Human resource management has become essential for organization’s effectiveness. Reputedly, human resources should be the major investment of any organization. Nevertheless, it is almost impossible to avoid issues concerning human resource management which can be explained by the major principles of agency theory. Thus, principal-agent relationship is often characterized by different aims and behaviors.
For example, in spite of the fact that Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) reports about positive working environment and many opportunities for personnel, there are some problems concerning “leave entitlement of civil servants” (Management of Leave 1). Admittedly, increasing rate of leave entitlements is a sign of personnel dissatisfaction with workplace and management.
To evaluate human resource issues in FEHD, it is necessary to point out the major principle of agency theory. The major concern of the theory is “the contract between a principal and an agent” which is characterized by “a degree of conflict between the goals” of organizations’ members (Child and Faulkner 23). According to Horn agents should be monitored by principles, but he also states that it is “very difficult to monitor” agents (19).
Thus, any organization’s human resource management efficacy should be considered on the basis of the assumption that principals and agents often do not have the same aims. More so, principals often have more information than agents do, and this also causes difference in objectives since insufficient information provided by principles does not motivate agents to carry out their task in a way they are supposed to.
Taking into account the agency theory it is possible to point out that Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department faced the same problems that every organization has, and could not manage to solve them. Admittedly, FEHD pays much attention to human resources development.
According to FEHD they have many training programs aimed at “enhancing the overall competence and professionalism of staff” (Administration and Development). It goes without saying that such incentives motivate personnel to self-develop and fulfill their task in the best possible way.
However, according to Report No.55 of the Director Audit FEHD has significant problems concerning leave entitlements. In the first place, it is necessary to state that sick leave levels of the organization since 2005 up to 2009 was “significantly higher than those of civil servants as a whole” (Management of Leave 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from this the audit reports that numerous guidelines about leave entitlements registration are violated and this make it impossible to check the level of leave entitlements properly. Thus, though principals enact agents to register leave entitlements, this task is fulfilled unsatisfactorily. Admittedly, the high level of leaves means that personnel do not work hard for the sake of organization.
The lack of motivation can be explained by the lack of information available for agents. Thus, civil servants have only little information concerning their tasks. They do not have the entire picture and cannot associate their work (on their specific level) with the effectiveness of the organization as a whole. Apart from training it is necessary to make personnel aware of their impact of the organization’s development.
In conclusion, it is possible to state that Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department has certain problems concerning human resources which can be justified by violation of leave entitlements guidelines. However, it is possible to solve the problem if to take into account the agency theory, and provide personnel with more information about organization.
Works Cited Administration and Development. FEHD Annual Report 2009, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, 2009. Web.
Child, John and David Faulkner. Strategies of Cooperation: Managing Alliances, Networks, and Joint Ventures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Horn, Murray J. The Political Economy of Public Administration: Institutional Choice in the Public Sector. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Management of Leave in the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department and the Housing Department. Report No.55 of the Director of Audit – Chapter 5, aud.gov.hk, November 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Evaluate Human Resource Issues in Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Approach Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Case study
Alvarez et al (1990, pp.3-8) claims a case study is responds to “how”, “why” and “what” questions. The “why”, “what” and “how” questions make it possible for the researcher to demonstrate control over behavioral events and finds application when the researcher has no capability to control behavioral events.
Case study approach based on Glesne and Peshkin (1992) suit determination of contemporary issues in their natural settings and real life context. This implies case studies involve ethnographic approaches that ensure the ethnographer or researcher interacts with the respondents and determines variables in their natural or real life settings (Yin, 1994).
Campbell (1975) in his degrees of freedom of a case study argues that a case study integrates empirical research where a researcher focuses on contemporary issues and variables of the study are investigated in real-life context.
The case study approach base don Giddens (1984) is applied when relationship between study phenomenon and its contextual background are not clearly defined which result into inability to identify study model that could be used to form basis for the study. Carney (1995) in addition suggests case studies are applied when conducting studies on behavioral trends on complex social issues.
Suitability and application of case study
Stake (1995) claims case studies are suitable when conducting studies on a study problem that is characterized by a research phenomena that is defined by extensiveness of variables, has multiple sources of evidences that require multiple methods of collecting the evidences on the phenomenon and where theoretical propositions could be identified or study could contribute into determination of a theoretical proposition or where theoretical proposition could form foundation for collecting the data as well as carrying out data analysis from multiple sources.
Feagin et al (1991) adds that in a case study, the design of the research should be structured such that it demonstrates link between data that would be collected and the conclusion that would be achieved. This ensured study construct validity conforms to study conclusion validity.
In addition, Strauss and Glaser (1967) notes that in a case study should be structured such that conceptual framework, theoretical framework and data collection procedures are aligned to the research instruments and questionnaires which ensure the conclusion validity achieves element of credibility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures the case study conforms to protocols and standards on reproducibility construct validity of the study which makes it possible for the results to be duplicated (Pyecha, 1988).
The study blueprint and preliminary theory alignment
Determination and structure of the study blueprint based on Strauss and Glaser (1967) should contribute into determination of grounded theory for the case study. This grounded theory should conform to the study problem and satisfy capacity of procedures to contribute into determination of conclusion validity.
It is therefore necessary for study blueprint to be determined as well as grounded theory for the case study before implementing data collection. The theory for the study should form framework for the completeness of the study design (Strauss
Conflict between India, Pakistan, China and Kashmir Report a level english language essay help
The Kashmir conflict For a long time, the conflict between India Pakistan, China and Kashmir over Kashmir region has remained unresolved. Each of these countries claims ownership of a part of Kashmir. Kashmir is a region in northwest south Asia found between India and Pakistan and also bordering china and the Russia.
Historical background Kashmir was initially governed by the Pashtun Durrani Empire during the 18th century. The leader of the Sikh overpowered Kashmir in 1819. Later, it was sold to the Raja of Jammu by the treaty of Amritsar.
The raja was consequently known as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. Despite being a Muslim region, Pakistan was under mahaja rulers. In 1947, India acquired her independence from British domination. This led to the formation of India and Pakistan (Schofield, 2000).
According to India, all the previous treaties ceased with the proclamation of independence. This meant that the princely states were free to choose either to join; India or Pakistan or remain sovereign (Indian Independence Act 1947). Pakistan on the other hand hoped that Kashmir would become part of it owing to the fact that the region was predominantly Muslim.
Some Pakistani tribes along with Kashmir radicals invaded Kashmir with the aim of freeing it from the Sikh. The Sikh in return transferred his mandate to India through the Instrument of Accession (Schofield, 2000).
The subsequent radical reactions from Pakistan and India’s counter reactions resulted in wars which have carried on till today. The major wars include the 1947, 1965 and 1999 Indo-Pakistani wars. Hence, the conflict in Kashmir springs from the partition of India into the currently known Pakistan and India with it historical factors and religious connections being the major driving forces.
The current conflict The ongoing and seemingly endless conflict has raged from 1991. India lays claim to the Jammu and Kashmir states and has recently started controlling almost half of the territories of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India’s assertion is however disputed by Pakistan who dominates, “37% of Kashmir area; that is Azad Kashmir, Gilgit and Baltistan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More China dominates 20% of Kashmir territory” (Schofield, 2000, p. 24). The territories under Chinese influence are Aksai Chin which they took possession of in 1962 during the Sino- Indian war and the Trans- Karakoram tract or the Shaksam valley which Pakistan ceded in 1963 (Schofield, 2000).
On one hand, India proclaims that Kashmir region is part of India while Pakistan states that Kashmir is a region under contention and it is only the Kashmiri people who can ascertain the final position of Kashmir. China argue that they should be given control over Aksai because it is under Tibet.
However, some Kashmiri nationalist groups state that Kashmir ought to be a sovereign state from India and Pakistan. This constant strife threatens to pill into the neighbouring regions.
The conflict has resulted in the killing and wounding of many civilians. The March 2008 violent explosion on the Indian controlled Kashmir highway close to the Civil Secretariat and the high court wounded 17 people. Armed combat between radical militias and Indian troops left scores dead and others wounded.
It all started when the Indian army, which was carrying out a search for radicals, ambushed a home outside Srinagar. In the ensuing melee, thousands were killed though the human right groups and NGOs claim those killed were double the figure provided by Indian Home Ministry.
Indian view According to the Indian government, the instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the union of India was legitimate according to the Indian laws and international law and therefore cannot be revoked. The Maharaja’s Instrument of accession had been formally sanctioned by the constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir and it advocated for the union of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
The constituent assembly then embraced the opinions of the people of Kashmir. The United Nations Security Council acknowledges and supports India’s position regarding unsettled issues between India and Pakistan and prompts them to settle the issues in a peaceful diplomatic manner, not through public opinion.
We will write a custom Report on Conflict between India, Pakistan, China and Kashmir specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, considering that Pakistan refuses to remove its troops from Kashmir, the UN resolution cannot be put into effect. At the same time, owing to the permanent changes in the demarcation of Kashmir, the UN resolution 47 then becomes meaningless.
India disregards the approach by Pakistan that the nationality of the people of Kashmir should be determined alongside religious lines and that since most of the Kashmiri are Muslims, then their right place is with Pakistan, not India which is predominantly Hindu. According to India, in spite of the fact that Kashmir is mostly Muslim, it remains in other ways a ‘constituent part’ of not overly religious India.
India claims that her constitution made provisions for considerable self governance. The only way to attain a peaceful deal between the two countries would through mutual negotiations they both consented to when they signed the Simia Agreement of 1972 (Schofield, 2000). India has constantly accused Pakistan for supporting violent activities in the territory.
Pakistani version As opposed to India, Pakistan disputes the Instrument of Accession by asserting that maharaja was generally not regarded favorably by many Kashmiris as he employed coercion to repress those who opposed him. According to Pakistan, India is pretentious since it disregarded the accession of Junagadh to Pakistan and the sovereignty of Hyderabad on the basis that the two princely states were mostly Hindu.
India instead had invaded and used unlawful violence to incorporate them to India. The maharaja did not have the mandate to decide the future of Kashmir as he had taken flight during Pakistan’s invasion. The fact that the maharaja was compelled to sign the accession renders his deeds null and illegitimate.
Furthermore, Pakistan states that India was the first to breach the standstill agreement signed between Pakistan and the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir (Wilmot
Humanitarian Intervention in Libya Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Conditions of humanitarian intervention/ war
Introduction While a world without conflicts would be ideal, this is not always the case and nations are at times forced to go to war. The reasons for war range from protecting one’s nation from hostile forces to intervening on behalf of a hapless people.
This second scenario is known as humanitarian intervention and it involves the international community intervening militarily to stop genocide or other atrocities from being perpetrated in an independent state. The Libyan case presents the most recent humanitarian intervention which has been characterized by an imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya and the escalation of air strikes against Gaddafi’s forces.
Conditions of humanitarian intervention/ war Humanitarian intervention stems from the recognition that military force can be used to stop or prevent genocide or other systematic killings (Solarz 25). While humanitarian intervention can be carried out with the consent of a government, it can also occur without the consent of the relevant government especially when the government is accused of causing or threatening to cause genocide.
Goodman reveals that international law prohibits unilateral use of force on humanitarian intervention grounds (111). The reason for this prohibition is to avoid aggressive wars being waged by nations under the pretext of humanitarianism.
As a matter of fact, Hitler used humanitarian justifications for his military expansion into Austria and Czechoslovakia where he claimed the German nationals were being maltreated and denied of their right for self-determination (Goodman 113). Many nations favor requiring the Security Council’s approval before engaging in humanitarian intervention.
Libya Justified War is viewed as an act of last resort when all other options have been tried out and failed. The air strikes against Libya occurred only after all diplomatic avenues had been considered.
As a matter of fact, the decision to intervene was announced by French president Nicolas Sarkozy following a breech of ceasefire by Gaddafi’s forces. Gaddafi’s forces advanced to the city of Benghazi with the intention of smashing the rebellion despite having issued a ceasefire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Humanitarian intervention is acceptable when the militarized conflict is already high and an intervention may in fact discourage the eruption of more wide-spread war. This is true for Libya since the humanitarian intervention was adopted as a result of Gaddafi’s aggressive stance towards the anti-government forces who were also armed.
In this case, humanitarian intervention may serve the interests of peace at the latter states of a dispute. By use of limited military intervention, the level of a conflict can be deescalated and a political solution found to a problem.
Before the intervention in Libya, Muammar Gaddafi was adamant on his position and his military was conducting several successful assaults on rebels using fighter jets and tanks (Mardell). Following the intervention, the progress of Gaddafi’s army has been significantly stalled.
The humanitarian pretext is the primary reason for the war against Libya.
It is therefore very likely that the intervention will produce meaningful social effects since it has from the very beginning being deemed as an effort at protecting the Libyan people and forcing Muammar Gaddafi out of power so that the people’s political freedom’s can be respected.
Abbas, a reporter with Reuters, documents that the aim of the air strikes against Libya was to “force Muammar Gaddafi’s troops to cease fire and end attacks on civilians.
Libya Unjustified History has demonstrated that humanitarian interventions can serve as a pretext for selfish interests of nations. This thought is reinforced by Domagala who notes that “military intervention, even when motivated by humanitarian concerns, is a political act” (5).
We will write a custom Essay on Humanitarian Intervention in Libya specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the case in Libya where the overthrow of Gaddafi is top on the agenda despite claims that the intervention is strictly on humanitarian grounds. Zunes reveals that the proposed air strikes have gone beyond their initial aim of protecting civilians from Gaddafi’s military to actively supporting the rebel forces in their quest to topple Gaddafi.
This is despite the fact that toppling Gaddafi may result in a civil war which will result in more suffering for the people of Libya since the intervening nations do not have a plan to fill the security vacuum that will be created by the his removal.
One of the principles of humanitarian intervention is that it cannot be justified if other places that have the same conditions or needs are being ignored. From this assertion, the intervention on Libya was unjustified since other countries such as Cote D’Ivoire were even more in need of intervention.
The Economic Community of West African States called on the UN Security Council to take up action to calm the situation that has resulted in hundreds of deaths and the displacement of more than 1million people (McGuire).
Conclusion War invariably results in death, destruction and disorder and as such, there must be strong justification before resorting to military force. The Libyan case presents a condition whereby the international community has been forced to take action since diplomatic means have failed to make an impact.
The Libyan leader has used his military to attack civilians who oppose his rule as well as rebels who have taken arms against him. From the arguments presented in this paper, it is clear that the attacks on Libya are justified since they will result in the saving of lives of thousands of civilians who would otherwise have been killed by Gaddafi’s powerful military.
Works Cited Abbas, Mohammed. French plane fires first shot in Libya intervention. Reuters. 2011. Web.
AFP. Libyan intervention underway after Paris summit. 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Humanitarian Intervention in Libya by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Domagala, Arkadiusz. Humanitarian Intervention: The Utopia of Just War? The NATO intervention in Kosovo and the restraints of Humanitarian Intervention. SEI Working Paper No 76. 2004.
Goodman, Ryan. “Humanitarian intervention and pretexts for war”. The American Journal Of International Law, vol. 100: 107. 2006.
Mardell, Mark. James Clapper says Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi will prevail. 2011. Web.
McGuire, Mary. Humanitarian Crisis in Côte d’Ivoire Warrants Intervention. 2011. Web.
Solarz, Stephen J. “When to Intervene.” Foreign Policy, Vol. 63 (1986): 20 – 39.
Zunes, Stephen. Libya: “R2P” and Humanitarian Intervention Are Concepts Ripe for Exploitation. 2011. Web.
On the Rescue Mission: Preserving the Environment Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help
In spite of the fact that the modern world is highly preoccupied with the state of environment and is gradually taking necessary measures to provide environmental safety, at present the situation remains threatening.
It is obvious that the mankind has to apply certain changes to the existing state of affairs, otherwise the chance to live in a safe place will be lost for good. Due to the number of suggestions, it seems that people are about to find a way out of the complicated situation.
Evaluating the Measures to Be Taken: Pros and Cons One of the newest inventions of the mankind, the idea of engineering for sustainable development, has been developed to make all the pieces of the modern life fall into their places, and to make such issues as the modern technologies and the safety of the wildlife compatible.
To be more precise, the sustainable development concerns the problem of combining the environmental, the social and the economic elements into a single body with high potential for further development. Though such combination seemed rather far-fetched idea, at the current moment it seems that this goal can be achieved once people join their forces and make a step forward.
To emphasize the significance of the sustainable development, it must be mentioned that the idea that underlines the new approach is the efficient use of the natural resources without harming the environment and at the same time providing the maximum of economical profit for the country and its population.
Dealing with the idea of how to utilize the natural resources and provide a good effect on the nature, the book deals with the most topical problem of the environment contamination and the dangers which it triggers. With help of the new approach many dangers can be avoided, yet there is a lot to consider, the authors of the book warn.
According to the overwhelming definition provided by ICE, “Sustainable development is commonly conceptualised as having three dimensions – dimensions which are often symbolised as overlapping circles: environmental, social, economic” (What Is Sustainability and Sustainable Development?).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the authors of the book make it clear that only maintaining the balance between these spheres of a man’s activity, one can both preserve the wildlife and at the same time reach high level of development.
It is worth noticing that the authors of the book mention all the possible dangers which a careless attitude towards environmental problems can lead and has already led. However, pointing at the most complicated issues on the agenda of the mankind development and the nature preservation, the authors of the book not only draw the idea of the helpless state of nature, but also suggest certain means to change the situation,
According to the authors of the book, controlling the state of environment can prove quite easy once people take certain responsibility in caring of nature and wildlife. With all the dangers which the mankind poses to the wildlife, the importance of technical progress and the development of industries cannot be denied, which means that people merely have to search for harmless ways of development.
Thus, taking the sustainable development approach, people will be able to preserve the environment and at the same time continue the technological growth, which is incredibly important for the modern world.
Considering the impact of the sustainable development, the authors of the book suggest one of the most effective methods to maintain the abovementioned balance. Thus, it seems that their objectives have been stated in the most clear and precise way.
Mentioning all the threats which the mankind poses to the environment at present, they heralded the epoch of saving the wildlife and restoring the nature. As the ideas of industry and nature are comprised, the coexistence of the mankind and the wildlife will become possible, the authors of the book claim.
Once the mankind realizes the peril which the entire world is now, they will eagerly contribute to the nature restoration, 6the book claims. Moreover, it seems that the process has already been started.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on On the Rescue Mission: Preserving the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the cheerful prognoses, it seems that the rescue team has a long way to go. Indeed, with the level of the environmental contamination it is highly unlikely that the changes are going to occur soon. On the contrary, the efforts needed to apply are quite considerable, which means that the researchers have a long way to go.
According to the evidences obtained recently, the nature is suffering quite severe changes caused by an unwise use of the natural resources and half-baked ideas of how to make use of the natural resources.
Thus, one of the most dangerous threats posed at present to the world is the one concerning the nuclear weapons. Though it is quite clear that the risk level of the scientific experiments must be reasonable, the desire to reach far beyond the horizon is more intense than the wish to keep the environment untouched.
As Huhne said, “Safety is and will continue to be the number one priority for existing nuclear sites and for any new power stations.” (Nuclear Safety Is Number One Priority – Huhne (Press Notice)).
Certifying that the UK does not have anything to do with the tragic events taking place in Japan recently, Huhne also mentions that maintaining safety at the nuclear power stations remains one of the basic concerns of the mankind. However, it seems that the considerations of the nuclear power plants do have certain grounds, which have to be tackled sooner or later.
Along with the energy challenges the authors of the book raise an important question concerning the level of carbon decrease. Whether it is possible is not a matter of life and death yet, but it will soon become the one, according to the prognoses of the authors of the book. Due to the fact that the mankind produces huge mass of carbon dioxide, the environment contamination progresses geometrically.
Leading to an environmental catastrophe, this problem must be tackled, otherwise people will not be able to resist the danger. As the England Annual Conference announced, Speakers representing the views of all the construction professions spoke at – what provided to be – a very enlightening day.
Topics covered included new developments, insulation, low carbon emissions, retro-fitting historical buildings and the carbon footprint of the whole life cycle of construction. (Is Low Carbon Sustainable Development Possible?)
Not sure if you can write a paper on On the Rescue Mission: Preserving the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, these are not only the threats which the book is speaking of. The authors also suggest the method of sustainable development as a means of comprising the technology development and preserving the wildlife and the nature. Once the new method is utilized, it will become easier to control the safety of the environment, the authors insist.
It seems that the new means of protecting the nature does have the right to be practiced. Indeed, once the riches of the nature are wisely utilized, the state of the wildlife will become more or less stable.
Contributing to the Great Mission: Some Suggestions Throughout the history of the world people have always been using its riches, yet it was only in the past few decades when people became seriously concerned about its safety and balance.
Thus, taking into account the damage which has been made to the nature and wildlife, it seems that repairing the damage will take people much more than a few years. Still there are certain suggestions of how to make the world more stable and to maintain the sustainable development without traumatizing the Mother Nature anymore.
Thus, it seems that the mankind has to deal with the environmental issues at present, otherwise there will not be enough time to tackle all the complicated issues which have already arisen.
Among the most complicated subjects which need serious considerations and fast solutions, the one concerning the alternative energy sources and their utilization. As The Royal Academy of engineering claims, “Meeting the increasing global demand for energy is one of the key challenges for sustainable development” (25).
Thus, it is extremely important to search for4 the new ways of obtaining energy and to make wise use of the remaining sources. Taking into consideration the way people use the energy sources, it can be supposed that looking for the new energy sources will soon become the key priority of the mankind.
Therefore, it is vitally important for people to think of the new energy sources. It is not only the lack of energy sources at present that raises certain questions, but also the impact which the current ones have on the atmosphere, the wildlife and the nature in general. It is obvious that the modern mankind faces great dangers connected with the energy sources.
Due to the CO2 emissions, a great number of animals suffer, and a lot of species are on the verge of extinction, not to mention those which are already considered as extinct.
Thus, the energy problem must be tackled. IEMA mentions that they are “determined to place environmental professionals at the heart of sustainable change, this conference will give delegates some of the tools they need to shape the development of the sustainability agenda” (Make the Business Case for Climate Action and Resource Efficiency.)
However, at the same time the researchers admit that the changes which they are going to undertake will demand considerable time and efforts, which means that the current situation is going to last for another bunch of decades before things shift from their standstill position.
It must be mentioned that certain measures still have been undertaken, among them the resolution concerning the British government and their responsibility for the state of the environment: “Government should develop a single framework for UK businesses to use to report their greenhouse gas emissions.
This could be based on the 2009 Defra/DECC ‘Guidance on how to measure and report your greenhouse gas emissions’” (IEMA Evidence Included in Influential Report on Energy Efficiency).
Thus, there is no doubt that the UK government and a group of activists are exploring the means to ensure the environmental safety in the country. However, the existing theories on what sources of energy can substitute the potentially dangerous ones and the ones which are going to be drained soon lead nowhere.
However, it must be admitted that the activists interested in the state of the country are not sitting twiddling their thumbs, but working on the problem solution. One of the major improvements in this sphere is the fact that the population of the UK are becoming increasingly aware of the dangers which the unreasonable use of natural energy might lead to.
Organized to make people shape a general idea of the energy situation in the country, the Climate Week brought much more results than the organizers could have thought – people are now eagerly participating in the energy problem solution:
“Thousands of businesses, charities, schools, councils and others are running events to help highlight the issue of climate change and provide practical examples of how people are responding to the challenges.” (Natural England Supports Climate Week).
Therefore, it is clear now that the mankind is going to find the way put of the complicated situation. Once people join forces, they will be able to drive the nature out of the crisis it is in now. Joining forces, people will finally find the alternative energy source and will preserve the environment as it is – pure, rich, and fertile.
Works Cited IEMA Evidence Included in Influential Report on Energy Efficiency. IEMA, March 01 2011. Web. Web.
Is Low Carbon Sustainable Development Possible? ICE, n.d., Web. Web.
Make the Business Case for Climate Action and Resource Efficiency. IEMA, March 18, 2011. Web. Web.
Natural England Supports Climate Week. Natural England, March 21 2011. Web. Web.
Nuclear Safety Is Number One Priority – Huhne (Press Notice). Department of Energy
Autism in Saudi Arabia Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Educators and other educational staff are facing increasing challenges of planning and employing efficient education programs for all the students including those with mental problems like autism. Recent research has presented excellent materials that have been collected by teachers and other supporters of children with autism, together with their families.
Because of the amount of information available on this, teachers can be able to develop teaching program for individual students based on the needs. However, there are some key ideas and methods of supporting such students that need understanding by teachers, other supporters and family of such students.
Students suffering from autism are not able to learn easily and in the same manner as their normal peers and as such, they require support to help them succeed. This support may come in the form of modification of the curriculum to cater for the special needs of the autistic children.
Saudi Arabia has developed special schools with curricula that are designed to help these students who have special needs for them to learn. The teachers are specially trained for this job.
Definition of Autism Information about autism is very important for teachers and other educational supporters and this will be the basis on which teaching methods and other support services will be devised (American Psychiatric Association 2010, para. 3).
Instructors and education supporters will benefit by understanding the definition, description of its characteristics and the repercussions for teaching. They will also understand strategies for effective teaching and management of autistic students.
Autism is described as a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and this condition has a number of characteristics that are define it (American Psychiatric Association 2010, para. 3). They include, impaired communication, poor social interaction and behaviour and restricted, recurring and stereotypic behavioural patterns of conduct and activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Autism is hence a complex disorder of the neurological function of the brain and it is essentially as medical condition rated on a spectrum (Al-Ayadhi 2008, p. 192). Its symptoms therefore range on a continuum of combination being described as mild to severe (Roth 2011, p. 18). For instance, a patient can suffer intellectual disability while another patient may have normal intelligence development.
There could be a number of hardships in the expansive and receptive language communication and it’s estimated that about half of the autistic individuals fail to develop functional speech (Roth 2011, p. 18). However, for those who do, their speech is usually with inadequate communicative function and of very pitiable quality.
Autism is not a curable condition and it’s a life-long development disorder that a person has to cope with (Al-Ayadhi 2008, p. 192). The individual will always fail to easily understand what she/he sees, hears or otherwise sense by other senses. This is what aggravates the social relationships, conduct and communication problems.
Even though it’s known that people with autism face serious difficulties when it comes to social interaction and conduct, the level usually vary. Some patients are usually withdrawn from social activities while others are overactive and interact with people in weird ways (Roth 2011, p. 19). Students with autism had difficulties if inattention and often resist change.
They may respond to sensory stimulation in an unusual way and may portray odd character like spinning or flapping their hands (Al-Ayadhi 2008, p. 193). Autistic individuals can have common characteristics but there is never tow people presenting same profile of symptoms or behaviour.
The common characteristics are used for identifying the general need for autistic individuals. However, it is pertinent to combine understanding of specific abilities, interests and the observed signs for every student (Roth 2011, p. 18).
Causes of Autism It is yet to be proven the actual cause of combination of factors that precipitate into autism. However, research has found increasing evidence that this is a genetic disorder with a number of genes being affected (Lopez-Duran 2010, para. 2). The mode of genetic transmission is very complicated and researches have concentrated identifying and isolating the involved genes.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Autism in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Evidence shows that there is higher prevalence in children born out of early pregnancies or early life activities and environment could affect the vulnerability if the child (Newschaffer et al. 2007, p. 237). Some studies also show that the brain of autistic people is slightly different from normal individuals as anomalies in the nerves in the head have been observed.
The Diagnosis Trained physicians or clinical psychologist in autism are the people who can be able to do an accurate diagnosis. However, the assessment and diagnosis is supposed to entail a multidisciplinary team of a language and speech pathologist, psychologist, and a paediatrician psychiatrist (Lopez-Duran 2010, para. 2).
A psychologist assesses the developmental stage and behaviour of the child, the language pathologist evaluates communicative language expression and the paediatrician psychiatrist helps to rule out other causes of the observed symptoms (Roth 2011, p. 23).
There is a criteria developed for this diagnosis, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder – DSM IV and it uses the following major symptoms;
impaired communication and wretched social interaction (Newschaffer et al. 2007, p. 237)
restrictive, recurrent and stereotypic manner of conduct, activity and concern
Saudi Arabia’s Stance on Autism Saudi Arabia does not have a good reputation when it comes to taking care of members with special needs like autistic children. It is therefore a great moment anytime, autism in Saudi Arabia is discussed because the position is going to change dramatically (Al-Salehi 2009, p. 340). Since the condition has no cure, it is often feared by parents in Saudi Arabia.
One can really seen people with disability in Saudi Arabia and this is not to mean that they do not exist rather it’s because of the societal treatment of these people that make them isolated.
The people are very judgmental on disabled individual together with their families and the harsh treatment they give such people often makes them to be isolated or hidden by family members to avoid contempt from other people (Al-Salehi 2009, p. 340).
Even in today’s society, physical and mental problems are still widely stigmatized in this Arab kingdom and parents keep their autistic children hidden because of the fear of ridicule and as such, these children fail to get the help they require to attain better development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Autism in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There have been very few studies in Saudi Arabia on autism because of the social isolation and discriminations of families with such people and the patients themselves (Al-Salehi 2009, p. 340).
However, some rough estimates about the prevalence of the condition in Saudi Arabia show that there are 18 people affected by the condition out of 10,000 (Fombonne 2003, p. 89). This is even higher than the developed nations which average at 13 per 10,000.
In the recent address of the autism problem in the world, the last world autism awareness, it was very exciting to see that the Arab world taking part. This means they are ready to take the bold step of addressing autism like any other diseases by providing relevant resources.
To understand its diagnosis and the ways that people can use to support autistic children (Fombonne 2003, p. 91). Even though children with autism are different, they are very important component of the society as human beings and need help just like other children.
More male children suffer autism compare to female children in Saudi Arabia, and the number of registered cases of autism increasing as families come open with their children who need help (Fombonne 2003, p. 91).
Saudi has a plan through its ministries to offer support to families with such people in terms of medication and social services. Because of the limited, currently only the Saudi children are eligible for the financial assistance from the government (Fombonne 2003, p. 96). However, there are plans underway where, more of the residents even the non-Saudi children will be able to get this financial aid in the near future.
Special Needs Saudi Arabia has few schools for the autistic children. This was an idea hatched to address the hardship that parents go through in trying to find a proper school for their children.
This is often a daunting experience, coupled with the ridicule from some people and compounded with the fact that normal school may not adequately address the needs of these special students, it is proper to have greater understanding of learning needs of autistic children (Al-Salehi 2009, p. 343).
There are very few options available for education the children with autism and this is the reason for increasing the scope of the special needs which are autistic specific and recommending it to the government.
Typically autistic students are unable to learn things instantly by observation and participation because of their impaired communication and social development, these children have very minimal interest in the learning situation.
Their thought, perception of the environment around them and attention span is greatly affected (Newschaffer et al. 2007, p. 239). Despite these difficulties, these children have a right to education, right to play and enjoy their childhood and the right to therapy.
Ethically, there are certain best practices that need to be put into consideration. Just like other children, autistic children need to have a safe and predictable learning environment. They need to be at the same development level as their normal peers as much as possible though to achieve this they will need extensive support (American Psychiatric Association 2010, para. 6).
The children should have consistent routines and processes to follow in their education. There should be very minimal distractions and sensory stimuli in the learning environment (Newschaffer et al. 2007, p. 239).
Autism specific skill should be taught by use of behaviour modification model with the children’s conduct as basis of instruction. The instructors should set communication as the main goal and finally there should be incentives and reinforcement of the learnt material or activities.
Addressing Deficits of Autistic Children Communication
All children with autism have difficulties in language expression and communication even though the degree to which this happens varies a lot. The problems could be non-verbal or serious language deficiency in social use (Ozand et al., 2003, p. 56). Children tend to be caught up in their own world where communication is not significant.
The common problem includes abnormal gestures, improper facial expression, strange body language or gesture and poor non-verbal communication. They have limited vocabulary, slower or fast talk, repetitive and meaningless speck and limited social function (Lopez-Duran 2010, para. 2).
There is a long list of factors of bad communication and students have difficulty in understanding verbal information, following a conversation and recalling a series of instruction.
Implication in education: in order to help these students to understand, Saudi Arabia education system has to use effective programs for comprehensive communication evaluation and intervention. This will involve speech and language assessment and informal observation of the way children carry themselves around in the class environment (Karim 2009, p. 9).
This assessment identifies goals and help in development of strategies that will help instructors to facilitate development of receptive language and expressive skills (Ozand et al. 2003, p. 56). Instruction should be able to emphasize on development of attention capacity, imitation, and comprehension and good use of language.
Students suffering from autism have varied social interaction behaviour and in most cases they experience a lot if difficulties in establishing new relationships. Their way of interaction is rigid and very limited (Ozand et al. 2003, p. 57). This difficulty is often interpreted as lack of interest of refusal to interaction with peers. Such children in Saudi Arabia were often and some still are secluded because of this.
This ineffective communication causes inability to distill social information from social interaction and utilize proper skills of communicating. In order to understand social situations, the student needs to process the language and non-verbal communication and this is the major deficit in autistic children (Ozand et al. 2003, p. 57).
These children fail to notice crucial social cues and often miss on important messages. These children cannot non-verbal behaviour with their social interaction and they in the same manner fail to read non-verbal communication from others (Karim 2009, p. 9).
Students fail to connect mental states and activities. For instance, autistic children may not realize another child annoyed even when that particular child is crying just since they themselves are not annoyed.
Instructors are able to better help these children when they understand that these children may not be able to perceive that other people have different viewpoints (Karim 2009, p. 9). The autistic students also have unusual and stereotypical way of playing with toys and they play lacks creative imagination.
Implication in teaching – social skills development is very important for these students who have special needs and it is an important factor for devising plans to manage their challenging behaviours. These students cannot learn just by observing or participating (Magnusen 2005, p. 81). It is hence proper to target specific instruction and offer support for this instruction skills in a social setting.
Children with autism in most cases demonstrate strange and distinctive behaviour like resisting change (Magnusen 2005, p. 81). They also get fascinated by movement like spinning, preoccupation with some parts of a toy, limited range of interests and rigid adherence to non-functional habits.
Implication in teaching – most of these unusual and stereotypical behaviours can be due to other causes like sensory stimulation and lack of understanding the social situation or anxiety. The instruction plan for these students should include strategies that will expand the interests of the students.
The instruction should also be based on the student’s reaction to sensory stimuli, development skills and preparation of the students for the anticipated change (Ashcroft et al 2009, p. 143). When planning on the teaching strategy, Saudi teachers should put into consideration the problematic behaviour and its implication on a particular student.
For instance, a student who has a problem in attention and evading things, it could not be easy to do away will all the repetitive behaviours (Karim 2009, p. 10). For successful instruction and support for these students, environmental adjustments to reduce improper behaviour can be necessary. This can be used together with training students on other proper behaviour serving the same purpose.
Poor Attention span
Autistic children have unusual attention span and they have difficulties in a range of areas. This has a very serious implication for effective communication, academics achievement and social development (Magnusen 2005, p. 85). Students with autism suffer attention deficits and they fail to focus on relevant cues or information in the surrounding (Ozand et al. 2003, p. 58).
Their attention is focused on specific areas of the environment and they consequently exclude relevant information. For instance, students may be looking at a ball and not the person the ball is going to be thrown to. If not, a child could fail to take note of insignificant details like the staple holding a booklet and not the writing in it.
Students could also have some difficulties in disengaging or shifting their focus to other objects or information and this is what contributes to the rigidity and resistance to change (Ashcroft et al 2009, p. 143). In the education of Saudi children, this behaviour is an impediment to instruction therefore leads to poor performance.
Implication for teaching – difficulties with attention could considerably affect the students’ ability to develop social character and use of language. For instance, an autistic student could react to irrelevant social cue that catch their attention or they could respond to only a part of a conversation and therefore fail to understand the message that was being passed across (Ozand et al. 2003, p. 59).
These students are not able to pay attention to multiple cues in a conversation. Therefore when instruction is being passed to these students, Saudi instructor should ensure that these instructions are passed in proper format, which is coherent and focuses their attention by putting emphasis on pertinent information.
Individual plan can be developed for each student to focus their attention as part of the instruction strategy (Magnusen 2005, p. 88).
Supporting Students with Autism Classroom Modification
It is appropriate that each student should have and personal education plan. This plan should describe the goals, the curricula, and accommodations. The classroom should be planned well and everything in it arranged properly (Magnusen 2005, p. 68).
With Saudi stepping up the its effort to provide support to children with autism, the instructors of these special schools should be able to utilize a structured teaching schedule listing the activities that will be carried out by the students during the day (Magnusen 2005, p. 68). Unlike in the normal classes, these children need to be engaged on tasks that explicitly focus on learning objectives because their attention is deficient.
These children may not change from one task to another easily. These children could want to remain sited on a particular seat or use a certain pencil all through (Ashcroft et al 2009, p. 144).
The transition from one task to the next should be properly designed so that the change can be effected by everyone and the teacher can help students who have difficulties on changing (Magnusen, 2005, p. 69). The new changes are introduced gradually in the instructional learning goals that differentiate the learning objectives of these students with special needs.
Things like sound (high pitch), light (very bright light) and smell should be checked because these students could present unusual sensitivity to these factors. The instruction should be done by repetition of the information, restructuring sentences, rephrasing questions (Ashcroft et al 2009, p. 148), using visual cues to alter behaviour and modelling of tasks.
Peer Initiation Tactics
This strategy is where the socially competent peers are taught and trained to strike a conversation and maintain social interaction with the autistic children in a normal setting. Two children are paired in this strategy (socially competent and autistic) (Lopez-Duran 2010, para. 6). These peer-mediated social interaction processes have been under research for a number of years.
These strategies yield direct outcome of increased social response by the autistic children (Magnusen 2005, p. 81). This strategy is very effective because of the peer acceptance and increased positive social interaction that it brings to the students.
Besides pairing, triads can be used where two socially competent peers are matched with autistic child and this is thought to bring better outcome. The reason being that it compensates for the ‘dead time’ in the pairing system where communication is somehow limited (Magnusen 2005, p. 81).
The advantages of using the peer-initiated strategies, these strategies take place in the natural setting. The outcomes are valid interaction skills because the programs are dependent on socially competent students. Besides the strategies are easier and time efficient (Magnusen, 2005, p. 84).
These strategies cause increased positive response for both autistic children and the normal children. This develops long lasting social skills as well.
This is a strategy of teaching children with special needs and it involves the use of a variety of instructional models like visual supports, music, and picture exchange communication among others. This design of teaching arranges the learning environment in a manner that will allow the children to easily understand (Ashcroft et al, 2009, p. 149).
Visual cues are very important for this type of learning because children with autism can easily focus on the appropriate information which would otherwise have been difficult for them in normal learning setup.
Physical structure is the manner in which the environment is set up for learning. This is basically what is done in the classroom modification. However, it extends to thinks like the playground, hallways and locker rooms (Ashcroft et al, 2009, p. 152). This should be done in a very clear and expressive manner that the children are able to follow or attend to what is supposed to be done.
Conclusion Children with autism are not competent enough to learn like their peers who are normal. This is the reason why, these children need support in their education or learning programs to attain same success as their peers. Their instructional programs are complex since each child is unique in terms of learning style, development of social skills, communication and they have odd character.
The Saudi Arabian government should ensure that as it supports education for children with autism, the instructional program should be based on the unique special needs of every student as variability is only a slight one.
Reference List Al-Ayadhi, L.Y.., 2008. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Response In Autistic Children In Central Saudi Arabia, Neurosciences, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 192-3.
Al-Salehi, S.M., Al-Hifthy, E.H.,
Information Communication in Supply Chain Management Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction It has long been argued by scholars and business administrators that effective communication is indispensible for proper functioning of supply chain. At this point, there are numerous cases which show how information technology such as Internet can benefit suppliers, manufactures, distributors and customers. This report is aimed at discussing the best practices which are adopted by modern businesses.
For this purpose, it is necessary to review scholarly works that examine the importance of information communication in supply chain management.
Furthermore, it is necessary to show this knowledge can be applied to some real life situation, in particular, to the case of Betta Struts, the enterprise which has recently introduced an e-supply chain. It is quite possible to argue that this company show how one can effectively adopt IT technologies. Some of their strategies can be emulating by other manufacturing companies.
Literature review Quantitative and qualitative benefits
A great number of researchers have already discussed the benefits of adopting information technologies in the work place. For instance, in their study, Elizabeth Williamson, David Harrison and Mike Jordan identify several areas where Internet can be applied, namely: procurement, order processing, customer service, inventory management, workload planning, etc (2004, p 380).
They also argue that the adoption of these technologies can bring such benefits as ability to reduce labor costs, decreased expenditures, and finally ability to incorporate outside suppliers into the structure of the company (Williamson, Harrison
A Just Humanitarian War: Kosovo 1999 Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents War in Kosovo
Arguments for Opposition to the War
Arguments for the Support of the Humanitarian War
No man is an island entire of itself…. any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind. And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.
John Donne, Meditation XVII, 1624
Nothing is more essential, than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular Nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded.
George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
A just war has to be just. Yet, to defend a just war is not the same as saying that all wars are just. War – the use of calculated, organized violence to achieve political objectives – is an unpleasant and brutal endeavor. But in certain instances, the use of force is justified.
In some cases, the use of force is morally justified. The case of Kosovo is that example. The NATO use of force in Kosovo 1999 was morally and legally justified to halt genocide and ethnic cleansing.
Human beings have always fought – for and over power, religion, and cultural beliefs, race, ethnicity, resources, land, wealth. The struggle often occurs between brother-nations, which is, at times, the worst example of human violence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since one force is usually superior to the other, the threat of full extinction and massacre arise in military conflicts. In such situations, it is appropriate to seek outside forces for assistance, even if this assistance challenges international law of national sovereignty and the problematic outlook of violence to establish peace.
Such cases have acquired the name of “humanitarian war.” A humanitarian war is the use of force to deter or prevent the aggressor from harming innocent people, and to protect their inherent human rights. The purpose of humanitarian wars is to avert human suffering, genocide, rape and other crimes against humanity (Roberts 1).
Though it is not a completely peaceful undertaking, and presupposes proactive and even offensive military activities from the side of peacemakers, humanitarian war is appropriate in cases when it is necessary to alleviate human suffering and arrest abuse of human rights. (Heinze 4,8,15).
Various definitions of humanitarian war exist. In our paradigm of analysis, we narrow it down to four essential criteria: 1) just cause, 2) right intentions, 30 last resort, and 4) proportionality and distinction. First, the humanitarian war needs to be a just cause, such as alleviating great human suffering. Second, this war has to have the right intentions – saving people, stopping massacre, and establishing peace.
Third, the use of force should be the last resort after having exhausted all non-violent means. Lastly, the use of force has to be proportional to the level of aggression already launched. Moreover, the war has to be conducted in such a manner that military combatants and civilians are treated distinctively. The intervention in Kosovo meets all four criteria.
The allied forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) deployed their forces and attacked the forces of the then Yugoslavia to prevent them from further committing acts of crime against Albanians (Kosovars), as the population of Kosovo had been struggling for its secession from Yugoslavia (Rizer 1).
In Kosovo, the gravity of the offenders’ atrocities obliterated all reasonable boundaries, rendering the non-intervention principle invalid.1
We will write a custom Essay on A Just Humanitarian War: Kosovo 1999 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Genocide was the primary cause for intervention. President Bill Clinton repeatedly voiced the right intentions – to save Albanians from genocide by ethnic cleansing. The NATO intervention was the last resort for the Albanians.
Though there was unfortunate collateral damage, NATO war fighters took extraordinary measures in targeting to ensure distinction between military and non-military targets. In a way, such distinctions influenced NATO’s sense of proportionality. That is, NATO forces never targeted Milosevic himself.
This paper will argue that the war in Kosovo was legitimate and legal. The origins and developments of the war will be examined, before and after the NATO intervention, the consequences of the war will be outlined, and the opposing opinions will be considered to produce a comprehensive overview of the ethical, moral, and legal implications of the humanitarian intervention.
War in Kosovo The outbreak of the war, violence and genocide revealed. The contention over Kosovo, a former province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, spanned over six centuries. The Kosovars desired secession from the Slavs, who had consistently oppressed and committed atrocities against them. The struggle for independence began with the first Balkan war and continued during WWII.
Military activities and violent opposition in Bosnia were the instigators of the war in Yugoslavia, since the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina was also based on the religious grounds, and was very severe.
As Schatzmiller notes, the losses for Bosnians were great, and after signing the Dayton Peace Accord on the 14th of December, 1995 (which was the fragile peace settlement) still 90,000 people were displaced or refugees to the neighboring regions (Schatzmiller 156).
Seeing the success of the religious and ethnic opposition in Bosnia, Slobodan Milosevic initiated the nationalist opposition against Albanians residing in Kosovo, in the Yugoslavian territory. Up to 1998, the military opposition led by Milosevic escalated in Yugoslavia, with displacement of thousands of Kosovar Albanians (Independent International Commission on Kosovo 148).
The key players in the war were the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), the Milosevic government and the Serbian army, various organized militia groups that had close links with the government, and NATO forces. (Lutz and Lutz 119-120).
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Just Humanitarian War: Kosovo 1999 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a significant international effort to curb the violence and terror organized by the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), and Milosevic pledged to terminate the violence against Albanians in the June 1998 Moscow agreement.
However, no pledges were observed by him, and the scale of human suffering increased; even the UNSC Resolution 1199 did not make the Yugoslavian forces stop the massacre, after which the NATO authorities started their urge for the humanitarian intervention (Independent International Commission on Kosovo 148).
Kosovo existed in the context of other developments – Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia and Croatia claimed independence. Slobodan Milosevic fueled slavic nationalism from the early 1990s and encouraged violent conquests in the name of Serbia. The Serbian attack on civilians in Sarajevo, and its attacks on the Red Cross and convoys with food supplies for the peaceful population were horrific. (Yoder 88).
The Serbs initiated the massacre against the civil population, a breach of fundamental human rights. Milosevic instigated national hatred towards Albanians and converted nationalism into racism, in essence, engaging in ethnic cleansing of non-slavs, non-Serbs.
The main casualties were the unarmed civilians of Kosovo. The world community was shocked by these atrocities, the likes of which had not been seen since WWII (Totten and Parsons 423).
Yugoslavia consisted of four provinces: Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro and Vojvodina where Orthodox Christian, Islam and the minority Roman Catholics resided (Wilson 21). From the very start of the conflict, it was clear that the war was asymmetrical, pitting an ill-armed Kosovo militias agitating for independence, against the well-armed Serbian forces.
The Kosovo fighters also could not match Milosevic’s troops in terms of weapons and number of troops. The residents of Kosovo (the Albanians) considered the Kosovo Liberation Army to be freedom fighters while the Serbs considered them terrorist militias aiming to create chaos and anarchy.
Russian mercenaries allegedly participated in the war on the side of the Serbs while Kosovo received help from Albania and Saudi Arabia (Herbst 70). The gravity of atrocities became unacceptable. The Albanian part of the country would never be able to protect themselves without outside intervention.
The international community tried to establish some semblance of peace in Yugoslavia, but it was inadequate. The UN Security Council (UNSC) had planned to impose sanctions on the country, particularly an arms embargo. But China and Russia opposed any military resolution and threatened to veto any measures that could undermine the sovereignty of Yugoslavia.
The longstanding integrity of national and sovereign borders was the main mitigating factor in the activities against genocide and massacre. The two permanent members of the UN Security Council argued that the country had undertaken no aggression against another nation, and that it was acting within its boundaries and therefore, should be left alone.
Thus, no agreement was visible, and the divide in the Security Council, as well as the escalating massacres in Yugoslavia forced NATO members to attack without the UN consent. (Mertus 306).
(How does this paragraph support your thesis? It does not seem to have any relevancy on the justification of the war).
Religious and ethnic reasons for the war. The Kosovo conflict was mainly a religious one with reconciliation and negotiations coming to a dead end by the late 1990s. Religious and ethnic wars of independence have a long tradition in the region, with Slovenia seceding in 1990, Croatia following in 1991 and Bosnia-Herzegovina following suit in 1992.
During the early 1990s, Croats mainly practiced Catholicism, Serbs were Orthodox Christians, and Islam dominated the Bosnian population. All these groups had a Slavic ethnic origin, but their religious inclination made them consider themselves as distinct people, especially in regard to the recent military activities and separation.
As Shatzmiller points out, religion has intimate connections with the expression of ethnic/national identity that distinguishes Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians from each other (Shatzmiller 33).
Each of these groups held extremist views with no religious tolerance. Such lack of tolerance sowed the seeds for the 1998 Kosovo war when Milosevic fueled intolerance towards Albanians with their free practice of religion and bourgeois attitude to life (Mertus 38).
The severity of the conflict, and the critical escalation that saw no peaceful resolution came primarily from the fundamental differences between Serbs and Yugoslavians (????), and the inability to reach any consensus but the full extinction of one of the parties.
The Religion became a symbol of national identity and unity in the newly-formed states, and manifested itself in the language and communication forms used. For example, in Serbia, Orthodox Christianity became a part of being a citizen of the nation.
Unlike in these nations, where religion was the main catalyst of secession, the war in Kosovo had both ethnic and religious origins. Before the massacres and ‘ethnic cleansing.’ most of the population in Kosovo were Albanians who had lived in the area since Roman times with a language different from other languages of the area. Kosovars were predominantly Muslims.(Shatzmiller 66).
NATO attacks and occupation. Prior to the Kosovo intervention, NATO had not participated in any military operations. Operation Allied Force (OAF) lasted for eleven weeks, from March to June 1999. The main aim of the attack was to stop the crimes against humanity committed by an independent state within its borders. The international community had been reluctant to take action but the escalating atrocities could not be ignored.
The context for a humanitarian intervention pre-existed in the international community. The authoritarian rule of the Chilean leader Pinochet prompted the UN Security Council to recognize his crime against humanity. The British Appeal Chamber had just approved Pinochet’s extradition to Spain on charges of crimes against humanity (resolution 827 (1993)).
This ruling paved the way for the philosophical justification of the NATO attack and raised the issue that some crimes were too severe to be ignored or overlooked despite existing international law that stipulated that all nations are sovereign. To wit, any nation committing crimes against humanity was subject to the international effort for the sake of establishing peace and stopping the massacre and alleviating human suffering.
On the day of enactment of the resolution on Pinochet, NATO forces from most of the member countries attacked Kosovo for the sake of preserving peace and precluding genocide (Roberts 53).
It is very positive about the NATO peace troops’ intentions of deterrence and defense had been the main agendas of NATO prior to the war – this fact speaks eloquently about the right intentions of NATO forces. NATO, the world’s most effective and efficient military alliance, felt it was time for a change in policy and approach to atrocities.
The main reason for failure to establish peace by non-offensive means was the unwillingness of the Yugoslavian government to reach any agreement; the objectives of the conflict included extermination and not agreement.
Hence, after a series of unsuccessful efforts to establish peace without military actions, bombing of enemy forces became the last resort of Albanians. NATO failed to effectively deal with previous atrocities; yet it undertook the role of establishing peace in Yugoslavia, so it continued with more offensive measures taken (Boyne 33).
The actual military operation lasted eleven weeks and involved all NATO members except Greece.2 OAF’s objective was to make Kosovo free from Serbian invaders, and to involve international peacekeepers in the rebuilding and reconciliation process. NATO decided to launch air strikes limiting ground combat to secure the lives of peacemakers. The attack was to last only a few days, but it lasted much longer for a variety of reasons.
The initial aim of OAF was to destroy the Serbs’ aerial attack. The initial attacks intensified the conflict. Serbs reacted to the attack by intensifying their ethnic cleansing activities. In the very first week of the attack, more than quarter million people fled from their homes and by April, almost a million had fled, resulting in the overflow of refugees to neighboring countries (Meggle 283).
OAF forces bombed everything that looked suspicious or that could be dual-use by Serbian forces. NATO warfighters accidentally bombed refugees escaping from their homes and killed more than forty of them.
Though NATO forces admitted the mistake, it remained wary of the Serbian practice of mixing the civilian caravan with military conscripts. The Serbs claimed the bombing was deliberate due to the intentions of the U.S. to take over Yugoslavia. (Meggle 180-181). But these claims were groundless as there was no interest in exploiting the country’s resources.
International tensions heightened after the accidental and embarrassing bombing of the Chinese Embassy which resulted in the death of three reporters. The bombing resulted in angry Chinese mobs demonstrating outside NATO members’ embassies in Beijing.
However, the representatives of NATO retracted the claim by admitting their mistake and claiming that they has the wrong map coordinates, which resulted in the mistaken bombing.
One more challenging situation occurred as a result of bombing the prison causing hundreds of prisoners’ deaths – people from various countries not interested in the conflict were held there, as well as many oppressed Albanians had also been put to prison in the process of their prosecution in Yugoslavia, so the prisoners were mostly innocent people, those whom NATO forces pledged to protect.
OAF did not seem to be attaining its set goal of peace-making and civilians’ release from the burden of violence and oppression. Consequently, allied forces started weighing the option of an infantry attack, showing that they pursued their initial peaceful aim and tried to adjust their activities to make the result as effective as possible (Krieger 3).
After witnessing much of the damage done to his country, Milosevic accepted the various conditions of the mediation team still striving to the peaceful resolution of the conflict. These conditions included the deployment of UN peacekeepers to Kosovo, which he had earlier rejected (Heinze 30).
Obviously, the victory of allied NATO forces was not easy; even after the 11-week bombing, Milosevic did not agree to participate in the negotiations over the destiny of Kosovo. Hence, all NATO and UN member states, Russia included (though Russia has been the opponent of the military intervention, it was also interested in establishing peace in Kosovo).
It was only at the G8 meeting in Cologne that the member states worked out a seven-point peace plan, and Victor Chernomyrdin, the Russian envoy, held negotiations with Milosevic on May 19, 1999 (Independent International Commission on Kosovo 95).
Only after that, having taken into consideration the continuous discussions of unleashing ground troops to Yugoslavia, Milosevic finally agreed to the peace plan on June 3, 1999 and left Kosovo with his military troops and the KFOR (the NATO Force) entered Kosovo on June 12 for the sole aim of peacemaking (Independent International Commission on Kosovo 96).
End of the war and its consequences. The allied forces and peacekeepers occupied Kosovo, the Yugoslavian forces finally withdrew from Kosovo and Yugoslavia as a country suffered the beginning of its disintegration. The air strike strategy proved to be very effective.
The infrastructure of the country was left in disastrous conditions as roads, bridges and railway lines had been ruined by NATO bombings. Amenities like schools, hospitals and churches also suffered from bombing because of the NATO forces’ attempt to prevent their usage in housing government forces; factories and industrial capacities were in a similar condition (Independent International Commission on Kosovo 4).
The Kosovo rebels proved to be very effective; their land attacks lured the government forces out of hiding, which in turn enabled the allied forces to bomb them. The achievement of the Kosovo Liberation Army propelled the group to the limelight and they became actively involved in the national building process (Knudsen 77).
Nonetheless, the establishment of war cessation was not the end of the Kosovo’s story. The international tension regarding the issue grew, and multiple opponents of the intervention insisted on reconsidering the case with the NATO’s voluntary actions and the sanctions towards the NATO forces.
The relationship between the West and the East deteriorated with China accusing the West of infringing on the sovereignty of other states. Claims about the arrogant display of military might and economic prowess on the side of the NATO nations became common, similarly to the Korean War that the USA unleashed.
The countries opposed to the operation stressed the need of discussing any sort of future military operations in the UN Security Council. Russia tried to propose a draft for the withdrawal of foreign forces, but was unsuccessful. Yugoslavia accused the NATO forces of crimes against humanity, the country filed a case at The Hague for the International Court of Justice to arbitrate on the matter.
The case was never opened as the accuser was said to have no capacity to file a case because at the time of the atrocities, she was not a member of the UN, which is a minimum requirement for a case to be heard (Edwards and Samples 228). Despite these misgivings, one cannot deny that the war stopped ethnic cleansing. Kosovo became autonomous and in 2008 declared its formal independence.
Arguments for Opposition to the War The attack of Yugoslavia by NATO was viewed as one way of Western powers extending their imperialist activities to ensure other countries do their bidding.
They also ague that such intervention helps the powerful countries to actively exploit the natural resources of other countries (Kosovo has large deposits of natural resources and thus critics view this as a way of ensuring the powerful countries will be involved in the exploitation of these resources). However, no obvious exploitation ever took place, and the question can be asked – if the interventions should be prohibited, who will dare to save suffering nations?
As in case of Kosovo, the majority of superpowers prefer to engage in the political demagogy but not save the people in real crisis and horror. The world sat on its collective hands as some 800,000 people in Rwanda were massacred.
NATO forces did not get the assent of the UN Security Council, yet the war was to enforce the Council’s resolutions and ensure observation of humanitarian laws of the Geneva Convention and Genocide Convention. However, every analysis of the NATO decision to intervene should stipulate the value of the human life at first, and decide whether human rights trumps national sovereignty.
The case of Kosovo shows that it does. There is no pretext to remain ignorant to the mass violations of rights by a stronger force inside a single country, the rights’ abuse by state authorities, the violence and genocide taking place with the authorization by a nationalistic government.
Undoubtedly, NATO forces made mistakes during the Kosovo war, accidentally bombing innocent civilians like the convoy of refugees. OAF also killed neutral parties as they bombed Chinese journalist. Nonetheless, these facts only show that the war was not well-planned or was utilizing unreliable sources for executing their mission. It does not find that NATO warfighters made no distinction between civilians and combatants.
Arguments for the Support of the Humanitarian War The decisions of NATO to overlook the authorization of the UN Security Council left experts and international community divided. However, this was not just any war. The UN Security Council resolutions were one of the two arguments to support the attack.
The UN Security Council Resolution 1203 (1998) of 24 October 1998 and Resolution 1160 (1998) demanded that Yugoslavia halt and cease all actions affecting the civilian population and if the country failed to observe the resolution, then any measure was legal to compel the country to adhere to the resolution (Krieger 292).
Resolution 1244 (1999) demanded that the Serbs were to observe and adhere to the various resolutions from the past negotiation meeting in Belgrade, which Serbs had agreed to observe, and also respect the fact that Kosovo was of great concern to the international community (Krieger xxxii).
By predefining the consequences of a breach of fundamental human rights, the UN Security Council paved the way for force to be legitimately used in Kosovo. On a national and international basis, on legal and moral grounds, OAF was authorized. Immediately after the bombing began, Russia sponsored a draft resolution in the UN Security Council that demanded the immediate withdrawal of foreign forces from a sovereign Yugoslavia.
Out of the fifteen-member country, only three supported Russia while twelve opposed. The Security Council’s refusal to support Russia’s call for withdrawal was an indirect support of the intervention that buttressed the intervention’s legality and legitimacy.
Proponents of the military intervention claimed that the UN was the primary body in maintaining world peace, but was not absolute. Hence, the UN Security Council cannot make ultimate decisions on the legitimacy of NATO’s actions, as NATO is not subordinate to the Council and can make individual decisions on peacemaking activities, especially when the NATO members agree to the necessity of intrusion and rescuing people.3
Another major legal basis for the support of the intervention is general international law. The international community has legalized the use of force to deter crimes against humanity, although some requirements had to be met. There are certain criteria that the humanitarian war should fit in order for it to be justified.
The international community had to agree unanimously that there was clear evidence of massive human suffering. Force could only be the last resort after all other ways to stop the suffering had failed or were found to be ineffective.
The force had to be objective with focus being on minimizing human suffering. The use of force also had to be reasonable and proportionate to the course of establishing peace (Krieger xxxii). The war in Kosovo met and exceeded all of these criteria.
The report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) supported the humanitarian reason for intervention stating that overwhelming crimes constituted the only aim of peace troops in Kosovo. The existence of bodies like the International Court of Justice further stressed the need for the observation of human rights.
The Geneva Convention and Genocide Convention were created to prevent the reoccurrence of the atrocities of both world wars. From a basic human rights’ position, one may find it reasonable to argue that any means is possible if that is the only method effective in preventing genocide.
In the name of purity and nationalism, fascists killed millions of Jews in a similar fashion as the one that was going on in Yugoslavia. After World War II, the international community put measures to ensure that such incidents never occurred again.
Such measures, internationally accepted, endorsed, and signed to be part of the national laws. International Courts emerged to ensure members or leaders who acted against the international laws were tried. The NATO intervention was thus justified as it was trying to ensure observation of and adherence to existing international laws.
Genocide exists elsewhere but in most cases, the international community overlooks these occurrences. The League of Nations’ failure to enforce international laws was one of the reasons Benito Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, a sovereign country, and forcefully occupied it. The failure of the League to contain leaders like Mussolini and Hitler led to the outbreak of WWII.
The intervention in Kosovo was carried out to neutralize leaders like Milosevic who created a political climate in his country similar to Hitler. Failure to deal firmly with such leaders who have no respect for international laws would encourage other leaders to follow suit, and eventually a world without order will emerge. (Laureij 88).
There have been many cases of deafness towards genocide and mass murders, but the case of Kosovo caused a divide in opinions, mostly due to the fact that it involved serious political concerns. Nonetheless, the key to the issue is a value of the human life, and the universal value of the human rights that was protected by NATO, thus making the intervention legal in all points for the sake of saving the humanity.
The War in Kosovo is the first war of its kind, as it set precedent of a ‘humanitarian war’. This means that the war had no other reason other than to save the civilians from the atrocities of the Yugoslavian government.
The proponents of the war have cited this as a commendable act, and the NATO forces should be praised for their efforts. War is a risky venture, and any country that commits its troops to fight for humanitarian reasons has a great passion for justice, puts the observation of Human Rights above all (Mertus 67).
Evaluation of the Humanitarian War’s Propriety on the Example of Kosovo.
The situation in Kosovo fits the criteria of a humanitarian war completely: genocide and massacre were only intensifying by the time NATO forces intervened, but the hatred, segregation, and discrimination had revealed itself some years earlier due to the overall tension in the region.
The official reports clearly show how many victims of the religious and ethnic struggle there were, and how negligent the authorities were about the situation. Actually, there were no authorities interested in peace, as Milosevic was gaining force, and his aim was to destroy, kill, and oust Albanians from Yugoslavia.
The nation of Yugoslavians, namely the Albanian part, suffered tremendously from rapes, kidnapping, murders, violent attacks, and other mistreatment that led to the great tension within the country.
No resolution for the situation was seen until there would be no Albanians in the region. Therefore, the humanitarian intervention in Kosovo was justified under the conditions of the unfair, unequal struggle of Albanians and well-trained, organized, and sponsored troops of Milosevic.
No one claims that everything went according to plan in OAF. Nonetheless, one should always keep in mind the broader context. It is a tragedy that innocent people died and failed to flee to neighboring countries because of the broad nature of the bombing, but the country was saved from the extinction. Milosevic did what he pleased, without care or adhering to any international laws.
Thus, the conflict in this particular region presupposed the universal threat to the security of other nations. As Rizer states, this is a legitimate pretext to interfere – for the sake of the civilians in Yugoslavia, and to preclude the spread of the epidemic of violence further throughout Europe (Rizer 37-38). NATO therefore had no other effective alternative measures to ensure international accords were respected.
Looking back at the events of 1999, one can surely say that NATO made the right decision as no other authority seemed to be willing to make it. The situation in Kosovo was subject to a great number of political intriguing and struggle for power, which precluded the advanced nations to help the nation in need of protection and peace.
The USA was the only country that dared to help, and not only talk about help despite the common disagreement in the UN Security Council. The NATO forces revealed the decisiveness that does not cause much approval in the world of politics, but looks highly humane and justified from the lens of morality and compassion.
Hence, while the UN Security Council was still hesitant to participate in the internal conflict, NATO dared to stop the series of silent murders and genocide that the world has seen in excess within the past century.
The claims about utility and profitability have no sense in the case of the NATO intervention, as the activities of NATO peacemakers constituted only the establishment and maintenance of peace. It is clear from the attacks of the US opponents that it were they who first of all thought of the profit from the intervention, as the USA has not been exploiting the Yugoslavian resources even during the peacemakers’ stay in the region.
They used no oil or gas deposits, and preserved the integrity of the country’s riches, which dissolves the opponents’ criticism fundamentally. The only serious claim against the intervention of such kind is the absence of an authority that would be able to approve of such measures legally.
Conclusion The value of every human life – codified in laws of universal human rights – is inviolable. Geographical divisions in the name of nation-states cannot eradicate the fact that the human community is one. (Clark 122) The Kosovo internvetion demonstrates eloquently that fundamental human rights trumps national sovereignty.
In this case where mass atrocities and authorized murders were undertaken by the state, the use of external force to establish justice and peace was justified.
Humanity is universal and human rights transcend all barriers. Thus it is moral failure of the highest kind to fail to take action when a nation, an ethnic group or an individual commits crimes against humanity. Moreover, one can argue that failing to take action has the effect of indirectly supporting the aggressor.
At times, in certain cases like Kosovo, war is necessary to compel nations like to observe the rights of individuals and prevent injustice being committed. If the international community had acted promptly and swiftly, over six million Jews persecuted by Hitler would not have died.
The international community has thus properly become cautious so as to avoid being blamed for inadvertently supporting regimes that have no respect for universal human rights. (Meggle 113).
The humanitarian war in Kosovo was necessary to ensure that the dictatorial regime of Milosevic was ousted. In this case, war was necessary to dethrone a tyrant regime that did as it pleased with impunity. Democracy the fundamental right of a people to choose their leaders – is the wave of the 21st century.
Dictatorships and dictators have no place in the modern world. During the Cold War, dictatorial regimes were tolerated for their steadfastness in the pursuit of proxy wars by the U.S. and the USSR. Such assumptions of the Cold War are anachronistic. (Amstutz 45).
There is no dispute that NATO intervention resulted in the removal of the radical nationalist regime of Milosevic, and rescued millions of people, both Serbs and Albanians, who did not take any part in the fight whose only dream was to live peacefully.
In the absence of an external military intervention, Kosovo would have faced devastating consequences. More people would have died and the situation may have called for an intervention after the situation had become far worse than in March 1999.
The NATO intervention in Kosovo resulted in a pragmatic and moral victory. Yugoslavia seized to exist, the Kosovo people were saved and peace was restored. The territory now has a new name and its people can look forward to a new history of its own making due to the efforts of the NATO warfighters. The NATO intervention forced religious and ethnic groups to reach a reasonable consensus on how to co-exist amicably.
And the NATO intervention in Kosovo demonstrated the unity of the West in upholding the principles of universal human rights. “Never again” was the operating moral principle by which the Western powers guided it foreign policy after the experience of Nazism. That principle of universal human rights was appropriately and legitimately implemented in the case of Kosovo.
References Amstutz, Mark. International Ethics. New York: Rowman
Understanding of Buyers’ Behavior Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive Summary The main purpose of this report is to understand the consumer buying behavior. The findings that were noted are that a consumer has diverse requirements and wishes.
The marketers should search for relationships between their products and lifestyle group, for example for a middle-aged she would prioritize her needs to cosmetic surgery this is to enable her to feel like she is still young and the lowest need being tattooing and piercing and since she is mature and she would like to present herself in a respectable manner she would only prioritize on cosmetic surgery, eye surgery and laser skin treatment.
And The old lady, she would prioritized her options to eye surgery to avoid wearing glasses, followed by the laser skin treatments to prevent her from looking too old and avoid the wrinkles from appearing
Thus, buyers with different ages have different needs and spend different amounts on necessities and non necessities. Thus, the marketer should have be able to know the target market of its product and ways in which he/ she could attract these markets e.g. the could be able to attract consumers through promotions like bonus packs to prompt the consumers to buy and perhaps buy more than they otherwise would.
Introduction Consumer behavior is a rational psychological process which allows consumers to critically evaluate their purchase options with the aim of justifying the reasons behind their purchases in order to maximize their own satisfaction. Consumer behavior involves on how consumers decide whether or not to purchase a product.
The consumers’ decision is usually based on consumers decision making process with respect to understanding what the consumer wants, consumption and disposition of goods and services, activities, decision-making units ( overtime) (Kotler 2003, 12).
Consumer behavior means more than just the way that a person buys tangible goods; it also includes consumers’ use of services, activities experiences, and ideas. Marketers are very concerned with the manner in which consumers buy products and services. However, marketers are also intensely interested in consumer related to using and disposing of a product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This include; acquisition – the process by which a consumer comes to own the product; usage- the process by which a consumer uses the product; and disposition – the process by which a consumer discards a product (Porter 1990, 8). The sequence of acquisition, consumption and disposition can occur over time in a dynamic order.
Entire markets are designed around linking one consumer’s disposition decision to the customers’ acquisition decisions, for instance, when consumers buy used cars they are buying cars that others have disposed of and should be aware of it.
Body modification Some of the image altering options reflecting the variety of behaviors by the illustration were: body art for fashion (tattooing and piercing); cultural body art as a reflection of ethnicity; myriad services of cosmetic enhancement- laser skin treatments for wrinkles and hair; Botox, collagen, cosmetic dentistry; body contouring using systems such as endermologie; eye surgery instead of using glasses; cosmetic dentistry i.e. veneers and whitening; and cosmetic surgery.
Marketers have to identify its customer’s reference group so as to meet the customer demands. A referenced groups influence on particular individuals varies depending on particular products and brands therefore in some instances the influence of this group may either be significant or insignificant.
Reference groups appear to influence both product and brand choice strongly e.g. Some consumers have body parts pierced as a form of self expression, while others do it to fit into a group, still others believe that body piercing is a form of beauty or that it enhances sexual pleasure.
individuals often purchase goods and services that reflect their particular age at the time of purchase. With time, consumers buy different products and services that would best suite them that time.
For example where, for a female teenager she would be more concerned with her appearance be fascinated with tattooing and piercing for beauty as well as cosmetic surgery during her teenage years, but during her middle aged when she is more mature she tends to be concerned about how her appearance will influence her children, as a mature lady and responsible and respectable lady.
We will write a custom Report on Understanding of Buyers’ Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People tend to relate what they believe in and how the behave with the groups they are associated with. The groups play a very big role as they tend to introduce individuals to new practices and lifestyle, they also influence the behavior expressed by an individual while they also demand a compliance of the stipulated practices.
Interview Results AGE/GROUP OPTIONS TEENAGER( 16- 24) MIDDLE AGE WOMAN(33-46) OLD LADY ( 50 AND ABOVE) Cosmetic surgery 3 10 7 Tattoo
Project Success – Leadership Management Dissertation scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction In the recent past, project management has become a very vital component element to any organization that needs to succeed. This has been due to the increased need for a company (or any organization in operation) to respond to the changes taking place within the business cycle and the stiff competition that has been arising.
The increased importance has also been due to the fact that it’s mostly through projects that companies are now able to respond to the market competition and also gain competitive edge over the rivals.
As a result, it has become an important function for the project managers to improve and increase the effectiveness and the efficiency in which they manage these projects by selecting teams that are capable of optimizing the project returns. According to Munns and Bjeirmi (1996),
A project can be considered to be the achievement of a specific objective, which involves a series of activities and tasks which consume resources. It has to be completed within a set specification, having definite start and end dates”. Where as, “project management can be defined as the process of controlling the achievement of the project objectives. (p2).
It is thus the function of the project managers to allocate all the scarce resources which are available and then plan how they will be executed and finally monitor and make alterations within the project if any are required during implementation.
While the difference between the project and project management may appear overlapping, it is important to note that a project is usually tasked with defining the returns that the company may achieve while the project management is concerned with planning and control of the project to enhance the project itself in achieving the organization desired objectives.
In order to optimize and measure the success of a project, there exist strategic weapons which the project managers can use to create economic value and competitive advantage over rivals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are usually four distinct aspects in which a project can be measured and they are: the efficiency of the project, its impact or effects on the customer, how the project affects the business and its likelihood of contributing to the organization success and finally how the management has prepared the project for the future.
When an organization is in need of introducing a new product, project management becomes necessary. Thus, the success of a project is solely determined by the effectiveness of the management (Shenhar, Dvir, Levy and Maltz 2002).
The effectiveness of the project is usually assessed by the different stakeholders in the organization. Examples of these stakeholders are the managers, customers, employees and so on. It is therefore important for the project success to reflect the views of all these stakeholders.
The gains that the project will bring to the organization are another major factor of concern in measuring the success or the likely acceptance and support of the project by the management. A project that is likely to yield low returns will not be implemented by a sound management team which does not have hidden agendas.
Lastly, how the project will place the firm in the market compared to other rivals is another aspect through which a project success can be assessed. If the project is likely to give the firm or organization an upper hand or a competitive edge over the rivals, then its chances of being selected are high.
With there being several critical success factors the study will only try to analyze the role of project management in ensuring critical success factors such as planning, time allocation and budget allocation are allocated efficiently. The literature review will cover the critical success factors, their measurability and the different forms of defining success in a project.
The study will not be able to analyze all the critical success factors due to the fact that critical success factors are many and they vary according to the project thus we do not have the capability of pinpointing at a certain critical factor as the major source of the project success.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Project Success – Leadership Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review Measuring the critical success factors in the past has always been perceived to be measurable only through the financial success a project made or the financial gains the project produced to the investor.
However, it is important for the project managers to note that the financial returns through a better way of measuring a project success, is not always the best method for a long term project where the returns are low during the introduction years and higher as the project progresses.
Different projects have different rates of returns and while in the short run, the project which has high rate of returns is preferable in the long run, a project which will be able to make returns through out its life cycle is more preferred (Shenhar, Dvir, Levy and Maltz 2002).
It is always important to consider all the critical success factors that need to be analyzed and well understood before the project managers can choose which project to invest in and which project should be rejected.
How a project performs depends on many factors and the success outcomes include several project aspects such as how the project was completed, its schedule and the budget while the factors which may lead to the failure of the project include, writing schedules for the project, poor managers or leaders, misusing the techniques or even overlooking some of the basic requirements such as the commitment level needed for the project success.
As a result of the above factors, it is then important to plan ahead before implementing the project.
To ensure that the project succeeds, there is a need thus to review all the success factors that are likely to be involved and be critically observed if the project is ever going to achieve its objectives.
The concept of the critical success factors is well discussed by Zwikael and Globerson (2006) where when quoting several authors indicates that most projects fail due to wrong choices of the project manager, unplanned or sudden ending of the project and sometimes a management team which does not support the development of the project.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Success – Leadership Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there are often challenges in identifying the critical success factors which lead to the project success. The study on which are the most common critical success factors has been under scrutiny with researchers giving several examples of what the success factors should be. Despite all these examples being followed and time invested, projects still fail to succeed (Cooke-Davies 2002).
Thus, the questions of which success factors lead to the success of a project remain critical. While some people assume that a project responds positively to the budget allocated, research done in Europe between 1994 and 2000 shows that there was no relationship between the schedule delay and cost escalation.
As we noted earlier when defining project and project management, the success of both are different and in order to bridge the gap between the two it is important to note that a project success is difficult to achieve than project management success.
The reason of this is due to the fact that project entails achieving goals and methods which are liable to change while project management success involves constant goals and practices which can change to meet some predetermined goals (Cooke-Davies 2002).
Thus, while the project remains constant or fixed in a way, the management of the project can change according to the existing dynamic conditions during the time of implementation.
Despite there being no agreement on the most recognized critical success factor, planning was found to be one of the most critical success factors. Due to the dynamics of the environment where the project is to be introduced, it is always important to plan in advance and consider all the risks which might be involved.
Following the inception of the project, the planning of the project comes before the execution and closure of the project. There exist different techniques of planning, which are applied according to the project uncertainty. There are evidences of projects failing due to lack of proper planning.
For example the Denver Airport project which due to poor planning, the costs jumped from an estimated 1.2 billion to 5 billion dollars (Zwikael
Business Report on Commonwealth Bank Australia Report essay help online
Introduction Every organisation has to carry out an audit after a certain period of time. This is done to establish the performance of the company, how the finances of the company are being used, whether the company is making losses or profits and what needs to be changed to better manage finances of the company. Once the audit has been done, a business report is prepared.
This report contains details of breakdown of the finances of the company and how they have been used over a given period of time. In addition, recommendations are made in the report on how the handling of the finances can be improved.
The focus of this discussion is on the business report on commonwealth bank of Australia. The specific points of focus include a SWOT analysis, Porter’s five forces analysis, PESTEL analysis, value chain analysis and BSG matrix and Position map.
Background Information The Commonwealth Bank of Australia is provider of financial services that are integrated. Based in Australia, the bank provided wide array of services to their wide clientele in Australia. Some of the services provided by the bank include institutional banking, retail banking, business banking, premium banking, management of funds, share broking, insurance, superannuation and investment.
The company offers its services and products to well over 10 million people who are account holders with the bank. Other than Australia, the bank has other branches in New Zealand, Asia-Pacific and Europe. The headquarters of Commonwealth Bank are in Sydney in Australia (Commonwealth Bank Australia 2005).
SWOT Analysis In order for the Commonwealth Bank of Australia to improve on its financial management and provision of better quality services and products to their clientele, there are a number of aspects that must be put into consideration.
The first thing that the bank will need to do is to carry out a SWOT analysis which will involve analysing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that the company faces. (Commonwealth Bank Australia 2005)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strength of any company or firm is all the resources it has together with all its capabilities. This is because a company can use its resources to place itself competitively especially if the competitors do not have similar resources. The strengths of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia include:
The high number of customers it has – over 10 million
The good reputation and image that the company has managed create over the years
Having been in the business for long, the bank has the relevant knowledge on various ways of cutting cost so as to realize higher profits.
The networks that this bank has having been able to tap into other markets like New Zealand and the European market is another strength that the bank enjoys.
The weaknesses of any given company may be the inadequacies of its strength. For instance if the Common wealth Bank of Australia finds its difficult to penetrate in some foreign markets perhaps due to the stringent measures put in place by the government, then that can be termed as a weakness.
The weakness of the brand name of the products and services provided by the bank can also be seen as weaknesses. However, this bank has managed to remain consistent in the quality of products and services that the offer to their customers and thus this has not been a problem.
The other problem is the cost of putting up structures especially when the bank wishes to penetrate foreign markets. This is usually because governments of different countries have put in place mechanisms that govern foreign investors and this may prove to be a weakness for the bank.
Usually every company can carry out an analysis to explore the possible opportunities that may exist to help the organisation make profits. The Common wealth Bank of Australia can consider investing in other regions of the world. Embracing technology to the fullest to improve the quality of services and products provided to customers is yet another opportunity (Porter 1980).
These are some aspects that can cripple the operations of the business. Some the threats that Commonwealth Bank of Australia faces include emergence of new banks which provide cheaper banking services (Bohm 2009). Introduction of new banking services that are could also threaten the operations of the bank
We will write a custom Report on Business Report on Commonwealth Bank Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pestel Analysis PESTEL analysis comprises of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors. The political factors dictate the extent to which the government interferes with matters economy. Such areas include matters regarding tax, restrictions of trade and tariffs. This will affect the manner in which Commonwealth Bank of Australia conducts its operations.
Economic factors include among others the rate at which the economy is growing, the rates of exchange and the rate of inflation as well. These factors will affect the manner in which the bank will conduct its operations. Social factors are some of the aspects that intertwined with health, population and culture. Emerging trends in the social scene will affect the rate of demand of financial services and products of the bank.
Change in factors of technology like automation will affect how the bank will operate and failure to embrace technology could see the company lose some of its clientele. Shifts in technology could also mean that the company will have to incur higher costs.
Environmental factors are issues regarding the ecology, change of weather and climate and how these changes could affect the business. Legal factors include issues to do with any laws that may be enacted that affect the manner in which the bank carries out its business. Some of these laws include laws of employment among others.
Porter’s Five Forces Threat of entry of new competitors
The banking and finance markets is one of the markets that has the potential to yield returns that are quite high; for that reason, there is a high likelihood that the market will attract new players. When the new players come into the market, they will be a threat to the Commonwealth Bank of Australia who might in turn loose their customers to the competitor.
Intensity of competitive rivalry
If the rivals in the banking field are projecting high and intense competition, then this may pose a problem to the bank especially if it is not able to counter the competition (De Wit and Meyer 2010).
Substitute services or products
If other players in the market come up with alternative substitutes of what the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is currently offering, then there may be a decline for the demand of the services and this will have an effect on the profit margins of the company.
Power of bargaining for customers
When the customers or clients of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia have a greater bargaining power, this will affect the current prices at which the bank is offering its banking and financial products and services. This may mean that the company will have to revise the prices downwards and this will have an effect on the profit margins of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Report on Commonwealth Bank Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other thing that the bank should consider is Supplier’s bargaining power because this will entail that when the suppliers’ power of bargaining changes, then there is bound to be a change in the operations of the company and margins of profit will be affected.
This refers to a series or chain of activities that help a company develop an advantage against their rivals. There are several activities in this chain, all of which are key to the survavival of the bank. The need ford coming up with a value chain is to enable the Commonwealth Bank of Australia establish its key competencies and areas that the bank can use and take advantage of.
BSG Matrix and Position Map Matrix refers to a framework whose basis is on four classifications of units of business. The matrix is therefore used to map a position of units of business within market growth and relative market share parameters.
Following the positioning of the business on the matrix will help determine the total amount of money consumed and the amount of money that the company is generating. (Haberberg
The Concept of Skill Mix in the Health Economy Coursework essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Abstract
Description of Skill Mix
Abstract This paper describes the concept of skill mix and evaluates its adoption in the health economy. A theoretical approach has been applied to explain skill mix in the healthcare sector. Various examples have been provided to show how skills mix has been applied in the economy. A discussion about the topic has been provided to show the link between theory and practical application of skill mix in the economy today.
Introduction Several concepts and theories formulated address the need to improve service delivery and overall effectiveness and efficacy of health institutions (Jones et al, 2005). Skill mix acts as a solution to solving staffing problems and increasing overall patient care as practiced in a number of health institutions around the world.
When looking at the benefits of skill mix, managers are concerned with the impact of the intervention on overall profitability of the healthcare institutions and any notable change in the physician or nurse-to-patient relationship (Buchan, n.d.). Skill Mix is the concept of complementing or substituting a given skilled professional with a similar skilled professional.
In the health economy, skill mix happens between and within nurses and doctors (Kernick
Internationalization of Education Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Globalization and Internalization of Higher Education
Approaches to internationalization
Major developments in Educational Internationalization
Internationalization Benefits to Students
List of References
Introduction The desire to acquire education has been increasing at a very high rate over the recent years across the globe. This is because the people are increasingly realizing the value attached to education. Times have long gone when education was perceived as luxury.
Currently it is viewed as an investment-human capital investment, which unlike other forms of investments is so valuable in the sense that it is not affected by certain economic factors such as depreciation, inflation etc (Weiler, 1984, p.45). As a result, everyone is struggling to invest in this precious venture.
In addition, the increasing demand for high quality knowledge in different fields due to changing economic world has brought about stiff competition in the field of education due to high standards expected of the personnel.
There is massive establishment of advanced institutions with integrated learning programs to offer the best to those who want to acquire education. Consequently, it has led to the emergence of internationalization of education to meet the global industry’s market demand (World Bank, 2007, p.10).
Globalization and Internalization of Higher Education As pointed out by Thune
SWOT of Command Spanish Company Term Paper essay help site:edu
Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths
Command Spanish Company has several strengths that provide it with the competitive edge that makes it’s a leader in the field of teaching people the Spanish language; some of these strengths are listed below.
Competence and Experience
Command Spanish is one of the few Companies that has got vast experience and knowledge of the Spanish language. This has been so because it has managed to embrace the internet technology that has facilitated communication especially as far as advertisement is concerned. Communication has thus been speeded up and customers are not kept waiting due to unnecessary communication delays.
Its Competence in Spanish language also emanates from the fact that the company makes use of both books and Compact Disks to simplify the learning experience (Ignacio, 2008). This has boosted the understanding and learning of the Spanish language which has improved service delivery of the company.
Command Spanish Company greatest strength lies in its high standard of learning; it also boasts of improved service delivery that it offers to its customers. In fact when compared to other competitors in the same field, Command Spanish Company ranks at the top. In addition it has the best service delivery so far in the field of learning Spanish which has led to it rapid growth.
Current market trends indicate that the performance of the company is also expected to increase even further due to the increasing number of Americans who are interested in learning Spanish (Suarez, 2008). This will thus add to the existing customer base that they serve as the number of students enrolling for Spanish classes is steadily increasing.
At the moment, Command Spanish is one of the few Companies in the industry that is renown in offering quality Spanish classes which is a factor that serves to greatly boost its image. Part of this popularity and improved service delivery has been facilitated by the advent of the internet technology.
Like all successful Companies, Command Spanish has invested heavily in the Research
Impacts of Databases and ERPs on the Industry/Military Essay online essay help: online essay help
When computers were invented they were first restricted to the military but as time moved on other institutions realized that computers can be used to enhance their productivity. Computers use software programs to perform their duties such as managing payroll services among others. The applications have incorporated data from various sources to enable them execute their functions.
The systems are called enterprise resource management planning. According to Ocasio (2007), they make work easier because they are able to receive information from the customers and then process that same data for the required services. In brief they make service delivery to be quicker. The ERPs as they are called have both negative and positive impacts on the military and the industry in general and this paper is meant to review some of those effects.
First and foremost, for these systems to be developed both the companies and the military have to employ highly qualified personnel to manage these systems. At this point companies have an upper hand because they can hire experts from overseas or simply outsource their personnel from developing nations such as India which has the most appropriate man power in this field.
On the other hand the military hands are tied up because it is unethical to employ someone who is from another country or who is not in the military. This implies that budgetary allocations of the affected bodies, that is, the military and the enterprises will have to swell. This is because both the armies and the enterprises will spend more money in training their staff.
When military and organizations are automating their operations they have to evaluate the available software to determine the ones that are compatible with their needs. Inappropriate software could fail the institution concerned. In military operations automation includes the way materials are obtained from the suppliers, from request orders to invoicing the suppliers.
For such transactions to be efficient the institutions involved must ensure that security of their transactions is not compromised. This means that they have to employ high tech security tools to ensure that unauthorized persons do not access the data involved in transactions. Leon (2008) explains that automated systems have enhanced the performance of the above mentioned entities compared to when tasks were handled manually.
For instance, the US air force is able to deploy jets that are not operated by any human being over the skies of the enemy and at the same time stage an attack on the target. This has helped the US forces to minimize casualties on their side because if the unmanned jet is attacked no one will be injured or killed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, data or information obtained from the satellite can be used to monitor the events on the whole world. Many countries such as China are investing in high-tech technologies because they have realized that in today’s world winning in wars is not determined by the number of military men and women in a country but the intelligence of the military in launching attacks.
ERPs enhance the performance of the military because data is centrally stored in databases and can be recalled instantly hence when decisions are being made they take shorter durations to be implemented because their systems are intertwined, unlike when each system was running separately.
The same applies to other enterprises especially in business world. ERPs are quite useful for institutions that have various branches within a country and internationally (Grant, 2003).
In the military, the various bases and units in different locations have a uniform way of executing their duties because the available information is placed on the system where the relevant personnel can access it. For ERPs to be more efficient they have to be incorporated with the internet to allow the provision of information to be in real time. If the information is not conveyed in real time the actions taken may not be effective.
Most of the transactions involving the military and their suppliers are paperless because they normally have a dedicated website that is linked to those of their suppliers. When the military is looking for suppliers it places the tenders on its website and the suppliers who are interested in those tenders are requested to submit their applications in the website.
The tendering process is also automated because the system has its own customized criteria of selecting successful bidders (Cook
Project Plan Elements Report argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Project Planning and Success of Projects
Introduction Project planning is a critical path that when employed effectively, can greatly aid the achievement of goals. The development in technology and advancement in knowledge over the past years have also witnessed the development in planning and management of processes.
The success of any procedure highly depends on the level of organizational planning in regard to management and administration. This paper discusses the elements of a project plan.
Project Planning The notion and basis of project planning and management can be said to have derived its principles from the armed forces’ system. Like in the armed forces, project management has seen its evolution into an almost fixed structure that has to be carefully planned and closely monitored.
The planning and management of a project process will significantly have a bearing on the overall result of the process hence an efficiently established and monitored process stands a better productivity outcome than one that is not properly planned and managed (Meredith and Mantel, 2009).
Meredith et al. (2006) have noted that the military management aspect has been accustomed by nonmilitary organizations in the private sectors, government agencies and other organizations. Meredith and Mantel (2009) explained that a project plan is an estimate of what is to be carried out and as such it must give allowance for adjustments in the execution process.
In carrying out a project plan, control measures to ensure compliance to the plan have to be put in place. Among the elements in a project plan are the establishments of its scope, duties to be undertaken, time schedule, budget estimates, established risk management group among others (Meredith and Mantel, 2009).
Project Planning and Success of Projects Robert (2009) pointed out the following elements of a project element as being significant: “the aim of a project, Outputs, Quality criteria, Resources, Management structure, Milestones, Tolerances, Dependencies, Risks and Schedule” (P. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aim of the subject project is a statement or statements of reasons for undertaking a given project as well as the benefits that are estimated to result from the project’s realization. It must be relevant to the subject business plan and must be indicative enough of what should or must be realized at the end of the intended process (Robert, 2009).
Another element of a project plan as illustrated by Robert (2009) is the outputs. This is the specifications in clarity of the end products of the process. It indicates what the workforce must come up with at the end of the project. For example, in the event of introducing a new TV brand into a market, the statement should be indicative of the intended percentage of the particular audience to be reached.
The quality criterion is another element factored in the project plan. The quality criterion in regard to project planning is the means of checking on the evaluation of the project process. It ensures that the output meets the required standards and the criterion should be “specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and well timed” (Robert, 2009, p. 1) the criteria should be reasonable to all involved parties.
Resources in the context of project planning are the set of necessities for realization of the project. It ranges from the personnel in terms of working hours, knowledge and skills to monetary needs for acquisition of all the necessities (Robert, 2009).
The management structure is an array of levels of operations in terms of decision making and implementation. It indicates the top decision makers and the chain of command in regard to decision making and implementation. The management structure also clearly indicates who is to perform what task under what circumstances and in whose collaboration.
Milestones in the plan are the significant events or sub processes in the project. Events and activities that are related should be put together under a given management. By having similar tasks grouped together specialization is created and this has been found to greatly enhance the final quality of the project results.
There is need for tolerance when executing a project; tolerance assists cater in for issues which may crop up in the course of undertaking a project. Tolerance can be seen as the level of deviations from the plan that the project can cope with.
We will write a custom Report on Project Plan Elements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However there is a need for a tolerance level guideline to avoid taking the project off the intended course. Dependency is the sequential relation among the processes. It is an important aspect that can help reduce wastage of time resource and raw materials (Robert, 2009).
A project plan needs to cater in for unexpected issues which might not be seen when planning for a project. Risks are perils that can affect delivery of the outputs.
They should be identified and measures to mitigate them put down. Scheduling is the time frame illustration of the processes. It is a review of activities indicating their exact timing (Robert, 2009).
Conclusion Project planning is an important part of management. Its elements are guidelines to the management that ensures efficiency hence quality production under minimum wastages. Project planning is very significant because the success of any project will depend on how well the plans are laid down.
References Meredith, J and Mantel, S. (2009). Project Management: A Managerial Approach. New York, NY: John Wiley
Corporate Social Responsibility Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethics as an integral part of strategy
CSR as a strategy in organizations
Introduction Organizations are established with an ultimate objective of providing goods and Services to people. These organizations can operate locally or internationally. Those that operate in other countries in addition to their country of origin are termed as multinational corporations. There are those organizations that are solely after making profit while others are non profit organizations.
Whether the organizations are after making profit or not, they should operate in a manner that will not compromise with quality expectations of the clients. This is especially true given that organizations operate in an environment that is dynamic. The environment in which the organizations operate include political, social and economical environment.
Such environments call for the organizations to observe ethics and corporate social responsibility as a strategy for them to survive. This is due to the fact that corporations require good will from the communities in which they operate and they are governed by laws of the land.
Therefore this essay is going to focus on how ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR) should be an integrated part of an organization’s strategy. This shall be discussed in relation to theories and using real life examples to support the arguments in the essay.
Ethics as an integral part of strategy Ethics, as an integral part of an organization, is a strategy that can be approached from various theoretical perspectives. Therefore, an ethical organization should be built on the following three fundamental pillars: workers that observe ethics in the cause of their duties, leadership that is keen on ethics as it pertains to the workers and clients and the organizational structures and systems that are ethically sound.
Without these ethical pillars the organization will encounter challenges in the environment it operates (Jackson 2004). The organization cannot operate in a vacuum. This is because the management leaders of the organization must make decisions that are legal and customer friendly.
To achieve this different ethical approaches or theories are to be taken into considerations. They include moral rights approach, justice approach, utilitarian approach and individualism theory (George 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To begin with, moral rights approach as an integral ethical strategy of an organization asserts that human beings have certain rights and freedoms that cannot be infringed by the decision made by individuals. For the decision to be considered ethical, it has to ensure that individual rights and liberties are not taken away from them.
The decision made by the leadership of the organization regarding its workers should be consistent with the following rights, “right of safety, moral right of free consent, the right of due process, the moral right of life and the moral right of freedom of speech (Behrman 1988).
An example that shows how companies violate human rights can be seen by how the Wal-Mart was found to violate its U.S workers rights in 2007 by preventing them from forming trade unions and instilling fear into them.
The leadership of the organization should ensure that its workers or any other stakeholders to the organization such as suppliers, creditors and the clients should have a free consent in decision matters that affect them. Free consent as a moral right encourages the leaders to allow the people to make decision that are knowingly and freely (Fisher
Effect of Turkey’s Integration into The EU on the Migration Policies Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Turkey’s Migration policies
Introduction Turkey’s intent of joining the European Union has a long history. The country applied for Associate Membership in 1959, two years after the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC), which was the precedent of the European Union (EU) formation. The EEC formed an association agreement with Turkey three years later in 1963, which was known as the Ankara Agreement.
Among the goals of the agreement was the formation of a customs union with the EEC before 1995, a step that would facilitate Turkey becoming a full member of the EU. However, there was no definite time set for the country to join the EU (Sulamaa
The US Public policy Essay custom essay help
Introduction The following is a theoretical paper that represents a critique of the article given concerning the position-arguments of the author and how this author contributes to our understanding of the relationship between public opinion and public policy.
Piblic opinion and public policy entails the interaction that the government makes with the general public so as to obtain information and act according to the wishes of the citizens. Both the public opinion and public policy are mechanisms upon which the democracy in a country is represented.
This essay critiques the position-arguments of the author of the article “Who Influences U.S. Foreign Policy?” and how this author contributes to our understanding of the relationship between public opinion and public policy. The essay examines further the competing views on who influences the US foreign policy.
The essay also tackles the issue of experts and their influence on the US foreign policy, the business community and their influence on US foreign policy, labor, general public, government officials and their influence on the US foreign policy.
Competing views on who influences the US foreign policy There are three competing views that are deemed t have an influence with regards to the United States foreign policy. The prominent views include the organized groups as well as Neo-liberalism, knowledge-based communities and epistemic communities and finally the median voter theory which mostly influences the public opinion.
According to Neoliberalism and interest groups, the labor as well as business communities influence the United States foreign policy through such tools as labor strikes, campaign contributions among others. The knowledge-based experts and epistemic communities are based on the view that the uncertainty that is associated with globalization has led the policymakers to seek for the experts who are responsible for giving out advice concerning the global issues.
The Median Voter theory is deemed to have an influence with regards to the public opinion. It holds the views that electoral competition is a way to motivate the leaders so as to act in accordance with the wishes of the voters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critique of the authors’ position on pubic opinion and public policy Through the comparative analysis, the author has identified five main factors that influences the US foreign policy namely; public, business, labor, experts and government officials. The international business leaders were found to be the major factor that influences the US foreign policy. The experts i.e. the epistemic communities usually form the academy as well as tanks follows closely.
The business is thought by the author to influence the experts with regards to the US foreign policy. Labor is considered not to have a major influence and finally, the general public is considered to have less effect as far as the US foreign policy is concerned. Following is a critique of each of the above factors that are identified by the author;
The experts and their influence on the US foreign policy According to the author, the experts represents the epistemic communities basically form the academy as well as the think tanks. The author’s findings were that the experts have an influence with regards to the decisions by policy makers. Think tanks entail the institutions that are concerned with generating the advice that helps the policy makers to make good judgment with regards to the public policy.
While the author holds the view that the think tanks have limited influence with regards to the US foreign policy, the same is not true. Their influence is however much as far as the United States governance system is concerned. The political scene of the United States of America is usually decentralized and separate from the normal political models and this forms a basis upon which the think tanks has control.
The political scene thus enables the think tanks to exercise their authority by use of the following techniques; usually, the executive and the legislative arms of government in the United States are separate implying that the president’s as well as congress’ powers are divided. This thus allows the think tanks to take an advantage and hence to exercise their influence.
The think tanks also takes advantage of the weak political parties to exercise their influence.Usually, the political parties do not engage themselves in extensive policy research that is key to policymaking. They thus rely entirely on the think tanks to carry out research that will help them in policymaking.
Think tanks come up with new ideas because of their critical thinking and creativity. The think tanks play an important role of providing the government with advice concerning policy issues. They also play a key role of mediating the political parties whenever a conflict arises.
We will write a custom Essay on The US Public policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The epistemic communities i.e. the think tanks are also much involved in the cabinet minister’s selection. In the United States, the ministers are not chosen from senate and instead, their positions are determined through several means and this provides an opportunity for the think tanks and academy to exercise their influence.
The revolving door system of the US gives the epistemic communities to take part in the US foreign policy matters. The revolving door system entails the arrangements upon which experts are supplied whenever a new administration comes into place.
The epistemic communities provide the researchers with theoretical models which enables them to carry out their political roles in an efficient and effective manner. The epistemic communities also have an advantage of being employed by the government as experts with regards to the foreign policy matters.
Also, the epistemic communities are actively involved during the political campaigns as well as the transitional periods of government. They are appointed so as to set the government’s foreign principles. For instance, the United States government appoints the think tanks during the presidential elections of other foreign countries.
Besides being involved in political mattes, the optimistic communities plays an important role of educating the general public on the government polices. They therefore boost the public understanding of some government policies that needs big brains to conceptualize. They also publish magazines and also organize conferences for the citizens as well as the state officials.
The United States is expected to act in a responsible manner as far as the foreign issues are concerned by the fact that it is the world’s superpower. It is thus expected to make informed decisions so as to ensure that the global interests as well as the interests of the United States’ citizens are met. With this regards to relies mostly on the experts i.e. the epistemic communities from the academy and think tanks in making the foreign policy decisions.
The above arguments thus are contrary with the authors view on the experts influence on the United States foreign policy. The experts are very much influential as far as the foreign policy is concerned.
The business community and their influence on US foreign policy The author of the article in his findings found out that the technocratic calculations are not ideal as far as foreign policy is concerned. I however contest with the findings of the author that technocratic calculations don’t have a significant as far as the foreign policy is conned.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The US Public policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Technocracy is concerned with the situation whereby the professionals have the role of making all the decisions that involves their professionalism e.g.doctors,accountants among others. The authoritarian regimes such as China e.t.c.are doing well as a result of vesting the decision making role in the professionals.
The professionals in these forms of government makes decisions on their own including the foreign policy ones as opposed to querulous democracies such as the US. The China has been performing well as a result of its technocracy.Therefore; the author should consider the effect that the technocratic calculations have regarding the foreign policy.
The author thus holds the view that there exists opposing political interests that are aimed at safeguarding the public interests and therefore the business community is the one that benefits as a result. The authors’ findings don’t match with the views of Neo-liberalism.The Neo-liberalism holds the view that the business corporations play an important role of pressuring the decision makers.
The authors’ research findings were that the business community has an influence as far as the foreign policy is concerned.However,the author’s research omitted some key alternative variables.The author also didn’t examine the impact that the competing influences has with regards to the foreign policy.
The author thus failed to recognize the influence that the media has with regards to the foreign policy of the United States. Over the past few years, the media’s role of setting the political agendas has been on the rise. The business communities have been airing their issues regarding the foreign policy and their impact on their businesses through the media.
The international financial that acts on a global level such as the IMF as well as the World Bank has also been on the forefront as far as the foreign policy is concerned. The authors’ findings didn’t consider such factors that affect the foreign policy.
Labor and their influence on the US foreign policy The author’s research findings were that the labor advocates exerts influence with regards to the foreign policy in a weak way. The findings also found out that the labor leaders exerts influence on the legislative arm of the government as opposed t the executive.Therefore,the authors’ views based on the research are that the interest groups do not have much influence as far as the foreign policy is concerned particularly in models I
Judicial Corruption in Developing Countries Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Causes
Causes Legal systems are the source of Judicial Corruption in third-world countries. It originates from the judges and lawyers who are at the center of the legal systems in Africa. There are numerous causes associated with this form of corruption in Africa.
There is a lingering culture of impunity in African leadership that is the primary cause of corruption. This makes it trickle down to the grassroots, with the most affected being the people (Homans, 20).
Corruption also originates from the loose and easily-tricked legal systems. These legal systems, made by people who want to maneuver their way through big scandals, lay bare big corruption. The other cause is the low wages that the civil servants receive. These low wages make them want to have more and hence engage in unlawful means towards that goal (Mauro, 690).
There are also institutional loopholes that form the basis from which corruption in these countries is propagated. Government agencies are the most corrupt. This is because of the fact that most people who require certain documentation are always visiting them. The system is such that it is too complicated and long making some people to opt for short cuts: corruption and bribery (Buscaglia, 280).
The societies in those countries are such that they have developed a culture engulfed in corrupt ways. To beat the ever tedious ways of following the required routes, they have created a web of corruption. It is also a society where there is so much jostling for space and materialism (Shleifer, 600). The true definition of success is with the material possession one has.
This has fueled both corruption and war in third world countries. Opportunities are also quite limited in third world countries. This has developed a desperation that is widely spreading throughout society making people, especially the youth, to be unorthodox in their ways (Blunt, 3).
Economic Consequences The average person’s perception concerning equitability in society is quickly deteriorating. This psychological disorientation has affected many people who have opted for unorthodox means killing creativity and hard work (Klitgaard, 20). These two ingredients have killed the drivers of economy such as job creation, employment and well trained professionals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corruption ahs also created social divisions with only very few rich people and a majority of poor people (Becker, 235). This social imbalance has continued to plague the governments’ ability to tackle important aspects of society like security. This has sacred investors in some parts of the countries which ahs greatly slowed economic progress.
The overall cycle is that poverty has continued to plague third world countries that only depend on developed countries to even feed their own people. Governments have also lost so much in revenue due to corruption which has curtailed its desired progress in certain fields like infrastructure which has worsened economic progress (Becker, 13).
Recommendations The most important thing to do is to engage in long-term culture changes. Once that has changed, each individual will know the consequences of corruption and its effects and therefore desist from engaging in it (Rose-Ackerman, 34). The autocratic government machinery ought to change to simple procedures.
This will curtail corruption from people who want fast services and unorthodox means. Job creation should be enhanced and people who engage in corruption should face strict penalties in court to forestall prospective offenders (Andvig, 4).
Works Cited Andvig, Jens Christopher. Corruption in developing countries. Northern journal in political economy, 23(1999): 51-70.
Becker, Gary. Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Employees. Journal of Legal Studies, 3(1980): 1-18.
Becker, Gary. Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Thinking about Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 1.108 (2002): 234-67.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Judicial Corruption in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blunt, Elizabeth. Corruption costs Africa billions. 2010. Web. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2265387.stm
Buscaglia, Edgardo. Corruption and Judicial Reform in Latin America. Policy Studies Journal, 17.4 (1997): 273-95.
Homans, George. Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.
Klitgaard, Robert. Adjusting to Reality: Beyond State versus Market in Economic Development. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991.
Mauro, Paolo. Corruption and Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(1995): 681-711.
Rose-Ackerman, Susan. Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York: Academic Press, 1978.
Shleifer, Anna. Corruption. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(1998):599-617.
The US office supply and paper distribution industry Coursework essay help site:edu
Industry description The US office supply and paper distribution industry is composed of wholesale firms which deal with the supply of various products. Some of these products include office stationeries such as pencils, pens, staplers, carbon paper, marking devices, inked ribbon paper and other office papers (Research and Markets para. 4).
Firms in this industry also supply other products such as breakroom supplies, cleaning supplies and office furniture. Additionally, the industry players also deal with various technological products such as computer accessories, shredders and phones. Some of the major players in this industry include Unisource, and United Stationers Incorporation.
Industry analysis. Porters Five Forces Industry rivalry
The United States office supply and paper distribution industry is characterized by a high degree of rivalry. This is made evident by the large number of local and multinational companies. Currently, the industry has approximately 6000 establishments. Additionally, the degree of rivalry is illustrated by the industry’s high Concentration Ratio (CR).
According to Bard (50), CR is an indicator of the % of market share held by 4 of the largest players with regard to the 8, 25 and 50 firms in the industry. An industry with a high CR indicates that the largest firms in the industry hold the largest market share.
The US office supply and paper distribution industry is highly concentrated. For example, 60% of the total market revenue goes to the 50 largest firms. This means that small and medium size firms are faced with intense competition.
In addition, industry rivalry is increased by the fact that demand in the industry is dependent on efficiency of a firm in its operation. According to Hill and Jones (59), increase in industry demand leads to a reduction in industry rivalry. However, profitability of firms in this industry is dependent on a firm’s efficiency in aspects such as merchandising and its delivery system.
Threat of substitute
The industry is characterized by a low threat of substitute. However, considering the high rate of technological innovation, there is a high probability of some of the products facing threat of substitutes. For example, emergence of e-commerce means that some of the buyers would incorporate technology in their operation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the ways through which they can achieve this is by incorporating paperless operation. As a result, demand for papers will decline. This may take a substantial duration of time before all firms incorporate e-commerce.
Buyers bargaining power
Hill and Jones (60) define buyer power as the ability of buyers to negotiate/bargain down the price of a commodity. Alternatively, bargaining power may arise if buyers can demand high quality products and services from suppliers thus pushing their production cost up. Buyers in the office supply and paper distribution industry have a high bargaining power.
Their bargaining power results from the large number of firms within the industry. Buyers can shift from one supplier to another and incur minimal switching cost. This means that the industry is characterized by a high threat of backward integration. In addition, the large number of firms in this industry is advantageous to the customer. This arises from the fact that they can force suppliers to lower the price of their supplies.
Bargaining power of suppliers
Bard (49) defines supplier bargaining power as the ability of a firm to push price up so as to make profit. Some of the factors which contribute to high supplier power include presence of large number of suppliers compared to buyers, minimal product information, and high product differentiation.
Supplier power within this industry is low. For example, the success of a firm in this industry is dependent on the effectiveness with which it differentiates its products. Most of the successful firms in this industry have standardized their products.
In addition, information about the firms’ products is easily accessible in the market. Therefore, for an entrant to survive in this industry, it is vital that it incorporates product differentiation through various strategies such as customization.
Threat of new entrant
Despite the large number of firms in the industry, the industry is characterized by a high profit potential. This means that there is a high probability of new firms venturing the industry in an effort to maximize their profits. For example, the annual average revenue for the local SMEs and multinational corporations operating in the industry amounts to $40 billion.
We will write a custom Coursework on The US office supply and paper distribution industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, successful penetration into the industry means that a firm can acquire a share of the revenue. The average revenue for every employee is estimated to be $525, 000 (First Research para. 3).One of the major barriers to entry in this industry is its capital-intensive characteristic.
However, considering the long –term benefits, it s worth venturing the industry. Entry by new firms would result into a decline in the industry’s profitability. To deal with this risk, it is vital for new firms to develop their competitive advantage.
Chart showing a summary of the industry analysis using Porters Five Forces.
Other industries which affect the industry
Firms in this industry are affected by other manufacturing industries. Some of these industries which affect this industry directly include firms which deal with the manufacture of office stationeries.
On the other hand, the industry is affected by firms which specialize in the manufacture of technological products such as computer accessories and furniture products. The success of these firms means that there is a high probability of industry players also succeeding.
In summary, it is relatively easy to enter into the US office supply and paper distribution industry. This is due to the fact that there are minimal barriers to entry. IN addition, the industry is characterized by a high profit potential. However, new entrants have to consider developing a high competitive advantage so as to attain an optimal market position.
Works Cited Bard, Timothy. Venture basics 101: ebook. London: Venture Basics 101. 2010. Print.
First Research. Office supply and paper distribution industry profile. New York: Hoovers Incorporation. 2010. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The US office supply and paper distribution industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hill, Charles and Jones, Gareth. Essentials of strategic management. New York. Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Research and Markets. Office supply and paper distribution. 1st March 2011. 1 April 2011. Web.
What is learning? Essay writing essay help
Learning is a continuous process that involves the transformation of information and experience into abilities and knowledge. Learning, according to me, is a two way process that involves the learner and the educator leading to knowledge acquisition as well as capability.
It informs my educational sector by making sure that both the students and the teacher participate during the learning process to make it more real and enjoyable so that the learners can clearly understand. There are many and different learning concepts held by students and ways in which the different views affect teaching and learning.
One of the learning concept held by students is, presentation of learning material that is precise. This means that any material that is meant for learning should be very clear put in a language that the learners comprehend (Blackman
Ethical Controversies Surrounding John Watson and Little Albert Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
The ethical controversies over the experiment conducted by John Watson called “Little Albert” may arise only in the light of the current situation in the social perception of psychology and ethical behavior of a psychologist towards the patients and the ethical code established for the field of psychology in 1953.
The main question that should be asked concerns the ethical behavior of John Watson at the moment of conducting such a debatable experiment. Was his idea based on the desire to become a well-known and acknowledged psychologist or he was driven by the attempt to understand and explain the human nature and the basic functions of the behavioral mechanism or both?
Though we may receive the answer only by interviewing John Watson personally which is impossible, we may develop our assumptions concerning the genuine ethical decision that stood behind the controversial actions of the ‘father’ of behaviorism.
The episode that is currently treated as an example of unethical behavior in psychology does not deserve the criticism it currently receives due to the number of differences in ethical codes and social perception of human rights issues. For instance, it was quite normal for researchers to receive permission for this kind of experiments conducted over the least protected social groups.
Who can be less protected from such interventions as orphans, prisoners, or mentally-ill people? In this respect, the patient of John Watson was a rather protected because as reported in the study by Harris (2011), “Albert had been volunteered by his mother, who lived and worked at an orphanage adjacent to Johns Hopkins University” (p. 1).
In this respect, who is responsible for the actions of the patient’s mother and who should be punished if such a mother would be publicly considered as irresponsible?
Another problem that occurs on this stage is that some facts may be interpreted in many ways as well as Bible can be interpreted in thousands of ways. Hobbs questions the validity of facts and experiment as a whole with regard to the number of errors that usually occur in experiments, researches, and reports.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As suggested in the study by Hobbs (2010), the facts can be misrepresented in the studies that are aimed at analyzing any original work. As such, it is impossible to even think about replication of the “Little Albert” experiment or other practices that are claimed to be unethical in the framework of contemporary psychology.
“The fact that it [experiment] took place a long time ago allows the textbook authors to turn their ethical reservations to the advantage of contemporary psychology by claiming that it could no longer be carried out, because of strict ethical controls in place today” (Hobbs, 2010, p. 82). In fact, a few people would pay attention to validity of the experiment if they notice the unethical behavior first.
The most interesting part of the ethical controversy concerns the personality of the patient and his future because numerous reports and investigations on this issue did not bring results. How a person fearing of dogs, rats, and furry things can live in the world where images of fur and pets are everywhere?
Was it difficult for this patient to adjust his life to socially accepted standards? In this respect, the experiment cannot be considered ethical because the author did not provide accurate evidence of the reversal process with the fear of rats, monkeys, and other furry objects.
The process of transformation should be analyzed and researched in order to evaluate the duration of the effect, the methods that can be applied to bring the patient’s condition back, and others. However, this can be considered a part of the validity problem rather than the ethical controversy. Do these concepts always come together and are they interchangeable?
The replication of the experiment is impossible for the present time when the phenomenon of human rights and their violation is one of the burning issues against which the science opposes from time to time by offering genetics experiments and other investigation that are, nevertheless, are rejected.
Sometimes, scholars may present their variant of truth to persuade the public in their high aims and safety of this or that issue. Harris (2011) claims that knowing and analyzing myths is the way to learning the history and the way it is created (p. 4).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical Controversies Surrounding John Watson and Little Albert specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So, analysis of different version of the reports on the “Little Albert” experiment can be the way out of this tunnel of debates and controversial ethical issues. Nevertheless, it is still questionable whether current ethical principles in psychology would suggest a different approach to the study on Albert.
If Albert was an orphan, he could be tortured and investigated as a laboratory pet. This is the primary concern of this experiment and researchers that would like to replicate a number of similar experiments but do not know how to pass the gates of ethical codes and legislation having such ideas for application.
Conditioned fear: can the patient be returned to the initial condition or such a fear is the sentence for the rest of his life? Nevertheless, Watson either did not want to study the reversal of condition or was too busy with his career and making the living but he did not continue his experiments because, as it was reported, he could not find the baby anymore.
The thing is that Albert was an orphan and he could have been adopted by the time when Watson decided to make everything accurately the opposite.
The modern approach to the study on Albert would require revision of the ethical codes existing in psychology and abolishment of human rights because no human being can be a part of the experiment without doing it at his/her individual will. However, parents are responsible for the wellbeing of their children until certain age which is different in different countries.
Would a parent give the child for experiment knowing that this may influence the child’s behavior in future? How can we tell that a person would feel no stress and have no disorders in terms of mental condition and social behavior after such experiments?
In this respect, every person is protected though psychology has a lot of gaps that can be only filled in after receiving results on such experiments. Though the experiment called “Little Albert” contributed greatly to the development of behaviorism as a branch of practical psychology, it was conducted by a person who got used to shock the public.
The ethical controversies were a part of John Watson’s life, especially regarding the private life that was not as private as he wanted. “Watson (also) became romantically involved with his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner. Their relationship resulted in a highly publicized divorce trial and Watson’s dismissal” (Beck, Levinson,
Article Synopsys on Public Administration Essay college admissions essay help
The article under consideration is called Post-foundational development management – power, politics and complexity and written by Christ Mowles (2010).
The author discusses the place of management theories in learning and development theories as well as how they are applied to introduce changes and improvement. Particularly, the author focuses on post-foundational management theory based on the principles of emergence.
The work combines empirical and theoretical framework for analyzing the major aspects and strategies needed to upgrading the development management. Investigating future perspectives of improvements and programs, the research also places an emphasis on such concepts as predictability, control, emergency, and system change.
All the above-described aspects are considered in regional context that provides a favorable ground for more effective implementation of theoretical approaches. In addition, the author provides some historical facts and a comparative analysis of theories for the audience to have clearer understanding of their essence.
While discussing particular theories, the author resorts to assessment of post-foundational management within the local context believing that this principle creates a number of positive perspectives for improvement of public sphere.
To enlarge on this, Mowles believes that strategies and generalized plans are always perceived in particular contexts with certain actors participating in political cooperation aimed at grouping their efforts and sharing their experience in overcoming particular problems.
In this respect, an alternative theory put forward by the research draws on the concept of emergence, a condition under which all governmental and managerial procedures can be considerably improved. This is explained by the fact that quick adjustment to changes creates a number of benefits in critical situations, especially when time is of primary importance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering these concepts, the author reaches a conclusion that, even if future perspectives and strategies are idealized and, sometimes, far from reality, planning and projecting intension can better assist in meeting the future goals rather than taking no measures at all.
In the article, the author presents a well-planned presentation of arguments and approaches used to assert the validity and reliability of facts. More importantly, the author has managed to sustain the balance between theoretical and empirical information applied. It should also be stressed that the main hypothesis of the paper is quite specific and consistent with the proposed supportive arguments.
However, excessive reference to theoretical materials provides a number of ambiguities that prevent readers from understanding the connection between practical and theoretical information. Despite that, the major strength of the article lies in a multidimensional approach the author has chosen for considering one theory within different contexts.
The writing style of the article refers to scientific genre, because the researcher resorts to a great number of business and scientific terms. Nevertheless, the abundance of terminology does not distort the overall impression from the text.
The information is logical and consistent where each argument is supported by evidence and facts. Besides the explanation for the key concepts, such as emergency, development management, post-foundational management, emergence, and future perspective, is provided in a well-grounded and detailed manner.
In general, the article will be of great significance and relevance to the sphere of public administrations because it provides readers with a number of important theoretical approaches aimed at improving public infrastructure. What is more important is that consideration of local context can give a better picture of how management theories contribute to the improvement of administration policies.
Reference List Mowles, C. (2010). Post-Foundational Development Management – Power, Politics and Complexity. Public Development and Administration. 30(2), pp. 149-158.
We will write a custom Essay on Article Synopsys on Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Transgender issues in “The Crying Game” and “M. Butterfly” Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Historically, community has difficulties with accepting not only peculiarities of the others but even their own nature. The acceptance of the phenomenon of transgender status in contrast to widely spread stereotypes on it is one of the central themes and moral messages of the 1992 movie The Crying Game and the 1993 movie M. Butetrfly.
The filmmakers’ decision to hide the transgender status of their characters can be explained with not only their intention to complicate the plot lines and intensify the viewers’ impression from the clarification of the situation at the climax moments of the films, but also conveying certain moral messages.
This technique allows the authors to demonstrate the impact of knowledge on the individual’s transsexual status upon the overall perception of a person. Thus, after one of the central scenes in the films in which Dil’s and Pei-Pu’s true gender is revealed, the attitude of the audience to these characters changes.
However, the fact that the main male characters of the movies remain with their beloved disregarding their status is intended to affect the viewers’ opinion of this phenomenon in general.
Raising the problem of the perception of the person’s transgender status by the community and the corresponding psychological distress in people who feel uncomfortable about their biological gender, the filmmakers enhance the viewers’ empathy.
Showing the suffering of the characters with transgender status, the filmmakers make the audience understand their feelings and sympathize with them. It is significant that from the very beginning neither the audience nor most characters are aware of Dil’s and Pei-Pu’s gender status.
Then, at the moment when the status is revealed, the spectators and the main male characters experience equal shock and reconsider their perception of the individuals with transgender status in general. The filmmakers’ decision to conceal the gender status of some of their characters had impact upon the spectatos’ perception of this information as associated with a concrete person.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing the changes in the attitude towards Dil and Pei-Pu after their gender status is revealed, it can be stated that knowledge on gender status plays an important role in acceptance of the others and acceptance of own nature. The importance of sincerity and personal acceptance are the main messages of the films under consideration.
For example, in The Crying Game, Dil is comfortable with her transgender status and accepts it as it is, while Fergus has certain difficulties in accepting his feelings to Dil after he gets to know about her biological gender. The inner struggle in the main male character reveals his problem with understanding who he is and what he needs from this life.
The meaning of the tale about a frog and a scorpion which is told twice in the film is much broader in the context of the film plot. Thus, when at the end of the film Fergus recollects this tale and says that he has saved Dil from prison because it is in his nature, he means much more than readiness to sacrifice his interests.
This phrase means that Fergus at last understands who he is, realizes what Dil means to him and accepts it as a part of his nature. The relationships of the main male characters with Dil and Pei-Pu which continued even after their transgender status was revealed show that gender is a significant but not the only parameter according to which an individual can be judged.
The gender status can be related to the national status regarding the community prejudices affecting the public perception of persons belonging to certain gender or ethnic groups. The plots of the films under consideration are intended to show the inappropriateness of the existing stereotypes.
As opposed to the widely spread misconceptions, Dil and Pei-Pu look ad behave as ordinary girls, and their appearance is so deceptive that the male characters do not have any doubts as to their gender status. The filmmakers have shown to the audience that perception of gender status cannot be limited to physiological sex.
Acknowledging the phenomenon of transgender status in some members of the community and the difficulties hey experience with accepting their nature and being accepted by the community, the movies provide insights into the inner world of the characters.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Transgender issues in “The Crying Game” and “M. Butterfly” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Making the audience sympathize with these characters, the filmmakers motivate the audience to change their attitude to the social phenomenon in general. The knowledge on Dil’s and Pei-Pu’s transgender status at first shocked their beloved who have previously been blind to it.
Still, after getting rid of their stereotypes and reconsidering their values, the main male characters accept their feelings to individuals of their own sex. The choice of the filmmaking techniques, plot lines and structure of the movies was effective for shedding light upon the psychological and sociological aspects of transgender status.
The filmmaking techniques and peculiarities of the plot in the movies The Crying Game and M. Butetrfly affect the spectators’ perception of the individuals with transgender status by initiating the audience into their feelings and making them sympathize with individuals who are uncomfortable with their biological gender.
Hegemonic Masculinity Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction This essay attempts to critically and comprehensively review the concept of hegemonic masculinity. The hegemonic masculinity theory is particularly significant in understanding concepts such as the predisposition of men to violence, the evaluation of social network analysis in relation to hegemonic masculinity and the links between social identity and the occupation that someone belongs to.
The essay begins with an introduction and an analysis of the concept of hegemonic masculinity and proceeds to critically analyze articles that address the concept in relation to gender and social change.
Hegemonic Masculinity Hegemonic masculinity, an influential theory in gender studies was first advanced by R.W Connell; the phrase is used to describe a social construct that is a benchmark for evaluation of all other forms of masculinity.
(Momsen, 2004 p.81-83) Hegemonic masculinity restricts and defines masculine behavior within a given social context and all other forms of masculinity are seen to be subordinate to it. In the society, hegemonic masculinity is not the prevailing form of masculinity; rather, it is a standard, endorsed by the society, against which, men are measured (Schipper, 2009 p.19-20).
Hegemonic masculinity is a theory that proposes that, there exists a normative standard for male behavior in society; men in the society are meant to attain these set standards of masculinity. The theory is characterized by the inclination of men to dominate other men and to subordinate women. Hegemonic masculinity is characterized by aggression, self reliance, and ambition, attitudes that are encouraged in men but are discouraged in women.
Several criticisms have been leveled against the Hegemonic masculinity theory. Connell, the original proponent of the theory cited his inspiration as being rooted in feminist theories that dealt with the concept of patriarchy and the associated issues about the role of men in altering the concept of patriarchy. Critics contend that the theory is responsible for fostering negative attitudes towards the concept of patriarchy (Howson, 2006 p.64).
It is claimed by critics of the theory that hegemonic masculinity is only a theoretical perspective and it cannot be translated in the real world situation. A critique advanced proposes that the theory can be conceived as a type of projection that deliberately victimizes women instead of men.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This victimization is done either collectively or limited to individuals. This is to say, the theory cannot be closely contrasted or applied in examining the lives of any real men. Furthermore, the critics of the Hegemonic masculinity theory propose that the theory fundamentally misconstrues the mental representation of male identity.
Critics also associate the theory with fostering attitudes of male superiority and negative machismo as manifested by excessive aggression and undue self reliance. (Ibid) The hegemonic theory has also been described as providing inexact, indistinct and inaccurate depiction of the concept of gender and masculinity because it does not take into account the unstable nature of all forms of masculinity (Howson, 2006 p.5-7).
In summation, despite the numerous criticisms that have been advanced against the theory, Hegemonic masculinity was and still is a significant theory that provides an in-depth analysis of the concept of masculinity (Speer, 2005 p.107-109).
To adequately discuss the theory of Hegemonic masculinity, it would be important to review a number of articles that address the concept and critically examining the related concepts of gender and social change.
Unlocking Men, Unmasking Masculinities: Doing Men’s work In Prison The article attempts to establish a credible link between hegemonic masculinity and criminality. There has been prior research that has been done to explore this link; however, what makes this approach different is that it seeks to explore the correlation between correctional interventions and the destructive effects of hyper masculinity in prison.
Hyper masculinity refers to the over emphasis on conventional male behavior manifested by strength, virility and aggression. (Kimmel and Aronson, 2004 p.503-507)
The article examines two related programs initiated in men’s prisons in California and Massachusetts. The survey was carried by consultations and observation with volunteer. Essentially, the article illustrates how the program attempts to deconstruct hyper masculinity in correctional facilities and its effects in assisting inmates in redefining the concept in order to produce pro-social outcomes.
We will write a custom Essay on Hegemonic Masculinity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These programs applied are branches of the Mankind project, a large voluntary organization that is founded on the philosophy of the mythopoeticmen’s movement that emphasizes psychological self help, therapeutic techniques and personal growth.
Essentially, the aim of the program is to reorient the inmates’ perceptions of masculinity in a manner that will serve them better both in prison and in their lives after being reintegrated into society (Karp, 2010 p.63). The report highlights the relationship between violent crime and gender.
The figures in the article reveal that more men than women get arrested and convicted for violent crimes in contrast to more women than men who get arrested for non-violent crimes such as prostitution and running away from home However, the statistics also indicate that in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of females arrested and convicted for violent crimes.
Research reveals that, this increase that has been witnessed can be attributed to the net-widening of the criminal justice system and not necessarily as a result of an actual increase in the commission of violent crimes by females (Karp, 2010 p.63).
A number of theories have been advanced in an attempt to explain why more women than men commit crimes. The strain theory proposes that criminality is a function of greed and excessive societal emphasis on material possessions. However this theory does not explain why more men than women commit crime seeing as women are subjected to the same strain as men are.
Moreover, the labeling theory proposes that criminality is caused by shame, stigmatization and out casting especially of members of minority groups. However, this theory does not explain why women, who are subjected to the same conditions as men, are not as inclined to commit crimes (Karp, 2010 p.64-65).
The article proposes that the disparate rates of criminality between men and women can be explained by the hegemonic masculinity conceptualization.
This implies that the hegemonic nature of masculinity that emphasizes strength and aggression predisposes men to violence and consequently violent crime (Messerschmitt, 1993 p.27-30). Hegemonic masculinity is the exclusive premise of men and this may explain why more men than women commit violent crimes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hegemonic Masculinity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In my opinion, the theory of Hegemonic masculinity as the possible explanation of the disparate rates of violent crime commission by men and women is to a large extent accurate. This is because; all other theories of criminality adequately address the causes of the phenomena but do not consider why more men than women commit violent crimes. The Hegemonic masculinity theory adequately addresses this question.
In recognition of this fact, the article examines the interventions being initiated in the penal system, for instance the mankind project, the inside circle foundation and the Jericho circle project. These initiatives are meant to offer the inmates an opportunity to experience self discovery and personal growth in an attempt to counter the negative effects of hegemonic and hyper masculinity.
A Social Network Analysis The article tries to involve important theory on social life brought forward by Connell’s in two schools. The social theory on gender was developed by Robert Connell to address the prevalent sexual, gender and power inequality between men and women. The theory examines the gender-based division of labor, power and the nature of carthexis (Connell, 1987 p.64-65).
The article uses arithmetical techniques to examine power affairs, violence and social connections in relation to the male supremacy beliefs of the students. In the secondary school in question; one demonstrated the validity of Connell’s theory in the fact that Hegemonic masculinity was placed on top of the hierarchy of other forms of masculinity.
The other secondary school has a different orientation that demonstrates the support for the other viewpoint that gender is relational and that the hypothesized effects are evident, even after considering and accounting for the rest of the explanatory factors. This illustrates the fact that there is considerable empirical evidence to support Connell’s theory (Usher and Robbins, 2010 p.23-25)
The study examines a ruling-class and a middle class school in Australia. The different hierarchical structures are explained by the fact that, the ruling class school fosters attitudes that are based on masculinity. The middle class school has a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach that considers the effects of male dominance, gay-male homophobia, anti-academic attitudes and attitudes of anti-feminism.
The article proposes to establish a relationship between gender and power inequality. The article is significant in that it is the first study undertaken using qualitative research methodology that takes into account the context of the local environment and cultural factors. The study does not work on the assumption that people act independently of the society in which they live.
Essentially, the theory attempts to explain the fundamental relationship between power and violence. This article proposes that, Hegemonic masculinity is an expression of power inequality between men and women. This implies that the power inequality contributes significantly to the commission of violence and the fostering of attitudes of subordination towards women (Usher and Robbins 2010 p.31-35).
Doing Hegemony: Military, Men, and Constructing a Hegemonic Masculinity This article proposes that Hegemonic masculinity is at the pinnacle of the gender hierarchy. Furthermore, the article proposes that Hegemonic masculinity subordinates all other gender constructs. Conventionally, Hegemonic masculinity is focused on the tenets of self discipline, sadism, belligerence and many other signs of control.
The article is based on a study that involved interviewing 43 men emphasizing the process of establishing Hegemonic masculinity constructs. The interviewees included military officers from different specialties, different rank levels and different levels of ability.
Essentially, this implies that men construct hierarchies that subordinate other people. At the same time, these characteristics show the way men place themselves in supremacy symbolism (Hinojosa, 2010 p.180)
Furthermore, the article examines the ways in which men that are aiming to join military service position themselves on the top of the hegemonic construct of masculinity.
The men present themselves as better placed in terms of intelligence, strength, skills and ability as compared to ordinary civilians. In so doing, this person panning to join the military construct a masculinity that is symbolically dominant over other forms (Hinojosa, 2010 p.181-182)
A critical review of the article establishes a conclusive link between the concepts of social identity and perceptions of the self and their relationship with the institutions that they belong to, in this case, the military. This implies that people who have a career in the military tend to derive a large extent of their personal identity from the occupation that they belong to (Hinojosa, 2010 p.184)
In my opinion, the assertion that people derive a large part of their social identity from the occupation that they belong to is accurate. The article cites conclusive evidence that people planning to join the military have a heightened sense of Hegemonic masculinity. This notion of social change can be directly attributed to their occupation of choice
In conclusion, a critical examination of the three articles establishes a tenable link between hegemonic masculinity, gender and social change. These three concepts are inextricably linked in that the perception of gender is affected by the theory of hegemonic masculinity. On the other hand, both gender and hegemonic masculinity are determined by social change.
References Connell, R. (1987) Gender and power: society, the person and sexual politics. California: Stanford University Press. p.64-65
Hinojosa, R. (2010) Doing Hegemony: Military, Men, and Constructing a Hegemonic Masculinity. P.180-185
Howson, R. (2006) Challenging hegemonic masculinity. NY: Routledge Publishing Inc. p.64
Karp, D. R. (2010) Unlocking Men, Unmasking Masculinities: Doing Men’s work In Prison. P.63-65
Kimmel, M. S. and Aronson, A. (2004) Men and masculinities: a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. CA: ABC-CLIO Inc. p.503-507
Messerschmitt, J.W.(1993) Masculinities and crime: Critique and reconceptualization Of theory. USA: Littlefield Inc. p.27-30
Momsen, J. (2004) Gender and Development. NY: Routledge Publishing Inc. p.81- 83
Schipper, W. C. (2009) Masculinity, spirituality, and sexuality; The interpreted, lived experience. MA: Proquest LLC. p.19-20
Speer, S. A. (2005) Gender talk; feminism, discourse and conversation analysis. NY: RoutledgePublishing Inc. p.107-112 p.107-109
Usher, D and Robbins, G. (2010) A Social Network Analysis. nd. P.23-35
Strategic Plan for a Library Coursework college essay help
Planning process Background
This paper presents a hypothetical strategic plan for a small public library. This library serves the community of approximately 20.000 people. At this point, its collection comprises 40.000 books and periodicals. This institution has recently encountered with such problem as the decrease in the number of visitors which subsequently can be explained by shortage of resources and in some cases poor customer service.
I was responsible for the development of the strategies that can help this organization cope with current problems. From the very outset, I realized that it was hardly possible to make any valuable recommendations without involving the employees of the library and readers into decision-making (Hayes, 2001, p 13).
My original premise was that every stakeholder has a right to contribute to this project, and my task was to ensure that none of them is excluded from decision-making process. This is the key issue that I had to take into consideration prior to starting the development of the strategic plan.
The steps taken by the committee
First of all, a committee was formed; its major objective was to analyze the origins of the difficulties, faced by this library and propose solutions that can improve the work of this library. This committee included four members: the library director, two assistants and one representative of the library board. While developing the plan, the committee strongly relied on partnership with the employees of this library.
We have interviewed every librarian of the organization and asked him/her for recommendations. Apart from that, the committee conducted a satisfaction survey among the readers who regularly visit this library. While interviewing the readers, we focused on such criteria as richness of the library collection, the use of information technologies, helpfulness of the employees, time management of the organization.
In this way, we tried to identify the areas which needed improvement. Additionally, while interviewing these people, we asked them about those expectation which they usually set for a library. It was of crucial importance to us to assume the customers’ standpoint since their major stakeholders of this organization.
This approach has greatly helped us, since we were able to identify those areas, requiring improvement. Without their recommendations this plan would have never come into existence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the committee research already-existing literature about the problems. In particular, we focused on those approaches adopted by small and midsize libraries in order to enrich collections and provide a better quality of services to the readers. Many books and articles have proved quite beneficial for our purposes.
The research which has been undertaken by the committee indicates that many public libraries have to struggle with budget limitations, but they can be overcome. In part, this goal can be achieved through active cooperation with other libraries, publishing houses and charity organization. Secondly, the main reason why many people are dissatisfied with the quality of library’s services is lack of self-sufficiency.
One has to speak about ineffective space and time management (Gothberg, 1991, p 350). For example, very often the readers are not allowed to check out books on their own, they have to wait several minutes until the librarian finds it. This process becomes very time-consuming especially if there are many visitors.
The research of academic service is useful to that extent that it enabled the committee to learn about the best practices used by the libraries within a relatively short time.
Judging from my personal observations and from the results of the survey, I may argue that these problems are typical of this library as well. These examples immediately attract attention and in part they prove that financial constraints are not the only cause of library’s difficulties.
These findings prompted the committee to the conclusion it is necessary to implement certain organizational changes. These changes should touch upon performance assessment and workplace relations.
For many public organizations this transformation is very difficult; however, academic literature indicates that small libraries can overcome these possible through changes in organizational structure and giving more autonomy to the readers (Park, 2005, p 168).
We will write a custom Coursework on Strategic Plan for a Library specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the plan proposed by the committee is based on the premise that the problems of this library should not be explained only by budget limitations. Overall, we are greatly indebted to every person who helped us with the development of this plan. Without active participation of employees, readers and library board we would not have been able to map out this strategic plan.
Mission and Goals The mission of this library is to offer adequate resources and services that would support learning and research needs of the community (The University of Chicago Library, 2010, unpaged). It is possible to single out several goals and objectives which are quite consistent with this mission:
Goal 1. To maintain a well-organized and balance library collection that contains only high-quality books and periodicals.
Goal 2. To promote the quality of library services and improve the skills of the library personnel.
Goal 3. To improve economic performance of the library and make it less dependent on governmental funding.
These are the key goals that this organization must attain. For each of these goals, one can set at least two objective which are more specific and tangible. Furthermore, it is vital to explain how each of these objectives can be attained.
The first objective is to establish long-term partnership with other libraries and organizations that can share resources with this organization. We can suggest several steps that one should take. 1) The most important step is to join both local and non-local library consortia, which are formal associations of libraries. These consortiums promote book and resource sharing.
For instance, it will be possible to obtain either digital or hard copies of books. 2) Secondly, this institution should establish an interlibrary loan service, for example, this library can borrow books or periodical from another library in order to scan or photocopy the materials.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Plan for a Library by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this way, they will be able to reduce the cost of procuring new books, and this particularly important for libraries that have to struggle with budget limitations. 3) The third step is to establish long-term partnership with publishing houses.
Some of these companies attach great importance to charity and they frequently donate books to the libraries. Each of these action steps is important since this library has to struggle with budgetary limitations and one has to use strategies of reducing or at least minimizing costs.
The second objectively is to make full use of information technologies that are available to the library. We can propose at least three strategies that may help the library in accomplishing this objective.
First, this organization should purchase subscription to various online libraries and databases, such as Questia, SAGE, Jstor, etc (Repman
Critical Issues in the Design and Construction of the Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Scope of Work
Scope of Work Qatar has been chosen as a country which is going to host FIFA World Cup in 2022. Many scholars express misunderstanding and dissatisfaction with this decision in a number of reasons.
The one of purposes of this research paper is to consider the issues related to buildings and other facilities the country is going to face and to identify whether the decision FIFA has made is objective and an Arabian country Qatar will manage to host such a great tournament as World Cup 2022. To check evaluate the decision made by FIFA, it is important to consider the following issues.
The main megaprojects and World Cup facilities are going to be discussed along with critical evaluation of the environmental factors, transport and communication, and other components required for providing successful World Cup 2022. The research is going to focus on the already built and planned to be built stadiums, hotels, and other issues which require change to meet FIFA demands.
The literature sources are going to be considered and the information will be analyzed to make it possible to relate the discussion to the critical issues in the design and construction of the Qatar World Cup buildings and facilities in 2022.
The following facilities should also be explored, environmental factors, transport and communication, assembly and disassembly and reconstruction of the facilities somewhere else, climate change and emission control.
Objectives The research which is going to be conducted has a number of objectives. First, to study the FIFA’s decision and try to understand what specific Qatar offers that FIFA has preferred it to USA, Australia, and some other developed countries.
Second, the managerial and design issues are going to be researched in construction of Qatar World Cup 2022. Third, being aware of the number of changes and innovative facilities used in the preparation of Qatar to World Cup 2022, it is natural to question whether the expected Cup is planned to be green and nature friendly or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve the desired objectives, the following related facts should be discussed. The main megaprojects which should be described are hotels and stadiums building. Still, Qatar has one more megaproject which must be mentioned.
Lusail is a city which does not exist on the world map, but in 11 years Qatar government is planning to build this city which going to inhabit 200,000 citizens. It is planned that his city will host the World Cup final (“Qatar to host football World Cup in 2022” 8).
Looking at the plans devoted to the stadium building, it is impossible to avoid the fact that their architecture and design impress with magnificence, innovations and beauty. The use of the innovative technologies is inevitable as the design issues predicted to be implemented require direct technological assistance.
Here are the stadiums which are planned to be built, Doha Port Stadium in Doha designed by Albert Speer
Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology Essay a level english language essay help
Discussion Actor-network theory is associated with the works of Bruno Latour, John Law and Michael Callon. The individuals were Science and Technology Studies scholars. It is a unique approach to the social research and theory.
The origin of the actor-network theory can be traced from the science studies. This approach is distinguished from other approaches for involving agency of non-humans in the network (Prinsloo and Baynham, 2008, p. 152).
This theory relates the materials relations as well as the relations between concepts. It assumes that in most of the relations we encounter in day to day life are semiotic and material. For instance, interactions in school involve students, their teachers as well as the equipments like desks, chairs and other forms of technology. Teachers and students interact with the help. The combination of all these elements forms a network.
The actor-network theory tends to explain how both material and semiotic concepts comes together to act as one. For instance, the school is an entity composed of students, teachers and the equipments necessary. However, these combine and act as one network. They all interact to make a functional institution.
On the other hand, the proponents of the theory of the social construction of technology argues that new technological developments takes place through negotiation and struggle over the meanings and material shapes involving the social actors (Barkardjieva, 2005, p.10).
This theory emanates from the field of science and technology studies. According to this theory, human actions are not directed by technology; instead, it is the human beings who shape the technology (Anonymous, 2009, par 1). The proponents of this theory argue that it is difficult to understand technology without first understanding how the technology is related in its social context.
This theory provides the procedure through which the cause of technological success or failure can be assessed. This is made possible by provision of a form of methodology through which this can be verified.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differences between Actor-Network Theory and the theory of the Social Construction of Technology One of the main differences between the actor network theory and the Social Construction of Technology theory is that the former involves objects and organizations in the framework while the latter does not. For instance, when buying a cloth in a shop, the actor-network in this process includes the person who is purchasing the cloth, the cashier, the cash used in buying, cash register as well as the produce involved.
On the other hand, the theory of social construction of technology recognizes the importance of human actions in shaping technology. It opposes the idea that technology can shape human actions in any particular way. This is unlike the actor-network theory which does not recognize objects and organizations.
Another difference between these theories is that the actor-network theory is diverse. This is unlike the theory of social construction of technology which overemphasizes on the human influence on technology choice.
The social network theory originated from the area of science studies while the social construction of technology is more inclined to the science and technology studies. Although the two methods are related, they differ from their emergence. This is the reason why they differ in various aspects.
SCOT has given a clear elaboration of the reasons why a certain technology may be accepted or rejected in the society. On the other hand, the actor-network theory does not give such an explanation. It considered every component in the network as equally important. In fact, this is one of the weaknesses of this method.
The actor-network theory makes an assumption that many relations are material and semiotic. For instance, the interaction between different people in a social institution as well as the equipments (technology) applied. On the other hand, the SCOT just identifies the influence of the human in shaping the technology. It does not recognize non human aspects.
Actor-Network Theory Strengths of Actor-Network Theory
This method has a number of strengths which contributes to its success. One of the main strengths of the actor-network theory is that it gives a logical explanation of how effects are produced (Jones and Graham, 2003 p. 20).
We will write a custom Essay on Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This theory goes even further to show the connection between effects with other different interests. By giving a logical procedure, it implies that this theory is verifiable. An experiment can be conducted to verify propositions.
Another achievement of the action-network theory is that the ties and the nodes imagery which is applied in the concept used in this theory helps in clarification. This is through the connection between these nodes as well as their connections.
Weaknesses of Actor-Network Theory
One of the main weaknesses of this theory lies on its inability to make a distinction between human beings and other objects. Many people views human beings as a unique creature that is very different from other animals and objects. By failing to draw a line between the human beings and other things, this theory contradicts a significant number of ideologies hence losing its effectiveness.
Another weakness of the actor-network theory is that it is a very difficult task to identify all the heterogeneous elements in an actor-network. The social network theory proposes that every actor in the network (either an object or a person) is equally important in the network. None of these components can be said to be more important than the other. This assumption is very critical as it compares human beings with objects.
This theory has also been criticized for its uniqueness of assigning agency to actors who are not human beings. It recognizes the presence of non-human objects in the network. There is a need to draw a line between human beings and other objects. For instance, it argues that the tables, students, and teachers are equally important in the network.
This theory has also been criticized for not taking into account the elements outside the realm of nodes and relations. In other words, it does not provide any space outside this framework. It does not allow anything to be outside the relations which are defined in the network. This theory has also been criticized on the point that it involves descriptions which are not useful since they make point.
Another weakness of this theory is based on its assumption that all the actors are equal in the network. This assumption does not recognize the possibility of power imbalances in the network. Most people have been arguing that people does not have the same moral status with machines or organizations and therefore should be differentiated from them.
Actor-network theory is also criticized for its value-neutral stand. The method has for long been challenged for not paying attention on the political and social context. By so doing, this theory undermines the efforts of having an effective political and social critique (Jones and Graham, 2003 p. 8).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Actor-Network Theory and the Theory of the Social Construction of Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, this theory provides an analysis which contrasts the major ideologies like the government, patriarchy or the government. Therefore, there is a need for improvement on this theory in order to avoid such limitations.
Social Construction of Technology Strengths of the theory of the Social Construction of Technology
One of the strengths of this theory is that it recognizes the importance of human actions in shaping the technology. This is unlike in the actor-network theory where human superiority is ignored. This aspect has significantly contributed in the effectiveness of this theory. This is because human activities have played an important role in shaping their environment.
Another advantage of SCOT is that it can be a methodology. In other words, it gives the principles and steps to follow in case someone wants to find out the causes of successes or failures of a particular technology.
Weaknesses of the theory of the Social Construction of Technology
Despite of these strengths associated with the social construction, it suffers some limitations.
One of the main weaknesses of this method is that it overemphasizes on social impact on technology hence ignoring the significance of the physical world. It is necessary to recognize the fact that the physical world constraints our actions in one way or another.
This theory has not made any attempt to explain such influence. This theory assumes that the human beings shapes the technology and notes the fact that technology can never shape the human beings.
This theory gives a clear explanation of how technologies come up. However, this method fails to identify the consequences of the technology after the fact. Therefore, this theory does not explain how such technological developments fit in the broader social context. Thus, there is a need to improve on this theory by considering the consequences of new developments in technology.
This theory fails to recognize the groups which do not take part in construction of technology process. However, these people are significantly affected by these developments. The theory recognizes only the groups which play a role in constructing technology. Such ignorance has undermined the effectiveness of this theory.
Another shortcoming of the social construction theory is that it is viewed as a form of social determinism. It pays more attention to the social factors hence ignoring other important factors which may also have a significant impact on the technological development.
This theory does not take any stand and it does not propose any judgment on the importance of different interpretations of technology. By failing to take any such stance, this theory proves impotent in solving important controversies on the role of technology in human activities.
Finally, this theory is also criticized on the basis that it fails to analyze deeply on the factors which influences technological choice. For instance, this theory only focuses on the influence of interests, immediate needs and problems on technological choice. It fails to recognize the impact of economic, cultural, or intellectual choices regarding technology.
Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly brought other differences between the actor-network theory and the social construction of the technology. This discussion has revealed that the main differences between these two theories are based on the fact that the actor-network theory fails to draw a difference between the human beings and other objects.
It treats all the elements in the network as equal. That is, none of the members in the network is more important than the other. This is also a primary weakness of this method.
These differences determine the effectiveness of each. The actor-network theory is criticized for failing to draw a distinction between the human beings and other elements in the network. On the other hand, the theory of social construction of technology has been criticized for overemphasizing the role of human beings in shaping technology hence ignoring the importance of the other elements in shaping technology.
Reference List Anonymous. (2009). Social Construction of Technology (SCOT). Web.
Bakardjieva, M. (2005). Internet Society: The Internet in Everyday Life. London: SAGE.
Jones, B. and Graham, J. (2003). Actor-Network Theory: A Tool to Support Ethical Analysis of Commercial Genetic Testing. Web.
art gallery Essay argumentative essay help
identify and describe the 6 dimensions of wellness.
How are the dimensions of wellness connected with your own personal health?
Discuss the 86 reasons art show by kimberly chapman.
Identify the wellness activity you attended along with what dimension(s) of wellness the activity aligned with. Explain and discuss using characteristics of the dimensions discussed in this class.
Why did you choose to participate in this activity (to inprove my occupational and social)?
How does the activity relate to your personal health and wellness?
What can you do in order to continue to develop this dimension/s of wellness throughout your life?
The written reflection should be well-written and demonstrate a thoughtful approach to the connections and relationships as stated above.
Conflict Management and Organizational Roles Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Conflict comes up when two people share different opinions regarding the same topic. Taking an example of two staff members working in the same office, with one holding a higher rank than his counterpart, we may experience heightened levels of hostility from the lower-ranked employee, if he feels that his senior is overworking him unfairly.
This kind of situation occurs regularly in workplaces factoring in the enormous amounts of stress levels and exhaustion.
Controlling organizational conflict To put an end to such misunderstanding in the office, the individual roles should be clearly established beforehand by the senior member of staff who overlooks the whole working body of staff members. This categorizes the duties that should be allocated to specific member on a specified level of practice.
However, if two staff members seem to disagree on their shared responsibilities working on the same deck, or in the same line of work, then the supervisor should intercept and consider each person’s opinion on the task at hand.
Where possible, the task should be handled by both on equal capacity to enhance the level of understanding; the more the two work together, the higher the chances they will get to learn each other’s character.
Given a situation where there is query beyond understanding, the supervisor could put the employees on different schedules so that the first handles the current task and the other employee postpones his duty to enable the first to work at that time. It would however be advisable to separate two rival employees from the same working station.
Generally, employers and senior supervisors should do whatever they can to avoid employee conflict based on office politics. Any defiant employee who seeks to incite others should be advised to desist from negatively influencing the working staff.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, some level of conflict is ok for competing employees. The managers in this situation cold use it to their advantage by allowing the competition to carry on while sustaining a high degree of behavioral management. A de-escalation strategy could work to harmonize the competing parties in case the conflict heats up to a hostile level (Lewicki et al, 2009).
It is quite fundamental to maintain clear communication lines within the organization as assumptions may build up and destroy employee relations from unmanaged conflict
The three conflict initializing factors include, office politics, assumptions that pass un-clarified, and healthy competition.
The different roles of the Executive director as compared to the Board Chairman The Board chairman presides over the organization’s corporate meetings with or without the presence of the executive officer. He can preside with the powers of the executive or just as the highest-ranked corporate board officer. He is usually the head of the board of directors, ad he determines the broader perspective of the company.
In short, he carries the organizations future vision and key criteria. He is different from the executive director at certain instances. For instance, the executive director can make decisions for the company acting as the director of marketing, finance or even the director of operations.
The director is also deemed liable by tax firms under their laws, and he is a fulltime member of the organizations employed staff. The director cannot supersede the Chairman’s directives, but he can call for a consideration at the committees meetings in review of a conflicting idea (Black, 2011).
References Black, K. (2011). What is a Chairman of the Board? Retrieved from Wisegeek: https://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-chairman-of-the-board.htm
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict Management and Organizational Roles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lewicki R. J., L. Roy, Barry B., D. Saunders. (2009). Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases. New York: McGraw Hill.
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule
Similar ethical dilemma or conflict currently in the news
Bribery/gift giving and other scenarios
Introduction Business ethics are obligations that the management of a business should follow in doing business activities. Reflectively, when a business fails to follow these obligations, ethical dilemmas are likely to occur and negatively affect such the business. Based on the code of ethics, the management of a business should exercise integrity.
Business ethics are presented as influenced by internal and external factors which when improperly aligned, result in an ethical dilemma. The main contributory factors to ethical dilemmas in the business environment include personal feelings and thoughts that are improper, especially on self-concept, motivation, attitudes, emotions and perceptions.
This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the OSHA benzene exposure rule in terms of business ethics.
The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule An ethical decision can be defined as a decision with moral and legal appeal to the wider community. The aspect of commitment is a crucial element in examining ethicality of a decision. In precision, for these decisions to hold and be positively assimilated into the market environment, a series of tests are carried out by gathering facts and incorporating them in defined issues surrounding ethics to test the consciousness in application.
The aspect of competency is critical in separating the premises from assumptions in making ethical decisions. Thus, the suggestion is ethical since it considers the moral value of doing business.
Lowering the limit of benzene exposure to 1ppm is not enough since even an exposure of this small magnitude has effects of health of employees. Despite the lower exposure, the effects in long term may be as severe as higher exposure in short term. Besides, little health protection will be observed by companies or work environments that have lowered their benzene exposure to meet the1ppm standard (Harris et al. 34).
I disagree with the ruling since it creates a vacuum in companies to lower their strategies for complete work environment safety. Besides, companies that obey the lowered exposure will be very reluctant to compensate employees who are victims of benzene exposure in the long run. However, the lowered benzene exposure level will protect the employees from extreme carelessness on the part of the work environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, employees will be in a position to defend and sue companies who do not obey the benzene exposure limit and may demand compensation when necessary. The OSHA rule is currently for time-weighted average limit of Benzene exposure since it tracks the exposure limits continuously in work environments that use benzene (Harris et al. 34).
Similar ethical dilemma or conflict currently in the news The recent move to lift the tap water ban in some divisions of West Virginia after the chemical spill which was widely believed to have contaminated the water supply is an ethical dilemma. Despite Governor Tomblin’s assurance, it is apparent that the contaminated water is not fully good for consumption. It is unethical to make a rush decision of resuming consumption of water in West Virginia when the chemical spill is less than two week old.
The dual pillar approach to ethical leadership comprises of a combination of moral being and moral management skills. The combination of the two aspects is critical in building ethical leadership reputation since executive responsibility functions on moral codes that promote proactive leadership (Harris et al. 24).
In fact, it may destroy the West Virginia Water Company’s external market since customers will opt for other alternatives. Besides, it is the responsibility of the management team at the company to give the customers quality water products. This suggestion would betray the elements of trust between the company and the market.
The process of decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of options, and ethical control. Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem.
When faced with a decision dilemma that requires critical assessments, analysis resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage. Each option is assigned to a quadrant with predetermined response strategies and ‘follow-ups’ upon implementation. The water company ought to have considered the views of the customers before deciding to resume water supply after the chemical spill.
The economical consideration in making a socially responsible ethical decision is a dichotomous path. The social responsibility of a business is to make profit. However, reducing ethical behavior to solely economical consideration is not enough.
We will write a custom Essay on The OSHA Benzene Exposure Rule specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If companies are solely driven by profit motive, they will end up taking an unethical decision that may do society more harm than good. Today businesses are responsible in taking prominent roles in societal building and therefore ethical conduct devoid of profit motive becomes more important.
Bribery/gift giving and other scenarios Some ethical beliefs portend that necessary economic rationality leads to ethical behavior. In other words, such ideas of ethical conduct believe that unethical behavior is not profitable for the business such as bribery and gift giving. However, in case of the conspiracy, fraud, and misreporting, it must be understood that following the unethically correct path necessarily mean that it would be financially viable.
In order to make the whole process to be ethically right, it is necessary to understand that it would restore the faith of customers and employees. This is summarized in the diagram below.
(Source: Self generated)
Works Cited Harris, Charles, Michael Pritchard, Michael Rabin, Ray James, and Eliaine Englehardt. Engineering ethics: Concepts and cases. Alabama, Al: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Smart Business Networks Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
A smart business network is one that can create better results than its competitors can. In today’s business markets, competition has heightened and therefore any business with survival goals has to be more efficient and effective in its operations.
The attributes of a smart business network include strategic positioning, speed access to market information, excellent customer service, fast sharing of new information, exceptional ability to deal with emergencies, and to adapt to the changes.
Strategic positioning of a business determines the amount of success realized since it is through positioning that one can meet other people in the market.
According to Golden, Hughes and Burke, Kenny’s bookshop, a family owned business which traded in secondhand books, made a venture into online book selling and established strong links with e-retailers; Amazon, Bibliodirect, and Albris, which enabled it to expand its sales volumes tremendously (2005, p.65).
In view of the competition in the business market, for any business to attract customers it shall require to keep itself abreast with developments in the market. In addition, a smart business is also expected to disseminate speedily the acquired information to relevant participants in its network. The fast relaying and sharing of information will help to create an efficient and effective network thereby enhancing business.
Another aspect of a smart business network lies in its ability to establish great customer service relationships. To be able to offer quality customer service one needs to enhance his/her understanding of the business in which s/he is in, which will help in tailoring products and services.
Burt posits that, “a good Customer service relationship (CSR) would guarantee continued receipt of customers’ feedback, which will be used to develop or adjust products and services to meet customers’ specific needs” (1992, p.25). In addition, a smart business network should be able to capture and analyze objectively information from the environment and quickly generate an appropriate response.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More van Heck and Vervest in their proposal for a new business network approach to replace the traditional value chain approach identified several aspects in which the new network will dominate the traditional system (2007), Firstly, products offered and services rendered in the traditional value chain system are common and simple, unbundled, and usually take long time before reaching the consumer.
On the other hand, the new business network system approach is quite complex but ensures fast and timely delivery of products and services. Secondly, in the traditional approach value creation is achieved through value chains with very long connected relationships.
In contrast, the new business networks disregard this tradition and only allow for quick connect and disconnect relationships, which allow only relevant relationships for the business.
Thirdly, the traditional approach puts emphasis on hierarchical and centralized control systems; on the other hand, the proposed approach encompasses a large and distributed span of control and decision-making. Lastly, the new approach allows fast and wide information sharing whereas the traditional system limited information sharing to the business partners.
The new business networking approach places great demands for incorporation of information technology to enhance its capabilities. The Networked Business Operating System (BOS) comes handy for while addressing key networking issues such as, membership selection, linking, goal setting, risks and reward determination, innovation, and fault tolerance.
The main role that BOS plays is “to combine business networks insights with telecommunication dimensions” (Nohria
Negative Influence of Cell Towers Essay (Article) college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Prolonged research
What the negative effects are
Prolonged research The negative influence of cell towers is being debated in numerous countries worldwide. The extensive spread of these frightful towers evokes a lot of anxiety in public.1
The anxiety of people results in numerous researches which are being carried out worldwide. It is important to state that many researchers claim that there is still no 100 per cent evidence that people’s exposure to cell towers is that harmful.2 However, the majority of scientists state that health risks do exist and more deep research is needed.
What the negative effects are Admittedly, the main concern of researchers is the link between cell towers exposure and cancer development. Thus, some research proves that prolonged exposure to cell towers leads to serious genotoxic effects on the level of somatic cells which leads to the development of cancer.3 Notably, the research of the impact of cell phones contributes greatly to the overall research of cell towers negative influences on human health (Pic.1).
Pic.1 The Negative Impact of Cell Phone Exposure.
Reportedly, radiation from cell phones decreases blood cells ability to “repair damaged” DNA.4 Another research also states that wireless era has brought such health risks as cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, autism, etc.5 It goes without saying that if a cell phone exposure causes such serious problems, cell phone tower exposure also negatively influences human health (Pic.2).
Apart from radiation, electromagnetic field and electromagnetic waves produce negative effects on people’s health. In simple words, heating effect of electromagnetic waves is proved to be very harmful for people since it can burn human tissue (of course if it is intense enough).6 If a person has ever used a microwave oven, he/she can easily imagine possible threats to people’s health.
Pic.2. The negative effects of cell tower exposure. Retrieved from http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/letter-to-parents/
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More so, apart from quite explicit examples of health problems among people who were exposed to cell towers for a long time, it is proved that people are tend to feel cautious about cell towers exposure. Reportedly, people can start feeling worse only if they are told that they were exposed to some electromagnetic waves or field (without being exposed in reality).7
Research Limitations As has been mentioned above many people claim that there is not enough evidence against cell towers. Thus, many scientists argue that it is essential to continue research since at present it is possible to conclude that cell towers do not produce any significant effect on human health.8 Reportedly, such diseases as cancer have nothing to do with cell tower exposure.
Many scientists claim that the effects of cell tower exposure have not been studied for the necessary amount of time and it is impossible to draw any conclusions. For instance, it is still unclear what effects can cell tower exposure produce on children, or what are outcomes of long exposure to electromagnetic field and waves.9
Researchers’ Position Thus, scientists did not come to the same conclusion as for negative effects of cell towers exposure on human health. However, the vast majority of researchers claim that it is necessary to continue research in this field and at the same time it is important to limit people’s exposure to cell towers.10
Conclusion In conclusion it is possible to state that there is no certain evidence as for extremely negative influence of cell towers on people’s health. However, the majority of scientists suggest that it is necessary to limit the exposure and continue researching the issue.
References Ahlbom, A., Green, A., Kheifets, L., Savitz, D.,
HSBC’s Website Evaluation Coursework essay help site:edu
As mentioned in the literature review, it is necessary that every business organization that engages in e-marketing ensures that it has developed a strong customer loyalty. This can be achieved through an unmatched design quality of their website, quality of the service offered on line and the efforts put by the company to ensure trustworthiness.
In this respect, this paper will analyze the e-marketing services of HSBC bank and determine whether it is well developed or there are some aspects that need to be developed. The services, website and trustworthiness of the HSBC website will be used as the basis of judgment.
Website design can be a source of customer loyalty if it contains characteristics like easy navigation, how attractive in appearance the website is and the overall layout. While content is the main theme of any website, other aspects like graphics and multimedia should be given an upper hand because they make the website appealing and attractive. It also makes it easy to use.
This should work hand in hand with relevant content to ensure customer loyalty (Zhou, Lu
Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Scope or work. The present project is aimed at analysing and evaluating the resources and opportunities of the country Qatar with regard to the expected world cup that is sure to be held there in 2022 in accordance with the bid won by Qatar to host the world cup on its territory.
As such, it is necessary to evaluate whether the conditions in this country are appropriate to hold a green world cup there in terms of environmental issues and climate components.
Rationale for research. The investigation should be performed to assess the readiness of Qatar to host the world cup on its territory with regard to international rules and conventions. As representatives of different nations would take part in the world cup, extraneous stressors should not be imposed on them.
Objectives Problem statement. The problem for Qatar with regard to construction and design of buildings and facilities for the world cup 2022 is the environment, climate issues, and investment. So, Qatar is a country with emerging economy but everything can happen in more than ten years.
Besides, the climate of Qatar is hot and humidity is high contrasted to other countries that could have won the bid for the 2022 world cup. Finally, the environment should be green; so, it is important to reduce the pollution of waters and air and reduce the gas emission.
Justification of the problem. The problem of investments and environment is great because the country eligible to host some international events should provide its participants with adequate conditions similar to the ones provided in other countries for events of the same level as the world cup.
Methodology Review of projects. The projects designed for the Qatar 2022 world cup are magnificent with wide variety of modern materials and constructions techniques. So, the stadiums and buildings can be constructed in order to provide the participants and audience with the maximum of comfort.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, air conditioning applied to stadiums would reduce the temperature typical for climate in Qatar and make the conditions appropriate for the game.
Planning for world cup facilities. The facilities should be designed in accordance with the international norms of security measures for such type of events.
Besides, it is important to investigate whether the country and organizations that contribute to the construction of buildings and facilities in Qatar are certified to perform such activities. However, the projects of stadiums and facilities are aimed at bringing the world cup on the brand-new level of design and construction in term so architecture and tourism.
Critical issues. Environmental factors for Qatar include a great variety of factors such as hot temperature and high level of humidity. As such, the air conditioning would be an integral part of the construction of buildings and facilitites for the world cup in Qatar 2022.
The infrastructure in this country should be developed as well as the stadiums. Roads, airports, and other means of transportation and communication should be developed to ensure that all guests of the world cup would be satisfied. “some emerging market host countries (such as China, India and Qatar) are ramping up aggressively as project sponsors” (Orr and Kennedy 96).
The airways of Qatar are reported to be sufficient for the world cup, “…Qatar Airways created strong competition for well-established carriers” (Surovitskikha and Lubbeb 2).
The study by Al-Madfa, Abdel-Moati, and Al-Gimaly is aimed at researching the water pollution in Qatar of oysters. However, if water pollution influences water organisms, it would inevitably influence people that would bathe in the sea when they come to Qatar for the world cup 2022.
We will write a custom Essay on Qatar World Cup Buildings and Facilities in 2022 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study by Abu-Madi et al. Focuses on parasites and other infections that are typical for Qatar and can develop in the human organism in such a hot climate as in Qatar. So, infections prevention measures should be taken in advance to ensure that no fans that would come to the world cup can be infected with parasites and other typical diseases.
The problem of health care was also investigated by Chouchane et al. who analysed the medical environment in Qatar. This means that health care should be developed as an integral part of the country’s infrastructure..
Climate change and emission control (green world cup). Piebalgs analysed the relationship between energy and air pollution and possibilities for reducing gas emission in Qatar with regard to their natural resources and possible use of alternative sources of energy that would be more environmentally safe and sufficient.
Expected Outcomes Summary of discussion. The emerging economy of Qatar is a good sign of developing opportunities to realize the projects for the world cup 2022. However, there are some obstacles that can interfere with the plans of the management of this project.
As such, analysis of infrastructure should include health care issues and security measures while planning the budgeting for the project. Besides, relationship between the gas emission and green world cup concepts should be drawn.
Possible limitations. The limitations of the project include investments and the increased level of infections typical for this type of climate.
Works Cited Abu-Madi, Marawan A., Behnke, Jerzy M., and Doiphode, Sanjay H. “Changing Trends in Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar.” Parasites
Strategic Management of Business Operations Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Situation and competitive analysis
Organization’s challenges in the global market
Introduction There has been stiff competition in the execution of business activities with each company implementing different and creative strategies to win over the market. The continuous advancement in technology has brought forth various new ways of handling various activities and issues in all field of business operations.
Technology has improved communication and transport which are among the many aspects having close relations to business growth and expansion. Easy transport and communication has enhanced by technology has made more and more transactions to be undertaken.
To ensure that the business survives the dynamic market forces in rendering its services to the customers and win more customers, there is need for proper strategic measures to be formulated and implemented. This essay seeks to analyze strategic management as implemented in the management of business operations so as to maintain good business performance and development despite the changes in market forces that may occur.
A specific example of Bay hotels will be used to make the discussion real in pinpointing out areas where attention will be required as the hotels tries to make their presence felt in the around the national and around the world.
Strategic management The history of an organization is usually important in checking the progress over the years. This usually helps in one being able to know the challenges a company has undergone and the way the challenges were handled then. The past challenges and successes usually form a platform for formulating new strategies depending on the future prospects.
It also helps a company management to avoid repeating mistakes which committed in the past. For the case of Bay hotels, the past has witnessed an excellence performance. Bay hotels are located in Britain. There are eleven regions where Bay hotels are in England, three in Scotland and one in Wales. Some of the regions have up to four hotels making the total number of Bay hotels in Britain to be around 32.
The Bay hotels are located in some of the best resort regions in the UK making them have a unique attraction to visitors. According to the company website, “Every Bay hotel has its own unique character and because we were the first to offer accommodation in many areas, you can expect out hotels to enjoy prime locations with some of the best views around” (Bay, 2009, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various strategy paradoxes that have different ways of approaching and solving problems. There are two main approaches to learning of strategies proposed by Abraham Maslow which are problem-driven and tool-driven (Meyer
Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The origin of Kashrut and Halal
Similarities between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism
Differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism
Introduction The religious aspect has greatly changed over the years and it has thus been proved that there is no single religion tradition in the 21st century that is an island. Islam and Judaism are among the religious traditions of the 21st century. The US terrorist attack on September 2001 has called for an understanding between the diverse traditional religions.
The following essay examines the relationship between Islam and Judaism. The essay specifically examines the similarities and differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism by comparing the Kashrut in the Judaism tradition vs. Halal in the Islam tradition.The essay also investigates the origin of Kashrut and Halal.The last section of the essay is comprised of a conclusion on the dietary laws of Islam and Judaism.
However, it is important to know the meaning of the words Kashrut and Halal.In Jewish. The term Kashrut means being fit i.e. foods that man is permitted to eat and if well prepared, the food is regarded as being Kosher. Usually, there are various reasons for observing the Kashrut law and the most popular reason is that it is unhealthy to take forbidden food.
Thus, holiness forms the basis of this law. According to Judaism, all things should be viewed from a spiritual perspective and therefore one must eat some foods and at the same time refrains form eating others. According to this law, it is important for people to have control over their appetites.On the other hand, Halal is an Arabic term that could be translated to mean something that is considered per4missible by law.
Haram, also an Arabic term could be translated to mean something not permitted by the law; it means opposite of Halal. These two words i.e. Halal and Haram are global terms that are used with regards to food products, food ingredients and meat products. The Halal dietary law is an aspect of Shari law.
In the Shari, Hall could be translated to mean that all foods are permissible with of exception of some foods like pork and related products among other (Cutis 165).
The origin of Kashrut and Halal The following is a brief history of the Judaism and Islam dietary laws; The Jewish dietary laws revolve around the prohibitions and regulations in the Torah i.e. the five books of Moses. The Judaic dietary law is thought to date back in the 1250 BC when Moses was given Kashrut law by God on Mount Sinai. The Jewish thus were obliged to follow the Kashrut law as a result of its divine source.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Kashrut law has over the years gained a huge symbolic significance to an extent that the Jews are prepared to offer their lives as a sacrifice rather than disobey God’s decree. The laws regarding the kind of animals, fish and birds that should be eaten is explained in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. According to the scripture, the Jews are supposed to eat animals which have split hooves and also those that chew the cud.
Such animals that have spilt hooves and also chew the cuds are domestic animals like sheep and cow. On the other hand there is no common formula that is stated with regards to the birds that may be eaten instead; there is a list of forbidden animals which includes the owl, the raven and the eagle.
Although there is no reason that explains the above choices, scholars have suggested that the birds that are forbidden are the birds of prey. Thus by refraining from eating birds of prey, man have been considered as cruel in that, he exploits the weak. With fish, the law of Kashrut states that man should only eat fish that has scales and fins. Also, there is no reason that is given in supporting this distinction.
The scholars have came up with various explanations regarding this law e.g. the argument that those fish that don’t have scales and fins are found in sea depths which is associated with such chaos and adultery( Lewis 30.
The Kashrut law also explains how animals should be killed for food. Despite the fact that this procedure is not explained in the Torah, it is believed that the procedure of killing animals has divine influence as God explained to Moses on how to go about it. This procedure is however explained by various laws and one is required to undergo training before he or she becomes a slaughter.
Studies by Maimonides in 12th century explained that, the main reason behind slaughtering procedure is to allow the animal to die a painless death. According to Judaism, animals should not be subjected to too much suffering during slaughter. Another aspect of slaughter law is that animals that has any kind of defect should not be eaten.Defect according to Kashrut is known as ‘terefah’ which means the state of being torn.
This provision of Kashrut law is contained in Exodus 22:31.Similarly, an animal that is found to have some defects after slaughter is usually taken to a religious leader in order to examine whether it is a kosher or not. Also, adequate salt should be added during meat preparation.
We will write a custom Essay on Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This law is derived from the Bible. Kashrut law also restricts people from taking meat and milk together and this law is stipulated in Exodus 23:19. The Bible usually does not explain the source of Judaism dietary laws but it associates these laws with holiness i.e. in Exodus 22:31, Leviticus 11:44-45 and Deuteronomy 14:21 (Cohn-Sherbok 556).
On the other hand, religious leaders in their studies about Kashrut held the view that, the mere observance of dietary laws helps to promote self discipline among the Jewish community. Maimonides in his studies argued that, the Kashrut laws plays an important role of teaching discipline and appetites mastery.
Other scholars argued that the Kashrut laws were based on humanitarian grounds due to the fact that the law requires animals to be slaughtered painlessly. However, the Kashrut laws were universally practiced in the 19th century. The prescriptions of Kashrus laws have largely been ignored by the Jews reformists while the Judaism conservatives have been adhering to the Kashrus laws (Rachel 48).
On the other hand, Islamic dietary laws also known as Halal determine the kind of foods that are permitted or lawful for Muslims and are contained in the Sunni and in the Quran. The Halal laws are believed to have been in existence since 620 AD. The Quran documents the ritual procedures of slaughtering poultry and animals. The Quran requires that dead animals should not be slaughtered.
The Halal forbidden the carrion and requires the windpipe and carotid artery to be cut off by using a sharp knife so as to not to cause much pain. Additionally, one is required to mention the name of Allah before he or she begins the slaughtering and to completely drain the blood (Deutsch
The United Nations in Africa Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo
United Nations Operations in Mozambique
United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia
Introduction The United Nations (UN) is a worldwide institute who’s affirmed objectives are assisting collaboration in intercontinental law, global security, economic progress, societal development, individual liberties and attainment of global harmony. The body was set up in 1745 following the Second World War to substitute the League of Nations, to bring to a halt conflicts involving nations, and to offer a stage for discussion.
It entails several auxiliary bodies to put through its undertakings. There are presently 192 affiliate nations, with each autonomous country in the world other than the Vatican City (United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance).
From its administrative centers around the world, the UN and its specific outfits settle on essential and organizational matters in normal conventions held right through the year. The body has six major organs and the Security Council is the organ tasked with fixing on given decisions for harmony and safety.
The UN has carried out several peaces restoration and observance missions in Africa since the 1950s to the present day. Following independence, several African nations have been involved in civil unrest and the UN has been the international body mostly involved in exercises to ensure warring factions stay in peace.
The progression from an armed clash to peace and tranquility is usually divided into four different exercises. These exercises are; conciliation, peacekeeping, peace implementation and peace building, in that order. The conciliation exercise is normally a diplomatic undertaking while the rest are enforced by armed forces (Anyidoho, 13).
United Nations peace exercises have been positive and gainful alternatives for dealing with some conflicts and humanitarian predicaments.
The greater part of the 35 mediation exercises carried out by the UN over the past five decades have been of great significance in ending regional conflicts, enhancing social equality, and keeping an eye on human rights. They have assisted stop expatriate flows and resulted in stability to areas of strategic and economic significance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo, truncated to ONUC, translates to The United Nations Organization in the Congo in English. This was a UN international relations military unit in Congo that was instituted following the United Nations Security Council Resolution 143 of July 14, 1963. From this period the name was changed to Opération des Nations Unies au Congo (Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001, 12).
Congo got independence on June 30 1960. However, the Belgian commander-in-chief declined to Africanize the administrators’ units of the armed forces. As a result of the there was disarray and uprisings broke out.
As the then head of state and the prime minister were engrossed in finding a middle ground with the radicals, the Belgian administration made a decision to get involved to safeguard Belgians that were still in the country. The Belgian administration was for the idea that Katanga Province, one of the most productive in the country be independent. This is where the majority of the Belgians stayed.
The Belgian administration sent its soldiers to Elisabethville, Katanga’s headquarters to safeguard Belgians on July 10, 1960. They claimed autonomy of the region. Two days later, Congo’s President and the Prime Minister requested for aid of the UN in resolving the matter (Anon).
The UN Secretary-General asked the concerned organ, the UN Security Council, to act on the issue as a matter of urgency in a meeting held on July 13th, 1960. The Security Council required the Belgian administration to take put its soldiers from Congo’s land.
The decision allowed the UN Secretary General to go ahead, in discussion with the Congolese administration, to offer that regime with the required forces aid until it felt that, by way of its labors with the technological help of the UN, the countrywide defense forces were in a position to achieve their responsibilities completely.
After the Security Council actions, the United Nations Force in the Congo (MONUC) was instituted. To perform these duties, the Secretary General put together a UN Force, which at its climax force added up to 20,000. The military unit was in Congo from 1960 to 1964, and remained a mediation force, not a war machine.
We will write a custom Essay on The United Nations in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They could only use their weaponry in self defense. Nevertheless, they in due course became aggressively occupied in repressing the attempted secession of Katanga. The pulling out of Belgian soldiers was accomplished by September of the same year.
Following this, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba went ahead in an effort to invade Katanga on his own, looking up to the Soviet Union for assistance. The raid effort never got to Katanga and resulted in discord within the Central Administration, the fall down of that administration and in the end to Patrice Lumumba’s apprehension in December.
The United Nations soldiers remained in the country until 1964 and during all this time they were assisting the administration to uphold tranquility and in strengthening the autonomy of the nation. After all this, Katanga remained a province.
United Nations Operations in Mozambique The United Nations operations in Mozambique in the early 90s are abbreviated ONUMOZ. The operations were instituted in December of 1992 to help in the enactment of the harmony accord involving the administration of Mozambique and the opposition faction RENAMO.
The nation’s post-independence civil strife took place from 1976 to 1992 and led to the death of approximately 1 million people (Handicap International). It also led to the devastation of the nation’s infrastructure and farming capability, and forced millions of immigrants into next-door nations.
Mozambique’s Portuguese colonial cream of the crop departed right away after independence. After a few years, the country, like a number of other African nations, got caught up in the area disorder fired by Cold War enmities and the procedures of the Apartheid administration in neighboring South Africa. Just about two decades of civil conflict at last ended in 1992.
The fall down of white administrations all through southern Africa, the coming to an end of the Cold War, and a destructive food crisis, offered the setting for the General Peace Agreement marked between the war factions in Rome.
ONUMOZ kept an eye on the truce and disbandment of armed groups and offered safety for humanitarian aid. The being there of ONUMOZ shored up safety and assurance as the conditions of the tranquility agreements were enacted and free polls conducted.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The United Nations in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Countrywide polls, conducted in October 1994, were confirmed to be free and fair by the United Nations. Up to 90% of entitled voters took part in the exercise and both competing sides honored the outcome of the poll.
The command of ONUMOZ came to an end with the putting in place of the freshly voted national administration in December 1994. All the United Nations troops were pulled out as of January 31, the following year.
In this country, the United Nations did well in disbanding armed foes exhibiting great hostility and animosity, getting immigrants back home, and building an atmosphere within which free and fair polls could be conducted (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs).
In this, it ensured better stableness all through the southern African expanse, serving as a case in point for continuing United Nations efforts to put an end to Angola’s lengthy civil strife.
United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia This is abbreviated UNOL and as instituted in November 1997 after the conclusion of UNOMIL’s command at the end of September of the same year. UNOMIL was the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia that had been running since 1993.
UNOL was led by an envoy of the Secretary General and was basically the first UN post-war maintenance organization whose task was to principally help the administration strengthen harmony after the July 1997 multiparty polls.
Civil conflict in Liberia took away more than 250,000 lives and resulted in a full collapse of law and order (The United Nations Statistics Division). A lot of civilians were displaced, both inland and beyond the nation’s borders.
There were about 850,000 expatriates in the next-door nations. Warfare commenced towards the end of 1989, and by the beginning of 1990, quite a lot of hundred deaths had taken place in conflicts involving government troops and opposition rebels of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, NPFL. NPFL was led by a previous government officer, Mr. Charles Taylor.
As of the beginning of the war, a sub regional association, the Economic Community of West African States, embarked on a number of ideas directed at a diplomatic agreement. The UN shored up ECOWAS in its labors. Some of the help that UN offered was instituting of an ECOWAS observer unit, enforcing an arms restriction on Liberia and providing a Special Envoy to help in negotiations involving ECOWAS and the groups in conflict.
Following ECOWAS’s negotiation of a peace accord in Benin in 1993, the UN Security Council instituted UNOMIL. UNOMIL was tasked with shoring up the enactment of the Benin peace accord, particularly falling in line with and unbiased enactment of the accord by all parties.
UNOMIL became the initial UN international relations exercise carried out in collaboration with a peacekeeping exercise previously instituted by another association.
Holdups in the enactment of the tranquility accord and restarted warfare among Liberian splinter groups made it unworkable to conduct polls in early 1994, as pre-arranged. In the upcoming months, some complimentary tranquility accords, adjusting and shedding light on the Benin accord was bargained (Johnson).
With the truce in effect, the UN effectively monitored the July 1997 polls. Mr. Charles Taylor emerged as the winner. He was sworn in and instituted a new administration and declared a course of action of ceasefire and national harmony. UNOMIL’s main aim was attained.
UNOL came in after UNOMIL and by way of complete back up by the Security Council, it made possible the endorsement of national ceasefire and first-rate administration and assisted in drumming up global back up for the enactment of restoration and growth agendas.
In the most up to date stage, UNOL directed its efforts toward accomplishment of the stipulations of a reworked consent, permitted by the Security Council on April 23, 2003.
Under the stipulations of that reworked consent, and to add to its original duties, UNOL was to lay emphasis on helping the administration of Liberia in tackling its articulated facility requirements in the areas of civil rights and the carry-out of polls, as well as on building up a peace building tactic putting together opinionated intentions, agenda aid and civil rights contemplations.
Nonetheless, the peace building labors of UNOL were badly deterred by the lack of ability of the administration and opposition party leading lights to settle their discrepancies over major issues of administration.
In the meantime, the endorsement of national squaring off was chip away at by organized maltreatment of civil liberties, the omission persecution of political rivals and lack of security sector reorganization and improvement.
These factors had a major role to play to the recommencement of civil strife in Liberia, propelling the international community to call on the fighting factions to go after a bargained resolution of the disagreement (Human Rights Watch Africa).
On July 8, 2003, the UN Secretary General assigned Jacques Paul Klein of the US as his Special Envoy to Liberia. This was a period in which the war involving Government troops and the various militaristic groups stepped up and the humanitarian catastrophe in danger.
Jacques was tasked with organizing the actions of the United Nations organs in Liberia and shoring up the up-and-coming changeover preparations. On July 29 of the same year the UN Secretary General charted a three-pronged set out of intercontinental forces to Liberia, directing to a multifaceted mediation exercise.
He also stated that, with the selection of Mr. Jacques, and the foreseen institution of a United Nations exercise in Liberia, the command of UNOL would of course have to be concluded.
Works Cited Anon 2004. “Can Africans keep their own peace?” Web.
Anon 2004 Strategic Comments. “African peacekeeping: Revival or relapse?” 2004 (5 Strategic Comments. Anyidoho. “Political Control and Guidance of Peace Support Operations in Africa: A UN Commander’s View” (2002). Ghana Armed Forces. p. 13
Grey-Johnson. “Beyond Peacekeeing; The Challenge of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Africa” (2006) (1) UN Chronicle Online Edition. Web.
Handicap International, 2010. Web.
Human Rights Watch Africa, 2009. Web.
The United Nations Statistics Division. “World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook, 2008.” Web.
United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Landmine Clearance Unit Report on Mozambique. 2003. Web.
United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance. 2008. Web.
Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001. “Copson RW Democratic Republic of the Congo: Peace Process and Background.” (2001). p. 12.
Nuclear Deterrence Essay best essay help
Both Thomas Schelling and Herman Kahn agree that nuclear weapons serve as efficient deterrence tools. However, the two have different ideologies on just how the weapons play the deterrence role. Schelling argues that nuclear weapons do not have to pose a credible threat in order to be an effective deterrence tool, while Kahn argues that the threat posed by nuclear weapons have to be credible in order to serve the deterrence role effectively.
This paper argues that though Schelling’s theory was more valid during the cold war, it is no longer applicable in the contemporary world. In fact, Kahn’s theory seems more relevant considering the different dynamics that has surfaced in the 21st century threat environment.
Schelling proposed that the power of deterrence in the nuclear age is pegged not only on the equality or balance of the nuclear-possessing countries, but on the “stability of the balance” (Pennings 314). This proposition is further supported by his argument that parties in a conflict need to “coolly and rationally calculate their advantages according to consistent value systems” (Schelling 18).
Combined, these two propositions suggest that the mere possession of nuclear weapons is not deterrent enough; rather, opponents need to be in an equal position, where a first strike the aggressor party cannot diminish the defender’s ability to strike back.
Clearly, Schelling’s views on deterrence were based on uncertainty. More specifically, the theorist suggested that both sides had to be vulnerable for deterrence to work.
Notably, Schelling’s theory appeared plausible in 1972 when the US and USSR signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM). According to the treaty, both parties could only have one ABM deployment area, located near each party’s capital city, or at a singled-out deployment area.
The treaty held until June 2002 when United States withdrew from it. If Schelling’s theory was indeed plausible, the withdrawal of the US from the treaty could have led to a disruption in international security and peace.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kahn argued that countries use nuclear weapons for two kinds of deterrence; “Deterring an enemy’s first nuclear strike,” and, “using the threat of [our] own first strike to deter lesser aggression” (Levine and Levine 3). (Garnett 76) however notes that Kahn identified three deterrence modes of the nuclear weapon.
First, Kahn hypothesized that countries feared that a direct attack on a nuclear state would lead to a second-retaliatory attack. On this point, Kahn and Schelling share the same views.
Second, he posited that countries feared that provocation could trigger the probability of a credible first nuclear strike; and third, he hypothesized that countries could encourage the use of tit-for-tat deal brokering, which could deter the escalation of conflicts and provocations.
The latter supposition is similar to Schelling’s view that opponents would try other means of resolving conflict, by maintaining some sort of ‘respect’ for the other party, in order to avoid situations where nuclear weapons can be used.
Notably, Kahn’s ideologies have been criticized for providing more than deterrence principles. Specifically, some critics have accused him of offering directives on “how to fight a nuclear war, how to win it, and how to get away with it” (Kahn
Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company
Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions
How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity
Introduction A supply network refers to interrelated business processes whose main aim is successful delivery of products or services of an organization to its end users or consumers. The aim of this task is to identify and describe the total supply net work of the Coca Cola Corporation and to identify factors that have influenced its determination of the parts of business to outsource or keep in-house.
The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company Coca Cola Company is one of the biggest multinational companies in the world, with business operations in virtually all independent nations. Busa and Wright (2007, p. 92) states that Coca Cola Corporation has for over a century been manufacturing and selling bottled beverages.
They further add that the actual manufacturing and bottling of its beverages is carried out by its world wide system of business partners. The Company has local bottling branches in various countries world over where its products are made and packaged for markets in the immediate environs.
In reality, success of the production network of a company like Coca Cola which acts globally relies mainly on how well the logistics collaboration between partners is working Stangford-Smith, et al. (2002, p. 640).
These authors argues that the Coca Cola Company maximizes the possible saving possibilities within the European food processing sector through an enhanced collaboration in production systems Stanford-Smith et al. (2002, p. 640). With respect to the supply section the company has automated order taking processes especially in the developed countries.
For instance, in USA its sales agents does this by entering sales on transportable terminals while out in the field which are in turn transferred automatically to the companies main database Scott (1986, p. 33).This enables the company to maintain a superior customer service and satisfaction.
Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions Business out sourcing process refers to situation whereby an organization’s part of its business is done by another partner as opposed to its actual employees. For example, a company can seek I.T services for its business from another organization specializing in provision of services in that field.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An organization’s decisions regarding business process out sourcing is influenced by many factors which can be economic, social, and political in nature. Russell and Taylor(2005, p. 245) for instance argues that the Coca Cola Company can not in its endeavors to out source reveal its formula to another partner even under circumstances where secrecy is guaranteed.
Most of the factors that have influenced Coca cola Corporation decisions on what parts of its business to out source and which to keep in-house are socioeconomic in nature in that most of the services outsourced are geared towards cutting the cost of operating and enhancing a superior customer service that guarantees satisfaction.
The company for instance aims at reducing its labour and distribution costs through partnership with companies that specialize in certain kind of business processes like distribution. Government policies also play a critical role in determining how Coca Cola Company makes its decisions regarding business out sourcing process.
How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity Coca Cola Company capacity is largely hinged on its ever expanding global market floor space and other competitive strategies such as purchasing of own premises like warehouses in its operational bases. In addition to expanding, the company partners with other organizations whose business activities impacts directly upon its activities.
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America for instance points out that various companies in the food and beverage sectors have been breaking into new markets by either competing or partnering with MNCs like Coca Cola UNECLA 2008, p. 67).
Reference Busa, R. and Wright. N. (2007) Total Supply Chain Management. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Russell, R. S., Taylor, B. W. (2005) Operations management: quality and competitiveness in a global environment. New York: John Wiley.
We will write a custom Assessment on Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scott, K. (1986) Data to go: Portables a profusion of portables permeate the market place, Net work World. Vol. 3, No. 23, p.33
Stanford-Smith, B., Chiozza, E. and Edin, M. (2002) Challenges and achievements in E-business and E-work. New York: IOS Press.
United Nations Publications, United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLA) (2008) Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2007. New York: United Nations Publications.
Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The education enables people to gain new skills in a formal and governmentally controlled way which then benefits the individual’s professional training and promotional ladder movement. Though some people think education to be a rudiment of the renaissance age when this was a concept available to rich people only, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of education on different levels and in different ages.
The age groups of learners vary regarding the essence of learning. For instance, elementary and secondary education is obligatory aspect of ordinary life in most countries of the world whereas ESL learning is the area available to people who want to learn English and master it to the degree of native speaking.
At the same time, many nations acknowledge necessity of learning other languages than the native one in the context of the globalisation and developing cultural diversity issues. The syllabus will include vocabulary, language focus, listening, and speaking sections that consist of specific topics necessary for adequate development of language skills in whole.
The present learning syllabus in Taiwan elementary schools was introduced to make the learning-teaching process more effective. Along with the new syllabus, a new assessment scale was introduced to functions as the following:
understanding the strengths and weaknesses of students’ learning ability,
assisting teachers in monitoring student learning progress,
evaluating students’ learning,
placing students in learning groups based on given institutional standards (Chan, 2006, p. 37).
So, the syllabus for the primary school in Taiwan includes interventions for reading (phonemic awareness), writing, listening, and speaking.
Reforms can be considered another important aspect of many sectors of human activity including education that should be adjusted to changing needs and preferences of the population with regard to the expansion of businesses into the global market, development of new areas in new fields of industry with the help of foreign partners or involvement of foreign investors.
In this respect, ESL learners in Taiwan are facing the necessity of introducing new English literature learning syllabus in accordance with the importance of being in the mainstream of the language learning. Besides, a combination of the most effective approaches to design of the literature learning syllabi can be more effective than the application of a single approach or in-turn application of different approaches.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, ESL learners can benefit from introduction of the new approach that is aimed at using the task-based and topic-based learning syllabi. The present project is designed in order to outline an English literature learning syllabus for ESL learners of 8-12 years old in Taiwan.
The subject will include reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation interventions for ESL students that would contribute positively to the development of language skills necessary for adequate academic development which is impossible without good reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
Background The English literature learning syllabus should include the features of the topic-based and task-based approaches because ESL students should benefit more from the introduction of new instructions. The syllabus should include clear instructions and be more oriented on gaining the knowledge on a specific topic rather than on a definite text that is aimed at developing knowledge in a concrete area.
General aims of the course include design of a new English learning syllabus or ESL learners in Taiwan. The social, cultural, and educational environments are under the influence of the political and economical ones because of the emerging tendencies in the economy and growth of globalisation.
Participants of this syllabus are ESL learners in Taiwan and well-qualified teachers who have experience in primary teaching and ESL teaching as well. The English literature learning syllabus is introduced for the primary EFL students in Taiwan to enable them to gain knowledge in English language and understand the peculiarities of culture better.
Theoretical Framework The globalization and the development of an international perspective have pushed English to become an international language or global communication language. Many countries see English as a basic educational requirement (Maurais and Morris, 2003). The motivation and environment have been examined as factors that influence the language acquisition progress by many researchers.
As reported in the study by Gunderson (2008), “Cummins argued that learning occurs in different contexts [that] provide substantial cues to the learner” (p. 41). Corson (1999) reviews the methods that can be applied to increase the language and literature learning efficiency in the ESL class.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, increase of motivation, reduce the level of anxiety, and increase the level of pupils’ self-confidence and others (p. 199). This means that environment and motivation are of great importance for the ESL students’ effectiveness in learning.
The current situation is such as the ESL learning syllabus is mostly based on the insufficient teacher training resources, content-based or topic-based approach to the presentation of new learning material in class, cooperative learning, and learning in groups when students are divided into smaller groups than the class usually comprises for better acquisition of the presented material.
In addition, the current situation with ESL students in primary school in Taiwan is such that students start learning English as a second language in a younger age than they used to before; so, students may experience difficulties related to associations built in the native and the foreign language. Moreover, students are taught to build analogies and simplify more complicated terms and concepts using new vocabulary.
Qualification of teachers plays one of the major roles in effectiveness of instructions and the expected outcomes of the teaching process. “Students who are not isolated in ESL programs are thrust into mainstream classrooms with teachers little prepared to accommodate them” (Flood, International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, 2003, p. 430).
As suggested by Carder (2007), “ESL teachers for primary (ages 6-11 or 12) should be well-qualified teachers of this age group, with additional training in second language teaching” (p. 38). Besides, the student teacher ratio should not exceed 8:1 (eight students per one teacher) if the ESL syllabus concerns the primary school (Carder, 2007, p. 40).
The history of ESL reading instructions was reviewed by Gunderson (2008) who analysed the approaches and reading programmes used by different scholars and practicing teachers of ESL learners with regard to effectiveness of each approach and benefits gained by learners.
The first approach includes a bottom-up model of teaching according to which “most teachers appear to believe students should be taught skills such as phonics and letter-sound relationship” (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36). The second model, in this case, concerns the top-down approach when students are “asked to read meaningful material” which excludes teaching the letter-sound correspondence directly (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36).
The compromise between these two models is reached in the third one called interactive which is supposed to combine the designs of both the top-down and the bottom-up models (Gunderson, 2008, pp. 36-37). Combination of different learning syllabi is welcomed in the educational system in order to promote educational level of ESL learners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Variety of views and approaches makes it easier for teachers to use and combine the most effective educational models for ESL students to benefit from them.
Ferris and Hedgcock (2005) report about the variety of views developed in terms of the ESL composition writing, namely the opinion of expressivists who think that expressing oneself in the process of writing is the most important part of writing and cognitivists who consider problem-solving and analysis the main components of the writing process (pp. 5-6).
Task-based learning can be useful in addressing conditions related to ESL students’ writing practice (Cumming, 2006, p. 163). Hinkel (2004a) reports about the varieties of instructions for writing classes and importance of writing skills for ESL students.
As such, opinion-based reports and essays are aimed at reflecting personal thoughts and vision of a student (Hinkel, 2004a, p. 10) whereas the fact-based exemplification allows the instructor to assess the cognitive concept and the knowledge gained by the ESL student (p. 24).
Topic- or content-based approach to the learning syllabus which was introduced in the late 1970s in Australia to cope with the problem of ESL students that should have been included into mainstream school curriculum became a real innovation (Evans, 1996, pp. 179-180).
As suggested by Evans (1996), the structure of the lesson was based on a topic, its visual presentation, building of a reading passage, analysis of the passage, and the final writing (pp. 180-182).
Besides, careful structuring of the task has been identified as the primary factor for effective teaching-learning process using the task-based approach (Clegg, 1996, p. 17). In addition, the pace of language and inter-language development should be increased to ensure that an ESL student succeeds in learning (Clegg, 1996, p. 18).
Different approaches used with ESL students enable the teacher to perform the teaching-learning process more effectively. The study by Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy (2004) enables the readers to understand the benefits of different models of learning.
For instance, ESL students are claimed to benefit more from lessons if they find the tasks a bit difficult and challenging and the instructions do not take the most part of the lesson (Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy, 2004, p. 2). A literature learning syllabus for ESL primary learners may focus more on topics and vocabulary rather than on specific works of literature (Carder, 2007, p. 55).
The process of reading is not only a part of the English literature learning syllabus but also an important element of second language acquisition that has a number of benefits (Carder, 2007, p. 59).
Language learning syllabus should be aimed at developing such skills as recognition and identification of definite “sounds, letters, lexicogrammar, sentence…”, “awareness of language”, and other useful components that would be applied during the entire learning course (Carder, 2007, p. 58).
Mississippi Department of Education (1998) insisted on the importance of instructing students how to read; so, clear instructions facilitate learning. Grade books may appear to be too difficult and easier variants can be used. The book by Barchers (1991) is structured in an interesting way including texts and explanations and clear instructions to each of them making it really simple:
Read the book aloud. Allow the students to fill in words as they listen. During the second reading, list a variety of examples of alliteration on the board. Find the 60 objects in the book that begin with the letter “f”. Then list all the foods mentioned in the story (Barchers, 1991, p.146).
The study by Honig (2001) advocates the importance of associating the typed text with the speech heard by students. Larkin (2003) insists on the importance of reading words correctly; this method “… helps students to improve their reading comprehension, increase their vocabulary, and work cooperatively with peers” (p.156).
Assessment of the ESL learners enables the teachers to thrust them into mainstream curriculum school so that they became an integral part of the learning process paying no attention to their previous achievement and gaining knowledge in other subjects as well as mastering their language skills.
The skills gained by ESL learners are assessed by the teachers in order to identify whether they are ready to enter the mainstream of the curriculum with other students whose native language is English; assessment includes measurement of listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills and pronunciation (McKay, 2006).
At the same time, some learners may feel anxiety while being assessed and demonstrate poorer skills and knowledge than was previously seen in ordinary classes without introducing tests and assessment scales.
The task-based curriculum requires students to be capable of fulfilling various tasks that are claimed to become useful for future learning; topic-based curriculum is supposed to be limited to specific topics taught through various visual aids and instructions to facilitate understanding of the topic and build bridges between the native language and second language.
Literature-based approach in teaching-learning is isolated in terms of the definite number of literary sources in accordance to which the ESL students are expected to acquire knowledge about the environment and cultural peculiarities of the second language.
Competency-based syllabus is designed in a way that makes the ESL students gain knowledge and experience in the areas that are believed to be of primary importance; for instance, students are taught to identify letter-sound relations in order to pas the text on this activity later.
Context Analysis The effectiveness of every model that has been in operation should not be questioned because it appeared to be effective for the period in which it operated. At the same time, the model or design is updated as soon as it becomes inappropriate for the audience, other methodologies applied to it, and the results anticipated from its work.
In this respect, the effect of the communicative language teaching model has been analysed by Hinkel (2011b), “The communicative competence model proved highly successful in broadening the scope of classroom teaching and applied linguistics” (p. 348). In this case, this model is worth being used for design of a new English literature learning syllabus for ESL students in Taiwan.
Needs analysis can be fulfilled using the needs assessment tool introduced in the study by Nunan (1992, p. 248), can be seen in the Appendices section. According to this tool, students should be surveyed with the help of simple questions that concern their language skills and language difficulties experienced in their ordinary environment.
So, this survey enables the teacher to identify without any stressful tests how a student feels about his/her progress in English, communication in different levels, listening skills, and other areas that might require more attention in the process of teaching-learning.
Material and visual resources should contain word cards and pictures where all the objects and most situations in different topics are depicted. In this respect, a teacher would not need to write down the words on the blackboard every time. Besides, it would be interesting for children to draw pictures on different topics by themselves to put those up when the teacher asks them in English.
Visual perception of the text as well association of words with specific objects is very important. Preparation for every lesson will take a lot of time if a teacher is going to provide every; time limitation would not be a problem in case of clear organization of the lesson with comprehensive instructions.
The use of vocabulary and other tools to enrich the students’ understanding of the language structure and meaning and develop ESL students’ desire to learn the language further are the primary tasks of the course.
Course Rationale, Organisation, And Approach Aims of the course include a variety of assignments aimed at developing listening and reading skills, writing and speaking skills, and pronunciation.
Besides, comprehension of the read material should be an integral part of the expected results of the learning syllabus because lack of understanding contributes negatively to the further learning achievements and influences the entire concept of language learning as it includes many aspects. The course is designed for the ESL learners in Taiwan taking into account the primary school aged 8-12 years.
Instructional language with a prevailing number of infinitive constructions will be used to provide instructions in the classroom. The lexical range of verbs will be developed as the class progresses including adequate translations as soon as the verb is introduced for the first time and repetition of the verb accompanied by specific actions.
For instance, if a teacher tells “take your books”, he/she should do what he/she says to show pupils, repeat the same phrase in their native language and repeat it in English again. The assessment of achievement will be performed right after the class (using a 5-10 minute period to find out what pupils got to know). In addition, every class should start with a brainstorming activity to recollect what was said and learn at the previous class.
The learning-teaching context will concern an ordinary classroom that will be steadily filled in with words and pictures on the walls referring to the topics studied in the language acquisition, in literature, and grammar. This course strives to help students to gain more abilities for reading, writing and speaking.
The following areas will be components of the syllabus analysis and justification: description of entry level to course, description of intended exit level, description of assessment, course description, and course goals.
Description of entry level to course
The entry level to the course will include needs analysis using the model offered in the appendices section and evaluation of the gaps students may have in terms of the English language acquisition and use in everyday life and activities requiring the use of English language. At this stage, it is necessary to recognise that a student has or might have problems and he/she needs help in coping with those issues.
Dividing the class into groups should not be fulfilled in accordance with the language competence level but on the basis of the types of information perception. For instance, some students may read and remember the typed text better while others are better listeners and understand the speech on the TV and on the radio better than their classmates.
Description of intended exit level
The exit level for ESL students that are going to finish this course include achievement of the goals enumerated below.
Description of Assessment
The assessment of the preliminary stage was already discussed while assessment of each student’s achievement in terms of language acquisition concerns the tests and quizzes aimed at analysis of the speaking, reading, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
The course includes information on topics to improve the ESL students’ speaking, writing, listing, reading, and pronunciation skills.
Course Goals Improve listing and comprehension skills
Develop students’ basic English communication abilities (speaking including formulation of their thoughts)
Raise students’ interest in learning English
Broaden students’ cross-culture awareness
The importance of grammar cannot be excluded from the learning syllabus. The study by Gordon (2007) contains analysis of different approaches used to teach grammar as a part of the language learning syllabus.
However, everything can be arranged in the following way: the first phase of teaching-learning should concern noun phrases (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, noun clauses, and infinitives) (Lester, 2008, pp. 3-119). The next phase of learning should enable ESL students to acquire verb phrases using basic forms of the verbs, special verbs, adverbs, and vary tenses of the verbs (Lester, 2008, pp. 119-273).
Finally, active and passive sentences including affirmative and interrogative statements should be introduced to the ESL students so that they could find the application of their knowledge on parts of speech in practice (Lester, 2008, pp. 273-334). In this respect, grammar can be arranged in the way that meets the topic of the speaking and reading parts of the syllabus.
The vocabulary should include the topics indicated in the appendices section in order to make the learning process more well-organized and structured for better understanding of the foreign culture by ESL students in Taiwan.
Speaking: The topics for speaking include the same as those for development of ESL students’ vocabulary because the topics should coincide in order to be effective in the learning syllabus. As such, the topics are the same as for vocabulary area:
Listening: The same as the speaking and vocabulary areas concerns the listening area because it is important to develop different skills using the topic-based approach.
Writing: This area of the learning syllabus should combine the grammar and vocabulary/speaking/listening topics in order to be effective. Nouns and pronouns should be introduced with the topic about ‘myself’ and family while the adjectives would be better used with such topics as weather and appearance.
Adverbs can be introduced together with the topic of directions and geography while differences between direct and indirect speech should be learnt in the framework of the discussion of literary sources.
Pronunciation: This area should include the same sources as for other areas such as speaking and vocabulary.
Writing Assignments 30%
Class Participation 20%
Anticipated Problems And Limitations Limitation of the course includes the number of teacher necessary to accomplish every lesson because the learning groups should consist of 8-10 students and no more. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the amount of materials necessary for every topic and importance of variety of assignments so that students were not bored.
Approach To Course Evaluation The assessment of the needs was already offered in the Appendices section while the evaluation of the outcomes should be performed after every class and after every topic using standard tests and evaluation sheets. For instance, Hedge (2000), uses 2 stages of textbook selecting process.
The syllabus is designed in the way suggested in this paper using specific topics for instruction and clear explanation of assignments for students. The further gaps of the syllabus can be identified in the process of operation and indicated by the teacher and survey aimed at analysing the students’ opinion and their satisfaction level.
Other limitations of the syllabus include the previous experience of the students in English language acquisition and their achievements. The course evaluation should comprise at least two approaches aimed at analysis of the achievements before and after the implementation of the new syllabus.
As such, it is possible to introduce a test based on multiple-choice questions for students of 8-12 age group so that a teacher could see their literacy level and divide them adequately into groups for teaching-learning a new syllabus.
The next step in the assessment should include evaluation of students’ achievements after being in the program for some time (at least two months); this means that evaluation should be performed in a stage-by-stage manner to understand the effectiveness of the syllabus and its influence on the learning process of ESL students in primary school in Taiwan.
Conclusion The reforms are always important for different sectors of human activity but education is one of the areas where reforms also can be either positive or negative. As a rule, the gaps in the methodologies and techniques are identified after their implementation into full operation. This also causes multiple problems and necessity for solving them.
As such, the importance of education was advocated in many studies while others think education to be a rudiment of the ancient ages when this was a method for achieving some goals.
At the same time, education remains the method of achieving one’s goals because it enables people to think differently, read books, and learn something new due to their skills. The age of learners can vary but the methodologies remain the same because of their proven effectiveness.
English is claimed to be an international language and every country attempts to introduce it as a foreign language into the system of education to develop the learners’ interest and desire to learn it in a more advanced level. Every syllabus should be designed in the way that facilitates understanding and learning of the material offered by the teacher.
Social, cultural and educational values may shift priorities but the desires remain the same and people often need formal education to go further up the career promotional ladder. In Taiwan, education has a strong basis for English language acquisition and instructions but they want to achieve more in giving their students the best practices and making them more experienced in English.
Reference List Barchers, S. (1991). Bridges to Reading: Grades K-3. Florida: Libraries Unlimited.
Brownlie, F., Feniak, C. and McCarthy, V., 2004. Instruction and assessment of ESL learners: promoting success in your classroom. 2nd ed. Winnipeg, MB: Portage
Migration and Development Essay essay help site:edu
Since time immemorial, people have always moved from their original or cradle land and found settlements in other places. This movement is caused by a number f reasons some of which are intentional while others are as a result of catastrophic occurrences.
This movement of people from one place to another is referred to as migration (Giddens, 1984). The aim of this discussion is to look at some of the impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around the immigrant and the community at large. In addition, this discussion will also focus on the link between migration and development.
There are quite a number of developmental issued that have emerged as a result of migration. This is because; most of the people who migrate are part of a workforce in a given society. This therefore means that their departure will leave a gap in the workforce of their society and will also add to the workforce of the so city where the immigrants will finally settle.
The United States of America for instance has continued to receive immigrants from many parts of the world with most of the immigrants to America coming from Mexico. This has created a relationship of dependency considering that America is a 1st world country while Mexico is still a developing country.
Many European countries have also seen immigrants from North America move into these countries permanently (Agunias, 2006).
During the boom period that was experienced in the 60s and 70s there were several agreements that were reached between the countries that were receiving labour and those that were providing labour. However, when this period came to an end, the needs of the countries that were receiving labour changed and this broke the ties between these countries.
Migration from various anthropological studies has been viewed in various angles some of which have been addressed in this discussion. Migration has been looked at from the angle of modernization. This is where anthropologists have argued that migration was used a tool of modernization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that since people in third world countries would migrate to 1st word countries in search of labour, they would get to earn of the new ways of life and when they went back to their native countries the would take back the new practices.
At the same time, by the immigrants providing labour in the 1st wor1d countries they would contribute to development and this enhanced modernization. Thus, if an immigrant from North Africa moved to Europe both the native country and the country that the immigrant settles in stand to benefit as a result of the migration.
On the other hand, migration has been said to create dependency between the third world countries and the already developed countries. This is because, the immigrants who are from the periphery countries always depend on the core countries to provide them with labour opportunities so that they can migrate and set their base of work there.
The immigrants therefore do not consider how they can look for ways to develop their own countries and develop a sense of livelihood without having to migrate. Therefore, an immigrant from North Africa would prefer to migrate to a European country in search of labour opportunities instead of looking for labour opportunities in his or her own country.
Migration has also been considered in two main ways. There is migration from a peripheral or a third world country to first world country that is the most common (Kapur, 2003). There is also a new trend whereby people from third world countries are migration from the rural areas into the urban areas of their country in search of job opportunities.
While the latter is different from the former, the concept is still the same. This trend has brought about other issues of development (Kearney, 1986). While on one hand this issue encouraged development and urbanization, there is also slow growth in the rural areas as almost everybody has moved to the big cities and towns in search of work.
Impacts of Migration The impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around him or her like the family members and the community at large can be looked at from two perspectives. There are some impacts that are negative while others are positive.
We will write a custom Essay on Migration and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, when an immigrant moves from his native country to another country, the society from he come from is deprived of one of the most important pillars of development that is the labour force (Kuhn, 1962).
This means that even though the immigrants is likely to come back with new concepts that could enhance development, already the native country of the immigrant is likely to suffer as far as development is concerned due to lack of sufficient labour force. As a result, the local and regional economies are greatly undermined (Rodenburg, 1997).
This situation leads to a continued trend of dependence on the first world countries to provide labour opportunities. The end result is that since the native country is experiencing sluggish growth or the growth is almost ground to a halt for lack of enough labour, poverty crops in, and this encourages even greater migration as people sort of seek refuge in greener pastures (Hass, 2010).
Migration is also seen as creating inequality especially in third world countries (Sen, 1999). This is because the labour opportunities that are provided by the developed countries are such that not every person in the developing country can qualify to take them up. This means that for those who are not able to take up the opportunities. Their fate is sort of sealed.
Looking at it from this angle, then one clearly concedes that migration is not a tool for development especially for the counties from where the immigrants come from. Migration has not in any way helped the alleviation or reduction of poverty in the developing countries. If anything, it has helped increase poverty levels by high margins as the productivity of the community has gone low for lack of enough labour force.
There is yet another argument that has been developed regarding the role played by migration in development (Myrdal, 1957). It is argued that most of the immigrants together with their families do not have a proper investment strategy of the money they earn upon migration.
Instead, they spend their money on various consumer goods since most of the 1st world countries encourage consumerism. This therefore means that when the immigrants go back to their native countries, they have nothing to shoe for their work and this paralyses development (Glick et al, 1991).
Migration and development are intertwined but whether migration has aided development remains a subject of debate and the controversy surrounding the subject does not seem to go away any time soon.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Migration and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Agunias, D. (2006) Remittances and Development: Trends, Impacts, and Policy Options. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Glick, Szanton et al. (1991) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
Hass, H. (2010) Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Kapur, D. (2003) Remittances: The New Development Mantra? Paper prepared for the G-24 Technical Group Meeting, September. 15–16. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Kearney, A. (1986) From the invisible hand to visible feet: Anthropological Studies of Migration and Development. California: University of California.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Myrdal, G. (1957) Rich Lands and Poor. New York: Harper and Row.
Rodenburg, J. (1997) In the Shadow of Migration: Rural Women and their Households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
The relationship between effective feedback and customer satisfaction Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary The following paper is a thought experiment, a work in progress that is unfolding as I observe today’s dynamic industries struggle to exploit multiple avenues to respond to customer complains. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of feedback system as one of the mechanism that supports functional element of organizational climate.
The study methodology uses a trail group consisting of 35 members from the United States, Philadelphia region dispersed across a variety of demographic location and environments to determine how companies A, B and C quickly respond to their complains.
The trial attempted to measure how fast companies A,B, C effectiveness responded to customers’ complains in relation to their defective devices in service industry perspective, and to evaluate the collective processes and outcomes.
To effectively measure feedback system performance and satisfaction, the study uses variables that included technical-customer support, action orientation, phone-based technical support and information exchange. Changes in subject cognition were assessed using a series of conceptual model to measure reliability of the results obtained.
Results of this study did however demonstrate that companies that engaged in feedback system and actively involved in strategic activities that requires introduction of innovative products and outreach program that mitigate customer problems before they occur reported high returns.
Our conclusive results reveal that all the variables that related to feedback system positively linked to customer satisfaction. This study provides evidence of a relationship between effective feedback system in relation to solving customers’ complains and customer satisfaction.
Introduction Feedback system remains to be the most significant factor of organisational climate in resolving customer complains. For example, majority of computer companies in the United States continued to expand their products through implementation of effective and up to date feedback system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since many companies are thriving to survive through the competitive markets, many new and efficient products are such as iPod, Mac, iPhone are being introduced to the markets everyday. These products are reported to be widely successful due to the organisations’ communication system. This requires the organisation to implement effective feedback system with eminent good customer support that quickly responds to customers complains (Kaplan, 2006).
The three companies assessment results present us an investigative framework to examine extend to which service firm utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism. The essay further explores the effectiveness of feedback system using a questionnaire methodology to find out the relationship between overall feedback and customer satisfaction in computer companies in the United States (Fred, 2001): Fox, 2004).
Literature Review Feedback system
Lately, the three companies have been using feedback system for paying out customers with defective machines. For example, one of the Company’s products “iMac” was widely reported for to be giving clients problems and the company responded by giving 15% refund bonuses to all faulty 27 inch iMac in the UK and was also reported to extend $300 apologies to all its aggrieved customers in the US.
In resolving the issue, the company responded quickly by offering free repairs to all the affected machines and launched a support page where it described how minor problems could be resolved and the resulting warranty extension for each affected machine. The company also reimbursed customers who used their own money to repair the faulty machines and advised them take their drives to official company repair channels (Moore
SimVenture Essay scholarship essay help
SimVenture is a medium sized company started in the month of January and thus has been in existence for the last several months. The business has been set up on a strong base of research and a fully understand the market as well as the product. This report explains the performance analysis for the few months of operation.
A comprehensive view if the business performance indicates a healthy business plan which has already helped break-even and offer a good return. In the month of January 2010, the profit and loss account could not be accurately prepared due to incompleteness of the records available. What is noticeable though is the fact that there was substantial expenditure in activities of research and development.
Most of the activities in the month involved setting up the business. However, estimates show that the company made a gross profit of about £61 from the one order which was delivered during the month. The net loss amounted to -£329.
It should be noted that under the expenses, the portion of research was the largest registering £300 of the £390. This is indicative of the solid basis on which the company is found. At this time, the product could only be priced at £460 due to limitations in quality, features, performance and style.
In February, 2010, the company made impressive sales revenue of £1380. The gross profit rose to £114 from the £61 registered in January. However, this time round, focus was on sales and marketing. Of the total expense totaling to £1590, £1500 was used to finance an aggressive marketing campaign geared towards familiarizing the products to the customers.
We were able to accurately identify our target market as well as fully understanding their needs. This was aimed ensuring that we focus all our energies on producing products which meet the needs of our target customers. Appropriate product designs were developed to suite the customer requirements.
A small IT business market was identified as the target market. Still many activities were part of the business set up. As a result, the company recorded losses amounting to £1,476. Notably, the products were now priced at £495 up from £465 due to improvements in product design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the month of March, the situation changed. We were able to make a profit of £177. This was as a result of an increase in sales as well as a reduction in costs. The turnover may have dropped to £990 but the gross profit rose to £267. Notably, overheads drastically reduced to £90. This was mainly as a result of the pay-offs from the marketing campaigns held in the previous month.
Again in a bid to improve efficiency, the company changed its supplier and engaged a cheaper source of materials for production. The company also increased its efficiency from 63% in February to 74%.
The number of features available in the Company products was also increased with the aim of appealing to an even wider customer based. By this time the quality of the product had significantly risen to warrant a higher price of £550. This significantly improved the gross profits.
In April, turnover rose to £1100. The marketing strategies were responding even better. Gross profits were a whooping £378. However, the company saw it fit to obtain feedback from the customers. The intention here was to establish possible areas of improvement. This necessitated significant expenditure in research a situation which resulted in a loss of £12.
Expenditure on research alone stood at £300. Therefore excluding the research element of the expenses, the company’s profits would have risen even higher than the previous month. Notably, efficiency level rose to 77% indicating the company’s commitment to improving efficiency both internally and externally.
The Month of May saw a drop in both the gross and net profits. The company produced too many products for the market which saw a rise in costs. This was done together with an aggressive sales and marketing campaign which accounted for about 90% of the expenses. Efficiency in this month fell to 74% mainly due to excess production. However, the order book showed significant growth as a result of the marketing campaign.
In June, the situation improved drastically. Net profit rose to £449. The situation was a show of the effectiveness of our marketing tools. Again, the number of orders remained high. Efficiency remained at 74%. Sales levels rose to £1650 and the number of orders kept rising.
We will write a custom Essay on SimVenture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In July, efficiency rose to 80% while gross profits rose to £1433 leading to a net profit of £543. From this point on, the company has managed to maintain profitability and consistently increase the level of efficiency. August saw a gross profit of £1577 which was the highest figure recorded. The company continued to record improved activities in production and even engaged in house research and marketing.
September saw a rise in the price of the product after improvement in product design and in consideration of market trends. The new price was set at £576. This made net profits rise to £1430. We managed to move to an even bigger premise.
Wages were also hiked as profits started streaming in to motivate the employees hence improves on productivity. However it is notable that as the production keeps increasing, the company continues to accumulate debts. Again, the company continues to get more orders hence requiring even higher production.
The entire first year of operation has proved profitable for the company. The overall profits add up to £5,401. 41. This is definitely a positive start which gives a very strong foundation to the company. The strength comes from the fact that the company has significantly engaged in research as well as marketing activities which have enabled it to not only learn valuable information about the market and the products but also grow the market significantly.
The following is a graphical representation of the trend in profits
Graph showing trend in profits
The fact that the last few months have seen consistent profitability tells strongly about the future of the company. It is thus prudent to inject further capital with the aim of achieving three main objectives. First is the need to maintain debts from creditors at manageable levels so as to win them over.
Secondly, there is an urgent need to increase the production so as to effectively cater for the increasing demand for the company’s products. This puts extra demand on the need to boost working capital. Finally, despite the expansions, there is the need to acquire even bigger space which will ensure higher production in the future.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SimVenture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the balance sheet, the company has accumulated a large portfolio of current assets and more importantly no long-term liabilities. This means that the company is lowly geared meaning that the company is strong meaning that risk of lending to us is significantly low.
The future presents great opportunities for the company. The market uptake of the company’s products is high as witnessed by the rapid rise in revenues across the short period of operation. Market research shows that the target market is still very lowly penetrated. This is got from the market surveys conducted during the in the last few months.
The penetration rate stands at a paltry 15% in within the locality of the company. Again new businesses are being set up a factor which is rapidly increasing the demand levels for the company’s products. There is also the need to invest in even better and more effective technologies which are likely to attract the clients even better.
The objectives of the company go beyond the region. The intention to go regional is very viable. There is the need to aggressively expand in the region where the company is based. This will give us an edge over the competitors and guarantee a much better and bigger growth for the company. Achieving these objectives will require us to raise funds but which will considerably present very low risk.
In the upcoming year we expect to expand our operations consistently to at least four times the current level of operation. This means that the balance sheet should go up by four times.
In February, we intend to scale up on production so as to generate total revenue of £11000. This will ensure that the gross profit rises to £3500 and that net profits rise to £2200. This trend is expected to continue for the next three months.
After this, we expect to relocate to an even bigger spacious building which under the current market prices should cost double the current rent. This amounts to about £376 monthly. This extra space should help us scale up production to at least five times in the next two years.
This being the case, the net profit for March is projected to be about £2600. This is after a rise in gross profits to about £3800. April net profits are projected to be about £2900. In May this is expected to fall due to the expansions expected to be undertaken then. The profitability stream is expected to follow at a much bigger scale.
Projections for profits expected for the next three years are as follows
To fund these expansions, we require a loan of at least £15000. £6000 is expected to be used to boost the working capital so as to make operations more efficient while the remainder will be used to improve technology as well as build on machinery and equipment after relocating to an even bigger space. A repayment installment of about £1,000 per month will be favorable for the company.
By the end of the year, the balance sheet extract should have changed to the following estimates:
Fixed Assets £9550
Current Assets £26000
Long term Liabilities £15000
I find that the above projections are fairly accurate and hence warrant the company a profitable future. This means that our engagement will be of mutual benefit.
Reflective report SimVenture offered a unique opportunity to interact and cooperate with a team with the aim of achieving the best results. Working as a team was a great experience due to a number of reasons. First, it offered me the opportunity to learn different application of different ideas in business practice.
Each member would come up with unique but informed interpretation of the situation facing the company a situation which would help me view the same issue from many different angles and thus develop the best way forward given the circumstances. Secondly, I was able to improve my skills in teamwork and cooperation towards achieving a common goal.
There were some difficulties especially in developing a common way forward on issues where the views of the members were too divergent. I think this was driven b the different personalities in the team. Some are gambles while others are conservatives. While the gamblers were less risk averse, conservatism made other team members reject rapid expansions.
Again, it was difficult to convince all the team members on the right amounts of money to apply in different situations. As can be seen from the report, there were several instances when an amount of money would be set aside for research or for marketing. Setting these amounts was a challenge.
We needed to undertake lengthy negotiations within the team before engaging third parties who would agree or disagree with our resolutions hence requiring us to go back and discuss again. In the month of April, many team members thought that it was too soon to obtain meaningful feedback from customers.
They wanted the research on customer’s feelings about the company’s products to be conducted much later in the year after the product had been widely tested. However, another group argued that getting feedback early would ensure prompt response to customer’s requirements hence a better future for the company. This issue brought in a lengthy but constructive debate and at the end the group proposing the obtaining early feedback succeeded in convincing the other.
Planning ahead was always a priority for my team. Before starting off in January, we developed a complete plan for implementation within the next six months. The plan included some set targets which were to be achieved within certain time frames. This greatly guided our decisions subsequently.
It is however true that in some situations we had to deviate from the set plans. The plans gave a clear indication of where focus would be during any period. In the early months, market surveys and marketing activities were prioritized in the plans. In later months the need for marketing was the focus.
The team constantly made trade-offs in a bid to achieve certain goals. In January, the decision to engage in research was a trade-off for profits. If the research was not done the company would have incurred a loss of a paltry £61. However, the research was in the long term interest of the firm. Again in February, we incurred a loss of -£1476 after spending £1500 in sales and marketing.
This trade-offs continued in the following months. They were informed by the need to achieve long-term sustainability of the business as opposed to short term goals. It is clear that activities such as marketing always paid off in the subsequent periods and also ensured that our products were able to penetrate the markets even better by creating awareness.
The commitment needed to run a small business is enormous. SimVenture may be a small business entity but it demands full attention from all the team members in a bid to ensure that correct decisions are made and implemented. As team members we had subdivided ourselves in groups of two and would alternate the running of the business on a weekly basis.
However, it required that all the members be present at least twice a week either to make important decisions or to assist in the implementation of the agreed ideas and strategies. An eight hour day is simply not enough to ensure things run smoothly. A great deal of personal sacrifice is required.
The exercise has helped me better understand the intrigues of running a small business. The first and most important lesson is that one should develop a plan way before starting off the business. This is very instrumental in guiding the subsequent decisions in a bid to build a strong business entity. Secondly, the plan should contain fairly accurate cash flows.
These helps establish the financial requirements of the business ahead of time. Such projections ensure that the business does not encounter problems of liquidity which are likely to hamper progress. Again, it is very important to give priority to long term growth as opposed to short term gains as this boosts the ability of the business to ensure continuity as well as growth.
Finally, I have learnt that achieving a successful business entails a great deal of personal sacrifices and commitment towards the implementation of decisions aimed at achieving set targets.
The experiences gained here are arguably the best teaching in business management.