Ethical And Socially Responsible Marketing Analysis Custom Essay Help

Read “Ethical Issues in Marketing: An Application for Understanding Ethical Decision Making” from the University Library.

Write a 350- to 575-word analysis and evaluation of a company’s effectiveness in the following areas:

Distinguish between social responsibility, ethical, and legal issues and their effect on marketing.
Relate the triple bottom line to an organization’s sustainability.
Analyze consumer influence on ethical behavior in marketing.
Assess the value of communicating ethical behavior to the public.
Conclude how ethical issues influence legal issues in marketing.

Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.

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International Marketing Strategy of Fortescue Metal Group Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Executive Summary The external and internal environment of Fortescue Metal Group has been analyzed in this report. The external environment presents several threats, which include high competition, tariff barriers to foreign market entry, high bargaining power of buyers of iron, and high suppliers’ bargaining power.

The main opportunity that is available to FMG is the expected increase in demand for iron in China and other emerging markets. Moreover, the company has the opportunity to increase its market share because of the low threat of new entrants and substitutes.

FMG’s strengths include access to huge iron ore deposits, extensive railroad networks, and a talented workforce. However, its overdependence on the Chinese market is a threat to its long-term profitability. Overall, the company’s resources and capabilities will improve its long-term success.

Case Study Report: Strategic Management Introduction

Fortescue Metal Group (FMG) is a leading producer of iron in Australia. Since its inception in 2003, the company has achieved rapid growth through cost reduction and expansion of production capacity. The aim of the company is to become the lowest cost producer of iron in Australia (FMG 2014).

This paper will provide a detailed analysis of the internal and the external environment of the company to determine its competitiveness. The aim of the analysis is to identify the internal and external factors that are likely to influence the company’s ability to succeed in the long-term.

External Environment

PESTEL Analysis

International trade policies are the main political factors that influence the performance of firms in the iron industry. Protectionist trade policies such as subsidizing domestic iron producers prevent competition in major markets such as China (Hau, Chatterjee

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Structural Family Therapy Case Study college essay help near me

Model Description Among the existing variety of therapies for a family, it is hard to define the most appropriate or the less effective because every family is unique, and its members face different problems and misunderstandings. In the current paper, one of the family therapy models, the structural family therapy by Salvador Minuchin, will be discussed. Its historical background, some facts from the developer’s life, and different aspects of the theory will be analyzed to make the evaluation of the case study within the frames of the chosen model possible.

Historical Background Structural family therapy (SFT) is one of the available models of treatment offered to all members of a family on the basis of the possible structural change and communication within a family. It was developed in the middle of the 1970s by one of the brightest representatives of the Philadelphian Child Guidance Clinic, Salvador Minuchin.

His physician experience in the army in Israel and the work with children in New York helped to understand that personal problems are based on a family and the philosophies inherent to it. The Israel families turned out to be a good example for Minuchin on how a variety of cultures and interests may be gathered in one certain community that has to follow the order and mind the traditions around.

Another historical perspective from Minuchin’s like comes from his childhood. As a son in a Jewish family during the 1920s, who had to live in a unique Argentina, Minuchin faced the necessity to learn different rules and truths and add them to the life of his own (Prochaska

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Marketing Management: Hewden Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies

Conclusion

Reference List

Appendices

Introduction Hewden is a company that assumed its current trade name in 1999. It serves the building and construction industry through the provision of equipment for hire. It meets the market need for availing equipment that can be too costly to purchase as assets by respective builders and developers.

The clients can appropriate only a small proportion of their revenues and capital expenditure on machinery and equipment to get the service offered by Hewden. On the other hand, Hewden retains the ability to service and lease the equipment to other firms repeatedly. The business has an employee population of almost 900. It is currently serving the construction, infrastructure, industrial, and environmental industries with its range of products.

Its primary service is the convenience service that allows clients to manage their jobs with ease and in a timely way. Consequently, Hewden has achieved its objectives by focusing on employee development, branch network, and being a leader in environmental, health, and safety training.

A case study on Hewden is the basis of this paper’s research and discussion on the findings of competitive positions and marketing approaches by the company. This paper seeks to present a broad analysis of the present situation about the potential for the growth of Hewden in different business perspectives.

The focus includes marketing strategies, marketing segmentation options, and responses to increased competition in the market. Others are issues to do with employee management, brand management, and business growth management. The paper will bring out critical business analysis tools like TOWS matrix and segmentation methods.

It also explores aspects of competitive advantage derived from theoretical concepts of marketing and management, such as the Henry Mintzberg’s five Ps of strategy for dealing with marketing challenges (Mintzberg 2007).

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies The matrix helps a company to formulate a strategy through bringing together and evaluating the strengths and opportunities that are internal and external to the business respectively. It also brings together and evaluates the weaknesses and threats that are external to the company. There are four potential strategies to follow in the matrix; namely, weaknesses and threats (WT), weaknesses and opportunities (WO), strengths and threats (ST) and strengths and opportunities (SO) (Koontz 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the first case of the WT strategy, a company considers its greatest weaknesses and opts to go for a survival strategy. For Hewden, a major weakness is the differentiated culture in its depots. In addressing the weakness, Hewden considers its market environment and the need to focus on customer care. Thus, it can embark on additional training for its workers in all its depots so that they can offer customers consistent levels of quality survive.

As part of the training, the company will also need to consider the aging workforce as a factor (Brunold

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Reflective Journal – Week 4 essay help free

Weekly Reflective Journal: Where you will document what you have learned from all the assigned readings, supplementary readings. Do remember the reflective journal is not merely a narrative of work and assignments completed, it should demonstrate that you have thought through individual learning experiences and explain how and what you have learned. Utilize outside sources in your writing. For these weekly reflections, include the following sections: (1) Summarize readings and how relevant they are to your process of writing;

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Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD Report college essay help

Abstract Satyam Company is a good example of companies that have failed due to fraud and embezzlement of funds by senior officials. Based on the findings from different scholars, the company lacked independent directors, thus giving room for wrongful misappropriation of funds.

Its external auditors also colluded with the directors to defraud the investors. The company had a weak internal control system and in its operations, the promoters held executive position, and thus they had great influence on the company’s decisions.

This essay is prepared based on the requirement of the course as directed by the tutor. This paper seeks to advise the management team of Satyam Ltd. on the best corporate culture to adopt in its administration.

The report is based on the view that the management of Satyam Company has reported at least one incidence involving misappropriation of funds by some irresponsible financial controllers.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the company’s corporate governance critically and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of its internal control system before coming up with the necessary recommendations.

The recommendations that will be given at the end of the essay will be based on the provisions of the UK code on corporate governance.

Introduction In the modern world, the scope of corporate governance has changed due to the high number of companies that have failed due to misappropriation of funds. It has been taken to include the accountability concept especially in the accounting department.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need for sound corporate governance has been perpetuated by the nature of modern businesses, which are run by third parties on the behalf of the shareholders or owners. A number of factors have facilitated the need for improved corporate governance.

Firstly, most businesses today are in the form of companies, which are owned by a great number of shareholders who are scattered, and thus cannot control the affairs of the firms (Varottil, 2010).

Secondly, the shareholders may require professionals to manage their businesses. This aspect creates a principal-agent relationship between the shareholders and the directors of the company.

Therefore, the concept of corporate governance becomes essential since for the shareholders’ interests to be secured there must be a control of the directors’ actions.

This essay therefore seeks to identify the shortfalls in the control system of Satyam Company and advise the company accordingly.

Literature review Corporate governance denotes the way in which firms are managed effectively (Bhasin, 2013). It outlines the rights and obligations of all the interested parties such as the directors, shareholders, and creditors among others.

Corporate governance also outlines the decision-making procedures and explains the role of each stakeholder in the process. It defines the corporate structure of the company clearly by outlining the role that each stakeholder is expected to perform.

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owners of modern businesses employ managers to run the businesses on their behalf (Atesci, Bhagwatwar, Deo, Desouza

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Global Decision Making Exploratory Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior

Effective Global Managers

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The modern business environment is characterized by high competition, integration of markets, and changing economic trends. As a result, businesses have embarked on joining international markets to improve their sales and profits.

Companies that have adopted global strategies are increasingly finding it difficult to manage organizational behavior due to the social, cultural, and economic differences in the markets that they serve.

This paper sheds light on the importance of understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior in the process of making global decisions. It will also discuss how managers can be more effective by understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior The main international dimensions or aspects of organizational behavior include people, structure, technology, and environment. A clear understanding of these aspects of organizational behavior can help a global manager to make ethical decisions in the following ways.

First, understanding people enables managers to make ethical human resource and stakeholder management decisions. People refer to the individuals or groups of individuals who establish an organization and work to achieve its objectives. Thus, it includes stakeholders such as employees and owners of an organization.

Multinational companies hire employees from different cultural backgrounds. Culture determines the way employees communicate, solve problems, work, and interact with their colleagues.

This means that employees will always interpret the decisions made by their managers according to their cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. A decision that affects employees or any other stakeholder of the organization is considered to be ethical if it respects the culture of the affected parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, a decision that is considered to be ethical in the US might be perceived to be unethical in Japan. For instance, staff promotions in the US are mainly based on performance. By contrast, seniority is a key determinant of staff promotion decisions in Japan.

Thus, directing an old Japanese employee to report to his younger colleague is likely to be considered as an unethical decision. By contrast, this decision will be considered to be ethical in the US.

In a nutshell, managers must understand and appreciate the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and traditions of the employees and stakeholders that they deal with in each market or country in order to make ethical decisions.

Second, global managers need to understand the organizational structures that are used in various overseas markets in order to make ethical management decisions. Structure provides a formal framework that delineates the relationships among members of the organization.

It also determines the flow of work and communication among employees. Organizational structures vary from region to region. Most western companies such as IBM and Barclays Bank have dynamic organizational structures that facilitate seamless interactions among employees.

Thus, most western companies have few management levels and encourage direct communication between managers and employees. By contrast, Chinese companies use a hierarchical organizational structure in which the company is directed by the top management.

The managers, on the other hand, lead the employees. A clear understanding of the influence of organizational structure on the relationships among employees enables manages to make ethical decisions concerning accountability, communication, and staff involvement.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In western countries where companies use flat organizational structures, managers are considered to be ethical if they consult employees before making important decisions. Managers must recognize that employees have a right to express their views and to hold different opinions.

In countries where companies use hierarchical structures, ethical management decisions ensure that each functional unit is accountable for its performance to promote fairness and high performance.

Third, managers who have a clear understanding of the level of application of technology in various parts of the world are likely to make ethical decisions concerning their operations.

Technology is an important element of organizational behavior since it determines the level of cost-efficiency, product quality, and production capacity. Technology has positive and negative implications for the environment and employees.

Thus, people have different perceptions and attitudes towards technology in various parts of the world. For instance, in African countries where unemployment rate is very high, workers and trade unions resist technologies that replace human labor.

However, companies must still adopt technologies that promote automation in order to reduce costs and to increase their productivity.

Thus, a manager who understands the impact of technology on the society will be able to make decisions that promote the use of production techniques that minimize harm to various stakeholders and maximize benefits to the company.

This perspective is based on the fact that an ethical decision must promote responsibility and fairness. Understanding the effects of technology enables managers to make ethical decisions that encourage the spirit of altruism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, global managers must understand the business environment in which they operate in order to make ethical decisions. The external environment of an organization consists of six major factors. These include political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors.

Undoubtedly, these variables vary from country to country. The effects of the external environmental factors on businesses can only be addressed in an ethical manner if they are clearly understood.

Managers who understand political factors such as industry regulations will be able to make ethical decisions by complying with all reporting and operational requirements.

Similarly, global managers will be able to make ethical decisions concerning their production and marketing strategies if they understand social factors such as citizens’ attitudes and beliefs in various countries.

For instance, an advert that has a picture of a woman is highly accepted in the US and most European countries. However, using a picture of a woman in an advert in Saudi Arabia is considered to be unethical since it contravenes Islamic teachings and the country’s traditions.

In a nutshell, a clear understanding of the business environment enables global managers to make ethical decisions by avoiding to break rules or to engage in activities that undermine established social norms in various countries.

Effective Global Managers An understanding of the international dimensions of organizational behavior can help someone to become a better global manager in the following ways. First, it enables global managers to motivate a multicultural workforce. Motivation is achieved by understanding and fulfilling the needs of employees.

Needs are deficiencies that influence employees to behave in a particular manner to achieve a predetermined outcome. Understanding the organizational and the national culture in a given country, as well as, the external business environment enables global managers to identify employees’ needs.

For example, intrinsic rewards such as staff promotions and recognition are highly regarded in masculine cultures. However, employees from low income countries are likely to be more interested in extrinsic rewards such as bonus pay to improve their purchasing power.

Thus, a global manager will be able to influence employees to behave in a particular way if he is able to understand their needs and to provide appropriate rewards to fulfill them.

Second, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ leadership abilities. The contingency theory of leadership postulates that a good leader links his behavior to the situation at hand.

Specifically, the leadership style that a good leader adopts depends on the situation that he is dealing with in terms of business objectives, as well as, employees’ values and skills. For instance, a country where employees value freedom of expression and autonomy, a global manager can be a good leader if he is democratic.

Similarly, a production-oriented leadership style will be appropriate in an organization where employees are high motivated. Thus, a global manager will be effective if he can understand the situation associated with the various elements of organizational behavior and to utilize the appropriate leadership style.

Third, global managers can enhance their communication skills by understanding organizational behavior. Different cultures often use different communication styles. Most western cultures use direct communication styles where people say exactly what they mean.

By contrast, most Asian cultures use indirect communication styles. This means that a global manager who is in charge of a diverse workforce can create confusion and misunderstandings if he uses the wrong communication style.

Global managers can overcome this challenge by taking time to study and understand the interactions among employees, the communication styles used in their organizations, and the role of technology in communication.

Fourth, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ ability to manage power and conflict in their organizations. Power refers to “the ability to influence the behavior of others”. The organizational structure is the main source of legitimate power in most companies.

The structure defines the power that is associated with various positions in the company. There are also several forms of power that do not emanate from the organizational structure. Nonetheless, they have immense effects on organizational performance.

These forms of power include expert power, coercive power, and referent power. Misuse of power often results into interpersonal and intergroup conflicts. Conflicts often arise when the organizational structure fails to define the officers who have the right to make decisions in every situation.

For instance, engineers who have expert power often disagree with CEOs who approve projects without their consent. Global managers can prevent conflicts if they understand the sources of power straggles within their organizations. This enables them to distribute power fairly, thereby avoiding conflicts.

Conclusion Given the dynamics of the modern business environment, global managers have to understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior in order to make ethical decisions.

Specifically, understanding organizational behavior enables global managers to make ethical decisions concerning personnel management, stakeholder management, and application of technology.

Moreover, it enables global managers to respond to external factors such as industry regulations in an ethical manner. Global managers can be more effective in leadership, communication, and conflict management if they understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

Works Cited Bredeson, Dean. Applied Business Ethics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Hellriegel, Don and John Slocum. Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Luthans, Fred. Organizational Behavior. London: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

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BlackBerry Ltd Case Study essay help

Synopsis of the Situation The BlackBerry Ltd, formerly known as research in motion, has not been doing well in recent past compared to its competitors. This has been as a result of inappropriate steps taken in the marketing and branding department.

This paper, therefore, analyzes the situation of BlackBerry Ltd in an attempt to identifying the possible problems, which has led to the decline of the company’s share value, as well as recommending possible solutions to the problem.

The recommendations provided do not only help in solving the current problem, but also aim at helping the company do well in future.

Key Issues The mobile phone industry is highly competitive (Grewal and Levy, 2012). BlackBerry Ltd faces stiff competition from other handset manufacturing companies such as apple, which have created a niche in Smartphones.

The competition in this industry requires companies to be on their toes in order to always please their clients, make enough profits and at the same time remain at the top of the competition (Hartley 2014).

BlackBerry Ltd boasts of a large customer base, which has been increasing over the years. According to Moon (2013), the company had approximately 10.5 million by the time the first apple iPhone was released in the market and 21 million customers by the time the first Google Android hit the market.

The author adds that the company had 78 million users worldwide and an active messaging service with about 60 million users by 2012.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there was a report in 2013, by the media that BlackBerry had lost $1.049 billion (Moon, 2013). The company’s share value was $60 in 2011, but dropped sharply that year and has not risen above $20 since then (Martell and Rocha 2014).

In March 2013, the company recorded a 21% decline in the number of phones that were shipped (Moon 2013). This was the least the company had shipped since 2006. These were attributed to several changes in the company’s strategy to address the competitive hardware environment.

Most of BlackBerry’s loss was as a result of the fast growth of other handset companies like Samsung. In the US alone, BlackBerry’s market share dropped to 3%, down from 9% forcing the company to adopt a $1 billion cost saving program in 2013 (Martell and Rocha 2014).

The company also delayed the release of BlackBerry 10 OS, which was a great disappointment to its consumers (Moon 2013). Since then, the company has made losses in their share value and also lost most of its loyal consumers, leaving behind not too many die-hard followers.

BlackBerry has lost most of its market share to other companies manufacturing similar or better handsets for example the Google supported phones. According to Martell and Rocha 2014, 2013 was a dark year for BlackBerry, faced with a number of challenges.

There was a significant reduction in research and development expenses by 24% and also in the marketing and administration where expenses dropped by 35%. The operating expense reductions are encouraging and the situation could get better in the near future. However, the demand for the product is still very low.

By 2013 December, the company’s market share was less than 1% but rose in early 2014 by 7.1%. There was a drop in hardware revenue from 1.9 million to 1.3 million devices sold during the year. 3.4 Million. Recently, the company was forced to lay-off thousands of its employees to slash costs by 64%.

We will write a custom Case Study on BlackBerry Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has also agreed to sell most of its real estate, especially the ones that do not bring in significant revenue to the company.

The authors also added that the company’s CEO, Mr. Chen, remains optimistic that BlackBerry will have a positive or neutral cash flow by March 2015, but confirms that the company might not record any profits or revenue growth till March 2016.

In March 2014, the company announced that it had decided to target specific customers, the enterprise customers and the prosumers. The company defines prosumers as a group of users that primarily use the device for communication and productivity purposes (Oliveira, 2013).

Applications are not primarily for this consumer. If they use applications, then it is specific ones and for specific purposes. They look for applications that get the job done for them, i.e. they create more content than they consume.

Prosumers are more self-oriented hence they choose more professional or semi-professional device. Enterprise consumers, on the other hand, refers to working business people and as well as the youth.

These are people who access email and need a QWERTY key pad for easy typing and workplace functionality (Dvorak, Vranica and Ante, 2011). These are people who need a phone that works for them.

Marketing Efforts BlackBerry Ltd has made a number of changes in its marketing strategy in an effort to retain its market share.

First, the company has consolidated and centralized the marketing strategies from its outlets across the world to ensure uniformity in marketing strategies hence the clients get the same ideas and services.

Not sure if you can write a paper on BlackBerry Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was also considered a good solution to the client-confusions driven by the different marketing approaches of various BlackBerry outlets.

Second, the company dropped the infamous name Research in Motion in favor of BlackBerry. This name was not known by many people and those who did found the name unappealing. The company believed that its lack of popularity in terms of its name was to blame for the decline in sales.

Third, the company decided not to recycle the names that had been used to brand and market other BlackBerry phones such as bold, curve, touch and tour and instead go for simpler naming such as Z10, Q10 and so on. The company considered the new names easy to remember and associate with.

The company decided it would produce just one BlackBerry brand that would be its stronghold in marketing the entire company. It decided not to take up the marketing and advertising strategies that other companies like apple are engaged in, and concentrate on its name only.

It is only in a few parts of the world that this handset does well, with other handsets dominating the rest of the planet. It would need to clean up the bad name of the company for it to sell its latest products that is the Z10 and Q10 smartphones. (Hartley, 2014)

Fifth, the company decided to focus more on offers to lure more customers. The company has really been putting their efforts into advertising to create awareness of the product to the publics, which is besides those who already know the product.

Lastly, the company has taken advertising to a whole new level of using carriers.

The Problem From the issues presented above, it is clear that BlackBerry Ltd had quite a number of marketing issues. Its handsets have lost most of their worth. They fail to brand their smartphones which is vital in this sector. Hence, marketing its products to strengthen its brand remains key.

Due to lack of proper communication to its clients, the brand has been doing poorly over the years (Cheriton 2013). The company has not put in place proper marketing strategies that will clear the bad name it has presently.

According to Cheriton, the company should not have adopted business-as-usual marketing strategy, but rather damage-control and rebuilding-the-brand kind of marketing. If the handset has to remain in the market, it has to manufacture their product with their clients in mind so that they can deliver exactly what they want.

Though the company has a number of issues, the most crucial one, according to my understanding of the case, is the damaged image of the company and the brands it produces. Many people believe that BlackBerry is for the old, rich businessmen. They think that it has some of the most old fashioned applications and software.

Other people even perceive BlackBerry products to be difficult to use due to its complex nature. All these are misconceptions because many people lack the necessary information regarding the device. They don’t have a reliable source of information to enlighten them on the pros of BlackBerry device.

The company has not put much effort into the campaign to change this negativity and ignorance from people. Many of them rely on word of mouth to know about BlackBerry products and end up getting wrong or insufficient information regarding the device.

I believe this is the most important issue because a product must be positively known by its consumers, whether new or old, for it to do well in the market. The people must have the right information about it including knowledge of the good and possible weaknesses of the product.

The company should always endeavor to counter attack negative news about the device circulating in the market with positive news. A product may not be as great, but it needs to have a positive image for it to sell. This is what the BlackBerry device needs to do.

Alternative Solutions Despite the negative publicity about BlackBerry devices, all is not lost. The company can use the following options to redeem itself.

The first option would be to develop a totally new brand that is not currently available in the market and bring it out to challenge its competitors. The consumers would not have anything against it and would have a better chance of doing well in the market against its competitors (Grewal and Levy, 2012).

This would be an expensive and risky turn to take, but it has a high probability of success. The company only has to make sure that the device is mind-blowing and has all the features and applications that would make it sell.

The second solution would be to rebrand the devices already present in the market. The company would need to give these devices a new look, name and probably add more features and applications that appeal to the consumers.

The company would also need to remove those ­­applications that are not favored by consumers. This would make the old brands better and hence they would do better in the market.

The third option would be to relook its marketing strategies and put more efforts in redeeming its name from the wide spread negative publicity.

Selected Solution to the Problem The third solution seems to be the most appropriate in solving BlackBerry’s problem. The company needs to engage in marketing strategies that are more inclined towards cleaning up its name. This is possible by engaging in activities that only explain to the consumers the positive side of its devices.

This information needs to be true, so that the consumers are not disappointed when they learn otherwise from other sources. If this is done well, the company will gradually redeem its name as consumers forget the negative things they knew about its brands and start appreciating BlackBerry.

This would be the most viable solution to the problem as it is easy and does not require as much capital and expertise as the other two. It does not also require so much strategizing as the company can simply emulate how their best competitors do their marketing.

Adopting some of the competitors marketing strategies, especially those that have proven successful in the past, would help a great deal.

This solution was chosen after careful analysis of the company’s portfolio, which revealed that very little effort is put into marketing. The company is also not doing its marketing the right way.

For example, the company, for a long time, had different marketing and advertising strategies for the different branches in different regions across the world. This would confuse consumers and make the company seem divided and unsure of what exactly they want to achieve.

The company also has very few adverts and commercials regarding its products. The few adverts available seem somewhat irrelevant and are not interesting to the consumers. The adverts give vague and incomplete information that would not entice the client to buy the devices.

Expected Results and Rationale for the Solution Conclusions

A lot needs to be done to restore BlackBerry’s former glory. The company needs to check what it is doing wrong that is making it lag so much behind its competitors. The company needs to do an audit of both its products and management to be able to identify where exactly the problem lies: product or the management.

Cutting on costs is a wise decision to make until such a time when the company has started making enough profits.

Advertising and marketing is the only way through which consumers would get to know about the product and it is obvious that the company needs to do much about this alongside other strategies like rebranding its products.

Recommendations

The company has serious problems that need to be dealt with immediately if it is to realize any profits in the future. The company needs to re-strategize on its marketing to ensure the consumers prefer its devices over its competitors.

It needs to borrow a leaf from its competitors regarding their way of doing things so that it can be in a better position to go back to its former glory. The company needs to advertise its products more on the media in a manner that consumers will be happy with. The adverts need to be relevant for them to be effective.

The management also needs to be reorganized. The company should consider replacing some of its managers, especially in the marketing division, to allow for the introduction of fresh ideas.

The company should hire fresh and young people who know what consumers want and would not do things in the same old ways. Experience in marketing should be given first priority during recruitment to ensure that those absorbed in the company can add value to it.

The company also needs to start making client-friendly devices. They should be easy to use and have the latest applications that are found in other handsets. This way, they will compete fairly in the market just like other phones.

The names used for the products should be easy to remember and should arouse curiosity and desire for the handsets. The company should not recycle a name that has been used before as the clients will feel that they are buying an old product that has nothing new to offer.

Handling the situation

If I were to handle BlackBerry’s situation, I would first of all re-organize the management to get rid of those who are not performing.

I would then cut on the unnecessary expenses that the company cannot handle at the moment, and then put as much capital, time and personnel into marketing, advertising and branding, which would most definitely turn around the business.

Since I may not have the knowledge of the appropriate methods to use, I would seek advice from the experts and try to emulate what my competitors, who are performing better than me, are doing. This would, most probably, take time, but patience is key.

The market would not turn in my favor overnight, but it will be seen to steadily rise. It is important to note that this would be a continuous process that has to be followed from now henceforth. No stopping, but it can be improved.

Positive and Negative Results

Adopting the solution presented above would generate several positive outcomes as listed below. It would enlighten the consumers on the positive side of the company and its devices; hence they would go for the product.

The consumers would get good service from the devices that are of high quality and have the best applications. The company would also benefit as it would increase its income and return to its former glory.

There are many employees that had been laid off when the company shares value went down. However, with the increased shares value, they would get back their jobs which would be good to better their lives.

On the other hand, this solution would have some negative consequences in that it is difficult to change consumer’s minds to think something they knew was bad is now good.

The company would have to use quite a good amount of resources for this solution to work. This would not be good for the company as it does not have such a large amount to spend since it is incurring losses at the moment.

References Cheriton, R. (2013). BlackBerry’s biggest problem is not its phones. Web.

Dvorak. P., Vranica, S.

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Emergency Planning and Disaster Management Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Department

Rescue steps

Necessary operational support services

Reference list

Department Fire departments are usually front line workers in a disaster situation. Therefore, during a disaster, the general public depends a lot on fire department for assistance.

However, provision of rescue services complexes under calamities like earth quakes, hurricanes and floods. Therefore, this necessitates increased staffing to meet the threshold of effective response.

Under calamities of such a large scale as tornados, government disaster assistance teams are called in after local resources have been exhausted (National Response Framework, 1998, p. 15).

Rescue steps The first step should involve assessing the extent of the damage. This will help the department to consider the adequacy of its staff requirements.

Staff requirement analysis might involve how personnel will be activated, the management of catastrophic coverage, and the organization of shifts in situations where rescue operations will take more than 12 hours.

Nevertheless, in case of staff shortage, additional support might be requested from the staff on leave (Newman

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Leadership and Motivation Theory Coursework online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Servant Leader

Transformational Leader

Courageous Leaders

Introduction Organizational change is one of the most complicated strategies to employ. Its success largely depends on how friendly the employees are to new ideas, and the ability of the leader to persuade and mobilize the employees towards that direction.

The reception that employees give to the new change depends on factors that motivate them. Not all will have same opinion to a new idea, but understanding their unique perceptions is essential for initiating the change itself.

Most of the employees will be motivated to work when they believe that change will influence the community, the customers they relate with, the organizations and its stake, as well as themselves. In this case, they will be able to give their best and produce best possible outcomes.

It is also important to note that employees who believe there is honesty and fairness in delivering services to the partners involved and in initiating change get motivated. It is, therefore, important for the management to consider these views as they initiate change.

In order to be successful in initiating change, information about why change is necessary should be communicated to the employees for them to support its implementation. The managers should be seen acting towards the same idea for employees to copy.

Besides, all incentives in the company should be in line with the new direction. If change requires new skills, employees should undergo training so that they gain needed experience. If these conditions are put into practice, employee possibility of supporting change will be high.

The term leadership does not have a generally accepted definition. However, different notions of leadership have different attributes that favor their specifications. Leadership refers to influence that someone has over others working towards the same goal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One notion is that a leader should be a servant leader. Others include transformational leader, courageous leader and inspirational leader.

Servant Leader Effective leader is one who serves others by providing what they need for growth, challenge, and building their confidence.

A leader should be able to teach others how to lead, provide opportunities for growth, provide diverse opinions and seek options from others, act with humility and be able to persuade and not authorize.

Persons with these traits can easily lead and get acceptance to initiate change in the organization because they give insight on issues that others may not comprehend.

Transformational Leader This leader is able to inspire others through enthusiasm and passion. They are energetic and concerned about the progress of their followers. Their personalities are able to inspire others to change perceptions, expectations and be motivated to work towards common goals.

They encourage creativity by challenging the status quo. They have clear visions that are able to challenge their followers’ actions towards same goals and fulfillment. They serve as role models hence of very much influence to individuals indebted to their perceptions and willingly follow their principles and guidelines.

Courageous Leaders These leaders bravely pursue their objectives despite possible oppositions and risks involved. Their convictions about their visions, missions, and values are so strong and openly speak up for them.

We will write a custom Coursework on Leadership and Motivation Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having strong belief about what is good for them and constantly trying to upraise them is their most important characteristic.

They always argue for nothing less than the truth as they try to achieve their short-term objectives. Their ability to hold up their rights gives them recognition at organizational levels as well as national levels hence are able to succeed in their endeavors.

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“A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz Critical Essay essay help

Written by Joshua Zeitz and published by Three Rivers Press in 2006, the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern is a chef-d’oeuvre piece of literature concerning the rise of ‘flapper’ in the 1920s.

Unfortunately, the contemporary generation of students, who were mainly born in the late 20th century, has no clue of what a flapper means. Conventionally, a flapper underscores a paradigm shift where women started agitating for their rights, thus leading to a sexual revolution.

Women abandoned most of the practices that their mothers and grandmothers applied in their lives. The book majors mainly on the distinguished and perhaps maverick individuals that delineated the ‘flapper’ ideology. Among these people were Zelda Fitzgerald, Lois Long, and Colleen Moore.

This paper is a critique of arguments and theses advanced by Joshua Zeitz coupled with highlighting how the author uses facts to make his point in the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern.

Analysis To highlight the thesis of sex revolution in the 1920s, Zeitz divides this masterwork piece into three distinct sections where he tackles different issues surrounding the ‘flapper’, which makes it easy to navigate through the book without getting lost.

The central theme in this book is to explore the rise and progression of flappers in the 1920s. In other words, the book highlights the birth of the fleshy party girl in the American context characterized by unorthodox way of living like conceitedness, hedonism, and inebriation.

Zeitz achieves this theme by doing intensive research to come up with real life examples of how the flapper lived. He starts by quoting from the all-time favorite writer, Scott Fitzgerald, of the illustrious The Great Gatsby, which shows how the author carried out in-depth research into the subject.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At one point Fitzgerald protests, “I know nothing about flappers…The idea that I am in any way interested in the number of knees on exhibition at the Biltmore lobby is extremely distasteful to me. You’d think I invented bobbed knees. I deny it” (Zeitz 2006, 48).

However, Zeitz maintains that Fitzgerald’s wife, Zelda, is the epitome of the ‘flapper’ thing due to her husband’s writings, which in effect makes Fitzgerald the inventor of the ‘bobbed knees‘ even though he denies it.

Therefore, Zeitz is not afraid of controversy and he does not want to come out as a populist, but he says it as he sees it, which is one of the strengths of this book.

After introducing the Fitzgeralds and their midwifery role in the birth of the ‘flapper’, Zeitz moves on to explore other women who accepted the idea of a flapper. He tackles Eugenia Kelly, Coco Channle, and Colleen Moore together with the booze-loving Lois Long.

The book carries critical information, which might not be found anywhere else in one volume concerning the rise of the modern American woman in the 1920s.

The compilation ultimately produces a one-stop material highlighting the changing face of feminism in the 1920s and the transition from the conventional Victorian whimsies to the empowered American woman, who could dress the way she wanted, date the person of her choice, spend the night partying and show up at work drunk the following day, and determine her future.

One of the many issues that I learnt from the book is that the winds of the American woman sexual liberation started blowing strongly in the 1920s and it never died as characterized by the rise of Paris Hilton among others.

We will write a custom Book Review on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author once again becomes controversial by stating that the ‘flapper’ wave was not just a fashion trend; on the contrary, it was a capitalist move to make profits out of the confusion and agitation.

Zeitz notes, “The pioneer merchants of cool invented the flapper for fun, for profit and for fame…In branding and selling her, they inaugurated that curious, modern cycle by which popular culture imitates life and life imitates popular culture” (2006, 9).

By deciding to give such controversial views, the author invigorates the book and stirs the reader into viewing the entire issue of women rights from another perspective.

However, inasmuch as the book is a masterpiece, it has its weaknesses. The first part of the three sections of the book is written with mastery as ideas are arranged systematically.

It starts by ushering in a key player in the making of the ‘flapper’ mentality, explores her before inviting the audience to other players who emulated the key player and ultimately closing with the pioneer person to make a complete account of events.

Unfortunately, the second and the last segments are poorly structured with mixed ideas. In addition, the pictures used in the book are placed haphazardly and they do not necessarily add any information to the pages where they are placed.

Finally, the author concentrated so much on ‘white-flappers’ without the mention of the contribution of the minority groups in the flapper campaign.

Conclusion Zeitz’s book highlights the birth and the rise of the American flapper in the 1920s.The author uses facts to back his claims by giving real life examples of the people who pioneered the flapper campaign including Zelda Fitzgerald.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author chooses controversy, which enlivens the book. However, the second and the third sections are weaker as compared to the first one in terms of structure.

Overall, the book is interesting and a worth read especially to the contemporary students who know very little or nothing about the rise of ‘flapper’ in the American society.

Reference Zeitz, Joshua. 2006. A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity and the Women Who Made America Modern. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.

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Negative Health Impacts Exemplification Essay essay help free: essay help free

There are myriads of negative health impacts that millions of people will continue to face as a consequence of climate change. The ill effects of global warming should be addressed with urgency. The earth’s climate is being affected by the disruptive human activities.

It is indeed true that the emission of greenhouse gases has immensely contributed to the devastating effects of global warming. Gaseous emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide usually restrict the dispatch of long wave radiation from the surface of the earth.

When this radiation combines with the short wave rays from the sun, a warming effect is created on the immediate surface of the earth (Smith and Wigley 448). These effects are multiplied several times and eventually result into global warming.

It is unfortunate that the key policy makers are not wiling to address the impact of global warming and offer a lasting solution. It does not require rocket science to understand that greenhouse gas emissions are harmful to the life of both plants and animals.

Most of the negative health outcomes of global warming are straightforward. For instance, enhanced pollen production, interruption of the hydrologic cycle and warmer temperatures may directly lead to poor quality of air, increase in morbidity, and intense exposure to heat stress.

Worse still, there are other potentially harmful indirect effects associated with the changes in climate. When the natural systems of the planet Earth are altered, both animal and plants are exposed to great danger. For example, we have witnessed several instances of erratic weather in different parts of the globe.

These include flooding, drought, desertification, hurricanes and tornados. The aforementioned risks have hampered access to vital natural resources such as food and water. Excess precipitation that leads to floods is not beneficial at all in the survival of plants and animals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, aridity and desertification are growing at a very high rate in some parts of the world. Eventually, the human population will have limited access to necessary food nutrients.

The latter is a direct impact of climate change that the developed world should be in a position to comprehend. Even the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has scantly addressed some of the scaring effects of climate change.

As it stands now, there is uncertainty on whether governments across the world are really interested or committed to control harmful emissions to the environment.

Ever since the Kyoto Protocol was ignored, subsequent global summits on climate change have hardly instituted firm measures that can be put in place in order to curb the derailing impacts of environment pollution.

The quota system of greenhouse gas emission was a viable proposal to cut down emissions. However, the future is greatly uncertain.

Water is one of the most precious natural commodities that sustain human and animal health (Villar and Jon 7). Nonetheless, lack of adequate water resources is currently a key global concern. Poor access to pure water has been aggravated by the effects of climate change and global warming.

Where are we heading to as a planet? Water table is below the sustainable level in some regions. A case example is the northern plain of China. Although the region supports large scale wheat farming, the ground water table has been dwindling at a very fast rate.

We will write a custom Essay on Negative Health Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recent estimates reveal that the level of ground water is diminishing at a rate of three meters per year. This implies that the region might eventually turn into an arid and semi arid zone. Second, India is spending 50% of its electricity expenses to facilitate irrigation.

Water has to be pumped from deep wells and transported some kilometers away in order to irrigate crops planted in the dry zone.

If such trends will continue, we can be assured that the human population may eventually be eliminated from the planet. It is not sustainable to irrigate crops in dry regions due to the high cost of operation.

The human population is also rapidly growing. A high population will translate into an increased demand for resources to sustain life. Consequently, the pace of industrial growth will equally skyrocket. The net effect will be the continued emission of greenhouse gases.

Hence, the pollution cycle will repeat itself. Nonetheless, such a dire situation does not mean that there are no solutions for the challenge. A case in point is the adoption of green energy revolution in the mass production of goods.

It is not mandatory to burn fossil fuels in order to generate energy. Scientific inventions can be adopted to replace rampant use of fossil fuels. The latter have already been suggested to policy makers. Nevertheless, it is taking too long to embrace the green energy solution.

Some of the clean energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels include solar energy, wind energy, nuclear power, geothermal energy and power from hydrogen. All of these clean energy sources have been tested and proven to be functional for both small and large scale production processes.

The world leaders should be asking themselves very critical questions regarding climate change and the associated ill effects on human health. From the readings, there is fear that the sea level will continue to rise as ice caps melt due to global warming (Myers and Aaron 35).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Negative Health Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some islands and beaches may finally submerge into oceans. The latter effect will also contribute significantly to the overall volume of liquid water on the planet. Will the increased amount of water volume affect the human population?

As already pointed out in the above section, food availability will be a challenge to grapple with in the future. In any case, food shortage in several parts of the world is a humanitarian issue that is being addressed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The latter is a subsidiary body of the United Nations (UN).

On a final note, it is pertinent to underscore the fact that human beings are solely responsible to conserve the environment. When we emit harmful gaseous compounds into the atmosphere, we risk our health.

As much as we should appreciate the role played by industrial revolution in economic development, it is also worthy to countercheck the negative effects associated with such developments. The economic and health benefits of industrialization should be keenly weighed against the detrimental impacts.

If climate change can lead to water scarcity, poor nutrition (due to inadequate supply of food), displacement of populations and gross deterioration of the natural ecosystems, then it is prudent for world leaders and policy makers to address the menace urgently.

We may end up phasing out the entire human population that we purport to safeguard through industrialization (Houghton 76).

Works Cited Houghton, Theodore. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Myers, Samuel and Bernstein, Aaron. “The Coming Health Crisis”. The Scientist. 2007: 32-37. Print.

Smith, Steven and Tom Wigley. “Global Warming Potentials: 1. Climatic Implications of Emissions Reductions.” Climatic Change 44. 4 (2000): 445-457.Print.

Villar, Ana and Krosnick, Jon. “Global Warming Vs. Climate Change, Taxes Vs. Prices: Does Word Choice Matter?” Climatic Change 105.1 (2011): 1-12. Print.

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Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Exploration

Production

Storage

Transport

Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector

Conclusion

References

Introduction Petroleum products are used in different sectors as energy and raw materials for various industries. According to Leffler and Raymond (2006), oil is one of the most important commodities in the world market. It has a massive impact on other sectors of the economy.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States was the leading producer of oil in the world. It has since been surpassed by Saudi Arabia and Russia in production of oil. However, the government has been committing a lot of investment in this sector.

The federal government has been keen to develop the infrastructure in the energy sector in order to boost production of energy. Although other units in the energy sector ,such as hydro, geothermal and wind energy power, have been given focus, attention has always been on the petroleum sector.

The United States has been willing to ensure that it has increased the volume of petroleum products that it produced. This has seen it improve the infrastructure in this sector to great extents.

Recent studies show that the United States has the capacity of becoming the leading oil producer in the world based on the oil reserves that have been identified in the recent past. The focus of this study will be to bring an understanding of how oil exploration, production, storage, transport, and refinement take place.

Exploration Oil exploration is one of the most complex and very expensive processes in petroleum production. Parkash (2003) defines petroleum exploration as, “The search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbons deposits beneath the Earth’s surface, such as oil and natural gas.”

This process involves different complex processes that would help in determining the presence of oil in a given region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the United States, oil exploration has evolved over the years, from the use of a simple tool to tap petroleum products that were near the surface to complex processes that can help determine the presence of oil in the deep seas. The cost of oil exploration has been the main hindrance to small scale oil exploration in the country.

Oil exploration can take place at onshore or offshore sites. Some of the traditional ways of determining the presence of oil is the detection of oil or natural gas seeps on the surface of the earth. These are the crucial leads to many oil explorers.

According to Parkash (2003), although there are currently many sophisticated tools that are used to detect the presence of petroleum, the seeps still act as crucial leads to the possibility of oil exploration beneath the ground.

Exploration geophysics has been one of the most important tools that are currently used to identify the presence of hydrocarbons deposit.

As a result of the massive cost of drilling oil wells, there has been an increasing need to confirm that there is a substantial amount of oil in a given region before drilling of the wells can begin. Technological advancement has helped develop some tools that can assist in confirming that the amount of oil detected is worth exploring.

This means that when a region is suspected to have oil deposits, it will be subjected to a series of sub-surface geological analyses. The first stage is always to subject the area to gravity survey. Special tools are used at this stage to determine how gravitational force is affected in that particular area.

Significant presence of oil deposits would have an effect on the gravitational force, a fact that could point to the presence of oil. However, presence of ground water may have a similar effect, and this means that a further analysis is needed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stage will be magnetic survey. This is used to determine if the gravitational effect is caused by water or deposits of hydrocarbons. Magnetometer is used at this stage. The next stage would be to conduct a passive seismic survey.

Parkash (2003) says, “Passive seismic is the detection of the natural low frequency earth movements, usually with the purpose of discerning the geological structure and locate the underground oil, gas, or other resources.”

The natural frequency would be measured by close observation of seismic waves with the help of portable seismometers. Below is a picture of seismometer used in monitoring the flow of seismic waves.

Seismometer

When all these processes give a lead to a possible presence of oil in a given location, then it would be considered worth drilling an exploration well that would be the final test that a given region has potential oil deposits.

In the United States, oil explorations have been extensively conducted in Georgia, Virginia, Ohio, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and many other states in this country.

Offshore exploration, especially in the deep sea, has also been conducted to supplement the supplies found onshore. Although very expensive, offshore oil drilling is currently becoming very popular, especially among large American corporations.

Production Petroleum production, also known as oil extraction, is the actual process of extracting usable petroleum from the earth. Upon a successful completion of the exploration process, the next step is always the extraction. This is another very costly process that involves numerous risks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been a preserve for the large specialized companies, such as Bio Tech Inc., that have been very successful in most of the oil fields in Texas. The first stage in oil extraction involves drilling of oil well at the site using oil rings. A steel pipe is then placed into the bore to enable the oil to move easily to the surface.

At the top end of the pipe, there are collection valves, also known as Christmas Tree (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). It helps in controlling the flow and regulating the pressure. The figure below is Pump jack used in the extraction process.

According to Zou (2013), oil extraction takes place in three main stages. The first, also known as the primary recovery stage, takes place when natural mechanisms are used to extract oil deposits into the surface.

At this stage, such natural occurrences as displacement of oil by water and gravitational forces would help in the extraction of oil from the ground. This always takes place in cases where there are large deposits of oil. This stage is common in newly drilled wells.

The second stage, also known as the secondary recovery stage, takes place when the natural forces become too weak to support the extraction process. This is common in cases where the extraction process has been ongoing for some time.

The process involves supplying external energy into the reservoir in order to force oil deposits into the system. Totten (2003) notes that gas lifts are always used to inject carbon dioxide into the reservoir to help in forcing oil products into the drilling pipe.

The third stage known as tertiary recovery is a complex process that uses different approaches to extract oil from the ground. Also known as thermally enhanced oil recovery process, this stage uses steam injection and fire flooding in order to extract oil from the ground.

Sometimes it even becomes necessary to convert oil into electrical energy to further enhance the extraction process. The ultimate amount of oil that can be extracted from a given location depends on a number of factors.

According to Parkash (2003), the most important factor that determines the amount of oil that can be extracted from a given area is the level of oil deposits. Large oil deposits would yield higher amounts of oil. Another important factor is the permeability of the rocks.

Some rocks do not allow for a smooth flow of oil because they are tight. Such rocks inhibit the rate at which oil can be extracted from them.

Finally, the technology used and the level of skills of the workforce will play some part in determining the amount and rate at which oil is extracted from the ground.

Most of the oil extracting companies in the United States are known to use sophisticated tools in order to improve the speed and amount of oil extracted from the ground. This has helped them increase the efficiency of the entire process.

Storage When petroleum products have been extracted from the ground, they must be temporarily stored before they are transported to the refinery plants. According to Parkash (2003), storage of petroleum products can be analyzed from two perspectives.

The first perspective will analyze the storage process of the crude oil just before it is transported to refinery plants.

The second perspective will be the storage of the processed products that are waiting for transportation to various retailing destinations. Storage of oil always takes place within a short while as it awaits its transportation to the relevant destinations. Storage of crude oil may take place onshore or offshore.

The approach taken to store oil extracted onshore is different from the approach taken to store that which is extracted offshore. Onshore crude oil storage is a simpler process that makes use of large cylindrical tanks constructed above or below the surface.

The size of the tanks will depend on the amount of oil that is extracted per unit time, and the speed of the transportation system. It is important to ensure that the storage tanks are of the standard materials because any leakage of the crude oil may have a devastating effect on the environment.

Several government agencies and environmental organizations have developed requirements that should be followed when designing such tanks. This is meant to enhance environmental protection and security of the employees and infrastructure within the plant or its surrounding.

The petroleum products extracted offshore are always stored with the help of floating production, storage and offloading unit (Zou 2013).

This is a complex unit that does not only help in the production process but also in its storage while it awaits tankers that would be used in the transportation process. The figure below shows the unit on high seas.

When the crude oil has been processed into such products as liquid petroleum gas, petrol, kerosene, or heavy fuels, temporary storage of these products is needed before they can be transported to the market. Storage of these final products is a very complex process that requires a high level of safety measures.

Liquid petroleum gas and petrol are highly flammable products, and their storage at the refinery plants needs specialized equipment. According to Leffler (2008), emerging technologies have helped improvise storage equipment that is efficient in storing refined petroleum products.

Transport Transportation is the nest stage in this process. Transportation of petroleum products always takes place with the help of pipelines, tank trucks, marine vessels, rail tanks, and many other vessels.

Although crude oil is majorly transported using pipelines and tankers, the refined products require unique transport systems that take into consideration their true nature.

For instance, the transport method used for liquid petroleum gas may not be appropriate when transporting heavy fuels, such as diesel. Each product has its own unique transportation vessel to enhance safety of the people handling the products, the society, and the environment.

Transportation of gasoline must be done through specialized pipelines, tanks, and such other containers that will restrict its exposure to the air. This is so because the product is highly flammable and can have devastating effects when exposed to air and flame.

Liquid petroleum gas is stored and transported at temperatures below -162 degrees centigrade. This helps ensure that the product remains in a liquid state. The main advantage of liquefaction of the product is that it consumes a smaller space than when stored in a gaseous form.

This helps in storing and transportation of a large amount of the gaseous energy in a small container. This also reduces the possibility of the product to evaporate from the containers.

The transportation equipment must have the ability to maintain the temperatures of the product at low temperatures to avoid the possibility of transformation into gas. If the product turns into gaseous form, it can cause a massive explosion as it will be trying to force its way out of the container.

Large tankers have been widely used in the transportation of liquefied petroleum gas in the mainland. The figure below shows a large track used to transport LPG from the refinery to various consumer outlets in the United States.

In the United States, pipelines have been popular when transporting petrol and other heavy fuels, such as diesel and kerosene. Pipelines are efficient because of their speed and cost-effectiveness.

This eliminates the need for large tank tracks that are associated with more labor cost, raised negative effect on the environment, destruction of roads, and increased rates of the traffic jam.

However, it needs close monitoring and evaluation to ensure that any leakage is detected and corrected before it can cause negative effects on the environment.

Some of the widely used pipelines include flow lines, gathering and feeder lines, crude trunk lines, and petroleum product trunk lines (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). Other heavy products, such as bitumen are transported in sizable drums.

Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S Refinery of petroleum products is a complex process that involves a series of activities within the refinery plant.

Zou (2013) defines refinery process as, “A series of chemical engineering processes that are used to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.”

The scholar says that the processes that take place during the refinery are so complex that it may not be easy to describe them in a layman’s language.

However, the process can be summarized into some of the general stages that crude oil is subjected to before it can produce the desired products. The figure below is a simple diagrammatic representation of what takes place in a refinery plant.

As shown in the diagram, crude oil is a combination of several products that are needed in various sectors to provide energy. In the refinery plant, crude oil is poured into a large boiler. The boiler is connected to a distillation chamber as shown in the above diagram.

The boiler is superheated, forcing its content into the distillation column. At this distillation column, different products will be obtained based on their boiling points in a process known as fractional distillation.

Light petroleum products, such as liquid petroleum gas, will be collected first because of their low boiling points. Gasoline and kerosene will follow.

Heavy petroleum products, such as asphalt, would come out of the distillation chamber last. Although the diagram shows a simple process, the actual refinery process is complex and involves the use of a series of machines.

Some of the leading oil refinery plants in the United States include Cherry Point in Washington, Whiting in Indiana, Toledo in Ohio, Cooper River, Texas City in Texas, and Decatur in Alaska.

These products are then sold to some of the major distributors of petroleum products using the above mentioned transport methods. These distributors will make the products available by any appropriate means.

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector Oil sector is the backbone of all other industries in the American economy. Accidents in this sector or acts of terrorism targeted towards it may have devastating effects.

For this reason, security measures are crucial to ensure that this sector operates without any threat of accidents or terrorist actions. Measures and codes of conduct have been put in place to enhance security and safety of this sector.

These measures were under review, especially after the Texas City Refinery explosion in 2005. The diagram below shows the massive destruction that was caused by this explosion. Fifteen people died while over 170 others sustained serious injuries.

The security measures define the standards and codes of conduct that should be observed in all the stages defined. According to Mora and Cooney (2007), dangers in this sector begin during the exploration process, to the time the product is finally consumed.

Government bodies have set standards that seek to ensure that exploration is done in a way that does not expose dangers to the environment. The policies define tools that should be used in the exploration and drilling processes.

The recent deep sea oil spillage involving BP is a clear indication of dangers that may occur when these policies are ignored. At the refinery plant, there are guidelines that define the infrastructure to be used and code that must be followed during the processing of the products.

The government has also established tough laws to regulate the transportation of these products, such as the Safety Standards for Conveyers and Related Equipment.

Conclusion Petroleum products are very important to many sectors of the economy because they offer the energy needed to drive various machines and instruments.

The process of coming up with these products is very complex. It starts with the exploration, extraction, transport, refinery, storage, and finally distribution to various outlets within the country and in other overseas markets.

References Leffler, W. L. (2008). Petroleum refining in nontechnical language. Tulsa, Okla: PennWell.

Leffler, W. L., Pattarozzi, R.,

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