as competitors achieve elevated competitive advantages. This will also lead to a loss of revenue as the competitors dominate the market.

The firm will lose brand loyalty as consumers become more and more sensitive to technological changes which increase speed, interactivity and efficiencies.

Recommendation Tony must oversee the implementation of a comprehensive e-marketing strategy and develop it to be more effective. Also, the marketing team should use web techniques such as search engine optimization and other tools to increase the effectiveness of the e-marketing strategy. This way, the marketing team is not putting the business at the risk of losing brand loyalty.

Tony is the EVP of marketing and should increase his involvement in the strategy development. He should be there to motivate talented and experienced persons like Oscar to maximize their input towards the success of this strategy. Oscar is an IT expert and can help in reducing the cost of outsourcing expertise during the implementation process. Tony is also strategically positioned to link the marketing team with the top executives in order for them to support the strategy and its development.

Three concepts from “Mastering the Three Worlds of Information Technology” Companies need to adopt information technology in the current information era in an effort to enhance efficiencies and speed in operations. This means that information technology has a central role in all functions of an organization and managers must take the responsibility of its implementation.

This is something with which Mitalio marketing team is struggling to achieve. The marketing department seems much focused on its success, partly due to the changing business environment and the emerging wave of its competitors.

The company could devise a way to adopt the necessary IT in order to succeed in the e-marketing strategy projected. It will be very important to involve all departments in the implementation process as a way of enhancing IT integration.

Leaders have special responsibility in terms of IT adoption and should not distance themselves from abandoning a vital role. Tony and other leaders should not leave the responsibility of strategy development solely to team members.

Leaders must help in selecting technologies, fostering their adoption and make sure their exploitation. They should not look at hi-tech marketing project as a system and consider it as an opportunity for organizational change that they are responsible to supervise.

Network IT is the most pertinent category of IT in hi-tech marketing. This class will offer a way by which Mitalio stakeholders can interact with each other. The major reason is that the class supports internet activities such as e-mail, instant messaging, blogs and popups. This technology will give the stakeholders freedom to experiment with the company. It will come with supplements, but allow customers and employees to execute and change them over time. Mitalio top leaders will also have the opportunity to write blogs.

Network IT will facilitate collaboration. It will allow employees to work together without defining what projects should be worked on or the teams that will be involved. Teamwork will be encouraged whereby the marketing teams will employ wikis to carry out assignments without directives from the supervisors.

Network IT will permit expression of decision as it employs unrestricted technologies that permit people to present opinions. Mitalio will be able to understand customer needs and communicate the strategies adopted to meet those needs.

Network IT fosters emergence or the manifestation of high level patterns because of low level interactions. Mitalio managers will be able to compare how marketing functions are done with how they are supposed to be done. Similarly, sales people can easily search and navigate Mitalio’s blogs and wikis for information without supervision.

The e-marketing strategy will require systematic management of information technology involved. Mitalio marketing managers should first select the IT applications that are pertinent to the hi-tech marketing strategy.

The company should invest in the internet marketing because others such as BEA are succeeding in it.

Second, the managers should put the technologies they have selected into productive use. The major role of the managers will be to assist in the creation of the supplements that will maximize the value of the technologies.

Finally, Mitalio’s managers should seek to extract the maximum benefit from internet marketing technologies. They should exploit technologies like blogs and wikis in order to help in sustaining and increasing the use of supplements to make the new technology continually more effective.


Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs Coursework best college essay help: best college essay help

Article Research Problem to be Solved This study aims to identify the internal and external factors that influence the inclusion of STEM education in curriculums for higher education fashion merchandizing courses.

Article Research Goals Fashion merchandizing requires both style and business strategy. It requires one to handle a wide variety of customers while staying within the set budget and marketing strategy.

For a successful career in fashion merchandizing, one needs proper education in both fashion and marketing. The input of business knowledge will be required when it comes to forecasting, cost analysis and so on. The fashion aspect is concerned with the design and production of the actual garments.

Fashion merchandizing classes usually begin with general education courses in mathematics, science, English, and social studies. There are also basic courses in the fashion industry like advertising, buying and selling, and personnel management.

In a typical fashion merchandizing class, students use various software applications to design patterns and garment specifications, and come up with mass production details. Fashion merchandizing students need to posses the necessary STEM skills and the capability to analyze new trends. The following research questions are to be addressed:

What internal factors influence the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing courses?

What external factors influence the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing courses?

Which particular STEM education skills are necessary for fashion merchandizing courses?

Type of Research This was a descriptive research on internal and external influences on program level curriculum development in higher education fashion merchandizing programs.

Limitations of the Study The major limitation of the study was the small sample used since only institutions in the United States participated. It was also assumed that the faculties participating in the study would all give accurate responses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population Data was collected from 96 faculties offering apparel and textile programs from all over the United States.

Instruments and methods of data collection The researcher used electronic means to invite the chosen faculties to participate in the study. The survey instruments used were questionnaires that were sent through email to the relevant faculties. The respondents were then expected to load and send the filled questionnaires through the same means.

Conclusions Drawn by the Researcher The data revealed that internal influences had more impact on curriculum development than external influences. The main internal influences included faculty background and program mission, while the major external influence was employers/marketplace.

The study revealed that the goals and objectives outlined by external influences usually impact on the curriculum through state and federal laws, the funding of programs and in the requirements for accreditation and licensing.

Significance of the Study This study emphasized the importance of including a STEM educational background in fashion merchandizing courses. Institutions that provide fashion merchandizing as a career course ought to adequately prepare their students for the fashion marketplace by putting special emphasis on STEM related educational skills. This should be reflected in their faculty disciplines and program missions that are usually determined internally.

Recommendations The recommendations of this research support my study in many ways. First of all it recognizes the importance of STEM education in the teaching of fashion merchandizing courses.

It also recognizes that many institutions providing fashion merchandizing and related courses don’t put a lot of emphasis on STEM education, and there is need to change that. Lastly, it is calling on all stakeholders to work towards the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing and related courses in order to better prepare the students for the fashion world.

We will write a custom Coursework on Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference King, J. E. (2010). Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs. East Eisenhower Parkway: ProQuest LLC


MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan Case Study best essay help

Executive Summary This paper analyzes the business Strategic Plan of MAC Cosmetic to establish how it is affected by the external factors like the societal expectation, status of the economy, law and the political environment. The needs and expectations of different stakeholders in the company have also been highlighted. In addition, the major changes in the environment of the business and their impact on the business have also been reviewed.

Furthermore, the business plan of the company has been analyzed to help determine the position of the company in the current market. Finally, a Swot analysis was done to establish the company’s competitive strengths and weaknesses.

Introduction MAC Cosmetics is a global company that deals with beauty products, fashion, film, TV, music and photography. The name MAC is derived from the initials Make-up, Art and Cosmetics. It has previously focussed its strategic plan on a specific market niche; the professionals.

Its strategy now has shifted to individual consumers, trying to meet the needs of each consumer as much as possible. This has resulted in the company sales sky-rocketing and actually hitting the “121 million dollar mark. MAC CEO is John Dempsey.

Historical Background MAC Cosmetics was found in 1984 in Toronto by two men, Frank Angelo and Frank Toskan. It opened its first shop in the US in 1991 in New York. It currently has 108 branches with over 50 of this in the UK.

Since its inception in 1985, it has marketed its products through the word of mouth and through different sponsorships. It has however avoided the conventional methods of advertisement. Its success is based solidly on researching the consumer needs and going out to satisfy it.

“The best advertisement is through testimony of those who have used a product” (Jaharveb, 2011, p.121). Mac cosmetics’ philosophy is captured in its mission statement; “All Races, All Sexes, All Ages”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first factor that an organization must consider is the social factor. “The general behavior, attitudes and customs of the market affects the business organization” (Ravi, 2011, p.218).

The changes envisaged in the business strategic plan should not be fundamentally in conflict to the target market. They advocate green principles by encouraging back-to-mac programme. The company has recently focused on the fight against Aids through the Viva Glam celebrity fund.

Secondly, the strategy of Mac Cosmetics must be in line with the prevailing legal framework with regard to employment laws. The company strategy might need to accommodate the new employees that will be hired. The business must also operate within the confines of the law.

Thirdly, the prevailing economic environment is not very favorable for a company dealing with non-essential commodities like cosmetics. However, the strategy of the company not to invest heavily on advertisement but depend on the word of mouth will work in its favor especially for its target market.

In addition, the company has established its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through several charities including Kids for kids and Viva Glam celebrity Aids fund (Andersen 2000, p. 186 ).

Finally, business is driven by technology and it will be necessary to review the technology adopted by the company viz a viz its competitors.

Stakeholders in a business organisation like MAC Cosmetics are the people that the organisation serves. Their relationships with the organisation is mutually symbiotic since they both depend on each other for survival.

We will write a custom Case Study on MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firstly, the shareholders are more concerned with the dividends they receive on their investment. The need to expand the business will mean that they dig deeper into their resources to provide capital for the envisaged expansion.

Secondly, employees’ benefits from job design that increases satisfaction enhanced working surrounding and, safety standards. The company has a retention rate of 80%, far much better than the average for the industry at 30% (Shahbaz et al 2011).

Thirdly, customers are interested in safe products that meet their needs and value of money. They are also keen on the cause that the organization focuses on and will support any cause that benefits the society.

Fourthly, suppliers expect prompt payment of their money following delivery of goods and being subjected to fair terms of trade. The also need the organization to be financially stable in order to receive future supplies.

Fifthly, the society expects the organization to sponsor local events and offer job opportunities to people living in the community. The society also expects that the organization will follow all the rules and regulations that relate to the standard of the products they produce and environmental regulation.

The consumer needs are not static. The business must prepare to meet the changing needs when and as they arise. The business cannot just focus on the niche market of professional, but must change to accommodate all people as stated in its mission statement.

When new competitors enter a market, the strategy of the company will have to focus on the differentiation of the business product so that it stands out from its competitors’ product.

New laws introduced by the government also affect the company and its strategy. The company must always strive to operate within regulations. A case in point is its non-cruelty policy aimed at protecting animal rights.

Not sure if you can write a paper on MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to compete with the many small business rivals, the company will have to practice target marketing so that they meet the specific people they intend to meet. On the other hand, the company must also be ready to face the challenge posed by the few large rival firms.

There is also need for the company to adopt new technologies and give consumers products that meet their expectations. This way, they will be able to gain competitive advantage over their competitors.

MAC is currently spreading its wings in the cosmetics business globally. It has plans to expand its stations to more countries in Europe, Asia and the Far East.

The company’s business plan is influenced by the following views:

Financial Perspective The business plan needs to anticipate the revenue growth. There is likely to be an increase in profitability. Due to its expansion, there will be no cash flow since money is held up. The business must strive to ensure that the cost of production is reduced even as the quality of the product is improved (Hamel, 1989, par.3).

Customer Perspective The business must strive to understand what the customers needs are. This means that the key features of the product must be highlighted in their marketing. The value of the product to the consumers can be measured by how well the product is doing in the market in comparison to its competitors.

In addition, the rate of acquisition, retention and satisfaction by the customer will be an indication of how well the product is doing in the market (Hamel, 1989, par.7).

Internal Business Process Perspective This emphasizes productivity, quality cost and delivery characteristics of the production process. It also includes internal mechanism of handling customer dissatisfaction e.g. meeting regulatory requirements and after-sale service.

Learning Growth Perspective This area focuses on the employee needs. The fact that the company has an employee retention rate of 80% at a time when that of the industry is 30%.

A swot analysis of MAC cosmetics business strategy reveals that the company has strengths in their products like Heart to soul and their recycling policy dabbed Back-to-Mac recycling. It is also empowered by the fact that the prices of its products are comparatively cheap.

This is attributed to the fact that the company does not invest heavily in conventional advertising like its competitors since it relies on the word of mouth advertisement.

Its major weakness lies in the fact that their distribution does not include drugstores and therefore unnecessarily losing an available market.

One major opportunity available for Mac cosmetics especially now is a joint venture with the second largest company in the US The company needs to explore Far East countries.

The major threat for the company lies in the fact that its competitors are aggressively distributing their products in major US drugstores while they are not.

Recommendation The MAC cosmetic business strategic plan must incorporate internet sale to capture the market outside the US. This is more so considering that the brand distribution does not include drugstores but in select cosmetic stores that have been mandated by the company to sell its products.

Conclusion This paper has analyzed the strategic plan of MAC cosmetic business to establish how it relates to external business factors. The paper has also investigated how the businesses plan to meet the need and expectations of the different stakeholders.

The major changes taking place in the environment of the company have also been highlighted. The business plan of MAC cosmetic was also subjected to test in order to establish the position of the business in the market. A swot analysis was also done to determine the comparative strength and weaknesses of the business.

Reference List Andersen, T 2000, ‘Strategic planning, autonomous actions and corporate performance.’ Long Range Planning, [Online] 33, pp 184-199. .

Hamel, G


Utah Symphony and Opera Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The organizational structure of the two organizations is well spelt out in the official chart and everybody’s duty is highlighted as well as the chain of command. In the case of Utah Opera Company, it is clearly indicated that the CEO is at the top of the chain of command and reports directly to the board members.

On top of that, the CEO is assisted by the director of productions and it is expected that the two should work together consulting each other when making important decisions in the company.

Though the CEO is expected to be the director general overseeing the operations of a company, there are managers in each department who assist the CEO in implementing, and sometimes making, decisions that directly affect their areas of operation (Naoum 2001).

In the case of Utah Opera Company, the CEO, Anne Ewers, has various managers under her who help in overseeing the daily events of their sections and report to her. They include director of finance, director of marketing, human resource manager, director of production and music administrator.

The departmental directors are responsible for general decisions that affect their areas of operation and they are supposed to be consulted in case the board of directors or the CEO wants to introduce some changes (Jelinek 2010). It should however be noted that, for the case of the Utah symphony both the CEO and the director of music report directly to the board of directors.

This is because musicians play a critical role in the operations of the symphony and they need special attention. However, the chain of command and decision making remains somehow the same as that of Utah Opera where each section has a manger that oversees the day to day affairs of the section and reports either to the CEO or the director of music depending on the department involved.

Major decisions are made by the board of directors in consultation with the CEO while in other cases the CEO can make decisions but mostly in consultation with the departmental heads who are supposed to implement these decisions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the departments, authority is given by departmental heads to their assistants and down the chain to the lowest (Daft, Murphy


Contextual Factors Essay writing essay help

Environmental context Racine, Wisconsin is a city that occupies an area of 18.7 square miles. Of the total area of the land the city comprises about 15.5 square miles. Water occupies about 16.76 percent of the area. As of the 2010 census report, it was established that Racine had about 78,860 people.

This figure comprised 33,887 households. The city has a balanced racial mix. For example, according to the same census report, the white population was 60.91 percent, the African American population took about 20.32 percent, the Native Americans took 0.61 percent, and Asia took 0.05 as the Pacific Islander comprised about 0.05 percent of the total population of the area.

The Racine Unified School District is a diverse community. With a student population of about 21,000 students the district comes out as one that takes education with a lot of interest. The students come from diverse backgrounds. Students come from urban, rural and even suburban regions. All in all, the students come from a catchment area that is within 100 square miles.

The urban district of Racine is situated within a small urban community on the shores of Lake Michigan in south western Wisconsin. In the district, there are 21 elementary schools with 3 magnet schools. There are 7 middle schools with one magnet middle school together with one charter high school.

The SC. Johnson Elementary school is located on the south western part of Racine. The school occupies about 13.5 acres with 33 rooms. Majorly, the school has a kindergarten and first grades based in one wing while the other wing houses second through to fifth grades are housed in another wing. The school is replete with an outdoor learning center.

Contextual Classroom Factors Every student comes to class with distinct learning abilities based on experience and personality. It is important for teachers to design the learning environment in the classroom to be accustomed to every learner.

At SC. Johnson Elementary school a classroom’s physical features are information posted on the classroom walls and notice boards. This includes; parts of academic subjects’ content in short form descriptions of school’s vision, statement and mission and school rules.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such information if well arranged on the classroom walls acts as a reminder to the students of their purpose in the classroom. Students’ artworks and pictures especially the most outstanding also form part of classroom wall hangings.

At the SC. Johnson Elementary school, technology equipment and resources such as desk top computers and laptops serve as important teaching aids in class. These equipments and resources are used for demonstration and research learning. Most learners are fascinated by the presence of Computers in class.

Presence of such facilities in class enhances their participation in the learning process. Therefore, proper rules and regulation should be put in place to ensure students don’t spent most of the time on computers at the expense of other subject areas.

Parental involvement in students’ learning process should be highly encouraged. Research indicates that parental involvement in their children’s education improves performance and quality of education. Concerned parents would for example ensure that their children attend school regular basis. They will also be involved in the evaluation and progress of their children both socially and academically.

School rules and regulations provide a guideline on students conduct within the school. The rules aim to maintain discipline and order among the student community. The rules and regulation of the school will normally define the rules and the penalty that an offender can face incase of breaching. The SC Johnson school’s rules and regulations book has guidelines on students dress code, grooming and conduct in school.

The school routine spells out the normal daily activities undertaken by students at various times. The routine schedule at SC Johnson School lists students’ names and activities assigned to them at various times. Students are guided by the routine to carry out manual work, such as; cleaning the compound, washing classes and maintaining the lawn.

Impact of Students’ Contextual Factors on Design of Instruction and Assessment The gender issue has received a lot of focus in the design of instruction material fora. Numerous complaints of gender discrimination emerge in various instruction materials and evaluation modes. It is important that when designing instruction materials and methods gender sensitivity should be accorded utmost priority.

We will write a custom Essay on Contextual Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is often the problem of male attitude where male teachers perceive female students as weak in particular areas and go ahead to make them feel they are weak. Teachers should take a leading role to encourage both female and male students to have an equal perception of the learning content.

Special needs students come to class with learning challenges that require special attention by teachers to effectively guide them in the learning process. For example, the design of instructional material for a deaf student should be of a similar standard as to balance his/her needs with other classmates without special needs.

This will be critical as it will make special needs student’s feel comfortable, adaptable, and have a fair access of the curriculum. Also, the Include strategy should be used when designing instructional material for special needs students.

On this, a student performance in school is based on the interaction with the instructional environment, thus, what happens in the classroom can either magnify or minimize the impact of special needs student on his/her learning, compelling adaptation.

Culture describes “a peoples’ way of life”, it affects the way people learn and perceive different aspects of life. Culture contributes largely to ones’ personality and experience. The aspect of cultural differences should be properly addressed in the process of designing instructional materials to ensure dominant and minority cultural aspects are captured.

Language which is one of the aspects of culture is a key component of learning and teaching process. Students’ consciousness of the differences in language can either promote or inhibit learning. Learning resources in schools library should reflect the culture of different cultural practices for inclusivity. The learning process in class should be directed in a manner that values the diversity of language as well as cultural practices.

Skills level equally plays a big role in the design and evaluation of a learning process. Both instructional materials and assessment must reflect the level of the students’ comprehension. Higher order content beyond the students’ comprehension discourages them from participating in the learning process.

The design of the instructional materials should check/analyze student strength, in other words, what a student can do successfully. Success promotes a student motivation and self image. The instructional materials should be able to address the social-emotional and academic areas. This will help in identifying a student’s skills and strengths and thus designing effective instructional materials.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contextual Factors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Influence of Prior Learning on Design of Learning Goals, Assessment and Instruction Students’ prior learning experience comprises of the skills and knowledge a student brings to class that is relevant to the content prepared for instruction. Teachers need to build on this experience to formulate instruction content that progress from known to unknown content.

This section looks at the influence of students’ prior knowledge on formulation of learning goals, instruction and assessment. Learning goals point to what a learning process aims to achieve. It should be understood that what the students knows about the subject content can either be constructive or destructive to learning.

Students’ prior knowledge should be taken in consideration in the instruction process. It helps a teacher build learning content in a systematic and hierarchical manner. Quality learning can be achieved if content is developed from known and basic concepts of the subject to more complex ones. The instruction process should develop continuous links between what the students know, to what they do not know.

The main aim of an assessment is to establish the level of student comprehension of a given content area. Any meaningful assessment should have specific goals and objectives. The SC elementary school teaching program is organized in a manner that teachers are provided an opportunity to carry out an initial testing on the students at the beginning of the term.


China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority Essay college application essay help

Introduction Political power can be basically described as the ability of one person to influence another to do something1. Many past and present scholars have written theories describing different forms of power. Machiavelli produced political writings in the Roman republic during the 16th century2. In his writings, he adopted the Weber’s definition of politics that describes struggle as being the essence of politics.

Machiavelli describes politics in his writing, The Prince, which envisions the United National State in times when there were unending struggles for power3. The story elicits a social conflict and the notion of “who is fighting whom” to gain control and the ways being used to maintain the control4.

According to Machiavelli, love and fear are necessary to maintain the power, with fear playing a greater role. What comes out is that an authority can remain in power when the middle class and the Citizens support and favor their ruling.

The preferences of power as expressed in Machiavelli’s theory can be witnessed in contemporary political systems. This paper is interested in identifying how Machiavelli’s theory applies to the political situation in China. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is currently facing inevitable political and economic changes.

The country is shifting from strict socialism to socialist-capitalistic market economy. The paper will specifically address the in-depth correlation of Machiavelli’s power theory with China. The analysis will include the steps that should be taken by the Chinese regime to sustain their political power.

China political situation The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has ruled the country for more than six decades, a longevity that can only be compared to that of the Communist party of the Soviet Union5. The CCP came to power in 1949 after defeating the forces of Chiang Kai- shek Nationalists in a civil war. The Chiang Kai-shek moved their republic of China seats to Taiwan, leaving the CCP to rule mainland of China.

The CCP later named the country as People’s Republic of China (PRC). Since then, China’s political institutions and political culture have changed significantly6. The CCP’s readiness to adapt can be partly used to explain why it has maintained control on power. The various strategies employed by the CCP can be referred to Machiavelli’s political theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many analysts consider the Chinese political system to be monolithic or hierarchical, even though the CCP is committed to holding onto power and does not tolerate those who question right to remain in power7. Currently there are several instances where conflicts arise between institutional leaders, particularly those representing different sets of agenda.

Fierce differences are being witnessed even among the nine members of the Politburo Standing committee and the 25- member Politburo8. The two represent the highest decision making organs in China.

Competition and conflicts also exist among different ministries; between ministries and provincial administrations, which are bureaucratically ranked equal; between different provinces; and between the various service units of the military. It is common when the military disagree with the foreign ministry.

On various occasions, the delegates of the National People’s Congress (Weak legislature) try to track back on the government’s decisions, the courts and the prosecutor’s office9. This can be depicted as modest forms of political pluralization that are beginning to take place in China.

Moreover, there are other political actors who are increasingly influence policy debates. Such actors are now able to join forces and push for a particular cause, they include an increasingly independent media, both private and state owned corporations, official and quasi-official research institutes, officially sponsored societies and associations, universities, and grassroots and non-governmental organizations10.

Historically, a political system is usually tested by the ability to manage political transitions. The CPC will hold its 18th National congress later in the year and it is expected to appoint new leadership11. Xi Jinping currently holds the fifth position in the party’s official rank and is expected to assume the position of CPC’s generally secretary from Hu Jintao, who is going into retirement12.

The CPC has done all it could to portray the transition as a routine practice that cannot be avoided. Historically, only two transitions were relatively incident free. The first was from Deng Xiaoping who can be identified as China’s last supreme leader, to a collective leadership led by a party general, Jiang Zemin, following Xiaoping’s death13. The second peaceful transition was from Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao in the year 2002.

We will write a custom Essay on China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This year’s transition particularly tricky mainly due to the challenge posed by the ousted of CPC Politburo member and Chongqing Municipality party secretary Bo Xilai14.

Bo Xilai represents a potentially serious rift in the CPC’s leadership, it has raised concerns about the unity of other Poliburo leaders, and, as due to his association with senior officials in the military, raised concerns regarding the loyalty of sections of the military to CPC’s inner circle.

Analysts from within and outside China doubt whether the current Chinese political system can remain viable in the long-term, especially in regard to the perceived black box leadership politics, all powerful party, and constrained civil society and free speech rights15. The outgoing premier, Wen Jiabao has expressed the need for political reforms in China, including reform in the leadership style.

He has warned that without proper political reforms, the country cannot undertake structural economic reforms. Many other analysts have raised concerns regarding China’s risk of losing the developments gained through a cultural revolution if urgent steps are not taken to resolve fundamental political issues.

Analysis of China’s political system’s consistency with Machiavelli’s theory As described earlier, Machiavelli’s theory mainly pertains to the strategies advanced by the ruling class in their bid to create a unified state. This, according to him, is an important step in the creation of a stable republican system.

He observes that authority can remain in power as long as the middle class and other citizens provide support to their ruling. In the description of the political situation in China provided above, it is evident that the ruling party (CPC) is in tricky situation due to a looming loss of support from the middle class and other citizens16.

The collective leadership that is currently practiced by the CPC was a strategic move, consistent with Machiavelli’s theory to consolidate support from majority of the Chinese people. The system was specifically designed against the excesses that might occur when power is taken by one person. It was meant to prevent a repeat of events that were witnessed during the era of PRC’s founding father Mao Zedong.

It also guards against the emergence of figures such as Mikhail Gorbachev, who was largely blamed by the Chinese for the collapse of the Soviet Union17. The collective leadership has fostered the unit through consensus building. This partially explains why the party usually slowly responds to events that spill into the public domain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, in case of the disgraced former party secretary of Chongqing, Bo Xilai, the need for consensus may offer an explanation as to why, after his deputy attracted international headlines for seeking asylum at a United States diplomatic mission in February 2012, the party took six weeks to remove Bo from the office, and a further four weeks to relieve the party position he held18.

The transition that will come at the end of the year will provide a real test to the willingness of the Chinese Citizens to continue offering support to the current political system. The 18th National congress of the CPC will see major replacements in the three most important bodies in the leadership of China.

The “Politburo Standing Committee, the State Council, and the central Military Commission are required to replace about three quarters of their members due to age and other factors”19.

The country’s principle institutions that are directly responsible for the political affairs, economic administration, military operations and foreign policy will be largely made of new officials. In consistent with Machiavelli’s theory of power and politics they new leadership may still enjoy popular support from Chinese citizens due to its large number of newcomers.

However, in the cause of the next two years or so the watching community will pay attention to the policies of the new leaders, particularly the successors of the PRC president, Hu Jintao and the premier Wen Jiaboa 20 For the larger international business community, a proper assessment of the coming political changes in China is needed in the planning of future engagements with the country.

In a bid to maintain its popularity among the country’s citizens, the CPC has made some important changes regarding policy and politics in the country. The country has witnessed an improvement in the access to information.

There are various sources of information available on the internet even in regard to the military affairs. Various Chinese websites freely provide extensive information on the people’s liberation Army (PLA) activities including detailed information on the backgrounds of its officers, military strategies, development objectives and weapons21.

Other mechanisms have also been advanced to suppress popular uprising against the CPC in the PRC. No legal political opposition groups exist in the country as it is principally run by the CPC. There are also political parties that are called democratic. These parties are known to take part in the People’s Political Consultative conferences. However, they are mostly known to endorse policies outlined by the CPC.

There country has witnessed to move toward liberalization by allowing Congress elections to be held in villages and towns22. As described by Machiavelli’s theory, the CPC constantly enforces its rule by suppressing political dissidents while at the same time trying to reduce dissent through economic growth and allowing people to express the grievances provided they are not affiliated to any organization23.

Challenges however still exist in the CPC’s endeavor to maintain an absolute control of the affairs of the country. For instance, one of the main political concerns touch upon such issues as gap between the poor and corruption within government ranks24.

The extent to which the CPC enjoys support from the public is not clear due the fact that the CPC dominates all the national elections, additionally, there are no opposition parties25. Candidates who run on independent tickets are too scattered and disorganized to provide any considerable challenge to the CPC.

An independent study carried out in Hong Kong, an area that enjoys higher levels freedom, revealed that current CPC leaders enjoy significant levels of support.

Conclusion and recommendations This paper sought to identify how Machiavelli’s theory applies to the political situation in China. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is currently facing inevitable political and economic changes. The country is shifting from strict socialism to socialist-capitalistic market economy. The paper has specifically evaluated the in-depth correlation of Machiavelli’s power theory with China’s regime.

The analysis has revealed that China is at cross roads due to the major political changes that will be made later in the year. However, in consistent with Machiavelli’s theory, the ruling party (CPC) has taken necessary steps to ensure that it continues to enjoy support from Chinese Citizens26.

The political future of the country is however uncertain as analysts continue to cast a pale shadow on the viability of the CPC’s political system. Thus, as much as there are no significant threats in the short term, steps should be taken to ensure that future governments continue to enjoy support from the citizens.

This may include a move towards democratization, reduction in corruption cases within government ranks and reduction of the gap between the poor and the rich27.

Bibliography Bonner, Preston. A battle of politics :Machiavelli Vs Marx. 2011. Web.

Chang, Eddy. Perseverance will pay off at the UN. Taipei: Taipei Times, 2004.

Dana, Dillon, and John Tkacik. “China’s Quest for Asia.” Policy Review, 134 (2006): 12-18.

Holler, Manfred J., Niccolo Machiavelli on Power.” in Perspective in Moral Science, 2009, ed. M. Baurmann


Start-up Businesses in Saudi Arabia: Challenges of finding finance Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free

Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia Information on business venturing suggests that Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming involved in this kind of business approach (National US-Arab Chamber of Commerce, 2010, p. 1). For the last few years, very many businesses have been established in the Arab region, but the rate of failure has always been proportional to the rate of venturing.

This suggests that there are great business opportunities which business people have identified in Saudi Arabia, but do not have the capacity to exploit them fully. The World Economic Forum (2011, p.9) notes that Saudi Arabia has a lower rate of entrepreneurial activities than United Arab Emirates, Jordan and Iran. One reason that has been put forward in regard to this trend is lack of adequate capital.

Therefore, the rationale of this study is to highlight the financing challenges that exist in Saudi Arabia for business startups. Additionally, it provides an opportunity to see its particular impact on new businesses. This in turn provides the opportunity to understand the reasons behind the successes and failures of business starters. Therefore, the aim of the study is to undertake an empirical approach to investigate the potential financing challenges that business starters face when venturing in Saudi Arabia. Three objectives will be considered:

To investigate the sources of new business ventures finance in Saudi Arabia

To examine the major financing challenges encountered by business starters in Saudi Arabia

To assess how business starters can best respond to the financial opportunities and challenges they face in Saudi Arabia

The research questions will be:

Where have the successful business starters in Saudi Arabia sort capital from?

What challenges do business startups encounter when financing their ventures?

What can business startups do to avoid failure when sourcing out capital for their ventures?

The failure of many new businesses may be due to the fact that the current approaches applied by business starters to get funds are not effective. This reason brings us to the first issue that the project intends to investigate. The approaches could not be convincing as it might be with respect to an integrated approach to business planning and the business financing opportunities that the starter intends to exploit.

It can be argued that many of them pursue business opportunities either without examining their viability within Saudi market or realizing the need to seek more capital when their ventures indicate failure. The development of a funding platform that provides business starters with accurate information may therefore help them to revise their strategies and attract more sources of funds.

It is apparent that these business people have not realized the problems they encounter in exploiting the funding opportunities of the Saudi market. Therefore, they need to find out these problems to succeed in their business endeavors which form the core focus of the study.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This project will evaluate the current funding approaches used by business starters to obtain funds and investigate further the available funding sources with a view of making recommendation on the most suitable and effective sourcing strategy.

The major emphasis will be to highlight the available funding opportunities and how business individuals can exploit them to lower the rate of failures noted earlier. It will also be important to evaluate the challenges that business starters encounter in Saudi market with regard to their funding activities. The expectation from this project is that the project report can become a roadmap for business people to maneuver the funding opportunities availed to them by the financing channels.

The proposed investigation will point that there are several problems in Saudi Arabia about financing new business ventures that have emerged in the recent years. Generally, business men fail to prosper for some common reasons including insufficient capital and poor market research among others.

The policy makers may also have the opportunity to ‘see’ the importance of involving new ventures when developing funding initiatives. This research is a response to the observation made by Nnadozie (2003) that business financing is particularly crucial in both developing and developed nations owing to the soaring levels of productivity efficiency.

However, one of the objectives of this project is to recommend on the existing financial opportunities and problems which business starters in Saudi Arabia face. The final outcome will tell clearly that the research does not represent consultancy.

It may offer pointers at what components of the approaches to adjust, but will not comprise of a total assessment of the approaches. With these provisions, the report will escape the idea of providing advice. As much as the report is important in driving new business ventures, so is the need to take proactive measures on other areas outside the funding context.

Methodology The aim of the project is to provide recommendations giving information on the financial opportunities and problems that business starters face when venturing in Saudi Arabia. This will involve the identification of the main sources of finance and developing strategies on how to overcome the problems of accessing these sources. The literature review will consider the approaches by both successful and unsuccessful businessmen in sourcing out funds.

We will write a custom Proposal on Start-up Businesses in Saudi Arabia: Challenges of finding finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A variety of theories will be used in developing the literature review. As such, theories concerning the topic will be explored to identify contribution by different authors on the subject. There will also be an investigation on the ways that banks and financial institutions approach lending to business startups.

It is imperative to discuss the factors that these entities consider when giving financial assistance. The study will carry out business level research into the small-to-medium size businesses. This will respond to the fact that most people start their ventures as small or medium size businesses due to financial constraints (Çetindamar, 2003, p.150).

The intention to investigate the available opportunities and challenges faced by business starters in Saudi Arabia makes this research is purely qualitative, thus the philosophy of the project will be critical realism (Bhaskar


Contemporary Issues in Social Policy Essay cheap essay help

Strength and welfare of a society depend largely on the extent to which government and social institutions care for their most vulnerable members. Under certain circumstances, people with a learning disability, particularly those who experience severe complications are considered the most vulnerable focus group of the British society.

There is convincing evidence that people with disabilities are less likely to receive sufficient support and care regardless the Disability Discrimination Act and other legislatures that have been established in the country. The highlighted problems reveal serious pitfalls in delivering equal treatment, sustaining a high quality of care practice, and problems with funding plans that have specifically been worked out for disabled children and adults.

In addition to these problems, society experiences such problems as income inequality and poverty contributing to extremely low standards of living. As a result, failure to adhere to legislative act supporting the quality standards of public health cases, as well as inability of the government to cope with the societal problems provides a strong framework for discussion.

The emergent problems need to be addressed from the perspective of treating the most vulnerable members of society, as well as define to what extent the unemployment rates and low-income rates influence the accomplishment of social polices in Britain.

Development of Social Policy and Welfare in Contemporary Britain In the context of the above-highlighted problems, the public care and social policies in Britain are under the primary focus. Evidence shows that many hospitals lack sufficient care and training programs that would make health care available for regardless of social status and physical abilities.

However, the contemporary situation fails to meet the established goals due to the insufficient funding, and lack of consistent action plan, and absence of specialized orientation for treating old people, as well as adults with learning disabilities. Despite the establishment of many social programs, such as Valuing People, much concern with social welfare in the country remains. According to the Valuing People program, health care professionals, as well as public officer, should follow three main principles.

First, they should assist the most vulnerable members of society in leading an independent life. Second, they should respect people’s rights, regardless of their social position and income. Finally, they should provide people with choice in terms of the type of care they need to get (The Secretary of State for Health by Command of Her Majesty, 2001).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For certain reasons, some of the hospitals, particularly the establishment located in Cornwall failed to provide sufficient care and treatment to people with learning disabilities (Healthcare Commission, 2006). The investigation has also revealed the case of maltreatment and abuse practiced by poorly trained professionals.

Such a situation has been caused by serious pitfalls in human resource management on the part of the top leaders of the hospital. In addition, lack of plans of care does not provide professionals with accurate data concerning which tools and instruments should be used to cope with people with specific needs (Healthcare Commission, 2006). Moreover, lack of records, as well as full mismatch with Valuing People program enabled the investigators to introduce solid measure to prevent the problem in future.

The root of the problem goes deeply into the historic background of social policy formation. Specifically, the committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services (SIAS) introduced a survey on the analysis of existing social schemes tackling the problems of workmen’s compensation, social security, social insurance, and provisional rates (Beveridge, 1942).

At this point, Workmen Compensation Act of 1897 and Unemployment Act of 1934 need to be reconsidered with regard to the result obtained from the survey (Beveridge, 1942). Specific attention was also given to the analysis of medical treatment development, welfare of children, cash benefits for funerals and maternity, and voluntary provisions for a range of contingencies.

The above-presented historical background provides a better picture of necessary improvements, changes, and programs that need to be implemented in the future. Careful reconsideration of healthcare polices and public welfare strategies are indispensible to increasing the quality of living standards.

The Policy Environment in Which Decision Making in Care Practice Takes Place Introducing new policy environments changes health care vision on the welfare of the public sector. Hence, because public influence on governmental polices in Britain is minimal, the policy environment is largely controlled by the political reforms introduced in the British Parliament (Kavanagh et al., 2006, p. 3).

Within these context, the emergence of pressure group have provided a key platform by means of which civil society is able to participate in political discourse and influence decision making. The so-called liberal democracy prevailed in the British society creates a number of contradictions.

We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Issues in Social Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, interest groups offer a channel of political communication between society and government. Second, the groups can be connected with sectionalism that does not contribute to the general welfare of society (Kavanagh et al., 2006). Despite the presented controversy, the presence of pressure groups signifies the inability of the government to meet the needs and concerns of various social groups. Therefore, the emerged confrontation influences significantly the overall decision making in the sphere of health care practice.

Regardless of the current pitfalls, the presence of various interest groups allows the government tracks the changes within the society and introduces reforms that would improve the overall situation. This is of particular concern to health care practice where active engagement of insider groups into decision-making makes the government take these interventions while making policies in a particular field (Kavanagh et al., 2006, p. 8).

Hence, insider groups constitute an important resource for good information, as well as a basis for good administrative cooperation between health care field and the British government. In addition, because pressure groups operate at national and local levels, the authorities often rely on their concerns and try to identify the issues that can solve the problem.

The policy environment created as mixture of governmental and public initiatives is quite complicated due to the presence of various aspects, such as public objectives, functions and roles, and the extent of political participation at a particular level (Kavanagh et al. 2006).

Apart of positive benefits of the emergence of pressure groups, as well as governmental participation, the policy decisions often produce a number of problems. Specifically, a narrow-focused orientation on increasing the income of the citizens does not provide the country with sufficient level of living.

The Link between Legislative Development and Social Policy and Their Impact on Care Practice To introduce improvement in administrative field and public sectors, the UK government has a complex system of stage of parliamentary bill. These stages are imperative for considering and evaluating the purposefulness of a specific policy (House of Commons Information Office, 2008).

Because the House of Commons is a democratically elected wing of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, “the purpose of pre-legislative scrutiny is…to make better law by improving the scrutiny of bills and drawing the wider public more effectively into the Parliamentary process” (House of Commons Information Office 2008, p. 3). The process of Bill presentation and acceptance also takes places in the House of Lords (2008).

Both procedures are pivotal because they have a potent impact on the development of legislature in the sphere of care practice as well. The scrutiny of the parliament bill adoption has also been applied to the consideration of the Health and Social Care Bill that aims to protect future of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and cope with the challenges it experiences to avoid the current problems and surpass the consequences of future crisis (Department of Health 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Issues in Social Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the bill seeks to introduce innovations, develop a patient-centred approach and establish a new focus on health care in the public sector. As it can be seen, a systematic and multistage examination of specific principles creates favourable conditions for issuing bills in care practice field.

On the one hand, the complex procedures implemented in the UK Parliament introduce transparency and consistency in adopting decisions in various areas of public health care. On the other hand, the government often pursues personal interests in passing specific legal provisions. Besides, the legal assistance has undergone the change, which makes it challengeable for advice agencies and solicitors to deliver free services.

In this respect, there is a strong necessity to improve and promote access to civil legal assistance. Despite certain measures were taken to solve the problem, the sectors still needs substantial improvements to ensure wider accessibility of the civil legal services (p. 16). Due to the fact that the legal aid service has been practiced for 60 years, constant changes are indispensible for sustaining a favourable development of health care services, as well as advancing the quality standards in medical institutions.

With regard to the above-highlighted problems, the government should present a new vision for reforming public services and creating a consistent framework of high-quality social care that would meet the requirements of the current century. The shits in communities and populations imply that society become much more diverse and, therefore, the existing services should take that into the deepest consideration the demands of the contemporary people.

The Role of the Theoretical Approaches to Welfare in Determining the Shape of Care in the 21st Century The social welfare of society can be achieved through the establishment of efficient theoretical approaches that would provide a framework for action plans. The development of social theories takes it roots in the nineteenth century, when Marx made signification contributions to exploring political and economic situations leading to poverty, high unemployment, and social inequalities (Carling, 1991).

According to Marx, the inequality lies in the extraction of the surplus value from the product produced by the employees. In fact, the employer is entitled for the creating the value and, therefore, the surplus-value they get is theft unless it is distributed among the employees.

Therefore, capitalistic system does not contribute to social equality and welfare. In order to reach the freedom and equality, there should be an equal distribution of function among the people where labour power should be given especial importance. Looking at the future development, capitalism does not provide efficient approaches contributing to the welfare of the twenty-first century’s society.

Within the perspectives of the modern development, the functionalism theory can be developed. Greater awareness of social roles that each person should take can strengthen the social structure and provide a consistent framework for building a highly functional society. Considering culturally and social diverse environments is indispensible for defining which roles and functions should each social layer perform to bring in welfare to the twenty-first century’s community in the United Kingdom.

The current problems can be solved by addressing this theoretical approach because it can significantly enhance the work incentives and make the overall social system much simpler (The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 2010). In addition, increasing costs of governmental support has a negative impact on maintaining welfare and sustaining an appropriate level of care in the public sector.

There are many reasons why functionalism can be effectively applied to improve the above-highlighted problems. To begin with, defining the accurate roles of each social stratum can introduce social order and transparency in making decision and increasing the overall quality of care in the majority of UK hospitals.

With regard to the problem of insufficient funding and lack of education in Cornwall hospitals, the establishment of functionalism theory with the division of labour principle at the core can help the managers understand the problems and take greater control of the existing shortcoming, including maltreatment, abusive attitude to disabled individuals, inappropriate education.

Introducing the so-called collective consciousness and an individual-centred approach to treating patient can strike the balance between personal interest and the interest of the entire community.

The collective behaviour can create shared value consensus that would satisfy all the parties involved into social welfare creation. Health care professionals will gain a greater awareness of the importance of responsibilities they should take in front of the patients with learning disabilities.

A properly arranged social system will make the individuals believe that their duties are accomplished for the sake of their personal interests. At the same time, their contributions will be valuable for the gradual development of the UK society. In addition, members of society should be able to adapt to the various environments, attain to a commonly shared goal, integrate into the goals accomplishment and follow the generally established values.

Conclusion The quality of health care delivery services in the United Kingdom fails to meet high-quality standards established in the world. This is of particular concern to the hospitals dealing with patients with learning disabilities. The group of patients should be able to receive an equal access to public care, which means that should receive qualified and specialized help from the health care professionals that should be much more advanced than those provided for people with ability to lead an independent life.

The major problem lies in insufficient funding, absence of appropriate recording system, lack of education and training programs for the staff, and absence of action plans. In order to solve these problems, specific legal regulations, as well as theoretical approach should be introduced. At this point, functionalism framework can significantly promote the social welfare in the 21st century.

Reference List Beveridge, W. 1942, Social Insurance and Allied Services, His Majesty Stationery Office, London.

Carling, A. H. 1991, Social Division, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Citizens, Advice Service 2009, Social Policy Impact Report 2009, Citizens Advice Bureau, pp. 1-15.

Department of Health 2011, Overview of Health Care Bill, pp. 1-2.

Healthcare Commission 2006, Joint Investigation into Services for People with Learning Disabilities at Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust, Commission for Healthcare Adult and Inspection. pp. 1-17.

House of Commons Information Office 2008, Parliamentary Stages of a Governmental Bill, Factsheet L1 Legislation Series. pp. 3-14.

House of Lords 2008, Bills and How They Become Law, House of Lords Briefing, pp. 2-6.

Kavanagh, D., Richards, D., Geddes, A, and Smith, M 2006, “Pressure Groups and Policy Networks”, In D Kavanagh, D Richards, A Geddes, and M Smith, British Politics. Oxford University Press, UK.

The Secretary of State for Health by Command of Her Majesty 2000, Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. Department of Health, Britain, pp. 1-149.

The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 2010, 21st Century Welfare, Department for Work and Pensions, pp. 1-52.


Consumer Decision-Making Models: Analysis essay help: essay help

Introduction The present paper attempts to critically analyse two CDP models, namely the Theory of Buyer Behaviour and the Consumer Decision Model, with a view to determine the extent to which they are vague and/or all-encompassing when applied to the postmodern hospitality industry.

The fields of consumer behaviour in general, and consumer decision-making process in particular, have increasingly attracted attention and intense investigation from marketing academics and mainstream practitioners from the sixties. During the last five decades, a multiplicity of models has been advanced for illuminating the behaviour of consumers’ in general decision-making scenarios (Erasmus et al. 2001).

Many of these consumer decision-making process (CDP) models are inspiring in scope and context, but their authentic efficiencies in explicating the behaviour of consumers have been substantially obscured by the fact that most research efforts have been focussed on explicit sections of the models rather than at the models in their entirety (Rau


New Product Development Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Challenges experienced by new product managers and how to cope with them

Businesses in different economic sectors have over the past few decades experienced an increment in the number of challenges they are facing within the business environment. One of the major challenges relates to increment in the intensity of competition (Lamb, 2012, p.40). To cope with these challenges, firms’ management teams are integrating different competitive strategies.

One of the major competitive tools that are being utilized entails incorporation of New Product Development (NPD) (Krishnan


Business Case of Airlines: Boeing 787 Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Executive Summary

Economics in the Airline Industry

The Features of Boeing 787



Introduction The Boeing 787 has been praised as the most fuel efficient airliner by its manufacture. The Boeing Dreamliner has two engines, which are of medium size and has the ability to travel for long distances; it is manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The plane has a carrying capacity of about two hundred and ten to two hundred and ninety passengers depending on variations in the size of the plane.

The Boeing 787 is mainly constructed using composite materials, making it the first airplane to be constructed using this type of substance as the main one. Boeing has also stated that the 787 dreamliner fuel consumption is twenty percent less compared to other previous models of the same size like the Boeing 767.

The features that make the Boeing 787 stand out from other airplanes include its smooth nose contour, four-panel windshield, and exceptionally silent engines fitted with noise reducing chevrons (Vos


A research investigation on purchasing intentions and customers loyalty towards Michelin in China Proposal essay help: essay help


When customers in a business firm are loyal, they make the organization to attain uninterrupted flow of income and relatively lower costs of production due to favorable economies of scale. The improved income is usually as a result of increase in production whereas the cost of production is cut down due to the decrease in promotional expenses.

The whole process is triggered by high customer loyalty and optimal purchasing intentions which culminate into increase in the firm’s profits. It is important to note that customer loyalty does not grow by itself. As a matter of fact, it is a product of quality marketing strategies in today’s competitive markets.

For a company to achieve customer loyalty, it must create an exemplary value for all its consistent and potential new customers. This dissertation proposal paper seeks to examine how consumer based value at Michelin has succeeded in marketing in addition to creating a loyal customer relations at the Chinese market. A comprehensive framework that leads to desirable results has been formulated.

Based on ground findings and reliable literature reviews, the customer perceived firm value can be investigated and evaluated. This research study will conclude with solid findings which can be evaluated using specified standards rather than the common monetary scales.

Underlying principle

Studies reveal that customer loyalty is one of the basic elements which forms a stable foundation for business organizations to be operated successfully (Bloemer


Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees Proposal custom essay help

Introduction Health is viewed as a motivating factor and is required in any organization that is considering success. Incorporating health and wellness into the organizational corporate culture is one of the most influential strategies for the promotion of more productivity of employees (Riedel et al., 2001).

It is also important when an organization is seeking to decrease the costs of healthcare (Weinstein et al., 1996). This strategy would place an organization at a level higher than that of its competitors and therefore stand out.

The wellness programs are meant to promote the employee’s health lifestyles. They also help to improve and maintain their health and wellbeing. The programs are useful in preventing (if not delaying) the onset of diseases (Pelletier, 1999). In so doing, the employee would be in a position to work effectively and the organization would benefit.

Ill health is a contributor to decrease in productivity as the employees spend more time seeking treatment than working (Goetzel et al., 2000). This may be in terms of increased absenteeism by the employees. Ill health also contributes to loss of morale in the working place and causes less productivity.

The health and wellness programs aim at assessing the employees’ health risks and provide interventions to the problems (Aldana and Pronk, 2001). This could be in the provision of health education that provides training on lifestyle management that is meant to decrease the risks of diseases and to improve outcomes. The main aim of the programs is to prevent the occurrence of disease.

They may also provide assistance to those workers with chronic diseases. This is through the provision of disease management interventions and other nurse-based decision support systems. Generally, health and wellness programs may be deemed useful in increasing the performance of employees due to the assurance of health and the motivation that comes with it.

Literature Review Several studies have provided evidence to show the importance of workplace wellness programs. Many organizations have implemented the use of health and wellness strategies in order to realize many benefits. Some of the benefits include an increase in productivity, reduced absenteeism and a decrease in the use of health care benefits (Kessler et al., 2001).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies have also shown that the use of health and wellness programs at the workplace increases the morale and loyalty among the employees. Additional benefits of these programs include the reduction of incidences of injuries and long-term disabilities. These programs also help reduce the health care costs (Aldana, 2001).

Through research, organizations have been able to understand that many diseases can be prevented through the use of health and wellness programs. The preventable diseases have been believed to make up to 80 percent of the burden of diseases. This also accounts for about 90 percent of all health care costs (Anderson et al., 2000).

This has prompted many organizations to take advantage of this statistic by implementing health and wellness programs within the workplace. If the employees increase their physical activity and keep fit, they would have lower chances of contracting some common diseases and conditions. Consequently, the companies will need to spend less in covering for the health costs of these diseases.

Apart from this form of cost, companies can also reduce the incidences of absenteeism due to these preventable diseases. With perfect health, employees will be motivated to work more effectively as compared to those individuals suffering diseases.

The United States has been reported to have spent the most on health care as compared to all other industrialized nation worldwide. However, it is also considered the unhealthiest. This just shows the need for workplace wellness programs in the workplace. This would help reduce the need for health care costs since the health and wellness programs would reduce the risks for diseases.

The implementation of the health and wellness programs in an organization has been regarded as a potential high return on investment. This is because of the rise in health care costs that has translated to high expenditure in the event that employees are treated for diseases, most of which are preventable.

Employers get back a substantial amount of return in reduced health care costs as the individuals become more fit and healthy. This program also helps lower absenteeism costs since employees would not require being away from work while attending to their health issues.

We will write a custom Proposal on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Certain research studies have indicated significant relationships between certain health risk factors and the performance of employees. Aspects such as absenteeism have also been seen to have a moderate to high degree of association with the basal metabolic rate (BMI). Research also indicates that there is a relationship between the basal metabolic rate and various components of work performance.

In a certain research by Pronk and colleagues, the number of days spent away from work was used as a measure for absenteeism (Pronk et al., 1999). These were referred to as work-loss days. They concluded that absenteeism was significantly associated with severe obesity. These results corroborated other previous findings on the same.

However, there was a specific study that provided different results that showed gender disparity. In the particular study by Narbro and colleagues, the obese females showed a high level of absenteeism when compared to those who were not obese (Narbro et al., 1996).

When it came to the obese males, the situation was different. In fact, their level of absenteeism was less as compared to their non-obese counterparts. Research conducted by Tsai and Gilstrap (1997) also supported these findings.

Tucker and Friedman (1998) also conducted a similar study. They used the percentage body fat as a measure to categorize workers as obese, average or lean. The skinfold measurement was used in the categorization. They concluded that there was a significant relationship between absenteeism and the degree of skinfold. The measure of skinfold was taken to represent degree of adiposity.

In the study by Pronk and colleagues, a significant relationship between the basal metabolic rate and absenteeism was only found at the level where employees were severely obese. The severely obese category consisted of those individuals who had a BMI of 40 kg/m2 or above. There was no severe significant difference when it came to the obese category.

Where obesity did not have an impact on absenteeism, it caused a decrement on work performance. This was specifically as a result of issues associated with interpersonal relationships.

In order to measure the interpersonal relationships among employees, the researchers considered the degree to which an individual got along with the fellow employees. The results indicated a positive association between work performance decrement with obesity. However, this was not the case for other fitness variables.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The issues to do with interpersonal relationships among employees may be related to lack of motivation for employees to spend their time working. This situation worsens as obesity extends into severe obesity. This is probably because of the social stigma associated with this state.

It reduces the quality of peer interactions and increases the chances for absenteeism from work. Various studies have shown the existence of a relationship between obesity and certain characteristics of interpersonal relationships.

Studies have also shown a relationship between obesity and certain issues related with employment. For example, those individuals who were obese were discriminated against during employee selection and recruitment (Klesges et al., 1990). They were less likely to receive employment. Some were even discriminated against during pay – they received lower salaries than their counterparts did (Frieze et al., 1990).

Studies by Proper and colleagues argued that there was no relationship between employee performance and physical activity programs at the workplace (Proper et al., 2002). In their study, they focused on effectiveness. Therefore, they included the intervention trials only in the documentation search.

Other similar studies show that the association between fitness and other physical activities with work performance is not known. However, the health and wellness programs were shown to reduce absenteeism to a certain degree.

Pronk and colleagues reported a significant association between certain levels of physical exercise and the quality of work performance. The results also indicated a relationship between moderate and vigorous physical exercise and individual job performance. They concluded that those who had cardiorespiratory fitness required less effort to perform the same job.

This type of fitness had a relationship with the quantity of work done. This study is one of those studies that tried to provide a meaningful relationship between physical activities that try to ensure health and wellness of employees and their performance at work.

The workplace wellness programs are continuously providing many tangible benefits to the organizations. Research has provided evidence of an increasing support for the health and wellness programs in various businesses and organizations.

These programs are not limited to the big companies only but may be equally useful for the small businesses. Health care costs have been escalating and has raised serious concerns among the managers. This includes the health professionals, insurance companies and other employers.

The costs incurred by companies come in the form of insurance. Some of the health issues including diabetes and high blood pressure are common for overweight and obese individuals and companies insure them. Other habits such as smoking by the employees also contribute to health complications that need to be paid for by the companies.

The individuals with more risk factors cost the companies more than those with fewer risk factors do. The health and wellness programs help to improve the health of individuals who are already at risk. However, they also benefit the healthy individual. This is mainly through raising awareness of the importance of health. Therefore, they strive to maintain health and to prevent any risk factor such as being overweight.

It is obvious that employees spend most of their awake-hours at the workplace. This makes up about 50 hours every week. Therefore, it is the employees’ obligation to make use of the workplace health and wellness programs.

The programs have other benefits aside health benefits. Other benefits include the improvement of employee relations and morale. Therefore, a combination of these factors would be beneficial to the success of the organization.

Absenteeism is another aspect of employee performance that can be improved using the health and wellness programs. Research has suggested that healthier individuals spend more days at work than the unhealthy ones who need to be away from work occasionally as they seek treatment (Mundt, 1997). Work-loss days account for thousands or even millions of dollars as losses of the companies.

The health of the employees could also translate to better family choices. This means that these individuals would not need to be absent from work as they attend to the family members’ health issues (Simon et al., 2001).

Purpose of study The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees. With an increased awareness of the impact of health and wellness on the employees’ ability to work, it is necessary to investigate its impact on their performance.

This study will look at certain aspects of performance in order to determine whether health and wellness programs are necessary for the success of our organizations. The manifestation of the health and wellness programs will be determined by looking at the increase in physical fitness (physical activity) and reduced weight.

The reduction of the level of absenteeism can be measured as the additional days that the employees (who had previously out of work due to preventable illnesses) are available at the workplace following an increase in the level of health and wellness.

The aspects of performance will include the timeliness of performing work, the quality and quantity of work, and absenteeism (availability at the workplace). The aspects that are modifiable with the intervention of health and wellness programs include body weight and physical fitness. Additional aspects of performance will include the number of days that the employees were out of work.

Others include the employees’ performance (quality and quantity of work) at the workplace and their interpersonal relationships. This study will provide useful insight for any organization that is seeking to increase productivity of its employees through providing an assurance of their health and wellness.

Research questions In order to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of the employees, certain aspects of performance will be measured and analyzed.

What impact does health and wellness have on the employee’s self-appraisal and peer appraisal?

Does physical exercise contribute to increased physical fitness and the maintenance of weight at healthy levels?

Does increased physical fitness and reduced weight contribute to improved quality and quantity of work performed?

How is the timeliness of the performed work by the healthy individuals comparable with that of performed by an unhealthy lot?

Scope Basically, every individual at the workplace will be involved in the study since everyone’s viewpoint and perspective will be considered. For self-appraisal, the individual employees will be consulted in order to get a view of their own performance. In order to reduce biasness in these views, the fellow employees will provide a peer appraisal of the employees in question.

In order to measure the quality and quantity of work performed, the management team will be consulted. The records of employee performance would greatly apply in this case. The views of the managers concerning the timeliness of the individual employees will be consulted.

Methodology Research strategy

The research design that will be used will be the qualitative research design. This is because the human behavior and habits will be studied. The performance of the employees will be assessed in the context of the availability or unavailability of health and wellness programs. It will investigate whether these programs are useful for managers (in organizations) who want to make their employees more productive.

The variables that will be tested will include the aspects that indicate the outcomes of a health and wellness programs. These include the reduction of body weight, increase in physical fitness or physical activity and increase in the number of days that employees are present in the workplace. The indicators of performance include their timelessness, the quality and quantity of their work and the individual and peer appraisals.

Sampling strategy

For the investigation, 10 organizations will be selected within the area. Considering the amount of time and budget available for the research, this is a convenient and manageable number.

Therefore, the selection of the organizations will be a type of non-probability sampling technique and specifically the judgmental sampling. However, the organizations must not be in the same industry (performing similar businesses). This would ensure a representation of different employees from diverse working environments.

In each organization, 25 individuals will be selected randomly in order to reduce biasness. Of the 25 individuals, five were managers in the organizations. Therefore, a total of 200 employees and 50 managers will participate in the study.

The sampling technique that will be used to reduce bias but at the same time get a representation of the entire employee population will be the stratified sampling technique. This will also provide a higher statistical precision because the variability within the sub-groups will be lower when compared to variations that exist when the whole population is considered.

Data collection

Questionnaires were used to collect data. The kind of information that would be collected using the questionnaires includes the incidences of absenteeism. The employees would be asked to provide the number of days (including full days and partial days) that they were absent from work.

In order to understand the reason for absenteeism, the employees will be asked to include whether it was due to health issues, compulsory leave or other reasons. This is in order to avoid biasness when all incidences of absenteeism are assumed to be due to illnesses. In order to understand the characteristics of the employees, information such as age, sex and position in the company were inquired.

Questionnaires will be distributed to both the employees and managers. The data on self-appraisal and peer appraisal will be collected using the questionnaires distributed to the employees. Information on interpersonal behavior and other personal habits will also be collected using the same questionnaires and during interviews (Kobak et al., 1997).

This information is vital because it is also an indicator of performance. The information collected from the managers will include those involving the quality and quantity of work performed by their employees.

Additionally, a 5-point self-anchoring rating scale will be used to measure the employee’s quality of work. This measure will be applicable for situations where the employee is actually working (working hours).

The interference with the quality of work done will be measured by the score indicated. A score of one will indicate a significant level of interference with the quality of work done. A score of five, on the other hand, will represent no interference.

The amount of physical activity of the employees will be quantified using a special kind of questionnaire. This is referred to as the Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire (Godin and Shephard, 1985). This information will be combined with the amount of weight lost due to the physical activities performed during the health and wellness programs.

Data analysis

Least squares regression analyses will be used to find the associations between the risk factors and the work performance. They will also be adjusted for sex, age and positions to determine the associations between physical activity, weight and performance.

In order to describe the characteristics of the population, several measures of central tendencies will used. Where applicable, graphs and charts will be used to analyze information in the questionnaires.

Validity and reliability

In order to ensure that the observed effects in the research are actually due to the variables, the intervening, extraneous and confounding variables will be controlled. This would be necessary to ensure that the realized health facilitated by the health and wellness programs were responsible for the increased performance of the employees. Reliability of the data collected will also be ensured.

The correct instruments and tools will be used in data collection. Since the data on the employees’ quality of work will be collected twice (using self-rating and rating from the managers), the parallel-forms or alternate-forms reliability will be used (Dillman, 1991). It will be used to assess the consistencies of the data from the two sources since it is the same variable measured at the same time.

Gantt chart

References Aldana SG 2001, ‘Financial impact of health promotion programs: A comprehensive review of the literature’, Am J Health Prom, vol. 15, pp. 296–320.

Aldana SG


The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations Coursework essay help free

Article Research Problem to be solved The article determines the value of Science, technology, engineering and mathematics qualifications with special focus to vocational qualifications. According to Greenwood et al (2011), STEM is crucial in the present economy and it plays an important role on upgrading disciplines and qualifications offered in vocational training.

Article Research Goals (hypothesis or research questions) The research seeks to answer 3 questions; first is to establish whether there is wage premium earned by persons with STEM qualification compared to vocational qualification or not. Secondly, the study seeks to establish wage premium for persons with vocational qualifications working in STEM occupations.

Lastly, the research seeks to establish wage premium for individuals with STEM qualifications working in STEM occupations (Greenwood et al, 2011). Vocational training and STEM have a direct relationship because STEM qualifications have a higher wage compared to vocational; hence learners are encouraged to study STEM disciplines.

Type of Research Being Undertaken (historical, descriptive, or experimental The type of research undertaken was historical because it utilized recorded data. The research study has statement of the problem, research questions, data collection and analysis methods, target population, findings and conclusion (Greenwood et al, 2011).

The research shows a direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. STEM encourages learners undertaking vocational studies to pursue STEM disciplines in order to have better wages.

Limitations The research had one limitation; most of the work published was based on secondary sources provided by UK Labour Force Survey (Greenwood et al, 2011). STEM combines its disciplines with those of vocational training in order to ensure learners think creatively.

Population The population of the research study involved households in UK; both males and females with age ranging between 16-64 years. Approximately 163,218 households were involved in the research. The research was done by UK Labour Force.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The households involved were employed with wages and they resided in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011). The study showed that greater percentage of individuals in managerial positions had STEM qualifications.

Instruments and methods of Data Collection The research utilized relevant recorded data from UK Labour Force Survey. The researcher used secondary data which was ideal and had similar purpose with the study. No primary data was collected. Data provided by Labour force was collected from employed households in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011).

The data included information on qualifications of an individual; occupation and wages. The data showed direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. Vocational learners who have STEM qualifications are able to analyze data effectively.

Conclusions Drawn by Researcher A greater percentage of STEM qualifications a higher value in labour market compared to vocational qualifications. STEM encourages vocational learners to undertake STEM disciplines in order to increase their value in labour market (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, vocational qualifications in STEM occupations have less pay compared to STEM qualifications according to the researcher.

The researcher concluded that some STEM qualifications have an added value on STEM occupations. STEM disciplines assist vocational learners to be creative, original in their ideas and inductive in reasoning.

Significance of the study The study is relevant to my study because the information provided is somehow related to STEM, vocational qualifications and wages (Greenwood et al, 2011). The research forms an important baseline for my study because it provides information on contributions of STEM to vocational studies.

Do recommendations support your study? The recommendations of the study support my study because the study suggests that different STEM discipline have different values in labour market. Learners willing to take STEM disciplines should be advised comprehensively.

We will write a custom Coursework on The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, learners should be encouraged to study STEM disciplines because they have higher labour market value than non-Stem disciplines (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, conducting a survey would give more comprehensive findings and conclusions.

Reference Greenwood, C., Harrison, M.


Literature Review on Hospitality Strategic Management Dissertation essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Background Strategic Management Since Early 1950s

In the early 1950s, budgetary planning as well as control emerged to be the dominant theme in the hospitality industry management. Organizations within the hotel industry used these strategic planning aspects and as such, the hotel industry enjoyed a successful stint.

However, the main issue with these aspects was the financial control. In the early 1950, there was no effective approach to financial control and as such, it was a major challenge for the hospitality industry players. The major tools as well as concepts used in the budgetary control and planning during this time were capital budgeting and financial planning (Deighton 2006, p. 55).

This strategic management aspect had several implications for the management top teams of the hospitality industry players in that; it was the only way that coordination as well as control could be managed and facilitated was through the then established budgeting systems.

1960s to early 1970s

The budgetary panning as and control faded away as the corporate planning emerged to become the dominant theme in the hospitality industry. Budgetary planning and control was not however rendered insignificant. Instead, it was still a vital strategic element.

It was only that top management teams in the hospitality industry ceased its extensive use with the emergence of corporate planning, which became largely practiced by various industries, especially by the players in the hospitality industry (Porter 1979, p. 65). The major drawback that inhibited its usage was the planning of an organizational growth as well as diversification.

This was a major issue and it took a considerable time for hotel businesses to absorb this issue. According to Sasser, Olsen


Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry Essay essay help online free

What is cultural diversity? According to Gay (2003), culture diversity refers to a situation where an organization is comprised of employees from different backgrounds. These include racial, ethnic, gender, as well as nationality. This diversity, if properly managed, can result to a number of advantages to the organization as they contribute to the knowledge base of the company.

Management of cultural diversity entails recognition and appreciation of culture diversity and ensuring that culture diversity is incorporated in all the core operations of the organization. This is meant to ensure that all the employees are able to contribute towards the success of the organization.

Importance of managing cultural diversity in the hospitality industry Tanke (2000) adduces that those organizations, which effectively manage cultural diversity, benefit in terms of increased ability to consistently meet their targets in terms of profitability objectives. Additionally, effective management of cultural diversity helps an organization to reduce employee turnover.

Management of cultural diversity in an organization has been known to reduce conflicts within an organization, which has the effect of increasing its productivity. In addition, management of cultural diversity helps an organization to comply with government regulations, which are meant to eliminate discrimination.

An organization which effectively manages cultural diversity is able to attract new customers, enter into new markets, and has the ability to harness new business opportunities, which would otherwise be impossible in an organization where all the employees come from the same homogenous culture.

It has also been postulated that organizations which promote culture diversity are in a better position to attract talented employees. This is because they are able to draw from a wider pool as compared to those organizations which are culturally homogenous.

How can this give a competitive advantage? According to Cox (1994), cultural diversity has a way of availing to the company different skills and knowledge from the employees who come from different cultural backgrounds. Additionally, it provides a wider pool from which the company is able to draw talented employees. This can lead to enhanced creativity and innovation, which could be instrumental in enhancing customer service in the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there disadvantages with managing cultural diversity? Management of culture diversity brings with it a challenge to the management. This is because it has to look for ways of ensuring that the minority ethnic groups are not discriminated against. At the same time, it might result into clashes between the various cultures at the work place regarding issues such as dressing and language problems.

This paper is going to discuss people management, knowledge management, managing culture shock and managing recruitment as effective methods of ensuring the success of the management of cultural diversity in the workplace (Kirkbride 1994).

Discussion and findings Laroche (2003) notes that since culture diversity seems to be increasing with time, it is important that organizations come up with effective means of managing this diversity with a view to making them more competitive. Globalization has a profound impact on all the organizations in terms of increased competition from the foreign based companies as well as the need to be competitive on the international scene.

This implies that the organizations must come up with ways of making sure that cultural diversity is managed in the right way with a view of enhancing their competitiveness. This will help the company in attracting as well as retaining talented employees.

Management of cultural diversity can help an organization to capitalize on the advantages of diversity. This can help in adding value to the company as well as giving it a competitive advantage over those organizations which do not embrace diversity (Lessem 1998).

This is because if the organization makes every employee feel valued irrespective of their cultural background, it will foster an environment which enhances productivity. Effective management of culture diversity can help in providing an impetus for business growth as well as improving customer service, which can come as a result of harnessing the potential of the culturally diverse workforce.

The company can utilize the various attributes, which come about as a result of culture diversity within an organization. They include: language skills, cultural sensitivity and the knowledge of business networks in their home countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these attributes can help an organization to gain a competitive edge on their rivals. This is because the organization will be in a better position to market their goods and services to an increasingly diverse clientele in the home country as well as in the global market place (Henderson 1994).

It has been pointed out that the ethnic minorities would prefer to work for organizations which value diversity. At the same time, the ethnic minorities would prefer to buy goods and services from organizations which are sensitive and responsive to their cultural needs. Other benefits which can accrue from a diverse workforce are enhanced creativity and problem solving skills.

This is supported by the assertion that a diverse workforce is likely to be more creative than a homogenous one. This is because employees from different cultural backgrounds are able to bring different perspectives during the process of problem solving. This can help the organization to come up with new products as well as devise strategies to make their products more marketable than those of its competitors (D’Almeida 2007).

In order for the organization to be able to tap the benefits which result from cultural diversity, there are two main issues that they will need to look into namely: people management and knowledge management.

People management Bono and Heijden (2011) contends that under people management, the challenge for the organization is to ensure that they benefit from the diversity of the employees in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. The management should appreciate the differences which come with diversity and ensure that the unique traits which the employees bring with them are harnessed for the good of the entire organization.

In order for the organization to be in a position to benefit from diversity, there are two issues which they have to look into. These are some of the issues which can hinder effective management of cultural diversity.

Firstly, the management should find a way of dealing with ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism promotes the notion that one’s culture is superior to other people’s culture. This notion is detrimental in that it promotes a monoculture which advocates for one way of doing things.

This brings about the perception that diversity hampers the effective functioning of the organization. This makes it difficult for the organization to benefit from having employees who are drawn from different cultural backgrounds (Phillips and Gully 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Daft and Marcic (2005), the second issue that the organization will need to look into is the glass ceiling. This can be described as an invisible barrier which is erected in order to prevent employees from the minority groups from ascending to top level management positions in the organization. These two issues namely- ethnocentrism and glass ceiling have a way of frustrating effective management of cultural diversity.

As a way of managing diversity in the organization, the management should ensure that there is genuine commitment from all members in the organization in promoting culture diversity. At the same time, the management should ensure that all the structures of the organization are supportive of the whole idea of culture diversity. The structures should be such that they are supportive of fairness in recruitment.

According to Laroche and Rutherford (2007), the management should involve all the employees in ensuring that the goals of management of cultural diversity are achieved. This is because without the participation and involvement of all the employees, the objectives of the management of cultural diversity cannot be achieved. The management should also carry out training programs, which are meant to equip the employees with skills.

These skills can help them to be competent when dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds. This would help the employees to be aware of their prejudices, which can hinder effective cooperation with people from diverse cultural backgrounds and thereby impact on their productivity and that of the entire organization.

Knowledge management It has been claimed that knowledge sharing is severely affected in multicultural settings due to language barriers. At the same time, if the problem of language barrier is not solved by use of an interpreter to facilitate communication, a lot of valuable information may be lost in the process. This problem can partly be solved by encouraging the employees to learn different languages which are used in the workplace.

In order to encourage information sharing, the organization should provide a friendly environment which facilitates free flow of information. More importantly, the management should demolish all the barriers which can hinder effective communication in the organization (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).

Managing culture shock For the effective management of cultural shock, the management should motivate the employees to learn about the new culture. This can help them in adjusting to the new culture. The management should also ensure that they have realistic expectations from the employees who are being inducted into the organization. The management should also ensure that it does not glorify one culture at the expense of all the others.

This can have the effect of assuring news employee that their contribution will be appreciated despite coming from a different cultural background. The management should ensure that the employees are provided with opportunities where they are able to interact outside the work environment in order to break down the inhibitions that may hinder effective communication (Moran, Harris and Moran 2010).

Managing recruitment According to Baumueller (2007), recruitment is a very important function which has the effect of affecting the performance of an organization. It can be argued that ineffective recruitment strategy has a way of adversely affecting the performance of the organization. The recruitment strategy should ensure that the company is able to net talented employees, who can contribute positively in ensuring the success of the organization.

This is very important since the business environment is increasingly becoming very competitive and the quality of the employees in a particular organization will determine the ability of the company to operate in this competitive environment. Towards this end, the management should ensure a non-discrimination policy which allows them to draw employees from different cultural backgrounds.

Conclusion and recommendations It can be seen from the preceding arguments that the management must devise effective means of harnessing the potential of diverse cultures, if they are to remain competitive in the current globalization era. This is because effective management of cultural diversity can help an organization to attract talented employees from diverse cultural backgrounds.

This has an effect of spurring on innovation and problem solving skills in an organization. Ultimately, this can help the organization to be able to come up with new products or take advantage of new business opportunities since they can utilize the various skills of their employees who are drawn from different backgrounds.

More importantly, the organization can harness this diversity in order to improve their customer service which can have the effect of enabling the company to increase its market share. In addition, the management should also appreciate that each individual possess unique attributes which if properly harnessed can lead to increased productivity in the organization.

Therefore, the main thrust of the management of cultural diversity should be to ensure that all the individuals in the organization are motivated to be productive, irrespective of the differences in cultural backgrounds.

In order to ensure that the organization consistently benefits from a culturally diversified work force it should be seen to be committed towards ensuring that all the employees, despite their cultural backgrounds, are provided with opportunities for growth.

In addition, the management should also ensure that all the structures in the organization are flexible enough in order to be supportive of the employees who come from diverse cultural background.

In current competitive business environment it can be argued that the employees are the most important component in ensuring the success of any organization. More importantly, the organization should ensure that it has well qualified and skilled employees.

This can only come about if the organization widens the pool from where they can draw their employees. This can only come about if the organization is able to embrace cultural diversity during the recruitment process.

Reference List Baumueller, M 2007, Managing cultural diversity: an empirical examination of cultural Networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations, International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse.

Bono, S and Heijden, B 2011, Managing Cultural Diversity, Meyer


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Abstract This paper critically focuses on Consumer Decision-making Process models of purchase and post-purchase in relation to the hospitality industry. The paper shall determine the extent these models are vague and all-encompassing, especially when applying to postmodern hospitality industry with the fragmented nature of consumer behaviour, and emerging trends in the global provision of products and services.

Scholars interested in the field of consumer behaviours have developed several models as attempts to explain consumers’ decision-making processes when making a purchase, and what follows after the purchase. Gordon and Saunders have identified six of such stages that involve passive and active consumption phases or sequences (Foxall, 2004).

They identify these stages as emerging needs, active consideration, researching, short-listing, purchase and post-purchase. Smith also supports these stages in his work.

A part from these scholars, other scholars have also offered different perspectives on consumer decision-making process (Kotler, Bowen and Makens, 1999; Chambers, Richard and Lewis, Robert, 2000; Onkvisit and Shaw, 1994; Howard and Sheth, 1996). However, critics argue that such models are vague and tend to be all-encompassing.

Introduction Gabbott and Hogg offer a brief definition of consumer behaviour as “any behaviour involved in the course of buying, using and disposing of products” (Gabbott and Hogg, 1998). Critics have noted that this definition is vague and not practical. From this definition, we can learn that consumer behaviour is a technical issue to describe precisely.

Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard have offered an advance definition of consumer behaviour as “activities which directly involve decision processes prior and after stages of obtaining, consuming and disposing products” (Blackwell Engel and Miniard, 2001). They further explain how consumers choose products and services using a model of Consumer Decision-making Process (CDP).

This model indicates how consumers make decisions before undertaking any purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Consumers make their purchase at the fourth stage after undergoing all other previous stages.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers look at the value of the products or service they have purchased against the satisfaction derived or fulfilled from using the product. This experience is fundamental for defining the fifth stage, post-purchase evaluation, which takes a mental evaluation of the value of the purchase.

We have noted that depending on the CDP model alone may not provide the necessary information when applied in a marketing environment. This is because there are other various factors that influence every process of CDP.

Understanding factors that influence stages of CDP model may help markets persuade consumers who intend to use their products or competitors. Consumers are likely to purchase services or products that have solved their problems in cases of recurring needs. This is a purchase they know.

The CDP model must recognise that factors such as culture, personal preferences, social status, family, and the situation also influence consumers’ purchasing behaviours.

At the individual level, we have attitude, resources, motivation, personality, and knowledge. For instance, we may consider how consumers who are conscious environmental behaviour towards purchasing green products or services in the hospitality industry.

Characteristics of products and services in the hospitality industry Hospitality industry mainly caters for tourists or visitors have that need a unique range of services and products. We can group these services and products as packages e.g. accommodation and meals, or stand-alone products such as catering, and entertainment, among others.

We shall focus on a combination of services and products at the hospitality industry so as to enable us to understand the consumer decision-making processes when making such purchases.

We will write a custom Essay on Consumer behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This sector largely deals in provisions of services. According to marketing studies and theorists, services are intangible purchases. Thus, such purchases never really result into any ownership. In this regard, they offer various characteristics of services as follows. The hospitality industry offer services that are intangible. We can never touch, see, taste, or even smell them before we make the purchase.

Marketers in the field of hospitality offer images of their services, such as accommodation locations and the surrounding environment to make such services appear real to the consumer. This is a means of overcoming intangibility. However, such techniques do not necessarily overcome intangible characteristics of such services as tourists have to care when purchasing such services in the hospitality industry.

Services in the hospitality industry also have inseparability characteristics between production and how the service works during consumption. This characteristic influences consumer’s purchasing behaviour. Consumers may link the service to the provider together with the performance, and change their purchasing pattern if the services do not meet their expectations.

Services also tend to be heterogeneous in nature. This means services providers at the hospitality industry may find it difficult to offer the same service to every consumer when their needs arise. Different aspects like emotional status of the customer may also affect how he or she perceives the service at a certain time.

It means that consumers of hospitality products and services may not be able to predict the quality of services they may receive at their favourite places. In addition, consumers cannot depend on past their experiences in order to make subsequent purchase decisions regarding the same services or products.

There may be inherent changes in the services, service providers, or the consumers themselves that may affect the quality as well as experience of services offered.

Services also lack ownership, at least to the consumer. Consumers only experience the service through their purchases and access. Consumers will not own the service. Thus, services serve the purpose of a need satisfaction rather than tangible ownership. Therefore, purchases of services will have significant effects on emotional aspects of the consumer.

The above characteristics are just some of the aspects that may influence consumers of the hospitality industry. Marketing pundits also look at the distinction between convenience goods and shopping goods. Convenience goods tend to have low prices and high frequencies of purchases, unlike other goods that have high prices with low frequencies of purchases.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, we look at shopping goods as serving higher-order needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Howard and Sheth note “the purchase of convenience-type goods involves the consumer in a routine problem-solving behaviour, whereas the purchase of shopping goods involves the consumer in an extensive problem-solving behaviour” (Howard and Sheth, 1996).

We can note that consumers will spend a lot of time in order to understand complex issues of services they are about to purchase in the hospitality industry. The acts of choosing tourism destinations and subsequent service providers involve high-level purchases that require consumers to search for information and make informed purchases.

It requires a high-level of commitment, time, and significant spending. Thus, Middleton and Clarke observe that such influences result into low brand loyalty and expectations of repeat purchases, and low chain of distribution (Middleton and Clarke, 2001).

Complexity in Consumer Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry Consumers involved in purchasing hospitality products and services usually experience some technical issues. Most products and services in the hospitality industry need a high degree of involvement in making purchase decisions and a high degree of consumer commitment. This is due to the nature of products and services that consumers wish to purchase.

Thus, there are no routine or similar behaviour patterns when making such decisions. Consumers consider every purchase unique and need different approaches in making purchase decisions. Consumers in the hospitality industry must first carry out a thorough marketing research before settling on a given decision.

In turn, decision-making processes tend to take longer than when purchasing other products or services. Factors that may influence consumers at this stage may also set in, such as a holiday destination, type of holiday, individual preferences and among other factors.

Consumers link intangible services and products to high levels of insecurity in the purchasing process. The challenge is that consumers cannot have a test of the product before they make any purchase. In this case, most consumers only rely on the assurances from the services or products vendors.

The level of insecurity involved results into complex behaviour patterns where consumers collect information from several sources, including agencies. Information may come from the family, advertisement, travel agents, companies’ Web sites, and social media, among others.

Holidays and visits are significant events in an individual’s life. Thus, there is a considerable level of emotions involved. Holidays restore physical health and provide a chance of escaping the routine of workplaces. Holidays are expensive. This implies that the decision to take a holiday may affect other members of the family, or colleagues in cases of where companies cater for such packages.

This calls for compromises at some points, especially with regard to a holiday destination. There may also be some pressing needs such as purchasing new items, car, improving a home. Thus, family members or colleagues may consider such an expensive holiday a waste of resources.

Consumers who wish to purchase hospitality products and services normally experience strong influences from other people such as family members, colleagues and reference groups. The study of behaviour patterns that are under influences from diverse aspects is extremely difficult. At the same time, such opinion leaders also have tendencies of changing their beliefs and opinions over time.

Most decisions consumers make about visits are long-term decisions that take a considerable amount of time to plan. The challenge is that people may be at different statuses of their minds when they plan their visits, and when they actually go for such visits.

Such decisions depend on aspects of the future that they might not be able to predict. The dynamic nature of the tourism industry may affect such decisions depending on the cost variations, climate changes and lately security.

Purchases made in the hospitality industry involve high levels of search for information. Factors such as emotions and individual preferences may determine the extent to which a consumer will seek for such information.

There is a wide consultation of different sources of information, and the final choice depends on such information gathered. There is a high level of complexity involved as people search for information and make decisions. It may also mean that decisions can change abruptly depending on the new information discovered.

The complex nature of making purchase decision-making processes in a hospitality industry is different from making purchases of other routinely used goods.

The intangible nature, uncertainty of the future and unpredictable of service standards make the process of purchasing services and products a complex experience for consumers. This implies that marketers in may have difficulties when promoting their services and products to such consumers.

The decision-making process in the hospitality industry The decisions consumers make to buy products and services in the hospitality industry are due to complex processes involved. These factors relate to the consumer, and other external factors that he or she may not be able to control when making a decision of purchasing a service or product without prior experience.

In addition, the nature of products and services in the hospitality industry also make purchase decision-making process a complex affair. For instance, in choosing a holiday destination, consumers consider such factors as the destinations itself, mode of travel, type of accommodation services, the length of the holiday period, the time of the holiday, package of the holiday, and agent to provide tour services.

These are among many factors that may influence the decision-making process of a consumer when choosing a holiday package and subsequent purchase.

We can note that the scope and number of such factors are wide and numerous. We also realise that choosing the destination alone is not enough and not an end in itself. There are issues and activities to engage in once in a holiday destination.

Visitors will also make further decisions regarding how to spend their time, what meals to take, and where to take them among others. We can notice that these decisions look simple. However, they form part of the complex decision-making processes that tourists must critically look before making any purchases.

Decision-making models in hospitality Cooper and associates provide three processes in the development of consumer behaviour with reference to purchase processes (Cooper et al, 2005). First, there was the early phase of 1930 and 1940s (early empiricist) where emphasis was on empirical research. Still, the industry tried to establish effects of advertising, product distribution, and promotion decisions.

Second, there was the motivational phase in the 1950s where attention focused on “focus groups, in-depth interviews and consumers’ perception studies, and other projective approaches” (Cooper et al., 2005).

The focus was on what factors motivate consumers to make their purchases. Third, there was the formative phase. This phase included published textbooks by consumer behaviour theorists such as Engel, Blackwell, Kollat, Howard and Sheth.

Most early approaches on the study of consumer behaviour “focused on manufacturing industries, and they later moved to general service industries” (Cooper et al, 2005). In the 1970s, scholars began creating purchase models in the area of tourism. These models presented linear representations of decision-making processes.

It was Moutinho who developed a tourist behaviour model that was different from the rest with two scopes (Moutinho, 1987). First, the model provided for three distinct stages in the consumer decision-making process. These were “pre-decision stage and decision process, post-purchase evaluation, and future decision-making” (Moutinho, 1987).

The model also provided opportunities for feedback mechanism. Second, the model recognised three behavioural aspects in making purchase decisions, such as motivation, cognition, and learning.

The Consumer Information Processing Model: Source: Adopted from Kotler (1997)

Post-purchase Evaluation Post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of purchase decision. In this context, the consumer considers the level of purchase involvement. As we have identified above, purchases in the area of hospitality are high levels involvement.

In other words, the level of concern for the purchase is high in the hospitality industry because such decisions are not habitual purchases. The process is a continuum where the flow is from low to high level (Solomon, 2006).

High level of involvement during purchase decision-making process will result into an extensive post-purchase evaluation. Consumers usually question if their decisions to make purchases were the best among other alternatives. This is what we call post-purchase cognitive dissonance.

Elaborate Post-purchase Evaluation: Source: Adopted from Hawkins, Best, and Coney (1983)

Consumers are likely to experience such dissonance if the purchase is irrevocable, involves a high level of commitment, individual factors, selection among alternatives, and the importance of the decision.

Post-purchase experience of dissonance makes the consumer feel uncomfortable. Consequently, they resort to a number of ways to reduce such feelings. These may include preferences for the choice, disregard other alternatives, avoid negative comments about the choice, and reduce the importance of purchase decision.

Consumers who fail to reduce the level of dissonance may experience dissatisfaction with their choices. In this process, the consumer is likely to identify new problems and engage in the process of satisfying the need created due to dissatisfaction by the initial purchase. Consumers will use their experiences and negative feeling like part of the new information in making the decision for the next purchase.

Analysis of the purchase decision models There are inherent weaknesses that exist in consumer decision-making process models. These models do not explicitly show how consumers undergo complex processes when making decisions of purchasing services in the hospitality industry. These models cannot serve marketers when designing their marketing strategies.

Most critics argue that such models do not rely on any empirical research; thus, may not present reality of how consumers make their purchase decisions. In addition, most of these models are out-of-date in the postmodern hospitality industry, which is ever dynamic as consumers’ preferences are not static.

For instance, the tourism and hospitality industry has experienced changes with regard to the rapid changes in the Internet as a means of booking and purchasing hospitality packages and airline tickets, explosion of no-frills budget airlines, the development of all-encompassing holiday destinations, evolution of direct marketing, and changes in the buying behaviours of tourists that involve last-minute and spontaneous purchase decisions.

Third, a number of models that exist in the field of tourism, hospitality, and event management have their origins in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia. This implies that these models do not cater exhaustively cater for emerging markets in Eastern Europe, South America, Asian and African markets.

These models also tend to classify activities in the hospitality industry as homogeneous. However, consumers of such products are different and unique in their own ways.

Some of these factors that may influence characteristics of visitors may include their travelling patterns i.e. as an individual, family or group, past experiences of such tourists, and personal traits, which may involve planning patterns such as last-minute decisions or considerable amount of time for planning.

A number of models do not account for influences of motivators and determinants that affect consumers during decision-making processes. Some factors that influence consumers’ decision-making processes may dominate other factors and account for the entire decision-making process. However, such factors mainly depend on individuals’ preferences such as hobbies, means of travelling, or preferences for leisure activities, among others.

Other models take rational approaches to decision-making processes in purchases, which is not always the case. The ability to make rational decisions in purchasing among visitors depends on the availability of information.

In most cases, tourists may have access to imperfect information that does not give true accounts of their alternatives. In addition, rationality of the purchase decision-making process also depends on an individual’s factors such as personal opinions and prejudice.

These models assume that consumers’ activities and purchase patterns are constant. They fail to account for emerging trends such as conference tourism, holiday destinations, holiday patterns, effects of globalisation and instant decision-making process among some visitors. Such factors influence the nature of the decision and purchase patterns among consumers.

Postmodern consumers of hospitality industry Studies show that purchases and consumption in the hospitality industry have become fragmented. The perceived social roles have experienced “breakdown and left majority to adopt any identity they want in a postmodern society” (Thomas, 1997).

In the field of hospitality, the postmodern consumption rotates around “changes in consumer cultures of the late capitalism and the emergence of communication technology” (Brown, 1995). These changes have affected marketing trends in hospitality services (Williams, 2002). Thomas notes postmodernism has significantly influenced marketing.

Thus, he elaborates “Marketing, real-time, real-world marketing is thoroughly postmodern because postmodern marketing openly challenges some of the major axioms of the conventional wisdom as reflected in the standard marketing textbooks” (Thomas, 1997).

Thomas lists axioms that relate to postmodern as “consumer needs, consumer sovereignty, behavioural consistency, customer orientation perceived value, product image, buyer and seller separation, individual and organisation distinction, product and process separation, and consumption and production division” (Thomas, 1997).

We can relate these elements to consumption in the hospitality industry and establish consumerism in postmodern.

According to postmodernism, there is no single privileged form of knowledge, i.e. no theories are superior or inferior to others. Thus, it is no longer possible to believe in a generalisation or meta-discourse. A better understanding of postmodernism should entail sensitivity to differences, fragmented individuality, embrace uncertainty, and discourage the use of consensus to suppress heterogeneity.

In the field of hospitality consumption, we must embrace parallel and emerging trends in the social world. This refers to both self and other spheres of life. Postmodernism recognises that there is a lack of unity, lack of unifying central ideas, order, and lack of coherence.

Lack of certainty applies to an individual as well as the whole system. Therefore, the fragmented nature of consumer decision-making process models results from the fact that postmodernism does not recognise coherent and unified approach to issues as there is also general lack of certainty.

There is also breakdown in the system that leads to distinctions and differences. In turn, we have fragmentation in processes that replace unity or totality. Changes in society will allow for conditions of postmodernism characterised by hyperreality, ambiguity and reproduction of features (Gabriel and Lang, 1995).

Thus, postmodernism does not support any suggestions to replace or impose order to the existing chaotic and fragmented reality. Postmodernism puts it that we should embrace the “limitations of knowledge, question the value of generalisations and accept the impossibility of universal truths” (Thomas, 1997).

Fragmentation also emerges due to a low level of commitment to any one brand. What exists is only a momentary attachment, brand repositioning, and regeneration.

Thus, if we apply the principle of none is superior or inferior to another, then marketing becomes only sensible when it recognises language, symbols and elements of communication that imply and signify essential images in marketing. In the hospitality, the breakdown in the system affects marketing in the hospitality industry, which relates to the universal principle of marketing (Williams, 2002).

Postmodernism tends to question ideas behind generalisations and concepts in overarching theories as it sees them as limited in scopes. Thus, it posits that marketing approaches tend to impose order on the chaotic and fragmented statuses of the modern hospitality industry.

Postmodernism argues that there that the knowledge that exists has limitations about the nature of fragmentation. There is little empirical evidence to support generalisations regarding consumers’ consumption and behaviour patterns.

In addition, consumers’ consumption trends are not orderly and unpredictable. Consumers act on their wishes, ignore the set standards, and fail to maintain systems that may guide their activities (Brown, 1995). Thus, consumers are unreliable and changeable. Dynamic characteristics of modern consumers in the hospitality industry present difficulties in predicting buying behaviours and decision-making processes.

Conclusions This research has looked at the purchase and post-purchase models in consumption of hospitality services. Academicians and market theorists have made their inputs in order to provide theoretical account of the processes.

However, these models offered by theorists have inherent weaknesses both in describing and explaining how consumers make their purchase decisions. Some of these weaknesses result from elaborate decision-making patterns involved in choosing a holiday destination and subsequent activities.

The consumer decision-making process in purchasing hospitality services is a complex affair. It depends on a number of factors that originate from an individual and other external factors.

However, the models present linear processes that do not account for the complex nature and a high level of decision-making process consumers undergo when choosing a holiday destination. Despite these theories and models, understanding consumer behaviour in consumption of hospitality services remains complex.

The post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of the decision to purchase. It is also a high-level involvement process due to the nature of the decision and purchase involved. Consumers will experience post-purchase cognitive dissonance due to their purchases. However, in most cases, they tend to find ways of reducing negative feeling about their purchases.

With reference to postmodernism, consumption of hospitality services remain unpredictable, fragmented and not attached to reality. Postmodernism believes that consumers of today live in a world of doubt, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Thus, applying a model to explain their decision-making processes involving a purchase remains difficult to limitation of knowledge.

To this end, we cannot apply generalisations to account for behaviours of consumers in the hospitality industry. Still, marketing remains a complex process as predicting purchasing patterns and consumptions among customers are also difficult.

Most consumers will base their purchase decisions on their wishes, make last-minute decisions, and create new trends in demand for services and products. Such are the difficulties that make these theories fragmented and all-encompassing.

Reference List Blackwell, R, Engel, J and Miniard, P 2001, Consumer Behaviour, 9th edn, Harcourt Education, Boston, MA.

Brown, S 1995, Postmodern Marketing, Routledge, London.

Chambers, R and Lewis, R 2000, Marketing leadership in hospitality: foundations


White Female Stereotypes in Media Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

This paper tries to explore the white female stereotypes in the media and thereafter gives the consequences. However, before the explanations, it is necessary to give the meaning of stereotype. It refers to a belief about a certain group of people with regard to their style of doing things. White females are perceived to be superior to the black females and this forms the origin of this racial stereotype.

The media has made profound efforts to make sure that white women are used particularly in advertisements and entertainment to capture the attention of the audience. White female stereotypes in the media have made children to believe that white women are beautiful than black women (Collins126).

Consequently, the use of white women in the media, for example, in television and the newspapers has enormously contributed to the growth of the media industry. Today, images of white girls and women are normally portrayed in the media, and they are empowered. On the other hand, black women and girls tend to think that they are ‘less women’ since in the course of these adverts, their self-esteem is lowered (Collins149).

In most instances, the images that are in the media are of exceptionally slim white girls and women, and this sends a negative image to those women that have bigger bodies. Thus, although there are many media stereotypes, white girls and women stereotypes are the most prevalent and the media use it mostly to influence the society negatively.

Apparently, images of white women that are scantily dressed are everywhere. Advertisements that are aired in the television have images of white women that are seductively displayed, with the degree of seduction varying with the nature of the product being advertised. In addition, there are also magazines that have articles that have images of slim white women.

Some of these images try to explain how women can easily lose weight as well as give the importance of weight loss. These advantages may include a sensational sex life, healthy children or a comfortable marriage. The main challenge that faces the audience is failure to realize that the beauty that is displayed by these white women is almost unattainable and they should not try to imitate them (Collins141-142).

Some of the black women are even depressed by their ‘incompleteness’ and they may even end up skipping meals all in an effort to slim. This is because they feel their bodies are insecure, and they can purchase beauty products at whatever cost or even adopt expensive dietary measures in order to boost their self-esteem. This makes the cosmetic and dietary industries to make exorbitant profits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More White girls and women stereotypes have also been used to portray sex and relationships in the media. Through advertisements, these women and girls are displayed to be sexually attractive by exposing their body parts. This sends an extremely negative image to the audience (especially men), and they may use it to compare the attractiveness in different women. Provocative images of white women are used to lure men.

The image of these women is belittled since they are viewed more as sex objects than human beings. However, the media, like any other business, is profit oriented and it makes good money through such displays. The idea of media stereotyping has made most young people believe that the media is better placed in explaining sexual matters. As such young people mostly rely on the media to be informed on such matters.

Therefore, many women have an impression that for one to be sexually attractive and physically admirable, one must be thin. On the contrary, there are images of women that are displayed in the advertisement, to show the other side of romance. Images of women who are sexually harassed are common in either magazines or television.

Interestingly, here the media is concerned with the life of young people and it illustrates how sometimes relationships are disastrous. By so doing, the media plays a particularly crucial role in educating the youths. Stereotype tries to show that women are vulnerable to sexual abuse and they should always be keen since they are potential victims.

White girls and women stereotypes in the media have adverse effects to the social world as a whole. This can be explained by the fact that it is through adverts that are displayed on televisions and magazines that young people develop an element of associating being slim with beauty, for example. Consequently, the girls may even go without food in order to be sexually attractive.

On the other hand, since most images of the white girls and women are linked with products that are thought to add beauty, women have to buy expensive products in order to live up to these ideal images. In cases where there are financial constraints, women may even sacrifice the most essential needs. The other effect of this stereotype in the media is that morals in the society are eroded (Amundson 34-35).

Women are used as sex objects in advertising matters relating to sex and relationships. In some instances, women have been coerced to sexual activities or abused sexually by men. Indeed, white women stereotype is the most commonly used by media.

We will write a custom Research Paper on White Female Stereotypes in Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Amundson, Daniel. Media Coverage of Religion in America. New York: Center for Media and Public Affairs. 2000. Print.

Collins, Patricia, Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge. 2000. Print.


Chloramine in Drinking Water: When the Threat of Pollution Emerges Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction: The Significance of the Issue

ENDS Raising the Awareness of the Problem

The Factors Enhancing the Problem and How to Eliminate Them

Chloramine and the Formation of By-Products: Where It All Starts

Modeling the Procedure, Searching for the Solution

The Possible Way out: Alternative Disinfection Means

Conclusion: There Is Still Some Hope Left

Reference List

Introduction: The Significance of the Issue In the age when the environmental awareness has become an integral part of everyone’s life, the issue of drinking water pollution causes considerable anxiety and demands immediate solutions. Unfortunately, in the light of the recent conducted researches, the fact that drinking water is being polluted by large amounts of chloramine is undeniable, as well as the fact that chloramines is especially hazardous for people’s health.

It is worth mentioning that certain steps have already been undertaken to avoid the danger of pollution. However, it cannot be denied that the issue of chloramines in drinking water remains unsolved, which calls for another consideration of the issue and offering probable solutions of the given problem.

Analyzing current researches (see Adams, C., Timmons, T., Seitz, T., Lane, J.,


Political Opinion and Public Policy Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Civil and political rights are categories of freedoms that safeguard a person’s rights from unwarranted infringement by state organs and clandestine institutions. The rights guarantee an individual political participation implying that discrimination and repression are never tolerated.

Civil rights entail protecting physical integrity and wellbeing, preventing discrimination based on physical or cognitive capabilities, gender disparity, ensuring that there is freedom of religion, preventing ethnicity, avoiding discrimination based on age and allowing diverse sexual orientation.

Civil liberties can also include freedoms of thoughts and ethics, speech and expression, and the freedom of press and movement. Political rights may include natural justice, rules of law, right to fair trial and the right to participate in political processes, which include the right to vote and the right to present candidature to the electorate.

In the US, civil rights developed first before political rights. The US has had an enduring history with regards to fundamental rights and freedoms. Women and people of color have struggled to fit in the wider society.

Their activities have contributed to democracy in the US. Americans showed their will and desire to govern themselves when they challenged the colonial government due to its high handedness and unresponsive behavior. The colonialists had established their own administrative units that were intolerant and indifferent to the sufferings of the majority.

Americans united to fight a war that was later termed as the American War of Independence. People were granted their rights after the leaders adopted republicanism as a political dogma. This meant that people had to be represented by candidates of their choice.

It was proved that the electorate was more powerful than the ruler. Afterwards, Americans drafted some guidelines that would dictate the relationship between the ruled and the ruler. The principles were found in the federalist papers. Each individual had to vote for a leader of his/her choice. Through this, the state was able to be governed democratically.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In early 1900, Americans entered into another war that was aimed at abolishing inhuman treatment. The war was referred to as American Civil War. The South fought with the North because of different opinions regarding slavery. The North wanted slavery to be abolished while the south posited that slavery was to be allowed. The war nearly divided Americans into two but the North finally won.

This was an indication that Americans were against inhuman slavery that had rocked the society. Some members were forced to supply free labor because of their skin color. Since then, America has never been the same again meaning that much has been gained with regards to civil and political rights.

Women have stood out to fight for their rights by lobbying government to institute laws aimed at protecting them. Presently, it is an offence to use a gender-biased language. Equally, it is a criminal offence to discriminate another person based on gender. Feminist groups have struggled to restore the dignity of women in society by advocating for equality in society.

Due to their efforts, women are currently employed in professions that were previously reserved for men only. At work place, women have found themselves in high positions because the constitution bars an individual from discriminating another person based on gender.

This means that American society is a diverse society that appreciates the efforts of all members. It is not surprising that women have been fully incorporated in the financial system.


Impact of New Technology on European Culture Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Impact of new technology in European culture

Response of artists towards mechanization

Reference List


Introduction Mechanization is the process of changing from agrarian handicraft economy to one dominated by machine. The process started in Europe in the 18th century. It involves the use of iron and steel and the innovation of new machines that increased production. It also involves the development of the factory system, transport and communication. It started in Britain from 1760 to 1830 and then spread to Belgium and France.

Mechanization led to a major impact in cultures across Europe. In particular, it influenced the development of art and design. New technology in art and design started in the late 19th century. Although modern art and design developed in the late 19th century, contemporary paintings can be located earlier.

Impact of new technology in European culture Modern art is identified as having started in 1863, in Europe. The thoughts that led to modern art can be traced back in 17th century. Modern art involves artistic works developed between 1860s and 1970s. It involves the styles and principles of art produced in this period. In 1789, the French revolution removed assumptions and institutions that had been accepted for centuries without questions.

This helped people to choose their styles of buildings and design of wallpaper. The people who started modern art were romantics, realists and impressionists. In the late 19th century, movements, which were influential in modern art, started to emerge1. These were social and aesthetic movements that advocated for good design and craftsmanship.

This happened in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this period, there was increasing mechanization and mass production. The movements originated from Britain and were concerned with architecture and decorative arts. The movements advocated for the use of plain materials and surfaces which had a lasting influence on modern art.

Mechanization led to the development of graphic design, which is a visual representation of ideas. Graphic art and design are as a result of mechanization. This enabled cultures across Europe to communicate using conventional and inexpensive materials, which are easily transported. In 1922, a book designer developed a graphic design which enabled visual form to be printed.

Mechanization also led to development of languages which were adopted by cultures in Europe. Visual communication of ideas, and facts were developed in different areas from pictograms. The alphabets used today are based on the first alphabet developed by Phoenicians and then modified by Greeks and Romans. The alphabets led to development of languages used today, for example, Arabic, Greek, Russian and Roman.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mechanization in France led to the development of new kinds of paintings in late 19th century. The painting resulted to new fashion that was culturally tied to the development of new visual languages for the 20th century2.

Art Nouveau, which is an international style in decorative arts, reached many European countries, in the early years of 20th century. The movement was the horrors of mass production, and it was aiming to reintroduce the skills, and craftsmanship that was fading out. It rejected the order of a straight line and right angles and advocated for more natural movement.

It put emphasis on decorative patterns and flatness devoid of perspective. This movement is seen as the synthesis of European art. Some of its stylish revival was attributed to growth in nationalism. It arrived in Germany in 1896 with an exhibition of thirty five monumental embroideries at a Munich gallery. By the late 19th century, it had influenced all aspects of Munich’s artistic life.

This led to a demand of a new relationship between life and art. At the end of 19th century, new technology led, to the issue of modifying women’s dress. This became a fundamental element of feminist concern. In 1880s fashionable, tight lacings came under attack in progressive circles by criminals obstructing female movement. In 1890s, Britain’s dress reform was associated with socialism.

However, many historians had argued that dress reform was an issue of taste rather than politics. The new dressing styles implied a shift from earlier notion of clothing indicating class, and occupation to a more modern preoccupation with clothing as a means of identity.

Response of artists towards mechanization Between 1909 and 1912, many artists in England and France, were abandoning naturalism to stylized abstractions. Many artists such as Vanessa bell and roger fry concerned with developing a pictorial language received from decorative arts with a new content associated with the formal lessons. Roger Fry displayed post impressionist exhibitions in London in order to attack the Philistine tastes of the middle class3.

Experiments in decorations were started by Bell and Grant which involved the introduction of geometric patterns derived from mosaic and tile work. The design of Clive Bells art in 1914 also developed an aesthetic in which design and color determined the content. The artists established the Omega workshops which helped them in designing and decorating fabrics, furniture, pottery and other items.

We will write a custom Essay on Impact of New Technology on European Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These were developed to challenge the Victorian differentiation between art and craft. The work of participating artists was believed to be privileged compared to other forms of labor.

The women who started fine arts established a relationship between class and modernity which had major implications. As technology improved these artists were able to design items such as curtains, bedspreads and boxes that were displayed at places like Daily Mall Ideal Exhibition4.

Most of these designs were developed from oil paintings. The distinction between bells paintings and decorations helps in the development of structure and lyrical and color harmonies that improve her figurative work. The dress design in Omega experiment was not successful.

Few dresses were sold this is because the design was too exotic to clients. Delaunay was another artist who developed designs as technology advanced. She worked with textiles and embroidery in 1906. She started designing book covers, posters, curtains, cushion covers and other items from home. In 1913, she started making simultaneous dresses in accordance with the current fashion.

The patterns of the dresses were designed to enhance the natural movement of the body5. The patterns also helped in establishing a shimmering movement of color. The principle of abstraction helped in defining modernity for a broad public.

In the year 1913, Italian futurists exploited the idea of clothing to signify revolutionary modernism. However, futurist attitudes towards feminism were compromised by the cult of virility. In the first decade of 20th century, Russian artists believed that, they can only be able to express key ideas through culture and traditions. Between 1914 and 1917, Russia was forced into cultural and intellectual isolation.

During this time, many artists who were living in other countries were forced to go back home6. The artists developed a new art for the people in preparation of political revolution. This involves searching for a new aesthetic language compatible with modern industrialization. As technology improved art developed, and painting was taught in Moscow.

Popova who, started painting in Moscow emphasized on color and texture7. By 1923, Delaunay’s fashions and textile designs were commercially produced. Avant-garde spectacles such as Dada performances helped break down the belief about clothing as a cover of the body. This was replaced by an image of the body as a fluid screen.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Technology on European Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Delaunay’s designed male costumes although commercial developments were designed for women. Many architectural designs in Russia designed by artists remained theories due to lack of raw materials. By 1922, Moscow had large textile industries for manufacturing clothes. In 1923, there was an article which urged artists to address industrial problems.

Many artists responded through sending sketches to First state textile factory in Moscow8. Tatlin and Rodchenko established clothing designs, which were used in social functions.

Popova and Stepanova redesigned the clothes within the framework of the existing industry. In 1925 French and Russian design were combined together9. In the same year, exhibition of decorative and industrial arts was organized to combine art and commercial enterprise in decorative design.

There exist a relationship between an ideal fashion of cloth developed in 1920s and glamour which stress the modern woman and sexuality. This is a complex relationship as both are masked to profound economic and cultural changes. Kandinky was a great artist from Russia10.

He studied law and economics in the University of Moscow in Russia. He was brought up within a cultural heritage, which was partly European and partly Asian. The artist had an unusual interest in color as he contemplated Moscow architecture and its collections of icons.

He had lasting interest on nonrealistic styles of Russian folk paintings. By 19th century, he was a competent professional artist, in touch with new technology for art and design. He was influenced by impressionism and decorative effects of art Nouveau11. He displayed his work with vanguard groups and non academic shows which had spread all over Europe. He was the founder of nonfigurative paintings.

He was an active member of avant-grade movement in Germany. He assisted in the establishment of new artists association in Germany. Later on he informally organized a rival group together with German painter Franz Marc. He became a professor of fine arts at the Moscow academy.

In 1919 Kandinky established the institute of artistic culture. He was appointed as the director of Moscow museum for pictorial culture. This enabled him to help in establishing 22 museums across the Soviet Union12. He started the Russian academy of artistic sciences. He developed the general direction of geometric abstraction with a taste for detailed crowded pictorial space.

He analyzed the effects of abstract elements of drawing by interpreting a horizontal line. He developed visual languages, which turned into a collection of signs that looked like decipherable messages13. He influenced the developed of art in 20th century and his works are exhibited in other painters work. Paul Klee is another artist who made a major contribution to art and design.

He had a multifaceted artistic personality, which ranged from sensibility to theoretical lucidity14. He was a member of various avant grade movements. He became devoted to painting when he visited Italy and saw the work of Leonardo da Vinci. He was based in Munich where he made contacts with other artists about children’s drawings and non European cultures15.

He discovered the power rhythm and dynamism of contrasting colors. After the First World War, he combined figurative language with geometric forms in pictographic writing. He adopted abstracted style of cubists which is seen in a number of his drawings. He also developed the use of letters and other signs in his work16.

Reference List Aynsley, Jeremy. Graphic design in Germany:1890-1945. California: Univesity of california Press, 2002.

Clegg, Elizabeth. Art,design and architecture in Central Europe. Yale: Yale University Press, 2006.

Crouch, Christopher. Modernism in art and design. London: St.Martin’s Press, 2007.

Drucker, Johanna. Graphic design history:a critical guide. Chicago: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.

Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic design:a new history. Yale: Yale Univesity Press, 2007.

Heller, Steven. Design literacy:understanding graphic design. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2004.

Heller, Steven. Graphic design history. Chicago: Skyhorse, 2005.

Heller, Steven. Graphic style. Chicago: Harry Abrams, 2007.

Hollis, Richard. Avant-garde graphics 1918-1934. Michigan: Hayward Gallery, 2007.

Hollis, Richard. Graphic design:a concise history. New York: Thames