Escalation Report College Essay Help

Executive Summary One of the main causes of loss for businesses is the escalation of commitment to projects which are failing. It occurs when decision makers go on with a project even when there is adequate evidence and information which shows that investing more resources on the project will not change the tides and create value for the investment.

A lot of time is wasted primarily because more time is spent on useless projects than is necessary. Getting insight on this subject is important for an aerospace organisation as it will assist in ensuring that the company identifies any such problems and deals with them effectively. This will save the company a lot of resources particularly in terms of time and money.

This report aims to highlight the dangers of escalation and ways to manage these dangers. In addition, the causes of escalation and recommendations on how the company can best manage escalation are discussed.

Introduction Escalation refers to persistence with a project or a certain course of action beyond a financially reasonable point. Some theorists claim that escalation is due to wrong decision-making (Bazerman 2004). Escalation is very costly to an organisation because large sums of money must be used to sustain these projects. The managers spend more money on past projects which have a small probability of success instead of starting new projects (Desai

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North Korea Nuclear Issue Research Paper a level english language essay help

In June 2009, the regime in North Korea declared that it would transform its plutonium stockpiles into nuclear weapons in response to the latest round of sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council to punish Pyongyang for going ahead with its nuclear testing programmes (MacAskill para. 1). Although analysts perceive the nuclear issue as an artificial crisis developed by North Korea for the objective of blackmailing the West, all indicators point to the fact that Pyongyang’s nuclear threat is real.

The regime is believed to be in possession of sufficient plutonium for at least six deadly nuclear bombs. Also, the regime is believed to be in possession of an estimated 8,000 spent fuel rods that could facilitate the harvesting of 6-8kgs of plutonium if they are reprocessed (MacAskill para. 10).

According to nuclear analysts, this quantity is enough to manufacture one nuclear bomb. This paper purposes to discuss the threats posed by North Korea’s nuclear material, the basis of a rational settlement between the US and the regime, and the role of Japan and China in the whole process.

A possible Nuclearization of North Korea will have a negative consequence on the whole of Asia. The prospects of nuclear armed North Korea will definitely pose a major hazard to South Korea, in addition to offering the regime a chance to enhance its policy of communizing the south (Evans para. 31).

Allowing North Korea to arm itself with nuclear weapons may indeed occasion a nuclear domino outcome in the whole of Northeast Asia as other countries within the region may also want to arm themselves with nuclear weapons to counter or neutralize Pyongyang’s nuclear capacity. Such an arrangement will inarguably threaten world peace, in addition to putting the entire Asian region in the whirlpool of a nuclear arms race.

This would definitely lead to a nuclear proliferation cascade in the region due to the fact that countries such as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will be offered the incentives to arm themselves with nuclear weapons. Given the nature and temperament of leaders in the regime, a nuclear armed North Korea will definitely occasion aggressive activities, further destabilizing the Northeast region in particular and the whole world in general (Barry 41).

Finally, if the regime in North Korea disintegrates or is toppled when in possession of nuclear arsenal, the world peace will be undeniably threatened by the loose nuclear weapons which may find their way into renowned terrorist networks such as the Taliban and alQaeda.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many Analysts believe that a suitable settlement between the US and North Korea on the nuclear issue cannot be achieved by taking hard-line stances or branding the regime in North Korea ‘an axis of evil’ as former US president George Bush once said during his State of The Union address (Evans para. 42).

Also, a peaceful solution to the issue cannot be realized by criminalizing North Korea’s nuclear activities, and thereby seeking for blanket punishment. One of the most viable options in the quest of finding a long-lasting solution to the nuclear issue is the use of dialogue and diplomacy. Bilateral consultations between the US and the defiant North Korea as well as multilateral consultations between the US and North Korea’s neighbours in Northeast Asia will definitely bring results (Sang-Jin 12).

Some critics may want to point out that such talks have been tried before and failed. Comprehensive research reveals that these bilateral and multilateral talks fail since stakeholders, especially the US, goes into the talks with a predetermined course of action (Barry 41). This should be discouraged since the talks must be flexible and appealing to both sides.

To secure the world peace, the nuclear issue pitying the US and North Korea should be solved through a give-and-take framework (Barry 41). Incentives and disincentives should be used rather than threats of military intervention to ensure the North Korean regime stops its nuclear ambitions.

The role of China and Japan in the peaceful resolution of the nuclear issue is both critical and urgent. China, for instance, has more communication conduits with the North Korean regime than any other country as it supplies it with food and fuel (Evans para. 50).

As such, China can be influential in convincing the regime to surrender its nuclear ambitions in exchange of incentives such as financial and technological aid. Beijing’s proactive diplomacy can be constructively used to resolve the impending destructive crisis (NTI para. 4). This is because China has played the role of an arbiter to the crisis, and is averagely respected by the generals in Pyongyang.

During times when the nuclear issue seems to get out of control, China has always found a way of appealing to both the US and Pyongyang to exercise restraint and flexibility, not mentioning the fact that it has been at the forefront in arranging tripartite meetings between the US, North Korea and Beijing to discuss the issue.

We will write a custom Research Paper on North Korea Nuclear Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japan’s role in the whole process cannot be underestimated. Although Japan has a direct interest in the whole issue due to its captured people during the cold war (Parry para. 3), it has continued to normalize its relationship in ways that would contribute to the wellbeing, peace and stability of the region. Japan has indeed hosted several bilateral and multilateral meetings while pursuing active diplomacy instead of blatant threats to ensure that an amicable solution is found.

Works Cited Barry, M.P. North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the US. International Journal on World Peace, 24:37-41.

Evans, L. Two Panels Debate U.S. – North Korea Nuclear Options. UCLA Asia Institute. 2003. Web.

MacAskill, E. North Korea Declares all-Out Push for Nuclear Weapons. The Guardian. 2009. Web.

NTI. China and the North Korean Nuclear Issue. 2003. Web.

Parry, R.L. North Korea’s Nuclear Deal Leaves Japan Feeling Nervous. Times Online. 2005. Web.

Sang-Jin, S. Chinese role in solving the DPRK’s Nuclear Programme: A Korean Perspective. 2004. Web.

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Martin Luther’s Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation as a Historical Document Essay essay help: essay help

Martin Luther was one of the most famous and influential theology professors of the 16th century, who supported the Protestant Reformation and truly believed that God’s punishment could not be abolished by means of money. His Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation was the call for all German nobles in order to reform the church and prove that the Bible was the only reliable source about Christ, his ideas, and suggestions of how to obtain forgiveness.

This document should be regarded as a political, religious, and historical one, because Martin Luther made a wonderful attempt to identify the audience of his speech and provided several reasons of why this document could become influential from several perspectives. He also explained why the church had to be changed, why it was so important to hurry, and what outcomes had to be expected.

The temporal German nobles had the same authority as any clergymen in the Roman church, this is why they had opportunities to change the situation and made it better. Martin Luther cried aloud for help and asked God to save them in the name of people, and saw nobles as the leaders, who could provide people with fresh hope and break down the walls, which divide people into poor and rich against God.

According to its meaning, a historical document is considered to be any paper that was written in the past and aimed at helping people to comprehend own history, events, and society. Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation is an excellent example of a historical document because it provides us with a chance to learn more about the events, which happened in the past, and how the Roman church could control people, their emotions, thoughts, and actions.

“This it is no compels me to cry out and call upon God to send down his Spirit upon some one who shall reach out a hand to this wretched people” (Luther 1520). Luther (1520) admitted that “a certain man” and his cunning was the source of the evil. Of course, because of his angry and hostility to the Pope, the reader comprehends who is represented under the image of a “certain man” and why his actions are so wrong according to Martin Luther.

One of the most powerful means that Martin Luther used in his letter is the idea to stir up national feelings and provoke each citizen to rebel against the temporal author. It was not surprising that Luther paid much attention to the challenges and troubles, ordinary people could face with.

The more offended people could hear his words, the more people would support him and his ideas to reform. Another strong point of this letter is a proper structure and clear appeal. He defined the public, he underlined the problems, and he offered an appropriate step-by-step strategy to fight against the Pope.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, along with numerous advantages of the letter, Martin Luther did not take into consideration one little detail. It could happen that some rich people were dissatisfied with Pope’s authority as well and cast away possible support of wealthy people. The weakness of the letter is Luther’s one-sided discontent. He was so angry with the idea that only poor people faced challenges with sins’ remission, so that he did not have time or even desire to analyze the challenges of people from other classes.

Address to the Christian Nobility is Luther’s suggestion to break down three walls: “the Romanists have, with great adroitness, draw three walls round themselves, with which they have hitherto protected themselves, so that no one could reform them, whereby all Christendom has suffered terribly” (Luther 1520).

He underlined that spiritual power had to be higher them temporal power, and the nobles’ authority was considerable enough to change the reforms, offered by the Romanists, this was why those people, as no one else, should be respected and asked to help other people to protect themselves.

For that period of time, it was too dangerous to say aloud what challenges the Church created to European people, this is why Luther’s approach to create three walls and promote their destruction is a brilliant idea that should be comprehended by those, who was interested in the reforms.

Luther was too angry with the Pope, who used money as the major means to pay off for the sins. Luther denied the idea of buying forgiveness, this was why he decided to create a kind of denial to the Pope’s ideas and reforms and offer people to destroy the wall of Pope’s authority.

“I believe in the holy Christian Church,’ the Pope cannot alone be right; else we must say, ‘I believe in the Pope of Rome’” (Luther 1520). Luther said that Pope’s authority could not be announced till other people accept his authority, and he believed that if nobles denied Pope’s authority, the opportunity to change the church would appear.

The influence of Luther’s address to the nobility is regarded as one of the most considerable steps in the history of the 16th century. His suggestions, his discontent with temporal Church, and his trust to German nobility have solid backgrounds.

We will write a custom Essay on Martin Luther’s Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation as a Historical Document specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He explicated that current world and the politics of the Church was “not only open robbery and deceit and the prevailing of the gates of hell, but it is a destroying the very life and soul of Christianity” (Luther 1520). It was obligatory to stop their actions and provide all people with a chance to communicate with God from the same line without attention to financial and social status.

In general, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation is a reliable historical document that aims at providing people with the information about the state of affairs between the Church and society at the beginning of the 16th century. The strong point of this document is its attention to both poor and rich people, their demands, and possibilities to meet these demands.

The weakness of the document is that Martin Luther took one position only, contrary to the Pope, this is why the description of the affairs goes from one wretched side. And according to Martin Luther, nobility was the only level of the population, who could influence the Church reforms and take into consideration the demands of poor people in order to strengthen their own positions and use poor people’s support.

Reference List Luther, Martin. 1520. Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. Web.

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Human Nature: “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction In the observation of human behaviours examined in Machiavelli book, “The Prince”, he offers advice to the leaders especially politicians regarding how to gain and remain in power. People regard a prince as someone destined to inherit controlled leadership. The prince as illustrated in this text was someone with no secure measures to gain and retain the power.

If carefully considerations are made, some of the earlier tactics implemented in the Prince case are applicable for today’s leadership as they were way before in the sixteenth century. In his illustrations, Machiavelli exemplifies ideas over leadership styles as harsh and brutal. These might be the presentation pointing to the science in the political world. This paper is forms an analytical perspective of the Machiavelli’s book with regards to Human Nature.

Relevant aspects of ‘The Prince’ Principalities

According to Machiavelli, presentation of the laws of rule occurred through “Republics or Principalities”. The basis of the rule of principality is hereditary or established through the family lines. How are the rules of principalities supposed to be preserved?

As opposed to the freelance style of leadership, one of the difficulties over the heredity or one family customized leadership style that reflects to a hierarchical prince is the ability to contravene the ancestral background to be in a position of prudently control the outcome of circumstances as they arise in the modern world. (16)

Accurate and clear presentation of relevant aspects of ‘The Prince’ Statesmanship

According to Machiavelli, good laws emerge from good governance probably by utilizing the military style; he wrote that the military forces are the indication for safe law enforcement. An illustrated war is as a necessity for leadership but not definitive element of development in various states. Logically all states may have been build through violence and ‘The Prince’ indicates the possibilities of conducting a good and productive war.

Much productiveness provided on this text shows efficiency in “diplomacy, domestic politics, tactical strategies, geographical mastery and historical analysis”. War entails more than just physical encounter by military forces. From ‘The Prince’ context, “all armed prophets have succeeded and all unarmed ones have failed; in addition to what has already been said, people are by nature changeable.” (Machiavelli, 27)

Goodwill

Love from followers is not a requirement for a prince to remain in power but it is crucial for him to avoid hate by all possible ways. Fear is much better as opposed to hatred since the latter can cause easy downfall from power. In his advocacy on utility of cruelty in leadership, Machiavelli did not compromise people’s special long-term goodwill. He illustrated goodwill as the best defensive mechanism over domestic rebellion and foreign hostility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Freewill

According to Machiavelli (86), properly achieved power is through competence and affluence is termed as “Fortune”, which is just by chance while competence is, “Prowess” which is more connected to talent. Determined power is therefore by a person’s freewill and the nature of the environment.

People have the power of shaping the destiny through confidence but this confidence is never absolute, therefore people can be able to shield against “fortune’s vicissitudes” through foresight. According to Machiavelli, (86) earlier leadership style compared fortune to a woman who, in order to be mastered needed to be jogged and beaten.

Virtue

As Machiavelli puts it, virtue is the quality of a leadership praised by others. These may include but not limited to “generosity, compassion, and piety”. A good leader tries to appear confident and virtuous but this is not always supportive of principality. There are aspects pursued for the advantage of the state and not personal benefit. For instance, a prince should not employ cruelty or dishonesty if it benefits the state. It is important to conceive such measures with the measure of its impact to the state and not “its intrinsic moral values”.

Machiavelli’s guidelines over human nature In line with Machiavelli’s writing, “Love endures by a bond which men, being scoundrels, may break whenever it serves as an advantage to do so; but fear is supported by the dread of pain, which is ever present.” (90)

This translates that human nature unsurprisingly builds some traits such as self-interest, and dynamic human affections. As long as someone is not subject to a bad act then happiness prevails. People feel obliged to response when they receive a favour or service. According to Machiavelli, achieving loyalty is possible but when friendliness is never complete, it is lost.

An average powered prince should well established along the authority commanded and should have little or no cause for offending. The relationship with people will be strong and such leaders experience love unless unexpected misdemeanours cause hatred. It also translates that the subjects of such a leader are “naturally disposed towards him”. One change creates memories or intentions marshalled towards such a leader’s style or connected to her/his style of leadership and it recurs with commencing problems for another idea.

The reasons to investigate human nature business wise or professionally Machiavelli does not portray how leadership would be like within a civil government setting. Winning and losing people’s affection is common and they remain happy if there is no suffering or oppression due to failure. During the dissimilar or stressful times the same characteristics of trustworthiness portrayed during prosperous times changes to selfishness, deceitfulness, and profit-driven traits.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Nature: “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Business wise people admire respect, liberality, courage and faithfulness but the virtue of trust among them is left bearing in mind their ambitious nature just as if leaders are over-ambitious.

With regard to the ways that a leader can come into power as indicated in “The Prince” (53), prowess means ability to have personal skills and aptitude. This is a much more demanding way of obtaining status than concentrating on mare good luck. Good luck means dependence on charity or goodwill from friends. Also referred to as fortune, luck is quite unpredictable and may lead to a deposition as it had brought the prosperity.

Compared to prowess it is advisable for one to use personal skills to maintain the rules. Use of crime is also common phenomenon in leadership but a good manager should maintain leadership rules. “Crimes, coup, conspiracy or assassination” poses a great risk to the leader, they may lead to cruelty over the main subject matter affecting the business due to hatred or bitterness among the general population in this case employees. (54).

A good leader does not work to gain power but respect, which is a combination of both power and glory. “The answer is, of course, that it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved.” (Machiavelli, 60)

The mixed principalities over human nature Any new principal in leadership encounters natural difficulties. People change rulers willingly as they seek better results and this makes them to become incoherent and against the ruler. Naturally, considering this as a deception, such reactions normally lead from bad to worse scenarios. The burden befalls those who stand submitted and in solidarity of new acquisitions. Such a leader must therefore have goodwill for the people to prosper. According to Machiavelli (5), “the prince, with little reluctance, takes the opportunity of the rebellion to punish the delinquents, to clear out the suspects, and to

Success and failures of Machiavelli’s Theory of human nature Some of the evident successes of the theories include the in-depth analysis of human nature in order to formulate recommendations for rulers. Some of the evident points included the personality, which portrays leaders as interested in themselves. They continuously have the mindset of “What’s in it for me”.

During their tenure, the focus is on honour or property as opposed to people’s needs. Evidently, to date, financial greed motivates leaders but forces them to stay put satisfied with the general states of affairs. Nevertheless, they still aim at achieving more powers by aspiring diligently unless compromised to react otherwise by external forces.

Machiavelli noted, “When neither their property nor honour is touched, the majority of men live content lives”. In this scenario, it is evidently true that they react in a trustworthy manner in good times or when they have different motives that will enable them to achieve some personal gain and at time of distress, they react dishonestly.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Nature: “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Today there is continuous buying of leadership but the leaders forget that bought friends are not true and are prone to radical changes. If the lack of accrued friendship by magnitude or through dignity of mind occurs, then it is not secure or reliable because it is prone to radical change within no time.

On the perspective of the same theories, Machiavelli acknowledges other virtues such as skills, wisdom, strength, high-quality decision-making ability, cunning, freewill and prowess. There are also fortune aspects such as luck/chance, probabilities, variations and external forces, which are basis for a leader’s control.

In his argument, they play an important role in controlling human behaviour and proceedings and carry nearly similar significance and control as the outcomes. “Therefore a prince will not actually need to have all the qualities previously mentioned, but he must surely seem to have them. Indeed, I would go so far as to say that having them all and always conforming to them would be harmful, while appearing to have them would be useful.” (Machiavelli, 63)

The failure of these assumptions is time since freewill was not common then as it is today. Other writes based their theories and thought to be beyond human control. Today as opposed to earlier times, people do not base event procedures to religions and believes but reality and logic.

They believe exclusively on divine destiny. It is barely impossible to base leadership on imitation of others as suggested by Machiavelli. It is equally ridiculous to learn traits of leadership from observing animal’s behaviours as he relates some virtues of leaderships such as strength and ferocity to the loin and slyness, cunning, understanding, and ability to manoeuvre through enemies to the fox.

One major question is whether a leader should be loved, feared or hated. Most leaders would choose love and fear at the same time but they rarely rhyme. It is therefore safer fearing a leader than loving.

The aspect that men would love according to personal will and fear out of will my be a personal opinion based upon the theory that they react in a dishonest manner while this do not go well, while break even when it is advantageous to them. “I conclude that since men love as they themselves determine but fear as their ruler determines a wise prince must rely upon what he and not others can control.” (Machiavelli, 61) The anxiety for punishment preserves fear and this generally never fail.

Conclusion Writing of “The prince” does not advocate for cruelty or other vices for leadership, but vices are for the reason that they safeguard prosperity of the state. Since a virtue should not take precedence over the state’s affairs, although admirable, avoiding generosity during leadership tenure is important because it may be a detrimental factor over future prosperity of the state. According to the cases portrayed by Machiavelli (57), a leader acts generously to produce the best consequences and that is the nature for utilitarianism

The Virtue of human nature in relation to “The Prince” According to Machiavelli, the basis of the ruler who in the office has the capability vary the personal conduct from good to evil and vice versa as the fortune or circumstances dictates. (66) Incidentally, virtue has a close connection to Machiavelli notion regarding power. Through virtue, a ruler is bund to competence in situations concerning application of power in politics as a touchstone for political success.

Thru understanding of virtues such, as right or wrong both ancient and modern ideas propose a theory of human nature. From the classical sense of the term virtue, Machiavelli interpretation of human nature shows a completely different angle and assumption compared to the modern definition and classical interpretation of the same.

For instance, the modern definition of human nature indicates non-existence of a connection between politics and moral virtue. The classical view on the other hand indicates them as connected.

Kantian theory The Kantian account of human nature indicates the biological nature of human beings with the complexity of the human mental abilities. Description of various predispositions is in terms of the purposes served. They provide the grounds for casual regulations, which determine human cognition, desires and feelings in relation to the environment. The argument taken by this study indicates existence of good empirical anthropology as the basis for an argument about moral claims of human beings.

The argument placed by Machiavelli indicates that free republics are pacifistic and certainly, the best for royal expansion and a guarantee for state survival. This is a classical and not democratic style of leadership .Machiavelli thought was that it would degenerate to tyranny founded on the modern style of liberal overview of elementary human rights. According to him, the powerful people threatened tyranny because they wanted to dominate while the mass reaction was against such dominance.

He believes in liberal imperialism, whereby people love glorifications and seeks to rule or avoid oppression. This is an indication that people want more for their personal and state’s gain as opposed to just the material interests. The historical records on post war periods of United States support Machiavelli argument but modern records conflicts since over liberty indicate questionable insights over control thus outweighing aggressiveness.

The pragmatic theory of human nature The philosophical definition of truth is the opinion ultimately agreed upon by those concerns. It is an agreement with reality over decisions and it works towards the human satisfaction. The theory attempts to outlay the consequences of emotions in relation to nature of concept and methods involved in governance.

Machiavelli adopted the position of pragmatic and principals through the experience. His writing of “the prince” he references the greatly on France because of his vast experience as a diplomat and secretary in the government. His writing contains no overenthusiastic praise of the monarchy system of hereditary governance, which supposedly was to promote superiority of the republicans.

His aim was to praise the republican style of governance over the monarchy system. Even the most excellent monarchy system of governance lacks the salient quantities. His work however praise the France monarchy system because of their excellence in dedication to the law compared to other kingdoms. “The kingdom of France is moderated more by laws than any other kingdom of which at our time we have knowledge,” Machiavelli declares (314)

Works Cited Machiavelli, Niccolao, 1469-1527. “The prince”. New York, NY: Penguin Classics Press 2003

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Cooperation versus Competition Approach in Learning and Evaluation of Student Achievement Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Within the last few decades, the general nature of strategies used in learning and evaluation of students’ progress in American schools has dramatically changed to coincide with changing educational needs and rapid advances in technology.

Consecutive studies have revealed that performance of students in educational tasks is affected by a multiplicity of influences that includes the social economic status, language barriers, school experiences, ethnic orientation and learning styles.

To date, the established explanatory models of educational performance have remained centered on internal characteristics to explain academic achievement, including unconstructive self concept, unproductive cultural attitudes and values towards education, bilingualism, low intelligence capacity, and apathy (Madrid et al, 2007, p. 155).

However, many educators are of the opinion that these explanations are not supported by available literature. In this respective, a significant debate interested in looking at how students can be assisted to achieve more optimally in class has been in the offing. It is the purpose of this paper to detail and compare cooperation and competition approaches in relation to learning and evaluation of student achievement.

Competition, Cooperation and Human Nature Many of the challenges that plague education in the 21st century can be better comprehended when viewed within the context of competition-corporation framework. Before getting into educational matters, it is imperative to note how the two concepts influence human nature. It is indeed true that many of the greatest accomplishments made by Americans as a society can only be credited to their strong and passionate competitiveness.

This view can greatly be supported by the US enterprise system that instills competitive views into the human nature. According to Astin (2000), “individuals [should be] given the maximum opportunity to compete with each other for the largest possible share of resources and rewards in society” (p. 182). In cooperation, human progress is viewed as a manifestation of our capacity to cooperate with each other towards the realization of some common objectives.

This view holds that achievement in every faculty of life must never be perceived as a conquest in the struggle with other individuals or as a triumph of the environment (Astin, 2000, p. 183). Within cooperation activities, people work together to achieve shared outcomes that are beneficial to themselves as well as other group members (“Cooperative Learning,” n.d., para. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brief Overview of Cooperation and Competition Learning Educators and policy makers have used the concepts of cooperation and competition to understand the learning process and evaluate students’ progress or achievement. Cooperative learning is the instructional utilization of group dynamics in the learning process, which enable the learners to work together in the effort of enhancing their own benefits as well as that of other students within the group (“Cooperative Learning,” n.d., para. 1).

In cooperative learning, students are organized into small groups after getting the learning materials and instructions from the teacher. Learners are then supposed to work on the given task until they comprehend it as a group, not as individuals. This concept reinforces the view that success in the learning process or achievement of students must never be perceived as a conquest in the struggle with other students.

Rather, students must work hard to achieve mutual benefit by helping each other in the group and learning from each other’s efforts. In other words, success must be seen to benefit all students within the group since they share a common objective, “knowing that one’s performance is mutually caused by oneself and one’s colleagues” (“Cooperative Learning,” n.d., para. 1).

Competition learning exists when one learner is able to achieve his or her own objective while all the other students fail in their attempts to realize that objective (Gurien, Henley

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Modern Working Life Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects of Motivation Theories at the work place

Effects and outcomes of stress in the workplace on individuals

Conclusion over Job Satisfaction

References

People as well as organizations are motivated to move from one status to another. This urge for advancement is the internal constrain that catalyzes human behaviours and growth. Trigger on human behaviours depends on the workplace inspirations. There is various motivation theories concern with interpreting how human beings behave at the workplace. Arguably there is need to understand the constraints affecting modern work-life and stress at the workplace.

The motivational theories may not be universally acceptable but they are important in studies concerning individual and organizational behaviour in modern workplaces. This paper addresses the effects of modernization at the workplace and its outcomes on individuals and organizations. How can the motivation be important on implementation of organization’s goals and addressing individuals’ needs especially in the twenty first century?

Introduction Today’s business world requires employees who are ready to share knowledge. This has emerged as an urgent business need and a measure of maintaining high-level role of intelligence. The biggest challenge to the individual is the need brings about the individual obligation to be equipped with the latest technological sophistication.

Most work environments today are technologically oriented. There is however very little indication that majority of the companies or organizations are working to meet employee’s needs to motive them to achieve the organizations’ goals through assessing their behaviours. The firms expect employees to workout any newly implemented systems at their own peril and struggle.

Most managers are result oriented who lack consideration for their achievement. This leaves the employees with the task of figuring out how the new technology should workout.

Effects of Motivation Theories at the work place The personal view of the workplace determines individuals’ behaviours during the process of undertaking a task. According to McGregor, the human elevation of entrepreneurship indicates that, some people have an inherent dislike of specific jobs or tasks and they literally try to avoid various chores, which seem stressful to them. As a result, this is a major impact on the organization’s social, cultural and economical growth. Another major impact of this notion is the effect of the individuals’ need to overcome or control the situation at hand.

An average human being would prefer guidance to making individual decisions rather that being responsible over bad decisions at the work place. Responsibility comes with the need to be ambitious other than rely on job security. This is not only an effect on the individual who lacks career and economical growth but also the organization. The organization run by low-minded individuals lack chances for economical growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The assumptions or arguments based upon this theory indicate the need for a managerial choice between tough administration and control or softness in governance to enhance harmony at the work place.

Today the latter situation merely exists, In line with McGregor (1984); this presumption does not bestow employees with the required high working motivation in the aim of fulfilling goals more than the need to ensure they receive financial remunerations. The employees behave in an unanticipated manner thus depriving the organization its goals.

The organization is capable of maximizing the potential of the employees by first addressing certain workplace conditions especially during the complex modern business world. Today people are not in a position to seek and accept responsibility as a way of achieving job or career satisfaction.

This is due to the huge work requirements and in-turn low returns. The organization can only receive commitment and good results if the employees involved feel satisfied and motivated. These problems at the work place are solvable through creativity, imagination and ingenuity, which in consideration are the drives towards accepting liability for development.

Proper treatment of the employees makes them to act by directing themselves towards commitments of the organizational goals, vision and mission. According to MaGrgor (1984), views over employees’ management, any member of staff is not ready to accept punishment in terms of poor working conditions or forceful control over performance.

The humble treatment by the employer towards the employees would sound ambiguous and unachievable particularly in large organizations. As much as it is effective in administrating managers or professionals due to its nature of conductively supporting participative problem solving procedures, it can work for junior employees as well.

Modern work places are full of commanding managers who want to exercise their authoritative rights thus offending and depressing the junior workers most of whom would be humble in fear of accusations over insubordination. This major effect comes about because today’s employees lack of security in the work force. The job that one does is the only security thus the fear for losing it. The blame would be the low rates of returns. The income has various deductions to a point of denying the earner a chance for personal investment.

We will write a custom Essay on Modern Working Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People have endless need or urge to control others and this can lead to misery or failure in the workplace. It is very crucial to assign responsibilities in order to control tasks. One person is not supposed to control everything in the organization. The power distribution strategy promotes growth due to proper decision-making procedures.

In most work places today, the consultation of general employees over problem solving occur only when it is the last and only option especially when the required information is technical in nature. Employees feel emotionally important and positively motivated towards their jobs if consulted over issues affecting the organization especially when it concerns their lines of duty.

In the modern life, technology advancement, require quick upgrading of personal skills. This issue make most managers to feel threatened by other junior staff over their job titles. ( Reitman and Schneer, 2008) Research has indicated this as a major source of conflicts and disagreements over desirable results of a task.

This situation mostly affects the organization’s growth because of managers abandoning the most desirable results as irrelevant since they pose as challenges over their careers. According to McGregor (1984), proper management calls for requesting explanations over complex matters or issues at hand for full understanding of purpose of action. This procedure put forth the character-trends and empowerment for improved working methods. (McGregor, 1984)

Improved results in the workforce are achievable if employees are elevated to a view of being in charge and having a respectable and important position along the management hierarchy. His is termed as “participative management of problems solving” which is evidently better compared to the authoritarian system of leadership.

According to McGregor (1984), Staff members only contribute towards the organization’s growth if the managerial treatment indicates responsibility and value of the employees.

Effects and outcomes of stress in the workplace on individuals Today, people are fighting to achieve or seek excellence and appreciation over their offers to the organization. The overtime experiences are the determinant forces over human needs. By nature, majority of people are high achievers seeking excellence, frequent recognition and appreciation. Unlike the olden days, today’s employees are not ready to take the significant risks, which have high chances of career gain.

Secondly, human needs require them to search for affiliation to harmonize relationships with others and create compliance with instances that assist them to stand out from the crowd. Some people will shy away from seeking approval and recognition form fellow workmates but will rather try to find relationship that harmonize their association with others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Working Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Today’s work setting has created power seekers who aim at controlling others and seeking higher achievement in the administration ladder without considering professional achievements. The need to achieve higher power control or higher career goals calls for one to hunt for agreement and compliance among fellow employees or management. If people try to understand the need for professional experience, then they appreciate their social, educational and the category, which they belong to and this would enable them curb the excessive personal predispositions at the workplace. (Maslow, 1987)

Than logical facts, personal feeling affects thoughts of people at the work place. If initiated, the personal feelings tend to stick because they are independent of facts and evidences. They are emotional preferences, which tend to stay put even when the original thoughts are invalid of the situation at hand.

The managers ought to initiate some rational or logical sense into the employee to get them emotionally involved or engaged in a task. The establishment of emotions leads to removal or ignorance of the rational thoughts yet the rationality behind one’s feelings plays an important role in reasoning.

Research indicates that personal attitudes and behaviours at work are the root cause of uncharacteristic behaviours at the work place. It is rare to find someone who has positive attitude towards work. The attitude mainly lowers self-motivation and disfigures key organizational goals or mission.

If constrained to specific circumstances, attitudes deteriorate consistency, social desirability and personal experiences. It is important for managers to monitor such reactions or behaviours other than assuming that the attitude would workout to the desired performance. According to Maslow, (1987), the undesired attitude often causes confusion at the work place.

People at the work place will behave as though the challenges involved do not belong to them. Attributing the cause of events in the workplace creates a big sense of control. Today the workplace is full of the blame game because of the habit of attributing the problems to internal and external factors.

A person will blame the internal personality factors or the external factors when the errors seem to incline to their side. This is a personal trait, which if not curbed, can cause the organization to suffer from economically stunted growth. For instance if a team wins in a competition, the supporters will state, “we won” while when the team loose they say “they lost” and not “we lost” or they say “the other team won”. Naturally, no one wants to say we lost. Emotional and motivational factors drive the personal attributions.

People often face with the challenge of having internal over external attributes. Making internal attributions about others within the organization damages the trust among employees. The repetitive problem leads to cognitive dissonance of an organization sticks when the blame persists. People can only take care of these vice if they are in position to eliminate the incorrect attributions. (Maslow, 1987)

In the world of technology, the difference of opinion usually referred to as dissonance, is a powerful motivator which enables us to change conflicting believes or actions. Dissonance creates a feeling of painful tension due to conflicting thoughts.

It solely depends on the importance of the subject matter, amount of tension on the dissonant mind and the inability to rationally control and resolve the conflict. People will have a strong dissonance when the personal believe is strong and they act centrally to that believe. Cognitive dissonance is a strong central mechanism appearing in most situations and it increases with importance or impact of the decision, which in most cases is difficult to reverse.

The feeling of uneasiness in the workplace ought to send aside so that the affected can find persuasive ways to change believes personal values, attitudes and behaviours. (Maslow, 1987) When personal inner feelings are in alignment, then it is easy for one to achieve a comfortable condition. In order to control conflicts in an organization, one would deny, ignore and rationalize excuses over performance.

Other ways of controlling the conflicting situations may include separating entities, transcendence, changing the entities or persuading. There is need for managers to show how the conflict may affect other important social norms of the organization. The commonness of inconsistency today calls for deeper thoughts regarding other people’s potential ability in the workplace with relation to the undertaken task. (Romando, 2007)

The other burning issue in the work place involves setting goals. The employees find set goals they might not be able to achieve. They need to be involved so that they participate in laying down understandable, unambiguous but challenging, and achievable goals.

In relation to Romando (2007), organizational goals include directional objectives in which case motivation aims at arriving to particular conclusions. Organizational goals enable employees and employers to narrow down their differences to think over and support a conclusion. People become optimistic on the subject of achieving goals when deliberation is non-existent.

Such a setting creates motivation due to the anticipated ability to arrive to a possible conclusion that supports advancement especially when the cost of being inaccurate seems to be very high. Unpredictably, investors are willing to invest more if the efforts are inclining to high and accurate goals.

The organization’s chances of advancement depend upon influences over choices concerning beliefs and decision-making regulations. Accurateness of goals causes complex responses thus making people to think purposefully about their actions. According to Romando in 2007, personal preference entails the ultimate choice.

While probing Maslow’s work Romando (2007) explained that, Maslow’s research over human behaviours in the workplace explains the ERG management theory. It is a satisfactory theory that examines organizational leadership style from a humanistic philosophical perspective.

“Abraham Maslow, author of Motivation and Personality, views people from a holistic perspective and delineates a hierarchy of human needs as physiological, safety, esteem, self-actualization, belongingness and love. This he simplified into three sets of needs: Existence, Relatedness and Growth (hence ‘ERG’).”

People need to seek social growth at their work places because this is the basis for creativity and hence the organization is physical, social, cultural and economical growth. Social growth also enhances the sense of completeness and fulfilments. (Romando, 2007)

Conclusion over Job Satisfaction Current stress or stains at the workplace build up due to inefficient job satisfaction. The situation may be caused by the overall degradation of the economy thus the financial strains among organizations, low income, low resources, high rates of conflicts among workers, poor decision making procedures, fear for break-down and job dissatisfaction.

Reduction of stain entails achieving satisfaction or changing the approaches used towards work. “People either take work as a job mainly for financial rewards but not interest, as a career where interest is advancement on the career ladder or as a calling where the focus is on the work itself other than advancement or financial fulfilment.”

People should gather some good behavioural patters such as having mechanisms for improving personal skills, coming up with personal projects and enhancing good rapport with co-workers to gain knowledge and encounter new challenges.

There is urgent need for people to learn the concepts of braking job monotony such as engaging in volunteer work to meet new challenges and make best out of the difficulties encountered as a way of managing stress. (MFMER, 2006)

Today’s challenges involve the turbulence on careers which often involve changes of employers, location, and occupation. In line with Reitman and Schneer (2008), emphasis for better stress free work environments depends on organizational governance or accountability.

The global economy remains competitive, the technology pervasively require advancement; knowledge-based firms continue to mutate thus the needs for dynamism in the workforce. “In order to support individual behaviours organizations should embrace the realities of 21st century careers and recognize the importance of programs and policies that enable the careers of their employees such as part-time options, job sharing, free-time, and telecommuting.” (Summers and Hyman, 2005)

References Mayo foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (2006). Web.

McGregor, D. (1984) the Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Web.

Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and Personality (third edition). HarperCollins College Div.

Reitman, F. and Schneer, J. (2008). Enabling the new careers of the 21st century. Organization Management Journal. Web.

Romando, R. (2007). Motivation Theory. Web.

Summers, J and Hyman, J. (2005). Employee participation and company Performance: Joseph rowntree foundation. Web.

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The Hewlett Packard Company Data Management Essay best college essay help

Problems described in the case study The Hewlett Packard Company (HP) faces the problem of data management especially in the Information technology departments. Data management has brought about the main problem of the company’s expenditure overall issue. Initially the control and processing of data occurred at various terminals where the system directs one’s request to particular points of concern. This is a major hit to management because of the encountered delays, loss of information as well as total inaccessibility or important data or information.

The issue of data warehousing entails the architectural, algorithmic and protocols used in managing data or information. In line with the HP case study, the expenditures were high due to unstructured information technology setting, exaggerated systems in terms of number of hubs involved, amount of servers as well as information infrastructure.

Factors facilitating the problem Evidently, from the case analysis, the processing and exchange of information at the HP Company occurred from various processing points as opposed to single repository and processing unit. The excess expenditures were because of multiple systems covering processes meant for one multitasking system.

The management failed to deliver due to lack of synthesized system where information is output within the least possible time for use in decision-making. If the managers make judgment from stale and unprocessed data, then the cost is eventually economical.

Hewlett Packard Company (HP) solutions to the problem HP came up with the central data depository system referred to as the “mega data warehouse”, which has now become prominent theory in the database world, where direct querying and analysis of information occurs in real time.

This has been a major boost on the decision-making procedures since the manager does not require waiting for data to make precise conclusions. Initially as indicated in the case study, the managers were not in a position of finding important information such as the total expenses or total sales for the Information technology department.

The system allows for advance extraction of information for translation and production of appropriate output. Comparison of information from other sources is easily for the enterprise when access is from a central point.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The logical centralized repository reduces the dormant terminals by converging processes, which can be multi-processed. One major advantage of the central warehousing of data includes evaluation of data. Posting of queries involve direct evaluation at the repository without a need for referencing other original or raw sources.

How HP database experience and technology will assist in developing an all-inclusive warehouse Many companies have tried to implement the centrally handled database system without much success. The success of HP enterprise-wide data warehouse brought many benefits to not only the business but also the clients and other companies. HP Company implemented the “Neoview management and monitoring tool” which was of great help to others like the Wal-Mart to manage information from there retail outlets and the Bon-Ton companies.

The single warehousing system is therefore appropriate for the clients who require specific or prediction of parts of accessible information and for those who require high query performance since it offers better high accessible speeds. The requirements for high-speed inquiry from multiple sources of the organization’s information requires a warehouse that offers multi-source queries executions since data resides and processing is at the same point.

How Neoview assists HP and other clients in creating enterprise-wide data warehouses The need for central data warehousing seem to originate from company’s need and desire to decompose all the data to a middle point for ease in management, processing and analysis. People wish to decouple their internal and private data from the internet sources such as the web.

With the current advancement of technology online data exchange, transfer and processing poses grate risk to important or confidential information. One of the primary uses of data warehousing is to allow complex analytical processes involving complex queries within a limited period.

The wide data warehouse implementation procedure To implement such a warehouse there is urgent need to connect all the existing terminals and collect data to the central repository. Any notable or client’s requested changes over data type need reporting to the integrator.

One of the common cause of failure on implementation of such system lies on the implementers/integrators. For any complex and technologically advanced system, the company ought to consider experts or professionals services. To avoid its collapse, the users also need training before they begin working on the system.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hewlett Packard Company Data Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The system integrators should consider the best style to use for instance having a prototype before the main system, or parallel implementation where the old system runs concurrently with the new system until the company achieves full integration as opposed to changing to the new system directly.

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Data Warehouse: The Hewlett Packard Company Over Expenditure Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Problem identification and description

Contributory factors to the problem

Possible solutions and experiences implemented by HP

“Neoview” System

Steps to take in developing a wide data warehouse

Technological challenges

Problem identification and description The Hewlett Packard Company faces the problem of over expenditure and therefore it is trying to cut down on the yearly expenses especially in the information and Communication Technology department. The focus mainly is the experts IT expenditures, Information Systems Applications and the over exaggerated information computer hubs. The amount of server’s infrastructure also contributes hugely to the expenses and thus the need for reducing them. The issue of over expenditure focuses on the management of the databases.

Contributory factors to the problem There are numerous predicaments regarding collecting, analyzing and presenting data or information across various parts of the business. The crisis mainly come about as a result of differences in processing of data for instance tracking and processing of sales and marketing data occurs on different servers totally independent of the server whose tasks involve tracking sales information across geographical boundaries.

For instance, the most essential process is that of analyzing and processing common monetary information such as gross margins to assess the company’s profit status, whose solution entails different business operational units.

The company also experienced dragged sales due to data inconsistency. It takes a lot of time to compile information from various business sites thus affecting decision making procedures or forcing managers to make judgments based on stale information. With such inconsistency, it is difficult to make predicaments regarding the size of sales and services teams and analyzing their spending.

Possible solutions and experiences implemented by HP The companies’ turning point focuses upon the building of a mega data warehouse to server the whole enterprise. The aim is to get rid of unnecessary database technologies, which are in use and integrate some of the technologies to single units. Many companies have faced the complexity involved in the implementation of data warehouses and majority failed to achieve the goal. The mega warehouse ought to offer real time access to data or information regardless of geographical, structural or departmental boundaries.

With a data mart covering the entire enterprise, consistency of data would be achievable. Data is processed and monitored in real time meaning that it would never get stale or incomplete. Such a data warehouse enables access to financial records necessary for important economic decisions.

HP emphasizes on flexibility and time factors. The hardware implemented can server other correlated needs thus the ability to incorporate 100 percent analysis of the company’s data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the HP’s strategies is to configure a system that cuts down on the implementation workload and reduce the complexity, which is achievable with the help of experts.

“Neoview” System The success of the HP data warehouse catalyzes its need among other companies and as a result, it forced the HP Company to come up with “Neoview”, which is a product for enhancing multi-tasking procedures involved in processing of data. Ability to perform real time analysis and management of data concurrently is a big stepping-stone for most enterprises.

The versatility of the Intel processors used in the Neoview systems promises almost a hundred percent availability of time. According to the users of the “Neoview” System such as “Bon-Ton” and “Wal-Mart”, it provides a data warehouse that exceeds most expectations.

Steps to take in developing a wide data warehouse An efficient warehouse ought to be different in cost, technology and integration. The focus should be amalgamating all data processing points to one area as opposed to integrating processing points.

A true warehouse includes all business entities such as employees’ details, marketing information, financial reports and customer’s data under one central system where analysis takes place. Integration of such a wide data warehouse ought to occur in phases as opposed to direct change over. Concurrent running of business systems enables the owners to note various weaknesses and improve the system accordingly. It must undergo intensive assessment and testing to ensure accuracy.

Technological challenges The system requires numerous works to organize and integrate all subsystems into one single unit. There is need for database knowledge and technology among implementers, designers and users of the system as well. The current corporate mergers are also a hindrance to immediate implementation of such database management systems because a merger can outdate an implementation within a short lifespan. Not all application suits the centralization of data processing procedures.

The organization policies, rules and culture determine the kind of system to use. It is important to consider the industrially manufactured hardware to cut on the implementation costs. It is equally crucial to consider expertise in installation as well as running the system. Industries should understand that running multiple warehouses might be more expensive that a single mega centrally managed warehouse.

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United States government should release more UFO information to the public Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Position support

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Nearly a decade ago, the collocation “X-files” became popular. Due to the plot of a famous film, X-files are now associated with the information about the UFO, which is accessible exclusively for a tight circle of professionals (Lazerri, 1). So is the information about UFOs still secret and who decides whether the public is allowed to know it? Nowadays these questions bother every American, as people are willing to know the truth.

Undoubtedly, United States government should release more UFO information to the public. In order to support our position, we analyzed the works of three experts in the field. For instance, Bruce Maccabee, the doctor of Philosophy, is a collector of secret files from the government; Chris Rutkovsky is a recognized astronomer who studies UFO; and Lawrence Fawcett used to work in the Government and had an access to its secrets.

Position support The need for the United States government to release more UFO information to the public is obvious. The mass manipulation of citizens lasts for centuries; the information undergoes a number of filters before being introduced to the public. In pursuit of truth, people want to know what is happening indeed and what the results of the numerous researches carried during the last years are.

Bruce Maccabee argues that the information about UFOs should not be secret. Firstly, the author investigates the issue of existence of the X-files, assuming that they may be just a part of a simulation operation. Next, he agrees on the fact that there are a lot of evidence about the UFO existence and its origins.

For instance, Maccabee describes the documents he had a chance to see in the governmental institutions, with precise descriptions of the UFO and their contacts with the Earth. Finally, the writer reveals some data about UFO and presents the studies that were carried more that half a century ago. The writer says that the studies about UFO started at 1973, and all the facts were hidden from publics (Maccabee, 131).

Similarly, the idea of the necessity of UFO data to be revealed is expressed by Rutkovski. However, the author studies the international environment rather than the American one. Rutkovski is rather skeptical about UFOs; his critical notes are sometimes striking; however, the author expresses an opinion that ignorant people are easier to manipulate.

Therefore, he insists that the liberty of people would not be limited by the misleading information (Rutkovski, 82). Rutkovski compares the myths about UFO that exist in different cultures and by these means shows how ignorant people are in this sphere.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another author, Lawrence Fawcett, is more radical in comparison with those mentioned above. He states that UFO can be dangerous for the security of the country, and as a result, of its citizens (Fawcett, 113). The author is deeply convinced that UFO tries to set a contact with Earth and people not only for communication, but because they want to exploit people and our planet.

According to the author, this is the reason why UFO is sometimes kidnapping people and studying human bodies. Due to this fact, the publics have a right to know the truth about UFOs in order to be aware of possible risks. The opinion of Fawcett fully represents our idea.

Discussion Despite the fact that all the three authors wish the UFO information to be revealed to the public, they all are aware of the possible consequences. There obviously have to be some reasons why the government keeps the data about unknown flying objects in secret; most possibly, these reasons are important.

For instance, the presentation of the UFO data to the public can cause panic. People would be afraid, feeling unsafe on their own planet. This can lead to serious problems, such as great depression, rebellions or even anarchy. Lawrence Fawcett expresses an idea that even though the information about UFOs is important, it can be as well dangerous (Fawcett, 81). The author also considers the fact that there are also people who are unwilling to know about UFOs; in this case, why should they get acquainted to this sort of information?

Rutkovski also thinks that there can occur some unpredicted reactions in the publics after the information about the UFOs id revealed (Rutkovski, 152). The writer explains that the government had to keep the information in secret earlier; however, he does not approve the fact that today, when everybody is aware of the existence of UFO, the data is still hidden.

In contrast, Maccabee thinks that the reveal of UFO data to general public can be solely positive. The author says that the government had been hiding the truth for too long; in addition, there are some operations that are claimed to be connected to UFO and therefore called secret, but in fact they just cover other dirty games of the American state (Maccabee, 74).

Therefore, Maccabee thinks that people have a right to know the real situation. The author is deeply convinced that the American society is conscious enough to accept the information about the UFOs and decide what to do with it.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United States government should release more UFO information to the public specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The idea that the United States government should release more UFO information to the public was expressed by a number of specialists. On one hand, the fact that the people are kept ignorant about the current situation in the sphere of UFO is unfair, as everyone has a right to be well-informed. On the other hand, this sort of information is very special and can be destructive for the society and its consciousness. All in all, the knowledge of an individual depends not only on sources, but also on their own wish to know the truth.

Works Cited Fawcett, L, Greenwood, B. UFO Cover-up: What the Government Won’t Say. Fireside, 1990.

Lazerri, A. “British X-files papers revealed” The Sun, 17 November 2009, from:

Maccabee, B, Maupin, M. UFO-FBI Connection. Llewellyn Worldwide, LTD, 2000.

Rutkovski, C, Dittman, G. The Canadian UFO Report: The Best Cases Revealed California: Dundurn Group, 2006.

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Foreign Exchange Intervention Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Public or private intervention

Coordinated and unilateral interventions

Effectiveness of intervention

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Foreign exchange intervention refers to transactions or announcements by a government agent which is meant to change the value of the exchange rate or the nation’s foreign exchange reserves. A countries monetary authority or officials in the treasury departments or ministry of finance usually carry out these interventions.

For central banks, foreign exchange intervention often involves selling or buying foreign assets against certain state assets in the foreign exchange market. The purchases made are useful in reducing the countries home currency value while sales are intended to increase it. Foreign exchange interventions are carried out so as to correct disorderly conditions in the market (Dominguez

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Canadian Economy: the Role of the Government and the Bank of Canada Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Canada is one of the countries that have the strongest economy and appropriate living standards. In spite of the fact that the population of this country continues to grow by means of immigrants’ arrival and natural increase (Banta 164), the Canadian economy is characterized by brilliant infrastructure, educated labour forces, and rich reputation.

The history of the Canadian economy is great indeed: the beginning of 1980s required changes because of the rapid growth of industrial cities and brought the crisis; the end of the 1980s was known as the greatest recovery of the country and readiness to new improvements and challenges. The world economic crisis, that takes place at the beginning of 2009, touches Canada considerably and makes the Canadian government and the Bank of Canada take the obligatory steps in order to overcome unemployment and fight against inflation.

It turns out to be obligatory for the country to cope with economic challenges and be able to provide its population with the necessary living conditions. Over the last two years, the situation with the Canadian economy has undergone considerable changes because of the world economic crisis: the Canadian government and the Bank of Canada have to shape macroeconomic policies in order to change unemployment rates, insure the low level of inflation, meet basic needs of population, and continue reducing poverty.

The role of Canadian government and the Bank of Canada in Canadian economy over the last two years Nowadays, the Canadian economy makes this country one of the wealthiest nations and provides it with a chance to dominate over the other countries in oil, automobile, and trade industries. Economy in Canada is regarded as mature and diverse at the same time: advanced services, free trade agreements, and availability of natural resources.

The Canadian government and the Bank of Canada present all the necessary financial services in order to call this country as one of those with economic freedoms. They involve “the maintenance of a legal system, protection of persons and property, a sound currency, essential transportation infrastructure, and basic education” (Harris 116).

The government of Canada, in the form of a constitutional monarchy, aims at providing the necessary spending and avoiding bankruptcy, improving GDP rates, and stabilizing monetary policy. Current indicators of the Canadian economy have not been changed considerably during the last two years. Of course, the influence of the world economic crisis is noticeable, but still, Canada takes such positions, which will hardly allow its economy to fall dawn.

For example, in 2007, GDP was about

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Social capital and health inequality Expository Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social capital and health inequality

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Good health does not just happen; it is a habit of smart choices and sound clinical care. Findings say that good nursing is vital for good health and essential for the development of body’s physic but the avalanche highly depends on resource accessibility. Major causes of illnesses in the United States relates to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle and lack of good nursing guide/care. People will stay for long without considering the health checks only to run for the treatment when it is already too late. They link their ignorance to the financial ability.

Social capital and health inequality Throughout medicine and society, there has been a major concern over whether or not a person’s health outcome is the result of individual influence or his or her social surroundings and network. In class, students gain knowledge of various properties of social relationships as distinctive structural factors, and assessment of how they intertwine with the production of health.

This paper will take in hand the issues of understanding and demonstrate how social relationships, specifically social capital, can become the defining factor for influencing individual health, as well as the health outcomes of an individual’s social network members.

In various ways, the people around us can affect our health outcomes. However, it is a common credence that this is highly dependent on an individual’s social capital, or the resources embedded in social relationships. According to Lin and Song (2009, 149), people will rarely assess the quality of nursing or health care they receive or seek but will rather analyze the costs involved; including the installments premiums and the direct costs.

They also concentrate their decision on the recommendations their families and friends offer, their personal plan over doctors’ checkup visits and how convenient the location might be.

Social capital directly affects both outcomes net of social support. Examples among well-ascertained diseases antecedents include the social relationship between capital and support. There is a wide need for further research in connection to the influences of social capital on health issues.

As applied by Lin and Song (2009, 150), the social capital theory applies to the inequalities of health. According to them, these capitals involve embedding resources into social structures, which are accessible or mobilized through rationale actions. This is an indication that resources are allocated depending on the need as per the outlaid allocation structure for instance educational wise or authoritatively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social capital differs from economical capital based on the personal view. Personal capital includes the human economic and cultural needs. They emerge through the individual perspectives, which control them.

The social network identifies strong allies who provide important suggestions over matters requiring key decision-making. The occupational and structural position a person holds within a network determines the decision one makes with regard to health matters. In accordance with Lin and Song (2009, 151) writings, the social capital theory determines the type of information one gets as well as reinforcement by the individual’s identity.

Although individuals possess power to influence administration of health, the link between an individual and the networked set determines the physical and mental well-being of an entity. The common characteristics interprets the social behaviors of every person within the link Lin and Song (2009, 152).

Conclusion The perspective of social networks brings about the causes and consequences of various network perspectives such as integration, support, cohesion and capital. Closely related networks members have diverse effect and pressure over one’s health issues or decisions pertaining health matters.

This is due to the degree of socially created connections, impartiality, reliance, reciprocity as well as short of conflicts. The resource dimension regarding the position an individual holds in the networked member group remains the main determinant of social capital.

Works Cited Lin, Nan and Song Lijun 2009. “Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50: 149-163

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The Emirates Strategy: An American Shifting Maneuver in the Persian Gulf Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction The focus of the US in the Persian Gulf was predominantly on Saudi Arabia. Over time, smaller Emirate States have bolstered their strategic importance by taking measures that have attracted the interest of the US. Currently, the US has bilateral relationships with most of the Emirate States. The small Emirate States include Qatar, Bahrain, Sultanate of Oman, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates (Abdulla, 1999, 6).

These small Emirate States are characterized by low populations but are richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources. Security scare especially from terrorism and terrorist activities is a major problem facing these states. Due to their small populations, the states cannot provide sufficient internal security against infiltration of terrorists so they rely on external security systems. The US has been instrumental in provision of security to these small Emirate States (Marschall 2003, 154).

This paper analyses the diplomatic relationship between Saudi Arabia and the US. The focus of the analysis is on how the US is now shifting its tactics of maneuver of the Persian Gulf from Saudi Arabia to Qatar and the other GCC nations. It is the position of this paper that the shift is occasioned by changed US economic and security interests.

The changes having been occasioned by the wave of terrorism that culminated into September 11 attacks and the economic potential of the GCC nations. However, most crucially, the shift is occasioned by shifts in the foreign policy in the Emirate nations. Although the US interests in all the GCC nations, at the moment, Qatar seems the favorable point of control for the US from the infrastructural and policy changes it has implemented.

Diplomatic relationships between the US and Saudi Arabia begun immediately after the Second World War; concessions on the political, economic and military issues were established between the US and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( Saikal 2003, 46 ).

The governments began relating significantly in 1933 after the award of the oil exploration concession to the California Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC) (Little 2003, 47). A more formal international relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia started in 1945 when President F. D. Roosevelt and King Abd Al Aziz met aboard the U.S.S Quincy (Little 2003, 73).

The interaction between the two leaders saw the US government sign a series of agreements with the government of Saudi Arabia for developmental cooperation. Schanzer, Jonathan and Ross (2005, 102) indicate that construction of the Dhahran military air base, provision of the military training assistance and development of a financial and infrastructure systems were some of the projects the US government implemented in Saudi Arabia as a result of the bilateral relation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The California Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC) succeeded in oil exploration and by 1938, the company had started mining oil. During the Second World War the US government endeavored to protect the oil wells against attacks. This support offered to Saudi Arabia by the US during the war played a major role in deepening the bilateral relations (Zahlan 1998, 93). The US gradually worked on replacing the United Kingdom as the major political controllers or influencers of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The US has since then continued to pursue a bilateral relation with Saudi Arabia. Using the relationship with Saudi Arabia, it has gradually managed to perpetuate its influence in the entire Persian Gulf despite recurring problems arising from regional issues. The Arab-Israel war break outs in 1948, 1967 and 1973 and the difference in opinion on how to respond to the situation posed a severe test on bilateral relations between the US and Saudi Arabia (Little 2003, 67).

The 1973 war dealt the most severe blow to bilateral relations because of the support that the US offered to Israel during the war. Saudi Arabia joined other Persian Gulf nations to slap an oil embargo on the US causing severe shortage of the commodity in the US (Al-Rasheed 2002, 136). The Israel-Palestinian peace break down in September 2000 was another significant test on the bilateral relationship that had developed again after the 1973 oil embargo (Schanzer

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Social capital and health inequality Expository Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social capital and health inequality

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Good health does not just happen; it is a habit of smart choices and sound clinical care. Findings say that good nursing is vital for good health and essential for the development of body’s physic but the avalanche highly depends on resource accessibility. Major causes of illnesses in the United States relates to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle and lack of good nursing guide/care. People will stay for long without considering the health checks only to run for the treatment when it is already too late. They link their ignorance to the financial ability.

Social capital and health inequality Throughout medicine and society, there has been a major concern over whether or not a person’s health outcome is the result of individual influence or his or her social surroundings and network. In class, students gain knowledge of various properties of social relationships as distinctive structural factors, and assessment of how they intertwine with the production of health.

This paper will take in hand the issues of understanding and demonstrate how social relationships, specifically social capital, can become the defining factor for influencing individual health, as well as the health outcomes of an individual’s social network members.

In various ways, the people around us can affect our health outcomes. However, it is a common credence that this is highly dependent on an individual’s social capital, or the resources embedded in social relationships. According to Lin and Song (2009, 149), people will rarely assess the quality of nursing or health care they receive or seek but will rather analyze the costs involved; including the installments premiums and the direct costs.

They also concentrate their decision on the recommendations their families and friends offer, their personal plan over doctors’ checkup visits and how convenient the location might be.

Social capital directly affects both outcomes net of social support. Examples among well-ascertained diseases antecedents include the social relationship between capital and support. There is a wide need for further research in connection to the influences of social capital on health issues.

As applied by Lin and Song (2009, 150), the social capital theory applies to the inequalities of health. According to them, these capitals involve embedding resources into social structures, which are accessible or mobilized through rationale actions. This is an indication that resources are allocated depending on the need as per the outlaid allocation structure for instance educational wise or authoritatively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social capital differs from economical capital based on the personal view. Personal capital includes the human economic and cultural needs. They emerge through the individual perspectives, which control them.

The social network identifies strong allies who provide important suggestions over matters requiring key decision-making. The occupational and structural position a person holds within a network determines the decision one makes with regard to health matters. In accordance with Lin and Song (2009, 151) writings, the social capital theory determines the type of information one gets as well as reinforcement by the individual’s identity.

Although individuals possess power to influence administration of health, the link between an individual and the networked set determines the physical and mental well-being of an entity. The common characteristics interprets the social behaviors of every person within the link Lin and Song (2009, 152).

Conclusion The perspective of social networks brings about the causes and consequences of various network perspectives such as integration, support, cohesion and capital. Closely related networks members have diverse effect and pressure over one’s health issues or decisions pertaining health matters.

This is due to the degree of socially created connections, impartiality, reliance, reciprocity as well as short of conflicts. The resource dimension regarding the position an individual holds in the networked member group remains the main determinant of social capital.

Works Cited Lin, Nan and Song Lijun 2009. “Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50: 149-163

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The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe: The Role of the Narrator Essay best essay help

The role of the narrator is usually considerable and crucial for any literary work and reader’s perception of the content. With the help of the narrator, the reader gets a wonderful opportunity to become involved into the events, to evaluate the conditions from the narrator’s perspective, and to realize why the idea of the story is developed in this very way.

The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe is one of the best and most captivating works, where much attention is paid to the role of the narrator and his participation in the events. In this short story, the narrator is an old friend of the main character, Roderick Usher, who decides to come to Usher’s house in order to support him and help to overcome his and his sister’s illness.

The role of the narrator of the story The Fall of the House of Usher is great indeed; his rationality and his ability to represent the events from the side of an immediate participant of the story and from the side of an observer, who notice changes in the house but still cannot comprehend the reasons of why these changes bother other characters.

As a participant. Without any doubts, Edgar Poe was one of those writers, who could create a story and make each reader being involved into its events. His narrators are unique and unpredictable, because they are able to notice each detail and pay special attention to each trifle.

From the very beginning, the narrator of The Fall of the House of Usher introduces the reader “soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens” (Poe 109), where such a dark description aims to warn the reader and hint that the events will hardly cause laugh or tears.

The narrator performs the role of the participant of the story and suggests the reader to follow him and be involved into each step, breath, and look. This Poe’s decision makes this short story interesting to deal with for any reader and really remarkable in the world literature.

As a survivor and rationalist. Another significant role of the narrator in this horrific story is connected to his survival and the ability to describe the events in the Usher’s house rationally. “From that chamber, and from that mansion, I fled aghast” (Poe 128), the narrator tells. Such a fast decision of his proves that these events touch not only the body or mind, not perception of this world and own position in it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the fact, that from the very beginning, the narrator seems to be a pure rationalist, who tries to present only rational explanations and see only rational events, and a person, who will never believe or accept some irrational things, he considerable changes his mind and tries to escape from everything, he has already got involved. Some time passes, and the narrator loses own voice of reason and admits that his fears and superstitions increase considerable.

However, the fact that the narrator is the only survivor tells that his life is not ended on this note, and he has to face many other challenges in his life; or, vice versa, he becomes trapped into the mystery of this house and his life would never be similar to the one before the event with the Usher’s house. The end of the story proves that narrator’s rationality has been lost in the madness of that house, and now, he faces numerous irrational challenges, which may influence his life considerably.

As a person, who can make mistakes. I truly believe that one more significant role of the narrators is directed to each reader in order to explain that even pure rational and smart people can make mistakes or think wrong because of numerous external factors.

From the very beginning, the reader observes the narrator as a rational, smart, and organized person, who is ready to present logical explanations to each even in his life. However, he makes a terrible mistake, when he agrees to Roderick Usher about the death of his sister and the decision to bury her alive.

Within a short period of time, the destiny of these two characters knocks to their door; it was “the lofty and enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of Usher” (Poe 128). Such development of the events can be easily foreseen by the reader, but the narrator tries to postpone this climax as far as possible because of own rationality, and he perfectly does his job. However, the narrator is crushed by the madness of his old friend and cannot cope with all around irrationality.

All people make mistakes and suffer because of the consequences they cannot avoid; many writers try to describe this theme in their works in order to teach the reader and help him/her to improve this life. Edgar Poe’s narrator in The Fall of the House of Usher is one few characters, who may perform several roles simultaneously and do it very well that allows readers to accept this story as a significant and educative piece of writing.

To become a participant of the terrible events, to evaluate how one action may destroy several lives and the whole house, and to comprehend that some kind of mystery is somewhere near – these are that major purposes, the narrator of the story wants to achieve. The narrator’s role is really significant in The Fall of the House of Usher, and the reader should not only to worry about the destiny of the major characters but also to learn, to think, and to believe in faith and our predestination.

We will write a custom Essay on The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe: The Role of the Narrator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Poe, Edgar, A. The Fall of the House of Usher and Other Tales. New York: New American Library, Penguin Putman Inc., 1998.

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Summary of the Article “Should We Fear Derivatives?” Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Should We Fear Derivatives: Help or Harm to the Economy “Should We Fear of Derivatives?” is the article by Rene M. Stulz for The Journal of Economic Perspective of 2004. The main subject of this work is the evaluation of the essence of derivatives, their types, prices, and effects in the sphere of economy and clearing up why so many people still keep using derivatives and cannot leave this affair.

The author divides this article into several logical parts in order to have time and space to explain each point about derivatives and demonstrate how he comes to these conclusions and why his conclusions have to be regarded as the correct ones. The economic essence of derivatives is hard to define. In fact, there is no concrete definition of derivatives in the economy, and this word is usually interpreted as the chemical concept of “a substance that can be made from another substance” (Stulz 173).

In finance, the essence of derivatives is almost the same. Any economic derivative is considered to be an instrument, where its payoffs are derived from some already existed values like asset or rate. Such a clear explanation of derivatives and the presentation of appropriate and interesting examples make this article really captivating from the very beginning and demonstrate how high the level of author’s knowledge is.

The clarification of the main idea is presented at the end of the introductory part. The author underlines that he intends to study derivatives as positive economic substances, represent its benefits, and mention that the risks are possible with derivatives, but still not considerable in comparison to all derivatives’ advantages.

This is why, from the very beginning of the article, it becomes clear that people should not fear derivatives in the economy because they are more helpful for this sphere of life; and in spite of possible risks and challenges, the benefits of financial derivatives are significant and important. It is necessary to become more attentive to the use of derivatives, to follow the development of derivatives, and to study the peculiarities of each derivative’s type in order to use them properly.

Derivatives may be of two types: exotic and plain vanilla. The latter is all those “contracts to buy or sell future delivery, called forwards and futures contracts” (Stulz 174). The former is everything else that may be connected and applied as the derivatives. Exotic derivatives differ from plain vanilla derivatives due to their inability to put together the contracts like forward and option.

The best example of an exotic derivative presented by Rene Stulz is any binary option, where money has to be paid in case a certain condition is met (Stulz 176). The pricing of exotic and plain vanilla derivatives remain to be a considerable topic as well, and the author pays much attention to it. A forward contract that is inherent to plain vanilla derivatives changes its values from time to time. These changes cause problems with a portfolio strategy and lead to some losses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to solve the problems with pricing and get a chance to benefit from the chosen derivatives, it is possible to use the Black-Sholes formula and calculate the necessary number of shares, required time, and possible profits. The sphere of finance is always under certain development, and because of that pricing of derivatives cannot be always stable and usually depends on numerous outside factors.

Another significant part of the article is devoted to the development of derivative markets and the reasons of their growth. One of the first derivative markets have appeared several centuries ago in Holland. They were small markets for options under the influence of world economic changes like industries’ deregulations.

The demand for products was raised and used in order to prevent possible risks in the sphere of economy. The author’s attempt to describe the historical development of derivatives gives the reader a chance to comprehend why people started using derivatives and what could cause the troubles.

Derivative markets are considered to be helpful to the economy for many reasons, and Rene Stulz presents a separate part of this article in order to introduce how beneficial these markets can be. One of the most evident benefits of derivatives is their abilities to provide people and organizations to achieve payoffs, which are impossible to achieve or possible achieve but under very expensive conditions.

Derivatives are also helpful to the economy because they promote the development of underlying markets and promise their effectiveness. These benefits of derivative markets provoke numerous financial/nonfinancial firms and individuals use derivatives even if they know that they cannot hedge risks, which are associated with their capital’s values.

In this article, the risks caused by derivatives are studied as well. The financial system is one of those victims, who may lose certain profit because of the services of derivative markets. First of all, the firms, which decide to use derivatives, are not actually aware about derivatives’ worth.

Secondly, the collapse of Long-Term Capital Management’s attempts and the conditions of crisis cause considerable losses or changes of requirements frequently. But in spite of all those troubles and traps of derivative markets, people still want to address these services just in order to be sure about another opportunity to get necessary values when it becomes necessary.

We will write a custom Assessment on Summary of the Article “Should We Fear Derivatives?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the concluding part of his article, Rene Stulz admits that only derivatives may allow firms both financial and nonfinancial and individuals to hedge financial risks. And if derivatives undergo some changes, which may lead to their collapse, the economy as a whole takes a considerable bath.

He also answers the most important question whether derivatives are harmful or helpful, and the answer becomes clear. We should not fear them but only respect due to such a great opportunity to get payoffs, when they are necessary. The vast majority of people use planes in order to get the necessary place within a short period of time.

And though these people are afraid of flying or airplanes’ crashes, they still use these services to save time and try to improve airplane industry. Almost the same happen to the derivative markets: people are aware about the fact that risks and challenges are inherent to this financial sphere, but cannot stop using these services, because they get so many benefits, which may improve their lives.

Losses are present everywhere; each sphere of life and business is under a threat of being spoiled or crashed due to risks and crises. This is why it is not obligatory to stop using this really helpful service but start developing programs, which may improve the derivative markets’ development and make these services more effective in this world.

Works Cited Stulz, Rene, M. “Should We Fear Derivatives?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18.3 (Summer 2004): 173-192.

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The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The desire to present something new ruled composers

Popular opinion as a driving force of modernism in music

Recording technology open new opportunities in music

Musical performances as considerable events for society

Conclusion

Reference List

Footnotes

Introduction The conditions under which the world lived at the beginning of the 20th century had to be changed considerably to destroy the ruling Victorian principles and to start developing innovations, which could improve the life of current materialistic society.

People required for changes, and those changes had to touch upon each sphere of life. Music is regarded as that very sphere that has close connection to human emotions, productivity, and even interrelations; and the influence of such cultural movement like modernism should certainly change the conception of music for better.

Robin Walz admitted that modernism has to be comprehended as a cultural movement that aims at achieving a new consciousness concerning the matter of living experience and innovations’ influence against the already established rules.[1] This explanation turns out to be helpful in defying the major issues, according to which the modern changes should happen.

The influence of modernism on music in the 20th century may be observed from several perspectives: musicians wanted to present something new, interest to the popular opinion provoked the use of new modern idioms, the development of recording technology speeded up music production, and finally, musical performances were regarded as considerable events, which had to be noticed, criticized, and recognized.

The desire to present something new ruled composers Modernism was one of the most popular currents of the 20th century that brought numerous political, social, and cultural changes all over the world. It was mentioned from the very beginning that something happened to music at the turn of that century, and all those changes were absolutely new for the world.

A kind of excitement was in the air and spread with unbelievable speed: the vast majority of composers and singers made numerous significant attempts to change their looks on their work, to change the sound, and to improve the very concept of music, taking into account current demands and interests.

Avant-garde assaults on music were characterized by fast development of technologies and challenges of the 19th century. Progress in science, the ideas of anti-romanticism, and the necessity to use human experience and to consider public opinion – all this cried that novelty had to be offered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ezra Pound was probably one of the brightest figures in modernism movement, who clearly identified the influence of this current on music: “Make it new.”[2] 20th century music demonstrated a kind of freedom and the desire to experiment as frequent as possible: musical styles, forms, and genres hade to be challenged in comparison to the rules that had been already set by the 19th century.

The 20th century was significant by the creation of electronic instruments that led to the fast spreading of popular music, representation of new music forms because faster music could be compared to quick movements and human noticeable development.

Modernism movement provoked composers changed their music from any possible perspective, and one of the most frequent was the change of music language and the necessity “to turn a composition into a ‘text’ constructed of musical ‘sentences’…to move beyond the comforts of melody and harmony and to provoke strong, conflicting, deep emotional responses in the listener.”[3]

Schoenberg’s passion to 12-tone method was one of the most famous ideas in music during the modern movement: his Six Songs, Op. 3 or Transfigured Night, Op. 4 demonstrated how words, tone, and music had to be united and properly presented to the listener. People should get a chance to realize what composer’s intentions are to a particular work, and these very works presented that very novelty that was so inherent to music of the 20th century, where the influence of modernism played one of the most important roles.

This new approach to music creation was one of the best ways out for those composers, who decided to follow Pound’s motto and add something new to the already existed rules and amaze people with new opportunities and new ideas within music. This is why the intention to present something new in music as a major influence of modernism as a cultural current should be regarded as the most successful one and the most important one, because it turned to be a basis for other changes and for further development.

Popular opinion as a driving force of modernism in music When we talk about the influence of modernism on composition of music in the 20th century, we have to mention the role of such a talented composer like Gustav Mahler. His style of writing and the attempt to develop the song cycle distinguish him from other composers of Europe and America. The role of popular opinion as a belief that is shared and supported by the vast majority of people is also considerable for the development of music during the 20th century.

This is why all those emotions, feelings, and attitudes to the current affairs have to be taken into consideration in order to reflect them in music during its composing. For example, Gustav Mahler’s personal life was marked by constant disappointment and unhappy love. These emotions are known to many people from personal experience, from literary works, or from other types of art.

We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His Songs of a Wayfarer is a magnificent composition that depicts the life of a lover, who chooses to travel along and find out own happiness and love after a terrible rejection of a lover. His music is really captivating and full of sense, and his attention to public troubles and challenges, which have connection to popular opinion, underlines once again that the influence of modernism hits music from different sides, and each of those hits has its own price.

In spite of the fact that the 20th century brought numerous changes in the world of music, some of the changes had their roots at the end of the 19th century, and one of those grounds were the works by Anton Bruckner, an Australian composer, known for his four movements.[4]

He added some feelings and vision to his compositions; he made his works interesting not only to hear but also captivating to observe how the variety of instruments performs music: horns, trombones, trumpets, and some woodwinds cooperate in such ways that each listener cannot but get unbelievable pleasure from the chosen performance.

This popular opinion like the desire to comprehend the music, offered by Mr. Buckner, was reflected in music of the 20th century; and it raised music considerably, underlying how influential one cultural movement could be.

It is necessary to admit 20th century classical music was influenced by modernism most of all. The desire to become more progressive and reject past practices made classical composers pay more attention to what people want to hear and how these purposes could be achieved by means of technology. The influence of modernism was so considerable on classical music that even numerous past cultural currents were regarded just as one more reflection of modernism and the attempt to improve its features.

Recording technology open new opportunities in music The influence of modernism on music in the 20th century was also remarkable for the ways of how music is heard and comprehended by people. This is why such a peculiar feature of modernism cultural current like recording technology gained its recognition within the shortest period of time.

Sound technology has been perfected in the beginning of the 20th century[5] due to its significant helping side: recreation of sound waves in instrumental music introduces an absolutely new current and provides listeners with a new way to comprehend music and enjoy it in different ways. Sound recording may happen in two ways analog or digital recording.

A Mexican composer Conlon Nancarrow was one of the first known composers, who released own music. The beginning of the 20th century opened a new door in the technological world, where it became possible to use gramophone discs to record music.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These discs were used frequently because they did not cause any difficulties with own manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and storage. The events of World War I made a significant effect on Modernism and musical industry; however, in comparison to the effects on the cultural movement under consideration, the effects of the war on discs’ distribution and the promotion of instrumental music turned out to be more positive.

People wanted to have a chance to store their favorite music in easy-to-use format and to listen it any time, this is why the progressive intentions of modernism and the development of technologies promoted discs’ manufacturing and recording any type of music.

Rock and roll is a style of music that has been born in the middle of the 1900s. It was the peak of modern movement, when its representatives tried to combine the elements of jazz, blues, and boogie-woogie.

This musical style was developed in the technological era, and this very point played a very important role as rock and roll became the first musical form ever to be recorded before to be performed live. The attention to recording technologies increased considerably because composers as well as performers aimed at developing really successful music and save it for many years.

The above-mentioned Conlon Nancarrow and the representative of Australian music, György Ligeti introduced magnificent, extraordinary music by means of composing it due to keeping of time and their archiving. Such approach was not inherent to the representatives of the 19th century’s Romanticism, and the progress of the 20th century allowed to improve music of different styles by recording and storing.

Modernism as a movement brought another justified change, technological improvement; and even such a sensitive sphere of life as music underwent those changes and achieved unbelievable success. Even now this very effect of modernism of music is noticeable and continues its development, taking into account new standards and new demands.

Musical performances as considerable events for society Modernism as an important tendency at the beginning of the 20th century had its effects on music even in regard to the way of its performance. Not long time ago, people did not pay much attention on how to reproduce music and make it popular among people. The end of the 19th century was marked by the invention of the radio, a means that allowed fast spreading of music.

Of course, it was a real breakthrough of the world; and this breakthrough could not but reflected on music industry. At the beginning of the 20th century, music was translated on the radio in order to entertain and inform people, and describe human emotions. So, people got a wonderful chance to listen to the music any time and everywhere.

However, the major characteristic of modernism in music was the conception of performance and its change from a simple introduction of music to a great event. For example, the performance of classical music turned out to be a real presentation, where the size of decoration, the effectiveness of the sound, and even the organization of light played a very important role.

The beginning of the 20th century brought one more change in music: from that period of time, people became involved into proper presentation of music. Its performance became an integral part of its developing and its popularity among people. If the performance was a remarkable event, and people enjoyed it, this music became popular and interesting to people. If the event met numerous critics, and people demonstrated the disappointment about the event, the composition under performances was considered as a failure.

Modernists admitted that it was not obligatory to present some magnificent events in order to make music popular, however, it is necessary to make it memorable in order to involve people and attract their attention more and more each second. The point, that performance should be regarded as an event, also led to the attention to such trifles like clothes, color of skin and hair, and even walk. If people preferred dark clothes and colors, they should be interested in some kind of Goth music.

People, who prefer streets, free clothes, and ability not to follow orders, liked the sounds of rap, rock, or heavy metal. The performance of any of these forms of music required a separate event with a properly chosen style and light. This is why in order to make music popular, composers started to think not only about the necessary tone, melody, or meter, but they also tried to imagine how exactly this music could be introduced and performed to public.

Conclusion There are lots of discussions where the influence of modernism on 20th century music is concerned. The changes, which have been brought by this cultural current, found their reflection in many spheres of life, and music is not an exception. The desire to follow the progress, the idea to use technologies in order to present more interesting music, and the attention to general appearance – this is what actually characterized for music at the beginning of the 20th century and its composition.

If the period of Romanticism was all about the idea of how to perform captivating music and combine as many sounds and instruments as possible, the major idea of modernistic movement was to pay more attention to the context of music and its logical arrangement. People got a wonderful opportunity to concentrate more on music genres, tones, and structure, because new technologies were able to make composers’ ideas real and clear for the listener.

This is why the influence of modernism should be regarded as the most considerable for composing of music, and people should evaluate composers attempts to represent new, lively, interesting, and educative music by means of recording, thrilling performance, and attention to public opinion.

Reference List Albright, Daniel. 2004. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Grove, George, Sadie, Stanley, and Tyrrell, John. 2001. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. New York: Grove Publications.

Randel, Don Michael. 2003. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tick, Judith. 2000. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer’s Search for American Music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press US.

Walz, Robin. 2008. A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

Footnotes Walz, Robin, A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2008), p.9.

Albright, Daniel, Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), p. 8.

Walz, Robin, A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2008), p.62.

Einstein, Alfred, “Bruckner, Anton” in The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (New York: Grove Publications, 2001), p.476-484.

Tick, Judith. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer’s Search for American Music (New York, NY: Oxford University Press US, 2000), p. 245.

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How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business Report (Assessment) college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Impact on stakeholders

Outcome and Fairness of Punishment

Ethics in the way Enron conducted business

Conclusion

References

Introduction Out of a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, Enron was formed in 1985 based in the United States. As an energy trading and communications company, at the start, the company was involved in construction, development and operation of power plants, pipelines globally.

Further, it was participating in the transmission, distribution of electricity and gas throughout the state and. Afterwards, Enron enlarged their wealth through marketing and promotion of commodities which included; power and communications bandwidth and related risk management derivatives as tradable securities.

Enron energy trading and Communications Company that was based in Houston, TX was well re-known for its accounting strategies a factor that allowed it to be listed as the seventh largest company in America (Molly, 2001). The company had a work force of about 21,000 employees grouping them among the largest employers in the country. In the same year, it was ranked number seven by the fortune magazine among first five hundred companies in the United States.

The energy company had made inventions in communications, power and weather securities and due to this it was expected to dominate the trading in these areas. However, in the year 2000, the company had claimed a revenue base of about with $101 billion but due of their trade activities. Despite all that, the company still ended up the biggest failure in the corporate history (Molly, 2001)

Despite the fame and wealth Enron had accumulated, the company stood on the verge of bankruptcy by mid November 2001 (Bryce, 2002). This had arisen from numerous scandals and collective failure between the company and its auditing firm which brought about by accounting irregularities that surrounded fraud. Poor decisions, mismanagement and individualistic type of management by Enron’s top were also major contributors in the collapse of the corporation.

At the same time, the value of investors’ equity per share in 2001 fell from $85 to 30 cents a fact that plunged the company into a disastrous loss. Discovery of the company’s source of profit which happened to be from deals with limited partners which it controlled was one of the factors that resulted to the company’s loss of value.

This loss and other similar financial conflicts, was not reported in any of the company’s financial report (Niskanen, 2005). More to that, the company had also devised a method to elude taxes and maintain anonymity by opening offshore accounts that allowed them easy currency flow. By the end of the year 2001, the firm’s European operations filed for bankruptcy and sought protection in the US Southern District of New York under chapter 11 (Hodak, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2000 during the companies’ financial peak point, public investors were encouraged to buy stocks in the company since the prices were at their highest with a promise of further appreciation in their value in the subsequent year.

However the executive in the company knew of the looming loss that was to be experienced in the near future and instead of advising the public, they were in a hurry to sell out all of their stocks (Hodak, 2007). To the demise of the investors, the stocks plummeted causing a great loss across the board of approximately $102.

Later in the subsequent years, Enron was forced to sell out its assets since it had incurred a large financial loss. The sale was to be done since the company had to liquidate its assets and raise funds to aid in settling the creditors and investors who had not anticipated the collapse. However, Enron reopened again under a new name Enron Creditors Corporation after settling with most of its creditors except Citigroup (Hodak, 2007).

Impact on stakeholders Enron Company was composed of share holders that included both the private and corporate class. Since the company had a good reputation of its wealth and a large revenue base, the rate at which people invested was overwhelming.

Reports by Chris Penttila, (2002), indicated that the Enron’s mission statement dictated the four key values that the company prided itself in. These key values were: excellence, communication, integrity and respect. The purpose of this was to instill in the public the confidence that everything that happened in the company was fair and open a notion that was welcomed by the managers working for the company.

However, collapse of the company was partly allowed by the stakeholders since they were afraid of questioning the companies’ business activities and conflicts that they were always involved in. for example many of the stakeholders knew of the financial conflict of interest that existed between Arthur Anderson, Vinson, Elkins and the Enron’s board of directors.

The collapse of the company was met with a lot of negative reactions. The public was hit with a rude shock and immediately people stated pointing fingers to the systems that allowed the disaster to happen. According to (Bryce, 2002) the collapse affected all stakeholders from the big investors to the least employee in the company.

We will write a custom Assessment on How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the social impacts included loss of lively hoods by small employees who worked in the company to billions by the investors, deaths, life savings and even imprisonment. In a meeting with the Congress former Enron employees witnessed that they had not only lost their jobs but also their retirement savings. Moreover, the threat of loss of employment was not only felt by Enron employees but even those at Andersen’s U.S. operations (Dugan and Spurgeon, 2002; Bryan-Low, 2002)

Loss of business by the partners and affiliates of the company was another major impact of the collapse. An example of this was Andersen which after indictment started to experience a mass exodus of its clients. This had a great effect on the revenue of the company and the public confidence.

Andersen then went further to loose the favor on settlement with the judiciary a move that was seen as suicidal if adopted by the other states, since it might preempt them to revote the companies license. According to Wynn (2009), other trading partners that were affected by Enron’s losses were ING Barings, Deutsche bank, Duke Power and American power who also suffered immense losses.

Other social impacts that were felt by the stakeholders involved deaths that were not anticipated for. Such an example is; Kenneth Lay who was an Enron’s CEO but died of heart attack in July 2006. The causes of the Enron’s CEO death were attributed to stress brought about by public unrest and legal pressures in the cases filled against him in the state (Palepu

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Capacity Management in Business Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Need for company change For a company to prosper in change, its capacity should be highly considered. It should admit the challenges encountered with ease because its capacity enhances the development of a corporation. Lack of capacity brings about failure. Change enables a company to move a step forward in is day-to-day routine hence flourishing at the end of it all.

In line with Slack and Lewis, (9) a company should centralize on change more than any other field by emphasizing and having a positive focus towards it. It should also have new methods of passing information to enhance the communication pathways and to help working in partnership.

A corporation should be able to receive and admit views from different perspectives, this enables intermingling hence change of ideas is experienced. There ought to exist more interactions because the more the company interacts the more it acknowledges itself from different points. Change in a company does not necessarily depend on how much the company holds but on outweigh of the ideas they have came up with midst a tight schedule on their market conditions. In a company, their partners should have a know how of the change.

There should be interaction among different parties within a company, the smaller the capacity of a company the greater the chances of admitting the change because their interaction is limited within a small geographical area. In addition, the direct-to-direct interaction or the face-to-face interaction within a company brings about a common understanding of an issue from the same perspective thus brings change within that company.

Companies need to ensure constant changes to engage its employees into spending more time in understanding customer’s needs. (Edwards and Day, 5) This is one way of enhancing proper transformation of data. It also helps to determine probability of achieving goals, strengthening the relationship between the management and employees, and reduce extra costs or time of reinventing.

According to Slack and Lewis (12) proper implementation involves “effective planning cycles that need fewer ad Hoc interactions regarding operational decisions.”

Advantages and constraints of making a number of small changes in capacity rather than fewer large ones The company operation goals fall short because of failure to complement the strategic plan of the organization. The organizational strategic plan ought to start from the individual level whereby one should realize that their unique ideas contribute to the overall performance of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is not easy for the company to have these ideas collected, but in most cases, it works out when they are motivated to work together towards common goals. The company fails to translate because they try to implement the strategies all in a go instead of the small phases change over strategy.

Survey conducted on various company indicate that majority of the companies have a proper strategies to steer off the change but they lack the plan to do so thus very few end up implementing the strategies successfully. This is a clear indication that for a company to achieve strategic success, it has to promote the plan by allowing those responsible for currying out the plan.

To accomplish some advantages over strategic planning, one ought to execute the change over in a premeditate manner. Some of the advantages include attaining motivated leadership styles.

This is the ability to achieve sustained performance through personal planning and development, which acquaints employees with dynamic ideas. These leadership styles assist in business growth besides the complete effectiveness. Every employee should be aware of the overall business strategic plan to pick up his or her roles in the implementation process.

The second advantage entails turning the strategy into action. The phased approach provides the opportunity to link the identified performance factors to the strategic initiatives and projects whereby there is easy in achieving full optimization of individual and departmental activities. Thirdly, the phased planning also helps to complement all the other departmental goals and objectives. Lastly, there are chances to link all the units to work as a unit for the overall success. (Slack and Lewis, 22)

Some of the shortcomings concerning the implementation may entail the inability to understand the overall strategic plan fully due to the involved breakdown. The people involved such as the employees may not be in a position of know exactly what is required in order to accomplish the company’s plan.

There are queries concerning what ought to be created, refined or accomplished for the final achievement of the company’s plan. Some of the queries will include questioning such as, when to consider the implementation as a success and how it is measured emerges.

We will write a custom Essay on Capacity Management in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Single phased business plans and changes requires proper planning for instance, appointment of resources for the implementation process, assignment of responsibilities or any requirement process of renewal. Worst part of any job involves obstacles to change created by lack of constituency over processes, measurements and the general system. Implementing change ought to involve and convince individuals to modify their personal traits and check their compliance with the intended change.

Lastly, the major constraint involves the business complexity. Intricacy on an organization reduces chances for twist all the way through modification. “The complexity makes changes to be more tailored and focused therefore making it more difficult to redirect some of the interactions to the efforts required”. (Slack and Lewis, 22)

Sometimes change may call for the culling of some of the staff members from the system thus leading to early retrenchment. Effects on the traditional patterns of interacting during the change process may also be experienced.

Conclusion There is need to acquire more sophisticated tools and formally interactive systems, which are able to manage multiple aggressive situations as well as success factors. Today there is need for proper planning to avoid deadlock situations that minimizes space for growth.

These are because many companies are growing at an alarming rate and the merges are currently quite often. There is an obvious complexity regarding the mergers because of the various units, processes and measuring standards involved. The need for change or transformation potential is what leads to merging.

Works Cited Edwards, H. and Day, D. “Creating Passion Brands: How to Build Emotional Brand Connection with customers”. London: Kogan Page. 2007

Slack, N., and Lewis, M. “Operation Strategy”. London: Prentice Hall. 2008

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A Case Resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission Essay a level english language essay help

This paper analyses a case resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission. The case analysis shows clearly that journalistic code of practice was not adhered to by the journal in question. Codes of practice or conduct are important self regulatory tools at the disposal of journalists. The complaints councils play an important role as arbitrator.

When a complaint is lodged with the press complaints commissions or councils, they endeavor to resolve it amicably. The alternative is to press libel charges, which are often expensive to prosecute and defend. This paper, therefore, clearly points to self regulation and passing of friendly media laws as the only sure way of guaranteeing journalistic freedom.

Journalists are supposed to do their work guided by ethics or general principles that defines good practice. Every practicing journalist is often affiliated to a journalistic body which is bound to a given code of conduct. Codes of conduct aim at ensuring journalists seek only to establish truth in a fair, accurate and objective manner.

The other aspect of journalism that is often misused or compromised is accountability to the public (Alia, 149). Journalism is not supposed to serve any vested interest. Rather, the aim of journalistic endeavors should be feeding the general public with accurate, objective information.

Information helps create a public sphere or interaction between members of a republic. In the recent past, capacity to share information world wide in a fast and easy way has created a sense of international citizenship (Alia, 147). This is positive and desirable, however, any distortion of truth or misinformation bring to a public a lot of harm. Sometimes harm does not come to the whole public but rather to individuals; they loose a livelihood or reputation.

Journalistic codes are tools for guiding journalists wade through situations that present conflicting interests (Alia, 63). The codes contribute to self regulation of individual journalists in the media industry. In case of a dilemma, most codes indicate clearly what the most ethical course of action would be. Information on minors, reports on security and people suspected of crime have to be properly censored (Alia, 52).

The challenge is to balance between the need to keep the public informed while protecting the subjects from any possibility of unjust or unfair harm as a result of the report. If reports on a crime are not handled sensitively, they easily damage individual’s reputations or cost institutions a lot of money.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To entrench self regulation, complaints councils have evolved or been established within journalistic circles. These councils are guided by given codes of conduct in resolving complaints lodged before them. One council I am familiar with is the British Press Complaints Council (PCC).

The PCC defines itself as “an independent body which deals with complaints from members of the public about the editorial content of newspapers and magazines” (Press Complaints Commission, 1). Since its inception to date, the council has dealt with many complaints. The PCC website states that they dealt with 4, 698 complaints in the year 2008 alone. One of the recent complaints or cases they handled was called “A man v Press

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The automobile industry in Hong Kong Essay essay help online: essay help online

Reasons for the problems encountered in the markets for automobiles The automobile industry as witnessed by the Hong Kong enterprise presents a host of problems that affect all the players in the industry. Firstly, the increased demand for automobiles has elicited increased input demand for Automobile Parts and Components (APC).

Because Automobile parts and components are produced by over 50 different industries, the variation in the expertise will transmit the spill-over effects of the automobile production to APC suppliers. Because the major APC have been imported, the local products therefore fail to meet the needs of the market. In addition, most multinational automobile producers import key items for their own use.

Entry into the automobile supply chain has been made difficult for new comers to penetrate because the players operate like cartels. Thirdly, competition in the market has been intensified by the considerable relaxation of import tariffs on automobiles. In this context, due to the pressure to review own supply chains force the local and joint venture assemblers to improve product quality.

Alternatively, their desire to minimize costs can be achieved through sourcing from quality but competitive suppliers. To the surprise of the entire market, the pressure is being transmitted up the supply chain from assemblers to first, second and third-tier suppliers. Consequently, the supply chain is undergoing reshuffling, in turn creating breathing space for new but competent, competitive suppliers like Hong Kong enterprises.

Fourthly, the small local consumer market fails to support an automobile industry, impeding the development of the APC. Although most assemblers tend to work in collaboration with APC suppliers to develop new products, it is evident that assemblers will not source from suppliers who cannot meet internationally recognized technological levels. On the contrary, a number of Hong Kong manufacturers carry out R

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Ordinary Men Book Review Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Holocaust in itself goes beyond describing extermination of Jews; it describes crime against humanity in general. The damage that the Holocaust caused in Europe has not been matched in history.

Nevertheless, the big question remains today; who was responsible for the extermination of Jews? Well, many people believed, and still believe that, Adolf Hitler was the man behind the whole issue. Not until you read Ordinary Men by Christopher R. Browning. In the wake of the strong-held belief that Jews were responsible for the fall of German Empire, there was massive deployment of police officers to clear Jews from ghettos and exterminate them.

However, Browning throws in another issue; that, ordinary men; reserve-untrained civilians; fathers; brothers got involved in this atrocious act. Browning asks, “If the men of Reserve Police Battalion 101 could become killers under such circumstances, what group of men cannot?” (189).

The insinuation here is that, ordinary men got involved in the genocide. Browning traces how the Reserve Police Battalion 101 were sent to Poland; received their first command to kill at Jozefow and proceeded to exterminate thousands of innocent defenseless Jews in Erntefest.

Browning reveals how these ordinary men mostly from Hamburg in Germany, turned into cold-blooded slayers albeit being given the option of withdrawing from the exercise. “Each individual policeman once again had a considerable degree of choice” (Browning 27). Nevertheless, the big question remains: what made these ordinary men turn into killers?

These ordinary men did not kill because they wanted to kill. They killed because they came face to face with the victims. No wonder after they killed the first lot of Jews, “they were depressed, angered, embittered, and shaken” (Browning 69). There is the human instinct to dominate over other people when presented with the opportunity, and may be, these ordinary men opened fire impulsively to the Jews without such intentions.

However, the fact that these ordinary men had been given the opportunity to withdraw from the exercise, overrules this possibility. Nevertheless, it is important to note at this point that their commanders ridiculed those who tried to move out of the operation and this takes us to the next reason why members of Reserve Police Battalion 101 became executioners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Browning, the members of the Reserve Police Battalion 101 never knew that they would take part in killing innocent wretched Jews (56). Before commencing the operations, the commander in charge of the Battalion allowed those who could not handle the operation to step aside to take less demanding jobs.

At this point, Schmike withdrew from the group but commander Trapp lambasted him (Browning 57). For fear of being scolded, majority of the ordinary men stayed back save for twelve more men who joined Schmike. This fear might be a major contributory factor as to why many ordinary men agreed to take part in the extermination operation. To some extent, this was an act of free will as Browning posits, “Human responsibility is ultimately an individual matter” (188).

Human beings are logical beings, they can make legitimate decisions, and given the fact that, these men were given the opportunity to choose between joining the executions and quitting the same, it shows that they were willing to kill and this is the third reason why these people turned into ‘willing exterminators’.

Finally, among other duties, the Police Battalion 101 had to put Jews into trains and transport them to death camps. They could bundle tens of thousands of Jews into trains and inspect them on their way to concentration camps (Browning 59). Faced with this opportunity to rule over helpless individuals, the Police Battalion 101 became accustomed to exterminating Jews for they had the mandate.

These reserve civilians also had to hunt for Jews who were on the run and flush them out of forests. In this hunting operation, many Jews lost their lives in the hands of these ordinary men. At times, the Police Battalion 101 would joke about the ‘hunting expedition’ (Browning 65).

Moreover, this Police Reserve Battalion did not face any opposition from any other group and this fuelled the killing. Human power, especially when being applied by untrained people under no control, can run out of hand. This is exactly what happened in the case of the Reserve Police Battalion 101.

The participation in the executions was not something that could only have taken place at this historical time and place; it is an example of broader issues and concerns. These executions portray an opportunity that had matured. Browning states that,

We will write a custom Essay on Ordinary Men Book Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The fundamental problem is not to explain why ordinary Germans, as members of a people utterly different from us and shaped by a culture that permitted them to think and act in no other way than to want to be genocidal executioners, eagerly killed Jews when the opportunity offered.

The fundamental problem is to explain why ordinary men–shaped by a culture that had its own peculiarities but was nonetheless within the mainstream of western Christian, and Enlightenment traditions–under specific circumstances willingly carried out the most extreme genocide in human history” (222).

Browning has continually contended that the extermination, which many call the ‘final solution”, resulted from “cumulative radicalization.”

Works Cited Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

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To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? Essay a level english language essay help

This essay looks at the background to liberal theories, especially in relation to main theoretical rival, Realism, before examining in detail the doctrine of humanitarian interventionism, so often, associated with liberalist theories, and criticisms from, among others, Noam Chomsky, who see it as little more than the continuation of Western-style ‘imperialism’.

In recent years, in the field of International Relations studies, as well as in the broader study of the Social Sciences, a range of new theories have emerged to challenge the ‘foundationalist’ school of thought, in which traditional ideas, such as Realism and Liberalism, feature as main components’.

These new theories, which include, ‘Post-Modernism’ and ‘Social Constructivism’, however, are most often used as a means for criticizing ‘foundationalist’ or ‘traditionalist’ theories, rather than (as traditional theirs are said to do), form firm criteria for analysing ‘real world’ international relations, between nation-states.

In this, traditional theories such as Liberal Internationalism, which forms the basis of discussion in this essay, have also undergone a revival; particularly since the end of the Cold War, when with the failure of the leading traditional theory, that is, ‘Realism’ to predict the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, often seen as the symbolic event marking the Cold War’s end, led to a revival of its main rival, ‘Liberalism.’ Ironically, it was at the expense of Liberalism, that Realism arose earlier in the twentieth century, largely in the failure of the Liberalist project, after the First World War, and the inevitable onset of the Second World War.

In the study of International Relations theories, this fall of Liberalism and rise of Realism was most associated with the work of E.H. Carr’s 1939, classic text The Twenty Year Crisis (Cambridge, 2001).

This inter-war period, might also be seen as a time when ‘Imperialism’, reached its high point, that is, when the world’s major powers, mainly the United States and the UK, both, not coincidently, victors in the First World War, looked first, to further their own interests, over what was billed as the championing of self-determination and liberalism, over the old realist ideas of self-interest and what might be termed ‘might is right’.

While, the United States at this time, stood as the champion of anti-imperialism’, this stance, right throughout the United States’ existence, has served only to mask its own imperialistic ambitions, notably, as Alex Callinicos, in his Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), states, in the early twentieth century and the neo-conservative policies under the presidency of George Bush Jnr.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, for many, the Liberalist project died with the failure of the League of nations, set up in 1919, and supposedly the international body, through which the much-trumpeted ‘new world order’ would come into being. The ideas behind the League however, did not die out entirely, and indeed, were in some ways revived and retried, in the early years marking the end of the Second World War in 1945, through the creation of the United Nations in 1949.

As mentioned however, Liberalism’s revival did not take place at the same time, but rather developed at a time, when in the West, at least, the collapse of Communism throughout Eastern Europe, was attributed to the triumph of Western values, and not, as argued since, largely, the result of the internal problems underpinning Socialism, as practiced in the former Soviet Union.

In the new wave of optimism this created among Western Powers, a new doctrine, to replace the old Cold War ideologies, arose, namely, championing the idea of ‘humanitarian intervention’, as part of creating a new ‘Liberalised’ way of solving international crises’ and dealing with the new style of intra-state’ conflicts that marked the end of the Cold War, was forwarded.

This, in essence, championed ‘human rights’ issues, over and above traditional boundaries where ‘sovereignty’ lay alone with a ‘nation state’, and its right to act as it so willed within its set borders.

In the eyes of those who oppose this idea however, one major point of argument raised, is that, whatever ideals are championed, that in practice the right to intervene in another state’s affairs, amounts to nothing more than the West’s renewed pursuit of ‘Imperialism’, especially, as practiced during its height, in the nineteenth century.

Here, often, the right to intervene and then govern foreign territories was based on arguments of ‘civilization’ and the duty of Western powers to bring good government to uncivilized countries. A major champion of this view is the scholar Noam Chomsky, who has attacked the policy of humanitarian intervention from the beginning of the early 1990s, and the first test case of its kind, in the breakdown of the former communist Yugoslavia, in the Balkans.

Chomsky, saw this interference, and the use of the West’s combined military might, supposedly to end the ‘genocide’ taking place there between the warring factions, as based on the false pretence of ‘humanitarianism’, its real agenda, to enforce Westernized’ values and extend the West’s powerbase in Central Europe. As it stands today, the debate concerning the West’s true intentions extends to the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasions of Iraq, in 1991 and 2005.

We will write a custom Essay on To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chomsky’s continued considerable influence, in asserting his position as exposing the hypocrisy at the heart of the humanitarian argument, shows how, outside those states which stand opposed to Western interference, the doctrine is a controversial one, even within, western circles.

This highlights then, how contrary to what supporters of ‘humanitarian interventionism’, such as United States President during the 1990s, Bill Clinton, and UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair, at the time of the Kosovo intervention in 1999, say, that the doctrine represents a ‘moral stand’ and a refusal on behalf of Western governments to stand aside while governments around the world abuse human rights, that for those who stand against this position, the arguments hinge not on issues of liberal morality, but old-fashioned means for establishing ‘imperialist’ designs on the non-westernized world.

This view, in particular, finds support among those who opposed the recent Iraq and Afghanistan invasions, and consequently, for those, holding this opinion, liberalist arguments, are more than complicit, but lead the way in how the West’s international relations policies of today, are no different from those practiced during the height of ‘imperialism’.

To conclude, therefore, as does, the scholar, Alex Callinicos, in his recent study, Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), which especially focuses on the United States, as chief among these complicit Western Powers ‘imperialism is far from dead.’

That is to say, the ideas put forward by supporters of humanitarian interventionism, that the principle underlying it, that is, the sovereignty of human rights, as belonging to a new age, or new world order, one not beholden to respect nation-state borders, that until now, remained sovereign, remains hugely contested.

That whether these ideas are cloaked in liberalist rhetoric or not, and regardless of their legitimization through international bodies such as the United Nations, that the underlying principles remain profoundly Realist, and represent only what the Great Powers in the West, have always sought, their increased power throughout the sphere of international relations.

Works Cited Callinicos, A., Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009).

Carr, E.H., The Twenty Year Crisis: 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (Palgrave Macmillan, 1939, 2001).

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Mental Health best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders

Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight

Preventing Eating Disorders and overweight

Conclusion

References

Introduction Eating disorders are superficial expressions of cavernous emotional or psychological confusion. Sufferers resort to eating as a means of conveying personal difficulties. The concern appears to be about food projected to a deeper level. The problem expresses an essential unhappiness originating from a number of dissimilar sources. Therefore, it is fundamentally not disorders of eating but indicates and expresses a troubled perception of personality.

Eating disorder is not a unique illness but an unfavourable habit among the close friends of the victim and to the person having the habit as well. It is a mock to the standards of beauty but ends up mocking the person with the habit more that the surroundings or situations at hand. It would be equitable to a protest against the normal cultural standards associable to beauty but eventually as portrayed, eating disorder flourishes from a disturbed mind. A person would wish to have some safety; stay alive and contained but when one ends up doing the opposite, then the problem arises creating conflict between the mind and body.

The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders There is a close relation between diet and health to the psychological, emotional and physical well-being of a person. According to O’Brien, (2007) Psychological factors influence the eating habits and eventually the problem of overweight. Boredom, stress, strain, anger, depression and anxiety are some of the psychological factors that aggravate weight problems by triggering the impulses for one to engage in overeating.

If taken into deep considerations, this is a way of getting rid of the emotional distress. The comfortable foods preferred during the youth as the junk foods or those offered when one was ill are more preferable at such states. These foods are often associable to the soothing effects thus the close link between the moods, foods and eating habits.

The emotional arousal is another factor contributing to the unhealthy eating habits. It disrupts the ability to offer personal care such as having physical exercise program or sticking to particular diet. The depressed and anxious mind sabotages one’s efforts to loosing weight thus leading to the weird feeling of hopelessness and the good efforts or intentions capsizes leaving one to the option of the detrimental food choices, and inactivity that kills the need to ever try the activities again.

The problem of overweight or obesity has close link to many other factors besides the emotional disturbance. For instance, a person may be susceptible to some environmental factors that promote overeating, one may have some generic susceptibility or the psychological stress can also exacerbate an already existing problem. (O’Brien, 2007)

If the efforts to loose weight fail to work out, one may end up suffering from frustration, weakened feelings of competence or lowered self-esteem. Others suffer from weigh related discrimination or prejudice. Anxiety and depression are some of the problems that come about because of excessive and constant helpless mood, stress and incessant emotional agony.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mental and physical disturbance often classifies to the emotional disturbance often leading to overweight and obesity that habitually contributes to stress and other psychological disorders. Medically it may be very difficult to determine whether overweight is a symptom associable to another disorder or just a causative factor.

Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight Although the eating disorder presents the problem of compromised self-esteem or prejudice, in most cases the victims do not suffer from any psychological disorder. In line with O’Brien, (2007) those with a mild obese may try working out without much success and end up suffering from eating disorders, which brings about the depression and compromised self-esteem. These people loose their eating behaviours and end up consuming abnormally in terms of quantity over certain duration.

According to Alexander et al, (2009) the leading causes of the eating disorders are stress and depression. One can trace the problem to the impulsive responses of behaviors that are spontaneous to hatred or other related mental difficulties such as nervousness or lack of self-confidence, which make one to isolate themselves from others into an inactive lifestyle this enhancing bad feeding habits that lead to gaining of weight and eventually to obesity.

This is a good indication that the physical disorders coexists with some mental hysteria such as the need for substance abuse, anxiety, depression, loneliness, depression, lack of control and a wide range of other interpersonal and social problems.

Eating disorder is therefore a problem that is deeply rooted into the interpersonal issues as opposed to preoccupation on the food and psychological factors. Some of these issues entails family interrelation problems, expression related problems especially emotionally, sexual abuse, feeling of taunt, tease and ridicule over size, appearance, shape or weight.

Other factors entail the social dynamics for instance people would be having a specific body size and weight as their standard measuring unit such that, when one is not conforming to the specifications, then they lack the factors for a “perfect body”. They are mainly concern with the person’s physical appearance. The pressure from the public reinforces the problems by reactivating the psychological concern enhancing stress due to the negative feelings especially in females. (Alexander et al, 2009)

A more complicated origin points to temperaments and its interaction with the mental/psychological, social and interpersonal factors. The mental health professionals indicate the temperamental propensity as “perfectionism, compulsiveness, impulsiveness, behavioral, cognizance, and emotions linked to bad eating habits.

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The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US Research Paper cheap essay help

Abstract The issue of the executive pay raises heated debate today considering the gap differences in the civil income. For instance, assuming example of the U.S. government, President Obama governance faces public fury over the huge pay packages accorded to the executives. (Andrews and Bajaj, 2009) The issue of prohibiting extra bonuses for the top executives beside their hefty basic pay and other stock dividends is therefore under high consideration beside the rules imposing reductions. If imposed, the rules will be the toughest ever forcing the executives to accept deep reductions.

Arguably, considering a $500,000 annual compensation would be draconian considering the lack of bonuses or annual dividends. The recruitment process would be very difficult due to competition especially from the private sector offering over $1 million.

The U.S president seem to advocate for the pay regulations considering that this is the time the government is struggling to bail out prominent collapsed financial institutions. According to Andrews and Bajaj of the Times Newspapers (2009), the National Economic Council is considering pay restrictions to all the companies under the Federal help of economic recovery.

The executive’s compensation ware not under particular specifications, the rule applied earlier on bailed out banks failed because of the government’s failure to impose a strict follow up mechanism thus living the executives to reward themselves with the heft bonuses without considering the deterioration of the economy. The question many people ask is whether the executives should make the much they do.

Introduction The high pay may appear to be very little in comparison to the huge company’s profits the top executives deliver at the end of the financial session. In line with Daft et al, (368) when the company’s profits measure up to the executive’s pays then it seems too low and therefore reasonable. Probably it would make sense to reward the executives who are directly involved with the capital of the company.

They are usually under a lot of pressure to deliver and although it may seem ironic, their pay is excessively little, compared to what they deliver. This might be the only logical way of rewarding these employees for their tremendous work. It motivates them to ensure success and future developments. Payment should always reflect performance and this is most certainly the reason why the American government advocates for pay regulation especially among the financially assisted companies.

Thesis Statement “Reasons behind the hefty pays of the Chief Executive Officers”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem definition

This paper explores the issue of the compensation that the top executives receive the reasons behind the pay and it offers the suggestions for improving the system.

Do the top executives deserve their pay?

It is evident that top executive receive exorbitant remunerations and most people feel that majority do not deserve the compensation. Some of the executive end up performing a mediocre job and still manage to rip off the taxpayers because of their titles. Common feeling indicates that these individuals should receive their compensation depending on their performances.

Literature review While the arguments against the pay are viable to certain levels, the other side of the coin indicate that these executives earn and deserve every penny of their paychecks. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 132) They undergo enormous amount of pressure to ensure companies deliver profits. They have to make tough and important daily decisions, which are the key measures of whether the company prospers or fails.

The failure of the company compromises their jobs therefore their careers are at constant risky measures. Most of the CEO did not just become what they are but had to move up the ladder systematically to the top positions. They have total endurance and strong business backgrounds and knowledge to steer the company through maintenance of an effective workforce. (Daft et al, 342)

According to Daft et al, (556) there are very few people with enough knowledge and experience to guide or control the performance of big, especially financial companies to their performance value. This aspect makes the executives an important and valuable part of the company hence the reason why they deserve the high pays. The public seem to base their arguments over the executive pays on half the picture. The profits earned by the companies are excessively high in comparison to their remunerations.

A good example is the ATT Company chief executive officer who is arguably one of the top paid officials. (Mathias and Jackson, 137) People’s view over the executive’s move to layoff 40,000 employees and still enjoy his increased pay seems greedy and illogical. At a close range, his laying-off of excessive workers brought great benefit to the company as well as to the customers who benefited from better services at a proficient timeframe and lower cost by smaller but improved workforce.

Comparing the executive’s pay of 20 million dollars, which seem too huge to the company’s earning, it would equate approximately to 1/3,450th of the gross thus validating his pay against performance. If split among the workers, the executive’s pay would equate to $500 which is a pay equitable to a just a couple of days pay for a low-level employee.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Executives need to be very keen in their decisions, less it bring down the whole company crumpling to losses. They ought to ensure transparency over all their moves or decisions since they affect a magnitude and the economy at large. (Daft et al, 557) The superfluous amount of tension and pressure evident today is due to these factors and thus the reason why not every CEO can be able to handle their tasks as per the requirements.

What guarantees good performance of the CEO? The huge amount of money involved in compensating the executives is a good indication that there is no good assurance for their performance. The pay acts as a great motivator to performance. Without a good pay, they would probably find better paying jobs or one without much strain but having an equally good pay package.

It would be a great risk for a company to engage an executive and pay them poorly because that person would not get involved as required and therefore the probability of a collapse is high. Other than collapse, the company can easily experience weak profit margin compared to other business rivals. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 102)

The executive’s thrive to venture deeply into the industry depends on the payment received. Good focus on goals elevates the business into great heights.

When a company makes good investments such as the hefty pays for the executives, then the company’s performance elevates to a good performance. The CEO is able to put much emphasis on the firm and tolerate smaller margins for errors thus ensuring great profits. They suffer negative affects or enjoy positive rewards depending on the performance of the business. (Mathis and Jackson, 35)

The plausible reason why the American executives receive more money than other countries is that they work out tasks at larger scales compared to others. From this perspective, the companies should therefore not be concern with the payment but focus on the delivery factors.

It is easy to find qualified people to work at the same capacity at lower wages but they are not able to cover the same magnitude of the job. This means that there is a need to analyse and reward the executives in relation to their inputs. The businesses ought to acknowledge that the executives deserve pay equivalent to their inputs.

Need for quality workers may make a company to find it reasonable to hire executives from other countries and therefore outsourcing does not mainly mean the company want to find someone for he top job with minimal and more reasonable wage rates as most people may think.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company is responsible for the high wages and not the worker. This negates the reasoning that finding such employees at a reasonable rate is not possible. The company decides on the payment rather than the employee demanding for the same. Pay should reflect performance and for this reason, the company or those in the industry have the right to decide on the amount of remuneration to offer. (Mathis and Jackson, 35) this is an indication that the executives deserve their pays.

Problems with systems that support the hefty Executive’s Pay Most of the executive wages are not reflective of the employee’s performance and hence the basis for this debate. The executives receive the same treatment regardless of their poor or very prolific performance. This means that the company may be losing huge amounts through such pays as the persona benefits, especially when their no good procedures for investigating performance and linking the compensation to the firm’s profit margins.

When an executive has room for enjoying power and good pay while reciprocating nothing on the other hand, then when taken to consideration, this is abuse of power and they will not attempt to do a good job. There is need to have a correlation between the qualities of the work and the hefty pay that the CEO receives.

Most collapsing businesses today lack proper monitoring systems over performance especially the government run firms. The top managers continue delivering bad jobs while they still enjoy good constant pays and probably have power to award themselves bonuses and rises. According to Daft et al, (342) It may cost a lot to get rid of bad employees particularly those at the top levels, but overtime, the losses incurred as the company hopes for recovery my eventually be the root cause of collapse.

Most of the CEO jobs are under contract basis, this means that if the period is cut-short, then the law protects the officials and the company must compensate them for their early removal. This is another reason why many companies fail to terminate the executives. The need to avoid court cases makes the company to hold the unwanted personnel until their terms expire.

There is urgent need to incorporate a link between the compensation package and the business performance record and probably include the same in the contract forms as an incentive to produce more. Executives can have an offer with the basic pay and allowances but the bonuses be rewarded in line with the performance or business profit margins. Amazing facts indicate that human performance has a main basis upon monetary rewards. (Daft et al, 372)

Conclusion Top executives make hefty pay packages but most deserve the remuneration they receive because of the business performance. They make key decisions every day, work under pressure to deliver and their jobs and titles are arguably the greatest all over the world thus they are internationally competitive. Assessment however indicates that only a fraction performs as per the requirement and thus the need to regulate the pays.

The issuing of a basic salary and adjustable pay rise depending on the company’s performance would work fine. This would be a way of having a distinction between the best performing executives from the rest.

The government should consider more legislature of the workers pay as per the performance levels as a measure of guaranteed routine by the top executives. Companies are in a position to give a breakdown of performance through the accountants as the foundation for remuneration just as the taxation processes. This would be an excellent measure to curb loopholes.

There ought to be an internationally standardized payment levels for the top executives to enhance balanced competition. The contraction procedures also need to integrate means of escaping the clauses that bring about allegations if the company breaks the contract before time especially when the employees perform below expectations.

These measures ensure only the best executives remain in business and thus making the companies to be more productive as well as successful. The aspect of highly paid executives would only be acceptable without disputes or controversies with the implementation of the important ideas discussed herein. Most importantly, the pay ought to reflect on business performance.

Companies are tying to embrace these aspects as evident with the Mercer Company whose recent advertisements for a top executive post specified ability to “generate revenue through development of new client relationships, cross-selling to current clients and extension of current client engagements”.

Works Cited Daft, Rechard .L., and Marcic, Dorothy. “Understanding Management” Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008.

Edmund, Andrews, L. and Rajaj, Vikas. “U.S. Plans $500,000 Cap on Executive Pay In Bailouts” The New York Times. (2009). Web.

McKenzie, Steven, J., and Traynor, William .J. “Opportunities in human resource Management careers: VGM opportunities series” McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001.

Mercer Human Resources Consulting, Job Description for Senior Executive Compensation Consultant, Mercer web site. 2009. Web.

Mathias, Robert, L., and Jackson, John, H. ”Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives”. South-Western Cengage publishers, 2008.

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