Ethics In Case Management/Rehabilitation Expository Essay Cheap Essay Help

Introduction In the last 20 years, there has been an enormous boost in the understanding of ethical concerns and problems in the medical career. A lot of such concerns have involved severe and evolving issues like life and death choices during a severe sickness or pain.

Until more lately, the dilemmas associated with chronic diseases, and more particularly associated with rehabilitation-based concerns, have received comparatively little consideration.

A number of articles started to address ethics in rehabilitation healthcare or permanent care since 1980s (Caplan, 1988; Jeff, 2000). However, there were no actual corrective interactions at that time between rehabilitation professionals and ethicists.

The initial key identification of ethics in the context of rehabilitation healthcare, based on Caplan (1988) most likely happened from 1984 to 1986, when the Hastings Facility formed a working team with a view of examining ethical measures of rehabilitation.

This was the first time that an organization of specialists who were particularly interested in ethical concerns had explored dilemmas related to constant care and rehabilitation (Caplan, 1988).

Since the 1990s, there has been an incredible boost in the number of literature relating to different ethical problems that happen, particularly in the setting of rehabilitation healthcare.

The objective of this paper is that of providing an overview of the most important ethical practices in addition to a number of detailed examples of moral concerns that might occur on a daily basis to the rehabilitation specialist.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overview It can at times be rather hard to identify whether specific actions are or are not ethically right. However, if people can concur that certain actions are not right, it will probably have relationships with other incorrect activities.

When attempting to identify what such joint aspects might be, people establish moral standards that they then test and utilize across an array of concerns and cases.

These standards ought to enable rehabilitation specialists to assume an unswerving position on particular and associated concerns. Three ethical standards serve as an outline for medical morals: kindness, respect for sovereignty and fairness (Gosney et al., 2011).

Kindness

The word “kindness” signifies charity, the doing of good and humanity. Kindness refers to an ethical responsibility of assisting others, with a view of avoiding hurting them, and to try and balance gains with damages.

In the medical context, kindness implies a responsibility of promoting the health and fitness of the patient and to prevent pain, illness, harm and distress (Buhrman et al., 2010).

Respect for sovereignty

In ethical practice, sovereignty refers to independence, or the autonomy of the self. Individuals must have sufficient knowledge and not be manipulated by other people or by specific barriers that limit options (Jeff, 2000).

When medical practitioners respect patients as self-governing, they recognize their right to share opinions, make decisions and take action based on their own values and wishes.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in Case Management/Rehabilitation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People have to be given the ethical right to make their own decisions and implement them (LaDou, 2006).

Fairness

A person is treated based on the standard of fairness if he or she is handled based on what is reasonable, appropriate or suitable (Thorsten et al., 2006).

The theory of fairness involves the query of what is appropriate to whom, and how to share the gains and demerits of living in a certain community (Gosney et al., 2011).

Ethical choices are carried out on a day-to-day basis in the area of rehabilitation medication. Some of these are trivial issues like the choice of explaining the threats and get permission for shared injections or diagnostic procedures.

Other issues, however, are more compound and hard, and may involve the input of many diverse stakeholders. A number of concerns are quite particular to the field.

Bearing in mind the moral standards just described, moral concerns in two contexts normally encountered in community-based rehabilitation centre will be highlighted: patient choice and resource distribution.

A new issue, the ethics of teamwork, will also be discussed. The purpose is not essentially that of providing strong responses, but that of considering the concerns and the many options that may be explored with a view of making decision-making rather easier.

Patient choice and resource distribution

The choice of patients who are to be included in a community-based rehabilitation program is usually carried out by the medical practitioner.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Case Management/Rehabilitation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since in numerous programs, demand for inclusion surpasses the number of available bed spaces, hard choices frequently must be executed.

In certain instances, there may be an evidently described set of practices available, but decisions are frequently more biased.

Purtilo (1988) argues that patient choice needs contemplation of not only medical but also non-medical aspects. Medical aspects comprise diagnosis, working performance, related obstacles, prognosis and capability of learning.

Non-medical aspects can be socio-cultural, professional, individual and economic. Other aspects might as well be considered. Changes in bed space accessibility might influence decision-making.

A patient with tentative diagnosis might be declined if there is an extended waiting record, whereas that same patient might be admitted if a bed was vacant at that time.

In a community-based rehabilitation, program-specific requirements like the requirement for respiratory system, might affect decision-making.

It has to be noted that not all individuals who are recommended for psychological test will gain from rehabilitation; this is why a patient has to be vetted.

Even though the therapy procedure utilizes a group strategy, the final choice is often carried out by a medical practitioner, frequently with less contribution from team participants.

The role of choosing people for therapy can generate different ethical issues. The right, duty and obligation of both a patient and a practitioner must be taken into account. As described, there is the possibility that the procedure will be too biased – hence the likelihood for unfairness.

The levels of kindness and functional fairness have to be integrated, and may at times be at odds. The issue of selecting patients and allocating resources is an intricate one.

The medical practitioner must focus on striking a balance between fairness and kindness. In the long term, however, the selection is frequently biased.

Also, it appears realistic to bear the challenge of following that patient who is at first declined with a view of ensuring that his or her case does not at certain level fluctuate.

Identification and discussion Ethics of teamwork

Due to its focus on optimizing patients’ natural, psychological and socioeconomic fitness and autonomy, community-based rehabilitation program concentrates on teamwork with a view of helping patients attain their goals.

All team members have their own dedicated coaching and obligations, even though there is frequently some misunderstanding.

The focus within rehabilitation is that of trying and developing interdisciplinary rather than multidisciplinary groups, which implies that all members function within the setting of the group, rather than as sovereign members.

The team usually comprises of a medical practitioner, a nurse dedicated to care of the rehabilitation patients, social workers and several rehabilitators, even though team composition may change based on the rehabilitation program and the goal of the group. The patients should also be involved in decision-making and dialogues.

Since all team members are expected to have their own set of ethical practices and principles, it is unexpected that they will decide on all moral questions that arise.

Disagreements between two team participants ought to be handled and resolved within the group setting. It is critical that the group offers constant support to the patients and their families.

If possible, a patient should not be informed about a conflict within the group, because contradictory information can be perplexing and disturbing for patients who are already struggling to live with an emerging disability.

A good instance of poor collaboration influencing medical care in the rehabilitation context includes the procedure of teambuilding.

This refers to the process via which the focus on achieving common ground in the team can result in unsuitable conflict (Buhrman et al., 2010).

Current research Gosney et al. (2011) propose that with a view of bringing about an indication of ethical desires within a group, four levels have to be followed: the group must establish an ordinary ethical language for dialogue of ethical concerns; a group member must possess realistic and cognitive coaching to articulate his or her emotions regarding certain concerns; value explanation assignments are required and the group has to possess universal familiarities upon which to implement executable ethical practices.

There are two core frameworks of interactions between caregivers and patients: Hippocratic and fiduciary (Thorsten et al., 2006). In the Hippocratic framework, a professional is advised to deal with patients in the manner he or she believes to be most appropriate.

This refers to the mainstream framework of rehabilitation, and offers less contribution to patient sovereignty, with members not contributing towards goal realization.

Buhrman et al. (2010) have challenged that Hippocratic framework is inadequate for community rehabilitation program since the need varies so much from mainstream severe care rehabilitation.

It includes several specialists, occurs in some contexts over an extended period of time and includes relatives in dynamic positions. Due to such aspects, Buhrman et al. have suggested a fiduciary framework of interaction, which considers the need for time to enable a patient to cope with the certainty of an acute disability.

The best option of resolving disagreement in the team between a patient and other group participants is generally via precise and transparent communication. If the patients are skilled, their desires have to succeed.

On the other hand, it may be realistic to persuade the patients with a view of considering the values of their social model and the effect of their choice on relatives (Gosney et al., 2011). Further research is required to redefine the core aspects of the relationship between care givers and patients.

Conclusion The research on moral concerns in community based rehabilitation setting is a comparatively fresh field, one in which precise and simple responses are not frequently available.

The aspects of sovereignty, kindness and fairness must all be taken into account, and a focus on striking a balance must be integrated. In this essay, the concerns of resource sharing and teambuilding within the setting of rehabilitation program have been explored.

Finally, the objective of rehabilitation field is that of ensuring patient independence while focusing on giving the best service possible, at the same time taking into account the desires and believes of patients as a whole.

References Buhrman, M., Nilsson, E., Jannert, M., Lars, S.,

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Any realistic and achievable environmental ethic must be based on a ‘weak anthropocentrism’ Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Effective maintenance of environmental ethics is one of the main pillars that support harmonious existence of organisms within an ecosystem. However, this view has been affected by the practice of anthropocentrism which purports that human being is the most valuable and important factor in the universe.

It is without doubt that while anthropocentrism is widely supported as a major resource for human beings, it has significant implications.1

I fully agree with the latter perspective since the attitude which the idea of anthropocentrism creates gives human beings the potential to exploit resources.

This is perhaps the main reason why there is widespread and unsustainable system of resource exploitation which has resulted into massive extinction of animals such as Great Auk and Dodo among others.

In addition, this form of exploitation has led to massive degradation of biological resources.

In spite of the general consensus that anthropocentrism is unacceptable, it is agreeable that weak anthropocentrism is quite critical since it provides a platform that enables attainment of robust environmental ethics.

In addition, it eliminates the incongruity of ascribing intrinsic worth on non-human subjects as explored in this paper. It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to critically analyze the perceived inconsistencies of both strong anthropocentrism and weak anthropocentrism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the paper will discuss alternative paradigms of weak anthropocentrism and explain how it enables realistic achievement of environmental ethics.

Anthropocentrism It is a fact that the past, present and future welfare of human beings can never be separated from their relationship with the natural environment bearing in mind that both of these two aspects are interdependent.

The current practice that supports the implementation of anthropocentrism has raised numerous concerns and questions on how best human beings should relate with their environment.

McNab indicates that this creates multiple ethical frameworks.2 It is important to highlight that anthropocentrism offers an approach which suggests that human beings should be in control of nature.

This goes against non-anthropocentric paradigms and related conceptual counterparts that suggest that there is need to appreciate nature.

Moreover, according to the arguments posed by Pluhar, it can be attained through the processes of deep ecology, ecocentrism and biocentism.3

Pluhar further indicates that there are ardent supporters of non-anthropocentrism and anthropocentrism who espouse those that critic, point out their flaws and oppose their tenet flaws.

We will write a custom Essay on Any realistic and achievable environmental ethic must be based on a ‘weak anthropocentrism’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is indeed plausible to mention the fact that anthropocentrism exclusively adheres to human perspective of pleasure and happiness.

According to an analysis by conducted by Wolloch, it is evident that non-human animals as well as the non-human world are largely concerned with the production of human resources and factors of instrumental value.4

One would agree with the widespread and strong rejection of this view by animal liberation groups led by Tom Regan, Peter Singer and others. This group views and compares anthropocentrism to sexism, prejudice and filled with unwarranted bias.

My view is that anthropocentrism might be objectionable since it gives humans the opportunity to exploit animals and other resources for the sake of trivial gains. In fact, some even use animals for experiments with little regard to the suffering which animals go through.

Besides, various views held on anthropocentrism by businesses have caused major environmental issues and concerns.

Over the last two decades, unacceptable business ethics have turned out to be a major facet in assimilation of a competitive advantage at the local and global market.

This has been assimilated as a major shenanigan by the business managements even as the understanding of the resultant impacts on the environment and resources become more evident.

As a result, the economic effects have been very profound with analysts predicting future doom if the problem is not addressed promptly. Poor business ethics form one of the most important factors that negatively affect the national and global economy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Any realistic and achievable environmental ethic must be based on a ‘weak anthropocentrism’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been especially evident in the recent past whereby more business units tend to assimilate unethical operational practices that largely promote their short term gains while inducing long term dents to the economy.

The last two decades have seen some of the most remarkable destructions of the natural systems in the history of the globe. Equally important have been the heightening calls for greater efforts to reduce the negative impacts of environmental degradation.

Whereas many individuals as well as business enterprises understand the role played by the natural systems in facilitating their overall production capacity, little efforts have been put in place to counter the same problem.

According to Pluhar, the modern market place has forced most of the businesses to view environmental resources as being free and therefore indefinite in nature.5

However, this is not true as exhibited by the current revelation of the finite status of the petroleum resources. As a result, there has been a strong withdrawal of resources from the natural environment with little focus to their resilience capacities.

Though it has been viewed as a minor shenanigan under the business practices of minimizing their overall costs, the economic growth is highly unsustainable in the long term bearing in mind that there is no guarantee of the same products in future.

In addition to the above facts, many industries have been directly associated with vast pollution of the natural environment.

In a complex tie up, the US has over the years failed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, a notion that has been interpreted to give the business units a direct leeway to act unethically on the same line.

Due to the trans-boundary nature of the air pollutants, the impacts are felt on a global scale with US equally included.

Global warming, resilience of the tropical diseases, and harsh climatic conditions has prompted the need for many nations to shift their resources towards addressing these disasters as opposed to concentrating on its economic development.

According to the observations made by Sztybel, pollution of the environment has been a major player in reducing the ability of the economic resources that are needed to holistically support the fast enlarging economies of the various countries across the world.6

For instance, water pollution usually interfere with the stable nature of water resources since it reduces the usability of water resources for domestic purposes as well as the demand and pre-treatment processes before being put to industrial use.

Consequently, there have been further increases in the overall cost of production and subsequent poor competition of the manufactured products at the market place.

Weak anthropocentrism It is agreeable that anthropocentrism is a disaster to environmental ethics. However, my view concurs with that of Sztybel. The latter author is of the opinion that discarding this process to embrace non- anthropocentrism for satisfactory environmental ethics is not the solution.7

Rather, we can adopt a weak anthropocentrism. Boesch uses Henry David Thoreau’s view on nature and posits that it has more than a simple instrumental value. In fact, it is independent of human consciousness.8

In my perspective, this perspective has a direct correlation to certain religious beliefs and practices especially those drawn from Jainism and Hinduism. these two religions value nature and explicitly advocate for safe practices that may not harm the environment.

Utilitarianism While this theory has been concerned with pain and pleasure, animal liberation members such as Peter Singer use it to indicate that animals, just like human beings, are capable of experiencing pleasure and pain and as such, should be treated with the much needed respect9.

A redefinition can also be made on the central principle of the theory to include non-animal entities. However, critics of the theory are of the view that some of the species in an environment neither experience negative nor positive effects.

While considerations should be made to determine the balance of interests and pleasure between human beings and the environment, weak anthropocentrism is critical since it provides the rule of utilitarianism.

In other words, it allows human activities to continue, but encourages sustainable development and organic farming among other practices.

Aggreably, my view is that conceptual approaches which weigh the consequences of human actions on the immediate environment should be embraced.

Kant’s ethical theory While Kant perceives nature as a phenomenon that has no intrinsic value, one cannot fail to see the areas in his theory that support weak anthropocentrism.

It is true from his perspective that trees and other non-human animals do not have any inherent worth.10 Kant’s perspective can largely be used as a hypothetical model of evaluating actions and determining whether they are good or bad.

By being categorically imperative, we are tasked to universalize actions by answering questions whether others would act in a similar manner if faced with similar situations.

Categorical imperative as Kant argued should be driven out of motivation and intent for one to be considered dutiful.

Deontological ethics The philosophy was developed in early 1930s by Broad. D. who emphasized that people’s actions should be judged according to their obligation to duty.11

In particular, the philosophy contrasts the previous consequentialist perspective by emphasizing that an action should be considered good if only the underlying will is fine.

It is important to mention that Broad’s consideration of deontological ethics was greatly shaped by the previous work of Emmanuel Kant who brought out the first tenet of deontological philosophy of categorical imperative.12

Under this consideration, individuals should always act in a manner that quantifies their actions into universal laws.

This notion has made the philosophy to be of great importance in the practice of weak anthropocentrism and conservation of the environment because people tend to review their actions to ensure that the outcome is positive and based on acceptable virtues.

Deontological ethics further advocate for non-aggression principle by indicating that the ultimate intent of such actions is to cause harm and therefore the actions are wrong. This is in line with the natural law which encourages conservation and rejects environmental abuse.

According to the ideas presented by Acampora, deontological philosophy give exceptions to this non aggressive orientation by pointing towards weak anthropocentrism in the sense that it is acceptable to use resources when in need and for whatever reasons.13

The tenet which elicited greatest debate in the 20th century is the consideration of categorical imperative when dealing with the environment.

Under this tenet, Andrew reports that people are allowed to implement anthropocentrism if its intention is to cause greater good.14

A good example is the felling of trees to provide fuel for energy. However, the perspective sharply contrasts with existentialism which refers to nature as unique and therefore important.

This philosophy greatly informed and guided leaders, managers and workers on the need to develop the correct values and attitudes towards the environment.

Viable ethical approaches Libertarian extensions

Libertarian extension is an important approach that calls for equal rights to everything existing in a community. In an environmental understanding, human and non human aspects are part of a community and have an ethical worth.

The social movements and civil liberty approach which requires harmony to be established between the products considerations of reality appears to be more promising in the sense that it factors the demands of human beings and non-human animals.

Andrew agrees with the social movements’ consideration that indeed anthropocentrism presents a high level of uncertainty to the environment and therefore the need to take effective precaution. In addition, their emphasis on ecological sustainability presents their inter-generational concerns for mankind.

On the other hand, though governments have the overriding forces in influencing the use of biotechnology, it is no doubt that their supporters are fast becoming highly polarized and may eventually face mass resistance as more people through unions and social movements join the fight.

Ecological extensions

All abiological and biological entities have a fundamental interdependence which largely calls for the recognition of their rights.15

While addressing the problem of strong ecological extensions, Serpell argues that there is great omission of environmental ethical concerns.16 Serpell further argues that though feeding people is indeed very crucial, it is more dangerous to threaten the survival of animals and resources because of two core factors.

First, the expected negative results are unclear and therefore making it even harder to prepare for it. Then the resulting problem may indeed obscure the benefits that had been accrued and perhaps form an expanded basis.

For example, the act of deforestation results to ecological breakdown. The resulting implication could include climate change, irregular weather patterns, and loss of biodiversity which are very hard to restore.

Conclusions I have held the opinion over the years that embracing weak anthropocentrism is the best way to go and that opponents of this notion are not genuine. In particular, the reports and pictures of environmental destruction strengthen my conclusion.

As a result, my mind became highly polarized towards anthropocentrism as opposed to holistically analyzing it and its possible negative implications.

However, this study has effectively revealed new insights on related problems that should be considered simultaneously if the current environmental problems are to be addressed effectively. There is need to assess the possible future impacts of strong anthropocentrism in society before it can be considered safe.

In addition, it is crucial to involve all the stakeholders in the society by incorporating their concerns to gather greater support at all levels of environmental conservation. In order to effectively address this perspective, it must be viewed from the global point of view as opposed to the localized outlook.

Finally, I will seek to create a forum that can bring together major stakeholders who will dialogue on key issues and therefore harmonize their understanding on the problem.

From this forum, I will seek to expand the involvement of the different professionals and consequently make key recommendations that can address environmental issues.

Bibliography Acampora, R, “Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, vol. 44, no. 3, 2006, pp. 480-481.

Boesch, C, “Away from ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism: Towards a scientific understanding of “what makes us human””, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 33, no. 2-3, 2010, pp. 86-87.

Coward, M, “Against anthropocentrism: the destruction of the built environment as a distinct form of political violence”, Review of International Studies, vol. 32, no. 3, 2006, pp. 419-420.

Gabriel, AK, “Beyond Anthropocentrism in Barth’s Doctrine of Creation: Searching for a Theology of Nature”, Religious Studies and Theology, vol. 28, no. 2, 2009, pp. 175-187.

McNab, K, “Anthropocentrism: are humans the centre of existence?” Peace Research, vol. 34, no. 1, 2002, pp. 113-116.

Pluhar, EB, “Non-Obligatory Anthropocentrism”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, vol. 13, no. 3-4, 2000, pp. 329-330.

Serpell, JA, “Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy”, Bulletin of the history of medicine, vol. 82, no. 1, 2008, pp. 219-220.

Sztybel, D, “Taking Humanism Seriously: ”Obligatory” Anthropocentrism”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, vol. 13, no. 3-4, 2000, pp. 181-203.

Wolloch, N, “Animals, Extraterrestrial Life and Anthropocentrism in the Seventeenth Century”, The Seventeenth Century, vol. 17, no. 2, 2002, pp. 235-253.

Footnotes 1 K McNab “Anthropocentrism: are humans the centre of existence?”, Peace Research, vol. 34, no. 1, 2002, pp. 113-116.

2 McNab pp. 115

3 EB Pluhar “Non-Obligatory Anthropocentrism”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, vol. 13, no. 3-4, 2000, pp. 329-329.

4 N Wolloch “Animals, Extraterrestrial Life and Anthropocentrism in the Seventeenth Century”, The Seventeenth Century, vol. 17, no. 2, 2002, pp. 235-253.

5 Pluhar pp. 329

6 D Sztybel “Taking Humanism Seriously: ”Obligatory” Anthropocentrism”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, vol. 13, no. 3-4, 2000, pp. 181-203.

7 Ibid

8 C Boesch “Away from ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism: Towards a scientific understanding of “what makes us human””, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 33, no. 2-3, 2010, pp. 86-7.

9 R Acampora “Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, vol. 44, no. 3, 2006, pp. 480-481.

10 R Acampora, pp.48—481.

11 Boesch pp. 87

12 R Acampora “Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, vol. 44, no. 3, 2006, pp. 480-481.

13 Acampora pp. 480

14 AK Gabriel, “Beyond Anthropocentrism in Barth’s Doctrine of Creation: Searching for a Theology of Nature”, Religious Studies and Theology, vol. 28, no. 2, 2009, pp. 175-187

15 M Coward, “Against anthropocentrism: the destruction of the built environment as a distinct form of political violence”, Review of International Studies, vol. 32, no. 3, 2006, pp. 419-419.

16 JA Serpell , “Anthropocentrism and Its Discontents: The Moral Status of Animals in the History of Western Philosophy”, Bulletin of the history of medicine, vol. 82, no. 1, 2008, pp. 219-220

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The Methods for Retaining Employees Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The Kind of Work Employees Do

Learning and Growing in a Workplace

The Sense of Belonging

Good Bosses

Meeting Individual Needs

Conclusion

References

Introduction There are many ways that can be used to retain employees. Compensating employees handsomely has long been viewed as one of the best ways of retaining employees.

Apart from good salary, research has shown that there are other ways which are equally significant in retaining employees. Some of these methods are “challenging and a meaningful work, opportunities to learn and grow, the sense of being part of a group, a good boss, and meeting individual needs” (kaye

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The Four Elements of the Marketing Mix Model Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Concentration on the Qualities of Products or Services

The Role of Price Structure

The Factor of Place and Distribution System

The Role of Promotion

Reference List

The success of the marketing programme developed for promoting a definite product or service depends on the effective combination of the basic marketing mix elements.

The marketing mix can be discussed as a business tool which consists of four significant elements which are product, price structure, place or distribution, and promotion.

To draw the customers’ attention to products and services and to promote them effectively, it is necessary to concentrate on each element of the marketing mix model in their combination (Armstrong

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An Interview with an Entertainment Manager: The Way Corporate Laws Work. A Report college admissions essay help

Introduction: Business and Technology Seize the Power There can be no possible doubt that technologies rule the modern world, and that business is one of the most efficient ways to take one’s place under the sun.

In the present-day world, the role of social networking and modern leadership theories cannot be overestimated – with efficient management and a good use of social network, one is likely to reach the peak of his/her business career.

Taking a closer look at the way business works and learning more about its mechanisms can help understand the way business theories can be applied into practice.

One can possibly see the best way to handle a company and to succeed in the fast-changing world, learning about the typical mistakes that managers make to void them in future.

As for the business field which is most preferable to consider, it seems that the sphere of entertainment is the most popular at present, which makes it a perfect target for further exploration.

Analyzing an interview with a leader in the field of entertainment, one will be able to see the mechanism of the XXI century business and see what practices are the most efficient.

The Social Impact of Technology: When Media Rules the World The impact of social media on the modern world is truly huge. Since social networking is one of the key means to learn more about a specific product, people rely much on online reviews, which can both pose quite a threat to a certain company and contribute to its success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Facebook as the ultimate evil plan: people and their opinions

According to what the interviewee claimed, social networks such as Facebook and the like pose a considerable threat to the development of business.

When socializing online, the interviewee claimed, people can easily post negative comments about the company and its production without being detected, which can dent the customers’ confidence in the quality of the services.

Indeed, the concerns raised by the interviewed can be easily understood – there are certain pieces of evidence which show that people do post negative reviews about certain services which they have tried and which have not met their standards and expectations.

Although one might think that a humble opinion of a certain user will definitely sink in the avalanche of other more engaging news and hardly anyone will ever notice the negative review; yet there are proofs that negative product reviews in blogospheres and social networks have considerable impact on people’s idea of a company:

“An employer’s business reputation can be damaged by negative comments by individuals on their own social networking pages, or, more problematically, because of the issue of anonymity on those specifically formed networking groups” (Pickard, 2008, 68).

Therefore, it seems that social networking can be easily used against entrepreneurs and their business, causing considerable drops in the company revenues.

Counterarguments: about the rights to speak openly

Indeed, if considering the positive aspects of social networking, one must admit that it can work for the benefit of business and even promote the products of a certain company with tremendous success.

We will write a custom Report on An Interview with an Entertainment Manager: The Way Corporate Laws Work. A specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, if using the social networking wisely and think of the effect it can produce, one is likely to reinvent people’s perceptions of a certain company. As Hartley (2010) explains,

Social networking is the game changer for business. If you own or run a business of any kind, whether it’s a solo consulting practice or a worldwide enterprise employing thousands or workers, social networking is quickly becoming a key connection point between your business and your customers. (Hartley, 2010, 1)

Therefore, the negative effects of the social networking can be easily questioned; and, even though there are certain factors that can harm an enterprise, they can be easily counterpointed by the numerous positive effects.

Therefore, the idea expressed by the interviewed can be considered only partially valid. For a company which is going to stand firm on its feet, it is necessary to take into account not only the threatening factors, but also the issues which the given company can make a good use of to become even more successful.

Business and Professional Practice: Concerning the Managerial Issues It goes without saying that team management is one of those pillars which corporate management stands on; the key principle of successful company leadership and an excellent way to bring the members of the company together, team management helps to make the working process flawless clockwork (Altfeld, 2010).

Thus, learning more about the advantages of working in a team and managing a team of employees rather than the work of individuals, one can possibly reach another stage of business enlightenment.

Bound by the same chains: motivation and team building

As the interviewee claimed, the idea of team management is the only possible way a company can work; once all employees work for the sake of the customer’s satisfaction, success is just around the corner.

Indeed, as Margerison (2002) says, the success of a company depends on the “overall team management contribution” (Margerison, 2002, 10).

Not sure if you can write a paper on An Interview with an Entertainment Manager: The Way Corporate Laws Work. A by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reverse side of team management: when togetherness fails

Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the management by objectives can be used together with team management.

According to what James (2003) claims, the given approach can help reach the company’s key goals without putting the employees under the pressure of team work.

Conclusion: There Is Still a Long Way to Go Therefore, it is clear that at certain point, the conventional approach does not prove as efficient as it could.

Unlike one might have thought, numerous social media which have become a part and parcel of the modern life can be both a huge benefit and at the same time a great disaster for the image of a company, depending on the information posed in blogs and social networks.

Likewise, the idea of team management might seem somewhat redundant and not necessarily suitable for all types of staff, since one might simply dislike all sorts of team-sprit-building activities, yet it does bring results to the company, increasing its revenues and making the people working there more devoted to the company.

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the given results can be easily questioned when being used in a certain environment with very specific elements that do not fall under the conventional standards.

Hence comes the ambiguity of the given decisions and the conclusion that the situational management must be the ultimate and the most appropriate way to handle the company business, as well as the relationships among the staff.

Once choosing the right track is not enough – as time goes, the company must change.

Reference List Altfeld, H.-H. (2010). Commercial aircraft projects: managing the development of highly complex products. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.

Hartley, D. (2010). 10 steps to successful social networking for business. Alexandra, VA: American Society for Training

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The Harvard Referencing Method Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

West Side Story Film

Relationship Reflection

Puerto Ricans

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Puerto Rican immigrants have been reflected on the West Side Story film and the past paper assignments. The immigrants were a key historical element of immigration to the United States. The immigrants with Puerto Rican descent were among the many immigrants into America with the intention of obtaining suitable employment opportunities so as to better their lifestyles. Puerto Rico as a country was in crisis with a high level of poverty.

The people were lacking essential needs. Their status relating to health, education and housing were being affected. All these factors influenced the Puerto Rican immigration to the United States. They migrated to the U. S. in numbers since this was the best opinion to them (Whalen and Víctor 17).

The immigration process was a great challenge to the Puerto Rican people. They had been affected by social and economic problems in their home country hence being forced to move. On arriving in a foreign country, things did not get any better. They faced new challenges that they were not aware of.

West Side Story Film The West Side Story film is a musical film produced in 1961. The film is based on an American musical by the same name. The American musical has a book, music, conception and choreography done by different people. It was enthused by Romeo and Juliet, a play by Shakespeare.

The film’s plot was divided into two acts. This was intended at increasing more tension in the plot. The film shows the life of two gangs who are involved in music based tension in the Manhattan streets in the 1957 late summer. The gangs include the Jets and the Sharks. The Jets were a white American gang while the Sharks were a gang with Puerto Rican immigrants. The two gangs are rivals, and they harass each other.

The rift between the two gangs escalates. The two rival gangs agree to meet at an agreed location for a fight. The fight begins and ends up fatally with the two gang leaders being stubbed to death. The police arrive at the location and the other gang members flee away from the scene. Later on, the co-founder of the American gang is killed by a Puerto Rican gang member. The film ends with the arrest of the killer by police.

This film addresses the themes discussed in the previous assignments since it reflects on the lives of Puerto Rican immigrants. The film demonstrates the lifestyle of immigrants in a foreign nation. The film shows the elements that affected Puerto Rican immigrants. The film offers the perspective of the struggles the Puerto Rican immigrants underwent while in a foreign country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship Reflection The film West Side Story and the past paper assignments support the same idea. The two consider the Puerto Rican migration and the challenges faced by them in a foreign country. The two show how it was difficult for immigrants to live a superior life in a foreign state.

The immigrants in both contexts were struggling with their settlement and their location. The immigrants who arrived in America ended up living in eastern parts of America, mainly New York. This is because they could not afford high rent rates in other areas. They did not get good employment opportunities that would sustain them to live better lives. Hence they were making a little income and could not afford to settle in good locations (Whalen and Víctor 21).

The immigrants in both contexts were involved in crime. The immigrants were influenced by the areas where they lived. The crime rates in America were on the increase with the number of immigrants increasing. The immigrants were faced by financial challenges hence they forced to indulge themselves in crime. The location of the immigrants was a setting of low levels of civilization.

The immigrants in both contexts were involved in cultural events. They were involved in various activities that developed culture. They practiced their culture in the foreign country. They were involved in the establishment of a cultural life of sociality. They preserved their heritage on culture by being involved in social and political movements (Fitzpatrick 49).

The immigrants in both contexts faced discrimination. The area in which the immigrants lived, the locals there felt that the immigrants have come to take their position and opportunities. They discriminated them since they were in their country. The immigrants were mistreated by the locals in different ways and setting.

For instance in terms relating to employment, they received discrimination at work by being paid the lowest payment. In terms relating to where they lived, they faced discrimination from people who claimed that they are not supposed to live in those areas (Whalen and Víctor 35).

Puerto Ricans The film and the paper describe the Puerto Ricans on the island, the mainland, or the diaspora at large. The Puerto Ricans were people who targeted to improve their lives. Having faced hard times in their country, they were ready to make the changes essential in order to improve the status.

We will write a custom Essay on The Harvard Referencing Method specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Puerto Ricans were involved in social, cultural and political movements so as to influence change where possible. They indulged themselves in campaigns that would see them be recognized and be treated with acknowledgement.

Both the film and paper describe the Puerto Ricans on the island, the mainland, or the diaspora at large as people who valued their culture and were always protecting and promoting it. This is evident in the notable activities they used to be involved with. They practiced these so as to support their culture instead of letting it die off.

The Puerto Ricans were also shown to be people with unity. In the different locations they were, they linked themselves in one accord. This increased their popularity and strength as a community. They also helped each other in all situations in support of each other. When their own would get into a problem, they would come up with a solution that was meant to improve the situation (Fitzpatrick 14).

The message between the two contexts, the film and the papers, is that the Puerto Rican immigration into the United States was influenced by several aspects. This depended on the motive of the immigrants, with the main purpose of immigration was to gain employment.

Conclusion The immigration of Puerto Rican people into the United States has impacted the social, political and economic aspects in different ways. The Puerto Rican people established a culture while in the foreign country.

This was among the several positive impacts they made. They practiced their customs and traditions that gained recognition by the locals. Their efforts to gain employment and work in the foreign country improve the economy status. Through immigration, the Puerto Rican people improved their status and that of their location (Fitzpatrick 77).

Works Cited Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Print.

Whalen, Carmen T, and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005. Print.

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Services Consumer Behaviour Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

There are five stages that a customer goes through before making the ultimate decision to make a purchase. These stages as noted by Lantos (2011) are problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour.

Each consumer passes all these stages until a purchase is made. The essay is an attempt to describe how I progressed through the named stages of decision making while purchasing a tourism service.

In addition, the essay explores how the concept of risk is perceived and managed while purchasing a tourism service.

Moreover, the implications of the concept of risk with regard to the service provider of the tourism equation have been discussed.

Prior to making a decision to purchase the tourism service, I followed the five stages of need recognition, problem awareness, information search, alternatives evaluation, service purchase and post-purchase evaluation (Lantos, 2011). The stages are represented in the diagram below as described by Tyagi and Kumar (2004).

Figure 1: Stages of the decision process for purchase

During the problem recognition stage, the need to go on holiday triggered my desire to go on vacation. The desire to travel as a tourist was important as it aroused the need to search for important information on my impending tourism adventure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The information search phase is important as it helps the consumer in making wise decisions (Tyagi

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Effects of Generational Differences on Teamwork in Organisations in the UK Essay best essay help

Introduction According to Kupperschmidt (2000, p. 65), generational differences at the workplace are as a result of differences in goals, expectations and work values. Zemke, Raines and Filipczak, (2000, p.5) define a generation as a group of individuals who share several things, including year of birth, age, location, and significant life events.

Cennamo and Gardner (2008, p.896) have provided examples of significant life events which include major political events or threats, socio-economic transitions, and emerging industry trends. There are four distinct generations, namely Baby boomers, Generation X, Y, and Z. However, in the UK, employees in most organisations belong to the Baby boomers generation, Generation X and Y.

Baby boomers are individuals born between 1945 and1960. These are the individuals who were born in post World War II era. Haynes (2011, p. 104) notes that Generation X consists of individuals born between 1961 and 1980, while Generation Y are the individuals who were born after 1980.

Individuals from both the Baby boomers generation and Generation X mainly occupy high and middle levels of management in organisations, respectively. These positions are based on the age and work experience of the employees from the above generations. On the other hand, Generation Y is made up of junior employees in many organisations.

According to Personnel Today (2005), most organisations in the UK mainly rely on project teams to oversee various projects and tasks in the organisation. Project teams are multigenerational in nature and as such, they bring together employees from different generations.

Generational Differences and Attitudes towards Teamwork in UK organisations Teams are useful in tackling hard tasks at different organisations. Baby boomers have strong commitment towards work and are keen on meeting strict deadlines as outlined under different tasks. Therefore, Baby boomers working in multigenerational teams are strongly committed to completing the task at hand.

They tend to be highly inflexible towards altering deadlines. Additionally, Howe and Strauss (2000, p.40) indicate that Baby boomers view the workplace as fun and counterproductive towards the realisation of the team’s goals and objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hammill (2005), Baby boomers prefer working as a team. According to Lyons, (2004, p.13), Baby boomers prefer to work in teams because they are keen on learning new skills in order to enhance their positions in the team in particular and the organisation in general.

Furthermore, Murphy( 2010,p.10) states that Baby boomers exhibit a participatory leadership style and prefer increased consultation before reaching any team decisions. According to Twenge and Campbell (2008, p.866) , the baby boom in the UK started at least ten years after the baby boom in the United States. Therefore, in the UK, Baby Boomers occupy both the top and middle level management levels.

Lamm and Meeks (2007, p. 617) claim that Generation X employees place emphasis on work-life balance. Most employees from this generation, therefore, are able to balance between responsibilities both at the workplace and home. Individuals from this particular generation have poor people skills and also are considered cynical. Also, Generative X individuals are associated with authoritative decision making.

The above mode of decision making is characterised by decreased consultation between the team’s supervisor and members. In most UK organisations, Generation X employees occupy the middle level management. Therefore, Generation X employees are most likely to serve as team supervisors mainly based on experience in a particular field. However, due to the emerging trends in the industry, members from other generations may assume roles as team supervisors, including Generation Y employees.

Generation Y employees mainly serve as team members as they are junior employees in various organisations. Lamm and Meeks (2009, p.617) claim that Generational Y employees are more inclined towards achieving work-life balance. As such, they are more likely to engage in such activities such as pursuing further education.

This is aimed at enhancing their skills so that they can remain abreast with the emerging trends in the workplace. Similarly, Hill (2004, p. 34) claims that employees from this generation are characterised by increased use of technology which enhances their ability to multi-task.

Raines (2003) indicates that in a team setting, Generation Y employees are highly creative and thus are in a position to use existing knowledge to come up with solutions to various problems. Additionally, employees from this generation do not prefer to use formal communication channels while liaising with other team members on team matters.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Generational Differences on Teamwork in Organisations in the UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, such employees prefer modern communication tools including social networking sites. However, Haynes (2008, p.288) argue that Generation Y employees require high levels of commitment which is a useful tool for enhancing their long term commitment to an organisation.

In the UK alone, more than 230,000 graduates join the workforce every year. Over 80 percent of the above graduates belong to Generation Y. Therefore, as employees from the above generation increase, managers and team supervisors should ensure that the needs of such employees are adequately addressed.

Striking a middle ground in management of multigenerational teams A useful tool for addressing intergenerational conflict is developing an inclusive organisational culture so that the input of all individuals is appreciated. Team supervisors should take into account varied needs of all team members. Additionally, Baby Boomers who command respect in their organisation are instrumental in instituting the above culture.

The management should put in place mechanisms of settling team conflicts. This includes voting for contentious issues. Voting should take place after all members have given their input as regards a particular issue. Finally, D’Amato and Herzfeldt (2008, p.934) note that the concept of a learning organisation is most appropriate where employees learn from each other, thereby promoting individual development.

Reference List Cennamo, L.

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The Rehabilitation of West Haven Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

A brief overview of West Haven

The Rehabilitation process

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Social geography is a body of knowledge and a set of practices by which scholars look at, and seek to understand, the social world. As such, it is a strikingly diverse sub discipline of human geography that has many overlapping interests with other forms of geography rather than any fixed or strict boundaries.

This discipline evaluates how social relations, identities and inequalities are made. This paper analyzes the application of social geography in the rehabilitation of West Haven from one of New York’s poorest urban centers to New York’s industrial hub.

A brief overview of West Haven West Haven, which is located in Bronx, Morrisania was once New York’s industrial hub. Rolston states that the rehabilitation of West Haven and communities around it had been stalled for many years owing to a belief that it is impossible to salvage West Haven and its surrounding communities in economic and architectural terms.

However, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Currently, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, is a key revenue generator of New York City.

West Haven is a key industrial centre of New York City. The economic prowess of this urban centre reached its climax in 1945 but started deteriorating thereafter (McNamara, 24). The deterioration turned West Haven into one of the New York’s poorest urban centers. However, in 2006, environmentalists, geographers, and other stakeholders from the New York City united in a bid to restore West Haven’s lost glory.

The stakeholders formed “a private public partnership, which addresses the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma” so as to revive the economic prowess of West Haven (Rolston 63). The revolution which restored West Haven’s lost glory involved the use of sustainable construction principles.

The use of sustainable construction has enhanced sustainable land use and conservation. In addition, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rolston (63) notes that “from the late 19th Century until 1945, West Haven, which is a small manufacturing district in the Morrisania section of Bronx, New York, hummed as one of the city’s bustling industrial centers”.

Rolston (64) also notes that “West Haven’s 19th century infrastructure of factories, stores, train lines, brick houses, and public buildings reflected a working middle class German immigrant values through the richness of industry, networked transportation, presence of civil authority, and diversity of recreation” (Rolston 64).

Rolston explains that the completion of 149th Street Bridge in 1910 enhanced the completion of the Cromwell Creek Landfill project. After the completion of the land fill projects, West Haven opened its doors to economic development. However, according to Rolston (66), “West Haven’s social atmosphere and commercial vitality failed to brighten its dull appearance”. The New York City council together with other stakeholders unanimously agreed to rebuild West Haven and they have succeeded in restoring its economic prowess.

The Rehabilitation process The initiative to build West Haven began in 2006 after a host of stakeholders joined hands and resources. The main stakeholders included development companies and Bronx Overall Economic Development Corporation (Walsh 34). These two were assisted by Community Benefits Agreement.

Together, the stakeholders formed “a private public partnership so as to tackle the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma to revive the market selling markets of Caribbean and African foods housed in shabby buildings housed on the water’s edge of West Haven” (Walsh 90).

In the present day, “this project, often known as Gateway Centre at the Bronx terminal market, is a key feature of South Bronx at its western shore, across the revamped and 145th Street Bridge, and renovated major Deegan expressway” (Caro 23).

Rolston tracks the steps that were taken in an endeavor to explain how West Haven’s economic prowess has been restored. Rolston indicates that environmentalists, geographers, and other stakeholders from the New York City united in a bid to restore West Haven’s lost glory.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Rehabilitation of West Haven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stakeholders formed “a private public partnership, which addresses the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma” so as to revive the economic prowess of West Haven (Rolston 63). “The New York City Council motivated by the goal of rebuilding social and economic value of West Haven, the Hub and Mott Haven, unanimously agreed to support the redevelopment of the former Terminal Bronx Market” (Rolston, 66).

The use of sustainable construction has enhanced sustainable land use and conservation of the environment. The use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Rolston highlights how sustainable development has been used to address social inequities created by flawed urban policies

The infrastructure of Qwest Haven in the 19th century in terms of “public buildings, brick houses, train lines, stores and factories, was a reflection of a working middle class of German immigrant values through the richness of industry, networked transportation, presence of civil authority, and diversity of recreation” (Rolston 63).

Rolston explains that the completion of 149th Street Bridge in 1910 enhanced the completion of the Cromwell Creek Landfill project. After the completion of the land fill projects, West Haven opened its doors to economic development. However, according to Rolston (66) “West Haven’s social atmosphere and commercial vitality failed to brighten its dull appearance” (Rolston 66).

Social life in the yester years of West Haven relied heavily on establishments such as “the Jacob Ruppert Beer Hall, and tavern in the nearby Morrisania Hub, pen green spaces such as Cedar Park, and entertainment venues such as the Bronx Opera House, a popular vaudeville theatre that still stands, although in a faded condition” (Rolston 66). The early 20th century social life of Bronx relied on the economic and social organization of artist workshops and industries located within the town (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 1).

The town underwent a gradual growth over time. Rural roads later become tarmac roads which led to factories, apartments and homes, offices, and stores. Despite these developments, the town remained gloomy.

As a result, the streets of this town were dominated by unattractive industrial buildings. However, there were a few exceptions. For example, “Bronx Men’s House of Detention reflected a social strategy that placed undesirable by important urban institutions within the locality of remote areas of emerging cities” (Rolston 66).

Bronx Men’s House of Detention building was closed in 1963, and would only be opened when needed. This happened until it was eventually demolished in 2007. Although it was one of the few buildings which were decorated, Bronx Men’s House of Detention building could not brighten the ever dull West Haven city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rehabilitation of West Haven by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The presence of such abandoned buildings by departed industry and socioeconomic collapse formed the initial stages of West Haven’s deterioration. The New York City Council was motivated by the ancient industrial prowess of West Haven and it embarked on a difficult journey of restoring the city’s lost glory in 2006.

The administration and construction processes were approved by the New York City Council Uniform Land Use Procedure. After the approval, architects redesigned the land use profile along Harlem River. In the process, they eliminated Cromwell Avenue, which divided the project site.

This led to the development of a renewed and upgraded infrastructure. The most notable transformations include the traffic pattern and transport infrastructure that encompasses Gateway today. The renovation led to the reconnection between CSX freight lines and Oak point Rail Yard (Wolkoff 58). This was a monumental architectural development in West Haven for it links West Haven to other surrounding suburbs.

In fact, it restored Wets Haven’s status as the hub of major urban freight intermodal transport corridor. Upon its completion in 2009, Gateway could accommodate 2800 cars and had a 950,000 gross square feet (AKRF 34). In addition, a 250 room hotel which is expected to be complete in 2014 is under construction (AKRF34). During the renovation of Gateway, a number of structures were brought down such as the Bronx Men’s House of Detention building and several commercial buildings.

The renovations also included an esplanade, creation of forefront parks and recreation areas, and the upgrade of the transportation sector. The main notable ones include the construction of a new train station and foot bridge from the Metro North suburban line.

For example, the modern rail station located along the 153rd street offers additional public transportation access to Yankee stadium (Anderson 45). The advancement plays a significant role in reducing car traffic when the stadium hosts sporting activities.

Furthermore, the original Yankee stadium was brought down and rebuilt as a Gateway background project. The stadium was strategically located close to the transportation and pedestrian access infrastructures and this has enhanced revenue generation from the parking fees collected in this area.

The architects who were in charge of the reconstruction process took radical measures so as to realize the set goals. The architects declared Gateway as a General Large Scale District so as to allow for rezoning which increased the area of parking spaces. The architects created private public partnered projects in a bid to prevent the adverse effects that were likely to arise as a result of the reconstruction.

The economic Development Corporation gave relocation assistance to commercial tenants. This strategy led to the creation of 65,000 square feet of space. At some point, the architects received resistance from some members of the neighboring communities. However, the architects organized several meetings which brought together different stakeholders from the community including the clergy, local agencies, politicians, and citizens in order to address the raised concerns.

During the meeting, a consensus was reached and everyone party agreed that West Haven should be renovated for the benefit of all. The architects, related companies, the community representatives and Bronx Overall EDC adopted a comprehensive CBA. The CBA spelt out clearly “the project planning process for inclusive hiring at the site to give economic activity to local residents during all phases of construction and afterward” (Ascher 34).

The New York City council together with other stakeholders unanimously agreed to rebuild West Haven and they have succeeded in restoring its economic prowess (Levere 74 ). The current outlook of Gateway indicates the transformation that West Have has undergone. The current status of the city has embraced cotemporary architectural designs and sustainable land use.

Conclusion West Haven, which is located in Bronx, Morrisania was once the New York’s industrial hub. Rolston states that the rehabilitation of West Haven and communities around it had been stalled for many years owing to a belief that it is impossible to salvage West Haven and its surrounding communities in economic and architectural terms.

However, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Currently, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, is a key revenue generator of New York City.

The administration and construction processes were approved by the New York City Council Uniform Land Use Procedure. After the approval, architects redesigned the land use profile along Harlem River. In the process, they eliminated Cromwell Avenue, which divided the project site. This led to the development of a renewed and upgraded infrastructure. The most notable transformations include the traffic pattern and transport infrastructure that encompasses Gateway today.

The renovation led to the reconnection between CSX freight lines and Oak point Rail Yard. This was a monumental architectural development in West Haven for it links West Haven to other surrounding suburbs. In fact, it restored West Haven’s status as the hub of major urban freight intermodal transport corridor.

Upon its completion in 2009, Gateway could accommodate 2800 cars and had a 950,000 gross square feet (Bronx County Clerk’s Office 11). However, the architects organized several meetings which brought together different stakeholders from the community including the clergy, local agencies, politicians, and citizens in order to address the raised concerns. During the meeting, a consensus was reached and everyone party agreed that West Haven should be renovated for the benefit of all.

West Haven is a key industrial center of New York City. The renovation and upgrade of West Haven to its current status has been necessitated by the application of Social geography. The rehabilitation of West Haven is as a result of collaborative work between various stakeholders and components of social geography.

Social geography played a key role in understanding the need to renovate West Haven and in bringing together all the stakeholders. First, the stakeholders unanimously agreed that West Haven must be rehabilitated for the benefit of not only the local communities, but also for the benefit of investors. Secondly, Social geography brought together a host of professional who engineered the renovation of West Haven.

This paper has thus illuminated the significance of Social geography in evaluating how social relations, identities and inequalities are made. Owing to the application of Social geography, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, has been transformed into a key revenue generator of New York City (Mastrelli 236).

Works Cited AKRF. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Gateway Center at Bronx Terminal Market. New York: AKRF Press, 2005. Print.

Anderson, Saul. New York Area Roads Crossings and Exits. New York: AKRF Press, 2005. Print.

Ascher, Khan. The Works. Anatomy of a City. New York: The Penguin Press, 2005. Print.

Bronx County Clerk’s Office. A Brief Look at the Bronx. New York: The Penguin Press, 2005. Print.

Caro, Raul. The Power Broker. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.Print.

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. “West Haven”. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 1.1 (2011): 1-10. Print.

Levere, John. “Retailers Take a Chance on a Mall in the Bronx”. The New York Times 23 Sept. 2009: pp. 1-7.

Mastrelli, Iara. “Harbor Haven”. Hospitality Design 29.7 (2007): 236-239. Print.

McNamara, Jim. History in Asphalt. New York: Harbor Hill Books,1978. Print.

Rolston, Lorraine. “A New Bronx Tale: Gateway Center and Modern Urban Redevelopment”. Focus on Geography 55.2 (2012): 63-74. Print.

Walsh, Don. Reconnaissance Mapping of Landfills in New York City. New York : Wiley Online Library, 1991. Print.

Wolkoff, Adam. “Creating a Suburban Ghetto: Public Housing at New Haven’s West”. Connecticut History 45.1(2006): 56-93. Print.

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Discussion about diffusion of innovation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

It is just a few people who can comfortably discuss the topic “Diffusion of innovation”. Not many have even ever heard of it. Yet to those who have had the chance to know a little about it, it is a topic that left them yearning to have some more of the information. This has been the case for everyone who reads the work of the great author of Diffusion of Innovation who still, theorized the whole idea.

Everett M. Rogers lives everyone who reads his work wondering how genius he could be to have seen such reality. According to Robinson, Diffusion of Innovation seeks to make clear how innovations are spread in a society (Robinson, 2009, p.1).

It also shows how “other techniques and social organization principles are likely to spread along the same route” (Rodgers 1995, p.5). Innovation, on the other hand, refers to ideas, ways or methods of doing things or a product that are considered new in a society.

Diffusion of innovation offers insights on the factors which could make innovations spread faster, importance of understanding the needs of the various user segments and also peer-peer conversations and peer networks (Robinson, 2009, p.1).

Depending on the degree of perception, relative advantage, simplicity and ease of use, observable results, trial ability and compatibility with existing values and practices and observable results, all these qualities contribute immensely to the success of spread of any innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2).

The relative advantage is measured on the basis of tastes and preferences of the users while the compatibility with the existing values and practices is measured against past experiences and the values held by the users. On the other hand, simplicity and ease of use depends on the degree to which an innovation is perceived difficult to use.

Observable results refer to the efficiency of the innovation. Trial abilty refers to the ability of innovation to be tested (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2). However, Robinson argues that continuous improvement through reinventions is the key to spreading an innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everett argues that peer-peer conversations help in spreading innovations even more than advertisements and other similar interventions that are used in marketing. He argues that conversations alone can spread adoption since they help in risk management and also take care of any uncertainties.

Source: Mahajan, Muller and Bass (1990) as reproduced in Rogers, E.M. (2003) p210.

The graph above depicts a clear picture of how peer-peer communication becomes more influential in spreading an innovation and how mass communication becomes less influential over time.

To emphasize the need to understand the adopters, Rodgers categorized the adopters into five groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. He attached values or personalities to each group. These values were in consistence with his findings. The following graph is important in helping to clearly understand the concept different user segments. Rodgers viewed the innovators as learned personalities who were ready to take risks.

Source: Robinson (2009): A summary of diffusion of innovation

The society views them as the well connected (Rodgers, 1995, p.357). They spend a great deal of “their time, energy and creativity on new ideas and gadgets” (Robinson, 2009, p.5). They love talking about their new ideas and through this the diffusion of innovation begins.

The other group is the early adapters which entails local leaders, people of high social status or in general people of high prestige (Rodgers, 1995, p.357

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Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice Essay best college essay help

Introduction The need to develop economic systems that reflect the needs of every community has pushed people to initiate strategies to effect necessary changes. Trading activities have become a backbone for the development of countries’ economies. Nations and their leaders are advocating for economic integrations expansions and innovations to develop their countries.

It is imperative to consider nations’ social and political aspects before adopting any economic stimulus project. In 1930’s people adopted Neoliberalism as an effective way of developing economies. However, the steps adopted were not as effective as they were supposed to be. This led to change of meaning of Neoliberalism.

Scope of Study This is a wide topic that involves many aspects of social, political and economic factors. Therefore, it is not easy to cover all this aspects in this discussion. However, the paper will explore significant social, political and economic aspects that are connected to Neo-liberalism. The study will focus on the impacts Neo-liberalism to the daily activities of human beings and their states.

Preposition The beginning of the 20th century was a significant period in the development of many nations. Most countries realized the need for economic integrations and corporations. This led to the formulation of policies that were aimed at governing economic relations among countries. As a result, there was the formulation of liberalist policies to unify trading activities among trading partners. These activities included the formation of trade blocks, treaties and production contracts.

However, these attempts failed to yield expected results leading to withdrawal of membership from trading blocks and disrespecting trade agreements. The result was the formation of Neo-liberalism movements to oppose integration attempts. The liberalization of trade activities among nations was a deliberate attempt to spread imperialism and advance the needs of powerful nations.

Objectives This essay explores various ways through which liberalization of trade activities was an attempt to propagate the interest of few countries at the expense of underdevelopment in other countries. The paper explores the initial intentions of liberalizing social, political and economic activities to reflect a uniform front.

In addition, this paper outlines key impacts of liberalism that led to the formation of Neo-liberalism. This is a one-on-one approach aimed at establishing the inefficiencies brought by liberalism and their resultant effects. It should be noted that liberalization of political and economic activities was anchored on uniting countries to help fight common problems. These problems existed due to differences in economic and political orientations exposing countries to significant challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Reviews This essay will discuss presentations made by Dan Schiller, Fernando Bermejo and E.R. Meehan. Their works are based on media liberalization, and how other factors affect them. In addition, this works for the basis of this discussion through exploring the significance of liberalization and Neo-liberalization to the society. In studying their work, it is imperative to seek answers to the following questions.

What are the consequences of Neo-liberalization of the media, in what way are these consequences revealed and how are the losers fighting back. In addition, this essay will address attempts to perpetuate liberalization. In this discussion, several aspects reveal the impacts of liberalization in society. The media is the society’s watchdog and plays vital roles in educating, informing and shaping public opinions regarding various issues.

World Communication in Today’s Age of Capital by Dan Schiller Schiller asserts much of his discussion on Eric Hobsbawm’s work done between 1840 and 1870. According to this work this period saw the world transformed from a geographical representation to operational activities. There was the need to have adequate capital to facilitate any operational activity.

Much of the world was undergoing infrastructural adjustments that necessitated the need to have adequate capital to finance such projects (Schiller 2001). He discusses these issues through analyzing the use of communication services like broadband and internet services and audiovisual and telecommunication services.

Modern Telecommunication This is the world’s fastest growing industry due to the need for people and companies to keep in touch with the rest of the world. Today, there are more than 900 million telephone lines and hundred million of wireless, mobile phones all over the world. This is in contrast with about 142 million landline telephones in the 1960s (Schiller 2001).

People and organizations have invested massive capital in this industry to warrant the untamed expansion of communication services. Multiple networking skills have amalgamated such capital investments towards telecommunications. This has also led to spread in the use of mobile phones among the middle class and thus facilitated communications.

The spread of telecommunication services has infiltrated all remote villages of the world making mobile phones a necessity (Schiller 2001). This has in turn led to the entry of many telecommunication companies to the market forcing prices of these servicers to slump backwards.

We will write a custom Essay on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competition has without doubt set in, and investors are trying all means possible to woe consumers to their services. This has led to reduced call rates and the provision of other cheap services. As a result, this is bound to cause significant discrimination against the poor especially those living in third world countries. Moreover, the entrance of many players in this field will without doubt stiffen unhealthy competitions among them (Schiller 2001).

This will result to the provision of cheap services that will eventually push unstable companies to closure. Those companies that operate on fixed budgets will have difficult times competing with well established multibillion companies. Therefore, they will wind up their operations after making continuous losses and having unsuccessful attempts of rescuing their investments.

Finally, the cut throat competition among service providers will result in reduced prices of services. This will in turn compromise the quality of service provided by these companies (Schiller 2001). The policies formulated to promote liberalization, privatization and specialization will only propel the interests of giant companies and their related operations while trampling on all attempts made by new entrants in the market.

Audiovisual Services Televisions are the most common way of audiovisual communication. The last decade saw the use of television sets multiply from 176 sets in 1965 to 1.16 billion sets in 1995. This means that there has been an addition of more than six billion television audiences (Schiller 2001). To date, the number has multiplied more than a thousand times with many countries importing cheap television sets from china.

This has increased the number of television viewers to hundreds of billions. The television networks operate using satellite companies that offer broadcasting services. Even though most state run broadcasting companies run their own satellite services most private broadcasters rely on other service providers (Schiller 2001).

For that reason, they purchase broadcasting space in many countries to ensure their services are offered in as many countries as possible. For instance, CNN and BBC have established their services in almost all nations, in the world (Schiller 2001). Another company like Viacom has collaborated with MGM to popularize and market some of their recent films (James Bond’s The World is not Enough).

These channels and broadcasting companies have expanded their operations, not as a result of an increase in the capital, but due to changes in consumer fashions and preferences. The companies provide consumer oriented services to make sales in advertising products during the airing of such interesting programs (Schiller 2001). To date, many broadcasting companies make profits through selling advertising space to companies.

Commercial advertisers have found televisions vital arenas for advertising their products and services. Majority of broadcasting services relies on commercial advertising as their main source of income. Without commercial advertisers, many broadcasting houses will close down their operations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same commercial advertisers benefit by making market penetrations to remote areas and selling their products all over the world (Schiller 2001). These are same companies that benefit from changes in communication systems. They are like leopards ready to pounce on any unsuspecting prey. The restructuring of television services is without doubt a business oriented service aimed at providing quality marketing and advertising services to consumers.

These attempts are geared towards capturing the audience interests in commercial advertising rather than providing quality broadcasting services to them (Schiller 2001). The broadcasters are not entirely to blame for this fault since they rely on commercial advertisers to make profits. However, most small scale businesses do not stand equal chances of competing with giant firms in purchasing advertisement space.

Just the way powerful politicians dominate media broadcasting so are giant companies. They are given prominence, and their advertisements are aired during prime hours compared to small scale business advertisements aired during off peak hours. Most companies have taken over the management of television houses like in the United States where moist companies are owned by foreign corporations like News Corporation, Seagram and Sony (Schiller 2001).

The fact that foreign companies dominate broadcasting g services in the United States shows the presence of involuntary penetration for self interest purposes. Even though, the United States tried to maintain its broadcasting identity after the first world wart by declining and resisting attempts to merge with Great Britain’s companies these attempts were futile. Since then the United States has relaxed most if its restrictions in broadcasting dominance by foreign firms (Schiller 2001).

This is without doubt an expression of America’s hidden interests in allowing foreign broadcasting companies to operate and dominate its television systems. The United States’ media transnationalization has given rise to other inevitable changes in the global media.

Sony and other companies have invested billions of capital in distributing systems to offer world entertainment services (Schiller 2001). On the other hand, the United States entertainment firms have established partnerships with foreign companies to offer entertainment services to Americans’ and other nationals in different countries.

This has led to the broadcasting of a historical advancement of America as a super power. This has also led to the propagation of American culture as a national culture for people residing in America despite their citizenship. These are some of the aspects the media is unable to control due to the impacts such advertisers have on the media’s economic gains.

Their global media systems pay attention to issues that propagate their commercial and corporate interests and ignore those that cannot accommodate their interests (Schiller 2001). Moreover, claims that the United States media content is at risk due to changes in the global media demands need to be clarified than is usually done.

There is a significant change in the content broadcasted to the world and America’s competitors are gaining ground. There is a considerable surge of United States based media companies as Europe continues to dominate the market as its balance of trade with United States has risen to 5.6 billion U.S. dollars in 1996 increasing their European share market to 78% from 56% (Schiller 2001).

In addition, giant European media firms support most local programs in many countries as was evident in the Global Television Market Annuals. This means Europe is gaining more grounds than America in global advertisements. Mexico is taking the world by storm by dominating most local channels in their endless Telenovelas. This is a clear indication of how poor countries are denied opportunities available only to rich countries.

Internet and Broadband Services Internet communication is growing in popularity and demand due to the challenges facing wire communications. There have been challenges that threaten communication due to weak channels and poor communication services. Internet and broadband services refer to the use of networking services to facilitate communication.

This involves the use of fiber and wireless communications (Schiller 2001). This has given rise to recent struggles for reclaiming media practices as the quest for democracy intensifies. There are considerable capitalist dominations as is evident in the recent internet developments. This is due to the fact that internet communications take place between companies and not companies and consumers.

Therefore, companies are trying their best to take hold of the volatile market through mergers and economic arrangements that will take care of their interests (Schiller 2001). Recent developments in the internet services are aimed at expanding business operations to high end consumers and not just any ordinary client. Companies are targeting consumers that will be motivated by product quality and not affordable prices.

Therefore, these efforts do not intend to establish or identify a liberalized consumer zone. These attempts are aimed at creating effective sales strategies that will target rich consumers. These attempts started in 1995 when WorldCom and other giant corporations got a lion share during privatization of internet services (Schiller 2001).

Secondly, the advertising community grasped the demand for internet marketing and made it mandatory for any advertiser to acquire an internet strategy as a board for advertising plans. Thirdly, there was the establishment of the vertical integration corporate regulations over internet services (Schiller 2001).

AOL is the best example of a capitalist approach to controlling internet services. The struggle to buy advertising space is motivated by capitalistic needs top acquire a large share of consumers’ attention. Internet service providers have taken advantage of this rush to offer other services to clients. This has resulted to partnering with other electronic companies to allow fast access and navigation to various sites.

As a result, this has pushed for integrations and mergers in internet related service providers (Schiller 2001). This has led to the establishment of broadband service providers that aim at providing high speed data communication services. The process of internet service provision is dominated by a handful of companies despite the provision of global communication services.

New Media and Society by Fernando Bermejo This discussion explores the literature produced by various scholars with regard to media influence in advancing capitalism. This is with regard to Smythe’s beliefs that communications are concurrently in their forms and involves their final stages of production where sales determine consumer satisfaction and production (Bermejo 2007).

The media ratings have lost their significance ion advertising due to proliferations of capitalists’ agendas in advertising. These ratings have existed to offer inclined public perceptions regarding the performance and production of the media. Even though, the work of media audience is purchasing advertised products, this has not always been true since the audience is also involved in typing and scanning through many internet pages.

Therefore, the audience plays significant roles in determining the direction and functions of advertising engines (Bermejo 2007). The presence of regular developments in media advertisements warrants the need to identify ways of analyzing their importance to the society. However, it is without doubt that all these developments are aimed at propagating the interests of capitalist institutions.

Bermejo argues that even though the development of new media is not a bad progress it must address consumer needs and contributions to shaping communication. Most media development aim at advancing the needs of their sponsors and not consumers.

The media fail to identify the roles of audiences as essential components of advertisements (Bermejo 2007). There is the need to incorporate consumers’ needs in media development to address liberalization as an essential part of the development. However, most media houses focus their attention on their sponsors since they provide the bulk of their capital.

Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies by E. R. Meehan Meehan argues that all deregulation policies are aimed at centralizing global and national economies within the last two decades. The policies allow subjects to decide what is good for them (Meehan 2003). This is without doubt an effective way of advancing capitalist approaches in business activities.

Companies have integrated their efforts by amalgamating and forming mergers that will facilitate the realization of their interests (Meehan 2003). These relationships are guided by capitalist interests of regulating supply and production to fit their preferences and advance the realization of their interests.

Major share holders in various industries have formed relationships and policies that threaten the existence of weak competitors. On the other hand, they have also controlled communication channels and systems to reflect their demands. The late 1970s saw liberal moves towards organizing communication systems to reflect their policies (Meehan 2003).

However, these attempts resulted in capitalism as they sought to advance their interests. The policies formulated served their interests and ignored weak competitors. Therefore, the attempts were not effective in liberalizing economic regimes.

Conclusion Neoliberalization efforts are justified in restoring democracy and equal playing grounds for all investors. Nations strive to develop their systems, but this is difficult in the presence of strings attached to service delivery by multinational companies. However, despite the presence of current struggles to retain capitalist policies there are a bright future that promises consumers and small scale producers of a democratic economy.

References Bermejo, F. (2007). The Internet Audience: Constitution and Measurement. New York: Peter Lang.

Meehan, E.R. (2003). Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.

Schiller, D. (2001). World Communications in Today’s Age of Capital. Emergencies Volume 11. San Diego: University of California Press.

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Djoser and Imhotep Art History Essay essay help: essay help

Netjerikhet Djoser, also known as Zoser, was probably the famous King who ruled Egypt in the third Dynasty for 19 years.

His name means “the divine body” and he is remembered for commissioning the construction of step pyramid which was architectural work of Imhotep. Historical facts have revealed that the relation between Dsojer and Imhopet was cordial.

Imhotep was a highly respected Egyptian polymath, architect and a doctor who lived in Egypt between 2650 and 2600BC. He constructed the first Pyramid in Egypt which was commissioned by King Djoser.

Inscription in some statues describes Imhopet as “Chancellor of the king in lower Egypt”. Early history sources reveal that he may have been born in the Memphis while others suggest that he may have originated from Thebes and served under King Djoser who reigned between 2630 to 2611BC.

Historians still value his accomplishments which include the construction of Egypt’s first Pyramid that was a Djoser’s step pyramid in Saqqara.

His role in writing was mainly in medical texts. He is believed to have authored descriptions of over 90 anatomical terms and 50 injuries. He also founded a medical school in Memphis.

Evaluation realism in the Egyptian Arts Egyptian rules of art, sculpture, paintings, and relief carving were so diverse that did not depict the realities in life. Most paintings were religious and depicted numerous gods and goddesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because Egyptians observe law and order, complex rules for how Gods and humans were represented in paintings, carvings and sculpture were developed.

Figures in paintings and size of sculpture were calculated by the status of a person as opposed to normal rules of linear perspective which brings out a real image. For example, men statues were painted in darker color than the female ones.

Symbolism was a feature that was greatly used in paintings. Some colours had more than one meaning. For example, red symbolized power or strength as well as fire. Green was a symbol of new life, fertility and growth. Yellow was associated with kings and royals.

The same yellow color symbolized purity and eternity (Stokstad 138). Paintings in tombs are good examples of the Egyptian art that has no realism. The pictures depicted life after death. They would show pictures of boats, and birds transporting food to the deceased.

As paintings and sculptures did not depict realism, relief carving had some elements of it. Some surviving relief sculptures found in the tomb of Hesire at Saqqara have figures of men standing, or seated, that are carved proportionally to the convention of ideal manhood. These carvings had definite sizes in three dimensions.

Figures represented by relief carvings in a room had proper place with a defined shape and size which ensured that space is well used being an indication that these forms of art depicted realism.

Falcon and the Egyptian art Falcon represents Horus, the true Pharaoh, and the Sun God. He was a symbol of rising sun in Egypt. The ancient Egypt regarded the Sun and the Moon as great falcon Horus’ eyes. Falcon Horus was a deity with various functions.

We will write a custom Essay on Djoser and Imhotep Art History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He could fly and protect kings, had powers to guard and protect (Stokstad, 34). Other forms in which the Egyptian arts were represented were falcon headed Ra with sun disk along with Falcon mummy with gilt coffin.

Works Cited Stokstad, Marilyn. Art history. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorder Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Research questions

Introduction

Diagnosis of Anxiety disorder

Treatment of Anxiety Disorder

Conclusion

References

Abstract Anxiety disorder is a psychological problem in individuals who are known to worry too much and have fears that are unrealistic. These disorders have been known to cause diverse psychological and physical damage.

The classifications of anxiety disorder include the phobias, the generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Each of these disorders has different symptoms and treatment procedures.Research indicates that diagnosis of the disorders may be difficult since the symptoms overlap with other common ailments. However, various treatment interventions exist.

The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy such as the use of talk therapy is very effective. The therapist tries to unearth the causes of such anxieties and fears and helps the patient realize that it was exaggerated and unrealistic.

The use of medication such as the SSRIs is also effective. However, some have adverse side effects.

Research questions I. What is the diagnosis of anxiety disorder?

II. What treatment interventions are available for anxiety disorder?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides information about anxiety disorder as it relates to the course, Abnormal Psychology (Butcher, Mineria,

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