Table of Contents Introduction
Background Information Causes of Euro Zone Crises
Greek in the Middle of the Crises
Solutions for Greece crisis problem
Solutions and strategies to EU crisis
Impact of the Crisis to European integration
Introduction The EU was formed in 1957 and efforts to coordinate the currency into single formidable currency took place later in 1992 through the Maastricht Treaty that was later launched in 1999. This led to the introduction of rules that were to be followed the EU members so as to be allowed to use the euro.
The condition came to be known as the “Convergence criteria” of which low and stable inflation, stable exchange rate and sound public finances were to be followed strictly (Rossi and Aguilera 8-11). The introduction of the Euro lead to its adoption into the national central banks of each member states as a monetary measure.
This led to the formation of an independent European Central Bank (ECB) to serve this purpose. The formation of the EU has facilitated international trade among the member states (Rossi and Aguilera 12). However, this picture has not been the way it is found in the strategies of EU Commission.
The global recession that hit the world in years 2007 and 2008 and other financial crises have led to deep problems in the economies of Euro countries. The Euro zone crisis requires a serious study to understand the cause and the strategies needed to restore the Euro into normalcy. This paper will thus focus on these issues revolving around the Euro crises.
Background Information Causes of Euro Zone Crises According to the Stability and Growth pact stipulated in the heart of European Union Economic integration, it was agreed that the member states should not borrow more than 3% of their economies. The problem seems to stem from large debts held by some of the member countries hence producing a spiral effect to other members.
The problem probably is as a result of structural maladjustments as IMEMO observes in their report of the crisis. Member countries like Spain, Italy, France, Germany and Greece have witnessed the fall of the euro against the dollar by 15 percent in the year 2010. The crisis has seen the euro plummet to below the 1.20 dollar benchmark forcing foreign efforts to intervene to save Greek on the verge of collapsing.
According to IMEMO, the crises have four key features. In the first feature as already mentioned, there exists the problem of structural and economic gaps between member states of the EU. An analysis of these inconsistencies reveals that Southern European member countries are not as advances as the leading European countries. This is reflected by the low quality education statistics that fall behind the framework of the EU.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These gaps reveal that disparities between the EU countries contribute to differences in the purchasing power of the low performing countries. These southern countries have backward moving and uncompetitive economies with constantly low GDPs.
The average purchasing power indicator shows that the following nations have below the average 108% value of more than half of the Euro Countries, Greece 95%, Slovenia, 86%, 78% for Malta and Portugal and Slovenia 72%.
Therefore, the problem lies in their grouping as members of the Euro countries yet they remain behind in term of competitive advantage. In the ensuing effect, these nations have the attitude of approaching the EU as a forum where they improve the standards of living.
Further, the strategies they use in this effort is only geared toward maintaining international standards as per the EU without working on the details of internal production, increased sale and cross border production. They have low labor productivity compounded by low levels of human capital that lags behind serious in the information knowledge technology economy (IMEMO para. 3-6).
US Foreign Policy During Obama Presidency Essay college admission essay help
How has President Obama Changed the Nature of US Foreign Policy?
Most achievements of Obama’s foreign policy originate from assuming several policies from Bush. Also, other achievements of Obama originate from assuming a number of the strategic doctrines from the Bush government. Some strategic values by Bush government, which became either overlooked or belittled during campaigns, have currently been held by Obama.
Some of the values that Bush held closely include the defensive use of force, discriminatory unilateralism, powerful executive authority, democracy support and enormous power associations (Inboden 2011).
First, the defensive use of force is the planned doctrine at the rear of the government’s campaign of deterrent whine strikes in opposition to terrorists in regions, such as, Yemen and Pakistan, which cold be scheming against America. Second, discriminatory unilateralism became utilized to define the Obama government’s actions in opposition to Osama, with much of the structure leading the drone actions.
For instance, the Obama government made some resolutions regarding Afghanistan devoid of synchronization with aggravated NATO followers. Third, Obama has a powerful executive authority, which typified the government’s insolence of the legislature for the Libya battle, in addition to, much of the governments’ counterterrorism lawful framework.
Fourth, President Obama encourages democracy rather than autocratic strength. Lastly, Obama has vast power dealings founded on shared principles, which aids in elucidating why subsequent to its first grip of Russia and China, the government finally switched.
Thus, Obama is merely continuing Bush’s third phase. He still practices Bush’s reckless foreign policy, pursues the bailout ideas that Bush sustained, and a large, wild government similar to that of Bush.
How fundamentally, if at all, has President Obama Changed US Foreign Policy? Is Afghanistan a ‘Sensible’ War?
Firstly, Bush and his Neocon partners took America through two expensive wars (Creamer 2011). Obama is getting USA out of those two wars. When Barack became president, America had 180,000 troops in Afghanistan and Iraq (Creamer 2011). We now have 150,000 soldiers in those nations. By the end of the year, that number will fall to 100,000 and to 70,000 by next summer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before the following year ends, the entire troop may have departed from Iraq. Barack has pointed out that all USA troops will leave Afghanistan by 2014, with the hope that their warfare operation will end before that date.
There can be slight query that Bush’s combat in Iraq was among the costliest U.S. overseas policy disasters of recent times. Its direct costs are now impending $800 billion. However, an article by Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Prize winning economist, disputes that the real cost of the conflict in Iraq will eventually surpass $3 trillion if we take into account both regime operating expense and the war’s broader impact on the U.S. economy.
Since the warfare did not get paid for with increased returns, we will keep on paying interest on its cost for years. It pushed up the value of oil, to levels that have shattered the economy of hundreds of billions of dollars, and facilitated swift the financial collapse that outplayed eight million Americans their employments.
The Iraq conflict abstracted billions from significant needs here in the United States
It abstracted interest from the war in Afghanistan and possibly extended that war by years. In 2003, the year we attacked Iraq, the U.S. slashed expenditure on the Afghan war from $20 billion to $14.3 billion whilst adding $53 billion into the Iraq war.
Also, taxpayers will be paying to care for and revitalize injured troops from Iraq for decades. The conflict in Iraq had impact to the lives of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis and dislocated millions.
As we go away from Iraq, there is entirely no proof that the conflict benefited America one jot much to the opposing. It made stronger the chief opponent in the area, Iran. Also, it fomented abhorrence for the U.S.A and served as a recruiting placard for terrorists universally.
George started the Iraq conflict to discover new arms, as well as, to put on trial the “War on Terror” though there was totally no link between the leaders of Iraq and the 9/11 assaults.
We will write a custom Essay on US Foreign Policy During Obama Presidency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Obama vied for office as an adversary of that conflict, and he will complete it, together with, the assignment in Afghanistan that — but for the ignorance of the George Administration — should have ended years ago. Despite his “War on Terror” audacity, Bush and his Neocons failed despondently to debase Al Qaeda and terrorist groups globally. Obama has destroyed Al Qaeda and brought Osama Bin Laden to fair dealing.
At the moment, there are predictable to be fewer than 100 Al Qaeda left over in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Its dominion and power organization has become ripped apart, and its headship killed.
Barrack pledged to focus like a laser on Al Qaeda, and he just did that
Instead of focusing on America’s true terrorist adversaries, George and company concentrated on Iraq and downplayed the significance of osama Bin Laden — who at the moment turns out was still hugely in charge of the Al Qaeda set-up up to the time of his demise.
Also, let us keep in mind that the overconfident but unfortunate Bush Neocon mass lead over the most awful attack on the American, native soil since Pearl Harbor; ignoring intellect warnings of an imminent attack. Lastly, George’s unilateralist approach, down casted America’s repute in the globe to record lows (Zakaria 2008). Barrack Obama has reinstated America’s status in the world.
According to a BBC opinion poll, in 2007 — just before the end of the George Bush days U.S.A had down casted to become one of the nations with the down casted ratings. Half of those appraised in its 27-country poll had negative analysis of the United States, and barely 28% had positive analysis (Creamer 2008). Ever since, Barrack Obama came to office, observations of the U.S. have constantly enhanced.
Now the numbers have become overturned. Forty-nine percent of the populace has affirmative opinion of the U.S., and only 31 percent has off-putting opinions. For a sovereign world, the observations of human beings shape the capability of Americans to be triumphant in the prospect globe.
In particular, views of the United States unswervingly influence quite a number of youthful persons who sign up to be terrorists and assault the United States. Several have argued that; U.S. support of armed forces involvement in Libya stands in inconsistency to the opinion that his foreign procedure is qualitatively diverse from the policies of the past government.
In verity, the tactic that America have brought to Libya is an exemplar of that disparity. In Libya, the United States is an element of a true multinational attempt to defend the Libyan populace from a head that had declared to kill numerous people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US Foreign Policy During Obama Presidency by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his campaign for presidency, Obama alleged to stop the War in Iraq, redeploy America’s wealth on Al Qaeda, take the argument in Afghanistan to an end, and re-establish America’s position internationally.
The military condition in Afghanistan is susceptible, requiring solid executive U.S. direction regarding what the Middle Eastern society desires and requires. Bush’s foreign policy choices became rather haughty, with objectives to build states, in the Middle East, acting as posts of democracy (Cooper
Deacons and a Special Office in the Early Church Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
What Are Deacons? Was There A Special Office In The Early Church? Deacons are perhaps the most misunderstood officers in the Christian Church today. They came up as the people to rescue the mainstream ministers from the logistical and administrative strains of church operations. This office has had mixed fortunes throughout the life of the church. In some instances, it grew, while in others it simply disappeared from the leadership hierarchy of the church.
This study aims at rediscovering the role and purpose of deacons in light of the institution and operations of this office in the early church. In particular, the paper seeks to answer the following questions: What are deacons? Was there a special office for them in the early church, and what are the major issues surrounding their existence in the Christian Church?
The Deacons In Acts Without variance, scholars identify the book of Acts 6 as the first appearance of Christian deacons. Many scholars note that the bible does not use the word “deacon” in that passage.1 Elsewhere in the same book, there are incidents of major significance to the early church that involved deacons. These incidents include the stoning of Stephen and the Baptism of the Ethiopian Eunuch by Philip.
They indicate that the deacons were not people who had a fixed responsibility but the church requested them to help alleviate specific issues affecting the church. They were ministers first, and officials second. There is need to examine each of these circumstances in some more detail to provide a proper background for this discussion.
The need for deacons came about because of growth. The Christian community in Jerusalem grew in numbers because of the growing numbers of new believers. The church shared resources, starting with the neediest members. Grecian Jews (Hellenists) felt that their widows were not getting equal attention during the distribution of food.
There are many reasons given for the differences ranging from conservative and liberal views of temple worship, to the influence of the Maccabean revolt, betraying greater tensions in the early church beyond those portrayed in the book of Acts.2 The Greek speaking Jews could have felt that the Hebrew-speaking ones looked down on them.3 This disquiet led to the apostles to intervene.
The twelve stated, “It would not be right for us to neglect the ministry of the word of God in order to wait on tables” (Acts 6:2, NIV). This may mean that there was a problem with the administration of the physical needs, which, it appears, did not have any specific overseers. It was in this context that the apostles proposed the appointment of seven men to take care of the matter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emergence of deacons therefore was not because of divine revelation, but was a way of taking care of a practical issue that threatened the harmony of the church. From the activities of Stephen and Philip, it appears that this appointment was also not permanent.
The apostles stated three qualifications for deacons. They required them to be “men” who were “full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom” (Acts 6:3, NIV). The choice of men for these positions resonates with the cultural background of the society in which these events were taking place. Scholars can argue that there was no overriding need to appoint men in that situation because the problem was primarily between women.
However, the Jewish society was patriarchal hence the predisposition to appoint men to positions of leadership. The need for the filling of the Holy Spirit also appears rather exclusionist in the appointment of people who in essence were to “wait on tables” (Acts 6:2, NIV). It however shows that the apostles took the positions seriously and looked far beyond the administrative tasks that necessitated the appointments.
According to Anyabwile (2012), the office of the deacon, “is a spiritual office”.4 In a sense, apart from the apostles, these were the only ordained ministers in the Church. The final requirement of wisdom resonates better with the position. Since their work was to ensure no conflict ensued because of the distribution of food, it was necessary that these men posses wisdom.
Paul gave requirements that are more elaborate for people qualified for appointment as deacons. Their purpose was not the same as those of the deacons in Acts. It serves to show that deacons were a special group of ministers, chosen to handle specific issues in the church.
The only clear-cut responsibility that the apostles assigned to the seven men was “waiting on tables” (Acts 6:2, NIV). There were no specific roles spelt out for the seven except the responsibility of overseeing the daily distribution of food. However, there is sufficient proof that this is not the only thing they did. They were part of the ministry of the church.
Pao (2011) presented this situation as a glaring inconsistency on the work of Luke by failing to follow up the career of the seven men in regards to waiting on tables.5 It is confusing to think that they required ordination to wait on tables but did not require it to participate in ministry of the church.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Deacons and a Special Office in the Early Church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This view of the work of deacons sums up the statement, “the deacons work is primarily focussed on the physical needs of a congregation, in distinction from the work of elders and preachers who are focussed on the spiritual needs of the congregation”.6
While classifying the work of deacons into practical work and liturgical work creates a dichotomy that is difficult to support scripturally, it shows the desire to clarify the role of deacons in the church.
The apostles did not choose the seven men. The church chose and presented them to the apostles. This is among the examples of the involvement of the congregation in the choice of leaders in the church. The apostles prayed and laid hands on the seven, completing their perceived ordination. It is debatable that the prayer and lying on of hands constitutes ordination, as understood today.
At best, it means that the apostles fully supported the work the seven men were to do. There is a gap between this example and the practice of the church today. Presently, church uses very elaborate ordination ceremonies to ordain deacons. It could be because the deacons chosen for ministry today are committed in totality to their assigned roles.
Two of these seven men, Stephen and Philip, reappear in the book of Acts, not as deacons but as ministers of the word. Stephen “did great wonders and miraculous signs among the people” (Acts 6:8, NIV). The account of Stephen ends up with his martyrdom, making him the first Christian martyr.
There is no record of Stephen’s replacement as a deacon akin to Matthias replacement of Judas (Acts 1:26) as an apostle, nor is there any more mention of the work associated with waiting on tables. The second man, Philip reappears after Stephen’s death and at the onset of Christian persecution. Along with other Christians, Philip flees to the city of Samaria and preaches there.
“When the crowds heard Philip and saw the miraculous signs he did, they all paid close attention to what he said” (Acts 8:6, NIV). Luke, the author of The Acts of the Apostles, did not consider it important to follow the deaconate careers of the seven men, except their ministerial roles as preachers of the gospel7.
Based on the accounts of Stephen and Philip in the book of Acts, the conclusion that the office of a deacon was permanent in the early church is hard to sustain. The appointment of the seven came about to fulfill the practical needs of the church, and not to be precedence for establishing a permanent deaconate.8
Not sure if you can write a paper on Deacons and a Special Office in the Early Church by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This need was not one that would recur in the Christian Church because people in other places did not have similar practices to the Jewish Christians. At best, the office of a deacon, based on the events of Acts 6, is a temporary office of administrative importance.
There are records showing that ministers worked with deacons. Gregory the great, who later became a Pope, had a deacon assist him in his duties and at some point, they prayed together for protection against people who sought to arrests them.9 However, it was inaccurate to use this account to establish a permanent order of deacons in church.
One of the controversies surrounding the special ordination of deacons is that what they are ordained to do is what Christians should be doing anyway. In this sense, all Christians should serve one another, and there is no need to create another class of servants. A special class of servants dichotomizes the Christian faith. It condemns those who are not deacons to a lower level of service in the Christian church.
Towards A Definition Of The Term “Deacon” The use of the term “deacon” usually refers to a class of ministers, whose work is to assist the substantive minister in any congregation. The name ties their function to serving the church.10
The etymology of this word is often hard to grasp because each scholar who seeks to render it, usually does so in order to arrive at a position that is favorable to his own theological understanding. Maettaous (nd) states, “deacon is a syrian word that means servant”(11).11: 11
Footnotes 1 Gavrilyuk, Paul L. “The Participation of the Deacons in the Distribution of Communion in the Early Church.” St. Vladmir Theological Quarterly 51, no. 2-3 (2007): 255.
2 Pao, David. “Waiters of Preachers: Acts 6:1-7 and the Lukan Table Fellowship Motif.” Journal of Biblical Literature 130, no. 1 (2011): 129-130.
3 Larkin, William J. IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, Il: InterVarsity, 1995: 99.
4 Anyabwile, Thabiti M. Finding Faithful Elders and Deacons. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012: 2.
5 Pao, David. “Waiters of Preachers: Acts 6:1-7 and the Lukan Table Fellowship Motif.” Journal of Biblical Literature 130, no. 1 (2011): 123.
6 Nichols, Robert. This Business: The Office of the Deacon. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse , 2010: 21.
7 Pao, David. “Waiters of Preachers: Acts 6:1-7 and the Lukan Table Fellowship Motif.” Journal of Biblical Literature 130, no. 1 (2011): 128.
8 Sell, Phillip W. “The Seven in Acts 6 as a Ministry Team.” Bibliotheca Secra 167 (Jan-March 2010): 61.
9 Scotland, Nigel. “Signs and Wonders in the Early Catholic Church 90-451 and Their Implications for the Twenty-First Century.” European Journal of Theology 10, no. 2 (2001): 163
10 Hiebert, D Edmond. “Behind the Word “Deacon”: A New Testament Study.” Bibliotheca Sacra, April-June 1983: 151.
11 Maettaous, Anba. Deacons. El Sourian: The Bishopric of Youth Library , 1980
Porter’s 5 Forces analysis Case Study essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Threat of new competition
Threat of substitute products or services
Bargaining power of customers (buyers)
Bargaining power of suppliers
Intensity of competitive rivalry
Threat of new competition eHarmony operates in a unique environment and that is why there has been a threat of new competition. As much as Match remained the company’s biggest competitor, other new companies were entering the market with new products specifically designed for different segments of the market. Competitors were always in full attack mode which made the company to review its options.
This point can be reinforced by the fact that eHarmony had to invest in marketing to support its membership base. New entrants were mostly seen in the personals segment like Yahoo Facebook, MySpace and others. Competitor types have also been changing as time goes by which explains why the company will continue facing the threat of new competition.
Threat of substitute products or services The match making industry has always been changing based on new customer needs and preferences. This means that the threat of new products has always been there. eHarmony had to put up a fight with new products and services like paid do it yourself sites, free do it yourself sites, niche sites and online social networks.
Consumers’ preference and tastes are always changing and that is why these sites were coming up with new products to challenge eHarmony’s market. As far as the threat of substitute products is concerned, most of these sites were concentrating on the market segment that was not covered by eHarmony like same sex relationships and specific age sets.
Bargaining power of customers (buyers) With the increasing popularity of the internet, most customers have been able to access information thereby being knowledgeable on different aspects. This explains why eHarmony found itself in many lawsuits from different customers who felt that they were being secluded yet the company was focusing on a different market segment with its unique products.
In fact, customers were able to choose sites that they found to be comfortable to them based on their preference which shows that they have a bigger bargaining power.
Niche sites were in competition with eHarmony because they saw a gap that had not been exploited based on the demands that were being made by different customers. eHarmony had to invest a lot of money in research and development to meet the changing needs of customers for long term sustainability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bargaining power of suppliers eHarmony had to invest substantial amounts of money in the market to continue being relevant. This means that the bargaining power of suppliers had also increased as time went by. The most notable suppliers who had increased their bargaining power were marketers because of a wide market. In fact, the bargaining power of suppliers had increased tremendously because of different and available options.
The company could not operate alone and that is why it had to rely on a large number of suppliers for proper provision of services to diverse and distinct customers. Just like in the case of customers, there was free access to information that enabled suppliers to be knowledgeable on different market aspects thereby increasing their bargaining power.
Intensity of competitive rivalry The intensity of competitive rivalry on the market share of eHarmony could not be underestimated and that is why the company had to support the growth of its membership base by investing heavily in marketing.
Competitive rivalry had increased because of different competitor types that had emerged with new products targeting specific niche markets. For instance, online social networks were providing an important substitution that was a threat to the company’s products. On the other hand, direct competitors like Match and Yahoo were intensifying their activities in the market with an aim of reducing eHarmony’s market share.
Social Media Monitoring Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of social media monitoring
Drawbacks of social media monitoring
Introduction The emergence of the internet has significantly transformed the business environment. One of the ways through which this has occurred relates to the ease with which businesses can undertake marketing communication. Integration of effective marketing communication is one of the elements that contribute towards business success.
There are various mediums of communication which organizations can integrate in an effort to attain a high competitive advantage. One these entails integrating emerging marketing communication channels such the internet.
Businesses can easily undertake their marketing promotion through the internet. Integration of social media in their marketing communication has enhanced the ease with which businesses connect with their audiences. However, businesses can also experience marketing attacks through the social media.
One of the ways in which marketing attacks may occur is through social networking. Currently, social media has made it possible for real time communication amongst total strangers to occur. Additionally, social networking has enabled individuals to add user-generated contents for example feedbacks, comments and ratings through their own page.
This presents a number of challenges and opportunities to organizations. One of the major challenges relates to the fact that social media can break companies through the comments posted by various individuals. In order to prevent this, it is imperative for organizations to undertake social media monitoring.
Schwerdtfeger (23) defines social media monitoring as basically a process which entails listening and actively being involved in a conversation through social media.
This means that individuals are able to contribute their own insights and comments with regard to a particular issue being discussed. Social media monitoring provides organizations with an opportunity to address negative comments regarding the organization which might be posted on the social media.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, social media monitoring can enable organizations to appreciate positive comments. According to Porterfield, Khare and Vahl (561), social media monitoring is an important component of a firm’s marketing strategy.
However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with social media monitoring. The objective of this memo is to analyze the benefits that organizations can achieve by integrating the concept of social media monitoring in their operation. The memo also evaluates the drawbacks associated with social media monitoring.
Benefits of social media monitoring There are numerous benefits that organizations can achieve by undertaking social media monitoring. One of these relates to the fact that it provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding on what social media users are saying regarding the organization and its products.
Additionally, social media monitoring also provides individual entrepreneurs and organizations with an opportunity to participate in a discussion regarding a particular issue associated with their businesses. The resultant effect is that business management teams are able understand the community views regarding their firms’ operation.
Conversations on particular issues undertaken through various social mediums such as Twitter, Blogs, Wikis, You Tube, news sites and Facebook can be a great source of business intelligence. This arises from the fact that one can be able to follow conversations on the various social mediums.
For example, if one posts a negative comment regarding the business or its products, it is possible to respond quickly and fix it before the business’ image is negatively affected. Additionally, social media monitoring also enables businesses to correct any misinformation on a particular issue which may be posted against the business.
Undertaking social media monitoring can be an effective strategy that organizations can incorporate when dealing with certain crisis that might negatively affect the organizations (Sellnow, Ulmer
Mormonism and their distinct practices with Christians Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Mormonism refers to the religion practiced by followers of the leading Latter Day Saint movement. This assembly began in the 1820s and was founded as a form of Christian primitivism by Joseph smith; Jr. At the time of its formation, the main need was to distinguish itself from the traditional Protestantism.
Angel Moroni, the son of Prophet Mormon, is believed to have revealed himself to Smith and endowed him with him a golden plate that had unique symbols. This plate enabled him to translate the unique symbols into the modern Book of Mormon.
The number of Mormons grew significantly overtime, prompting the United States government to persecute their leader Smith, and some of the followers because of beliefs such as polygamy.
Persecution created a shock in their freedom and security and they were forced to move to the western sides of U.S. later Brigham Young succeeded him. At the end of their movements, many settled at the present state of Utah and the neighbouring areas of Colorado, Idaho and Nevada. Mormonism religion is unique and has contradicting belief with the Christians.
Mormons believe that divine revelation continues up to date as reflected by smith and the succeeding leaders. They believe that Jesus is God’s son and that even after his disciples, the divine revelation continues. As time progresed, the support of Smith’s initiated plural marriages raised contentions. Some Mormon groups left the LDS church to form other small groups relating to Mormonism.
Over time, the advocacy of polygamy by Mormons that resulted in conservatism and family-oriented behaviour among the followers received attention within the United States Congress and the church existence was threatened.
Later on, the church president officially ended the plural marriage, although it continued to be practiced secretly. After the long struggle, LDS church became a supporter of monogamy and patriotism. It has also grown internationally through its vigorous missionary program1.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the inception of the Mormonism religion by smith, it has received multiple criticisms on the church because of its practice of plural marriage, historical revisionism, homophobia, racism, sexist policies and inadequate financial disclosures.
These critics emanates from various religious experts and church organisations on: its church theology, its particular book of Mormon, the temple ceremonies, and the critical financial secrecy.
Meanwhile, Mormonism is viewed as a deviation from the Christianity thus it has no sufficient history to prove its validity and logic but as a critic to the earlier Christianity doctrines. As the practices of Mormons are similar to the Christian’s, Christians believe that Mormons try to dissociate itself from the norms and practise of Christianity.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is entirely criticised on the doctrinal changes of the church teachings. Concerning this, it is believed that allowing all worthy males to hold priesthood was not initially divined by the church but it was because of matter of convenience. To proclaim effectively the teachings of the Mormons, the bible, the book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and the pearl of great price are used.
They believe that the bible is far below the other standards Works formulate by its founder and the other succeeding leaders whenever it disagrees with the Mormon doctrines.
It is based on the concept that the early Christian church was a restored dispensation since Jesus Christ’s ascension. In their argument, the Mormons insist that the restoration of Smith and his successors demonstrates that their religion is the only proven and acceptable one.
The Mormons cosmology gives restoration significance because it portrays the real and acceptable definition of God, the universe, and human life. According to Mormonism, the eternal existence is greater than life on earth, which is just a small part of it. They believe that people existed initially as spirits independent of God. Through the convincing of God, most spirits accepted the offer to advance like him.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Mormonism and their distinct practices with Christians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the spirits that accepted the offer, they came to earth as human beings while the rest led by Lucifer adopted Satanism. Existence on earth was based on the knowledge that there would be sin and suffering. According to the Mormon’s doctrine, the main purpose of life is to learn to differentiate between the good and the evil.
In the process, people admit that it is impossible to live without making mistakes, necessitating some to lead a life devoid of any religious beliefs. They believe that one has to undertake an atonement to be fully saved even though Jesus died for their sins2.
Trust, repentance, prescribed covenants and living a life guided by Christ’s example, portrays His atonement. Following these teachings faithfully it gives people surety that they will leave earth to rejoin with their mate who is God.
In Mormonism, ordinance plays a critical role in the formation of covenants between people and God. The priests who are guided by the spirits and the example of Jesus Christ perform this ritual. It involves baptism, confirmation, ordination to priesthood for males, endowment and marriage to a spouse.
Baptism is done at the age of accountability by immersion in water and later ordinance of other elements of the doctrines takes place with maturity. Though certain ordinance rituals are mandatory and essential, Mormons believe that it does not guarantee an individual the eternal life. In the performance of ordinance of saving, they sought the help of the deceased who should intervene in the spirits living in the human body.
At their interpretation of the bible, the LDS church believe in both the Old and New testaments. Their official scripture text is the King James Bible. Although they generally belief in the content of the modern day Bible, they claim that it is not whole and has numerous errors.
The book of Mormon restores all the missing elements in the modern Bible3. It is highly regarded among the Mormons since it is the divine scripture and is equivalent to the bible in its teachings. Additionally, the Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great Price books are cited and accepted as divine scriptures.
Mormons believe also that there is continuous revelation between God and humankind. Their scriptures speak of the ability to relate with the Holy Spirit to get favors and get direction of how to guide their families. They admit that God reveals Himself to those who earnestly seek His stewardship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mormonism and their distinct practices with Christians by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For the family leaders, the receive revelation on the appropriate raising techniques for their children and the blessings they are to hand over to their children. These personal revelations are encouraged in the church to give instrumental skills for the humankind and its succeeding generation.
There exist numerous differences between the Mormons and the Christians. The LDS church believes on four standards of work, which are authoritative and include the Bible, the Book of the Mormon, Covenant and Ordinance, the Pearl of Great Price and the authoritative messages from their president. While for the Christians, they believe only on the Bible.
There works at the same time indicates that there exist numerous Gods while for Christians they believe only on one God. In explaining the nature of their Gods, they indicate that they result from the exaltation of man with the body of flesh and bones. The concept of this notion is reflected in the support of the James smith’s translation while for the Christians the Bible supports their belief.
The Mormons’ Gods are believed to be married and through them, there is procreation of spirit children. This belief contradicts the Christian belief that God exist in the Spirit form and nowhere does the eternal mother mention in the Bible4.
In their belief, God is not a unique eternal being, but is a spirit guided by intelligence and can stop being God if it loses its intelligence. For Christians this is very wrong since they believe that God exist as single and is all-powerful, all knowing, and absolutely in charge.
The distinction between sin and man varies in the two religions. For Mormons they believe that man was at the beginning with God and was never created. After existing in the spirit world they choose to be made on the human body and came to earth. On the contrary, Christians belief that man was created by the only existing God5.
About the sin of Adam and eve, Mormons appreciate the deed and complement that through it procreation was put in place. On the Christians perspective, sin was hurting and lead to the deterioration of the human being.
The doctrine of salvation also indicates that Mormons can be forgiven only through atonements and Christ death cancelled the penalty of death. Christians believe that sins were forgiven by the crucifixion of Jesus Christ in the cross and one can acquire salvation through accepting Jesus Christ.
Bibliography Bushman, Richard L.. Joseph Smith and the beginnings of Mormonism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.
Ludlow, Daniel H.. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
Williams, Jean Kinney. The Mormons. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.
Footnotes 1 Bushman, Richard L.. Joseph Smith and the beginnings of Mormonism. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984), 25.
2 Ludlow, Daniel H.. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 125.
3 Richard ,Joseph Smith and the beginnings of Mormonism, 214.
4 Daniel, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 285.
5 Williams, Jean Kinney. The Mormons. (New York: Franklin Watts, 1996), 185.
Management Information Systems Thesis scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Objectives of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Abstract This study examines the effects of rapid changes in information technology in decision-making. The rapid changes in technology have led to changes the way managers make decisions. Managers tend to change their policies and decision-making processes depending on the most current technology.
However, the rapid changes in technology are extremely to the extent that managerial decision making has been affected severely. This study will be conducted to see how managers have adapted to rapid changes in information technology.
Background Adoption of Information technology support decisions making process at different levels of the organizational. Managers make structured decisions (Ayadi 56). These decisions are usually dependent on the information technology adopted. Studies have shown that manager decision-making process is structured according to the technology they are hoping to adopt.
However, with the rapid changes in the technology the process of structuring the decision making process has become difficult. Managers find the task of incorporating the concept of rapid changes into the process of decision making difficult. Managers believe that the cost of adopting new technology is escalating with growth in the IT industry (Miles 45).
Managers have the duty of adopting new technology in an entity. However, technology is changing at a faster rate than most elements that affect managerial decision-making. Most managers, in the current world, are of the opinion that rapid changes in technology are affecting the process of decision-making (Ayadi 122). This has led to managers developing different attitudes and perceptions towards the rate of technological changes.
Various managers argue that with the rapid changes in IT, the new technology adopted by an entity becomes outdated before it has been implemented fully. A good example of such a case was the advance in Microsoft operating system between 2006 and 2010. Many entities upgraded their computers from lower operating systems like XP to windows 7 operating system.
However, before the Windows 7 was fully implemented, Microsoft upgraded their operating system software. They came up with Windows 8 that was more advanced than Windows 7 (Jones 256). These rapid changes in technology are making managers more cautious while adopting new technology. Decision-making is a critical tool in determining the competence of a manager.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers therefore have to be careful while making decisions on information technology since such decisions may determine how competent a manager is. Managers have adopted the use of models to assist them in the processes of decision-making (Jones 320).
Rapid technological changes have also led to development of new policies and procedures. Managers have been forced to learn a new code of conduct that is compatible with the new technology. Advances in technology have led to overlaps in policies. Changes in technology have also lead to scrapping off redundant policies. New policies have been introduction of new to cater for the rapid changes in technology.
In the process of adopting new policies and adopting new ones, policies may overlap. Sometimes a policy vacuum is created thus making it difficult for manager to make crucial decisions on certain matters. In such cases, managers tend to use old policies that may be irrelevant in current decision-making process (Miles 119).
Problem Statement Technology is changing at a rapid rate. With every new dawn, there is always new technology. It has become a difficult task for managers to keep up with the technological changes in their organizations. Due to the rapid changes in technology, managers are finding it difficult to choose the most appropriate piece of technology that would suit their function. Adopting relevant technology is becoming harder and harder for managers.
Therefore, different managers tend to have different attitudes and perceptions regarding changes technology. These attitudes and perceptions affect managers’ decision making processes. Moreover, managers’ view on adopting new technology is changing. This has been attributed to the rising costs of keeping up with the rapid technological changes. Institutions in the current world adopt technology that is deemed relevant.
Managers have shifted their decision-making stance in cases that involve technology. Instead of adopting newest technology, they only adopt relevant technology. This enables them to cut their costs and maintain the company’s profitability in the process.
Objectives of the Study The main objective of this project is to determine whether there are significant effects on rapid changes in technology in decision-making process. The specific objectives include
We will write a custom Thesis on Management Information Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analyzing decision-making models that have been formulated with emergence of information technology.
Determine the challenges facing managers in adopting new technology
Propose areas requiring further research to fix the problem associated with new technology.
Research Questions How does the rapid growth in technology affect decision-making?
Have managers formulated models to assist in tackling this problem?
What are the challenges facing managers when adopting new technology?
Which area in decision making in regards to information technology require further studies?
Limitations of the Study This study is to be conducted within a limited period of time that is insufficient to establish the full extent of the effects of rapid technology advances on the process of decision-making.
Financial constraints also prevent study to be conducted effectively and efficiently especially the interviews that are to be conducted to managers of large-scale organizations who utilize management information systems as part of their management techniques.
It will thus be difficult to determine the influence of management information systems across large range managers to determine how each manager is affected by the decisions made.
Works Cited Ayadi, Ingvar. Organizational Management in Modern Times. Tunis: Mashall publishers, 2009. Print
Jones, Mitchel. The 21st Century Economy. London: Sage, 2005. Print
Miles, Peters. Planning and Decision Making. Boston: Yale Publishers, 2002. Print
Measures of Diagnostic Vaginismus Essay college essay help: college essay help
Vaginismus is a condition when the vagina is unable to engage in any form of the vagina penetration caused by the muscle response. Historically vaginismus has been considered as a psychosomatic problem. Today, a number of researches provide more detailed analysis of this problem that includes such elements as the clarification of diagnosis, etiological, prognostic peculiarities and measures of vaginismus treatment.
The Vaginal Penetration Cognition Questionnaire (VPCQ) (Klaassen and Kuile, 2009) includes 40 items scored on 7-poin scale. Analysis of those items indicated five subscales such as control cognitions, catastrophic and pain cognitions, self-image conditions, positive cognitions and cognitions of the genital incompatibility. This scale demonstrates the differences between women with sexual disorder and without.
The women with vaginismus provide the lower level of the penetration control and high level of painful process and negative self-perception. VPCQ can be considered as a perspective measure that should improve the assessment of the sexual pain disorder.
Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction – Female (GRISS-F) determinated the sexual pain disorder measures as an instruments with a single or a few items (Rust and Golombok, 1986). The researchers used such instruments as the Sexual Experience Scales and the Intimate Bodily Contact Scales.
The questionnaire of the research consisted of 28 items that covers the different sexual dysfunctions. Therefore, the researchers could get the total results of the problems of the sexual functioning, using the concrete answers.
According to the article, this score contained 12 subscale groups, including “erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, female anorgasmia, vaginismus, infrequency of sexual contact, sexual noncommunication, male and female dissatisfaction, male and female nonsensuality, and male and female avoidance of sex” (Rust and Golombok, 1986). Thus, the researchers investigated the presence of sexual dysfunction exploring the samples.
Kuile, Bulte, Weijenborg, Beekman, Melles, and Onghena (2009) provide the analysis of the treatment process, emphasizing the phobic emergence as a cause of sexual pain disorder. Reframing the treatment of vaginismus as a “vaginal penetration phobia”, the researchers suggest therapist-aided exposure as a basement of treatment of this disease. Their approach of investigation included three 2-hours exposure sessions during one week.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This process was self-controlled; therefore the participant provided the vagina penetration experiments by herself. This method is different than other experiments when woman had to follow the instructions of the behavior therapist which motivated her to show the anxiety-provoking penetration stimuli. Besides, the therapist-aided exposure controlled a waiting-list of study (N=50) of patients with lifelong vaginismus.
This investigatment provided the following results: after the exposure week, 80% of the participants were able to have intercourse (nine of the ten women), while the women in the waiting-list demonstrated the absolute absence of recovery (Kuile, Bulte, Weijenborg, Beekman, Melles, and Onghena, 2009). However, after 4 weeks of studying the percentage of responders increased to 96%.
Considering vaginismus as a phobic disorder the researchers developed the new perspectives of this problem treatment. Such instruments provide more promising statistics comparing with the previous investigations. The answer of this research is that vaginismus is a psychosomatic phobic problem that can be successfully treated. This experimental study contained both independent and dependent variables.
The independent variables were caused by the absence of the therapist factors and due to the self-controlled character of the process. The dependent variables contained in the quality of marital relations, age factors and the duration and level of the vaginismus in every particular situation.
Reference List Klaassen, M.
Improving Service Quality Delivery by the Cabin Crew in Air Mauritius Ltd Using TQM Dissertation college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Service quality models
Airline Service quality with emphasis on cabin crew service
TQM tools and approaches used in service improvement initiatives
Introduction Currently, organizational or business success is pegged to quality management. The importance of this process is very vital for any organization that invests in achieving competitiveness today. Certification toward this end such as the International Standards Organization -ISO 9001 is an indication showing that total quality management (TQM) offers an advantage for any business or organization (De Cock and Hipkin 1997).
This is true especially for those organizations or businesses that want to meet the changing needs of their clients. Therefore, it becomes important to understand that this process involves a change in perceptions which eventually affects processes.
Once quality as a defined measure has been clearly understood and incorporated into management and employee perceptions and processes within the organization or business, then total quality management (TQM) can be achieved. Therefore, it remains important to realize that employees and management perceptions are important in determining the successful implementation of TQM.
Resistance to change can be considered as one vital underlying factor that contributes to the success of this process. Additionally, the success of any quality management program has been found to depend on factors such as common vision and established benchmarks, job satisfaction, self-sufficient responsibility, innovativeness, influence, and desire to change.
Change within an organization is most effectively realized if it is implemented based on pilot or phased approach. This gives a real life and practicable assessment of the process as it progresses.
Similarly, quality improvement management can be initiated as a process along departments or through quality improvement teams (QIT) that have the responsibility to set up and run quality assurance and control processes within their respective departments or sections (Leonard and Sasser 1982).
The QIT initiate and manage techniques, standards, and procedures including the associated tools used in assessing the level of quality implemented. Once this has been established, the quality assurance and control process as part of the total quality management process can be implemented.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Customer opinions of the air travel process are significantly shaped by his or her dealings with airline staff and his or her face-to-face contact with him or her (Abrahams 1983). Many airlines perceive the labour crew as frontline ambassadors of the services they offer. Singapore Airlines, for example has constructed its complete the company’s image based on the ‘Singapore girls’.
For the airline industry emotional labour remains an important ingredient for the industry’s success (Gourdin 1988). As such airlines have continued to focus on cabin crew management to identify ways of improving quality. Emotional labour was considered as a major component in the development of a total quality management process (Roberts and Sergesketter 1993).
This was ingrained in the human resource strategies that began in the 1980s. Typically, Jim Carlzon is remembered for introducing a turning point for the Scandinavian Airlines System. Carlzon indicated that the first fifteen seconds of the meeting between the passenger and cabin crew fundamentally defined the Scandinavian Airlines system terms of services.
The cabin crew were and are still considered ambassadors of the airlines where they are employed. As such the first encounter leaves a mind impression on the passenger of the type of airline and quality of service offered. This one impression could determine the passenger loyalty to the airline (Hallowell 1996).
This definitely translates into profits for that particular airline when they gain the confidence of a few hundreds of regular customers (Clutterback and Goldsmith 1998).
Therefore, it is imperative to understand how total quality management (TQM) can be used in improving the cabin crew service quality. This study focuses on this aspect and enumerates if a TQM framework can be viable in establishing quality cabin crew service in the Air Mauritius airline industry.
The literature in this section highlights looks at submissions within the professional and academic spheres related to TQM in the service sector with a focus on the cabin crew service. It is important to understand that the airline industry is governed by various standards. Primary among these are those standards that describe the quality management process within the industry.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Improving Service Quality Delivery by the Cabin Crew in Air Mauritius Ltd Using TQM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality management is considered as the most crucial aspect covering any product or service provision process. Considering that the airline industry is competitive, airlines are putting in place quality management systems to curve for themselves a niche of the ever-growing customer market. The competition is further intensified as service diversity is widely achieved through travel categorization services.
With such a competitive field total quality management frameworks can be adopted within the industry to measure and improve quality standards. The main objective for organizations today involves delivering products and services that satisfy the customer and meet the required quality. It is imperative to implement a total quality management program to attain products or services that portray distinct quality standards.
In general the TQM process involves the proactive consumer throughout the life cycle from the start to the end. The process aims at positively engaging employees to improve the organization’s processes. The quality of the product or service, and process control remain primary to the TQM process. These can be implemented together with the quality assurance and improvement process all of that are needed to satisfy the customer.
Airline services are among the most expensive, and the demand for quality services remains a pertinent consideration for both the airline company and the passenger. Generally, the TQM process relies on internal self control policy.
As such the employees responsible can be allowed to incorporate corrective measures to the processes they carry out. This enables the company to address the customer needs proficiently. Broadly total quality management may include a quality management process guided by the need to achieve customer satisfaction. Alternatively TQM may involve ways of implementing participative management within the organization.
This understanding has distinguished Japanese organizations from American ones (Hiam 1992). The former focus on customer satisfaction to implement TQM programs. The latter concentrates on non conference and employee needs to meet the requirements for every process. Total quality management (TQM) will also cover improvement and assurance processes.
Quality assurance focuses on the organization’s attainment of pre-established standards. Quality improvement is the process intended to meet customer expectations. Quality assurance encompasses all inputs that make a particular process efficient.
This is supposed to guarantee good quality service or products for the customer. The procedure implements a measurement of the service product versus the process and performance conditions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Improving Service Quality Delivery by the Cabin Crew in Air Mauritius Ltd Using TQM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the 1970s and 80s companies around the world were striving to beat low trade, downsizing, deregulation, and improved consumer prospects. During this period, most companies incurred substantial losses. During and after this period total quality management (TQM) gained more attention.
Japan made strides when companies began to focus on TQM. Eventually, TQM as a process provided the framework that could be scientifically determined and improved based on data that could be collected. This eventually led to improved processes and products for those companies that painstakingly implemented the total quality management framework.
The process also introduced tools and techniques that could be used to improve processes and products. Quality was henceforth considered important for such organizations regardless of whether it was a service or a product. Implementing TQM caused Japanese companies’ product demand to improve worldwide.
The Japanese industrial success forced America to reassess their industrial culture giving focus to quality (Hunt 1992). The aspect of total quality management cannot be underestimated, especially while looking at high cost service industries like the airlines industry.
Ultimately TQM from the airline industry point of view can best be discussed as a system for integrating the quality development, maintenance, and improvement as concerns various components of the airline system. This is intended to enable services at the most economical level are therefore able to achieve customer satisfaction.
Airline companies have a greater role to play in meeting the needs and expectations of the passengers. It is unarguable that passengers are a prime component in the success of the airline industry. Therefore, the more people who fly, the higher the returns accruable to the airlines. This also translates to more revenue for the regulatory bodies and agencies.
Toward this end therefore meeting passenger expectations is not only the airline’s role but will also involve other stakeholders as well. A particular focus on cabin crew service within the process of TQM would require a number of considerations. This requires an inclusion of a rigorous pursuant of standardization of the cabin crew jobs that will also require a careful analysis of the tasks and functions.
This requires that work be compartmentalized and assigned o respective groups of people each of which performs a defined task. Although there may be diverse industrial processes to product or service provision, the general TQM framework remains the same for all these processes. This is because quality remains the underlying factor regardless of the process under focus.
Among the known researchers was Joseph Jablonski who identified the basic characteristics necessary for TQM to succeed in any industry (Jablonski 1992). These factors encompass continuous process improvement, participative management, and use of teams.
According to Jablonski (1992), the success attributes to a TQM program that can also apply to the airline industry include the process focus wherein particular cabin crew services are under focus, fact-based decision making where the cabin crews make decision based on facts gathered previously and used to build a facts base that can be relied upon.
An exhaustive analysis of TQM in the airline industry with particular focus on cabin crew service is necessary to expound on service quality.
Service quality models Gronroos 1990 defines service as relating to performance or experiences provided by equipment or personnel. Vargo and Lusch (2004), indicate a close-knit relationship between goods and services. However, according to Vargo and Lusch (2004), services are defined as the process of applying specialized competences through processes to benefit an entity. However, research on service quality began in the 1980s (Oliver 1993).
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985), were able to postulate service quality’s strong impact on business performance.
Guru (2003), Newman (2001), and Silvestro and Cross (2000), indicated that service quality also showed in lower costs and consumer satisfaction leading to loyalty.
Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml (1991), postulated that service quality would be described as the gap between the perceptions and expectations of the consumer against the service performance. The study here borrows from a library of literature related to various aspects that contribute to the TQM process. As such there is an urgent need to understand in brief that various service quality models pertinent to this study.
These models will be evaluated considering their suitability to application in the cabin crew service in the airlines industry. As noted earlier the quality management process has generic considerations pertinent to any process regardless of whether it is a product or service provision process.
Such are the components that will be considered within this study. Various service models have been known to exist. Infact a total of nineteen are known so far although the study will limit the focus on those that can be applicable to the cabin crew service.
Gro¨nroos (1984), provided the technical and functional quality model of service quality. The basis of this service model was the understanding that a company can only compete successfully if it has understood the customer’s perception of quality and the manner of influencing the service quality.
Therefore, fundamental to this model is the management of service quality as aligned to equate to the anticipated and apparent service all intended to satisfy the consumer. Critically this model’s requirements can fit into the cabin crew service where the airline industry critically assesses what the passenger presumes as quality.
Once this has been carefully identified, the airline company management proceeds to model their cabin crew service along these perceptions. This process should include a benchmarking process to ensure that the alignment of the service provided meets or surpasses the benchmark. Ultimately the process can be benchmarked along world standards to cover the technical and functional qualities, and image.
According to Gro¨nroos (1984), technical quality focuses on the what of the process while the functional quality focuses on the how of the process. These are contributors to the image that can be aligned to the perceived service quality.
Of course the perceived service quality receives input from the expected service that traditionally includes the marketing activities like public relations, advertisement, and pricing; perceived services that can be based on the industry’s concept.
Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml (1985), proposed the GAP service model. In this model service quality is determined as the difference or gaps involving quality, consumer, and management expectations, and perceptions. Gap one involves a determined consumer expectation versus management perceptions. This brings out a lack of understanding of what the consumer expected.
Gap two defines the management’s perception of the consumer anticipations and service quality conditions. This brings out the inappropriate service quality standards. Gap three involves service delivery and communication with the consumer about the service to determine if the promise matches the delivery. Gap four typically covers the service quality perception against the service delivered.
This portrays a service performance gap. Gap five highlights the disparity between consumers’ expectations and the apparent service. This gap is dependent on the magnitude and projection of the other four gaps that determine the service quality delivery from the marketer’s standpoint (Frost and Kumar 2000).
Haywood-Farmer (1988), postulated the attribute service quality model. The model stated that service organization such as an airline company has high quality when it meets the consumer prospects consistently. Accordingly the attributes of a service based on this model will encompass professional judgment, people behaviour, and processes.
According to Haywood- Farmer 1988 different service setting types can be mapped to the model. Those services low in labour intensity and customer contact customization map accurately to the facility and procedure components of the attribute service quality model.
Brogowicz, Delene and Lyth (1990), proposed the synthesized model of service quality. The model assumes that a service quality differential can be present even when the consumer has not received the service but acquired information about the service through other avenues like advertisement or media communications.
Accordingly Brogowicz et al. (1990), asserted that there is need to consider expected customer perceptions of service quality of his or her real perceptions of service delivery. The model combines the managerial structure, service design, and the associated operations, and promotional activities.
This model attempts to map the service quality to traditional management framework. This model covers company representation, outside influences, and conventional marketing activities. These are factors that influence technical and functional quality prospects.
Cronin and Taylor (1992), postulated the performance only model that incorporates the conceptual perspective of service quality and how it relates to consumer satisfaction. Cronin and Taylor (1992), based their argument on Parasuraman framework.
The postulation further stated that service quality is a concept akin to attitude and this can be operationalized. Toward this end Cronin and Taylor (1992), asserted that performance as opposed to performance expectation can determine service quality.
Mattsson (1992), postulated the ideal value model of service quality. This model focused on a value methodology to service quality. Initially studies indicated an expectation as a belief of the derived attributes as the measure of evaluation. This model focused on value-based representation of service quality using an ideal standard to which an experience can be compared.
Berkley and Gupta (1994), proposed the IT alignment model (Spencer and Leslie 1998). This was because initial investments in IT only focused on productivity and efficiency disregarding customer service. This model attempted to link service and organizational information strategies. Accordingly the model identifies the suitable opportunities for applying IT to improve service quality.
Dabholkar 1996 suggested the attribute and overall affect model (Dabholkar 1996). This model focused on the technology-based self-service processes. This model is related to the consumer expectations. It focuses on the cognitive approach to decision making.
The model focuses on consumer compensatory process to assess the features of a technological-oriented consumer initiated service option. The overall affect model covers the consumers’ feelings toward technology use.
Spreng and Mackoy (1996), proposed a model of perceived service quality and satisfaction. The model focuses on how perceptions of desired performance expectations, disconfirmation, and customer contentment affect customer service quality.
Sweeney, Soutar, and Johnson (1997), proposed the retail service quality and perceived value model (Sweeney et al. 1997). This model consisted of two sub-models. The first sub-model proposes that product quality and price affect value perceptions. Additionally, practical and technical service quality views also affect the value perceptions (Sweeney et al. 1997).
The second sub-model proposes that in addition to practical service quality opinions directly control consumers’ enthusiasm to purchase the service (Sweeney et al. 1997).
Oh (1999), proposed a service quality model covering the consumer’s value and approval. The model highlights the post purchase assessment process. It can be evident from the model that customer value contributes to the post purchase decision making process. The model provides the connection between customer satisfaction and repurchase intention.
Frost and Kumar (2000), postulated the internal service quality model. The focus was on a large service company like an airline company. This model analyzes the dimensions and relations that can determine service quality.
Airline Service quality with emphasis on cabin crew service Service quality has been adopted by the airlines industry to gain competitively. Singapore Airlines for example is consistently recognized as the world’s best airline excels in business class, cabin crew service, in-flight food, punctuality, and safety among other ranking parameters. Inevitably the airline is also considered as one of the most profitable.
A careful analysis of the reason behind this performance reveals a senior management team that continues to strive to maintain quality with a focus on customer satisfaction. Presumably the TQM program at Singapore Airlines can hardly overlook customer satisfaction.
The high rankings in each of these categories indicate Singapore Airline’s conscious effort to peg its service quality on customer satisfaction and no necessarily on profitability. Air Mauritius can also induct their cabin crew to service quality process to attain exemplary results.
The proverbial is therefore true for Singapore Airlines where a satisfied passenger is a returning passenger. This aspect is reflected in the soaring profits at Singapore Airlines (Clutterback and Goldsmith 1998).
This literature review highlights a small portion of the research that has been carried out and continues to date on service quality as part of the total quality management process in the service sector. Likewise Air Mauritius is likely to benefit immensely from adopting a TQM program to govern its operations. At this point it can be inferred that a definition of quality is tedious.
This is largely so because quality, especially in the service industry in dependant on customer perception (Juneja, Ahmad and Kumar 2011). As such there may also be no known standard definition because perception is dependent on other secondary factors such as culture and economics (Cronin and Taylor 1992).
Implementing the requirements for TQM in any process requires the understanding of the principles of TQM. Therefore, it suffices at this point to mention these principles in brief. Notably these are avenues by which TQM can be incorporated in any process.
Since the focus of this study assumes TQM in the service sector and particularly the airline industry cabin crew service, it will be necessary to highlight only those areas considered relevant to this study. It is vital at this point indicate TQM tools and approaches used in the service improvement initiative. Generally TQM is based on managerial commitment employee empowerment and fact-based decision making process.
This is aimed at encouraging a continuous improvement process that is consumer-oriented. The question at this point is if TQM can be applied to the service sector (Juneja1, Ahmad and Kumar 2011; Sit, Ooi, Lin and Chong 2009). According to Milakovich (1995), there have been an increased acceptance and use of TQM in the service industry.
This means that it is economically noble to implement. TQM in the Air Mauritius Company to enhance service quality and increase profitability. According to Cronin and Taylor (1992), assert that there remains a greater challenge in exhaustively understanding service quality when the customer perception is involved. However, the general understanding is that quality is customer-oriented. Once quality is identified, it is evaluated.
TQM tools and approaches used in service improvement initiatives Cronin and Taylor (1992), derived an alternative instrument that could measure performance (SERVEPERF) because service quality could be equated to attitude. Other instruments were also proposed. Such included QUALITOMETRO by Franceschini and Rosetto.
The quality function deployment by professor Akao gained popularity during this period. Applications of TQM remained limited to the manufacturing industries. Because service products are perishable, they are demand driven. As such a service organization time considered of assessable quality.
When using these tools to determine TQM and specifically service quality in the service industry it is notable that the customer is frequently involved. This introduces an unpredictable influence on the process (Teas 1994). However, for the service sector the implementation of a TQM may involve a number of steps. The formulation of a service quality strategy.
Once the strategy is in place an evaluation of the service process is pertinent after which the quality measurement can be defined. The next step would be to establish the process control system. This is necessary to identify the quality determining components of the process. Upon these components improvement strategy can be applied. This will contribute eventually to the total service quality.
Accordingly the success of implementing the TQM depends on the organizational culture (De Cock, and Hipkin 1997). Open systems are flexible and quickly can embrace change. As such these systems definitely would benefit from the TQM program.
Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1994), outlined the fundamental considerations to manage TQM implementation within the service industry. On identifying the tasks to be performed, the company can develop the essential management structures to support the TQM process.
Eventually strategies for attaining commitment and facilitated communication of the change can follow during when the needed resources can be assigned. It may not be sufficient to provide a quality product satisfying a consumer. The consumer will also derive satisfaction from what accompanies the product. This is particularly true within the service sector such as the airline industry.
The passenger in this case focuses on the service product quality and the quality of the service process. As such the passenger looks to the wholeness of the transaction involving the cabin crew and the passenger particularly the passenger is considering the expectations experience and service outcome and the delivery of regular service.
This review is only complete if the researcher also considers some characteristic weaknesses for a number of service models. The technical and functional quality model does not explain how to measure technical and functional quality although they are considered as important features of the model. This is likely to affect the empirical value of the model, especially in determining service quality.
The gap models provide no measurement procedures to determine the gaps for the various levels (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry 1985). The performance only model is limited in application to a few service settings. It may therefore not be precise, especially when considering quantitative relationship focused on service quality against consumer satisfaction.
The attribute service quality model does not measure service quality and therefore lacks in providing the procedure capable of managing service quality problems (Cronin and Taylor 1992). The IT alignment model only focuses on the IT impact on service quality. The model lacks in procedures to measure or evaluate service quality.
The attribute and overall affect model is limited and needs to be generalized for various consumer initiated service preferences (Berkley and Gupta 1994). Demographic variables are not considered within this model. The ideal value model of service quality is limited in the number of items used to cover customer satisfaction and value.
The internal service quality model is specific but must be generalized to include different types of internal environments. The literature review has just mentioned in part the various service quality models and their general importance. The models highlighted are suitable for application even in the airline industry.
This is important because service quality is considered as a critical component in the airline industry. Focusing on cabin crew service as one of the services as one of the service components in the airline industry it can be concluded that service quality models can apply to attain quality.
Because cabin crew service involves the passenger, the airline industry can focus on defining TQM from a customer-oriented perception (De Cock and Hipkin 1997). It is unarguable that cabin crew represents the company’s frontline representatives, a passenger’s perception of quality critically depends on their satisfaction and perception of the service rendered.
Towards this end the company’s management can utilize some of the service quality models mentioned in this review to evaluate the service quality. The airline company must have customer satisfaction and perception of quality at the core of their cabin crew service. In this arrangement the company is able to maintain service quality and eventually increase profitability (De Cock and Hipkin 1997).
Air Mauritius like all other world airlines cannot overlook the gains that come from the company implementing TQM. The company’s processes can be benchmarked against the world standards. The cabin crew service strategy can be re-evaluated to induct TQM program.
This will require a radical definition and understanding of the customer requirements. Cabin crew service quality must align to customer perception and satisfaction as defined by the various service quality models.
Conclusion The literature review reveals that service quality is a significant consideration within the service sector. With such an understanding Air Mauritius can define a TQM for the cabin crew service by using some of the highlighted service quality models. The passenger satisfaction and perception remain important consideration in implementing TQM process to enhance service quality at Air Mauritius.
Related studies in a similar service sector indicate increased profitability for airline companies like British Airways, and Singapore Airlines. These companies are currently highly ranked because of implementing TQM. An increased focus on the passenger satisfaction and perception are the core of their TQM programs.
Air Mauritius has the option of implementing the available TQM tools to carefully identify and measure pertinent data from the cabin crew service (Abrahams 1983). The results can be benchmarked to known international standards and a process improvement procedure initiated to enhance service quality.
Reference List Abrahams, M., 1983. A service quality model of air travel demand: An empirical study. Transportation Research, 17A (5), pp. 385-393.
Berkley, B.J. and Gupta, A., 1994. Improving service quality with information technology. International Journal of Information Management, 14, pp.109-121.
Brogowicz, A.A., Delene, L.M. and Lyth, D.M., 1990. A synthesized service quality model with managerial implications. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 1(1), pp. 27-44.
Clutterback, D. and Goldsmith, W., 1998. Customer care versus customer count. Managing Service Quality, 8(5), pp. 327-338.
Cronin, J.J. and Taylor, S.A., 1992. Measuring service quality: A re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 6, pp. 55-68.
Dabholkar, P.A., 1996. Consumer evaluations of new technology-based self-service operations: An investigation of alternative models. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(1), pp. 29-51.
De Cock, C. and Hipkin, I., 1997. TQM and BPR: Beyond the beyond myth. Journal of Management Studies, 34(5), pp. 659-661.
Frost, F.A. and Kumar, M., 2000. INTSERVQUAL: An internal adaptation of the GAP model in a large service organization. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5), pp. 358-77.
Gourdin, K., 1988. Bringing quality back to commercial travel. Transportation Journal, 27(3), pp. 23-29.
Gro¨nroos, C., 1984. A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), pp. 36-44.
Guru, C., 2003. Tailoring e- service quality through CRM. Managing Service Quality, 13(6), pp. 20-53.
Hallowell, R., 1996. The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability: An empirical study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(4), pp. 27-42.
Haywood-Farmer, J., 1988. A conceptual model of service quality. International Journal of Operations
Cognitive Science and Language Development Research Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction Why is it that some children at a particular age are able to build simplistic structures with blocks, cry when they are upset or use rudimentary language skills when trying to communicate while others of the same age are not only able to perform difficult piano concertos but are also able to grasp and apply complex mathematical theorems?
It is interesting to note that all humans are born with the same combination of 46 chromosomes which creates the genetic basis for subsequent growth and development yet if this was so why is it that not all young children develop the exceptional skills noted in the given examples?
As such it is questionable as to what skills and abilities within each individual is innate or what is a direct result of “special characteristics” acquired from unique interactions within a particular environment that facilitated the development of advanced skills at early ages (Steen, 2001).
This is but one aspect of the multifaceted debate that is nature versus nurture which has in fact been going on for hundreds of years with varying accounts and experts indicating their support for one particular view over another.
For example, we have the idea of “tabula rasa” (blank slate) developed by John Locke which states that all individuals are born as blank slates and as such the development of their minds will come about as a direct result of unique sensory experiences resulting in different mental capabilities depending on the degree of sensory exposure within a particular environment (Plomin
Disaster management is planet management Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Disaster management refers to supervision and organization of assets and errands designed for dealing with all humanitarian features of response, vigilance, crisis and resurgence with an aim of diminishing the impact of crisis (Quarantelli 1998). In every community there is a certain type of disaster though the vulnerability differs. The kind of disasters striking these communities differs from; multifaceted emergencies, epidemic emergencies, ecological/environmental emergencies as well as natural disasters.
Any type of disaster can interfere with the vital services in a community hence affecting the social, financial and health networks in a community (Alexander 2002). However most these disaster can be prevented via a number of activities like: – disaster preparedness, disaster recovery and disaster relief.
There is no precision, efficacy; completeness or even reliability in the explained views, proposals, opinion or specifics made. Generally, the content of the text was aimed at putting across important information that can help the community at large.
The text does not at any point give an assurance or credibility on the kind of the data it contains (Quarantelli 1998). This is well shown on the kind words used to explain the data given in the text. For instance, there is no precise figure of the population living in the urban areas and thus, terms like about and approximately are often applied.
According to the research that was conducted on disaster management, it appeared acceptable to make use of words that would in one way or the other give an alert of any arousing facet that may be there.
Terms like can not, may, will, can and should are frequently used in the text pointing out that the author is not certain with the kind of information he gives. On the other hand, words like must are not used in the text indicating that he was sure on the kind of particulars found.
From the content of the text, the priority and message was easily determined. This is because the author put a lot of emphasis on areas that he discussed and the points given could be elaborated easily as he tackled the issues that one is conversant with (Drabek 1986).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The actual information that is put to the public is that some types of damages can easily be prevented despite the challenges that are faced in the effort to diminish them however; other damages especially those caused by natural disasters like those of 2007 mostly wild fires, flooding, hurricanes and earthquakes can not be prevented.
Other important issues discussed in the content are the causes of the disaster in a community one of them being the population of people in a community. The population of people in a given area governs other factors that contribute to a disaster (Drabek 1986).
It was found out that when the number of people increases in a given area, there was a high possibility of that area experiencing drought which in turn results to global disasters. Also on an increased populace, the need for water also increases hence water reduction which is also termed as a global disaster.
Kuepper undertake to relate people water and disasters by stating that according to the report by the world water development, it is predicted that within the next twenty years the amount of water available to everyone is likely to reduce by thirty percent (Creswell 2009). The increase in the number of people, results to decrease in the water capacities hence leading to a disaster.
World population, economy, disaster costs, climatic change and global warming, environmental issues, science and technology, water crises and outlook are all causes of global crisis. This therefore, calls for the community to come up with workable strategies that can help to reduce or else completely do away with the disasters.
There is much relationship between increase and decrease in the text. For instance, the availability of water may decrease with increase in the number of people. This may result from amplification of water usage by the growing population (Alexander 2002).
There is also likelihood of increase in severity of weather related disasters as a result of people engaging in various activities like industrialization which directly interfere with the weather due to poor management of the exhausts. This eventually leads to increased disasters that are weather related.
We will write a custom Report on Disaster management is planet management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the statistical analysis that was carried out on the content provided by the author, it was found out that generally the information was accurate. However, a number of the facts were old as from the year two thousand and four (Creswell 2009).
Looking into the relationship between sign, strength and direction, there is an increased relationship between people and economy in that, the economy in a community is dependent on the management of such crisis like disasters that might strongly determine the direction of the economy.
In the text, the author brought out the community to be lowering economically with time (Alexander 2002).The number of those above poverty line was reducing as the number of people increased. Due to the increased global warming as well as climatic changes, the community was found out to be prone to disasters like weather related disasters, flooding and also drought.
In conclusion, disaster management ought to be looked into in depth to ensure that all possible causes of disaster are diminished. This will eventually help in managing it and at the same time manage the planet.
References Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management.6th ed., Terra Publishing.
Creswell ,J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, And Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed., Sage publications.
Drabek, Thomas E. (1986). Human System Responses to Disaster. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Quarantelli E.L. (1998). Where We Have Been and Where We Might Go In.What is disaster.9th ed.,London.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Disaster management is planet management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Project Management Challenges at the Beijing EAPS Consulting (BEC), Inc. Essay custom essay help
The challenges at Beijing EAPS Consulting (BEC) illustrate the difficulty of co-conducting a project plan without a clear structure showing the roles and responsibilities of each manager. These situations are stressful, not just for the managers concerned but also for the people who work under them.
The first implication of co-conducting a project as viewed from the perspective of the departmental manager is that it reduces the attention of the departmental staff because of the assignments that come from the project manager. This increases their stress levels and reduces their output.
Secondly, it jeopardizes the roles that the department needs to play because the project manager does not have in mind the functional duties of the department. This puts the departmental manager at the risk of coming across as ineffective. Thirdly, there is competition for resources because the department has its own functions, which informs the quantity of resources availed. The project manager places demands on these same resources.
When examined from the perspective of the project manager, the following implications come to the fore. First, the project manager comes into the department as an intruder to find a way to get tasks accomplished. This makes the work of assigning tasks difficult because the project manager is not a natural supervisor to the departmental staff, who may find it more sensible to report to the departmental manager.
The second implication is that the project manager, being neither subordinate nor superior to the departmental manager, may fail to know whether a situation calls for consultation with a departmental manager or whether he can go ahead and assign tasks to departmental employees.
These implications arise from the fact that the two managers have a duty to deliver on their individual mandates. To do this, they have to share the resources available without the benefit of a neutral arbiter to ensure that resource allocation is consistent to the organizations objectives.
The two key strengths of the project plan are flexibility and adaptability. Evidence of the flexibility of the plan comes from the fact that the company was able to deliver on its commitments to the clients using only a skeletal staff. The team members fitted into whichever situation the clients presented and delivered according to their needs. This is a valuable trait for a young company that is still defining its place in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second strength is the plan is adaptability. The plan allowed the company to adapt its structure to meet emerging needs and opportunities. This shows in the fact that the company grew its employee numbers from six, to twenty in just about a year. Again, this is a desirable trait for a fast growing company.
The most serious weaknesses evident in the project plan are the fact that there is an unclear reporting structure, and the lack of strategic forethought in the company. The existence of two types of managers at the same level in the company without different resources or at least a resource-sharing plan is a recipe for disaster.
This situation is what is making employees decide on their own what the priorities are, because each manager has a different mandate. It has the potential of demoralizing the team members to the detriment of BEC. On the other hand, BEC seems to lack a strategic plan to guide its growth and development.
Originally, one of its strong attributes was research but is seems to have drifted towards profiteering because of demand. This is a fundamental shift in the focus of the company. Such shifts should not be the result of external forces. They should be part of a deliberate corporate strategy.
One of the most critical team behaviors required to balance out the expansion and management problems at BEC is big picture awareness. Each member of the team at BEC needs to know what the overall picture needs to look like. This alone, regardless of the corporate structure, will make it easier for everyone to know how to prioritize the tasks that come up.
It will make it possible for both the project and departmental managers to agree on the most optimal resource allocation patterns to ensure that organizational priorities do not suffer because of interpersonal conflict. Each manager should strive to ensure that his tasks do not jeopardize the work of the other managers because this reduces organizational effectiveness.
Each member of the team must remain goal driven. The situation at BEC calls for people to take their role seriously and to ensure they fulfill their part in making the company a success. In addition to having a big picture mentality, the next thing each person must do is to make sure that he is playing his part in making the big picture a success.
We will write a custom Essay on The Project Management Challenges at the Beijing EAPS Consulting (BEC), Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thirdly, there is need for the whole team to remain committed to effective communication. The struggle between the managers in the case is the result of waning communication between them.
The company ought to institutionalize effective communication channels to ensure that even if there are interpersonal problems, they do not become an impediment to the entire company. This way, the employees will also have an easier time talking about the struggles that come with reporting to more than one manager.
There is an urgent need for the company to clarify it reporting structure. Depending on its operations, there is a need to make one type of managers to report to the other. Since the company feels that a project management approach is the best way to achieve its goals, then it needs to make the departmental managers junior to the project managers.
This way, the departmental managers will be facilitating the projects as designed by the project manager. It will be easier to assign tasks to the employees and to discuss any problems with a clear reporting hierarchy.
The second issue required for the timely completion of projects is clarification of the project’s priorities to all employees. If the current structure remains, then the departmental staff should have a way of knowing which among the tasks issued by the different managers are key to the timely completion of the project.
This is why it is imperative to keep clarifying the project objectives and the time-critical tasks such as those in the critical path.
It is not clear from the case the monitoring and review mechanisms in place. If these are lacking, there is a need to ensure that there is a means for all staff to know the status of the projects they are working on. This can take the form of weekly briefings and daily updates. In addition, this calls for establishment of formalized communication channels to ensure everyone is on the same page despite personal differences.
One final way to ensure the project ends on time is by the use performance incentives to encourage both staff and managers to deliver on activities in the critical path in a timely manner. These incentives should have the express goal of securing the critical path.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Project Management Challenges at the Beijing EAPS Consulting (BEC), Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Cleland, David. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. Print.
Haynes, Marion E. Project Management: Practical Tools for Success. Ontario: Cengage Learning, 2002. Print.
Lewis, James P. Fundamentals of Project Management. New York, NY: AMACOM, 2007. Print.
Lock, Dennis. Project management. Burlington VT: Gower Publishing, 2007. Print.
Meredith, Jack R and Samuel J Mantel. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. New York, NY: John Wiley, 2005. Print.
Issues in Electronic Commerce Security Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Abstract Trust is an important factor when people are engaging in various transactions over the internet. If this is not met, customers are likely to go back to the traditional methods of transaction as far as business is concerned. Security issues in e-commerce must be addressed so that e-commerce transactions are not compromised.
E-commerce is a simplified and an important avenue for online business but with increasing network insecurity, internet operations may slow down. The author of this paper is going to discuss some pertinent issues surrounding e-commerce as far as security is concerned.
The issues will include insecurity in both network and computer services which is a threat to customers as well as the e-commerce itself. The perpetrators are believed to be hackers and the biggest concern is that insecurity originates from the e-commerce itself. This development may make customers shy away.
The author will also touch on the weaknesses of the security systems in place. Privacy becomes an important factor in e-commerce. Various controversies surrounding e- commerce will be analyzed in this paper. In conclusion, the author will give recommendations arising from the discussions in this paper.
Introduction Electronic commerce involves buying and selling of goods and services over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer applications. Transactions conducted electronically include electronic funds transfer, online transaction processing among many others. Trust at this juncture becomes an important factor in this business.
If trust is not established, customers are likely to revert to traditional methods of trading (Craig
Are criticisms of official development assistance as a source of finance for poorer states well-founded? Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Overview
Key criticisms on the aid
Argument justifying the criticisms
Overview Development assistance or foreign aid is usually taken as either too much or merely wasted on corrupt developing countries in spite of good intentions that donor countries have when issuing them. According to Brainard (2006, p. 6), both the quality and quantity of foreign aid has been below the expectation.
Unfortunately, there are very limited cases when donor countries have been made to account for the afrermath of such aids. It is against this backdrop that there has been growing debate over the validity of most foreign aid in spite of the good purpose they are intended to.
Foreign aid is usually remitted to recipient countries using various modes and channels. For instance, these aids may be made available to the needy countries through military assistance, use of humanitarian agencies alongside using government and non-government agencies.
Additionally, foreign aid has been considered as one of the techniques that can help developing countries curb poverty and in particular, achieve the commonly known Millennium Development Goals.
Foreign aid to needy countries is not a recent development. In 1970s, for instance, the world’s richest nations agreed to donate approximately 0.7 percent of their Gross National Income for official development aid to third world countries. This initiative was to be undertaken on a yearly basis in order to cushion lowly performing economies against economic factors such as inflation.
As such, criticism on the fact that governments in developing countries do not use the aid appropriately has quite often been the subject of discussion among opponents of foreign aid. For instance, the aid that was given during this period of time had a worrying outcome. It was found that only less than five percent of donor recipients met their development targets.
Realistically speaking, such failures may not be fully attributed to poor management of foreign aid in developing economies. Indeed, the donor governments also tend to lack proper mechanisms on how to advance funds and which particular projects to target.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, a number of donors are believed to have failed to honor their pledges long after they laid down promises. According to Browne (2006, p.111), the United States is rated as one of the major donors of the dollars but also the poorest in meeting 0.7% which is the stated target.
According to some opponents of foreign aid to vulnerable states, there is usually price attached to these dispatches. For instance, Brainard (2006, p. 6), argues that the aids given by donors do not usually reach the poorest countries. Instead, only those countries which are willing to part away with certain returns end up benefiting from the foreign aid initiative.
Hence, those countries that are ready to give something in return to the donors are highly likely to be the sole targets of foreign aid. Needless to say, this results into wastage of resources on the condition that the recipient countries should only use goods and services from the donor nations which are often overpriced.
Moreover, criticism on the aid can be justified on the basis that aid resources are usually dwarfed by rich nation’s protectionism. This is because the poor countries are denied right to access foreign markets. On the other hand, donors make use of foreign aid to gain market accessibility to their products.
Furthermore, notably grand projects or long term strategies on most cases fail to assist the vulnerable populations as a result of embezzlement of foreign aid (Hayter, 1971, p. 87). At this point, we are compelled to agree with the fact that misuse of foreign aid has been a chronic challenge over the years.
For a couple of years now, the International Development Cooperation has been criticized for myriad of reasons. According to Brainard (2006, p. 56), the official development assistance is not only inefficient but also a means through which tax payers money goes to waste. A number of authors have argued that foreign aid can impact negatively on developing countries by hindering development process.
If this is anything to go by, then we are left with no doubt that foreign aid has done more harm than good to young and growing economies bearing in mind that most of them do enter into bilateral and multilateral contracts without thorough scrutiny of hidden clauses that may jeopardize their end of the bargain.
We will write a custom Essay on Are criticisms of official development assistance as a source of finance for poorer states well-founded? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact being that the current radical criticism on foreign aid and the impact they have on third world countries has once again cropped up and this makes scholars to reflect on the issue more. This is currently reflected by intellectuals from the donor nations that Africans need more assistance.
But even though the source and the tone of the criticism are changing, the critics are not coming up with new concepts on the impact of aid on developing countries. For instance, from 1960s the impact of development assistance on poor nations has been under criticism from different proponents of schools of thought.
But on the contrary, the terms of the same debate have not changed for the last half-century. Furthermore, in spite of the criticism, development assistance has remained a major policy instrument in nurturing and forging relations between the North and South (Browne, 2006, p.111).
Key criticisms on the aid For the last half-century, development assistance criticisms have been inspired by three key ideological schools of thought. These ideologies include neo-liberal, neo-Marxist and populist. Currently, vociferous critiques seem to incorporate the three basic schools of thought.
According to the neo-Marxist, aid is only an instrument via which donor countries seek to dominate developing states. Hayter (1971, p. 87), in her book aid as imperialism argues, she argues that aid given by organization for economic co-operation and development and World Bank organization countries only aims at serving and meeting the interest of the donor countries.
Therefore, in support of her views, it can be argued that ODA is an instrument through which leaders of the western countries put their hands and make use of developing nation’s resources. Other critics further adds that aid has contributed towards entrenching on the existing dependence relationship of third world countries on the western nations(Bauer, 1971, p.45).
On the other hand, Traymond Cartier who was one of the pioneers of populist school of thought published an article titled “Beware: France is squandering its money” (Bauer, 1971, p.45), criticized the way France was investing in Africa. He further blamed colonies for France,s economic degradation.
According to the proponents of this school of thought, western nations should devote the tax payers’ money on both national priorities and social development instead of wasting their money in providing for infective and corrupt leaders of developing nations. Presently, populist parties still present such like arguments when they are called upon to contribute towards development assistance budgets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Are criticisms of official development assistance as a source of finance for poorer states well-founded? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the neo-liberals, ODA has only contributed towards increasing staff of ineffective and myriad administrators in the developing countries. Additionally, aid only serves the purpose of serving and supporting corrupt leaders of the non-democratic nations. Besides, aid is only issued in donation forms and this stifles self employment, destroys the market in addition to creating dependence among the recipients.
Argument justifying the criticisms In agreement with realists’ views, aid is only a means through which states enhance both their power and wealth. According to Development Assistance Committee (2007, p. 34), aid is an instrument of foreign policy that is motivated by self interest. This is because donors only agree to give aid with an aim of enhancing their sphere of influence.
Based on the neo-realist ideologies, it can be argued that nations only seek to secure their survival and security in the developing countries through the aids (Waltz 1979). Hence, aid such as ODA is only a mechanism through which donor countries promote both their economic and political interests. This is due to the fact that the aid will enable them to punish, influence or reward other nations (Bauer, 1971, p. 37).
Based on these ideologies, aid is selfish and not motivated by consideration of humanitarian and democratic beliefs and values Waltz (1979, p. 67). Additionally, it is not used as a tool for protecting human rights and fighting poverty in developing countries.
To some extent, it is a mechanism through which western nations try to compensate the developing countries for colonial exploitation. Therefore, the idealist view can be discarded on the basis that it is naive. This is because it dissociates aid not only from its political context but also security one.
But despite criticisms labeled at the aid, international community, the developing nations, the donors and even international organizations have insisted on the importance and the need for increasing and maintaining the volume of aid for developing countries (Martens, 2005, p.645).
Conclusion From the analyzed criticisms, it can be concluded that new financing tool need to be put in place and implemented as well. This will be crucial because any remitted aid will respond positively to the financial need of developing nations in addition to assisting them in dealing with negative effects of climatic change.
Additionally, donors may aptly increase development aid meant for poorer nations largely due to the fact that development assistance occupies a key place in multilateral negotiations in addition to influencing results of a negotiation which in some cases fails when based only on fundamental aspects.
Therefore, based on the validity of some of the criticisms raised by certain schools of thought, it is important to go beyond the school of thoughts’ debates on the international relations as this is the only way through which developing nations will use the aid efficiently and effectively. Additionally, the ineffectiveness of foreign aid can be as a result of corruption and insincerity of donor nations.
Some literature suggests that placing the aid system in a competitive market is the only way through which developing nations can acquire important services and goods from donor nations. Consequently, poor nations will be in position to air their views and select goods and services that suit them best without any pressure from external factors.
References Bauer, P. 1971. Dissent on development: Studies and debates in development economics. London: Weidenfeld
Public Adiministration and Development Essay essay help
The article under consideration is called Regulatory Reform and Governance: A Survey of Selected Developing and Transition Economies and is written by Zhang and Thomas (2009). The article is mainly focused on the problem of public administration and development in developing countries. In this respect, the researchers have conducted their examination of this issue with regard to this public sector.
The work is an empirical observation and statistical analysis of the surveys examining the results of regulatory reforms in developing countries with a transition economy. Using empirical data, the authors have theoretically and practically approached the problem to take measures on the improvement of the situation in the sphere of public administration.
Discussing the problem of regulatory governance in selected developing economies, the researchers have reached the conclusion that institutional environment should be taken into the deepest consideration to support economical and market growth in transition economies. In this regard, the best way to improve the administration system in the country is to introduce a regulatory reform.
Addressing recent survey results, the article provides an evaluation of governance tools, institutions, and policies. While exploring the data, it has been defined that the regulatory reform fails to change the approaches taking a systemic view on public administration and regulatory governance in particular.
Therefore, in order to contribute to the improvement of the situation, a particular emphasis should put on the three aspects: regulatory tools, policies, and institutions. What is more, the researchers propose to integrate efforts and specific theoretical frameworks to promoting the process of reforms.
The researchers have successfully managed to render the essence of the problem and present a balance between empirical and theoretical information.
In this regard, the main hypothesis of the paper is narrowed to the idea that regulatory governance in developing countries largely depends on the awareness of public administration representatives and their efforts in infusing the shifts into institutional reforms. The hypothesis is based on practical information mainly, which is presented in the form of surveys.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article style is attached predominantly to a scientific one, but this does not make the content of the research difficult for understanding and capturing the main ideas. In particular, the researchers subtly approach the problems starting with a general consideration of the problem, explaining the basic concepts, such as regulatory governance and regulatory reforms, and proceeding with the analysis of the empirical evidence.
Analyzing the basis information on the developing countries, the article discloses the results of reform implementation in the countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. Finally, the article presents a list of possible solutions to the facilitation of the reform implementation.
In particular, the authors touch upon such issues as rule-making institutions and processes, regulatory policies and tools promoting regulatory reform. It is also worth saying that the article supplemented with several tables revealing important information about the selected countries with regard to the problems studied.
In general, the article under analysis provides a number of issues for further consideration. In particular, the research throws the light on the problems in developing and transition economies in the field of public administration as well as negative aspects of regulatory governance, influencing the overall situation in society.
Therefore, the article is of a great value for the practitioners in this field, as it accurately presents empirical evidence and how it can be applied in solving problems.
Reference List Zhang, Y.-F., and Thomas, M. (2009). Regulatory reform and governance: A survey of selected developing and transition economies. Public Development and Administration. 29 (4), pp. 330-339.
Liberal Democracy, Anti-Semitism And The Holocaust Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help
Wistrich gives us the reasons why the Nazi party in Germany made Jews the target of their collective rage. It was believed that the Jews were especially inclined toward communism and indeed many of the communist leaders were Jewish in origin. Hitler believed that Marxism was a tool employed by the Jews in a plan to impose their domination upon the whole world1.
While it is true that Karl Marx was ethnically Jewish, and many Marxist and communist leaders, such as Trotsky were also Jewish, there does not exist any evidence to suggest that they were also inclined toward Judaism as a religion. On the contrary Communists were inclined to hate all religion, regarding it as a tool employed by the upper class in order to perpetuate their rule over the lower classes2.
The Nazis held the Jews responsible for Germany’s defeat in the First World War. They charged Jews with war profiteering and political and moral corruption.
Hitler rejected parliamentary democracy as a system of rule because it allowed minorities, such as the Jews, to have disproportionate influence in running the affairs of the country3. The Nazis and other populist political movements in Germany believed that the Jews had undue influence in the country through their prominent positions in the media and the financial system4.
Lewis takes a look at Anti-Semitism throughout the ages. He points out that in the medieval period, European attacks on Jews were based on Christian theology; Jews were accused of Deicide and were targeted by the Christian communities in which they lived, as enemies of Jesus Christ.
During the renaissance, the role of Christianity in society was considerably reduced; this however did not mean an end to the hostility against Jews. Anti-Semitic rhetoric in the post-renaissance period focused on Jewish ethnic and racial differences with the non-Jewish population5.
According to Hobbes, the state of nature is that of constant warfare and strife among different entities. Being a product of nature, Humans are subject to the same impulses and motivations which drive animals to make war upon one another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Accord to Hobbes peace and order among Humans can only be established by Human governments within the confines of collective entities or nations. This order is imposed through coercion and through limits placed on the freedom of action of individuals. Also a shared set of norms and values is a necessity for establishing peace.6
According to Hobbes, at the level of different nations there cannot be permanent peace; nations can only be perpetual conflict with one another though the intensity of the conflict may be reduced. This is because at the international level there exists no supreme force that may coerce nations into adopting a certain standard of behavior. Different nations have different norms and hold different sets of values7.
According to this theory, it is simple to understand why the Jews faced hostility wherever they reside. It is the very fact that Jews thought of themselves as a separate nation with a separate agenda and different set of collective interests, and held on to a different set of norms and moral values than the non-Jewish communities in which they resided, which repeatedly made them the target of collective hatred.
Different prevailing ideological currents of the times made the rhetoric applied different; however the underlying conflict always remained the same.
I believe that it is quite possible for two or more ethnic communities to live peacefully in a single nation. This however is only possible if the two ethnic groups regard think of themselves, primarily as members of the same nation.
In situations where two or more ethnic communities living together in a country consider each other to be members of different nations, there is bound to be conflict between them. A laissez faire liberal democratic system is inadequate in preventing concentration of power within a minority of the population, which is why we need to have restrictions on influence peddling and the creation of media monopolies etc.
Bibliography Hitler, Adolf. “Nation and Race.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 68-81. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
We will write a custom Assessment on Liberal Democracy, Anti-Semitism And The Holocaust specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lewis, Bernard. “Anti-Semites.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 17-41. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics: A History of Moral Philosophy from the Homeric Age to the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998.
McLellan, David. Marx Before Marxism. London: Macmillan, 1980.
Wistrich, Robert S. “From Weimar to Hitler.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 44-67. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
Footnotes 1 Wistrich, Robert S. “From Weimar to Hitler.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 44-67. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
2 McLellan, David. Marx Before Marxism. London: Macmillan, 1980.
4 Hitler, Adolf. “Nation and Race.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 68-81. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Liberal Democracy, Anti-Semitism And The Holocaust by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 5 Lewis, Bernard. “Anti-Semites.” In The Holocaust: A Reader, edited by S. Gigliotti and B. Lang, 17-41. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
6 MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics: A History of Moral Philosophy from the Homeric Age to the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998.
Positive Behavioral Supports Thesis cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Origins of Positive Behavior Support
Positive Behavior Support: A Three Tier Continuum
Challenges Faced While Implementing Positive Behavior Supports
Advantages of Implementing Positive Behavior Supports
Managing Disruptive Behaviors through Positive Behavior Supports
Introduction Education 50 years ago was not what it is like today. Schools today are confronted with a vast amount of issues. Within those issues are student achievement, school violence, lack of parental support, and behavioral concerns within the school community and in the classrooms.
Bowen (n.d.) found that various studies have shown that students who act up in school express a variety of reasons for doing so. Some think that teachers don’t care about them and others don’t want to be in school at all while many don’t consider goal setting and success in school important anymore.
Despite these hurdles, students agree that discipline is needed in schools. One high school student stated: “If there were no discipline, the school would not be distinguished from the street.”
Bennett (1999) states that most surveys show that Americans complain that too many schools are disorderly, undisciplined places. How much are students really learning when the main focus in our schools today is student behavior and discipline?
Many different programs have been presented to schools in efforts to help alleviate some of the discipline problems found in schools and in the classrooms. PBIS (2009) states that “a major focus for current policy and systems change efforts in education is the extent to which states are investing in practices and procedures that are supported by rigorous research evidence.”
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a research-based theory that supports the idea that a student’s behavior can be changed if a full understanding of the child is gained. Through positive interventions students are able to reduce the negative behavior and increase the more desirable one.
This literature review will examine the literature related to Positive Behavior Support, its foundations and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing PBS.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Origins of Positive Behavior Support Positive Behavior Support is relatively new to the scene of school reform because it was mainly known as behavior modification for special education students who displayed difficult behaviors.
The origins of PBS can be traced back to the theory of Applied Behavior Analysis, an expansion of the operant conditioning theory first developed by B.F. Skinner, the American psychologist. A survey performed by Frey (2006) of four hundred teachers revealed that teachers felt that operant conditioning was effective at managing behavior of both groups and individual students.
Positive Behavior Support: A Three Tier Continuum It is important to express that like academic forms of instruction, students also require different levels of behavioral interventions and different types of support in order to do well in school.
Positive Behavior Support focuses on three key levels within a continuum, according to Nelson, Hurley, Synhorst, Epstein, Stage
Waste Management in Rye Facility Case Study essay help online free
Executive Summary Waste materials from the domestic and commercial sector pose various challenges to the environment. They also inflate domestic and organisational budgets. This paper discusses the challenges of waste management with reference to Rye Waste Management Facility. The facility is located is situated in Australia within Mornington Peninsula, Shire municipality.
The facility receives MSW from both domestic and commercial sectors. It has systems of waste management involving recycling and composting green wastes. Above 50% of wastes received at Rye facility comprises green wastes from commercial and domestic sources.
Therefore, two cost saving opportunities are recommended. The first opportunity involves a reduction of pre-consumption green wastes while the second is a reduction of post-consumption wastes including biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.
Introduction Increasing urban population causes an alarming increase in waste material production. World Bank (2013) confirms the severity of solid wastes in urban areas by claiming that urban centres had about 2.9 billion people ten years ago, with each person producing an average of 0.64 kg of MSW (municipal solid waste) per day. This figure amounts to about 0.68 billion tonnes of MSW annually.
With the onset of the high increase in the consumption of mass-produced manufactured products, the urban population has not only increased currently. Waste production per individual urban resident has also increased. World Bank (2013) reveals that the population of urban centre residents is about 3 billion, with each person producing about 1.2 kg of waste materials on a daily basis.
Upon projecting these statistics in 10 years to come, by 2025, the world urban population will have grown to about 4.3 billion with a corresponding increase of wastes production of up to 1.42 kg per individual on a daily basis. This situation will amount to close to 2.2 billion tonnes of MSW annually.
To mitigate this challenge, urban centres need to reduce this amount of waste production while incorporating appropriate strategies for effective waste management within their waste management facilities. This paper discusses how this goal can be achieved with reference to Rye waste management facility in Australia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background Information Rye is one of the Mornington Peninsula Shire municipality landfills. Landfills are “used for waste management purposes such as temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste materials” (Diaz, Chiumenti, Savage
Marketing Plan of Apple Inc Company Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Apple’s Financial Overview The Apple Company has enjoyed stable growth over the last five years with the highest growth rate recorded in the year 2011. Reflectively, the company’s revenues have steadily increased from 48,678 million dollars in 2009 to 170,910 million dollars by the year 2013. Fortunately, the company has not experienced any loss over the five year period.
The profit for the company has increased steadily over the half decade period with the highest profit recorded in 2012 at 68,662 million dollars. The stock prices have also been on an upward trend with the highest price recorded in 2012 at 644 per share.
From the above overview, it is apparent that the Apple Company has experienced steady growth over the years, despite the serious economic meltdown of 2009 (Google Finance, 2013). This is summarized in appendix 1.
Current Marketing Situation Consumer segment
The Apple retail model targets user consumers who form the majority of its market catchment. Since this target group frequents Apple distribution store, Apple will be in a position to conveniently direct the customers to their designated delivery points and stores without having to directly deliver the products. The company should merge the strategy with advertisements since this group of consumers has access to social media.
Due to exposure to information sources such as new papers, television, radio, and magazines, product announcement through these avenues will come in handy. Decision on the best product relies on information feedback after multiple exposures to different competing products.
As forecasted in the market research, this strategy will be successful towards dominance as it offers a variety of options to consumers, while at the same time, maximizing benefits of economies of scale to the company (Jobber, 2012).
The Apple Company may partner which medium businesses retailing products similar to those of its competitors. This strategy will expand its market and make it easy for customers to access the products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to attract this segment, the company may offer free delivery, delivery products on credit, and series of discount on the basis of the sales volumes achieved by these retailers. When properly implemented, the company is likely to counter the Samsung strategy of reaching the customers through proxy retailers (Jobber, 2012).
Targeting Apple Company is currently the leading Personal Computer (PC) retailer in the global computer arena and offers some of the latest and most advanced personal computers and smart phones. Every household consists of potential customers of Apple Company since computers and phones have become a daily necessity. Recent studies indicate that the majority of this population recognizes the need for affordable, efficient and reliable PC.
Thus, the most attractive segment to enter for the company would be a business segment to make the product easily available to the customers. This strategy will steadily expand the company’s market in all the continents without having to incur the cost of renting retail premises. Besides, the company will be in a position to micro manage its operations from a single distribution point (Jobber, 2012).
Positioning Strategies In the overcrowded global market for PCs, product positioning is directly linked to the success in the short and long term, especially for the Apple products. In order to achieve the desired goals, Apple should position itself to emphasize the difference between its products and those of its competitors.
In order to diversify market operations, Apple Company should continue to create multiple brands through its innovative team in order to keep the company ahead of the other competitors such as Samsung, Nokia, and Motorola. This will create an environment of own competition and blocked other competitors from encroaching into the company’s local and global market (Jobber, 2012).
Product Review Product development entails the innovation process aimed at modeling the existing product or improving on it to balance with the changing preferences of the customers. As a result, the older version will be phased out of the market as preferences change (Apple Inc, 2012). As a matter of fact, Apple is the leading company in the PC industry in terms of design and innovation.
The company is associated with new innovations and attractive designs that appeal to their customers across the world. The Apple Inc Company has benefited from this strategy in terms of market expansion, especially among its early adopter customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Plan of Apple Inc Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, through product development, the Apple Inc Company has been in a position to optimally exploit opportunities available in the innovation market segment and has gained a significant share in the mobile PCs market at the global level (Jobber, 2012).
Competitive Review The 5Ps of marketing mix is defined by Product, Place, Price, Promotion, and People as part of market segmentation. The Apple’s iTunes, iPhone apps, and iPad apps give the company a competitive advantage over its competitions since the company is in a position to create a barrier for its competitors by proliferation the products.
For instance, this strategy was beneficial for the Apple Inc Company when it became the first company in the world to provide online music services through its creative iPod and iTunes products. As the first in the online music service, the company reaped from the first mover advantage and expanded to countries such as China, UK and South Africa (Apple Inc, 2012)
Apple’s strategy in marketing its products relied on the assertion that “products don’t just perform, they actually exhibit behavior” (Jobber, 2012, p. 34). This exhibits the nature of niche marketing by focusing on utmost premium quality that customers demand or may not know that they require at that time.
The company emphasized on creating trends and affordable prices. Apple’s iPad and iPhone series have become a symbol of status and culture across the global PC industry (Apple Inc, 2012).Moreover, the company may enter into strategic partnership with other companies to advertise its products.
In order to boost the revenues for the company through increased market share, it is vital to review latest market data on customer preference in the market segment. Thus, through effective advertisement, the target segment is projected to increase their purchase of the Apple products.
Channel and Logistics Review The company has developed a highly structured marketing distribution channels that operate independently of the mother company. As a result, the company has been in a position to capture the fastest growing markets such as France, the UK, China, and Japan, where the innovative and stylistic design of Apple iPhone 4 has become a household name.
As a matter of fact, Apple Company’s stores have improved on their performance to $19.1 billion as of the year 2012. The establishment of many stores outside America has pushed the revenues of the company by 17%. At present, “the Apple stores are a key part in major cities. There is a community effect that’s quite powerful” (Jobber, 2012, p. 28).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan of Apple Inc Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The product development variables at the Apple Inc Company are connected at the central point of strategic planning which encompasses costing, speed, quality, flexibility, and dependability that create a smooth continuous operation tracking model that operates like computer from one segment to another in the competitive PC industry.
Therefore, the major part of the success puzzle for operations management strategy delivery operates on the periphery of the soft skills involving the timeless vision of organizational principles, defining value of the business, determining requirements, clarifying the vision, building teams, mitigating task, resolving issues, and providing direction as incorporated in the operations management system of Apple Company (Jobber, 2012).
The corporate strategies of the company are based on production, marketing, human resource, and efficiency monitoring units that are distributed to meet the global business standards. Apple has been able to open an average of 40 stores per year across the world since 2003.
This is a clear indicator of growth in the company’s market share. This has been made possible through the introduction of the unique iPhone brand that has won the heart of customers across the world. Through modification of the iPhone brand of the Apple Company products, the company has been declared “the fastest international roll out” (Apple Inc, 2012, par. 21).
Through this, the company’s revenues have grown by 32%. In the year 2008, the 3GS iPhone introduced by the company became available in more than 64 countries within three months (Apple Inc, 2012). This was possible due to the presence of an organized market distribution channel.
Appendix: Apple’s 5 year Financial Performance Years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Revenue 48,678 65,225 108,249 156,508 170,910 Profit 23,678 25,684 43,818 68,662 64,304 Profit Margin 23.2 24.1 25.2 26.3 24.1 Growth Rate 4.3 48.1 45.3 34.1 32.6 Stock Price 213.95 326.66 426.70 644.00 549.42 (Source: Google Finance, 2013)
References Apple Inc. (2012). Business Application Development. Retrieved from https://www.apple.com/business/
Google Finance. (2013). Apple’s Financial Performance. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=nasdaq:aapl
World Regional Geography:Central America Report (Assessment) essay help online
Map comparison As portrayed by the map of Central America characterized by varied climatic conditions, it is apparent that the physical geography of this region has played a big role responsible in modifying the climatic conditions of the same. As such, the climatic conditions of specific regions offset each other displaying unique climatic conditions to totally unique regions.
Basically, the Northern part of Central America is characterized by arid and semiarid climatic conditions with precipitation not exceeding 50 mm. However, with the presence of Plateau of Mexico that cut across this region the climatic conditions has greatly been modified. As such, just on the plateau the region is typified by highland climate that receives rainfall not exceeding 200 mm (Schaefer 302).
Generally, with the presence of a plateau we expect the immediate, adjacent land masses to experience distinct climatic conditions on either side of the same. To this end, one side i.e. the windward side is expected to receive considerable precipitation relative to the other side.
However, for the Plateau of Mexico a totally different climate is observed; it is bordered by arid and semiarid climates even though there is a presence of a water body (Pacific Ocean) on its left.
As the land mass narrows down to the South the presence of ocean currents on either side of the land is the reason behind the climatic conditions. This region is characterized by humid equatorial climate receiving rainfall above 200 mm.
From figures 4-5 and 4-6 of the map of Central American geographical region, one can clearly distinguish between the Mainland and Rimland regions. In essence, these two regions are distinct in both cultural and economic fronts. As regards cultural composition, the Mainland is composed Euro-Amerindian cultural group of Spanish origin that stretches along the western coastal strip to the larger Mexican state.
In the contrary, the eastern costal strip stretching to the coastal strip of Costa Rica and, the Caribbean islands are mostly dominated by Euro-Africans mainly of British, French and Dutch origin. Basically, the population composition is a consequence of slave trade that characterized the region in the early 18th century owing to a dwindling Amerindian population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As regards economic front these regions exhibit utterly dissimilar characteristics. In particular, the agricultural sector is totally different. The Rimland region is distinguished by plantations that grow one type of crop while the Mainland is distinguished by hacienda. Moreover, as opposed to the Rimland the Mainland produce is meant for export and hence largely affected by fluctuating world market prices (MacLeod 678).
The eastern coast just like the Caribbean islands which is typified by plantations (sugarcane and bananas) was initially inhabited by Britons and as such it is distinctively a Rimland region. As regards the origin of the current cultural composition of Central America most of them trace back to their respective colonialists. For instance the Jamaicans speak English and owe much of their culture to Britons their former colonialist.
The same goes to Haiti nationals who share a lot with French. Also, the Mexicans share a lot with Spaniards, and the descendants of a cultural fusion between the Spaniards and Amerindians- the Mestizo are common in Mexico. The majority of Cuban nationals are Hispanics, and Cuba as an area is almost equal to the entire total area of Caribbean islands.
On a closer look at the maquiladoras (multiple factories) as portrayed by figure 4-11 most of them are located on the northern states of Mexico bordering the US. Strategically located are maquiladoras which are closely located to the raw materials, and closer to the US border. The essence of having the factories closer to the US border is because the finished products are exported back to the US and Canada.
The owners of these factories are foreigners and hence benefit from Mexicans’ cheap labor. On the other hand the Mexicans benefit through job creation, new technology and foreign investment (Kimble 606).
Map 1: Physical geography of Central America
Map 2: Names of Republics
We will write a custom Assessment on World Regional Geography:Central America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Map 3: urban-economic information
Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 601-617. Print.
MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-800. Print.
Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 298-305. Print.
Billy Beane: Changing the Game Case Coursework essay help: essay help
Based on Billy beane “changing the game” case, explain why and how the Oakland A’s economic situation after 1995 shaped its Compensation strategy
In 1995, when the Oakland A team was sold out, Alderson realized that he had to adopt a different approach so that the Oakland A’s would be able to compete well with other teams. In this case, he went ahead and embraced the on-base percentage system, explaining that, if he could get every player to play his part on the production line, then he could pay less for runs than the going rate.
Moreover, the better the players played, the higher they were paid by the association. This was done to boost the players morale and increase loyalty, thus avoiding poaching of Oakland A’s players by other organizations.
One of the roles of human resources department involves hiring the most competent employees for the firm through a formal and rigorous selection process, as well as creating a conducive working environment that ensures all the recruited staff remain in the firm for most of their productive life.
However, in the contemporary business world, most organizations often outsource some of the processes to recruitment agencies, since they are cheaper to deal with, and the company will not have to undergo the entire process.
In the Oakland A‘s organization, Billy Beane recruited the players depending on the skills they seemed to posses. He relied on a method called, scouting, in which, he used a five-tool theory that consisted of the following elements: hitting for average, hitting for power, running speed, arm’s strength, and the field ability. In this approach, he used a checklist to indicate how many tools a player possessed.
In the system of money ball collected baseball experts that included: players, coaches and managers, and is often subjective.Runs battle in, and battling statistics were used to gauge players; they were the only statistics that were available at the time.
Lewis (2003) argues that “the Oakland A’s’ front office took advantage of more empirical gauges of player performance to field a team that could compete successfully against richer competitors.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management of the Oakland A paid the best players well as a way of retaining them and keeping them from been poached by other competitive baseball agencies (Pedersen et al, 2010). This is in realization that well compensated players will tend to commit their efforts and loyalty to the team.
Training and development strategies
After Billy beane adopted the system of selecting players based on the 5-tool method, the players went through training. Keeping in mind that they were the best in their high school teams, they did not need much training. They had the notion that their capability in individual performances was crucial in winning games even without having to train for long periods.
Primarily, baseball is usually dependent on individual performances. According to Lewis (2004, p. 423), “in football, a play can only succeed if all players on a team work together in terms of blocking, running, catching, and throwing,” while for baseball to be of numeric value, every pitch, hit, catch or throw depends on a player’s efforts.
In this case, when a team comprises of player who are competent in hitting, catching, and throwing, there is a high possibility of being formidable in all games played.
Explain how compensation, staffing, and training strategies were aligned with each other to create an overall HR strategy for the Oakland A’s organization Billy Beane employed the use of checklist as a way of hiring players due to the fact that the approach was relatively efficient and reliable. According to Lewis (2003, P. 423), the success of the Oakland was via the application of a unique scientific evaluation method and selection of athletics talent.
A checklist assists an organization to systematize and perfectise its hiring process, depending on how many employees it wants to hire at that particular time. In addition, a checklist on how to hire an employee helps you keep track of your recruiting efforts, since one is able to choose between different character and ability of an employee.
In addition, a checklist acts as a communication aid during the recruitment process all the way to the completion of hiring process. Moreover, it is employed in training programs for new players. Therefore, having merged the three strategies, the Oakland management was able to lead the Oakland A’s to various wins.
We will write a custom Coursework on Billy Beane: Changing the Game Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, despite these few merits, there are some potential problems encountered with some human resource strategies used by the Oakland organization. These include staffing strategies, whereby, selection used checklist as a way of selecting potential players as they play. As much as there are advantages to this method, it also contains several limitations, thus it is a poor way of selecting players.
First, the checklist method is a behaviorally based approach to performance appraisal that requires raters to observe employees’ behavior and record performance related judgments about these behaviors. The checklist method may be biased in distinguishing the best, average, and poor characteristics of employees.
Secondly, it is expensive and time consuming, especially for an organization like Oakland which is large, and may need to rate several players. Moreover, some very essential characteristics may pass unnoticed since the method is conducted on sight, hence becoming difficult for the manager to evaluate the athletes effectively.
References Lewis, M. (2004). Moneyball. Retried from https://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/reviews/books/0-393-32481-8.html
Lewis M. (2003). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. New York: W.W. Norton.
Pedersen, P. M. et al. (2010). Contemporary Sports Management. New York: Human Kinetics.
Introduction to Neptune Gourmet Seafood Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Neptune Gourmet Seafood (NGS) is one of the top three upmarket players in the high-end seafood business in North America. The company has for the last forty years earned a big reputation for being able to process and produce the best seafood in the region.
Being a huge achievement that has involved a lot of resources, time and dedication, the company has decided invidiously to protect its status and first-class facilitate among its customers by all means.
In order to overcome the challenge of safeguarding the reputation of the company, the decision making organ is supposed to study its business environment and come up with strategies to boost chances of the company being able to overcome the fierce competition among many powerful competitors in the business.
So as to tackle comfortably the many challenges in the business world and place itself strategically, Neptune Gourmet Seafood is supposed to formulate both short term and long term business strategies. According to McDavid
Marketing and strategy Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Most organizations are involved in the production of goods or services, with the main aim being to reach the targeted market and increase market share. Therefore, in order to improve the demand of the product, the organization must take appropriate measures to ensure that the product effectively satisfies the needs of the consumers.
To achieve this, the organization employs marketing as a tool to aid in the achievement of the goal. Marketing can therefore be explained simply as the measures and activities that an organization must make in order to exchange and create value with its customers.1 The exchanges usually lead to economic prosperity.2
Development of the marketing concept Organizations usually engage in marketing in order to create demand for their products, since in most of the situations, the production of products in the organizations is usually higher than the demand for the products.
However, during the start of the industrial revolution until the early twentieth century, the manufacturing level was usually lower than the demand for the products; therefore, the companies were assured that all of their products would be sold due to the higher demand.
The organizations therefore had a high production orientation and marketing was limited to just taking orders from customers and then distributing the products.3
However, production soon caught up with the demand, necessitating the organizations to devise methods of increasing the demand for their products. To achieve this, the organizations employed vigorous marketing methods, which mainly entailed personal selling and advertising.4
The organizations later realized that the effective method of reaching the customers was through the implementation of methods that try to ensure that the customers’ needs are satisfied.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizations therefore came up with methods of determining the needs of the customers before engaging in marketing, as this ensured that the marketing concepts led to the eventual satisfaction of the customers’ needs.5 Nevertheless, the organizations that were unable to develop effective marketing concepts soon exited from production.
Transactional and relationship marketing Business organizations can undertake their marketing strategies through various methods. However, the marketing strategies can mainly be classified into two groups: relationship marketing and transactional marketing.
Transactional marketing Conventional marketing strategies are usually transactional oriented, and are therefore known as transactional marketing. In this method, the marketing programs are mainly targeted towards making the customer to buy the product that is produced by the company. This is regardless of whether the purchase will be by a new customer or an existing one.6
This type of marketing does not usually forecast the probability of an existing customer making a new purchase, even if the customer has made a series of purchases. The marketing concept therefore allocates a small marketing budget to the existing customer and makes no effort in making the customer be loyal to the organization and climb up the loyalty ladder.7
This marketing concept has been questioned by many people due to its inability to retain customers. However, a better marketing concept, which tries to counter the limitations of the transactional marketing, is the relationship marketing.
Relationship marketing In a business context, the customer’s needs are the most important. The organization should therefore form a close relationship with the customers and continually satisfy their needs as they keep on evolving – relationship marketing tries to effectively cater for this.
In relationship marketing, the organization creates marketing concepts that are mainly aimed at identifying, maintaining, and terminating, when necessary, its relationship with the customers and other relevant stakeholders at a profit in such a way that the individual objectives of all the parties involved are met. 8
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing and strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effective marketing and strategy usually involve several methods, which include branding, product strategy and pricing strategy.
Q2. Branding Branding is one of the most essential marketing strategies of different companies. It hugely determines the success of a product or the whole business organization. Brand is one of the major factors that influence the customers towards making a purchase of a certain product.9 All modern organizations are vigorously involved in branding to promote either the image of the organization or a specific product of the company.
A brand is a combination of name, symbol, term or design that is used to identify a specific product or sometimes an organization.10 The brand mainly improves the image of the company to the customers and the general members of the public.
In addition, the brand name entails the words that can be spoken to relate to the product e.g. Toyota, Sony etc. The brand mark relates to symbols, designs, or marks that effectively communicate about the brand without the use of spoken words11 for example, the Nike swoosh.
Branding strategy The brand strategy usually entails more that the development of a clever name or symbol that many people will relate the company with. The strategy mainly ensures that the brand is able to answer the questions that many consumers can relate with when faced with different problems.
Google has developed an effective brand, such that, when many people are faced with the question as to where they can quickly find relevant information regarding whatever they would like to know, their immediate answer would be Google.12
Strategic issues in branding strategy In order for an organization to clearly benefit from branding strategy, the organization must examine some vital strategic issues in order to reap maximum benefits from branding. These issues include: first, manufacturer versus private label brands where most organization have branding strategies to promote the image of the company and the image of the individual products that the company produces.
The manufacturer brand enables the customers to by the products from a specific company due to the improved image of the company whereas the brand name increases the sales for a particular product of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing and strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most organizations usually concentrate largely on promoting the private brands as they offer higher profits.13 Second, there is brand loyalty, referring to the positive attitude of the customers towards a specific brand that makes the customers to prefer use of the product to other products that are in the same product category. 14
Advantages of branding Effective branding enhances the reputation and image of the company or the product in the public mind.15 Branding also enables the customers to easily identify the product. The brand name therefore makes advertising by the company to be far much easier as people will identify with the name being advertised. Branding also increases the loyalty of the customers towards a specific product.
Effective branding strategy enables the company to easily introduce new products into the market, if the name of the brand is popular among the members of the public. The manufacturer can introduce new product through addition of new product lines to the existing products.16
Improved brand image of the company may also enable the company to easily eliminate the middlemen, and thus have personal contact with the customers.17
Differentiation and positioning strategies Differentiation strategies
Product differentiation is defined as methods that the organization uses to create differences in the product that it produces compared to other competing products in the market.18 Differentiation strategies mainly involve:
Product descriptors – an organization must formulate methods that clearly describe and depict the products that it offers as being better than the other product, which are offered in the market. The organization must describe the product in such a way that it explains the features of the product while stressing on the advantages and improved quality of the product. 19
Customer support services – this is the most effective method of differentiating products that have the same quality, features, and benefits. The customer support services may be offered before or after the sale of the product. The customer support services refer to anything that the organization may do to add value to the product. These include transportation, installation, and provision of financing training, or even extended warranties and guarantees.20
Image – this refers to the overall impression of a company or its products by the members of the public whether positive or negative. The impression relates to what the past company deeds, what it is doing presently and what it intends to do in the future. 21
Product positioning refers to the measures that a company may take to create a mental image of the product offering and differentiating features, which the targeted markets are able to form in their minds with relation to the product.22 Position strategy is usually done for the following main reasons:
Strengthening the current position 23
Repositioning itself 24
Reposition the competition.25
Product strategy Product portfolio
This refers to the sum total of the entire product that the company produces. The product portfolio may be a small product line or several product categories that transverse the whole firm.26 Most of companies have a large product portfolio which ensures that the company get high revenues and does not over rely on generating of revenue from only product hence if the product is affected the company ill in turn be affected.
Benefits of a large product portfolio
Economies of scale – companies that have a large product portfolio benefit greatly from the economies of scale in the production, buying, and promotion of the product. The company can undertake advertising of the products under one umbrella name, which will lead to the improvement of the image of the company and hence lead to increased sales.27 An example is Samsung, which may undertake its advertising under one name to cater for a wide range of products that it produces.
Package uniformity – companies that have a large product portfolio usually package their products in a similar way, and thus enable the customers to locate the products easily.28
Standardization – companies that have a product line usually ensure that the products in the product line have the same component29 and thus help in the reduction of the manufacturing and inventory handling costs.30
Equivalent quality beliefs – customers generally believe that all the products in a certain product line of the company are of the same quality. This is usually advantageous to the company if it offers a well-known product line.
Challenges of service products
Organizations involved in the provision of service products usually face diverse challenges due to the nature of the service products. The major challenges faced by the service products include:
Lack of storage methods: service products are intangible and can therefore not be stored so as to cater for future increase in the demand.31
The services are also susceptible to changes in the quality since they are dependent on people for the delivery of the service. The variation of the service may be time dependent or customer dependent.
The fact that the services are intangible also makes it difficult for customers to evaluate them before purchasing them.32
Unique characteristics of services
They are intangible: – The services cannot be transported, stored, or felt.33
They are inseparable: – The production and consumption of the service usually take place at the same time and can none of them can be isolated.34
They are human intensive: – The provision of the service usually requires people to provide them.
Perishability: – If the service is not consumed at the exact time that it is offered, it may be lost.35
Homogeneity: – There is usually no uniformity in the provision of the service. The quality of the service may vary from time to time.36
New product development process
For a firm to sustain and increase its profits, it must launch new products from time to time. The new product development process is therefore a process that every firm must know for its ultimate survival. Most of the firms put more emphasis on the advanced technological innovation of their new product.37
The successful development of the new product is not solely dependent on the internal factors but is also dependent on the external factors. The firms mainly aim of creating the new product is to differentiate its products and therefore must try to ensure that the customers get a clear perspective of the differentiation.38
Stages of product development cycle
The development of a new product generally involves the following stages:
Idea generation: This stage involves the acquiring of new ideas that may aid in the development of the new product.
Screening and evaluation: This process involves the screening of the idea with the capabilities of the firm and the ability of the new product to meet the needs of the customers.39
Development: this is the process, which involves designing, finalizing, and finally producing the product.
Test marketing: this is usually done to determine the response of the customers or the public to the product.40
Commercialization: this is the final stage of the development of the new product. The product is launched to the public and measures are taken to create awareness of the public to the existence of the product. 41
Pricing strategy Pricing of the products is a factor that is usually considered by many companies. It directly affects the ability of customers to buy the product and it is therefore regarded highly by different companies.
Relationship between price and revenue
There are generally two myths that are used by companies to show the relationship between price and revenue:
A reduction in the price leads to an increase in the market share if it is made when the business of the company is good.
If a reduction in the price is made when the business of the company is bad, it will lead to an increase in the sales.42
However, these myths do not hold, as a reduction in the price may increase the sales but make the company get the same revenue. Firms should therefore not blindly cut the prices of their products; instead, they should find means of justifying the current price of their products and increase the value of their products.43
Key issues in pricing strategy
The key issues that organizations must consider when implementing a pricing strategy are:
Pricing objectives: organizations usually have a pricing objective which ensures that they make money due to the profit margin of the product or increase in the volume of the sales. Pricing objectives are not necessarily formulated to ensure that the company increases its profits; they can also be formulated to ensure that company maintains its prices so that it maintains its market position.44
Supply and demand: supply and demand have an influence in the pricing of different products. When price of a product increases, the demand of the product decreases; however, this theory does not hold for the reverse situation. Increase in the demand doe not necessarily lead to a decrease in the price of the product.45
Firm’s cost structure: organizations usually consider the revenue from the products and the profits that are derived from the revenue to enable the ultimate survival of the firm in setting the prices of the products. The most common formula, known as break-even pricing used is shown below
Break-even in units = total fixed costs
Unit price – unit variable cost
Companies therefore come up with strategies to ensure that they sell the products at a price higher than the break-even price to ensure that they make a profit. Another formula is used in the cost plus pricing strategy which is mainly used by retailers.
Selling price = Average unit costs
1 – Markup percentage (decimal)
The above formulas are not necessarily the main factors considered in the setting of a pricing strategy since different firms have different cost structures.46
Service pricing and yield management
Setting the price of services is usually a very delicate affair. The firm must ensure that the price is not too low such that the customers will perceive it to be of low quality and hence not use the service, or too high to make the service unaffordable to the customers. Yield management ensures that the company is able to get maximum profits through the sale of the service.
Price elasticity of demand
The price of a product is usually affected by the demand. However, different products are affected differently by the changes in the demand. The demand is said to be elastic the quantity demanded changes considerably as a response to the change in the price.
The demand is on the other hand termed to be inelastic if it does not respond to the change in the price.47 The price elasticity of demand is best explained using the formula below
Price elasticity of demand = percentage change in quantity demanded
Percentage change in the price
Pricing strategies in consumer markets
The pricing strategies in consumer markets mainly involve:
Promotional discounting: this refers to the programs and activities that a company may run in order to attract customers through the creation of special discounts. Most retailers use the high-low promotional discounting which involves charging high prices for the products and then occasionally lowering the prices to increase the sale of the product. The main limitation of this method is that customers tend to postpone the sale until the time when the company runs the promotional discounting.48
Reference pricing: this is method of pricing where the company compares the pricing of the product to an internal or external price. The pricing of the product is usually lower than the one that it is compared with. An example is a case where a company runs a campaign that shows that it is offering a product at a lower price compared to the actual price of the product.49
Odd-even pricing: companies tend to fix the prices of their products in such a way that they do not seem expensive. A company may put the price of a shoe at $ 8.99 or $ 9.99 instead of $9.00 or $10.00. This makes the customers to perceive the product to be cheaper even though they are actually expensive.50
Price bundling: this refers to the integration of two the prices f two products, sometimes related and offering them at a single price that is lower than the sum of the price of the individual products.51
Legal and ethical issues in pricing
Pricing is one of the most closely watched features of an organization, as it can greatly determine the competitive advantage of the company. The most common legal and ethical issues involved in pricing are:
Price discrimination: this refers to the charging of different prices to different customers. Price discrimination is termed as illegal if there is no basis in the cost of selling the product to one customer compared to the other. However there are situation that warrant price discrimination.52
Price fixing: this refers to the secret collaborations between different companies that provide similar products in fixing the prices at a certain value. This practice is usually illegal as it makes the consumer not to enjoy the benefits of reduced prices due to competition.53
Predatory pricing: this refers to a method where a company charges very low prices for its products with the intent of pushing its competitors out of the market. Once the competitor has been pushed out of the market the company then reverts to the old prices.54
Deceptive pricing: this involves the running of promotions by a company to intentionally mislead the customers. This is most common in reference pricing where the company may claim to be offering the product at a lower price whereas that is not the case.55
Bibliography Berndt, A
The Development of a Non-Christian Tradition in the United States Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Abstract Since its inception, the United States has demonstrated a culture of religious diversity, pluralism, and tolerance. This paper examines the extent to which a non-Christian tradition has been developing in the United States.
In recent years, specific global phenomena such as secularization, immigration, and technology have continued to transform the religious landscape of the United States to one that is pluralistic, wherein Christianity is one religion amongst many.
The Development of a Non-Christian Tradition in the United States Religious practice in the United States has been synonymous with religious tolerance since the founding fathers decreed so in the First Amendment with the words, “congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof” (“Bill of Rights”, n.d.).
More recently, according to Salem (2010), the United States has demonstrated that it “has a culture of pluralism because…it has been the setting for a multitude of responses to religious diversity. Most of these responses reflect attempts on the part of Americans at redefining their religious…unity…in light of the changing face of the American people” (Salem 2010).
Steinfels (2009) notes that globally, the United States continues to rank not only as one of the more consciously Christian Westernized countries, but also as a country more concerned with religion in general, especially when compared to European nations (Steinfels 2009). “Nearly 6 out of 10 Americans pray one or more times each day; high percentages report feeling close to God, experiencing God’s presence or guidance on most days.
Faith in God, they say, is “very important” in their lives” (Steinfels 2009). This paper examines the extent to which a non-Christian tradition has been developing in the United States. In recent years, specific global phenomena such as secularization, immigration, and technology have continued to transform the religious landscape of the United States to one that is pluralistic, wherein Christianity is one religion amongst many.
Secularization has wrought sweeping changes in the United States in recent years, and created not only an increasingly non-Christian environment, but one that is also decidedly non-religious.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his article Globally, Religion Defies Easily Identified Patterns, Steinfels (2009) analyzed the finding of a report conducted by the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center which suggests that the number of Americans who distance themselves from any religious affiliation is on the rise (Steinfels 2009). “Those who do belong are less likely to say they are strong members.
Regular attendance at religious services has declined, and the numbers never worshiping have increased” (Steinfels 2009). Overall, the report found that the “tilt of religious change in the United States over the last half century has clearly been in the secular direction” (Steinfels 2009).
General interest in religion itself is ebbing, according to Steinfels, and thanks to “more modernization in general and…more education in particular, religious beliefs and behaviors across countries do tend to decline” (Steinfels 2009).
Given that “modernization is…linked to scientific knowledge and progress…college-educated workers, scientists, engineers and physicians are less likely to believe firmly in God, believe in an afterlife, pray daily and attend religious services weekly” (Steinfels 2009). With secularization on the rise, the non-Christian tradition in the United States also grows.
Nowhere is the growing secularism of the United States more apparent than during the Christmas holidays. Grossman (2010) understands that “Christmas is no longer about baby Jesus and the sheep. It’s solstice with friends, Saturnalia at the office party. At Thanksgiving, you say grace, but at Christmas, you take a break and you go on vacation. It’s been downgraded on the religion calendar” (Grossman 2010).
Secularism erodes the boundaries between faiths, and promotes an environment of tolerance for non-Christian faiths, albeit via growing religious indifference. A 2008 survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life “found that 52 percent of American Christians say at least some non-Christian faiths can lead to eternal life.
The…survey found 62 percent of people who follow non-Christian religions still celebrate Christmas, along with 89 percent of people who say they’re agnostic or have no religious identity and 55 percent of atheists” (Grossman 2010)
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Development of a Non-Christian Tradition in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigration continues to develop the non-Christian tradition in the United States. Salem (2010) understands that immigration, specifically that of practicing Muslims into the fabric of the United States religious culture, supports “religious pluralism in the [United States]…post 9/11…[and]…America’s religious identity as the Muslim moment in the long-standing pilgrimage in American religious history towards participatory pluralism” (Salem 2010).
The United States resembles more and more a country of immigrants (Salem 2010). This influx of non-Christian religions through immigration expands the experience of all religious peoples in the United States and promotes awareness and understanding of one another (Salem 2010).
Technology is a major contributor to the development of a non-Christian tradition in the United States. Practicing Hindus, Zoroastrians, Muslims, Buddhists and Taoists gain access to each other online, and via the numerous technological networks which maintain contact between non-Christians living in the United States and their home religions.
Fletcher (2008) highlights the fact that “religion and culture are not contained in the bounded landscape of nations, but they flow, change, and take influence from encounters with other forms of religion and culture in a dynamic setting” (Fletcher 2008).
Technology maintains a non-Christian tradition in the United States as it provides religious affirmation, and allows non-Christians to experience their home religions continuously, in their daily lives. As Fletcher notes, “Indians resident in the U.S. can tune in to Indian TV news, alternate with an American show, and tune back to Indian satellite programs, and in India foreign broadcasts are more widely available….
Many Turks abroad lead multicultural lives, tune to Turkish, German, and other European broadcasts. They follow Turkish news, music, and shows and choose between Hollywood, Bollywood, or Cairo films…. Migrant remittances are major revenue flows for the Philippines, Mexico, Pakistan, India and so on. Irish and Scottish politicians canvas expatriates overseas, and Mexican politicians campaign among Mexicans living in the U.S.
Transnational relations are no longer simply two-way between country of origin and migration but across diasporic settlements in multiple continents” (Fletcher 2008). Technology essentially allows non-Christians to transplant their native religions to United States soil electronically.
Similarly, in the article Religious Pluralism and the Coincidence of Opposites, Delio (2009) points to the “awareness of other religions [that] has largely expanded through the development of technology” (Delio 2009). An additional result of the increased awareness presents as the development of a “global consciousness,” which subsumes all religions and transcends national borders (Delio 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Development of a Non-Christian Tradition in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The “tribe is no longer the local community but the global community that can now be accessed immediately via television, Internet, satellite communication, and travel. Technology has fundamentally altered our view of the world and ourselves in the world” (Delio 2009).
The most exciting element wrought by the emergence of technology in the arena of religion is that “[f]or the first time since the appearance of human life on our planet…all of the tribes, all of the nations, all of the religions are beginning to share a common history” (Delio 2009).
What this means for the United States is that Christianity now becomes one religion among many, and while this may mean it loses some of its dominance on home soil, it can also mean that it expands its presence globally. Delio (2009) speaks of this phenomenon as “an interrelatedness of religious centers of consciousness” (Delio 2009).
The essential nature of technology, especially when speaking of the online community, is pluralistic. There is room for everyone online. Delio (2009) understands that the inherent pluralism of technology encourages “an awareness of religious diversity [that] has reached a new level of convergence” (Delio 2009).
This convergence of culture and religion goes beyond tolerance; it promotes cross cultural engagement between Christians and non-Christians in the United States (Delio 2009). This engagement transcends simple lip service to diversity, and creates “the energetic engagement with diversity.
Today, religious diversity is a given, but pluralism is…an achievement. …[P]luralism is not just tolerance, but the active seeking of understanding across lines of difference” (Delio 2009).
In conclusion, the pluralism encouraged by the founding fathers in the First Amendment has come to fruition in the United States as a result of three important factors: secularization, which is a global phenomena and not exclusive to the United States, however largely responsible for the budding of the non-Christian tradition through increased religious apathy.
Immigration continues to attract non-Christians to the United States, and technology allows them to continue to practice their home religions while residing in the United States. Technology has the added affect of transmitting and imparting its essential pluralistic quality on to many different religions which now call the United States home.
References Archives.gov, n.d. Constitution of the United States: The Bill of Rights. Archives.gov. Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/
Delio, I. (2009). Religious pluralism and the coincidence of opposites. Theological Studies 70 (4), 822-845.
Fletcher, J.H. (2008). Religious pluralism in an era of globalization: the making of modern religious identity. Theological Studies 69 (2), 394-412.
Grossman, C.L. (2010, Dec. 21). Survey: For many, Jesus isn’t the reason for the season. USA Today.
Salem, H. (2010). A golden opportunity: religious pluralism and American Muslims strategies of integration in the US after 9/11, 2001. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9 (27), 246-261.
Steinfels, P. (2009, October 23). Globally, religion defies easily identified patterns. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/
Contemporary Issues in Global Business Management: An analysis the business strategy of Nike Incorporation Report college essay help
Introduction Nike Incorporation has been successful in designing, developing and marketing diverse products such as apparels, footwear and other accessories. In its operation, the firm contracts manufacturing of most of its products to firms which are located overseas. This has enabled the firm to attain a high bargaining power over its suppliers (Lussier
The Oxford Health Plans Inc. Company Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Employee Retention and Work Incentives
Executive Summary The decline in profitability of Oxford Health Plans Inc. Company representing a loss of $291.3 million coupled with the plunge in the stock price of its shares of up to 80% drop, necessitated changes to improve the company’s financial status. The events arose because of the company’s weak internal financial systems.
The company took steps among them, shakeup of its top management and pay cuts with the Ex-CEO getting a 61% pay cut. The company also sought financial bailout to the tune of $700 million to stabilize its financial position. The company also employed motivation to retain its employees through incentives involving share allocation at lower prices.
Winslow, the author of the article holds the opinion that despite all these measures, the financial status of the company is not likely to improve.
He further argues that the incentive plan of awarding employees shares at lower prices may not be effective, as the value of the shares is not projected to increase and the company’s rating is at its lowest; B-minus as per Standard
Gifted Education Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Gifted children refer to a category of learners who have a very high intellectual capacity as compared to other children. Learners in this category therefore demand a special learning environment just like students who have mental challenges.
In most cases when people talk about special education, “they only think of students who have very low capacity yet they do ignore the fact that there are brilliant students who also need special learning conditions”. I therefore contend that it is important for gifted students be given special education.
Gifted Students The following characteristics are common among gifted learners and they make them suitable for special education. First, gifted children have the ability to understand concepts very fast hence they learn very quickly. They always have a very good memory and they do not need a recap of the previous class presentations or lessons. These students therefore tend to be bored when the content that had been taught is repeated.
“Brilliant students also need more complicated tasks that are challenging to them and when they are taught simple concepts they feel wasted”. Gifted students generally like learning and they rarely experience learning related challenges which may occur due to lack of interest or poor concentration in class.
For example, they do not have to think critically in order to make the right interpretations. Their high level of understanding makes them not to require several assignments like home work. In addition to these characteristics, gifted learners should be taught very fast.
Enrichment Model The above points explain why gifted students should be taught separately from the average learners. There are many learning models that can be used to ensure that the gifted students get the content that match their academic abilities. The first one is enrichment model. This model can be used right from the elementary level.
In this case the gifted learner can attend normal classes with other students, but they can be given extra challenging learning tasks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, a teacher can give the gifted learner assignments which are modified. “It might include formal programs such as Odyssey of the Mind, Destination Imagination or academic competitions such as Brain Bowl, Future Problem Solving, National History Day, science fairs, or spelling bees”.
The extra learning activities are only given to enable the learner get more information, but they are not used as alternative school curriculum.
Some people however contend that this model of learning gives the special students a heavy work load unlike their colleagues. In high school, students who are gifted can still be instructed using this model. “For example, they can be advised to take more courses like: English, Spanish, Latin, Philosophy, and Sciences, or to engage in extra curricular activities”.
Acceleration Model Acceleration model is the second program that can used to handle gifted students. This involves elevating a student to a class dealing with more complicated learning tasks which are suitable for his or her learning capacity. This option is cheap in terms of the cost of learning.
For example, they can skip some levels or grades. Alternatively, they can also be allowed to cover a given course work within a shorter duration compared to the stipulated time. This method is called “telescoping”. Partial acceleration is a case where by a student is promoted just in one subject without necessarily interfering with other subjects.
“Radical acceleration (acceleration by two or more years) is effective academically and socially for highly gifted students”. Accelerated students should actually be put in the same learning environment that can motivate them. If accelerated students are allowed to learn with average students, they can be seriously affected psychologically. This is because their peers who are not gifted may try to intimidate them.
Conclusion Based on the above analysis of learning models for gifted children, I would therefore recommend acceleration model for my gifted child. “This is because it would enable him to learn faster within a short time”. Hence, he would not waste time covering simple concepts.
We will write a custom Essay on Gifted Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, if possible the child may be instructed using the two learning models. This is because they would enable the child to have varied learning opportunities and experiences.
References Clendening, C. (1983). Challenging the gifted: curriculum enrichment and acceleration models ( servivg special population series). New York: Wiley.
Heward, W. (2008). Exceptional children:an introduction to special education. New York: Prentice Hall.
Winner, E. (1997). Gifted children: myths and realities. New york: Basic Books.
Proper identification of students with a learning disability Essay college admission essay help
Students with learning disabilities require special equipments and attention so that they can be integrated into the education system. For this reason, it is important to distinguish those students who actually have a learning disability from those who are behind academically due to poor teaching methods. This way, it becomes easier to not only provide the necessary help, but also to allocate the necessary resources accordingly.
There is some truth in the assertion that most of the students diagnosed with a learning disability do in fact have a true disability. On the other hand, it is also true that such students could be victims of poor teaching instructions, if not low achievers.
It is important to note that learning disability is largely a school defined phenomenon. At the same time, we also need to appreciate the fact that from a fundamental point of view, there is no difference between the process of acquiring academic skills with and the process of learning other forms of skills (Cortiella, 2009).
For this reason, while learning disability entails certain specific skills, on the other hand, students will still find it quiet hard to learn under different situations and setting. Moreover, we also need to appreciate the fact that even after graduating from school, those students who are still grappling with learning difficulties will still have to overcome them.
Learning disability could also be prevented by good teaching, and this is a further indications that indeed, most of the students who have a learning disability are in this state because they have lacked good teaching instructions.
This assertion has been supported by Lyon et al (2001) who argue that a majority of the children with learning disabilities and in this case not due to any underlying neurological problem but rather, because of poor reading instructions.
What this appears to suggest is that with sound teaching instructions, a lot of the children could be saved from being designated as students with learning disabilities. How then can one distinguish between a child who has a learning disability and a child who is behind academically because of poor schooling? A child with a learning disability may find it hard to understand time concept.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example he or she could be confused by such words as “tomorrow” or yesterday. On the other hand, a child who does not know this difference because they have not been taught is more likely to learn through practice, unlike a child with a learning disability.
In addition, a child with a learning disability may have limited concentration of a specific task at hand not because they have lost interest, but because the attention deficit condition ensures that their listening span becomes shortened (Heward, 2008). As such, their lack of concentration is not out of choice. Losing one’s train of through is yet another characteristic that distinguishes a child with a learning disability.
In effect, it means that such a child finds it rather hard to focus on the topic at hand. Children with a learning disability also tend to manifest wide disparities between reading comprehension and listening comprehension and even when taught on the difference in a proper manner, they are not likely to learn the difference.
In contrast, children who do not know such differences may get to know them when exposed to proper teaching skills.
Only those children with a learning disability would qualify for special education. This is because unlike children with a learning disability, those experiencing learning difficulties in academics owing to poor teaching methods do not manifest such special needs as challenges in communication, behavioral, learning and emotional disorders, and physical disabilities (Heward, 2008).
These attributes are important in helping to distinguish children with a learning disability. Moreover, it is important for a teacher to use different approaches in teaching these two groups of students because their educational requirements are different.
For example, children with a learning disability require special teaching aids. In addition, they require teachers who are qualified in special education. On the other hand, a general teacher who is competent can handle children manifesting a learning disability as a result of poor schooling.
We will write a custom Essay on Proper identification of students with a learning disability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Cortiella, C. (2009). Study Supports Improved Ways to Identify Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/
Heward, W. L. (2008). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Lyon, G. R., Fletcher, J., Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., Torgesen, J.K., Wood, F.B., Schulte, A., and Olson, R. (2001). Rethinking Learning Disabilities. In C.E. Finn, J. Andrew, and C.R. Hokanson (Eds.) Rethinking Special Education for a New Century. (pp. 259-288). Washington D.C.: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and the Progressive Policy Institute.
Polaroid: Promotion college application essay help: college application essay help
Polaroid case Product cycle has three main stages; introduction, growth, maturity and decline, Polaroid is an international electronic making company whose products are in the decline stage. In the 1970 to 1990’s, the company’s products were enjoying a large market especially in the camera industry but the invention of instant camera turned around the company’s success.
When a company is in the decline stage, there are three main options opened to it; develop a products rejuvenation strategy, stop production or create a niche market by harvesting the product.
The approach taken by Polaroid is to try to rejuvenate its products, in the efforts of building a brand identity, the company has embarked on massive promotional strategies using prominent musicians. The choice of the characters to venture in its adverts is triggered by the target market of the company.
Lady Gaga and Polaroid chairperson Bobby Sager are on the forefront leading the marketing campaigns. The company is using pull promotional strategies to penetrate the competitive electronic market dominated by Sony, Kodak, and Nikon.
Polaroid is not alone in the decline stage; in the 1990’s and early 2000, General Motor Company (GM), enjoyed a large market share in the automobile industry, however the sale started to decline in 2003 until in 2008, an upcoming Toyota Motor company surpassed the GM in sales to be the world largest automobile. Although GM has not given up in the battle for market, its success is limited with its sales declining yearly.
Panasonic is another company that is struggling to remain competitive in the changing electronic world. The company was among the world largest electronic producers only to reach its maturity stage in the late 1990’s. The company is heavily investing in modern technology and promotion to compete effectively in the internal arena (Paul
Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Organization learning is arguably one of the most important business concepts that any organization must embrace if it were to maintain a competitive edge during this volatile market trends.
Organization learning basically means the process of acquiring new business concepts, knowledge, experience and ideas and intelligently integrating what is learned with previous knowledge to create new and innovative products either technological, business ideas or management to gain a competitive edge over other competitors by offering excellent services to their invaluable customers.
This paper addresses how organization learning contributes to innovation, competitiveness, and economic-financial results and also how successful the article is in relating organization learning with business performance.
Contribution of organization learning to innovation Organization learning involves well-planned acquisition, distribution, interpretation and comparison of knowledge with previous knowledge and experience in all organizational structures of the organization.
The knowledge obtained from organizational learning is used in developing superior products and services and also more effective management in all aspects of the organization. This results to dynamic innovation not only of new brands, products and services to customers but also excellent management that will leave the customers with customer experience (Serrat, 2009).
I concur with Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) that “learning-oriented organizations are able to quickly reconfigure their architecture and reallocate their resources to focus on emerging opportunities or threats” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 230).
Toyota industry has always applied this concept whereby they either learn from current demands of low emission more fuel-efficient policies and genius marketing strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have also continuously learned from mistakes as was seen when they recalled some of their models. The Toyota Company has continuously developed its brands to form better models that are always competitive at the market (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Contribution of organization learning to competitiveness We are living in a world where everything changes in a flash second. For organizations to maintain their brands on this dynamic market they have to employ organization learning. Organization learning ensures that organizations are well equipped with previous knowledge, experience and the acquired knowledge which they carefully organize to create dynamic products which are unique.
This is simply blending what you already know and newly acquired knowledge to predict the future needs of your customers and this makes sure organization will always remain competitive.
This is suggested by Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) “learning, through better knowledge and understanding, facilitates behavior change that leads to improve performance” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, p. 230).
Successful organizations such as Microsoft continuously learn from previous models, marketing concepts and overall management strategies to continuously maintain a competitive edge in the most dynamic field of business (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Economic financial result Organization learning encompasses careful and guided employment of knowledge to make sure that every aspect of the organization works towards one common objective of delivering services that will create customer experience and confidence. This will ensure that the organization will remain relevant in the market and the outcome will be sustained profits.
Organization learning also ensures superior overall management of the organization whereby everyone in the organization works towards one common objective of realizing the vision and mission objectives that were set in the process of establishing organization learning.
We will write a custom Assessment on Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The report by Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) claimed that effective organization learning should “lead directly to superior outcomes, such as greater new product success, superior customer retention, higher customer-defined quality, and, ultimately superior growth and/or profitability” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas p. 230).
Increased organizational performance Organizational learning requires the participation of everyone in the organization in terms of continual learning from previous and current challenges of the organization and thinking of creative response. The organization is able to act as a unit towards a common objective.
This improves the overall management of the organization leading to increased organizational performance I concur with Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) that “The knowledge generated in this way is translated into new models of activity, routines and logic in the organization” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 230).
Perhaps this can be seen from the management of the Virgin brands, which have proved their worth with time. Through continuous organization learning, Virgin has been able to attain high levels of organizational performance despite the wide range of brands all over the world (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Success of the article in relating organization learning with business performance The article has well-outlined definition and interpretation of the concept of organization learning that was easy to relate to however the relation of organization learning to business performance though successful was a little bit too complex.
The article outlines the methods that were used to relate the two in terms of setting out hypothesis for the research and the methods of information gathering the statistics obtained were correlated to various aspects of business performance.
The article finally concludes that some of the results obtained are related to business performance “Therefore, these results indicate support for the notion that organizational learning influences financial performance both directly and indirectly through its impact on innovation and competitiveness” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 238).
Conclusion Organization learning is a core requirement of any organization that dreams of sustaining its prowess in the ever-changing market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective organization learning was observed to positively contribute to competitiveness and economic-financial results by ensuring that learned knowledge is organized and used effectively for the benefit of the organization. The article though a little bit complex was effective in relating organization learning with business performance. It is therefore important that all business organizations embrace this concept.
References Lopez, S., Peon, J. and Ordas, C. (2005) Organizational Learning as a Determining Factor in Business Performance. The Learning Organization Vol. 12 No. 3, 2005 pp. 227-245.
Serrat, O. (2009) Building a Learning Organization. Web.
Comparative Legal Traditions Essay online essay help
Abstract Comparative legal study usually involves the analysis of two or more jurisdictions with a view to compare and contrast the legal practices and the theoretical framework that guides the formulation of each individual country’s legal system. In this study, I look at the jurisdictional differences between Australia, England
Adult Learning Methodology Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Andragogy
Collaboratively Determined Objectives
Andragogy Andragogy is an adult teaching methodology which developed from pedagology (the teaching methodology for children) (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). Before the introduction of the concept (andragogy), pedagogy was the only known teaching methodology. Andragogy was basically developed by a group of researchers to focus more on unique adult needs as opposed to the conventional child needs.
In andragogy, there is a strong emphasis on process design as opposed to pedagology, which focuses more on the content plan (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). With focus on process design, andragogy is basically aimed at designing and managing processes that are aimed at facilitating the acquisition of content by adult learners; but in the same manner, it also serves as a content resource for peers, supervisors and specialists.
Andragogy was specifically started by a German educationist in 1833, but it is Malcolm Knowles, an American educational researcher, who essentially turned the learning methodology into a popular adult theory (Rachal, 2002, p. 210).
However, in later years, Malcolm changed his stand on the adult theory and gave conflicting statements one whether the teaching paradigm was essentially meant for adults or could be applicable to children as well. This conflict of opinion essentially defines the controversy surrounding the use of andragogy as a unique adult teaching methodology.
Considering andragogy basically defines the transition from a teacher-centered to a student-centered learning style, critics note that the shift could equally be beneficial to children, as much as it is for adults. This fact characterizes the conflict surrounding andragogy.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that such concerns have been dispelled by the fact that proponents of the adult educational methodology were essentially adult teachers and they devised the theory to specifically apply to their unique student group (adults) (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). This makes the teaching methodology uniquely applicable to adult learners.
The controversy surrounding andragogy is however not the essence of this study (but contributes to its understanding) because this study focuses more on the basis of the teaching paradigm in imparting knowledge to adult learners. In other words, this study will evaluate the teaching criteria behind its use.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The criteria to be evaluated essentially define the platform through which andragogy is implemented and the guidelines to which it is practiced. Comprehensively, this study will analyze the proffered criteria for its applicability and possible areas that may cause its failures (based on existing literature surrounding its use).
Voluntary Participation Andragogy has been traditionally known to be based on the ability of teachers to identify the right internal motivating factor among adult learners.
However, Lindeman (1926) notes that instructors should not identify the internal motivation among adult learners if it is in form of professional advancement; however, this view has been disputed by other researchers such as Knowles (1980) who accepts professional career motivation as a form of personal motivational factor (only if it is not coercive).
In other words, it is identified that voluntary participation among learners should not be based on material reward but rather on immaterial reward.
From a comprehensive point of view, restricting voluntary participation in the context that only legitimate benefit of andragogy would be learning for its own sake (or for self-actualization) is deemed a rather extreme limitation and it also goes contrary to what Knowles said when defining andragogy. Specifically Knowles (1980) asserted that:
“Although it acknowledges that adults will respond to some external motivators-a better job, a salary increase, and the like-the andragogical model predicates that the more potent motivators are internal-self-esteem, recognition, better quality of life, greater self-confidence, self-actualization, and the like” (p. 281).
In a study done by Rachal (2002) to evaluate the motives of adult students to enroll in an adult educational program, it was established that their motives were not exactly internal. Interestingly, it was also affirmed that some of the subjects in the study were paid to join the educational program.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Adult Learning Methodology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that adult learners are sometimes not driven by internal and personal factors but also by external and material factors. Current research studies have proposed more research to be done on non-credit continuing education programs where there is a good environment to learn, and the students are not coerced in any manner or motivated by unfamiliar factors to take part in educational programs (Rachal, 2002, p. 212).
It is also predicted that in this type of situation, adult learners are bound to view the learning activity as essentially valuable to themselves as opposed to perceiving the experience (or enrolment to the educational program) as a mere means to an end (Rachal, 2002, p. 212).
Adult Status In implementing the andragogy approach, it is recommended that an adult learning environment be provided to facilitate the learning process (Rachal, 2002, p. 212). More importantly, it is recommended that college environments, where many young college-goers frequent should be avoided if andragogy is to be effectively undertaken.
This is in line with Knowles’s view that andragogy is essential for adults and the students should not be subjected to an environment that seeks to compare them with another student group (young learners). To affirm his sentiments, Knowles (1980) explains that:
“If a college setting is used, and traditional students are part of the study, it is very desirable to have four groups, including an adult andragogy and an adult pedagogy group.
It is not desirable to have two groups where a combined group of adults and traditional students receives an andragogical treatment and a second combined group of adults and traditional students receive a pedagogical treatment, even when the adults are separated in the analysis” (p. 284).
However, there is enough evidence to suggest that higher learning environments are quite beneficial to andragogical teaching, but it is more recommended that future studies should be done in scenarios where the environment is exclusively adult-centered (Rachal, 2002, p. 210).
Considering there is a high emphasis on adult environments (when referring to andragogy), there has consequently been an increased need to define adult environments and who an adult is in the first place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Adult Learning Methodology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rachal (2002) claims that an adult is a person who perceives himself or herself as an adult and has assumed the social and cultural responsibilities that are characteristic of adults.
In the same manner, she also provides another criterion (where the above definitions lack) and defines an adult as a person who has attained a given age ceiling, says, 25 years (whichever is considered adult, considering the social definitions of an adult in a given community setting).
Knowles’s (1980) definition of an adult is also congruent with the above definition because he defines adult education as “activities intentionally engaged in for the purpose of bringing about learning among those whose age, social roles, or self-perception define them as adults” (p. 215). This definition of an adult is important because andragogy is known to work best in environments that are exclusively adult-centered.
Collaboratively Determined Objectives Environments that are critical to the adult learner and which the adult learner plays a vital role in the learning experience should be utilized when implementing andragogy (Rachal, 2002, p. 215).
Contracts are one of the tools through which instructors and researchers have been advised to use to achieve the required learning purpose; however, there is no guarantee that such a strategy will work in all situations.
Specifically drawn contracts which have a predetermined set of objectives for the adult learners are said to be bound to fail if an adult learner does not know the predetermined objectives in the first place (or if the objectives were not the learner’s main objectives of engaging in the learning experience in the first place).
For instance, a course focusing on how to improve one’s saving plan would be congruent with a learner’s personal objectives, as well as the course’s objectives, and this could probably be the reason why a learner would enroll in the given course in the first place.
Nonetheless, in situations where this scenario is not the case, it would mean that the instructor would have to collaborate with the learners and negotiate on their learning objectives (as regards what would exhibit a high level of competence for the instructor in the course of using the andragogy learning methodology).
Langston (1990) seems to have met the criterion defining this standard when undertaking related research studies on his focus groups where the goal of the instructor or the competence expected of the instructor was second to the learner’s objectives.
From this analysis, we can deduce the fact that andragogy works best in environments that are specifically determined by the learner’s objectives and not the instructors’ because it is affirmed that the learner should have more say in the planning of the learning process. The ideal situation should however be when the learner’s and instructor’s objectives are similar (such as that defined in the savings plan example).
Performance-Based Achievement Considering andragogy and many other learning theories are specifically based on competence and proficiency (in a given area of study); the will to measure the achievement level of the learners is inevitable. However, it should be understood that under andragogy, the assessment criterion should not resemble those of conventional learning styles because they should seem to be as low-threat as possible (Rachal, 2002, p. 216).
In this regard, Knowles (1980) previously went ahead to establish a contract with a portfolio of evidence that specifically exposed the level of learner’s achievement (with regards to well-determined learning objectives), but the criterion for carrying out such assessments needs to be mutually negotiated with the learners and the instructors.
The assessment criteria is normally based on the learner’s ability to particularly perform all the learned content in a rather direct manner, which can be demonstrated by his or her ability to take and print a photograph, as opposed to a learner’s ability to take a paper-pencil test that evaluates how to take and print a photograph (the latter is indirect while the former is a direct assessment method).
Studies undertaken by Clark (1991), with reference to assessment criteria (when using the andragogy approach), made use of a performance-based activity as a benchmark for performance where it was easily determined whether a person passed a given assessment test or not.
Clark (1991) recommends that the appropriate performance criterion is to be designed in situations where the learner’s learning objective demonstrates a desired learning outcome. For instance, if an adult learner wants to acquire basic computer skills that would enable him or her send and receive emails without any assistance; the assessment criteria will be based on whether he or she is able to send and open emails without assistance.
This kind of assessment is also what determines the “book test” approach from the practical knowledge expected of adult learners when the andragogy methodology is applied.
With regards to standardized tests to assess adult learners, Knowles (1980, p. 12) cautions that “tests often smack of childhood schooling to adult learners, and so should be used with caution and preferably with the participants’ full participation in the decision, administration and analysis”.
Since standardized tests are not essentially recommended by Knowles (1980), he proposes the use of tailor-made tests, but he also expresses caution about this assessment criterion, noting that if instructors use it to compare two adult learners, it would not be in the spirit of andragogy.
Unfortunately, most instructors have used this assessment criterion in this manner. On the contrary, Knowles, recommends that tailor-made assessment criteria should be used for purposes of the students’ own edification (with regards to the relative gains made in the entire learning process), and if it is possible, adult learners should be allowed to come up with their own assessment criteria in group or individual contexts.
Measuring Satisfaction Many adult education activities have been faulted by many researchers as lacking the primary goal of attaining skills and expertise, but rather having the feeling to attain personal satisfaction. In this regard, there is enough evidence to suggest that many adult learners are increasingly participating in various learning activities, merely for the pleasure they derive from it.
Since this trend is real, Rachal (2002) affirms that there is a strong need for instructors, using the andragogy approach, to measure the learner’s level of satisfaction in this light.
Though this assessment criterion is not basically recommended (if achievement is not the essential goal), satisfaction in the learning experience should be measured in virtually all spheres of the administration of andragogy because this is basically the primary reason most adult learners are likely to be influenced by when enrolling for learning.
Andragogy instructors should, therefore, measure the variables related to the educational activity, but it is also recommended that they couple the same with the learner’s interests (Rachal, 2002).
Conclusion This study identifies the need for adult education to be andragological because the methodology specifically appeals to the needs of adult learners. The above criteria, focused on the effective implementation of andragogy also specifically appeals to situational aspects which are unique to adult learning because the application of andragogy is in itself situational.
More importantly, this study points out that andragogy appeals to the learner’s ability, learner’s motivation, and the facilitative elements of the instructor in the entire learning process.
These elements are the successive factors in adult learning and from the above analysis, they are also the basis through which andragogy is based on.
The above criteria also seem to succinctly follow the precepts and ideals of Knowles, even though his recommendations and perception about andragogy and adult learning were criticized as idealistic. Nonetheless, it is an undeniable fact that adult learning, just like children learning, should be tailored towards the needs of the learner groups and this is what andragogy seeks to appeal to.
Conversely, the issue of the appropriateness of andragogy in adult learning can be contrasted with its effectiveness. Pratt (1988) is also sympathetic to this view and affirms that the appropriateness of andragogy in adult education should be the primary focus of study for future researchers because efforts to understand the appropriateness of a given learning methodology would be fruitless if its effectiveness is not established.
However, apart from acknowledging the importance of this analysis in this study; this issue would be a separate topic altogether. Comprehensively, we can see that andragogy is essentially based on unique adult needs and the above-mentioned criteria act as the blueprint for its implementation.
References Clark, J. A. (1991). Self-directed learning skills and clinical performance: A comparison of traditionally taught and learning contract-taught nursing students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(07), 2236A.
Knowles, M. S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge.
Langston, L. C. (1990). Self-directed learning, achievement, and satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A
Globalisation and cultural background Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How Cai’s history influenced his work
Analysis of the actual work ‘borrowing your enemy’s arrows’
Effects of globalisation on the work
Introduction Cai GuoQiang epitomises hybridisation of culture through art. His work of “borrowing your enemy’s arrows” captures his oriental origins and hence captivates Asian audiences; on the other hand, his overseas exposure has permeated his art and given it a global appeal. Through an analysis of this work, it will be argued that Cai has managed to negotiate artistic meaning owing to his dual influences; globalisation and cultural background.
How Cai’s history influenced his work Cai left China for Japan in 1987 and then proceeded to the United States eight years later. This had a profound influence on Cai as an artist because he became an ambassador on behalf of his original culture (Minglu, 2009). But most importantly, Cai found a way of challenging the limits of Asian philosophy.
He therefore curved an artistic pathway that superseded his own culture and added a global or even universal ideal to his work. Japan taught Cai how to relate the human being to nature. This explains why “borrowing your enemies’ arrows” has a certain natural appeal to it.
On the other hand, Cai asserts that living in the United States taught him to be bold and political as described in an interview conducted by Kay Itoi (2009). He noticed that Americans were very straightforward in their work and this makes them quite arresting. Such an influence has also been captured in the work under analysis. Cai has been bold and political just like the Americans.
It is very clear to see some of the traces of Chinese heritage in his work. His use of rice straws and arrows are illustrative of his origins. In fact, in response to his hometown Quanzhou, Cai asserted that he wanted to mine the small elements of his culture and then present them to the world so the world can understand China better. In an interview with Jing Daily, Cai asserted that he should not be regarded as a returning artist.
To him China was always a part of him and he heavily depended on it to create most of his work. Nonetheless, because Cai has involved himself in many large scale works that are quite technologically advanced, he needed to do something that brought him closer to his origins and this was the reason why he chose to make ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows.
To this individual, progress is only possible when he gets personal and this occurs after he has gone back to his historic roots. In this regard, it can be stated that China is very central to the piece under analysis because it represented who he truly was in the artistic industry (Cai Guo Qiang, 56).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cai is often fond of taking on relatively political aspects in society and bringing them out in his work; the piece ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ is no exception. This is something he learnt from his foreign influences. Cai has always felt that the communist concept is quite applicable to the people of China. The element of Marxism is especially real to those who have been victim to this kind of propaganda.
The art work under analysis heavily draws on these concepts and is quite applicable to the people of China. In this regard, it was an interpretation of Marxism through an analysis of the East versus the West. He firmly believed that western hegemony as perpetuated through cultural domination can be turned around and utilised by the Chinese as an asset.
Cai was profoundly influenced by his culture even though he was not aware of this fact at first. He left his country of origin as a show of this defiance. However, as he went on abroad, he soon realised that he could never erase his Chinese identity. In fact, he often liked to speak in his native tongue.
Furthermore, his artistic pieces are reminiscent of a strong culture which, like the boat, is always changing. Therefore, one can say that the continuous travels and movements by this artist led him to rediscover his roots and to appreciate them even more (Cavallucci, 2002, 11).
Some Chinese citizens had previously dismissed work done by oversees artists claiming that this was nothing more than western art. They presumed that those artists were so caught up in the ways and perspectives of the west that they ought not to be taken seriously, however, this kind of thinking soon diminished once people realised that Chinese contemporary Art actually reflected matters that were central to Chinese people.
Cai is one of the artists who has been at the heart of this change in thinking because of the subject matter of his works including the one addressed in borrowing your enemies’ arrow (Itoi, 2009).
Analysis of the actual work ‘borrowing your enemy’s arrows’ This piece of work consists of a myriad of objects from Chinese culture but the manner in which he puts them together testifies to his trans-cultural nature. The work consists of a boat that has been suspended in mid air. It is made of rice straw; material that comes from Southern China i.e. Quanzhou.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalisation and cultural background specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The latter was Cai’s hometown and there is no doubt that he was profoundly affected by its inclinations. The boat has been pierced by a series of arrows and it has a Chinese flag that is being blown by a fan attached therein.
At face value, one would be tempted to think of this piece as being highly destructive. This is because the boat has been pierced by the arrows. However, after taking a deeper look, one easily realises that the latter work is quite contradictory; that there is something else that is rather healing about it.
Because of the arrows, the boat has overcome its limitations and therefore flown up (its suspended). The feathers of the arrows have made this possible. Therefore, one must endure pain in order to get to a better place (Zaya, 2002, 38).
This work borrows the concept from an ancient Asian narrative called “cao chuna jie juan” or straw boat borrows arrows1. It was basically about this army that was preparing to go to war with its enemies. However, its leader realised that he did not have sufficient tools to outnumber his adversaries. Therefore, he thought about a smart way of going around this challenge.
He gathered three hundred boats and filled them up with rice straws that had the shape of humans and sent them in the direction of his enemies. The latter fell for the trap and actually thought that they were being confronted. They shot their arrows onto the straw figures thinking that they had outdone their adversaries.
However, the smart general retrieved the boats and used his enemies’ arrows to destroy them; he eventually won the battle. This context explains his choice of materials i.e. arrows and straws and the boat as well. Therefore, this work of art captures a rich aspect of the Chinese tradition and appeals directly to Asian audiences.
However, one must not limit interpretation of his work to this commemorative aspect only2. Analysts should ask why Cai selected this narrative of all other ancient Chinese narratives. The reason was that he wanted to give a social commentary about the clash between Chinese culture and western culture. The work involved is a recount of what goes on in Eastern martial arts versus Western boxing.
In Western boxing, all one needs to do is beat one’s opponent to the ground and that person has won. However, in the martial arts, one often needs to outsmart one’s opponents in a different way. One may have to utilise the strength of that individual against himself.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalisation and cultural background by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, Cai was showing how different the Chinese ways were from the American ways (Hansen, 2002). He was giving a commentary on the struggles that one goes through when one opens up to another culture. In essence, he presented the complex issues that emanate out of these interactions (Pooke and Newall, 2007).
It should be noted that these tensions emanated from the fact that non western art has long been regarded as inferior. Consequently, non western artist are confronted with the challenge of battling the dominant culture. They have the opportunity to seek recognition and therefore provoke those traditional stereotypes to emerge stronger. In fact, these messages can be best understood through the concept of post colonialism.
The US and the west have long been seen as agents of post colonialism through their cultural and economic domination. They have long spearheaded technological innovations and other transformations in the global arena. Consequently, they have possessed an unfair advantage in determining cultural trends.
In this regard, non western art forms have been categorised as being subordinate to those of the west because of post colonialism. In fact, Cai through an interview carried out by Lombardi (2009) reveals that during the cold war era, some interest in non western art started emerging because of seemingly minor reasons.
Westerners thought that those contemporary artists were actually defying their own culture and that they wanted to shift away from it. Alternatively, some western audiences picked interest in Oriental art because they presumed that the contemporary artists were trying to imitate the Western perspective. However, these assumptions could not be farther from the truth today; a multicultural world is emerging3.
Globalisation has brought various cultures closer together and thus demystified them. In art specifically, western concepts no longer have to be the only perspectives that truly matter. Oriental artists can therefore utilise those very notions that are well understood by westerners to show that Orientals are worth their salt. They can therefore emerge triumphant in this struggle to redefine art (Pooke and Newall, 2007, 211).
Therefore, what the ancient Chinese narrative teaches can therefore become true i.e. that a seemingly weaker team can borrow something indirectly from their adversaries and eventually use it to reign supreme. In this regard, Asian artists can succeed in redefining art and fighting against colonialism by using those very concepts that have been linked to the West.
This work is also illustrative of yet another important lesson; that the Asian world is better equipped to deal with the future because of its adaptability. The Chinese narrative is in fact a depiction of the usefulness of this important trait called flexibility. The army that triumphed in the latter piece was the one that responded quickly to the situation around it.
It did not stick to traditional methods of fighting battles because if it had done so, then chances are that it would have lost. Similarly, Cai was trying show that through continual change, the Asian culture can become much stronger than it was in the past. Belting (1987) explains that the irony between the East and the west is that the East is more willing to change than the latter.
In other words, it is only through the hardships and transitory nature of China that its people have come to resist fixedness. They take it as a universal and permanent state. This can make China highly creative because it is a crucial ingredient in art. The West has long been characterised by an inclination towards technology.
However, because of the need to maintain certain identities, the West has become rigid and unresponsive to change around it. In this regard, it is often very difficult for the West to adjust to its external conditions. Therefore, when tough times come, Easterners are at a better place to embrace them because they have always known that things are cyclical.
Furthermore, most tend to dwell on what will happen to their artists after the difficult times rather than focus on the actual difficulties. Their optimism is what gives them strength. However, the same thing cannot be said of Westerners who have not always looked at issues from a relativist perspective. This renders strength to the Chinese who can then be in a position to develop their minds and transform themselves.
Through the piece ‘Borrowing your enemies’ arrows”, Cai has shown that contrary to popular assumption, China has the qualities necessary to deal with an ever changing world and this will ensure a bright future (Belting, 1987).
In fact, it appears as though even in the political front the Chinese government has embraced the fact that change is here to stay. For instance, contemporary Chinese artists are now featured in art exhibitions and this shows how much they are respected by their people.
In fact, since a number of contemporary artists utilised their art work as a platform for criticising their governments, they will now have to think of other subject matters since the government has become cooperative4. This explains why ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ was political in nature but it did not necessarily address the personal conflicts that the local China man had with his government.
Instead, Cai opted to look at another issue which did involve the Chinese people but was more far reaching because it involved that group’s interactions with the world. In essence, change for the people of China – especially their artists – is something that they will always encounter and they need to adjust accordingly by looking for new social evils that they can address through their work (Itoi, 2010)
Effects of globalisation on the work Cai’s work has been described by art critics such a Dominic Lombardi (2009)as mysterious and intriguing. Indeed, one can argue that this could be a risky move given that most Oriental art is rarely understood5. However, reports show that the world has been rather receptive of his work especially the piece under analysis.
Some external audiences have asserted that the work is quite engaging and empowering thus denoting the fact that it does possess a multicultural appeal. The reason his work has appealed to the masses outside of China is that the pieces first of all are symbolic of social realism.
‘Borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ discuss a myriad of issues confronted by an increasingly open China. He takes on a social issue and translates it into an art piece that can be understood by the world.
In fact, this work’s true meaning is best understood by a stranger to Chinese culture because that person will not be confused by the baggage of ancient narratives in understanding it. Non easterners have been very quick at identifying the social issues being put forward by the piece even more than the Easterners because they tend to focus only on what is available to them.
Globalisation also plays a crucial role in this work because of its carefree nature. In an interview conducted by Rodriguez (2005), Cai explained that the thing he admires most about western artists is their willingness to be themselves or to let go. Most of them never lose touch of this fact even when they become critically acclaimed artists.
Cai explains that what he did not like most about artists from his home country is their tendency to lose that freedom in their work. He explained that in fact most mature Chinese artists tend to become teachers and they play it too safe or too cautiously. Cai believes that this is indeed a major killer in the Asian artistic industry because it delineates the artist from what truly added value to him.
He believes that one must continuously look for happiness in his or her work no matter how great one’s status becomes. It can therefore be seen that Cai’s respect for experimentation is an alien feature in the orient and that he derived this aspect from the west. He defied the way of thinking of his earlier culture because it did not encourage self growth6.
In fact, the reason why Picasso is one of his favourite artists is that this individual was continuously looking for things to improve himself and that is something that he always strives to achieve. In fact, ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrow’ is indicative of this point of view because even if the work is quite insightful or deep, the author has still created something beautiful and carefree.
Conclusion There is no doubt that Cai’s cultural origins played a tremendous role in this piece. The narrative behind the piece, its title, choice of material are all quite entrenched in this way of life. On the other hand, his contemporary nature and the fact that he travelled to different parts of the world are also indicative of how influential foreign elements have been in his wok.
His inclinations towards the political in the piece testify to this concept. Furthermore, he is bold in his work in much the same manner that western artists are. He has talked about a subject matter that can be understood by anyone i.e. change.
Cai puts forward the notion that in opening up to the West, then China can use Americans’ own strength to bring out theirs. This focus on tensions that take place between adversarial groups therefore brings out the global nature of his work. Cai is a nationalist and globalist all wrapped up in one.
Footnotes 1 Luo Guanzhong, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Graham Brash, Singapore, 1985
2 Jennifer We Mon. “I Wish It Never Happened”. Ed. Cai Guo-Qiang. Cai Guo-Qiang. Taiwan: Artist Publishing Co., 2005.
3 Niklas Luhmann, Art as a Social System, trans. Eva M. Knodt, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 2000 p.19
4 Dan, Cameron. “Blinded by the Light”, Cai Guo-Qiang: Head On, Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bank AG, 2006, pp. 19-24.
5 Hou Hanru, On The Mid Ground, Timezone 8, HongKong 2002 p.32
6 Craig Clunas, Pictures and Visuality in Early Modern China, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1997 p.10
References Minglu, Gao. Inside out: New Chinese Art. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the Asia Society Galleries, New York, 2009.
Marketing Plan for Command Spanish Coursework best college essay help
Executive Summary Command Spanish is a small sole proprietorship franchise in Grand Valley. It specializes in providing occupation Spanish training to businesses and government institution in the region. In the past, it has been very successful, because of the wealth of experience that Mr. Sadoval the owner has in teaching Spanish and the personalized attention he gives to each and every of his students.
The company has a wide distribution network allowing it to reach many customers at their convenience. The company is ranked the best for quality. The company has adopted many new and innovative ways to deliver its services such as the internet, books, audio tapes and CD’s as well as the traditional face to face approach.
However the company is facing increased competition from new entrants into the Spanish language training market. Some of these companies are well organized, well resourced and are using cheaper and innovative methods to deliver their services.
As a result the company’s market share and position is being threatened. However the competitors lack local knowledge and their services lack personal touch that Command Spanish is renowned for.
The company’s primary objective is to expand its service into other segments other than corporate and government institution. The company also seeks to defend its position and market share from new entrants and various forms of competition.
This will be achieved through transformation into a fully fledged institution with a fixed location, highly trained and motivated staffs that are able to provide high quality services at affordable prices. The challenge that the company faces is that it has a weak financial position and lacks funds to finance the expansion program. It will source these funds externally from financial institution or invite equity partners.
The owner also lacks the capacity to implement the transformational process. External consultants will be hired to advice and guide the process. The company will use its knowledge and experience to enter into new segments. It will maintain same levels of service quality in these new markets segments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The products will continue to be differentiated through quality and personal touch and through provision of high quality supplementary materials using new innovative delivery methods.
The products will be creatively priced to maximize revenue yet giving value to customers, The Company will deliver its services through its new training facilities and through the internet, CDs and books. The company will undertake an advertising campaign to create awareness of the company products and will use the internet to promote its products because it is cheaper and it has a global reach.
It will place adverts in print media especially business magazines and journals because they have a longer shelf life. The company will invest in its staff as they are the key channel through which the services are delivered through provision of training and adequate motivation. The company will also invest in the best processes to ensure that services are offered in the best way and that customer’s experience is enhanced.
It is expected that after implementing this programme, the company will realize increased growth in sales and profitability; it will achieve growth in market share and level of customer satisfaction. These measures will be monitored constantly to evaluate the success of the marketing programme and to guide future marketing planning activities.
Marketing Plan Developing Competitive Advantage
Matching internal strengths to its opportunities to create capability in serving customers needs; the emerging opportunities for Command Spanish company have been identified to be in the areas of information and communication technology, use of new media such as internet, audio-visual and print to reach a wider market, the recovery of the United States’ economy which is expected to increase hiring and hence the market size, and the.
The company should use its internal strengths to ensure maximum exploitation of these opportunities.
First Command Spanish will need to carry out research to identify the needs in the new present market segments and emerging market segments and then utilize the vast experience and knowledge of the company to provide high quality training to customers.
We will write a custom Coursework on Marketing Plan for Command Spanish specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New methods of service delivery should be used to reach those customers who are far, or are unable to attend classes such as CDs, books and the internet.
The company should use all forms of communication that is internet, radio, TV and print to promote itself and inform the market of their products and the high reputation of the company, its trainers and training programs. They should also maintain flexible pricing to attract all types of customers.
The company has been committed to operational excellence, product leadership and customer intimacy and this is demonstrated through its investment in research and development to ensure customers’ needs are met and emerging trends identified. The company has provided high quality training for many years and is the market leader in quality teaching of Command Spanish.
It espouses customer intimacy as seen in the personal attention given by Mr. Sadoval to his student and prompt response to their queries. The company also maintains a flexible pricing policy to accommodate all customers.
Weaknesses and Recommendations
The main weakness of the company is its weak financial position. Because of lack of adequate funds the company is unable to adequately finance its operations, expand into new markets and segments and is not assured of sustainable future operations. Lack of funds for research and development, limits the company’s ability to develop relevant products and this may lead to poor quality services.
Poor quality services will damage the reputation and the image of the company. The company should increase its funds by injecting capital, inviting equity partners or taking a loan facility. If the company is unable to secure financing it should maintain the current level of operations where it’s assured it can deliver high level of service quality to its current limited number of customers given its limited resources.
The company has several major liabilities and their effect on service delivery is visible. The most significant is that Mr. Sadoval is the only trainer in the whole company. Because of this, he is unable to teach many students and at the same time give personalized attention to those he teaches.
The company also lacks a permanent venue for training as he has to hire space and he keeps moving around. This costs money and there is low visibility of the company than if the company had a permanent office and training facilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Command Spanish by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company also has a limited segments focus. A market segment is a group of customers in a market who have a homogenous set of needs and wants and whom exhibit similar behaviors (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman, Hansen, 2009). It focuses on the corporate and government markets ignoring other segments completely.
The market potential of the other segments namely personal, educational, and international has not been tapped. Finally the teaching format of Mr. Sadoval focuses so much on phonetics rather than grammar and conversational skills. The company should realize that its customers do not seek mastery of the language but just working knowledge to enable them converse at basic level on Spanish.
The company should also employ more trainers to assist Mr. Sadoval and find permanent premises where training will be carried out. There is need to expand training to the other untapped segments and finally implement a shift from emphasis on phonetics to providing practical grammar and conversation skills in the training
Developing a Competitive Focus The recovery of the economy in the United States presents Command Spanish Company an opportunity for growth. However there is increased competition as more and more trainers enter into the market. Some of them are using cheaper methods such as e-learning, learning softwares amongst others. Some of the competitors have more resources than Command Spanish.
To maximize the opportunities and counter the threats in the market the company needs multiple approaches in strategy. One to adopt a defensive strategy whereby it will seek to protect its market share and position itself differently among new competitors.
Secondly the company should adopt a market segment diversification strategy in which it will seek to enter into other market other than the corporate segment it currently serves.
To serve this multiple segments well it needs to adopt a differential pricing strategy where a different price will be charged to business/government and individual clients. To effectively distribute its products the company needs to have a fixed premises for carrying out training activities. This location should be well considered as it determines the perception of people of the company and the brand.
Other methods of distributing the services include on site delivery for example training delivered to companies, schools, institutions among others. Internet, audio tapes, CDs and books should also be used to distribute the service. The company will need to revise and redesign its products so as to meet the needs of the market especially the new segments it enters.
Marketing Goals and Objectives
The marketing goal for Command Spanish should be 1: To offer Spanish language training to business community, government and other segments. The following should be the subdivisions of the main objective.
Objective A 1: Provide high quality services by using multiple, internal, high-value resources through teaching aids such as books, audio, CD’s, internet and face to face interaction.
Objective A 2: To increase the capacity of the organization to cater for the expected growth in demand for training due to improved economic condition and demographic factors by hiring two assistant trainers in the next three months.
Objective A 3: To develop new ways of delivering service and value to customers in the current financial year by establishing a fixed location for a training institution. And increased usage of new media such as internet, software, TV and audio promote the organization in the next six months.
Marketing Goal 2: To grow the Market size of the company
Objective B 1: To expand the organization’s business segment’s focus from the current two segments of government and corporate to include schools, personal and Institutional segments in the current financial year.
Objective B 2: To increase the expenditure in Research and Development by 40% in the next 2 years, to facilitate product review, new product development, market analysis, trend monitoring and projection. This is expected to enhance the organizations capacity to improve satisfaction of current customers needs as well as enter into new segment thereby resulting in growth.
Objective B 3: To expand into at least three major countries as other markets other than the United States in the next 3 years. The country has focused entirely on the United States in the past and has overlooked opportunities in other markets where the service is needed.
The company should use the development in technology such as internet learning, internet conferencing and physical entry into these new markets as means to provide training in the new market. The countries with good potential to enter include Canada, UK and China, Germany, Japan amongst others.
Marketing Strategy The primary market constitute of both English speaking government and corporate institutions’ employees in the Grand Junction and Western Slopes area who require knowledge of Spanish in the course of their work. The individuals that use or need the training services are those that feel that a little knowledge in Spanish will improve their business or work.
The customers or potential customers for the company’s training services also include any company that does business with Spanish speaking people or might have them as customers or suppliers in the future. The customers of Command Spanish services are English speakers who do not speak any Spanish.
Most of these customers do not feel it is necessary to master the Spanish language in order to improve their business and work, but would benefit from having a working knowledge of Spanish. The advantage of the Command Spanish training is that it is not as broad and tedious as most competitors programs are but it is simplified to equip its customers with knowledge necessary to communicate in Spanish within a short time and with minimum effort.
Those who need the training services are business owners, workers as well as government workers. They are English speakers and are usually new employees who are young in age but also include older workers who have settled from other areas where there are very few Spanish speakers to be found.
People who need Spanish language training are workers who manage Spanish speaking personnel such as farm managers and construction managers as well as public employees such as law enforcement officers, librarian, health workers, school teachers, social workers as well as workers in retail and business who interact regularly with Spanish speaking people.
Basic Needs and Requirement
The desire of those seeking Spanish language training is a working knowledge of Spanish which include the ability to understand and express themselves in Spanish. Due to the pressure of time, these customers require flexible and convenient training programmes that fit into their busy lifestyles.
They also require programmes they can afford that are customized to their needs as well as a lot of attention and prompt responses. The young people undertaking the programmes prefer IT savvy modes of training such as CDs, audio tapes, video and internet. Older generations are content to use books and tapes that are easy to read and the material simple enough to comprehend.
Purchasing /shopping habits
Purchasing /shopping habits are most likely to be influenced by age and incomes. Young users are likely to buy and use the product online. They are likely to make payments using online systems.
They prefer quick and convenient access to training services which online system would provide, are more likely to favor a group training session instead of a one on one approach. Status is important to them; therefore need to emphasize the status significance of training. They are unlikely to identify the need for training; mostly it would be a senior manager who would recommend they go for training.
On the other hand older users will identify their own need for training; they will prefer face to face training over internet and audio.
They are likely to consider the cheapest form of training and are unlikely to buy a lot of supplementary materials because of price sensitivity. They are known to be loyal to respected personality and are likely to be loyal customers of Mr. Sadoval who is widely respected and renowned in the Grand Valley area. They are unlikely to use online payment systems and instead more likely to pay using cash.
The brand name, package design and logo design of the Command Spanish Company are widely known and respected. The company has the widest and most up to date distribution system in the market. The quality level associated with the company is the highest and their programmes are known to be concise yet very significant.
The company trainer Mr. Sadoval is well renowned and respected and he delivers personalized training to all his customers. The major features and benefits of the training programme is its compactness.
It is brief yet sufficient. It has an exciting approach to learning utilizing a conversational style and uses a wide variety of interesting modern tools such as CD’s, internet, books and videos to enhance learning. It is cheap and it is customized to the needs and ability of every customer.
The attention given to every student is a very strong characteristic as it shows the commitment of the company to the success of every customer. In addition the curriculum is well researched and incorporates dialogues and phrases that are widely recognized among all Spanish dialects. The programme also is flexible to accommodate the time and money a student has.
The product is differentiated from others in its quality focus since the company always seeks to provide the highest quality of service using the best methods of delivery. It is positioned as a market leader in the Grand Valley area and has the largest distribution network. Unlike its competitors the products are specifically tailored for occupational purposes and not just for a broad understanding of Spanish.
The service is faster and less expensive, and incorporates cross cultural training necessary for occupational purposes. The service is provided with supplementary products which customers are encouraged to buy such as books audio tapes and CD’s as well as using additional material in the web to increase their knowledge. These materials enable students to learn at their convenience.
The company’s pricing strategy is designed towards its key market segments i.e. government and corporate institutions. The objectives of the pricing strategy are to contribute to giving value to customer through high quality services at affordable prices.
There are different types of competition; there are large organizations like Profluent and Spanish Now which are big institution with human and financial resources and their prices closely match those of Command Spanish.
Other competitors include Rosetta Stone who have developed a Do-it-Yourself Software and are using their financial resources to aggressively market it. Online website also offer training at rock bottom prices compared to others. People can also get free training from Spanish speakers.
The company’s prices are designed to give the best value to the customers and this is achieved through R
Poem Explication paper Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Explication of the poem
Introduction Anne Bradstreet wrote the poem entitled the flesh and the spirit and tried to compare the things of the world and the thing of the spirit (Lash 1).
She clearly did this through dramatizing it into two different people in a form of conversation. Most of Bradstreet’s poetry revolved around her experiences in life and her great love for her family and husband. The theme of spiritualism can also be associated with the love and devotion she had for God.
Thesis statement The writer, in her quest to compare spiritualism and materialism, dramatizes the two as sisters and involves them in a kind of conversation. The two seem to be in an argument, each wanting to support their own ideas and perceptions about life.
The author also tries to show that the world is in a perfect balance between good and evil and that it is the choice of the human beings to choose from one of them. This paper aims at making an explication of the poem to get the inner meaning and the finer details there in.
Explication of the poem In the poem, the author talks of the two sisters and names them Flesh and Spirit as shown in line 5 and 7 in the poem respectively. The flesh is used to symbolize the tangible things of the earth, which include diamonds, pearls and gold as shown in line 84.
The author categorises and describes these things as having value. The spirit on the other hand, includes the things of the spirit that are not tangible and are priceless. This perception is highlighted in the phrase when the poet talks of the hidden manna in line 68 (Lash 2).
The poem shows the difficulty the people have in seeing the spirit or getting in its presence. This is however not the case when it comes to flesh since many can gain the worldly pleasures which gives them recognition and honour.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author believes that the will of God for the puritans-who were a group of Protestants that arose in the 16th century within the Church of England, demanding the simplification of doctrine and worship, and greater strictness in religious discipline-was no longer fulfilled.
Religion, in this context, is displayed as being hard to reach and that only a few managed to attain it. Bradstreet uses symbolism and metaphors to show how religion belonged to a chosen few who were saved and assured of an after-life with God. The author also uses imagery to show the complicated beliefs that the religious people had about the way temptations of the worldly pleasures and gains corrupted their faith.
The poem is not made of stanzas as it takes the form of a long stanza. The author however manages to change the persona. In the beginning of the poem (line 2 to 5), the narrator comes in. The narrator is likely to be a witness who overheard the conversation between the two.
The next part of the poem which begins from line 10 to line 37, takes the form one of the sisters called by the name Flesh. The other sister, Spirit appears as from line 38 up to line 109 in the poem.
The narrator does not differentiate the characters in the poem through the use of stanzas but uses a caesura to show that the conversation takes a pause as the character changes. The author probably utilizes slat rhymes from line 1 to line 15 to demonstrate that as much as the two were from the same origin (twins), their perception and believes about life differed remarkably.
The author uses iambic tetrameter in the whole poem which can take the form of the corners of a square to define the equilibrium that was attained by the two situations. The use of four iambs in a line demonstrates the enclosure of beliefs of the puritans. The bible talks of the way God throws out Lucifer, who was an angel, from heaven in to abyss to take over the world and is called the devil.
The irony here is that the devil, in conjunction with God, keeps the universe in a balance. This balance usually gives humans the choice between good and evil. This is the only way man can get to know what is wrong and what is right and therefore choose from the two.
We will write a custom Essay on Poem Explication paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This poem contrasts the two sisters as good and evil when she says that there is no candle there and yet there was light and that there shall be no darksome night, on lines 101 and 102 respectively. These phrases mean that wherever the Spirit resides, the light of God illuminates it.
Also the phrase that says, this city pure is not for thee and for things unclean there shall not be (lines 106-107) show the fact that one is pure and the other one evil. Spirit has a judgmental tone as she appraises herself as being worthy of God’s favour and despises the filth of the earth that Flesh is associated with. She also believes that she would live with God for eternity for her goodness.
The aspect of idol worship, which is supported by flesh, is also brought out in the poem. Flesh is quoted trying to convince her sister, Spirit in to it. This can be seen when Flesh challenges Spirit that with immortal fame, she would be worshipped and her name praised.
The phrase in line 28 that say trophies will be erected in her name show the extent of appreciation she would have if she were on her side. This issue of worshipping idols is condemned in the Christian faith and that explains the great difference between good and evil.
The people who desire things of the flesh and those that are worldly and not spiritual are drawn into idol worship which is against the teachings and the commands given by God. In the poem, however, Spirit is seen as being very proud as opposed to being humble.
This shows some form of contradiction to the whole concept of religion. It shows how Christians only believe that they are the ones on the right and deserve to go to heaven and believe that all the rest who are not Christians and do not abide by the statutes belong to hell.
On many occasions Flesh is seen to be asking the sister why she always only thought of and fantasized about things that seemed impossible to get or attain. In line 9 to 11 she asks her whether she only lives on nothing but meditation and contemplation.
Flesh tries to pump sense in to Spirit’s head and tells her to get realistic. She wonders whether where Spirit believes she would finally go possesses treasure in store for her (Lash 1). Flesh would rather get treasure that is tangible that wait for the unseen and intangible treasure that Spirit talks of.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Poem Explication paper by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Anne Bradstreet manages to demonstrate the perfect balance that exists between good and evil in the world. It therefore leaves the reader with the freedom to choose between the two but shows clearly the difference between the two and the consequences of choosing either.
There is no clear illustration to show whether it is possible to get an intermediate between the two and therefore it would mean that one chooses from either being materialistic or being spiritual.
Bradstreet, through her poem, believes that Christianity is a big struggle of trying to maintain purity and that it only belongs to the chosen ones. Those that are chosen are assured of living with God through eternity and enjoying the treasures that are in store for them.
The writer, through Spirit, describes the beauty of heaven as having a crystal river that runs through it, a gate made of pearl and streets of gold that could be seen through. This description of beauty is meant to show the treasure that are in store for Spirit and anyone else that is willing to follow and abide by the Christian teachings.
The reader also appreciates the fact that there are many temptations and they are actually rewarding since it brings fame and great riches. The writer however brings out clearly in the poem and appreciates the fact that it is because of such temptations that one is able to learn of the higher calling and gets to know how to refrain from them.
Work Cited Lash, Chris. Anne Bradstreet: The Flesh and The Spirit. 2011. Web.
Curriculum Analysis Essay scholarship essay help
Curriculum Documentation and Origins I will be analyzing the Read 180 curriculum which is a reading program. For the standards I will use the Virginia Standards of Learning test and Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI). There are various types of documentation made about the program.
The first is peer-reviewed sources which include books, articles, internet sources and various scholarly materials where publishers have included the contributions from many experts in the field before deciding to publish it. The national level sources are also present and are available for the audiences around the nation.
There are also publisher/developer evaluations. The other types of documentation include quantitative data, quantitative investigations about the subject and various convincing evidences.
There are four approaches that are considered so as to match the standards and they include, the reading curricula, instructions assisted by the computer, the methods that aim at providing the teachers with more professional knowledge so as to understand some given instructions and methods that bring together instructions of large and small groups using computer activities.
The documentation about Read180 is well put and it enables the readers to fully understand the concepts behind it and the goals and objectives that it strives to reach.
Read 180 is a scholastic program which was developed by the educators at the University of Vanderbilt in conjunction with the Orange County of Florida and those from various public schools. It was then implemented in 1999. The prototype was developed by the Peabody Learning Lab which is in Vanderbilt University and Dr. Hasselbring Ted. At the moment, Scholastic is its marketer.
Read 180 is a program that was after more than twenty years of research based on scientific knowledge and the assistance of a group of well known and acknowledged experts in the field of adolescent literacy and researchers that dealt with reading problems. It was after intense research on the issue of reading problems that the Read 180 was developed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Curriculum Proper This reading program was designed so as to respond to an educational problem that faced many students of varied ages. It was developed mainly so as to target the students that were in grades 3 to 12 and had not achieved a certain required reading proficiency.
The program was designed so as to breach the gap that existed in the skills of the individual student. This was supposed to be done by involving the each student in a session that lasted for ten minutes during which the student was issued with certain instructions which he or she was supposed to follow for the session to be successful.
The program also aims at improving the reading and comprehension levels of the students. At first, the lexile levels of the students are determined so as to know which novel the students can read in the Read 180 curriculum. This is determined using the SRI test which assigns every individual with a lexile score.
Read 180, which is identified as the most efficient reading assistant program, is a system of curriculum that gives instructions which are later assessed and with the aim of developing professionals.
It has been proven to improve the reading abilities of many readers who struggle to read. It was mainly developed for those students that are reading either two or more years before graduating (grade-level).
It also contains many features that assist in the educating of students with special needs. It was also developed due to the need to boost English language learners by providing the necessary academic vocabularies that are necessary for success in reading.
The curriculum is intended for educational purposes. There are five major components in the program. The first one is instructional reading where students read some passage after viewing a video clip from a CD and this is meant to give them some background knowledge about the subject.
We will write a custom Essay on Curriculum Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The students are given a choice of language where they choose to view the preview in Spanish. The educational skills acquired here include word recognition, vocabulary use, spelling of the various words and fluency in pronunciation. Double clicking on any word gives its Spanish translated version.
The second component in the program is the modelled reading. During this session, an audio CD is played whereby a recording of fluent readings from a peer coach is recorded and the students follow along and try to pronounce the words and phrases just as fluently as the coach.
The third component is the independent reading sessions. During these sessions, the students get in to private compartments where they are to read individually. Each student reads a book that fit their individual levels of skill in reading. The students are not allowed to go into groups for discussions of the written works. This is meant to give them time to try out the skills they had acquired during the other sessions.
There is also the teacher-directed instruction where the teachers and their students have interactive sessions. This happens daily and can either be done when the students are in groups or are in their individual sessions. The lessons that are to be learnt are those of writing, comprehension in reading, improving the vocabulary and studying the characteristics of the words they encounter.
After all these sessions, there is an assessment that is done. This is done using the Lexile Framework which yields lexile scores which are not the usual, everyday scores. The lexile score indicate the difficulty that the student encounters during reading. This is done by the use of lexiles which assess the difficulty of comprehending text. The computer is used to monitor students’ performance on the activities.
Read 180 has also been acknowledged for its support for the diverse cultures and languages of the readers. This is evidenced in the package provided for in the Read 180 program which includes the audio tapes recorded in the Spanish language together with books and other multiethnic literature. This ensures that people of various cultures and languages are targeted.
This explains why the Read 180 program had been adopted and implemented in many countries and institutions. It also targets a wide range of age groups right from the 4th up to the 12th graders. This shows how user-friendly this program is. The program is not gender sensitive as it can be used equally well by both sexes.
The main goals of these components include the following:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Curriculum Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the primary goals of the program is to motivate to the students. This is achieved through the use of good looking peer mentors who appear during the video session on tape. This program focuses on getting the attention of the students and consequently motivates them into being interested in topics that deal with adolescents. It promoter frequent positive contributions from the students and captures their attention and interest throughout the session.
The program also aims at providing basic decoding skills to the students. This achieved by providing the students with the opportunity to preview and identify some of the difficult words that are used in the passages on the CD before they are allowed to read the passage. When the students listen to a certain word pronounced on the CD, they check on the structural model and take a quiz to show that they have identified the word. This provides them with the basic decoding skills that are critical in education.
The program also aims at promoting fluency in decoding skills. The teachers first prepare for the session which involves instructing either the students that are in groups or the whole class in general. Thereafter, follows a two-day implementation of the training in the use of software in the computer that supports the program.
The program also aims at imparting knowledge in language comprehension. The processes addressed include, predicting, summarizing, predicting, general mental imagery and evaluation skills.
It also aims at promoting linguistic knowledge. The student should be able to know the definitions and spellings of vocabulary.
Promote the abilities of making inferences. This is achieved by asking the students inferential questions in the quizzes on comprehension.
Since the program involves the use of complex software, it requires that the teachers attain some certain level of knowledge and skills. Those teachers that are not computer literate might have a rough time when it comes to this.
An institution that is ready to adopt this program should make sure that it has a good number of staff that possess the adequate knowledge on computers and the software and any other technologies that are included in the lessons as per the requirements of the Read 180 program.
Since teachers are required to have prior knowledge concerning this activity, they are provided for with materials which equip them with the necessary knowledge. The teachers are also requires to attend several workshops so as to support instruction in various aspect such as vocabulary. They also need to sharpen their skills in terms of comprehension and the reading strategies as required by the Read 180 program.
Some of the values that are incorporated in the Read 180 program may not go well with the morals or attitudes of the community. Such practices as the those of using attractive coaches during the lessons so as to motivate the students in attending the lessons and making them participate more in class may not be accepted by all.
As much as it is a good idea and has actually been proven to be effective, other members of the community which includes the parents of the students may think that it is more of a distraction than a motivator.
The students might concentrate more on the physique of the attractive coaches and less on the lessons they are trying to teach. This is a matter that is subject to debate but judging by the success rate of the particular activity, the use of beautiful and handsome coaches may be here to stay.
The Curriculum in Use
The curriculum is designed in such a way that it accommodates for sixty students per classroom. For any institution that is willing to adopt the program there is a certain estimate of the costs to be incurred in the setting up of the entire program.
The estimated cost for setting a whole program for a class of at least sixty students and the entire teaching staff and materials which include computer hardware and software and the paperbacks and audiotapes is an estimated $ 400. This cost, however may have changed due to time lapse. This estimate was set during the publication in 2000. An accurate and current amount can be obtained by contacting the publisher.
There are various materials needed for the implementation of the program. These include lesson on presentations, questions and reading that are stored in CDs. Paperbacks and audio books are also used in the exercises that lead to the implementation of program’s goals and objectives. There is also the use of posters and the whole package provided for in Read 180.
The program is meant to solve the problems faced by secondary students in reading. Researchers have tried to compare the achievements the various approaches that the program has provided for the teachers and policymakers and to study the current edge in secondary programs.
Stage B of the Read180 program is meant to be used by students from grade 6 and above. The students are divided into groups of fifteen and provided with instructions in a span of ninety minutes per day. Each lesson starts with a twenty minutes session where everyone is present. Afterwards, the students get into groups of fives and go through three different activities.
The first activity is the one of doing instructional reading through the assistance of the computer. The next one is the independent reading session where everyone goes his or her separate way to read alone and the last session is the one of getting into small groups and a teacher is present to instruct them. Read 180 program provides software which mostly has topics on social studies and science in general.
Since Read 180 provides the students with the necessary skills that are needed in improved learning, it meets the standards that are set by the region and this makes it an efficient tool in learning. Research has also proved it to be very effective and this gives it an added advantage over those that have not been scientifically proven yet.
Some data on research findings done to warrant Read 180 as an effective program in the learning process have been conducted.
An evaluation that involved a large region was conducted on the program in high schools in Phoenix where a group of students that had been performed poorly were introduced to the Read 180 program and their results later (after a year) compared with their fellow academically weak students who had not participated in the program.
The results indicated that the students who had engaged in the Read 180 program scored substantially higher than those who had not.
Another research was carried out in California and it encompassed the 8th graders in Los Angeles. The research studied the performance of students in terms of reading abilities and therefore monitored the performance of those that had used the program and those that had not and the results indicated that those that had been involved in the Read 180 program actually performed better.
These results concurred with those obtained in Phoenix.
Critique I believe that the Read 180 program is an effective tool that can be useful to the education sector. It provides the skills which include fluency in the spoken language, skills in comprehension, skills in knowing the correct spelling and those of word recognitions and correct use.
These are the essential and primary requirements for anyone that wants to be a proficient reader or writer. This program therefore builds a strong foundation for those students aspiring to be great writers in the future.
Unlike other programs or day to day lessons in the education sector, Read 180 manages to combine fun and education in a way no one anticipated.
The use of attractive coaches for the sole reason of motivating the students is one of its own kind. The aim is to improve the concentration of the students in class and get them to participate in discussions especially concerning sex education and other things that affect any adolescent student.
Through its motivational nature, the Read 180 program has managed to get some students that had completely given up with education to get back to school and actually score high marks. The program takes education to the next level and makes school a nice place to be. It brings fun into education and gets the attention of the students that had despised education.
Read 180 is a winner when it comes to making scores. It has changed the perceptions of students towards education and has brought great success to all or at least most of those who have attempted to give it a try. Above all Read 180 does not only impart academic skills to the students that engage in it but also socializing skills.
Through the use of group work, the program brings together different groups of people who interact freely. This interaction gives the students a sense of belonging that enables them to be the best they can be and this is equally reflected in their grade scores.
The Read 180 program also portrays a good image by the fact that it supports for its use by readers of diverse cultures and languages. The option given to students to choose from different languages gives this program an added advantage from the conventional programs. It enhances socialization and cultural exchange which are among the strongholds a country must have to so as to develop into a destination for different people.
The only problem that is experienced in the adoption and implementation of the Read 180 program is the fact that it is a new field and needs teachers who have prior knowledge on the running of the program which requires specialized training.
The other thing to be concerned about is the likelihood of some students being distracted by the attractive coaches that teach them. This should be checked for in individual classes so as to ensure that others don’t fail out of the distractions created.
Conclusion Read 180 is a program that can be adopted and implemented by any institution that seeks to improve the skills of its student body. It helps in creating all-rounded students who have both skills that help them in classroom activities and outdoor activities such as socializing. I would personally recommend it to anyone willing to experience positive change in their learning process.
Teaching the Spoken Language Dissertation custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction English is the most widely spoken language in the world today. Stemming from the British Empire dominance in the early days of civilization, former colonies of Britain either adopted English as their official language or as their second most important language after some indigenous languages.
Because its used in international instruction, learning English as a second language is a necessary undertaking for students and instructors especially given the dominance of the US and UK in global economics and politics. In Asia, all the learners whose first language is not English study the language as their second language.
ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages), EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the learning of English by people whose fist language is not English. They may also refer to the use of the language by the same group.
Teaching of English is also referred to in different terms summarized in popular acronyms. ELT (English language teaching), TESL (Teaching English as a second language), TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages), and TEFL (Teaching English as a foreign language) all referred to teaching English to non-native speakers.
There are many more terms used to describe teaching and learning g English. However, this research concentrated on the TESOL, which primarily involves the teaching of English to speakers of other language.
Learners and instructors of English all over the world including countries that have English as their first language have trouble in the process. According to Brown et al (1983), the difficulties that these learners face are especially compounded in situations where the native language is different from English like in Asia (p. 50).
Through contrastive analysis, for instance it’s easy to conclude that a person of Chinese origin will have difficulties studying English compared to a French man because of the close relationship French has with English. Errors relating to syntax and pronunciation emanating form the influence of first language weigh heavily on learners, which easily discourages the learners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Demoralization of both parties can easily set in if no steps are taken to address the challenges that face such instruction. This paper therefore largely explored the elements of motivation in the foreign language teaching after tackling the problems that face the process such as anxiety.
The research also reviewed various existing literature on the subject of motivation strategies that have been put in place to ensure learners and instructors successfully deal with the challenges that they face in their course of learning.
Motivation and Foreign Language Learning Motivation is important in foreign language learning because it helps students the morale to pursue the studies despite the challenges associated with it. In Asia, like many parts of the world where English is studied as a second language, its important for learners to be motivated to ensure they don’t drop out of the ESL classes besides helping them better their performance.
According to Moriam, who carried out extensive research on ESL in Asia, motivation and language learning strategies are the most valued variables that help highlight the differences that exist in individual learners (2008 p.51). According to Moriam (2008) quoting Oxford
The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class Dissertation essay help online: essay help online
Background Language acquisition is the complex process of a teacher’s and a learner’s activity, which should function in accord and concurrence. Undoubtedly, during mastering the particular language, there arises a range of problems of different nature, which the potential foreign language speaker has to face and overcome alone or with the teacher’s help.
These problems emerge at different spheres of language acquisition process, one of which is profoundly analyzed in this paper. In particular, the latter is focused on oral activity of the foreign language learner, the difficulties he or she has to face during foreign language production.
As far as ‘language is for speaking’, not merely grammar and structure knowledge, it is highly desirable to develop the oral predisposition to foreign language at the first place. [Wharton Pepper, 2000]
There is a necessity to mention that oral language production, in comparison with written, for example, has peculiar features. Moreover, in case of mastering foreign language oral production, the process of learning would constitute not merely of ‘studying the language’ (considering language structure, grammar, etc).
To reach success in speaking foreign language, one has to take into consideration either personal psychological peculiarities. This is due to the fact that oral activity is never introspective, it is directly connected to contact with other people and immediate interaction.
Hence, while dealing with oral language production difficulties, foreign language teacher is obliged to take a reasonable range of aspects into consideration. In addition to general language knowledge, personal predispositions of a foreign language learner, a teacher should also ponder on such factors as nationality, age, social status, etc.
This study is built over one of the aspects which influence the language acquisition in terms of oral production. Thus, this paper is devoted to investigating the difficulties Asian students face at the English class while managing oral language production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, on defining the nature of these difficulties, the research discusses the alternative strategies that a foreign language teacher may apply in order to motivate and encourage a student to speak English efficiently.
During analyzing the problems Asian students have while being engaged in speaking activity, the preliminary research should be conducted into the components which constitute Asian conscience, i.e. the culture of Asian peoples.
By Raymond Williams, culture encompasses the following elements:
a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development;
a particular way of life, whether of a people, a period, group, or humanity in general;
the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity. [Williams, 1976]
Stuart Hall defines culture as “the actual grounded terrain of practices, representations, languages and customs of any specific society”. [Hall, 1996]
These components accomplish essential influence on the model of the whole teaching-learning process, which creates the basic conception of education in general. Hence, in order to acquire deep understanding of the subject, the researcher makes and expedition into the Asian cultural peculiarities.
Firstly, the position of a teacher in Asian culture is utterly dominant over the student. The information a teacher provides is unquestionable and is frequently not subjected to discussion but represented mainly to be accepted and memorized.
This, through a long time, has developed the tradition of being patient and silent at the class, totally different from the policy of communicative learning procedure which is being widely applied in educational establishments.
We will write a custom Dissertation on The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the Asian culture is patriarchal; it is following the established hierarchy of society, which is defined according to the age and social status. Hence, a teacher as a person considerably older than a student is not likely to tolerate any contradiction or disrespect.
The fact that a teacher is a center of learning process reflects negatively on the students’ ability to perceive information and to operate knowledge as, for example, in language learning. Becoming fluent in foreign language requires constant participation and interaction, which is an unfamiliar practice for an Asian student.
In general, the thorough analyses of Asian societies indicate that the collective tradition constitutes the basis of Asian culture. Unlike individualistic societies, collective mentality prevents the change to occur, in particular considering the alterations in the methods and techniques of teaching foreign languages.
When applied synthetically, e.g. through the authority, the students would nonetheless accept the mode of learning process as violation of established norms. Hence, the education reform in learning foreign languages would not be accomplished without the change in society conscience.
Lastly, there is a cultural preconception, that foreign language contravenes national identity of a person and this prejudice, stemming already from the genetic level, is either the obstacle to acquiring fluency in foreign language.
Thus, considering the factors mentioned above, these are the main premises to inducing reluctance, reticence, and passive role of an Asian student in foreign language learning process. The considerable amount of observations states that Asian learners experience high anxiety level during foreign language speaking activity in class.
Hence, this study is going to investigate the motivation techniques and encouragement strategies in order to facilitate the acquisition of English speaking skills among Asian students. The paper will either consider the perception of the students concerning these strategies and discuss the most preferable ways of class structure that Asian students define.
Purpose of the Study The aim of this study is to define the peculiarities of perception of motivation strategies and encouragement techniques of English speaking activity by 30 Asian foreign language learners at the University of Edinburg.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the investigation is constructed to determine the differences in perceptions of the strategies by foreign language teacher and by Asian students, for the effect carried by the practice of these strategies may differ from the expected result.
Hence, the work has a purpose of developing understanding and awareness of the prerogatives of the students, which can consciously relate about reasons for their attitude to the techniques applied.
Naturally, the development of these strategies demands preliminary investigation into the difficulties the Asian speakers have during English learning process, particularly, the oral English language production. Thus, the strategies will be the reflection of students’ speaking difficulties and will have the purpose of inducing students to speak English freely and fluently.
The study aims not only at investigating the perception of the students towards the strategies applied, but also at conducting a research into preferable modes of studying. The research has a purpose to define the structure and activities of the class that the Asian English learners appreciate.
The conclusions are to serve a hint to development of effective methodology of working with Asian students. There is also a potential to define innovative ‘universal’ motivation strategies at the language class, which may foster foreign language acquisition.
Research Questions and Methodology
The research questions should be set in accordance with the purposes of the study, for only through the correctly constructed questions the purpose of the investigation will be realized. Hence, the research questions of this study are as follows:
What are Asian EFL learners’ perceptions about speaking English in the classroom?
What strategies did the teacher use to motivate and encourage Asian EFL learners to speak in English in the classroom?
What teacher did in the mode of learning / classroom environment that could help Asian EFL learners to speak English freely in the classroom?
The research questions mentioned above are managed through the qualitative investigation approach, which includes a questionnaire and observation as the most effective methods of qualitative research in collecting data and analyzing it.
Lincoln and Guba “posit that trustworthiness of a research study is important to evaluating its worth.” [Lincoln and Guba, 1985] Trustworthiness involves establishing credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability.
Credibility states for “confidence in the ‘truth’ of the findings”, transferability “shows that the findings have applicability in other contexts”, dependability “showing that the findings are consistent and could be repeated”, and confirmability indicates “a degree of neutrality or the extent to which the findings of a study are shaped by the respondents and not researcher bias, motivation, or interest”.
[Lincoln and Guba, 1985] The complexity of carrying out qualitative research consists in following these four aspects that define the validity of the process and the outcomes of particular investigation. Constant attention to keeping these standards, naturally, requires effort and thoroughness from the side of a researcher.
Undoubtedly, as far as the subject of investigation is not the phenomenon that can be measured and analyzed purely quantitatively, the research results will have predispositions to higher degree of subjectivity.
However, the chosen methods enable to hold a complex multilateral research, for the researcher is able to manage the analyses through different angles of view simultaneously, which is very important for issues as language acquisition.
Formulae One Constructors Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Background of the case The case is about motor sports formulae one competition that has been dominated by different companies as sponsors; the case dwells on three main companies that have had contrasting management approach with the sole aim of earning high financial and reputational rewards associated with the sport.
Motor sport at premiership level was established in 1945 by the federation Internationale de I’Automobile (FIA) and named it as Formulae 1, in 1950, drivers got the first chance to have a world championship competition that saw reputational and financial rewards exchange hands; the first champion was Giusepper Farina of Italy.
Other than the original idea of a sport, the sport emanated to be effective marketing tools to car manufacturers where they would interact with the customers and using the sports to promote their products.
In the efforts large sums of money were invested in the sector, for instance in 2006, Renault, Ferrari and McLaren were estimate to have committed between $250 and $350 million to the sport with Toyota believed to have hit $billion. The large sum of money that is used in the sport comes from the company promoting its brand and other third parties.
The Strategies Pursued By Ferrari 1975-1978 The company had a strong brand name being among the first companies in the racing world; other than the name, it was able to make some of its parts thus it was making them for the good of their trade. From the onset, the company had the sport as a hobby, thus it was willing to fund the undertaking from its earnings, the company had strong financial base thus it would cater for the needs of the sports effectively.
Although Ferrari is one of the most successful motor sports constructors, it hardly has as many sponsors as other companies; they make other range of cars that they get the funds from then invest in the racing sport, from the onset, Ferrari has taken the sport as a hobby that he has the responsibility of funding and making fit.
In 1969, Ferrari merged with Fiat was a major boost to financing of the company as it allowed Fiat to make the road machines and Ferrari to concentrate on racing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has a number of resources in expertise, physical resources, and experience that offered it an opportunity of being one of the best teams in the industry; the structures were better than those employed by its competitors.
One weakness that has been found in the company was its products development approach where the case illustrates that Ferrari relied on information from third parties to model and design their products instead of moving out and fetching the designs. This is probably seen as one of the weakness that led to its failure in later years.
The major threat that the company had was from an increasing competition from other companies in the industry like McLaren and Williams, they came in the industry with new technology and expertise that made the competition more competitive.
The race also started to dominate in the sporting sector that it attracted some political influences and it was moving the people of different ages. People became interested in the game and Ferrari was the team that they were willing to associate with, the social dynamic was so large that Italians see the brand as one of their country’s heritage.
The reliability of the cars that were made in 1971 to 1973 were wanting with some not being able to finish a race; this was even made worse by health condition of Enzo who had early acted as a main motivator of the team.
To ensure that the company remained competitive, there were some strategic alliances that were made to improve things, they include alliance with Fiat, the adoption of Mauro Forghieri in 1973 as the technical director; this offered the team with experienced managers who were able to turn things around for the benefit of the team.
The move was also a compete change of the management with new faces being called to task to assist the technical bench come with rewarding strategies; the move also saw the team recruit some talented drivers.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Formulae One Constructors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What are they key elements of successful F1 team The main elements that have made the company successful include;
A dedicated and experienced management and technical team, other than Ferrari himself, the company recruited management and technical bench that was composed of people with wide experience in the racing competition, the people offered the team required knowledge and timely information.
In the racing history, one company that has suffered greatly financially is Ferrari, there are loyalists and some companies who are willing to finance the team; this creates a highly motivated team like drivers, mechanics and other technical team members.
The company has had a strong brand name that has continued to make it the choice of many Italian; this by itself is enough motivation to make the team work hard to fulfill the big burden that the society seems to have placed on its shoulders.
The team had a number of benefit from the garage that it maintained; the garage was able to make accustomed products like Engines and gears of the team motor a move that made the vehicles reliable and a choice of many talented drivers.
Main causes of the problems experienced by the Ferrari in the early 1970 and how they overcome them
The company had taken motor sport as a sporting activities and had invested minimal in the research and development; the case study illustrated that Ferrari relied on media news to make out the approach that he was to take in the sport, this likely was a disadvantage to the company as other companies were going out and fetching the right design and approach.
Another likely problem that the racing team might have experienced is the increased competition for better engines by racing teams that had sponsors; there is high likelihood that the company was not able to compete financially with other teams thus chances of underperforming.
Identify the main elements of the strategic policies followed by each of the 3 teams which lead them to their success and ultimately failure Ferrari
The company used the approach of in-house development and autocratic leadership approach; this is where it aimed at making their own parts and engines and followed the able leadership of Enzo Ferrari. The main mission and vision of the team was to successfully compete with other machines and prove their dominance, they thus worked hard to develop the best in the market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Formulae One Constructors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The failure of the strategy was experienced when other team became keen on the sector and came up with machines that were better than those maintained by Ferrari. Also the central concentration of power was challenged by human factors like diseases.
The team had the sponsorship approach; the approach ensured that the team was financially well off and could develop machines that are required in the race. Some sponsors that have seen some of the teams succeed include Phillips Morris which financed McLaren in 1974 to 1996 in the efforts of advertising its Marlboro brand of Cigarettes.
The sponsors signed contracts with the team and promises to cater for some of their expenses like salaries, wages and upkeep in the efforts of having their products advertised in the context. They would fund development of different machines, technology and automation of the motors.
The failure of the approach was when sponsored withdrew or changed their team, this left the team without an option other than getting to the drawing board.
The team used the technological approach, with the development in technology; the company was able to make machines that were durable and reliable depending with the terrain of a certain race. The approach was successful but was challenged by fast development of technology were the team needed to be on its toes to get the technology always.
What issue facing each 3 teams in this case study were strategically flawed and how would you have overcome them The main issue that cut across the three teams is the lack of reliable talented drivers; the drivers that were available are not seen to be taking the sport as their hobby or talent; some come to benefit from the financial benefits in the sport that lacks the commitment required.
Like any other sport, talent in the particular sport plays a crucial role in its success; with the lack of talents, then each team is left with a far felt deficit when a team member quits or fails to participate.
Since the sport is rewarding enough, to have a continuous flow of drivers, I would enact a talent establishing, nurturing and development approach, with such an approach, I would suggest to have racing sports even in high schools so that those people who can do the racing and are talented get a chance to exploit their talents.
What were the strategic that provide each of the 3 team with success? In all the three teams, one thing stands out, the quality of human capital they have and the machines they are using for racing. When every team won, it was during the period that it had been able to combine its human, information, and physical resources effectively. Drivers, mechanics, researchers and developers, and technical teams, were the main work force that saw the company succeed.
Research played a crucial role in the success of a team; when a team researched extensively, it was able to make such effective strategies that saw their team succeeds amidst the challenge that was present at that particular time.
When reading the case and determining the strengths that saw the teams succeed, the main issue that was coming out is the benefit and advantage that can be derived from a team that is well constituted and utilizes the resources it has effectively.
What are the essential elements of success F1 team and how should the management structure be constructed The main success elements that F1 requires can be divided into three main areas;
Under this subtitle, the management and the team needed to gather such quality information that would assist them when making their machines. When a team had quality information, then it was able to have the best from the team.
To have a winning team, the racing team needs to have talents, experienced and dedicated people in the sector and area that they are being involved in; for example there is need to have drivers, mechanics and effective management teams.
The motors used in the race needs to be quality and have high reliability; this would help them compete successfully in the racing.
To ensure that all the above success elements are available, as a manager, I would ensure that every department is well staffed and there is an orchestrate team in the company.
Team funding sources Motor sports is an expensive sports that involves much fixing of the car to be used as well as training of people to be involved in the sports. Expenses can be seen in the form of fixing costs, labor costs, training, and research cots.
For instance in large teams, there are about 450 to 800 employees that travel the world almost fortnightly to look for the best approach to their teams; they are mandated with the task of researching the best approach to adopt in the sport. For an effective sport, a company that aims to use the sport as its advertising tool will have to look for means that the costs will be catered for: the following are the main approach adopted:
Sponsors: According to the case, about one fifth of the operational costs in the sports come from sponsors who come in the game with different ideas and agendas to meet with the sport.
When a car has been upgraded to compete in the race, the sponsor come in handy to offer funds for some services and additions like painting the car in the colors of the company, advertisings the race, and providing some financial contacts to the drivers, engineers and other stakeholders.
The brand name company: As a matter of meeting some of the cost incurred in the sports, some brand companies have some testing and development equipments which include wind tunnels and other facilities development; some of the services and fixing are done as normal service of cars while some have been accustomed to the benefit of the cars that are involved in the sport.
The company may have the option of making some of the parts that are used in the sporting cars like gearbox, and Engines; this format is the most dominant with Ferrari which has been a leader in the industry, or the companies may decide to buy the parts from different places and assemble them for quality machines.
In Germany the race can be seen to be more divided between the constructors of the motor and the sponsors, after the constructors have made the best they can, the sponsor comes in and offer some accustoming services to make the vehicle attractive and representative of their brand as the sponsors. This is an advertising method where companies seek to be associated with the success of the sport.
Financial reward: Other than the prestige that the sports come along by, the sport has some financial reward to the companies that are participating or have won. The reward is used to finance some essences of the sport like media loyalty coverage expenses.
Other than the reward money, there is some revenue that is negotiated on their behalf by Bernie Ecclestone’s Formula One Administration (FOA); the amount has become another reliable source of funds to the sport. In 2003, prize rewards accounted for 9.7% of the total revenue that was in the port, the amount was about $30 million.
The overall winner has a much higher financial reward with McLaren and Ferrari being the only constructors to have won the championship for four consecutive years 1988-1991 and 1999 to 2004 respectively.
Recommendation for more funding All the three companies have their strategy of raising funds however none of them has membership subscriptions as its main source of fund; this is so despite the potential that the teams have to get funds from their loyal members.
Companies should consider this approach to raise of funds; it would probably make the financial base of the company stronger.
Sources Of Finance For The Mcdonald Inc. Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
To any business, funding remains an issue of critical importance that needs to be addressed with utmost care. Sources of funds to any business remain a critical issue that demands that an organization’s strategic managers guard the sources of funding to guarantee business growth. Traditionally, funds for business come from the sales proceeds.
However, the fluctuating nature of the market makes it necessary for organizations to devise stable sources of funds to avoid unnecessary losses should the sales volumes drop significantly. Therefore, this means that although the main purpose of all business is to get revenue form the sales that they make, it is also important to invest some of the proceeds to some other forms of incomes to protect the company for some eventuality.
Sources of funds for McDonald in either starting a new or expanding the existing restaurants can be classified into three broad categories, which are:
Internal sources of finance
External sources of finances
Long-term sources of finance
Internal Sources of Finance One of the main sources of funds for McDonalds is sales proceeds. From the sales made by McDonald restaurants, the revenue earned minus all the expenditures incurred, gives it a surplus. This amount is retained by the business and used to finance its expansion into new market areas through establishment of new restaurants or purchase of new assets.
Owner’s savings is also another source of financing for the McDonald Inc in Kuwait. Owner’s savings ensure that the business owners have money at their disposal to use or furtherance of business. In most cases, when businesses are being started, much of the finance is usually from the individual savings.
Another source of finance for McDonalds Inc. is royalty from franchises. According to Keown, (2006), Franchises are businesses that use an already established brand name and in return pay the main firm some funds in form of royalties. The franchisee retains all the profits from the venture, but pays the Franchisor royalties and a minimal rental payment as agreed.
In this case, McDonalds continues to be recognized as one of the great franchising companies in the world in which over 75% of the McDonald restaurants are owned and operated by franchisees. This means that McDonald greatly gains from these franchises when they remit their payments to the franchiser. Franchising is, therefore, one of McDonald’s major sources of finance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Retained earnings and retained profits are often used as a source of finance. Over the years that the chain has operated in Kuwait, their retained earnings have been used for their expansionary missions. Retained earnings also have been used for asset financing among other major ventures of the organization. Sale of assets is another way that McDonald can get finances for their business ventures.
This involves the selling off the excess assets that are held by the company so as to generate money that could be used to start a new business or expanding an existing one.
However, great caution should be taken into account when doing this and this is because, some of the assets could still be used in smooth running of the current business. The accumulated retained earnings have boosted the return on equity on McDonalds Kuwait as attested by the graph below.
McDonalds’ reatined earnings trends over a 10 years trend.
External Sources of Finance McDonald also gets finances from partnership ventures. The partners contribute capital for the business and McDonald benefits from this business relationship in that through these capital contributions, it is able to finance its business.
McDonald can obtain finances from bank loans. This form of finances allows McDonalds Inc. to finance its initial costs. The loans come in either long-term nature or in short-term nature. Among the main financiers of McDonald’s Kuwait is the National Bank of Kuwait (NBK) which allows provides a varied form of loans to McDonalds.
Debenture loans are also forms of loans that are used by McDonalds in Kuwait just like in any other worldwide branches. Debenture loans are loans that are secured against with the assets of the business that is being invested in. Secured debentures attract fixed or variable interest rates depending on the assets they are attached to whereby the interest’s rates of these debentures can be predetermined.
We will write a custom Report on Sources Of Finance For The Mcdonald Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McDonald could use this source of finance to fund its existing business or start new ones. However, the business cannot sell the assets without the lenders’ consent and in case the business fails, the lender always take the first priority in being compensated over the owners and the shareholders and also this applies in case of winding up of the business.
Bank overdrafts as sources of funds are also used to fund McDonald’s operations. This is a good source of short-term finance as it helps solve the immediate problems that are being faced by the organization quicker than looking at the long-term ways. The overdraft has more advantage than a loan on the short-term.
Venture capital is another source of finance that McDonald can use to its existing business or start a new one. Venture capital is used by business in the initial stages of their development. For venture capital arrangement to be successful, an investor known as a venture capitalist must be willing to invest a huge sum of money into the business.
This means of soliciting funds has the advantage that the business in most cases end up being successful, but also runs the risk of the venture capitalist demanding to hold part of the business ownership or they may request very high returns at the expense of the business (Braun
How to effectively transform change in your employees Term Paper essay help
Abstract One of the primary tasks of leaders in any organization is to initiate changes. Different models describe changes in various perspectives. The leaders of an organization may use any model depending on their systems and the type of change implemented.
The paper compares Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer models. It covers the strengths and weaknesses of each model and implications they have if applied in organizations. Both Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer models shows how to transform change effectively in employees.
Introduction Change is inevitable in an organization or a company. Employees react differently to organizational changes depending on the models used. Some employees may have positive reactions and others may have negative reactions. While some of the changes receive joyous reactions, most of these organizational changes face fierce reactions. Psychologists attribute these variations in reactions to the nature of human brains.
There are two systems in human brains, emotional and rational systems. Emotional system deals with emotional changes, while rational system in the brain deals with logic and thoughtful changes. Employees receive organizational change easily and positively when the two systems are in alignment.
It is possible to overcome negative reactions to hard changes in organizations by making sure that emotional system and logical system align. To transform change in their employees effectively, organizations use different steps and models.
A comparison of steps and models used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beers to implement change within organizations successfully Although the steps and models used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beers to implement changes within organizations are different, the results of the steps and models in transforming changes to employees correlate the two.
According to Chip and Dan, (2010), different leaders use different models to transform and implement changes within their organizations (p.298). However, there exist similarities in the strategies, which organizations use to transform change in their employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparison Price Waterhouse model requires an organization to make changes in all departments and processes. Redesigned processes in an organization lead to changes in procedures and jobs. As stated by technologies and systems also need to change to keep up with the dynamic needs of customers.
Changing “the processes, procedures, and system removes barriers to implement change for the employees and they are able to adapt to the changes and new processes” (Herzog 1993, p.87). In Michael Beer model, changes in the organization should only involve organizational processes and should not affect the employees.
The model does not require changes in all departments like in the case of Price Waterhouse. Michael Beer model requires for changes in the staff when the individuals/employees in the organization are unable to develop commitment and skills used in the new organizational arrangement.
Price Waterhouse models describe the process of change mainly using organizational leaders, but consultants have the freedom to adopt the process. On contrary, Michael Beer model does not involve a sponsor in any of its steps. The model does not have a change team that is in charge of change within the organization. Organizational leaders are not the key people used in the process of change.
In the Price Waterhouse model, the change team in the organization has the responsibility of planning, which involves looking for the necessary resources and setting the required goals. The change team must have a leader who focuses on the change program within the organization. The responsibility of the team leader is to pass the change message to relevant departments.
He/she also informs them concerning the transformation and leads them to focus their vision on the transformation of the organization. On the other hand, the work of a change leader in Michael Beer model is to clarify the need for organizational change to the members. The leader explains to the members why there is need for change and gives its future vision (Michael, 2008, p. 10).
The leaders in this model avoid imposing change programs from the top, unlike in Price Waterhouse model where the top management is in charge of change implementation. The leaders in various sub units redefine the goals, values, and strategy and later involve their top teams.
We will write a custom Term Paper on How to effectively transform change in your employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next step in Michael Beer model is data collection for the organization and people alignment. The purpose of the data is to stimulate organizational and personal change.
New organizational arrangements do not require staffing changes if employees are able to develop commitment and skills. The similarity between the two models is that they both involve the low-level management in implementing changes. They also seek to transform change in employees effectively using different modes and steps.
My evaluation on their steps or models Price Waterhouse
The change models used by Price Waterhouse require involvement of every person in the organization. Price Waterhouse models seek to achieve high performance, measured difference, and improved results with the help of motivated and empowered employees (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
The models focus on transforming change effectively based on customer needs. Price Waterhouse models successfully accomplish organizational change with guiding principles. The steps used by Price Waterhouse results into transformation change of employees.
The change model used by Michael Beer model of implementing change within organizations use behavioral and agency theoretical perspectives. Behavioral theory gives vehemence on the importance of the top management to participate in the processes. The participation helps them to develop commitment to organizational change.
It focuses on the behavior in the firm such as teamwork and commitment. Agency theory emphasizes on economic outcomes; does not deal with the organizational behavior inside the firm (Michael, 2008, p. 10). In Michael Beer model of implementing change within organizations, planned organizational change is the first step taken by an organization to improve its performance.
The steps only involve the top management and sub unit managers. The use of Michael Beer model might take a shorter time in its implementation because the low-level leaders are involved in the initial stages and they initiate most of the organizational changes. Michael Beer model shows how to transform change in employees in an effective way.
Strengths and weaknesses of their steps or models Strengths
One of the strength associated with the steps used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer is that the employees and the low-level organizational members are involved in implementation of organizational change (Herzog, 1993, p. 87). Price Waterhouse model uses consensus to incorporate all levels whereas Michael Beer model encourages the leaders of various sub units to involve top leaders in redefining values, strategies, and goals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to effectively transform change in your employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Michael Beer model, unit leaders only involve corporate leaders, which reduce resistance to change by the staff. The strength associated with Price Waterhouse model is that it involves every member of the organization and therefore all the employees are able to adapt to changes without barriers.
Involving leaders of various sub units may result into ineffectiveness of step used by Michael Beer as these leaders may take time to initiate the appropriate changes (Michael, 2008, p. 10).
The skills and experience of the sub unit leaders may be limited relative to that of effective corporate leaders, and they may therefore take time to manage performance improvement and involve top leaders in redefining strategies and goals of the organization.
The responsibility of the change team to set goals without the involvement of the relevant departments and employees is the major weakness of the steps followed by Price Waterhouse.
The team leaders only inform the employees and other stakeholders of the organization once they have instituted the changes. This may result into fierce resistance to the organizational changes.
Major implications for application to organization Price Waterhouse
The implication of changing all the processes used in an organization is that it removes barriers for the employees. The employees are able to adapt to new changes without barriers when everything else in the organization has changed. Redesigned processes, jobs, procedures, systems and technologies make it easier for the employees to implement, transform, and accept changes (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
It becomes easier to transform change of employees in any organization by training them on new processes. Effective change of employees measures the success of an organization.
In Price Waterhouse model, the implication of having a sponsor to initiate mandate for change is that there might be problems in communicating the changes to the employees and other teams involved in the organizational change.
To overcome these problems, the language used to communicate must be specific and easy to understand. All levels in the organization should understand the change mandate translated by the sponsors (organizational leaders).
The sponsors designate change process to a change team, which takes over from the sponsor and the implications is that it may take time for the change team to understand the details of the change, since they do not initiate the changes. The team then proceeds with the other procedures, which involves setting goals and looking for the necessary resources (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
The implication of the use of change team is that it gets the responsibility of developing programs that may be of great help within the organization. The programs developed gives direction to the team managers to transform changes in the employees in an effective manner.
The implication of having a team leader in the change team is that he/she is able to convince employees and other members of the organization on the expected organizational changes.
It also implies that the organization can change the team leader in case he/she does not perform satisfactorily. However, establishing that the leader is doing a good job in implementing changes takes some time since changing a culture in an organization does not occur rapidly.
The time taken to change the culture of an organization would reduce by changing the key people in the leadership of the team. Application of the method would lead to rapid changes because everything including the leaders of an organization would change. Because of the transformation, changing the culture will be easier for the organizational change management, and it will be easier to transform change in employees effectively.
The implication of having new leaders is that the employees and the sub unit leaders might not want to support and follow the new leaders. Since the top management supports organizational change, it implies that the other levels of the organization would follow suit, thus forming a high consensus.
One of the major implications of using Michael Beer models or steps in implementation of change within organization is that the employees and other members of the organization respond to the transformation more rapidly.
The reason behind the quick response is that initiation of the changes involves all levels of the organization. Implementation of the changes may take a very short time because it will face less resistance from the employees and the low-level leaders.
The implication of encouraging and demanding leaders to manage performance improvement is that it simplifies the steps used. There is no much time taken to communication on the new ideas to the employees, because they are involved from the initial stages (Michael, 2008, p. 10). The sub unit managers do most of the work while the top teams do little.
The responsibility of the top teams is to work together with the sub unit managers in redesigning the values, goals, and strategies of the organization. However, in large firms, the steps involve the top management who manage the performance improvement like the sub unit managers.
Lack of commitment in the leaders may lead to delayed implementation of organizational change. Inadequate commitment of the leaders exposes their inability to deal with resistance from members/employees of the organization.
The leaders should be commitment and should have enough skills to make it possible for them to succeed through the whole process of change. The implications of Michael Beer model is that the new organizational arrangement will help to transform change in the employees effectively.
Conclusion To transform change in employees in an effective manner, the leaders of the organizations need to use available models or steps. The leaders of the organization need to seek advice from consultants who are able to provide them with better information and appropriate information on the best models to use. All the models will show the leaders how to transform change in employees in an effective way.
References Chip, H.,
Toyota Motor Corporation: Strategic Human Resource Planning and Strategic Recruitment Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Introduction The business environment has been getting more complex and competition has been increasing everyday. Recent problems such as the economic crises and others have caused organization to find ways of staying ahead of competition.
Organizations are continuously looking for ways to gain a competitive edge over the other organizations. This mostly affects the multinational organizations because the international organizations face global environment which is more complex than the local environment.
One of the major areas of focus in trying to attain a competitive advantage is through the use of employees. Organizations have realized and embraced the fact that human resource is a strategic asset to an organization and if well used, it can make the organizations gain a competitive advantage (Kathy
Bill Clinton Leadership Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Clinton’s philosophy on leadership
Leadership Theories connected to Clinton’s leadership
Lessons we can learn from leadership of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton was one among the many presidents of the United States of America. As a leader, Bill Clinton achieved many things which made him become a popular leader during his reign (Biography.com, 2011).
This research paper will focus its discussion on the leadership of Mr. Bill Clinton, his major style of leadership, the numerous theories connected to his leadership and it will further highlight the lesson we as population can learn from his system of leadership.
To have a good understanding of Bill Clinton, we shall have a review and a brief description of his biography in order to understand about the background of Bill Clinton right from the time he was born up to his time in power as the president to of US.
Bill Clinton was born in August the year 1946 in the state of Arkansas where he was raised by his grandparents until the age of three years since he was born in a single family after the death of his father just before he born (Biography.com, 2011).
During his stay with the grandparents, Bill Clinton learned a lot including; good discipline, reading and counting which he was taught by the grandfather who liked the young boy very much. During all this time, Clinton’s mother was at college and she only came back after graduating with a nursing degree and shortly moved in with Roger Clinton his newly wedded husband.
During his childhood Bill Clinton was raised in a religious manner and was a devoted Baptist where he attended church services every Sunday. At the Baptist church, Bill became interested in music and he engaged a lot in the church music where he even learned how to play jazz saxophone which he continued playing up to high school (Biography.com, 2011).
Al this particular time, Bill was used to the hard life such as harsh, abusive and rude stepfather due to excessive drinking. At the age of 14 Bill gained his ground and decided it was no more when he engaged his step father in a quarrel that consequently put a stop to the abusive behavior. However, not long after this incidence that the mother divorced with Roger Clinton.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At high school, Bill used to play musical instrument and also engaged in political debates a factor that made his teacher Ms Mae Mackey to like him very much (Biography.com, 2011). At the age of 17, at Arkansas Boys state, Bill was selected as the representatives of the boys association due to his outstanding character giving him a wonderful opportunity to meet face to face with President John F. Kennedy at the state house.
After high school, the youthful Bill attended Georgetown University where he got involved in university politics very much. After college he won a highly prestigious award for further studies at the Oxford University where he studied law.
Moreover, after the scholarship at oxford, Clinton further went to Yale university school of law to complete his law course; after schooling he immediately went into national politics and in the 1978 he become the youngest governor in history of US.
After this incidence Clinton had his ups and down going in and out of politics until 1992 when he was nominated as a party representative to vie for presidency which he campaigned well and in November 3 he become the 42nd president of United State of America (Biography.com, 2011).
Clinton’s philosophy on leadership Clinton a young president belonging to Democrat party had changed the history by winning the election against the republicans which had not happened for such a long time (Hamilton, 2008); in fact, he was elected for the second term despite of the many scandals that he had been accused of due to his negative personality.
However, Clinton is highly regarded for the positive changes he brought to US which are highly attributed to his concerned nature for the well being of the citizens (Gates, 2000).
One of the major policies which he held is that of economical progression. In fact, during his reign and presidency, Clinton achieved economical progress in many ways; his government was keen to note the high rate of unemployment which his administration developed measures to curb such crisis (Hamilton, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bill Clinton Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, Clinton’s administration was very successful in ensuring that the level of inflation was reduced by all means and due to the efforts administered during his term, US acquired the lowest level of inflation (Gates, 2000). On the other hand, Clinton’s administration was very alert and did not hesitate to make necessary changes in the national budget.
During Clinton’s era, the government made proposals that really impacted the US economy in a very positive way; in point of fact, Clinton’s government made a budget that is said to have brought a balance in the deficit that had been there for decades and in effect to this, the result was a budget which was surplus (Gates, 2000).
Another topic which makes Clinton to be a president who was highly regarded was due to his enthusiasm for peace causing him to extended campaign works intended to bring harmony in the land. Further more, his administration cleared all issue of violence and crime which is reported that, during his era issues of crime rates were reported to have reduced considerably.
In the education sector, Clinton’s administration made numerous changes that have brought a positive impact up to date. During his era, the US achieved the largest investments in the education segment by expanding college edification and facilities in order to ensure all American could have at least access college education.
This program was made accessible in the course of also giving scholarship to more than five million students annually (Hamilton, 2008). Additionally, Clinton ensured that college education became basic; his administration hired more teachers and lowered college fees in order to make education become quality and be easily accessed even by the poor in order to promote equity in the society (Gates, 2000).
More importantly, his administration encouraged technology through incorporating modern facilities in schools to embrace technological changes as a form of development in the education sector.
Moreover, Clinton’s administration was in the forefront to campaign for better and improved health care; as such his government ensured increased medical facility access to all Americans at an affordable rate (Gates, 2000). Through creating a balance in the national budget, Clinton’s government extended the medical facilities through making accommodative changes to cater for the growing population of US.
In the child health care, Clinton’s administration enacted the largest health supportive program since 1965 which was big enough to cater for medical needs for more than 5 million children every year (Gates, 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bill Clinton Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, to ensure better health care, his government signed a law to cater for the mental challenged across America which would help eradicate stigmatization against those mentally challenged (Hamilton, 2008). Apart from this, Clinton’s administration also developed foreign policies that were meant to facilitate peace, campaign for freedom and encourage democracy (Gates, 2000).
Leadership Theories connected to Clinton’s leadership There are many theories of associated with leadership and we can relate a good number of the theories to the leadership of Bill Clinton based on his accomplishment as the 42nd president of US. In order to have an understanding of this concept we shall review just but a few of the leadership theories studied in class for a broader understanding.
One among many other leadership theories is the great man theory; great man theory argues that, quality leaders arise when they are needs in the society and it further argues that “leaders are born and not made” (Changingminds.com , 2002). By looking back to the system of Clinton’s administration, we can be able to relate Clinton’s leadership to this particular in the following way.
As a president of US Clinton was able to integrate quality management leadership when the state was undergoing tough economical times, it during his era when US acquired a balance in the national budget something that seems not to have been achieved for decades.
So, we can be able to attribute the economical progress to sthe good leadership style by Clinton which can also be argued that the great man theory correctly fits in this situation because as the theory argues “good leaders come in when the society really needs them” (Changingminds.com , 2002), as such, Clinton’s leadership also seems to have appeared right when US was under tough economical times.
Secondly, another theory of leadership which can be related to leadership of bill Clinton is the transformational leadership theory.
Transformational leadership theory is a hypothesis whose assumption is that, good leaders are those who inspire others and usually work hard to achieving what they have passion for (Changingminds.com , 2002); mostly their style of leadership is based on what they what to achieve in the society, so, the transformational leaders will be motivated to achieve their desired goals which they work and dedicate all their energy towards such objectives (Changingminds.com , 2002).
In this regard, by reviewing the leadership of bill Clinton we are able to conclude that, it is no doubt that Clinton’s leadership style can be related to this particular theory in various ways. One way is through the way Clinton had passion for education based on his background and how he had gotten quality education through scholarship.
As such, we can be able to trace those qualities through observing how Clinton was aggressive to make positive change in the education sector in US (Gates, 2000). In point of fact, Clinton’s administration worked towards making college education to be accessible as basic by all Americans and this was achieved through his passion for education.
Additionally, Clintons made sure that college education was affordable by campaigning for reduced college fee. Most importantly, Clinton’s administration initiated the scholarship program in order to support the needy students towards attaining education in the society and it does support millions of student annually (Gates, 2000).
Lessons we can learn from leadership of Bill Clinton From what we have already learned, Clinton is one among the many presidents of the US who was popular during his term as a leader of US. Despite of the few shortcomings and criticism raised regarding his personality, Clinton was a charismatic leader a factor that also contributed to him being selected for the second term.
Generally, there are many positive things we can learn from such form of leadership and if applied in the society today, it could contribute to progressive changes necessary for development and social change in the world today.
One great lesson we can always learn from Clinton’s presidency is that, a good leader transforms the society for better.
Clearly, we have already seen how Clinton’s administration strived to make a lot of changes in the society in order to accommodate developments and hence steer growth of the state; such changes include, economical development, technological advancement, health for all, affordable college education, environmental conservation among many others. All these changes are necessary for a better tomorrow.
Furthermore, we can also get to learn that as leaders, we should develop love for others in order to change our society and our neighbors (Koestenbaum, 2000).
Such a lesson can be derived form Clinton’s leadership looking at the way his administration was concern about peace; majorly, he was concerned about peace in his country and that of the other countries which resulted in developing foreign policies that were meant to promote internal and external peace.
Finally, another lesson we can learn from Clinton’s leadership is that, as leaders we should have a desire to impact changes where others have not achieved (Koestenbaum, 2000). It is obvious that Clinton made positive developments where other presidents had not achieved; such changes include creating a balance in the national budget something that had not been achieved for decades.
Therefore, leaders should not be discouraged by the fact that others have not achieved, in fact this should be a motivation to achieve and exercise ones abilities in order to achieve great things in the society.
References Biography.com. (2011). Bill Clinton. Web.
Changingminds.com. (2002). Leadership theories. Web.
Gates, P (2000). Bill Clinton Accomplishments. Web.
Hamilton, N. (2008). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. New York: PublicAffairs.
Koestenbaum, P. (2000). Leadership: The Inner Side Of Greatness: A Philosophy For Leaders. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Literature Aspects in “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay scholarship essay help
Genre The tales in the Scarlet Letter possess several mystery elements. For instance, Hester’s lover is not directly mentioned. Mystery is also experienced in the way Hester, Dimmesdale and Chillingworth undergo punishment. In addition, full information about the Puritan’s colonial attitudes is not given. This leaves the reader thinking.
Setting The physical setting of the novel represents the Puritan’s beliefs and lack of development. First, we get to know that the prison and the town scaffold are the most important buildings in town as they are frequently used by the Puritans for religious purposes. Second, the Bay Colony of Massachusetts is likened to an island in the midst of wilderness, indicating that the place is undeveloped
Plot Analysis First, the market place is described. Second, Hester encounters her husband. Third, Reverend Dimmesdale keeps his secret. Fourth, Hester and the Reverend plans to run away. Fifth, the Reverend gives his Election Day summon.
Sixth, the Reverend confesses his sin to the public before he collapses and dies. Finally, Hester finds her way back to Boston. Basically, the novel starts with the initial situation followed by conflict, climax, suspense and conclusion.
She is a very powerful woman who is imprisoned for committing adultery. She is ashamed publicly for her adultery act and she is forced to wear a scarlet with the letter ‘A’. While in jail, she embroiders the scarlet letter so as to translate her punishment into a meaningful experience.
She is the daughter of Hester, who is born out of adultery. She represents all that Hester gave up when she committed adultery.
Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale
He is a likeable minister of the word. He commits adultery with Hester.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roger Chillingworth
He is a brilliant scholar and husband to Hester. He is also vengeful as he decides to take revenge on the Reverend
Governor Richard Bellingham
He had served as a governor of the Bay colony of Massachusetts for many years.
Reverend John Wilson
He judges Hester for her adultery act at the beginning of the novel.
She is a sister to Governor Richard Bellingham and a witch.
Themes The themes discussed in this book include: alienation, revenge, women and femininity, compassion and forgiveness, hypocrisy, guilt and blame, justice and judgment, isolation, the supernatural, fate and free will, and man and the natural world.
Point of View The narrator pretends to be unbiased, though it is clear that he does not agree with the Puritans as he frequently criticizes the Puritan society.
Style The writer has used diverse vocabulary in writing the novel. For instance, words like ‘ignominy’ and ‘cogitating’ have been used. The writer also uses long sentences separated by commas in writing the novel. Shmoop University describes the novel’s writing style as ornate, formal, thorny, biblical, shadowy and comma-loving (1).
We will write a custom Essay on Literature Aspects in “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Persona The persona in the novel is a third person omniscient narrator.
Images, Metaphors, Schemes Images, metaphors and schemes that have been used in this novel include: the prison door, Pearl, the scarlet letter, the red mark on Dimmesdale’s chest, the Meteor, the black man, the forest and the wilderness.
National Mythologies or Ideologies The Puritans were centered on the idea of purity and believed that God was omnipotent and that salvation was predestined (Hawthorne 2). They related worldly success to salvation. Sins were heavily punished in the Puritan society.
Cultural Context and what transfers to today The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne’s is of great historical significance as it contains many insights that are relevant to contemporary readers. For instance, young people who are deviant and stubborn can relate to the themes of alienation and breaking rules.
In this view, the novel can be explained as a story of a woman who was heavily punished for letting the heart to rule her. Hester’s experiences can stimulate sympathy, Dimmesdale’s hypocrisy can provoke disgust, and Chillingworth’s revenge can arouse anger among readers.
Among the practices in the novel that are experienced in our current society are rules and punishments. However, the extent to which some crimes like adultery should be punished still remains a controversial issue. Technology has also advanced over the years.
Work Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Plain Label Books, 1850.
Shmoop University. “Learning Guides to The Scarlet Letter.”(30 Sep. 2008) Web.
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“Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass is a pure and classical narrative written by Fredrick Douglass from the first person singular format focusing on Douglass’s own reaction to slavery in America.
The Author is also the persona in entire narration as he recounts his real experience in slavery right from childhood (‘Clayton’1). The narrative is set around slavery period in1817 when the author was born. During this time, Douglas (author) had separated from his mother. Meanwhile, his father worked as a clerk in a rich man’s farm.
In the narrative, Lloyd owns huge chunks of plantations where slaves are compelled to work under tough conditions (‘Easyread’ 5). Douglas’ life develops in the plantation until he approaches 7 years when he is taken by his father’s brother-in-law to Baltimore. As the story unfolds, we find that Douglass faces torture in the hands of several slave masters (‘Clayton’ 44).
He became enlightened and realized the importance of education. Eventually, he fled himself from slavery, changed his name and married a free black woman, Anna Murray. Finally, he engaged himself with anti-slavery movements as an orator (‘Clayton’180).
In the narration, there are major and minor characters that the author has used to develop the plot. The author plays two major roles as both the narrator and main protagonist (‘Easyread’1). He uses an average tone to express his emotion over horrific moments he experienced while in slavery. The author builds his characters in the narration and eventually able to develop several themes from their diverse roles.
Moreover, he is able to bring out his views well through their role in the scene. For instance, he portrays Sophia Auld as unrealistic and inhumane as part of developing his argument against slavery. He uses her cruelty to demonstrate adverse impacts of slavery.
Douglass portrays Covey as a villain to develop a theme of conflict in religion (‘Easyread’ 76). He makes him get convinced that he is a Christian although his evil actions provoked him. As a major character in the story, Covey violence triggered Douglass to get transformed into a more brave character who eventually became freedom seeker. Meanwhile, he develops other minor characters to build his plot.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Douglass has also developed various themes in the narrative to address universal issues affecting society during his times. The main theme developed from the narrative is on effects of slavery to victims and slave dealers (‘Easyread’4). This is evident from the ruthlessness subjected to slaves by their masters. Slaves suffered both physical and psychological torture.
Moreover, inappropriate use of slaves led to family conflicts especially when masters adopted slaves to as concubines. Religion as a theme has been well developed in the story. The author develops a distinction between Christians and non-Christians. The slaves refer Covey as a serpent for his evil actions (‘Clayton’7 6). The incumbent is in conflict of convincing himself that he is a Christian.
Other themes developed in the narrative include education, ignorance and freedom. From the author’s point of view, he reflects on negative effects of slavery and as well emphasizes on the importance of freedom (‘Easyread’ 164).
Additionally, the author has used several schemes such as images and metaphors to develop the plot and make it more appealing to the audience. Initially, the author uses symbols to represent abstract concepts in his views. For instance, Sophia Auld has been used to symbolize oppressive nature of society (‘Clayton’ 32). In the story, the persona uses his life to symbolize human rights.
However, the author is a bit controversial in the fact that he appears to play two roles simultaneously though differently (‘Clayton’ 6). Moreover, he criticizes slave-owners yet he does not explain why slavery has become rampant.
The narrative has some significance both in the cultural and historical context of the 19th century human civilization. Apparently, we are able to embrace strides made in the search for freedom against slavery. In addition, the major themes developed are still evident in modern day history.
Moreover, the culture depicted in the narrative can be equated to a mirror reflecting daily experiences in modern society since not much may have changed especially with the advent of neo-colonialism and improper local and foreign policies by some nations.
We will write a custom Essay on “Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Clayton: Prestwick House Inc, 2005.
Douglass Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Easy read Comfort Edition. New York: ReadHowYouWant.com, 2008.
Aspects of Literature Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Authored by Margaret Fuller, The Great Lawsuit is a must-read captivating chef-d’oeuvre heavy-laden with literary aspects like plot, setting, themes, style, and images among others as highlighted in the paper.
Period, as an aspect of literature refers to the time frame a certain piece of work is written. This is important since it gives a reader an idea of what the work is all about. “The Great Lawsuits by Fuller was done in July 1843 and therefore captured the daily occurrences of the times.
When it comes to genre, Fuller adapts a pure narrative. The work is an observation of the author and her own experiences that existed between men and women during her time (Dickenson 187). Therefore, the author develops her story based on these experiences and also borrows from the past events and uses them in developing her work.
Setting in any literal work is paramount in providing a clear picture of the story. For instance, in “The Great Lawsuit”, events occur in her place of residence in the Northern Europe. She builds her plot based on the experiences and how the community or the society behaves and believes. She therefore borrows more from her own setting and therefore builds her plot and provides suggestions to his audiences.
The plot of “The Great Lawsuit” is well developed through systematic occurrence of events. The book is about the self and individuality of the people and how these have resulted to inequity in the society. For instance, men and women should be able to uplift each other and eliminate their perceived differences. Women need to rise up and uplift their fellow women in order to be equals.
The author too uses various characters in ensuring that her message reaches the audiences clearly. Some of the authors that she uses are Miranda, a woman and a child born of a father who believed in equality of sexes. Others are Roland, Justina, and Mary Wollstonecraft commonly known as George Sand amongst others.
The theme of freedom stands out in the book. According to Fuller, women should be able to break the chains of slavery that have been subjected to them by their male counter parts (34). Other themes revolve around love, self or individuality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The story comes from the third person point of view where the author mainly wishes to reach all the humankind. She sees the need for both men and women to abolish their self interests and be able to support each other in order for all of them to operate on the same grounds.
Style is also one of the salient aspects in literature. In her work, Fuller employs a simple style in propagating her message to the audience. For instance, she uses simple language, short and precise in her writing, which fosters quick understanding.
Example is, “They, too, raised the cry; God is living, all is his, and all created beings are brothers, for they are his children” (Miller 23). These were the triumphant moments; but as we have said, man slept and selfishness awoke.” This shows how the selfishness of men made them to mind their own interests.
In “The Great Lawsuit”, Fuller presents herself as the persona in addressing the key themes in her works. She also depicts illustrations of men and women as personas in bringing forward her ideas.
Images, Metaphors and schemes are styles employed in literature to advance the intended message. The author uses various images and metaphors in her work which makes it interesting. A good illustration of metaphor used is “We feel that the mind may “grow black and rancid in the smoke” (Dickenson 45). This means that men are hypocrites often doing contrary to what they say.
Ideologies are someone’s predispositions or thinking perspectives. Fuller adopts a mythology or ideologies that all people are equal regardless of gender, profession and religion amongst other parameters. A good example that illustrates the ideologies of the author is, “All men are born free and equal” (Dickenson 12).
Fuller’s work borrows much from culture and historical practices that society has been observing. She endeavors to bring into existence a new leaf on how people should relate and socialize. She wrestles with various technologies some including the place of a woman in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Aspects of Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women are not given the full attention with their full capability not fully explored. She believes that things will only change when women will rise up to other occasions and lead their fellow women towards independence (Miller 34).This has seen drastic changes in today’s life as women have taken up their roles in different facets of life.
Fuller’s work represents the reality and the social injustices that various communities go through. There has been effort by various parties to ensure that all men and women are able to exploit their full potential in life. Therefore, it is true that her work has played a key role in shaping the current today.
Works Cited Dickenson, Donna. Margaret Fuller: Writing a Woman’s Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Miller, Edwin. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Lowa City: University of Lowa Press, 1991.
Medicaid Fraud and Influence on Medical Services Research Paper best essay help
Introduction Medicaid Fraud is one of the main issues that hamper provision of quality, reliable, and efficient medical services across the world.
Medicaid is designed as a health insurance that offers the less fortunate in the society a chance to get affordable quality medical services; they are edible to children, the elderly, and persons with a disability and funded to a large extent by Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) Medical Assistance Administration.
The United States government medical department with collaboration of the office of the Attorney General has been on the fore front fighting the vice; however, the vice seems to be far from being won. As much as the practice is unethical and unaccepted in the medical fraternities, the efforts that the federal government has enacted remain focused on corporate level but they seem to be un-reaching to the micro level practices.
According to Steven Malanga, the rate of misuse of Medicaid Fraud has continued to increase with an estimated amount of 10% of the total cost nationwide, which translate to about loss of
Efficiency of Communications Research Report best essay help: best essay help
Communications research is a field that every successful organization should invest in, if it is interested in the maximization of service production and guaranteeing consumer satisfaction. The claim comes in because it equips an organization to deal with its research questions concerning issues such as usage, branding, advertising, new product introduction, and pricing among others.
Such insight is necessary both for making inter-organizational projections, and in judging consumers’ reactions to the organization’s policy. Therefore, the PR Department has to spend some of the organization’s limited funds to conduct such a research, with hopes of making amends on the image projected by the organization to the public, as well as to fellow personnel.
In terms of objectives, this research will aim at gleaning as much information as possible concerning the effectiveness of three data collection methods; interviewing, questionnaires, and observation, which are most commonly applied by the organization in research. It will also study other available options, their effectiveness, and comparability with the former three in terms of meeting the organization’s demands.
The knowledge drawn from such research will be instrumental in analyzing the organization’s ability to interact with the subjects of its previous, present and future researches. It will also improve the credibility of the organization should its competence, or integrity in the execution of its objectives ever be questioned by external forces.
Finally, it will come up with the best approach of collecting information from subjects while best presenting it as their ally, which in turn will give it credence in the local community, and provide ease with which information can be obtained. Thus, the relationship with its publics will be secured further.
The research topics in need of exploration are outlined below; three topics of study, which this research will propose, and the reasons are outlined alongside each topic. These are:
Interviewing – as a way of communicating, an interview is only effective where language is not a barrier. This makes previous findings of research thus conducted suspect, as this is a foreign organization with a native language differing from that of the host community.
Questionnaires – this method requires the respondents to be literate or to understand researchers’ questions in the questionnaires. Again, the community in question is still developing and thus characteristic of rampant illiteracy thus invalidating most of the data presented in questionnaires.
Observation- this method has proved ineffective especially if the subject of the research is hostile to the researchers, as is the case with our organization’s relationship with the local community. Moreover, there is a high probability of reporting inaccurate findings due to a change in routine by the subjects, which would go unnoticed by the observer, as well as a lack of understanding of the subjects’ actions or behaviors, which the researcher is to report on.
The Relevant communications expert knowledge that supports the argument of the research is that communication is a complex process. Language eases part of the burden, as people are able to package ideas that can be transmitted between different minds.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it acts as the channel through which these ideas are transported. When there is a language barrier, little can be done to pass ideas, opinions, beliefs and attitudes therefore preventing any understanding from occurring. Consequently, people who do not understand each other resort to basic human nature, which is lined with suspicion in turn triggering hostility, and the cycle continues.
Ultimately, no progress can be made without finding a way to remove, or go around this barrier. That is the quagmire this organization finds itself in.
Until we are able to resolve this issue, researchers will continue to be misinformed depicting much biasness in the subjects, and therefore their information will continue to be inaccurate. Locals will in urn never accept any policies made by the organization, and we will continue o exist at an impasse.
The proposed planning process for developing the research is as follows: The organization shall enlist the services of other foreign firms that have established a strong foundation with the local community and organize benchmarking sessions with our own personnel.
We shall also engage linguistic professionals to teach our staff the native language, as this will be necessary for the trial researcher within the research to gauge the effectiveness of the new principles learnt. Finally, we shall require he funds proposed by the budget of this research to acquire all the necessary materials to be used in the research.
Content Outline and Assessment Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Things to consider when writing a content outline
A content outline contain the following
Introduction A content outline and assessment is used to give students a guideline and help them study for their exams. It also helps the teachers to prepare their lesson and exams to be given to students. Students can use a content outline to assess their knowledge and experience in each topic covered. They are also able to identify areas that need further studying before they take their exams.
A content outline includes; the objectives of the study, information to be explained, procedures to be used, and the assessment criteria to be used on students. This paper provides a guideline on how to write a content outline, gives the things that are contained in a content outline and concludes by highlighting the importance of assessments and how to conduct them.
Things to consider when writing a content outline What do students need to know?
Which mechanism will be used to help students get what is required of them?
How will they be assessed to ensure that they have achieved the goal?
After putting the above questions into consideration, the content outline should contain the following categories.
Goals The outline should offer a general overview of the contents of the material as well as how the material will be handled for an effective delivery of the information to students, in some times it may offer guideline to tutors on how to approach different issues.
The goals should be written in reference to the National curriculum (Ritzel, 2010). If it is an outline for a specific unit, goals should be specific to that unit and the same should be assessed at the end of the unit.
Objectives This part concentrates on what students can do to increase their knowledge and skills. The following questions should be put into consideration
What is the students’ capability?
Which mechanism will be used to measure students’ performance?
How will satisfactory attainment of goals be judged?
How will the students show that they have thoroughly understood what was being taught and that they understand the objectives of the unit?
Prerequisites Prerequisites allow teachers to determine which activities can be used to ensure that students meet the objectives of the unit being studied. Every teacher should be in a position to assess the students’ state of readiness before introducing a new outline (Ritzel, 2010). He must be able to determine the concepts that will help in the accomplishment of objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A content outline contain the following Introduction
It highlights how the objectives and goals of a certain unit will be introduced; the method is beneficial as it is able motivate and facilitate students to go through a content and grasp what the writer wanted to say. Additionally, the introduction provides a link between the past activities and the students’ interests. Also, the introduction highlights what is expected out of students
This is the main part of the outline which gives a framework of the expectation that the student should have. It is prepared in such a way that other teachers can be able to understand the flow. The main activity gives all the topics that are to be covered, experiments to be conducted, when assessment tests will be taken, among other things. It also includes examples that will help students understand the topics well.
The following is contained in the main activity:
Demonstration- this provides a list of all the steps to be followed in a sequential order.
Explanation- this is a sketch of the information that need to be elucidated
Discussion this section provides a listing of key questions to direct the discussion
Method of instruction- this specifies how the outline will be taught, how students will learn the information, time for each segment, materials to support presentations, key point that need to be emphasized (kellough