The client in question could be suffering from heroin addiction. In this case, there may be need to provide her with medically prescribed heroin to treat her addiction. The ethical dilemma in this case is whether she is sufficiently competent to make a decision regarding this type of treatment. This kind of treatment raises complex ethical problems. One major ethical issue is whether a heroin addict is capable of assenting to prescription of heroin.
Heroin is a drug associated with degeneration of the mind. This raises doubts as to whether a heroin-dependent individual has the mental ability to make such choices. When these questions were put forward to Cynthia, a recovering heroin addict at a local clinic, her reaction was disbelief and amazement. “That’s crazy,” she said, “if you’re addicted to heroin, then by dentition you can’t say ‘No’ to the stuff.” Cynthia’s response can be expressed in the form of a dilemma (Charland, 2002, p. 37).
This essay is about ethical dilemma posed by heroin prescription. The problems raised by the dilemma are serious. The basis of the dilemma lies in the nature of heroin addiction. Heroin addicts suffer from an uncontrollable want to search for and use heroin. As a consequence, they have damaged decisional ability to make choices about heroin.
Ethical debates about heroin prescription seem to have overlooked this point completely. Heroin prescription presents a remarkable angle from which to observe the function of value in mental competence. This also point up why accountability is paramount in any form of competency. There are also interesting similarities between addiction and depression that are important. It has been argued that severely depressed patients may not be competent to consent to research because they care too little about risks.
The problem with heroin addiction is just the opposite. Heroin addicts care too much about benefits that accrue from their use of heroin. Clinical tests of the competency of depressed subjects to consent to research have recently been carried out. We should not assume that heroin addicts are competent to sanction prescription of heroin. Actually, we should assume they are incompetent unless proven otherwise (Charland, 2002).
There are other important ethical issues regarding prescription of heroin. They include the quarrel that pits harm reduction against abstinence; the debate over whether addiction should be viewed as a social or a medical problem; the argument that existing resources are better spent elsewhere; and the worry that there is a risk of promoting the message that heroin addiction is acceptable.
These are just a few scattered themes and examples. Evidently, there is an interesting literature on the ethics of heroin prescription. No resolution of those issues will be attempted here.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For present purposes, what deserves mention is what those discussions omit. Nothing is said about whether the subjects targeted for heroin prescription are capable of competent voluntary consent to heroin. Consent is mentioned, but usually only to say it is important to seek it and to stress those subjects must be properly informed. Everybody seems to assume that it is possible to give a competent voluntary consent to heroin use (Charland, 2002).
In conclusion, it will suffice to give the client be the drug. This is because there is no evidence that she might suffer from decisional impairments that compromise her ability to consent. However, the ability to give competent voluntary consent should not be presumed in the debate of ethics of heroin prescription. The vulnerability of the client to free and legal heroin should be taken into consideration.
Reference Charland, L. (2002). Cynthia’s Dilemma: Consenting to Heroin Prescription. The American Journal of Bioethics, 2 (2), 37-47.
The Concept of String Theory Essay online essay help: online essay help
String theory is a concept developed by physicists trying to explain the fundamental nature of matter and space. The concept has various interpretations, but has the ability to explain the phenomenon of existence. Since the most fundamental particles do not exhibit the properties of matter that bigger objects have, some scientists consider them non-dimensional (Van Proeyen 12).
This means they do not have width, length or depth. General relativity holds that all matter and space exists in four dimensions. Depth, width, and length of all matter and space exist through time (Kane 46). This means that time is the fourth dimension.
Distortion of time results in distortion of the other three dimensions, which are the dimensions of space. This is quite different from Newtonian physics, which does not consider time a dimension.
However, practical science is based on Newtonian physics. Although the theories of relativity are not applicable in practical science to a satisfactory extent, they are accepted as the true explanations of the phenomenon of existence (Zwiebach 16). The effort to understand the seemingly dimensionless nature of fundamental particles and the four dimensional nature of matter and space in one theory has led to development of string theory.
According to string theory, there are other more fundamental dimensions contained in the four dimensions of physical existence that are normally experienced. The additional dimensions add to the four known dimensions to make eleven-dimensional world (Van Proeyen 41). Compression of these dimensions into the fabric of universal existence makes them undetectable by any physical means. However, several mathematical models have been used to prove their existence and the nature of their interaction.
The string theory explains the manner in which the one-dimensional basic particles interact to result into a four dimensional existence. Matter, space, and time are a yield of this interaction. Fundamental particles are made up of one-dimensional strings, which interact with unidirectional membranes to create a particle (Zwiebach 18). Gravitational force, a phenomenon that has not yet been understood by scientists is explained as a product of string interaction. Scientists have already developed a mathematical form for gravity.
The wave nature of matter is a part of the theory explaining how the fundamental particles exist. One certain kind of wave motion is responsible for all behaviors of matter and space. The string theory is the only theory that offers a single explanation to the nature of matter and space. However, since the theory proposes the existence of dimensions that cannot be physically assessed, it is not possible to test its integrity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other challenging theories have endured criticism to emerge as possible alternatives to the string theory since they can be tested, and have an observable fundamental constant. Advocates of the string theory believe that a universal constant exists within the string theory, but a mathematical proof has not been developed yet (Zwiebach 22). This constant and a testing mechanism for the string theory are the only remaining constituents that can establish the theory as a proven fact.
The nine-dimensional vibration of each string is unique and yields the properties of fundamental particles. The ends of a single cosmic string are joined such that an indefinite loop is formed. Forces of interaction attract the string towards the centre of the loop (Van Proeyen 45). This action is responsible for the appearance of fundamental particles as singular points with no dimensions at all.
The dimensions of the physical world are fixed in certain directions according to Newtonian physics. In string theory, dimensions are mathematical representations with no directional properties of the three spatial dimensions. Moreover, these dimensions are compressed into a manifold such that they are not testable by any physical means (Zwiebach 30). This is attributed to the infinitesimal distances that represent the particular dimensions.
Since mathematics is largely based on spatial dimensions, there is no method to test the presence of cosmic strings within the current mathematical scope. Several propositions assume that the invisible dimensions are responsible for the unexplained forces that are observed in nature.
Electromagnetic wave is assumed to be made up of a certain combinations of the dimensions. Gravity, a force whose presence is established by empirical evidence only, is also considered a product of the additional dimensions (Van Proeyen 15). This is why gravitational force and its characteristics such as inertia do not seem to emanate from any one physical location.
The string theory presents a single explanation for existence of all matter and space. Through the string theory, it is possible to understand the relation between space and time. The relative relationship that makes time similar to space can be understood through string theory. The small dimensions of the strings make it impossible to investigate the pattern in which they are woven together (Van Proeyen 7).
If a definite pattern in which the strings are woven is identified, it is possible to understand the construction of forces and the difference between various forces. However, the ability to understand the fundamental constituents of time and force can discredit all conventional physics, as it is understood today (Zwiebach 74). Such knowledge could also result in breakdown of phenomena such as the construction of time towards the future.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of String Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kane, G. L.. Perspectives on supersymmetry II. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010. Print.
Van Proeyen, Antoine. “A First Course in String Theory.” Intensive Theoretical Studies 5.3 (2008): 5-60. Print.
Zwiebach, Barton. A first course in string theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Comparison of Life at Home and Away Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Life at home and life away
Introduction Staying at home with one’s family is an easier and more preferable choice to make than going anywhere, but people may not realise that living without family support may help them develop a stronger character. It is evident that the last option is tougher but better for one’s personal growth.
Life at home and life away Living far from home may be inconvenient and troubling owing to the numerous adjustments one should make. If a person lives in a facility, such as a hostel, that hosts a range of residents, he or she may have to share the kitchen or pool with several other people. Sometimes, it may not be possible to do exactly what a person wants because one must accommodate to the needs of many other individuals (Flynn 56).
On the other hand, if an individual lives at home, one may not have to make many adjustments because there are few individuals to consider. Furthermore, as people live with the same family members throughout their life, they adjust to their habits and particular way of life
When one lives away from home, one must become highly organised. This is necessary in order to manage one’s obligations. Relocating away from home requires one to create a new routine that will facilitate one’s transition. A person may have to sort out his or her things a day before a big event in order to avoid confusion at some particular moment. Conversely, an individual may not be highly organised at home and still get away with it. The person has the advantage of having family around; consequently, a mother or sister may help in organising something (Klinenberg 15).
Living away from home requires one to become diligent. A person living alone will need to perform all the house duties alone, cleaning, cooking, and shopping. As a result, there is no room for laziness. In contrast, a person living with family may not have as many household chores or personal responsibilities as the person who is living alone. This is because most of the duties are assigned to different family members. In fact, one can get away with laziness in the family setting because others will clean or cook on their behalf (Flynn 67).
Perhaps, one of the most attractive components of living away from home is that it teaches a person to become independent. An individual must take charge of his or her living expenses and income (Klinenberg 92). Furthermore, a person must plan for his or her healthcare services as well as his or her diet.
An individual living alone needs to take care of his social activities, and his life, because there is no one else to do it for him/her. On the other hand, if a person lives at home, one tends to rely on others for certain things. For instance, if the individual lives with his or her parents, then they may be responsible for the provision of all basic needs. Alternatively, if one lives with one’s spouse, then the partner may make the family budget on his or her behalf.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Living away from home may foster tolerance if the current location is far from home. Going to a different country or town may expose a person to the situations where he/she will deal with the people of various religions, morals, social values, political values, political opinions, and cultural backgrounds. This causes the individual to learn how to tolerate other people with different viewpoints. Sometimes, a roommate can challenge a person about a certain issue, and this may cause an individual to think about it in a different light. Living at home with one’s family may not expose one to diverse communities as a person interacts with the same people continuously (Flynn 81).
Staying at home with one’s family gives one a strong sense of identity and belonging. Family members give support when one faces difficulties, thus lessening his/her life challenges. It is difficult to feel lonely at home because a person can spend his time with the other family members. Conversely, it is difficult to cultivate a sense of identity when living away from home, especially when no strong workplace or school culture exists in the new location.
Feelings of isolation or loneliness can creep in, and this may cause emotional distress. When left unchecked, the situation can cause one to engage in unwanted activities. For instance, a person may become a television addict or start an unhealthy habit. Alternatively, one may become depressed.
If a person has a wife and children, then living away from home can sometimes provide one with a sense of freedom. This is especially true when the concerned children are young and troublesome. Some may perceive it as selfish, but living away from home can offer a much-needed break from the stresses of taking care of a family (Klinenberg 101). When a person lives at home with one’s family, one must always take into account the needs of other family members. This may minimise one’s options with regard to time and resources.
Conclusion The analysis above has shown that living away from home may help one become strong, organised, free, diligent, independent, inconvenienced and culturally tolerant. Staying with one’s family gives one a sense of belonging and constant support but limits one’s freedom.
It does not teach one to be independent or how to deal with cultural differences. Further, one may become lazy and ignorant how to live in harmony with other people who are not one’s family members. In essence, living away from home fosters maturity and thus is a better option.
Works Cited Flynn, Elizabeth. Coping with living alone. London: Catholic Truth Society, 2001. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Life at Home and Away specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Klinenberg, Eric. Going solo: The extraordinary rise and surprising appeal of going alone. NY: The Penguin press, 2012. Print.
Across Time and Space: Solving the Mysteries of the Ancient Cultures Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Nowadays, in the era when the humankind has reached the bar people never thought they will ever be able to, it is hard to believe that thousands of years ago, there were different cultures and a completely different civilization, just as well-developed as ours, only in a different way. One of the most famous and the least explored, the Sumerian civilization is worth taking a closer look at.
The first issue to discuss, the Uruk vase is closely connected to worshipping of Inanna, the Sumerian Goddess. The impressions of animals and grain of the vase speak for themselves, making it clear that the vase was supposed to be used in the ceremonies worshipping fertility.
Cuneiform is the method of writing which was invented before people learned how to produce paper. Carving letters in clay tablets, people managed to keep certain information.
As for the Stele of Naram-Sin, the artifact tells the story of the king who was considered to be nearly divine. An obvious element of the ancient worship, the stele offered an innovation I writing art for the Sumerians, since it is written in a horizontal format instead of the old-time diagonal one.
Standing motionlessly in the calmness of The Square Temple, Votive Statues are supposed to represent the people who used to come of the temple to pray. The exact copies of the then men and women, these statues are a great study of the Sumerian traditions and even fashion.
A peculiar alternative for alphabet, hieroglyphs are specifics signs which are meant to define certain people, objects, notions or phenomena. They are used to write down information. For instance, Japanese and Chinese people use hieroglyphs instead of letters.
Considered to be the symbol of Egypt unification, the Palettes of King Narmer have the impression of the pharaoh with the crown of Upper Egypt on the one side and him wearing the crown of Lower Egypt on the reverse. The two impressions are supposed to symbolize that Egypt became an entity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The elements that most people associate with such cultures as the Egyptian one, mastabas are the burial place with rooms in it for the tombs of the diseased.
Another element of the Egyptian culture, serdab is the chamber in a mastaba.
An integral element of a serdab, a serdab sculpture, such as the statue of King Djoser, was supposed to be a kind of homage to the diseased person and to serve as a specific “reservoir” for the soul of the diseased. Placed in the serdab, it was supposed to be the necessary element of the Egyptian burial tradition.
The modern world knows Hatshepsut, the famous pharaoh of Egypt, only owing to the fragmentary sculptures. Most of them depict the pharaoh in her royal dresses and devoted to her royal routines. However, some of the statues portray her as Osiris.
Speaking about the Nanna Ziggurat, the Sumerian temple, one must mention that it was apparently built to honor Nanna, the Sumerian deity of the night and moonlight. Unlike Nanna Ziggurat, which was made of mud bricks, the Pyramid of Djoser was made of stone blocks; however, the two still look much alike, with their pyramidal structure and sharp angles.
Thus, it is clear that the Sumerian people, as well as the people of the Ancient Egypt, reached the peaks which the present-day world has never heard of. Though the has-been kings of the universe knew nothing about the technological discoveries of the present-day science, they still managed to create the culture which still remains a mystery and is filled with the most incredible legends. Taking a closer look at their artworks, one can reach the ancient culture and see the magnificence of the human race.
A Rose for Emily Essay best college essay help
One of the most appealing aspects of William Faulkner’s short story A Rose for Emily is that the readers’ exposure to the main character of Emily Grierson provides them with a better understanding of what accounts for the effects of socially oppressive circumstances onto the process of an individual becoming mentally insane.
This is because it was namely the fact that, ever since her early years Emily was indoctrinated to believe that she had no other option but to live up to the expectations of her traditionally minded relatives and neighbors, which caused her to murder Homer Barron in the end. Let us elaborate on this suggestion at length.
As it appears from the story, throughout the course of her young years, Emily did not exhibit even a single sign of being predisposed to act in a socially withdrawn manner. At that point of her life, she was nothing but a pretty girl who strived to attain happiness by marrying a man she could love. In fact, Emily’s father also wanted her to do this.
However, being the representative of a Southern aristocracy, he never ceased insisting that his daughter may only marry a ‘worthy’ man. In its turn, this prevented Emily from being able to find a husband, while her father was still alive. Nevertheless, being the product of an elitist upbringing, Emily was having a particularly hard time while coping with the fact that, after having turned thirty, she ceased being desired by men, as a potential fiancée.
This is exactly the reason why, after her father’s death, Emily choose in favor of leading a socially alienated lifestyle, while going as far as making a deliberate point in not even stepping out of her house. Apparently, such Emily’s decision reflected the fact that, because of her failure to get married, she never ceased experiencing an acute sensation of guilt for not being able to lead a life she prepared herself for.
Therefore, it is fully explainable why, after having met Homer, Emily decided to marry him, despite the fact that she did not truly love him and despite the fact that Homer was not taking much interest in marrying her either. Yet, it was only the matter of time before it would eventually dawn on Emily that her expectations, in this respect, were vain.
The realization of this fact proved little more than Emily could take. After all, just as it happened to be the case in all highly religious/traditional societies, single women that spend time with single men, without entering into a marital relationship with them, are being commonly regarded ‘unworthy’ and ‘morally wicked’.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was exactly the reason why Emily decided to poison Homer – she simply could not let him go, as it would result in the remains of her elitist sense of self-worth being thoroughly destroyed. Such a strong was Emily’s desire to live up to the socially constructed and religion-based dogmas of public morality that, after having murdered Homer, she continued to sleep with his corpse for years. By doing it, she strived to reaffirm her worthiness as a potential wife.
Thus, the character of Emily Grierson can be well discussed as a victim of social circumstances, which triggered the process of her becoming ever more insane and which brought about Emily’s ultimate demise. Therefore, even though Emily did commit murder, the story of her life suggests that she cannot be held responsible for what she had done. Instead, the blame must be placed upon a moralistically oppressive society, in which Emily had the misfortune to be born to this world.
Paranoid Personality Disorder Research Paper writing essay help
Paranoid personality disorder is a way of interpreting other people’s actions as the ones, intentionally causing a threat to the person. This disorder is usually shown by mistrust and suspicion and may lead to people being misunderstood or misinterpreted. It becomes evident in early adulthood where negative thoughts, attitudes and feelings are rejected.
The people suffering from this disorder feel mistreated and exploited, thereby failing to interpret good comments and others’ behavior. As a result, they do not accept reality as it is and remain rigid in their way of thinking (Alper 28).
This condition is characterized by paranoia, mistrust and uncertainty. Fear harbors hidden motives and wrong intentions rendering the people with paranoid personality to be unable to work with the others. They end up socially withdrawn, detached and hostile. They tend to scan the environment for clues that can prove their prejudicial knowledge as valid. Their minds are preoccupied with looking for some sources of danger and fighting very hard to find any suggestive sign.
They hold many grudges and mistrust towards others. People with this disorder show lack of self-sufficiency. Others may develop poor self-image and an inability to incorporate right attitude. In addition, they have a poor sense of humor and are unable to adapt to participation quickly in a group activity. As a rule, they appear cold, rigid and litigious. People with this disorder have poor relationship with the others as they seem odd and eccentric.
According to Freeman, “People with paranoid personality disorder doubt being committed , loyal, trustworthy as they believe they may be deceived or used in a wrong way ” (32). Sometimes, they are quite reluctant to confide in the others or fear of revealing some personal information that might be used against them. In addition, they do not easily forgive and tend to harbour a grievance.
They are hypersensitive, poorly take criticism and innocently read the remarks. They wrongfully judge their spouses or lovers as being unfaithful. They do not fulfil their role, while trying to handle their desease, and always believe that they are right. In addition to being hostile, they are stubborn and argumentative.
Researchers still do not know the exact cause of the paranoid personality disorder. Some argue that it occurs due to biological and psychological factors. It is genetically common in families with psychotic disorders. However, the environment may also have a great influence on its cause.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus there are biological or psychological causes. They include schizophrenia and delusional disorder. It is more common in men than women. Paranoid personality disorder can be associated with negative childhood experiences and a pure replication of hostile domestic environment. Sometimes, parental influence and rage may foster child insecurity.
It is important to note that treatment of paranoid personality disorder is possible unless the patient fears the doctor or becomes suspicious. Early treatment is necessary since the disorder may become chronic. The common way of treating this disorder is by medication and therapy.
It is evident that mostly, this disorder is caused by disruption of family, and employment loss. Perhaps, comprehensive therapy may be applied to recovery and prevent further stigmatization. It is recommended to carry out some consumer education programs, family counseling and advocacy and vocational assistance (Alper 41).
Proper diagnosis should be done by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist. The psychologist should be able to understand the extent of symptoms. Examples of symptoms are such as fear of being rejected, suspicion of others and a habit to distort events. These conditions must be keenly monitored not to interfere with normal interpersonal relationships.
Careful inspection of person’s normal life should be done. At this point, it is also important to be careful not to confuse the symptoms of paranoid personality disorder with schizophrenia or any manic depressive disorder. This will require a careful examination and evaluation of person’s mental health (Freeman 122).
Appropriate and individualized psycho-therapical program should be considered. This will help find the initial causes and the best treatment possible. The person is sometimes reluctant to seek therapy. This is because he/she does not trust any therapist so his/hewr way to recovery may take a lot of time.
Group therapy may be necessary for addressing some positive behavior. It also provides a person with an opportunity to interact in a constructive way. It allows a person to relate to likeminded peoplem, though this may develop more paranoid conditions. An individual gets rid of distrust and isolation by developing a sense of belonging and also a normal relationship with the others. This is when this program should be combined with self-help group. (Freeman 56).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Paranoid Personality Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Giving medications causes high level suspicion, and this in turn leads to withdrawal from therapy. Such an action is, therefore, not encouraged. Medication is preferred for treatment of specific conditions associated with this disorder. It is only administered in cases where symptoms impede normal functioning. Medications for severe anxiety or delusion should be used within the shortest possible period.
Psychotherapy is considered as the best method of treating paranoid personality disorder. People who have this disorder develop problems which require intense therapy. It is, therefore, necessary for a therapist-client relationship to be good enough to ensure great care and a given level confidence (Alper 58).
One way of managing the paranoid personality disorder is through self-care. This does not require any kind of treatment as social groups help in alleviating mistrust and suspicion in an individual. After examination, the doctor should begin to evaluate the medication to be prescribed and patien’s medical history, if any. Absence of any biological tests makes it necessary to use diagnostic approach as a way of evaluating any physical illness.
Patients may also seek for some health care professionals to check and diagnose any mental illness. Tools for assessing and evaluating the disorder are supposed to be designed by the psychologist. People suffering from paranoid personality disorder do not seek for any medical attention on their own.
This is because they cannot judge themselves as suffering from such a condition. Any treatment offered should focus on developing more skills for coping with every situation that may occur. This will further enhance developing more communication, interaction skills and feeling of self-esteem.
Trust is regarded as a tool for treating this disorder. Distrust of the others makes it difficult for people with paranoid personality disorder to be treated as it becomes almost impossible to implement treatment plans. The use of antidepressant or anti-psychotic drugs may be prescribed if condition goes extremely beyond a certain level (Freeman 102).
In conclusion, paranoid personality disorder affects individual’s way of life. It totally ruins the relationship with the others, even at the workplace. Affected individuals find it hard to adapt in any work situation. They usually fight or sue people whom they regard as their enemies.
This disorder can last for the entire life of a person, if not effectively addressed and treated. Some people suffering from paranoid personality disorder may marry and get employed while others may intensively be disabled by this condition. Their resistance to treatment is quite alarming as it worsens the outcome of any treatment strategy. Prevention of this disorder is impossible nowadays but treatment, if not well managed, may cause even more problems than no treatment at all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paranoid Personality Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Alper, Gerald. Paranoia of Everyday Life: Escaping the Enemy Within. New York: Prometheus Books, 2005. Print.
Freeman, Daniel. Overcoming Paranoid and Suspicious Thoughts: A Self-Help Guide Using Cognitive Behavioral Techniques . New York: Basic Books, 2008. Print.
The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Abstract The report commences with an examination of women’s professional opportunities in the early twentieth century. At the time, most women could only access low-paying jobs in poorly-maintained industries. During the First and Second World War, women took up unconventional jobs in order to replace the male workers that had joined the military.
However, these women’s husbands displaced them when they came back from war. In subsequent years, this group fought for its rights through the women’s movement and other organisations. By the end of the twentieth century, several females started owning their own enterprises. Today, a number of company CEOs are female, and they do a good job.
Nonetheless, barriers that prevent women from reaching for leadership positions at work are causing most of them to become frustrated. It was recommended that the government should make legislations to even out the playing field. Women should undergo confidence building and be entitled to flexible hours of work. This would narrow the gap between men and women in the business world.
Introduction Women’s role in business has improved dramatically since the early twentieth century. Society’s attitude towards this group affected its level of achievement in the business arena. The paper will examine some historical developments in the female movement and how these relate to the role of women in business.
This study will assist in bringing out the challenges that women in business face as seen through a historical lens. By starting with the twentieth century, the study will illustrate some of the historical injustices faced by women and how societies can deal with that inequality.
Women in the early twentieth century and the First World War Females in the early twentieth century had minimal access to job opportunities. However, a few sectors provided women with work, such as art and literature. Female writers like Dorothy Richardson highlighted the challenges that women faced in their society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This era also recorded an increase in female artists who used their craft to portray powerful images of working women. Although society frowned upon the participation of women in work, a small proportion of them (20%) had jobs. Most women in the 1900s were factory employees who worked under squalor conditions for minimal pay.
The 1920s were the roaring twenties; this was a progressive era in which women defied the submissive stereotype of the late nineteenth century. They were daring in their social and professional lives. Some of them took up jobs in the public sector. Female clerical workers were widespread at the time; others participated in the field of journalism, law and mining. However, these opportunities were largely available to middle class Caucasian women; ethnic minorities and older women struggled to secure employment.
The number of women who participated in the labour force rose by 50% in this decade. Nonetheless, some sections of society felt threatened by this new breed of independent and hardworking women. Therefore, stakeholders in the film industry quelled men’s insecurities by portraying images of married women. Nonetheless, those images did not depict the true goings-on in society.
As professional roles began changing, women embraced opportunities in healthcare, education and other professions designed to cater to the needs of manufacturers. When the First World War started many men left for military service. This created a vacuum in the workplace that only women could fill. Many of them rose to the occasion; however, when the war ended, they had to step aside for their male counterparts. Those who stayed behind could only do low-paying jobs as men took all the lucrative opportunities (Hameed, 2008).
Women in the Second World War When the United States entered the Second World War, it required a lot of military supplies. Suppliers converted automobile factories into aircraft facilities. This demand for military supplies created a labour shortage that only women could reverse. The government wanted women to do this only temporarily, so they made a call to work.
Since few women responded to it, the government decided to launch a propaganda campaign in which it created a fictional character called Rosie the Riveter. The US government looked for a series of individuals who could fit the profile of a patriotic, attractive and efficient female. Advertisers displayed images of such women in various media channels, and the public responded positively to the portrayals (Ross, 1993).
In the beginning, most women took factory jobs, but there was still a need for more qualified workers. Employers began hiring women who had just completed high school; these efforts were still not sufficient to fill the labour gap. Companies needed to tap into a demographic group that they had forbade from working; married women.
We will write a custom Report on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They initially started with mothers who had older children. Most females took low-paying jobs in order to free up men for higher-paying jobs. Furthermore, few of them had access to powerful positions in their places of work. Women enjoyed the economic incentives associated with work and also appreciated the fulfilment they found in these new roles as employees.
However, they had to fight negative attitudes from men. It should be noted that although a large proportion of women entered the labour force, stakeholders still felt that their greatest strength was at home. Many perceived career women as unattractive prospects for marriage. Therefore, when the war ended, women got into low-paying jobs or went back home. Nonetheless, this era paved the way for participation of women in unconventional professions. Future generations of women would follow their path.
The Women’s Movement In the 1960s, female writers articulated the challenges of women in society. They asserted that domestic roles defined women, and this disempowered them. The writers urged their colleagues to find new roles and define their own identities through professional opportunities.
It was such sentiments that led to the birth of the women’s movement. Many participants drew inspiration from the civil rights movement of the 1970s. It should be noted that the birth control pill contributed to the prevalence of this movement, as well. The decade 1960 was an era of rebelliousness. Many middle class youth joined the women’s movement because of these sentiments.
During this decade, civil rights bills prompted female supporters to call for their own protective laws. In 1964, women secured their first antidiscrimination bill. A number of women formed the National Organisation for Women which fought for women’s rights and prompted other members to participate in the same. It was these developments that eventually spread to other parts of the western world such as the UK and Australia.
Women in business today Women have made enormous strides in the business world today. Some are CEOs of Fortune 500 companies while others own medium and small enterprises. Their participation in the workforce is indicative of the degree of advancement that women have undergone over the past century. Better educational opportunities, strong antidiscrimination legislation and positive attitudes towards the female gender have contributed to these advancements.
Women are now leading powerful institutions such as PepsiCo. The CEO of this institution is Indra Nooyi; she is the most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. This leader started as a company manager and climbed the company ranks to become CEO. Indra became a chief financial officer seven years after she joined the institution and a CEO five years later (Kalyan, 2009).
Other women have started their businesses from scratch and grown them into international empires. A case in point was Archer Daniels Midland. The President of this organisation is Pat Woertz, and she is the fourth most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. Andrea Jung, Brenda Barnes, Irene Rosenfeld, Meg Withman, and Anne Mulcahy lead or own Avon, Sara Lee, Kraft Foods, eBay, and Xerox respectively.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These women have worked hard to get to these positions, yet their achievements would have been unrealistic in the 1950s. The CEO of Yahoo Inc is also female, and is known as Marrissa Mayer. The born leader took up responsibility for running an ailing internet firm at the beginning of this year (2012). It is too early to judge whether her leadership has been extraordinary, but one can already see how committed she is to the firm.
She only took a two-week long maternity leave and resumed her duties immediately after the break. Another example of a strong female executive is Reg Leaver who is a leader at Australia.wana. She first purchased a newsagency in 1995 and then went on to form various news groups. Leaver has the title of 2010 Nextra Australia’s winner.
The above-mentioned women are not the only ones who have made a mark in the business world. Statistics indicate that women around the world own 10.4 million organisations. In some countries, women started approximately 40% of all companies. Furthermore, studies show that the number of businesses owned by this demographic group is increasing at an impressive rate.
Over the past decade, female-owned businesses have grown by 42.3%. Additionally, sales generated from these organisations have increased by 4.4%. Female entrepreneurs have entered various sectors such as retail, real estate and manufacturing. Although most of these participants belong to the service sector (68%), a substantial proportion of these business owners are trying real estate (7.7%) and retail (14.4%) (Kalyan, 2009).
Representation of female participants in business
Clearly, women have done well for themselves. It is necessary to understand why these figures have been improving with time. One obvious explanation is the level of educational attainment among members of the group. Studies indicate that the number of women with master’s degrees has increased by 40.7% over the past 32 years.
Additionally, the world now has 44.1% more first degree holders in this demographic group. Even the number of female doctoral degree holders has increased by 43% since 1980. These advancements in education have increased women’s chances of becoming business leaders.
Another reason behind such impressive growth rates in entrepreneurship is the diversification of business portfolios. 38% of all female employees belong to sales and office occupations. 36% of these women handle managerial and other professional positions. 18% of them engage in service occupations while 8% of female employees handle the production, transportation and movement of goods.
Participation in various sectors of the economy opens up opportunities for advancements and this increases one’s chances of owning one’s organisation.
Shown is a graphical representation of the diversification of business among women
Challenges faced by female workers Although the above advancements exist in the labour force, a disproportionate number of men dominate leadership positions in business. Experts assert that an invisible barrier, known as the glass ceiling, prevents women from becoming company leaders. It is imperative to understand some of the challenges that women in business face when reaching for these leadership positions (Mason, 2012).
A firm’s management style may impede women’s advancement in the business world. Men and women have divergent management styles; company stakeholders may misinterpret female managerial styles and accord men more latitude. People often condemn females who adopt a masculine style.
Additionally, recruitment behaviours tend to mirror prevailing demographic patterns in a company. If a firm is male-dominated, then it is more likely to hire people who represent this image. As a result, females lack opportunities to participate in such companies. Discrimination still exists in certain companies that overlook qualified women for men. Some occupations segregate women naturally.
Firms in these industries are male-dominated and will rarely offer women opportunities for advancement. Typical examples include engineering, shipping or construction. In order to climb the corporate ladder, one needs access to informal and formal networks. Female employees lack access to these networks and thus have limited advancement opportunities. Some employers perceive women as problematic because they have to attend to their families’ needs.
Because of this, employers may overlook mothers when promotion opportunities arise. All the above challenges have caused many women to consider entrepreneurship as the ultimate solution to the glass ceiling. Many women are leaving the workforce to start their own organisations. This shields them from the unfairness of the corporate arena (Miller, 2009).
Recommendations More women should consider entrepreneurship because this allows them to create their own rules; they can also succeed on the basis of their personal input. Currently, costs of starting businesses are quite low. Further, businesses allow women to create corporations that match their personal values (Bullock, 1994).
However, before more women can enter into the world of entrepreneurship, governments and other stakeholders need to do a number of things. They need to work on the concept of work-life balance through legislations and provision of relevant facilities. Women need to be enlightened about how to build their confidence as well as how to cope with new roles.
Flexible scheduling should be considered by potential female entrepreneurs. This will prevent them from perpetuating the same discrimination that caused them to leave the corporate arena. Stakeholders should start creating female business networks in order to foster growth and development.
Conclusion At the beginning of the twentieth century, society restricted women to low-paying jobs. Economic necessity prompted employers to hire females; however, the group never gained access to leadership positions. This has changed today because a number of women own their own enterprises. Such patterns stem from better education, legislation and business diversification. Covert discrimination places a barrier in career advancement thus compelling many women to consider entrepreneurship.
References Bullock, S. (1994). Women and work. London: Zed Books.
Hameed, Z. (2008). Gender differences in business roles. Web.
Kalyan, S. (2009). The changing role of women in the workplace. Web.
Mason, W. (2012). Women in business. Web.
Miller, B. (2009). Encouraging women into senior management positions. Web.
Ross, S. (1993). The rights of women. London: McMillan.
Concept Of “Four Idols” Essay writing essay help
Sir Frances Bacon identified and explained the reasons for different human behaviors. He applied the concept of “four idols” in his investigations (Mazlish 7). There are extensive debates on the significance of these four idols.
Accordingly, there exist several investigations concerning the practicality and effects of these four idols. Bacon observed that the human being fully emerges from the enslavement of their mind. Particularly, this enslavement relates to the intellectual idolatry. It is vital to note the disparities eminent from these four idols.
Ideally, diverse elements dictate the character and beliefs of human beings. Such elements emerge either from the external or internal influences in the environment. Sir Frances Bacon denotes that four idols have significant influences in these processes. This discussion in the paper analyses these four idols. In addition, it reviews the impacts of these disparities on the human nature and their beliefs.
The four idols pose critical threats to individuals. The “idols of the theater” provides a typical example (Solomon 16). Some people indicate the risk of various types of idols; some philosophers observe that the “idols of the theater” has the capacity to manipulate the thinking capacity of people.
Apart from this, they also hinder critical understanding which relies on a philosophical assumption under normal circumstances. Nonetheless, the process may also rely on a system of theology and custom. The particular idol has a remarkable influence on human dignity and individuality.
He may reduce the capacity to initiate and exercise critical thinking skills. Notably, most individuals influenced by the idol depict deviant behavioral tendencies. The effect might lead them to biased assumptions and judgments in their daily activities (Mazlish 16). Leaders and all managers within private and public institutions must consider the detrimental impact of the idols that minimize the potential of personalities to exercise transformative leadership skills.
It is necessary to examine the effects of specific idols on the operation of human mind. The logical processes involved in human understanding have significant influences on the level of integration as well as interrelation between individuals. Ideally, it enables different personalities to perceive and conceptualize issues within their external environments. This might also entail their immediate and remote surroundings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it is imperative to take note of the particular idols that hinder logical thinking. Bacon also identifies the “idols of the marketplace” (Solomon 25), which idols cause hindrances to individual understanding. However, this deterrence relies on the different words and semantics applied within typical conversations.
Words form the basis of effective socialization and integration in the present society. Therefore, individuals require adequate precaution against the negative influence of these idols. Words are some of the critical tools used in the comprehension of particular concepts within most communities (Mazlish 34). They are also significant in the recognition of various facts; they also interfere with the thinking processes.
Individuals may imagine and name occurrences that are beyond existence. The imagination relies on certain words in these processes. All words have vital implications. Therefore, individuals must take precaution of the different words (Solomon 27) depending on their application within different social environments. The observation is crucial since words form the fundamental foundations for effective relationships and mutual understanding.
Idols may make individuals to commit fallacious assumptions and statements. Such instances are easily notable within the present society. These idols derive from the intrinsic nature of humans, the condition being very different from the confusion emanating from words.
Individuals always think of themselves as being right at all times. Justification becomes the centre of interest for most people within the society during such instances. Evidently, words also have diverse meanings. Individuals might apply different words to generate confusions within the society (Solomon 41). In such contexts, understanding becomes very difficult and complicated.
Misuse of words may cause chaos and conflicts amongst people. All individuals must keep the maximum level of caution. This helps to avoid such idols and increase the level of understanding within the community. The “idols of the tribe” refers to a category of idols that require minimal precaution (Solomon 56).
These idols also limit the competency for a personal understanding due to the human nature. Individuals prefer to force things to conform to their preferred outlook due to their nature. Personalities struggle to find illogical support during fallacious conclusions. This behavior emanates from the “idols of the tribe.”
We will write a custom Essay on Concept Of “Four Idols” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idols are dangerous and might cause disquiet within the society. People are likely to make hurried decisions without adequate engagement of their mental capacity. This situation arises due to the influence of the idols (Mazlish 69). Individuals suffering from these idols are also prone to making generalized assumptions.
This generalization leads to unnecessary behaviors and beliefs. The process also leads to the emergence of conflicting interests within groups. The last category is the “idols of the cave.” They require very negligible attention portraying the different capacities and characters pertinent to every individual. Therefore, they are not detrimental to the general society. It is appropriate to have an adequate knowledge of these idols.
Works Cited Mazlish, Bruce. The Uncertain Sciences. London: Transaction Publishers, 2007. Print.
Solomon, Julie R. Francis Bacon and the Refiguring of Early Modern Thought: Essays to Commemorate the Advancement of Learning (1605-2005). Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. Print.
E-Marketing For Small Businesses Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Marketing problems in general Marketing is gaining a new approach in the current society. Immediately after the Second World War, most companies had huge markets in the developing countries.
The level of competition was very low and firms only worried about production. Marketing was considered a unit in the production department. Most firms used an inside out approach as a technique of marketing. However, this has changed with the changing environmental factors. Currently, most firms face stiff competition in their various industries. They have forced to change this approach.
The marketplace is full of so many challenges. Many firms face various challenges that they have to overcome in order to be considered relevant in the market. In order to bring a clear understanding of the challenges a firm would face in the current competitive market, an external PESTEL analysis of business would be appropriate.
Analysis of the external business environment (PESTEL) Environmental scanning can be done using PESTEL Analysis. This involves the analysis of political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal environments.
Politically, various firms in Kuwait have experienced a relatively stable government. The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations.
However, the political stability of the country was at jeopardy in some past years, a fact that made it very difficult to conduct business in this country. Lack of political stability would mean that various businesses are not in a position to conduct business normally. Some may even be forced to wind up their operations in the market, which may amount to huge losses in case the instability is accompanied by looting and arson.
Economically, various firms in this country have faced difficulties. The firms have been faced with economic recession that hit various countries in the world, especially the US economy that had a direct effect on various economies in Asia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This had serious negative effects on the firms’ revenues, as many customers considered the products non-basic. When the economy of the country is on a decline, the purchasing power is reduced. This reduces the viability of various businesses. They will be forced to cut down their operation costs, as the market will have a reduced capacity to sustain their products. During such times, weak firms are always faced out of the market.
The socio-cultural environment of this country is diversified. This is because this country has firms from all over the world. There are those countries that cherish equality and women have equal economic strength just as men. In such countries, the firm does not segment the market based on sex but age.
Kuwait is one such country. However, other countries such as the neighboring Saudi Arabia perceive women to be subordinates to men. It forces this firm to target the male members of the society because they have bigger purchasing power.
The technological environment that firms in this country operate in is very dynamic. Technology inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication, have been the main challenge, as well as the strength of various firms.
While these firms are left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with, some have use this technology to emerge leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come into terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms to wind up the operations in the market.
Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in Kuwait and many other countries in the world have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations.
Of importance to note is that this country is largely an Islamic state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the strict Islamic principles. For this reason therefore, there are business practices that are not allowed in this country. Failure to follow the industry and national laws may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm but also a closure of the firm.
We will write a custom Essay on E-Marketing For Small Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are some environmental concerns that would be considered a challenge for the firm. Kuwait is one of the developing nations in Asia. The infrastructural development is not to the standard. This causes serious problems to various businesses in the country.
Although the government has made efforts to improve the road network, other sectors still need serious improvement in order to be considered as of the right standards. The facilities at various institutions of higher learning also need improvement for them to be in a position to produce fully capable employees.
The main threat that firms in this country face pertains to dealing with competition. The market has is currently very competitive. Charantimath (75) notes that many firms have come up with products, which are close substitutes of those that are offered by other firms in the same market.
This scholar notes that there is lack of creativity in various countries. Various firms that come into the market are not creative but instead they just imitate the production system of other firms. They come to the market with similar products as those of existing companies and this brings about serious competition in the market.
Tackling the challenges In order to tackle the challenges identified in the above discussion, Porters five forces would be very important. Most firms have been in a position to manage these challenges by applying this strategy. They have been able to implement Porters five forces. To tackle the threat of new competition, most firms have been keen on producing new products to rival those of new competitors. They have been keen to introduce new products in the market to counter any possible threat.
To manage the threat of substitute products, some of these firms have developed different lines of products to satisfy different markets so that they may not be adversely affected if substitute products invade one line. To increase their bargaining power with buyers, some of these firms have continued to produce high-end products, with qualities that make it easy for customers to appreciate their high prices. In so doing, these firms have been keen on ensuring that the lower end of the market is not assumed.
To increase their bargaining power with suppliers, some have created a scenario where they are single buyers, with various sellers. This makes them be able to dictate the terms of buying the products. To counter the intensity of competition, some have been able to acquire a special niche in this market, rendering their competitors irrelevant as their products are turned into mere substitutes of such company’s products.
Small businesses Small-scale businesses are numerous not only in the economy of Kuwait but also in many other nations across the world. The small-scale firms operate in both developed industries and developing ones. Those firms that operate in developing industries find it a little easier to penetrate the market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Marketing For Small Businesses by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because of the fact that the market leaders do not have total control of the market. Small firms would therefore get the opportunity to capture new markets in the industry before they are taken over by large firms. However, the small-scale firms operating in developed industries encounter a big challenge to assert their presence in the market. This is because large market leaders have total control of the market and can easily dictate various factors, most of which would be unfavorable to the small firms.
There have been so many challenges, especially in the urban markets. Small-scale firms would easily excel in the urban centers where there is higher number of people. However, it is in the urban centers where the competitors are also strongest. Large firms prefer large cities and towns where their products can easily be sold, and at a relatively higher rate.
The urban centers are also attractive to both the small-scale and large firms because of the purchasing power in the towns. Most of the urban dwellers are employed, and therefore have a higher purchasing capacity. The small-scale firms should therefore select industries where they can offer stiff competition to large firms. In this country, one such industry is the bakery industry. This industry faces stiff challenge from various players.
The biggest challenge comes from small-scale traders in the lower ends of the market. They make the majority and hence the most attractive market segment. However, presences of small-scale traders who manufacture doughnuts and other confectionaries have a huge control of the market, especially in the morning hours when big companies expect the biggest sales. However, the competition from the large firms is still relatively strong in this industry
These small-scale firms have the responsibility to fight this competition in order to be in a position to stay any longer in this market. In order to achieve this, it would be recommended that such firms specialize in a number of niches within the Kuwaiti markets. There are three main classes of people in this country, based on their purchasing power, hence their general behavior.
The three categories include the rich, the middle class, and the poor. The rich have the behavior of being loyal to one brand, if they develop trust towards it. Winning them over may not be an easy task. The middle class also tend to be loyal, but not as much as the rich are. Loyalty of the poor is based on cheapness of the product and the mass it offers. Small-scale firms should focus on this market segment when starting operations.
They should therefore capture the poor first, for they make the majority. This would give it ground to move to the second segment of the middle class and finally the rich. In so doing, the firms must realize that the brand that was used to attract the poor will be associated with the poor.
For this reason therefore, it would require these firms to develop a new brand when moving to the next class that would be associated with the higher class. Although pricing strategy may be useful for these firms when capturing the segment for the poor, the strategy should completely be avoided when targeting the rich and the middle class.
Marketing Problems Faced By Small Businesses Small business faces a number of problems when operating in this country. These challenges have denied these firms opportunity to expand, as some of them are faced out of the market. The biggest challenge that small business faces is the competition from established firms. Large firms have the power to suppress small firms and even send them out of the market.
One way of doing this is through reduced prices. Because they enjoy economies of scale, large firms are able to set low prices that may not allow small firms to continue being operational. Another challenge is technology. Their small size may not allow them to adopt new technologies that the market requires.
They are also less capable of doing comprehensive market research due to limited funds to do so. Based on their small size, they are not able to open various lines of products as discussed above to cushion them from competition. Their limited financial capacity also makes it difficult for them to venture into new markets that may increase their profitability hence help them grow in size.
Solution for the above problems These firms are able to overcome the challenges mentioned above by employing various strategies that would ensure that they are able to operate in the market with minimal threat.
They have to make use of the strength they have to overcome their weaknesses. The fact that they are small is in itself an advantage that they should exploit as an advantage against their competitors. Small firms are easy to manage as the person involved can make a clear short term plans to be achieved within stipulated time. They should also try to embrace technology.
More specifically, it is a smarter decision to switch from typical marketing approach to electronic form of advertising and on the other hand, entire investment outcome is an important determining factor that effectively shaped organisation’s obligatory needs and functional strategies.
Meanwhile, the considering factors are listed as pattern of the business firm either service provider or product manufacturer or both, product documentation style and product line specification with pricing sheets as well as legal documents, product development and movements of dynamic forces that forced to transforming marketing and advertising strategies.
The workflow of the organisational legal, financing and marketing wings as well as their documentation status, approvals and updating and availability of current technological platform within the organisation should be monitored closely. All of these forces are strategically unique to recommend right track for any marketing, sales, and advertising dilemma and subsequently there have several supplementary technical approaches those also enough efficient resolving marketing crisis as early described.
For instance, availability of shared drives separated from organisation’s website for advertising, marketing and sales, effective solution for official document management featuring integration availability with related group technologies, system available to web content management in order to concern marketing and sales requirements of the organisation, system available to collateral management through.
It may reduce hostile consumer behaviour towards excessive marketing and their attitude would neutralised by specialised storing method, organising, distribution of goods as well as tracking materials and at last, available hybrid or collaborative solutions to convey Web based marketing collaborative opportunities that would effectively compose bridge among employees and valuable consumers through coordinate, communication and collaboration (Warner 94).
The small-scale organizations should also consider creating a healthy environment within the organisation that would encourage their employees. They should ensure that they make use of all the possible strategies they have to compensate for the fact that they are small, and therefore have limited finances. The managers would ensure a cooperative workplace environment for the staff where staffs know that they may not be undermined at the workplace.
The job satisfaction of the staff is another dominating factor where all the features of the job including working environment evidence as rewarding by gratifying and pleasing the staff and mitigating their frustrations. In the organisation, to unsatisfying staff in comparison to the non-sales context, would align them to conduct unethical behaviour and it is very much common within various industries within this country.
Thus, it is suggested that the management of these small-scale firms would be more careful to ensure the job satisfaction of the staff and the unethical conduct would be reduce while the staff would perceive that their company is careful regarding ethical conduct and rewarding them for steady performance with ethical conduct. It is general norm for the staff that while the organisation would provide higher job satisfaction, they would demonstrate their highest honesty and sound performance with ethical standards.
E-marketing problems faced by small businesses In Kuwait, small-scale firms face a number of challenges as they struggle to capture the market. Although some of these challenges are conventional and would be faced by any other small-scale business in any other part of the country, some are specific to this country. E-business in Kuwait has faced a number of problems based on the strict provisions of the Islamic laws practiced in the country.
Cultural problems Although some of the Islamic laws may act towards improving electronic business, the law is very restrictive to this business in some respects. The Islamic religion, unlike other religions, strongly dictates the way people live. It has a number of practices it strongly prohibits.
In case the adherents break laws, they would receive immediate punishment some of which may even lead to death. This distinguishes it from other religions, especially Christianity. Unlike the Christian religion that holds that punishment would come after one dies, the Islamic religion believes on immediate punishment here on earth. This has made Muslims follow the teachings of Quran.
One such country that closely follows this religion is Kuwait. This is a majorly Islamic state. Businesses are closely controlled by this religion. As Freeman (51), Shariah law has been entrenched into the national law. The two are inseparable. The law dictates the products that may be allowed into the country. The law has had mixed fortunes for the electronic businesses. Although this religion has been advantageous to various business as stated above, it has posed a major threat to electronic business.
Islamic law strictly prohibits certain practices among its citizens. There is a strict manner in which men and women should behave and relate. For instance, a man and a woman should not have body contact with each other unless they are close relatives. However, most of the international television channels air movies that show that such behaviors are normal. Such movies sold by small-scale traders may lack market in this country.
Women make very attractive market segment for such products as mobile phones. This product has become a necessity. According to a report by Clinton (143), for every a hundred adult people sampled, over ninety-seven of them are regularly user of mobile phones in the developed nations.
In developing nations, this figure is slightly lower, at 68 adult individuals for every a hundred sampled. As Weiss (110) reports, in some Islamic society, women do not have the freedom men have. They have to seek consent from men in order to do certain things. When it comes to such items as mobile phones, women can only own them when their husbands approves of it. This would reduce the sale of this product among the small-scale traders.
Most of the small-scale traders who are in the e-market heavily rely on the social media to reach out to the customers, especially the youths. However, the government has been very keen to regulate the social media, given the events, which took place in some Arabic nations like Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia.
Although it has not completely banned the social media, as was the case in China, the government has used religion to discourage the use of social media. Religion has given social media as a rebellious media that should be avoided by God-fearing individuals. Because of this, online marketing has been very slow to pick pace.
The perception and attitude of the society towards the emerging technologies has been an impediment to the electronic business. The older generation of this society who are deeply entrenched in the Shariah law view emerging technologies as a thing of the west. They consider technological advancements as a way through which America and its allies are trying to influence the world and further their culture.
The Hollywood movies have been a strong pointer to these members of the society of America’s determination to poison the culture that the Muslim society has held closely. Their music is also negatively influencing their youth as far as the principles of Shariah law are concerned.
Youths who watch these movies would try to behave like the stars they see, while the songs make the girls feel that the world society offers much freedom to them with regard to dressing and general way of conduct. This perception has seen this group vehemently oppose the development of electronic businesses, because electronics introduces the youths to the outside world.
Annotated Bibliography Cohen, William A. The Entrepreneur
Freedom of expression Essay essay help free: essay help free
Freedom of expression refers to the right to express one’s opinions or thoughts freely by utilizing any of the different modes of communication available. The ideas aired should, however, not cause any intentional harm to other personality or status through false or ambiguous statements. Communication of ideas can be achieved through speech, writing or art. Freedom of expression, unlike freedom of thought, may be regulated by the appropriate authorities in any society in order to avoid controversies between different individuals.
The extent to which this limitation or censorship is done varies from nation to nation and is dependent on the government of the day. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every individual has the right to search for information, access and impart variety of ideas irrespective of the frontiers.
The subject of freedom of expression has always been controversial, especially when considering political aspects. A state is perceived to have the mandate to impede people from convening groups in which they air their opinions if those views can result in direct harm to other people.
However, the interference would only be an exception if doing so results in more beneficial outcomes than standing aside. For one to be in a position to gauge the eventuality of a gain or a loss, then there should be absolute freedom of expression on all matters irrespective of the nature of the sentiments made.
Arguments for absolute freedom of expression can be a made by evaluating the purpose for which the ideas are expressed and the manner in which we evaluate what is true or false. According to Mill (Eisenach, 2004), the right to express one’s opinions offers humanity a rare chance to switch over an error for the truth if the idea expressed happens to be true.
In case the opinion happens to be wrong, mankind stands a chance of getting a clearer picture of the known truth through collusion with a mistake. Therefore, freedom of expression acts in the best interests of mankind as it endeavors to progress and its limitation deprives people of the prospects of growth.
Whether we let expression of an opinion to be limited or censored, whereas it could be true, then we present ourselves as beyond reproach. We consider all that we know to be the truth and therefore dispel all opinions that question this truth. It is possible for people or authorities to be in fault. For instance, what we consider to be morally right or wrong may not be so.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lines that define moral rights and wrongs were set by people who could possibly have mistaken. In order to draw the limit, one must differentiate between sureness and the truth. Our certainty that a particular idea is false does not in any way excuse its expression. Suppressing such an idea would not only justify our confidence of the opinion being wrong, but also proves that we are flawless.
If limitation of people’s freedom of expression in matters such as racism is based on certainty that mankind does not stand to lose any benefit, then this sureness should be founded in the freedom itself. We can only consider ourselves to be certain when there have been no opinions raised to question the truths we hold. Therefore, in order to boost our certainty, we have to leave room for the opposing beliefs.
There are governments that censor the expression of certain ideas not because they are false, but because they are considered to be hazardous to the society. Mill argues that in such a situation, the hazard in the expressed opinions is questionable. The only way to ascertain that the opinion is in fact dangerous is not to suppress its expression but to allow its free discussion.
Secondly, if the opinion that is being limited is true, then the alternative view held by the government must be false. Experience has shown that all beliefs that are false are never constructive in the long run. Therefore, the government that prefers to hold a false conviction in place of a hazardous truth does not act in the best interests of its people.
In many instances, the silenced view may be a mistake. However, most of these mistakes do carry with them a scrap of truth. On the other hand, the existing view on each of the different topics often does not contain the entire truth. By listening to the opinions of others on the matter, an opportunity to learn the rest of the uncovered truths presents itself.
For instance in politics, we could have two political parties with different agendas. One wants to institute reforms while another desires to ensure stability. People may not be in a position to discern what should be retained or altered, but ensuring the parties at opposing ends ensures each party checks on the performance of the other. In the long run, we strike for a beneficial balance between their supposed agendas (Bhargava, 2008).
Moreover, if the opinion being expressed is entirely true, it may not be considered so with certainty. For confidence to feature, these views must be contested against other rational opinions of others in order to single out the supporting arguments. It is expected that those who believe in their opinions will place strong arguments in their favor (Matravers, 2001).
We will write a custom Essay on Freedom of expression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If an authority believes in the rationality of its ideas, then it should leave room for the expression of opposing ideas. For instance, if any reigning political party has faith in the views it has concerning the development of the country’s economy, it should not be wary of an opposition party with contradicting views. After all what they stand for has factual backing (O’Rourke, 2001).
Lastly, the battle for supremacy between different opinions opens up a more comprehensive understanding of our beliefs. We begin to comprehend what is required of us and are, thus, in a position to act on them. Human beliefs do not exhibit any motivation and the debates that arise are what add fuel to the fire.
Holding beliefs with a conservative mindset only serves to hinder our acceptance of the possible alternatives (Jones, 2001). Therefore, opposition exhibited in the freedom of speech opens up a lee way for open-mindedness besides posing a challenge to hypocrisy and logical sluggishness.
The absence of restrictions on people’s freedom of oppression allows for the exchange of error for truth or the clarification of the existing truth. It also reinforces our certainty in the opinions we consider true besides increasing our open-mindedness and thoughtfulness. For governments, it ensures those entrusted with the leadership of the country have reasonable opinions that work for the common good of the country’s citizens.
Free discussion and analysis of different ideas will, thus, result in the prosperity of mankind rather than the detrimental effects it is assumed to bring.
References Bhargava, H. (2008). Political Theory: An Introduction. Delhi: Pearson Education
Eisenach, E. (2004). Mill and Moral Character. New York: Penn State Press.
Jones, T. (2001). Modern Political Thinkers and Ideas: An Historical Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Freedom of expression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Matravers, D. (2001) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill. New York: Routledge.
O’Rourke, K. (2001). John Stuart Mill and Freedom of Expression: The Genesis of a Theory. Connecticut: Taylor
Benefits of Preparing for Emergencies and Terrorism Term Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters
Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers
Benefits to the Authorities
Benefits to the General Population
Introduction The last 13 years have brought to the attentions of all Americans the devastating effects that natural disasters and terrorism can have on the society. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the devastating hurricane Katrina in 2006 demonstrated the adverse effects of disasters.
In both instances, the emergency services responded promptly and they were able to mitigate the damages and save many lives. Even so, Cetron and DeMicco (2006) suggest that these responses were not optimal since the responders were not well prepared for such catastrophes.
In light of increased concern of terrorist-related incidents and the ongoing risk of major domestic incidents in the country, making preparations is a prudent approach. This paper will set out to highlight the benefits of preparing for emergencies and terrorism for emergency workers, government authorities, and the general population.
Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters While terrorism is not a new phenomenon, terrorists today pose significantly greater danger than they ever have in the past. These terrorists are better financed, organized, and they demonstrate greater eagerness to engage in higher levels of carnage; factors that significantly increase the risk that they pose to the public.
Hoffman (2006) notes that in the last decade, terrorism has emerged as the most perilous global problem that threatens to disrupt society life. Taking preemptive actions to prepare for an imminent terrorist attack is therefore in the best interest of the society.
The impacts of natural disasters on society have increased dramatically over the past few decades (Schaefer-Jones, 2007). The reason for this is that human population has increased and many settlements have been established in areas that are prone to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.
The concentration of populations in urban areas also increases the severity of damage when natural disasters strike at a particular location. For this reasons, being prepared for natural disasters is crucial to reducing the hazards posed by such events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers Preparations will familiarize emergency workers with unconventional weapons that may be used by terrorists. Alexander and Klein (2006) suggest that it is plausible that these terrorists will pursue chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) methods in the near future. While most emergency workers are proficient in dealing with conventional terrorist attacks, they may lack the expertise to deal with CBRN.
Preparation will familiarize the emergency personnel with impacts of such attacks and inform them on how to respond. Alexander and Klein (2006) reveal that training will help emergency workers to address the heightened physical risk of children and adolescents to CBRN effects. Emergency personnel will also be trained on how to identify the various agents used by the terrorists and the effective countermeasure against them.
Preparation will entail determination of priority and authority for incident safety management. In most disasters, significant amount of time and resources are wasted due to lack of a command structure and priority. Emergency workers therefore end up dealing with matters in a haphazard manner and lack of central command leads to poor coordination. Preparation will help establish a priority order that will be used when dealing with disaster. Authority will also be given and a command structure established to help in joint emergency activities.
Reissman and Howard (2008) reveal that proper preparations include delineation of roles to ensure cross-agency consistency and effective communication during a disaster. During training, mock drills are carried out and emergency personnel including, but not limited to, medical teams, fire fighters, and police are given roles and responsibilities that they will carry out in the event of a real emergency. Training ensures that emergency personnel familiarize themselves with protocols to be used in emergencies.
Anticipating likely hazards within the planning scenarios will help identify the kind of equipment and technical expertise that will be needed in the real disaster. This will assist response organizations to acquire the needed equipment and expert staff. If this is not possible, the organization will have an inventory of where this equipment and expert staff can be obtained from on short notice.
This early identification will aid in the quick acquisition of necessary technical staff and monitoring equipment when responding to a disaster. Reissman and Howard (2008) reiterate that having an inventory of such assets will facilitate quick decision-making.
The emergency response team needs to be medically, emotionally, and cognitively ready to face disaster. If these workforce is not ready in these important dimensions, their efficiency will be lowered and this will hamper the entire disaster response operations. The planning phase will include pre-deployment medical reviews to ensure that the emergency response personnel are fit for duty. Individuals who have risk factors that might compromise the mission success will be removed from active participation (Reissman
A Man for All Semesters Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of Main Points
Introduction Dameron’s article titled “A man for All Semesters” explores misdeeds of Tomar as well as the indolent nature of learners in higher institutions. The article gives an account of how Dave Tomar made vast amounts of money by helping students to complete their assignments.
Tomar earns a decent living from his work as a freelance writer in a custom essay company. The article explains how Tomar completed loads of papers for learners who were either indolent or not prepared for tasks associated with completion of their college, graduate and doctoral programs. The interest of learners is just to present exactly what the teacher asks for so that they can obtain excellent grades.
Hence, they keep on confirming whether the writer is writing what the teacher requires. Also, Dameron uses some clients served, by Mr. Tomar, to show that these learners are not ready to think on their own at all. Rather, they expect Mr. Tomar to provide them with an excellent piece of work that meets the criteria asked for by their instructors. Besides, the article demonstrates parents to these learners as being key facilitators to the entire process of cheating in institutions of higher learning.
Other aspects that this article explores are relationships between unemployment and academic cheating. Mr. Tomar was happy with his work as he could earn more than most of his peer lectures in prominent universities. Further, the article shows that the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Writing dissertations for the doctorate and graduate learners as well as completing term papers for college learners produces learners, who cannot think or apply education learnt to real situations.
Besides, completing such vital tasks on behalf of learners leaves them with less time to study and learn. This, in turn, compromises the value and significance of education in American universities. As a result, these institutions end up producing graduates who cannot think critically, and whenever they find themselves in a situation that requires complex reasoning, they make efforts to contact freelance writers who can complete these tasks on their behalf.
This article is of immense significance today to instructors, learners, readers and parents. The article demonstrates that current instructors have neglected their work of ensuring that learners present original work in higher institutions of learning. Whenever instructors offer assignments to learners, they have a responsibility of ensuring that learners submit their original work in order to maintain academic integrity.
Besides, this article demonstrates that learners have lost moral values related to education and their parents are paying little attention to their misdeeds. Every time learners receive assignments while, in learning institutions, they should complete these assignments individually, or as required in order to avoid compromising values related to education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current economic issues in the United States, particularly in the area of employments, may have made learners develop the act of cheating in examinations Also, parents have a responsibility of ensuring that their children complete home assignments individually rather than presenting these assignments to other people to assist them.
Further, this article is of immense significance to any reader who believes in academic integrity and moral development. This is because this topic seems to compromise these key aspects of education purpose.
As revealed by this account, both undergraduate and graduate schools and learners have fallen into a trap of low quality education and cheating because of little attention by instructors in American institutions.
Summary of Main Points Dameron’s article highlights the issue of academic cheating. Another key point that is clear in this work is that learners in higher institutions of learning just seek to excel in their assignments as opposed to obtaining knowledge.
Besides, Dameron’s article demonstrates how students cannot think independently. Dameron also demonstrates that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. In addition, Dameron uses Mr. Tomar to demonstrate that the current situation of exam cheating has roots in lack of adequate employment.
The article by Dameron further explains that if the story by Mr. Tomar is true, then the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Also, this article highlights that instructors in American institutions of higher learning have failed in their role of molding characters of learners.
Analysis The author fulfilled his purpose through this argument. The main purpose of the author was to demonstrate that cheating in American institutions of higher learning is prevalent due to both economic and institutional issues. However, this work has both logical and illogical ideas.
We will write a custom Essay on A Man for All Semesters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, the article claims that Mr. Tomar’s clients are lazy and incompetent. While this could be true for most clients, it cannot be generalized. This is because some learners ask for Mr. Tomar’s hand due to sickness, ethnical issues or engagement in other activities that they value as much as education. Hence, this fallacy is illogical.
Second, the article claims that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. On the same paragraph, the article demonstrates that the learner has concern of what the paper will entail.
These two ideas are contradicting as one idea seeks to demonstrate that these learners only care about following instructions given in order to pass exams, whereas the other idea demonstrates that learners have a concern on details of the paper as they know what should be contained in the paper. Hence, these two statements are contradicting and seem to be illogical.
Third, the article speculates that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. A study referring to the trend of studying and learning, in higher institutions, by Marks and Philip Babcock indicates that there is a tremendous decline in the time spent by learners on their studies. This study made reference to students’ behavior between 1961 and 2003. This argument seems to be illogical as it draws from inductive arguments.
The fact that there is a tremendous decline, in the time that students spend on their studies, does not necessary mean that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. Besides, the last date that the study made reference to was 2003, 0r 9 years ago. The fact that a situation existed 9 years ago does not necessary means that the same situation exists. All these arguments seem to be informal fallacies.
Response The first issue that I support is the perspective on academic cheating. The practice of academic cheating is prevalent in most American institutions of higher learning (McCabe, Trevino,
How Leaders Create and Use Networks Essay (Article) college essay help near me
This article mainly focuses on how leaders create and use networks in their work place for their success in discharging their duties, a skill that non leaders do not posses. This article was written by Herminia Ibara and Mark hunter.
Ibara is a professor of leadership and learning at the University of Insead, Fontainebleau, France and the director of the faculty of leadership initiative, an executive program for managers moving into broader leadership at Insead. She has also written numerous books. Hunter is an investigative journalist and a professor of communications at Insead and has written different books (Ibara and Hunter 108).
The authors while examining the networks which are the personal connections that will provide support, information and resources, found that they are the most challenging for managers who are transitioning into new leadership roles.
When managers move up the ranks, they will be addressing issues that will impact the whole organization and not only their areas of specialization, these new roles require relational tactics, which involves exchange and interaction with the current and potential stakeholders. All these contacts are particularly critical to the new roles of the leader.
The authors identified three different types of networks which are interdependent on each other. They are operational networks, personal networks and strategic networks. Personal networks will help to improve personal development of the manager.
These based on the relationships forged with the immediate superiors, juniors, the peers and outsiders like suppliers and customers who have the potential of supporting or blocking the project. Personal networks are for the purposes of coordinating and cooperation between individuals who know one another when they are accomplishing any task. This form of networking comes almost naturally to most managers (Ibara and Hunter 107).
Operational networks will assist the managers on present internal responsibilities so that they can perform their duties well. These are relationships built outside the inner circles and are established through professional associations, clubs and other interest groups that will serve to advance careers while giving new insights and perspectives. Operational networks serve as an important tool for personal development and can be a convenient point to establish the next network of relationship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Operational networks are made of flexible connections between people who share or have something in common and are vital for referrals and getting daily tasks done. Strategic networks will help the individual in seeing the new directions of the business, and the stakeholders because this is the inflection point where the manager moves from the functional responsibilities into being a business leader. The concerns at this juncture are the broad business strategic issues.
The relationships established here will be the foundation of information that will enable the leader to achieve both personal and organizational goals. Strategic networks are the most underutilized among the three networking types, yet it is the most important for the success of a manager moving to undertake new responsibilities (Ibara and Hunter 109).
The authors have been studying networking strategies and social networks used by managers for over 20 years and their findings are, the useful and meaningful networks do not happen instantly, but needs time, and all three have to be used to ensure success and not just one or two.
They studied 30 managers for a period of two years who were transitioning into positions of leadership in the organization, and their findings were that those who employed all the three types of networking were successful while those who did not end up failing (Ibara and Hunter 106). These findings support the principles of reciprocity that are common in leadership management to influence followers of a leader.
People find they are obligated to support anybody they are closely associated or share something in common. These networks are based on interpersonal trust because when a person trust another, they are likely to offer support and, therefore, ensuring the success in the transition process. The findings also support the principle of six degrees of separation which simply says there are at least six people connections between one person and another in the world (Ibara and Hunter 108).
On the other hand, over reliance on networks could lead to other problems because not everybody is reliable to give the required and appropriate support and may give some misleading information. Besides, operational networks would address the assigned objectives and not the overall strategic objectives of the organization.
Personal networks are easy to establish and almost comes naturally, but the strategic networks are difficult to establish especially if it involves the superiors in the organization. There is no step by step formula to be followed in order to establish these networks, but they are intuitive based on general guidelines and would largely depend on individuals and situations. This means that they can be extremely hard for some individuals while it may be easy for others (Ibara and Hunter 106).
We will write a custom Article on How Leaders Create and Use Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, this article contains valuable information particularly to any aspiring manager who wants to climb the career ladder by leverage the concept of networks in pursuit of their careers while making solid contributions in their organization. This is because the findings were observable facts on managers working in different organizations and are supported by sound principles of management (Ibara and Hunter 112).
Works Cited Ibara, Herminia and Hunter, Mark. How Leaders Create and Use Networks. Jan. 2007. Harvard Business Review. Web.