A significant number of world’s population who are interested in learning and using English as a second or alternative language have their native language which they use to communicate. In countries like the USA, UK, Canada, Australia and other Anglophonic colonial countries, although English is the national and official language, other languages like French, German, and Spanish dominate certain regions and areas of these countries.
There are also languages from minority and immigrant groups used in small community clusters. These are the first languages a child learns as their mother tongue before going to school. The use of primary languages when teaching students in any education system has its advantages and disadvantages.
Use of primary languages to teach students make it easier for them to connect with the content material in a theme such as the organization of more than one inter-disciplinary aspect. It also provides different ways of focusing and attacking the education problems and assignments especially in non- scientific fields such as graphics, literature, writing journals and social studies. It is easier for the students to find support from peers in group and team projects as well as gathering information and data within their communities.
The primary languages also help in connection of content material with real experiences especially for younger children who still hold on to their mother tongue for understanding. The students are able to utilize their talents and abilities which are not included in learning like in sports, music, art and drama and which are not dependent on English learning and proficiency (Garcia, 2005 p.62).
One of the main arguments against the use of primary languages in teaching is that English language is the predominant means of instruction and academic content writing and reading and students do not get exposed to it and so they are never proficient (Williams,2009).
There is adamant necessity of knowing and efficiently excelling in English proficiency since it is the most common language not only in the US but also in the world today. The lack of a good understanding and knowledge of English in the early years of learning leads to confusion and slow progression when learning it later.
Another challenge is that the native language speakers are mostly from minority groups living in poor suburban communities. They have negative community stereotypes from parents and society. The lack of English knowledge can lead to their isolation and a sense of cultural conflict immerges. Their languages are not spoken expansively and so communication, even between within the minority groups is difficult if they do not have English as a common alternative language.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question of whether English language learning instruction should replace native language can be argued for or against. One of the main arguments is that English should not completely overtake native language as the preferred language of learning, since student understand their primary language better than it.
Bilingual education could be an alternative with the instruction content being offered in both languages. In some academic fields like arts and reading native languages can help the student relate and exploit their potentials more easily. When a student acquires reading skills in their primary language, it is easier and quicker to transfer that to English with better achievement (Garcia, 2005 p.62).
The first experiences in a child including the language greatly influence their individual and cultural molding and the use of the native language can help in the child easily adopting to other languages and academics. Language in this case might not apply to just words and syllables, but also character manifestations, object and process description, among others. Students feel more comfortable and independent when they develop content in their native language and transfer the applications to English language.
Students feel free to communicate and discuss in class if they feel accepted whatever their backgrounds, level of language or reading. They develop the language necessary for content and reading when they are encouraged to participate in a subject debates which they relate with or experience either personally at first- hand or in their families, this helps the child to integrate their world with the classroom.
They can unleash their full knowledge and contribute when they are a part of and relate with the group. When every student is include in discussions without interfering with their comfort zones crossing boundaries of attitudes and cultural perspectives, they bring in diverse view points from their back grounds and help enrich ideas in learning (Cappellini, 2005).
English-language learners can be identified as students in need of special education depending on their various capability levels. There is need to know whether the student has undetected or untreated medical issues, or whether they are receiving proper educational services with and effective curriculum. Student problems should first be discussed and analyzed by teachers, parents and other mainstream stake holders.
There should also be efforts for appropriate intervention and if the problem is persists then action should be taken. However students should be given time to adjust to language learning, school and classroom surroundings and then they can demonstrate there learning capabilities over time. It is not every English learner that needs much attention, some of them receive additional support from family and friends or have a background of English that makes it easier for them to learn and develop their language skills fast and easily.
We will write a custom Report on English-Language Learners in the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A small proportion of these students have proved to be in need of special education especially those from immigrant communities whose education level even in their native language is very poor. A number of characteristics can appear as indicators for students who need such attention.
Physical or cognitive problems might necessitate special care. There is also retardation or stagnation of progress that was previously witnessed. If a student cannot speak or engage in basic communication they cannot engage in class discussions and the normal system and learning can be stressful and testing. However a student who does not answer questions, whose recall is poor, with a poor flow of ideas and comments inappropriately might be in need of support or might be exhibiting language difficulties which fade away with time.
Social cultural aspects should not be indicators of need for special education, since different cultural behaviors are perceived differently e.g. some cultures do not encourage personal opinions or debates. Gender issues in some communities can also limit student performance where learning is not a priority for women or they can not take some disciplines in because they are meant for men.
The ideal program for such an English-language child would be one that promotes bilingual education and the literacy of the child in both the native and English languages (Wingerd, 2001). Such a program will foster cultural and language diversity. In this program students are instructed both in English and their primary language, there will be efforts to enhance the student’s native language skills and then correlation is developed between English instructions and development of the native language.
As students develop their first language, they also acquire better levels of English proficiency since they can express the skills, ideas and knowledge acquired in their native language through English. When student are successfully English proficient they join the general education classes where instructions are entirely in English.
An ideal learning program should also respond to the child’s cultural heritage, since preparation for learning is different among cultural groups. Conversation and information exchange differs in various groups together with cultural practices and preferences like greeting methods, dressing codes, eye contact and methods of forwarding complains and enquiries. The value that is put on education also depends on religion, beliefs and morals.
Depending on how a child is reared most of them have a clear understanding and relate to all this aspects by the time they are of school going age that is from five to six years. Teachers should strive to understand these developments and identify the cultural differences. They should not have particular standards or necessities to use in measuring student performance nor should they expect all children to learn, communicate or behave in the same way as those from English speaking families and cultures (Wingerd, 2001).
The use of primary languages when teaching students instead of English has been an issue of debate, especially in English speaking countries where it is the main stream language. It is important to note that if the welfare, comfort and confidence of students whose first language is not English are to be taken into consideration, then all efforts should be made to reach out and help them even if it means using their languages along with English as instructor content.
Not sure if you can write a paper on English-Language Learners in the Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Cappellini, M. (2005). Balancing reading
Employee Retention in Workplace Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors contributing to high turnover rates
How to retain employees
What rewards do employees want
What makes a good workplace
Introduction According to Prakashan (2008, p.1-51), “employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage the most productive employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time” or up to completion of their projects. Additionally, Carsen
Human Resource Management in Japan Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management
Analysis of japanese management
Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management The Japanese management system is based on the traditional values of the Japanese society in combination with the measures taken by the enterprises to attract qualified working force t the business in the post-war period after the Second World War. In this respect, the nature of the business relations in Japan is fostered by the traditions and historic circumstances.
However, it is necessary to compare the way the business is ran in Japan and in the Western world and find out whether these two types of business are interchangeable and whether there is a slightest necessity for applying the Western type of business management to Japan. At the same time, globalisation is the concept that facilitates the process when the borders blur between cultures which also concerns business, the management tactics, and corporate culture.
The image of a company man is distinguished in Japanese business model in terms of employment and management. As indicated in the case cited in the study by Beardwell and Claydon (2007), “…company man may be on the way to extinction in Western firms…” (p. 571).
In this case, the concept of ‘company man’ is referred to as a person who is on the lifetime employment and has an extremely high level of corporate culture and corporate commitment to the work, company, other individuals that work there, and the goals set and reached by the company as a whole.
So, it can be understood that the skills and achievements of every person are not important whereas the main thing that counts is the company’s achievement and financial performance. Therefore, the lifetime employment can be considered an advantage and a disadvantage in the framework of changing roles and priorities in global business.
Analysis of japanese management The main HRM roles in Japan. The main human resource management roles in Japanese companies have a little different function than in other countries of, for instance, Western world. For example, the supervision is a typical role executed by an HR manager in all countries but only in Japan the manager should contribute greatly to the solution of the problem rather than become a part of the problem and simply report about it.
In this respect, every manager should be aware of what is going on in the company, especially related to the sector of his/her direct supervision. The system of payment and bonuses does not depend on the performance levels of employees. So, rewards and benefits are distributed in accordance with the age, seniority, and length of employment principles making the promotion on the professional ladder almost impossible for young colleagues in spite of the effective performance or extraordinary skills applied to practice (Tayeb, 2005, p. 41).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As reported by Debroux (2003), “…top managers in large Japanese companies think that the main role of management is to increase capital efficiency and maximize shareholder profits” (p. 68). As such, the roles of Japanese human resource managers are not clearly defined from management perspective because the corporate culture blurs away the differences and borders.
Pros and cons of solving the case from HR perspective. The company man case can be solved from the human resource perspective but it will take a lot of time to adjust people’s way of perception and the hierarchy they got used to in accordance with the principles promoted in the Western companies.
The pros of solving the case from human resource perspective include a wider range of opportunities for personal and professional growth within the companies. As such, graduates of universities who obtain a position in a corporation would not be trained during the entire career in one corporation and the training programmes would be more focused on acquisition of the basic skills and knowledge for successful performance and financial benefits for the company.
The cons of solving the case from human resources perspective include the relations between the traditions and loyalty in Japanese companies and effectiveness of performance. As claimed by Tayeb (2005), “the Japanese loyalty is to the group to which they belong and for which they are prepared to sacrifice their personal interests” (p. 65). So, it is possible that implementation of the new HRM model would influence the performance of Japanese companies in a negative way.
Difficulties in the case. The most difficult issues in the case concern the promotional patterns applied to Japanese companies as contrasted to the Western firms where the abilities and skills contribute to the professional achievements and, consequently, enable employees to attain their career ladder goals and increase of the wages.
In this respect, the main problem that should be solved concerns the management roles and the structure/hierarchy of the company based on the age-related issues where seniority is the reason for promotion and not the achievements that contribute positively to the image and performance of the company in whole. As soon as management problems are solved in the companies, pay and bonus functions of HR managers can be reconsidered after introduction of changes into structure of the company.
Tactical questions in the process. The issues of primary concern include the context in which the problem occurs because Japan is the country with solid history and traditions that are part of this history. Besides, every employee is aware of the strategic and tactical plans of the company and fulfils his/her functions in order to make a contribution to the final goal.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Resource Management in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The behaviour of employees is the key factor to the corporate success of Japanese companies due to the loyalty and commitment principles promoted through the career-long training, seniority-based promotion, and seniority-based wages and bonuses that do not depend on the professional qualification of employees.
In this respect, the situation is difficult to approach with or without human resource perspective because it is closely related to personnel and would influence people and their work as well as corporate performance in whole.
Professional experience To handle the case from different managerial perspectives, it is necessary to be aware of the typical principles in the country where the problem occurs because the origin identifies how the case should be approached and what strategies better suit the situation in terms of the managerial functions, management roles, and corporate culture.
For instance, in Japan every employee who works for a large corporation is either a part-time/seasonal employee or was recruited right after graduation and overcame training within the corporation to understand the principles of work and become qualified in his/her professional sector. Lack of knowledge about the national rules of business operation may lead to inadequate approach chosen for the case.
To conclude, every national have specific traditions and rules that become either influential for the behaviour or the basis for business conduct. As such, Japanese companies should solve the problem of redundancy of employees without influencing the employment status of currently employed workers.
Bibliography Beardwell, J., and Claydon, T., 2007. Human resource management: a contemporary approach. 5th ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.
Debroux, P., 2003. Human resource management in Japan: changes and uncertainties: a new human resource management system fitting to the global economy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Tayeb, M. H., 2005. International human resource management: a multinational company perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Tourism in New York Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Tourism refers to the scenario whereby individuals known as tourists travel and stay in places different from their usual environment for at least a day or at most o year for the purposes of recreation business New York is one of the states in the United States with a total of sixty two cities.
Each of these cities plays a significant role in the tourism industry in the New York State. New York was the origin of the tourism industry in the United States at around 1820, and it arrived in the United States at a surprising rapidity. Earlier on, most of the Americans spent their leisure time visiting tourist attraction sites in Europe (Gassan 2).
Tourism emerged in the United States from the Hudson River valley, north of New York City in the 1820’s. It was triggered by the confluence of historical accidents as well as the proximity of the valley to the New York City which was then one of the fastest growing cities financially and population wise in the United States. The valley also had remarkable scenery and a favorable geographic position since it connected the country’s most sought after destinations as a water way (Gassan 2).
The Role and Significance of Major Cities Major cities inside and outside New York state plays a major role in the tourism industry in this region. Most of them are densely populated such that they are a source of the many tourists that visit the many tourist attraction sites in New York. Major cities in New York have significant tourist attraction sites that play a major role in the number of tourists that visit New York each year.
They also have good infrastructure mainly in the transport and communication system that makes it easier for tourist to operate from New York since they are able to move from one tourist site to the other at ease. Furthermore, these major cities have been developed with good housing and other facilities such as hotels that accommodate tourists in their stay during their vacations as they move around the state visiting tourist attraction sites.
Apart from being the largest city in New York State, New York city is the largest city in North America and it harbors ever 15 million people in its metropolitan area.
The city’s international profile rose drastically since the September 11, 2009 terrorist attack of the world trade center which left thousands of people dead and it since then entered the list of the world’s top ten most visited destinations (Boniface
19th Century Norms of Marriage Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Views on 19th century marriage norms
Introduction Most feministic writers view the institution of marriage as a deliberate creation by the society to oppress women, as revealed through their works, which always have characters that represent their views on the issue. The writers are mostly radical in their view of the norms that shape the marriage institution.
Women are exposed to unbearable situation in their marriages, only because the society requires them to be married. The works of Kate Chopin, Mary Wilkins Freeman, and Willa Cather, exposes the nature of marriages, suggesting deliberate attempts and positive attitudes towards reforms encouraging women to have second thoughts when joining the institution.
Views on 19th century marriage norms The 19th century marriages remain hit by problems ranging from infidelity through pretence to oppressions as the paper unfolds. In Mary Wilkins, “A New England Nun”, the woman character Louisa is compelled to wait for her suitor for fourteen years in order to get married.
This is quite oppressive considering the fact that Joe has another girlfriend and wants to Marry Louisa because he has promised so. Louisa has to leave her solitary life of happiness to go and live with Joe in his place as dictated by the marriage. She is to sacrifice her happiness at the altar of the marriage institution (Wilkins 9). When she gets the opportunity to dismiss it, she does so without any regrets recovering easily.
Through satirizing the marriage institution as one shaped by the governing norms, the women writers are advocating for a system that is more flexible for women to pursue their happiness beyond the confinements of marriage. Willa Cather has her males portrayed as weak since the women have to work in order to support them (Cather Para.33).
Louisa in Wilkins story, associates the presence of the man around her and having to do some roles shaped by the norms within the oppressive marriage institution. She has to wipe his muddy boots as well as placing a chair for him. These are some of the duties that the woman is compelled to undertake that these writers seem opposed to, hence their campaign for reforms.
Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” gives a description of the events of infidelity that take place during the storm. The story portrays the marriage institution as fake and full of pretence. Through the description of the sexual encounter between Alcee and Calixta, who are both married to different people, Chopin satirizes the serenity that appears from outside when viewing the marriage institution as bogus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two characters seem to satisfy each other best feeling restricted by the rules of their marriage, which they keep stable by simply lying to their spouses (Chopin, “The Storm” Scene II). Rather than staying in marriages only to regret, Chopin implies that it is better if people can only pursue their happiness even if it breaks the norms that have been set forth by the institutions such as marriage.
Minutes after having sex with another man, Calixta welcomes her husband and pretends to be happy when presented with a gift. She even goes further to give him a casual kiss on his cheek as a sign of appreciation. The husband does not suspect anything and so does Alcee’s wife. This depicts the network of pretence and lies incorporated in the marriage institution.
Marriage is an institution that lacks freedom as seen in the manner that the character Louise in Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an hour” reacts to the news of the death of her husband (Chopin, A Story of an hour” Para.10). She whispers to herself that she is free at last only to die when she discovers that her husband is not actually dead.
Conclusion Most critics of the 19th century marriage norms base their arguments on the organization and formulations that shaped the then marriages. This is in the sense that to them marriages meant that a person had to lose his/her freedom absolutely to the other and that however dissatisfied one felt, there was no way out.
Works Cited Cather, Willa. Paul’s Case: A Study in Temperament. London: MacMillan Publishing, 1906.
Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1894.
The Storm. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1898.
We will write a custom Essay on 19th Century Norms of Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilkins, Mary. A New England Nun. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1912.
The Libyan Conflict Essay (Article) custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Parties in the Libyan Conflict
Introduction The Libyan conflict pits the supporters of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, on one side and the anti-Gaddafi forces backed by the international community. It began as peaceful protests that later degenerated into a rebellion after use of excessive force on the protesters by the supporters of the government opposed to the revolution. Both sides of the Libyan conflict struggle to gain control of the country’s leadership.
What began as peaceful protests against the autocratic regime, degenerated into a full-blown conflict that has even attracted involvement from the international community. The perception of the citizens that the regime is oppressive and dictatorial encouraged the mass protests. The pro-government forces on the other hand are opposed to the perceived involvement of the international community and the Western countries to impose regime change in their country.
Parties in the Libyan Conflict The conflict started with low-level protests against the government, which retaliated with violence against its citizens. The protesters gradually gained support even from within the “pro-Gaddafi community leading to the establishment of the Transition National Council based in Benghazi” (Cimmino, 2011).
The main interest of staging the revolt was to topple the oppressive regime and establish a democratic rule. The response of the Libyan leader and his supporters opposed to this revolt involved use of excessive force to quell the violence. However, the protesters have gradually continued to gain support from the citizens and the international community. The international community’s involvement is to protect the civilians and establish a peaceful environment to settle the conflict.
The incompatible goals in this conflict lie in the opposition to Gaddafi’s oppressive rule. The government’s counteroffensive response characterized by heavy use of military weapons and threats by the pro-government forces against the rebels show the government’s determination to remain in power moreover; the government also censored communication media including the social media for fuelling the conflict. The protesters want to end the oppressive and corrupt regime that is accused of infringement of human rights.
The conflict was fueled by poor economic theories coupled with corruption and tribalism, which have contributed to low living standards of the citizens despite the country’s rich oil reserves.
The conflict underwent an escalatory spiral from a peaceful protest to violent conflict attracting the involvement of the international community (Folger, Poole,
Russian Icons in Religion Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction The major religion in Russia is the Russian orthodoxy, though Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam are part of the religious legacy in Russia. In Russia, religion and political systems are very much interrelated in that, since time in memorial, religion especially the Orthodoxy and its icons have been shaping politics and the government through their influence on the Russian people.
These important roles of the icons led the Soviets to order their destruction during the revolution, highlighting their relevance in the history of Russia. From more than one thousand year since Prince Vladimir introduced the Orthodoxy to the people of Russia, icons have influenced a significant part of the history of Russia.
The first icons were introduced in the country from Constantinople, through the Byzantines the Greek icon painters and were able to work in Russia, eventually leading to emergence of groups of Russian icon painters.
It is believed that Prince Vladimir emissaries were very impressed by Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia icon, importing it together with the Byzantium’s artistic traditions of fine arts and Christianity. With time, the Russia icon painter, following Byzantine art modules and styles modified the art and style, thus producing their own unique identity as icon painters.
Background of Russia icons Andrei Rublev, one the most recognized “15th century Russian icon painters, brought a new style to Russian icon painting”. His paintings including the icon Spas, or the Savior that brought a new style of painting characterized by “use of color and the attitude of serenity and humanity portrayed in the faces of the figures depicted”.
Rublev lived in a monastery with other monks with whom he developed this new style. Although new style developed the traditional Russia, icons mostly lacked individual pictorial taste and creativity that was found in the Western European countries. With the Western influence sweeping through Russia during the 17th century, the Russian Orthodox Church separated into the Conservatives (Old Believers) and the States Church (New Believers).
The Conservatives adhered to the traditional styles while the new believers accepted the Western art forms, leading to paintings reflecting personal feelings and reality and a mixture of Russia styled and Western styled icons. This development liberated the art of icon painting to some extent in Russia. From this point on, painters were able to include personal expression, add value, and modify the standard traditional styles, producing new icons but still being within the biblical references and the laid down tradition for the icon paintings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the era of Peter the Great in the 18th century, reverence to icons remained but there was sudden reduction in the art of icon painting due to influence of western arts. In the second half of the 20th century, interest in icons and icon painting increased and currently, there are several painters using the traditional styles of the old icon masters.
Majority of Russia icons are small wooden paintings with a few being made of copper; however, there are also bigger forms that are mainly found in churches and monasteries. Generally, the Russian icon tradition is more spiritual rather than the pictorial tradition of the Western Europe. In Russia, icons are intended to help in contemplative prayer by implying meditative harmony, inspiring reflection and self-examination, rather than emphasizing on the aesthetic value.
The role of Russia icons in religion and culture Russia population consists of several minority ethnic groups spread all over the country. Around 79 percent of Russians identify themselves as Orthodox, with religion and ethnicity being well connected.
In addition, there persists a consensus among the traditional religions in Russia in that the Tartars are Muslim, the Burjaats are Buddhist, and Jews are Judaist. Icons form a central part in the practices of the Russian Orthodox consequently influencing culture of the minority ethnics.
With religion influencing the community way of life, norms, and structures, the icons are destined to make much contribution towards the culture of these people. The Orthodoxy calendar controls major events of the people of Russia such as marriage, birth ceremonies, family relationships, and burial ceremonies.
In the Russian Orthodoxy, the material aspects of religion such as altars, icons, and relics are very valued over the theological aspects that are sometimes difficulty to grasp. In creating of the icons, the icon painters are very keen to create icons that will impart religious aspects and theological ideas to people reflective of the scripture messages.
Generally, the Orthodoxy services involve use of ‘the beauty of God’s Creation, the beauty of the Uncreated Light, the beauty of the choir, the liturgy, the icons and the incense to communicate the religious lessons in similar fashion the sermon or word based services preach the gospel’. This practice of Orthodox venerating the spiritual and visible aspects of icons as always has been a subject of criticism from other Protestants and other religions.
We will write a custom Essay on Russian Icons in Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homes are essential parts of communities and human life. In the Russian tradition, icons have a special designated place in the house for home rituals: ‘newborn were touched to them, people were blessed with icon before a wedding, a journey, becoming a soldier, and before the icons people swore blood-brotherhood oaths or made vows to God’s name’.
At home, people prayed standing facing the special place called the red corner or beautiful corner (krasnyi ugol) which is the eastern or southeastern corner of the hut or house. Sometimes, they were placed facing the closest church and in this place, were two wooden shelves or a cabinet. The icons could never be hanged on a wall; they have to be placed on a shelf in observance of the Orthodox traditions.
The shelves were decorated with embroidered clothes without covering the face of the saints on the icons. In addition, the icons were placed in a defined order on the shelf that sometimes reflected the event or purpose for which the icons will be venerated. For example, an icon of Holy Spirit is kept at the centre of Christ on the right, that of Mother of God on the left and those of apostles behind them. A lamp or a candle is also placed in the red corner to illuminate the icon(s).
The icons displayed at home were sometimes customized for personal use by including picture of a specific saint, the owner is named after, or a relative is named after, besides the main icon figure. Due to presence of icons, a Christian home served as a form of a church blessed by the sacred icons. In the churches, icons are kept in special palaces called iconostasis.
One of the traditions of the Russian Orthodox is the consecration of icons. The consecration involves performing special prayers and blessing the icon with the holy water. The icons are consecrated to become holy, thus possessing power that is more spiritual. The consecrated icons are highly regarded and that is why they are kept in the special places.
The consecrated icons are believed to possess spiritual power and some are associated with special miracle works. For example, the miraculous case involving the Passion icon of the Mother of God that occurred in Moscow on 20 February 1547 in which houses were burning in Kitai-Gorod and only a single wooden house containing the passion icon was left intact in the entire region.
The Russian icons are worshipped through kissing them, bowing in front of them, and saying special prayers. It is believed that, in worshipping them, you are worshiping the figure painted on them for intercession. These figures are mostly saints, apostles, and exalted Russian priest. In addition, these figures are associated with unique powers to intercede in specific instances and are prayed for specific needs. For example, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker icon is prayed to offer protection and surveillance to people who are traveling.
In the soviet era, when religion was prohibited in Russia icons, most icons were hidden in the safety of peoples’ homes and the famous Russian Orthodox icons regarded as artifacts were kept in the historical museums. After this period, people uncovered their icons and currently, there are numerous Russian icons and Orthodoxy paintings in the churches and cathedrals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Russian Icons in Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Russian icons form essential part of the Russian culture, so people visiting Russian churches and museums have an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the Russian culture. In summation, the Russian icons are mainly for religious purposes but they also form part of the Russian culture and they are regarded as unique artistic works and historical relics.
The role of Russian icons during the revolution In the history of Russia, there have been two major revolutions: the 1905 revolution and the 1917 revolution. Since religion and the politics were very much integrated in the Russian set up, the role of the Russian icons in the revolution can be clearly understood by first understanding the causes and the outcomes of these revolutions.
The 1905 revolution
The 1905 Russian Revolution began with a peaceful protest on January 22 “led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle”. Through the protest, they were petitioning the tsar Nicholas II to help them regarding their condition. Surprisingly, Nicholas ordered the soldiers and the police to shoot the unarmed masses and eventually hundreds were killed or wounded, and the day was named the Black Sunday.
What ensued from these events was series of workers strikes and public protests throughout the country. In October 1905, a general strike took place paralyzing all activities in Russia; consequently, Nicholas yield to pressure and agreed to form Duma (parliament). Indeed, Formation of Duma cooled the situation for some but Nicholas continued gradually limiting the powers of Duma leading to the events of the next revolution.
The push to the 1905 revolution was due to rapid socio-economic changes, suffering witnessed during tsar monarchy and craving for more freedom, religion played a major role in enhancing the success of the cause. First, the protest was led by a Russian Orthodox pries, signifying religion was at forefront in advocating for change.
Secondly, the Russian icons formed a crucial portion in the petition protest and the resulting strikes as witnessed during that period ‘… a great demonstration for Sunday, January 9, 1905; workers would march to the Winter Palace, carrying religious icons, and portraits of Nicholas, to present a petition asking for redress of grievances’.
Lastly, with religion being intertwined with the protests, people would express their religion through prayer for their grievances and by kissing and bowing to Russian icons to seek help from the saints.
The 1917 revolution
After the 1905 revolution, the economy of Russia continued to deteriorate, with famine striking the country and Russia was losing the battle with Germans. The tsar was making wrong decisions such as firing several prominent leaders from the Duma and replacing them with unsuitable ones.
People believed that the tsar decisions were very much influenced by a mysterious Siberian monk named Grigory Rasputin. In December 1916, people within the Palace murdered Rasputin in order to stop revolution from occurring. In late February 1917, the Russian people revolted, and following the revolt in March 15, a provisional government was established with Prince George Lvov as the leader.
Several soviets held a meeting to discuss the government’s progress; however, prior to this meeting, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin were gaining popularity especially among the workers and during the meeting, they advocated for the power to be added over to the soviets.
In July 1917, an uprising failed, with the revolutionaries being arrested. Lenin, a Marxist, fled the country to Finland and Alexander Kerensky replaced Lvov as the prime minister. From that time, the push for revolution continued and in October 25, another revolt was staged. Kerensky fled the palace and Lenin ascended to power. Unlike other revolts, the Lenin October revolution was well planned and there was no bloodshed or destructions.
In period following Lenin October revolution, the Russian Civil War began between the communists and other groups opposed to communism. The communists won in 1922 founding the Soviet Union and Lenin died in 1923. The Communist Party continued to rule up to 1991, marking the disintegration of the USSR.
The Lenin October Revolution marked the beginning of the communism in Russia. The communist government was much based on the Karl Marx principles and it immediately banned religion, as it believed religion was opium for the poor. From this point onwards, Soviets declared war on religion, with many icons set for destruction, others were lost forever, and others were saved or spared like the Rublev’s Spas. Moreover, the Lenin faces become the face of communism replacing the place for the icons.
Marxism played a crucial role in banning of religion as it was characterized with aggressive commitment to atheism and scientific materialism, rejecting all religions. During the period of revolution, the Bolsheviks ensured that Russia’s spiritual underground did not play a crucial part to Lenin’s revolutionary cause. Later, the government changed its policy on religion and icons became public through personal displays and museums.
Bibliography Anon. Russian Art
Rationale and Interactivity Design Essay online essay help
Introduction The propagation of wireless technology has brought in a variety of mobile devices such as the Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and the wireless handheld phones that have a wide range of applications such as video messaging, three-dimensional games and other software. A mobile device such as an iPhones or a tablet PC incorporates various programming languages such as a Java program.
The program is familiar due to its ability to manage virtual machines by allowing some reasonable amount of accessibility to underlying functions of the devices. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and wireless Java toolkits provides both user-friendly interfaces for easy manipulation and object oriented designs for easy development of mobile applications (Gookin, 51).
Current Mobile Interfaces Current mobile interfaces are able to offer clear audio as well as video contents and the formats make these devices more applicable for various portals. They are also able to handle deeper or wider multimedia contents. The multimedia contents are presented in three main categories namely, downloadable applications, virtual streamed content, which is transferable in real-time and immediate content that is transferable on demand.
Mobile downloads come in various codes and applications for current mobile devices such as tablet PCs, ipads and iphones support majority of these formats. Currently, the packaging formats for both audio and video codec, depending on the application-developing program or team.
The most common form of video or audio compatibility option for the hand-held devices include the MPEG-4 (MP4), Flash Video, MIDI, WAV,MP3, 3GP2, Real Audio, MOV, AVI and 3GP. Some of the format names originate from the manufacturers’ identity for instance the 3G companies. The current applications such as the Windows Micro-media player on personal computers are able to incorporate majority of these formats, at high qualities (O’Reilly, 3).
Designs of mobile Information Devices There are new set of challenges for User Interface (UI) designers and software developers, especially when developing software for new Internet-enabled wireless mobile phones or the two-way pagers.
In accordance with Fling (89), when designing a consumer product or developing a software application, various aspects ought to be considered. First is the ability to supports a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which will make it friendlier to the consumer. The GUI should accommodate multiple windows simultaneously. Secondly, the input functions must handle data in a fast and easy way. This does not mean that the product should be very complicated, because not all consumers feel at ease with complicated interfaces.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the most important aspect during development of a mobile application is to ensure use of the right applications and features, which must suite purpose of the device. Various designers have been able to produce a simple and realistic application suite to guide them when coming up with Mobile Information Device (MID) applications:
The minimum MID profile should be 96 pixels wide and 56 pixels high and 1-bit in depth(black and white)
The device should support a one handed or two-handed input mechanism.
A one handed keyboard has the numbers 1-9, an asterisk (*) and a pound sign (#).
A two handed keyboard is elaborated by a QWERTY keyboard style like the personal computers.
The MID profiles made of User Interface (UI) or Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are divided into two parts; high and low level APIs (O’Reilly, 82). High-level APIs are designed for writing an application or service that a network provider needs to deploy during high-level abstraction.
The use also helps to different products by shape, colour or font. “Low level APIs are designed for applications that need precise placement and control over graphics. This is because they provide very little abstraction” (O’Reilly, 37). Games are programmed using the low level API since the screen must interact freely with the user through its GUI. The four types of screen used in MID profile include list, alert, text box and a form (O’Reilly, 37).
The designing of the System application is initiated by the Manufacturer. Many products like the Microsoft applications have command buttons that send a certain signal when pressed. A keyboard is mainly used as a device for providing shortcut options, but in cases of mobile devices such as iphones, the command buttons send certain signals to the operating system, which includes camera, Music player, radio and the internet.
The operating system of current mobile devices prioritizes some commands and sets others to be performed later. This indicates that manufacturers have to decide and test their devices before marketing them, in order to determine their functionality. Developers use high-level abstract commands when programming applications that use programs like Java Language, in order to develop products that offer competitive market value (Books Llc, 7). Mobile applications are thus designed with a lot of creativity and uniqueness to satisfy the UI requirements.
Common rationale behind mobile multimedia designs WURFL Technology The ability to deliver multimedia content through a mobile device depends on properties or file formats. The capability of the mobile devise determines its capacity to hold complex capabilities such as full-file downloads or capacity to play file features as they download using HTTP streaming. According to Pernici (34), majority of the mobile applications fail to work with the multimedia files because they are generally huge. The incompatibility therefore determines the sellers’ decision to include such files that may slow down traffic of data flow. Downloads that take too long to load may be of high costs for the client, who may end up unsatisfied due to the streaming delays. Direct downloading techniques is almost compatible with all the mobile devices especially the iphones and the tablet PCs that utilize the android setups.
Not all the mobile devices have embedded multimedia setting; therefore, their display units constrain some features and only allow audio outputs (Fling, 89). Various applications such as the flash players or flash-Lite are compatible with mobile devices and the flash video formats (FLV) mainly used in recent technological mobile devices such as ipods, iphone, tablet PCs as well as palmtops.
We will write a custom Essay on Rationale and Interactivity Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At present, it is possible to compile the flash player 8 for a mobile device and retrieve information with different formats for instance the YouTube version. Desktop applications works well with devices with enabled Flash-Lite 3 (Fling, 89). Mobile applications are also able to play videos or show images using different programs such as the QuickTime Player that opens on its own without being embedded in a browser like the YouTube.
Reference video clips are created in special applications such as iOS and safari, which work well with various applications such as QuickTime. Streaming highly depends on the strength of the signal since the receiver continues to use the file while it runs from the provider’s end. Mobile devices mainly working on the wireless technology suffers from delays (the satellite hops), therefore application developers have difficulties in implementing the concept of streaming video and audio in mobile devices (Setchi, 261).
The compatibility of streaming into various mobile devices therefore requires use of different or special platforms along with strong technologies. Currently, devices such as the blackberry or window mobile have a strong support for real-time streaming of files including video files.
The applications use the Real-Time Streaming Protocols (RTSP) that assists in launching of a default player such as Real Player or Window Media Player whenever a streaming link is accessed. This application enables the live broadcasts to occur, for instance reality TV shows, discussion forums or sporting events. The protocol is standardized to provide and control establishments between linked workstations (Setchi, 261).
The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) also allows video or audio streaming for delivery of live events or other multimedia content as per users’ demands. There is lack of streaming services on various mobile devices due to lack of functional application in support of the provision, for instance special flash player for the mobile technologies (Setchi, 262).
The Flash Lite 3.0 devices and different recently manufactured iphones are compatible with various applications that support streaming such as the Adobe Flash server, Red5, Helix Media and the QuickTime streaming server. The apple company has also come up with the Darwin Streaming server for its mobile devices (Setchi, 262).
The use of UDP or TCP protocols for mobile devices streaming causes some proxies problems associable with redirecting to or from the HTTP setting. Direct streaming from the HTTP setting therefore has an advantage. During live streaming, HTTP also suffers some overhead problems compared to the other protocols, therefore if the mobile device uses the direct HTTP streaming, the device might have to download the entire file before playing as opposed to download and play simultaneously.
Apple has been able to bypass the internet protocol and produce a live HTTP streaming application for its mobile devices. iOS 3.0 supports this Apple streaming application on iphones. The iphone applications also get accelerated live streaming services from Akamai and influxis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rationale and Interactivity Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The procedure requires repackaging and buffering of the data into smaller packets for transmission to clients. The switching of bandwidth to accommodate different qualities over HTTP setting provides a great advantage of ability to pass through various proxies setting and firewalls without suspicious blocks (McNamara, 219). The current mobile device applications also allow users to upload files including video files to the internet, to steaming websites like YouTube through use of an internal flash player application.
Comparison between Mobile and Computer Applications
Mobile devices such as the tablet personal computer are an evolution of the computer technology, which have various technical applications for better performance levels. Majority of today’s devices are controlled trough touch screens, digital light pens or finger calibration.
This means that some of the earlier applications of the computer systems have been rendered obsolete. The main aim of establishing new applications is to enhance the concept of mobility. When every need is catered for through a hand-held device, there is ease of operability as well as mobility. Common mobile devices today include the iphones, convertible tablets, booklet tablet, slate, and hybrid tablet PCs (Setchi, 263).
Common Application on Various Mobile Devices
Advanced data entry systems such as touch or voice recognition system means that currently, applications are catering for intelligent systems. The ability to enhance connectivity such as the universal connectors, Bluetooth, infrared and other wireless connection to various peripheral devices is a clear induction that technology of application is on a steep modification procedure (Jacko, 34).
Mobile devices especially the communication devices like computers or phones have similar appearances that often offer preferences of usage attributable to support for advancing technology such as internet television or video broadcasting. The importance of having internet on a mobile device also requires a special form of applications for easier interpretation (Jacko, 34).
Conclusion Mobile devices are emerging day-in-day-out, and the applications are under a constant revolution to cater for high technological functions anticipated by users. The devises are hybrid because they cater for various features of related products as well as features on some of the earlier devices. The application support adaptable features and this is evident from current usage such as the use of iPad that was launched in mid 2010. The applications therefore have various features borrowed from both personal computer and earlier phone models.
Works Cited Books Llc. Tablet Pc: Ipad, Joojoo, Comparison of Tablet Pcs, Microsoft Courier, Hp Touchsmart, Itablet, Adam Tablet, Hp Compaq Tc1100. New York, NY: General Books LLC, 2010. Press
Fling, Brian, Mobile Design and Development: Practical Concepts and Techniques for creating mobile sites and web applications. California, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. Press.
Gookin, Dan. Laptops for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2010. Press
Jacko, Julie. Human-Computer Interaction. Interacting in Various Applications Domains. Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 2009. Press
O’Reilly, Tim. Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide. California, CA: O’Reilly media Inc. 2008. Press
McNamara, Joel. Netbooks for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2009. Press
Pernici, Barbara. Mobile information systems: infrastructure and design for adaptivity and flexibility. New York, NY: Springer, 2006
Setchi, Rossitza. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Berlin, Germany: Springer. 2010.
Utilitarianism Theory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
What is utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is a theory used to explain consequentialism. The consequentialism theory states that one has to determine what is “intrinsically valuable” in an action.
The good in the action is what is focused on and not what it leads to. In regards to this theory, founded by Jeremy Bentham (18th century), and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill (19th century), the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight. Bentham argues that the outcomes of an action are what determine whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Bentham strongly believes that the “ends justify the means”. However, to this perception a question is posed, what is the end?
Both Bentham and Mill agree that there is one intrinsic good (pleasure according to Bentham or happiness according to Mill) and one intrinsic bad (pain) according to Bentham or misery/unhappiness according to Mill. However, their agreeing on principle ends there as Bentham states that terming or referring to an action as good, has to have arisen from receiving pleasure from that action, and is mostly experienced in the physical sense.
This is just an echo of Socrates’ sentiments in Plato’s “Protagoras”. Mill disagrees with this perception that it turns utilitarianism into a “pig philosophy” and argues that quality of the action matters a lot. This is in disregard of Bentham’s thought that pleasure is the same qualitatively and the only thing that matters or is vital is quantity.
Utilitarianism tends to assume that happiness or pleasures found in humanity are equal across all people, for example: that one person’s well-being is not more important than any other one person’s. Consequently, its quest is to creating “the greatest good for the greatest number”. The theory thrives and succeeds on the actions that are able to create a balance between happiness and misery and this is therefore taken as the morally correct action.
Strengths and weaknesses Utilitarianism gets its strength from its perception of actions and their impact on an individual. The ‘expected’ result of a specific action is the principle of measure and not the actual result itself. Utilitarianism has other strengths which include: impartiality- the theory asserts that everyone is equal and their happiness counts equally, it does not allow room for egoism and provides insight into Bentham’s notion. The theory also justifies most of our moral conventions. It is flexible, and offers for a larger moral community.
This theory falls short along the way, as questions come up to try and find an answer to the issue on morality. According to the theory of utilitarianism, if the morality of an action depends on its results, how do we know when the “results” are done? How can we thus know the answer? This ends up being a weakness in the whole theory and perception of utilitarians.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It could be simply explained that “expected” result of a particular action is the criteria, and not the “actual” result, but the followers of this theory are not in agreement with this. For that reason, this brings out a weakness where its own believers do not agree with it fully. It does not answer the question on morality, and as it is known, morality is a very vital aspect of the society and an individual.
A notable weakness of this theory is its assumption that the happiness or pleasure of each human being is equal to every other individual’s. Utilitarianism does not really address the issue of morality and what determines actions as good or bad. The ease at which Kantianism opposed Utilitarianism thinking in ethics and morality issues shows a huge weakness and lack of faith in this theory. Both this two theories form the two major “rules-based” approaches to ethical theory in the modern era.
In spite of this, Kant emphasizes on the form of an individual’s ethical reasoning, and argues that it must follow a certain rationality to ensure its rightness. On the other hand, according to utilitarians, the measure of the rightness or wrongness of an action could only be determined by the consequences of the action (greatest good for greatest number).
This greatly shows where the Utilitarianism theory falls short of adequately addressing ethics and morality within an individual. The theory leaves the determining of good or bad to the majority and the outcome of an action. Therefore the individual has no control of reasoning out what is good or bad.
Bentham/Mill debate: what/why The theory of utilitarianism founded by Jeremy Bentham and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill comes across as the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight and that reaction to an action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Although they both agree on the contextual basis of it, they have come out in disagreement on principle of what really is utilitarianism.
According to Bentham, the ends justify the means. On the other hand, Mill disagrees with Bentham and terms his philosophy on utilitarianism as a “pig philosophy”, according to him he prefers a state where an individual is “better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a pig satisfied”. His argument on this matter is driven by the fact that the level and intensity of happiness (referred to as pleasure by Bentham) is wholly driven by quality.
A disagreement occurs in this as Bentham is utterly convinced that what matters to an individual’s pleasure is only quantity and these pleasures are the same qualitatively in all individuals. The degree of measuring extent of pain or pleasure, happiness or misery and so forth is still indefinite and Bentham’s answer to this whether plausible or not does not shed any more light to the issue.
We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarianism Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disagreement between the two proponents of this theory leaves a question in our minds, is utilitarianism even practically feasible? Does the amount of deliberation on its impact, the problem of egoism and self-sacrifice and so forth answer the question on morality?
How then do we know that “happiness” or “pleasure” is the ultimate good? Mill tries to give insight to this by attesting that when an individual is asked what he/she wants in/out of life, it constantly comes down to happiness/pleasure, for that reason since every individual says that is what they want then they ought to get exactly that.
This puts into disrepute Bentham’s notion that happiness/pleasure is equal across all human beings and that the outcome of the action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Mill’s position on the theory of utilitarianism comes more superior to Bentham’s as he provides more explanation on what the intrinsic good is and morality within an individual.
Gene Hackman’s challenge: response Is it justifiable killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer/find a cure?
Gene Hackman’s challenge on whether killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer and find a cure for them plays with what is right and what is bad. Bentham’s assertion that the outcome determines the right of deciding good or bad can be used to try and justify this. It is a question that tries to find a balance between ethics and morality within an individual, in the society.
Killing is out rightly wrong within the society and is not morally accepted. But the question is, does saving the lives of many justify sacrificing the life of one? Kant tries to offer insight into this debate by saying that the actions of an individual should be left to the individual’s own reasoning. Utilitarianism argues that the “ends justify the means”. But is it right?
The question of taking another person’s life is not justifiable in any way or form even if it is to save others. Laws have been put in place to put a check on the taking of life (killing), but there are instances where it is acceptable but still under very cautious circumstances. Hackman is faced with a question on his professionalism. Do professionalism and the oath sworn to uphold the ethical conduct of an individual have a play in reasoning and determining what is good or bad?
This leaves us asking ourselves whether the good of the many gives an individual the right to make choices on behalf of the group. In my opinion killing one to save many is not justifiable and goes against ethical and morality aspect in the society. But yet again all this is left to the reasoning of the individual to decide what is good and what is bad.
Many people argue that saving the lives of many innocent people justifies the act of taking life, but yet again the life being taken is innocent and they have a choice of whether to give into the cause or hold onto their life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarianism Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The choice of taking a life should not be given to someone to decide for an individual but rather to the individual it belongs to. In this way the good and feeling of pleasure is obtained by an individual as he/she has been left to reason on the impact of their worth to the society. Consequentialism tries to justify the taking of life but Kantianism argues against this and puts the decision solely in the hands of an individual.
The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Paulo Freire made an astute observation when he said that the teacher-student relationship has a narrative characteristic and therefore in the process of teaching: “The contents, whether values or empirical dimensions of reality, tend in the process of being narrated to become lifeless and petrified” (Freire, p.318). This is the reason why the author contended that a conventional teaching style is ineffective and downright boring.
However, the actual use of narration is not the main culprit; Freire pointed out that it is the “banking” style of teaching that explains the ineffective and lifeless teaching outcome. But when pressed for an alternative Freire’s response cannot be considered as the best solution to the problem. Thus, it is best for teachers to learn to adapt between the “banking” type of teaching and the “problem-posing education” methodology that was proposed by Freire.
In almost every classroom in the world today one can see a teacher speaking to a classroom full of students. The classroom can be “virtual” but still there is one single voice of authority that the students listen to as if under the influence of maestro conducting a symphony.
They nod their head in agreement to every word that comes out of the mouth of the teachers and seldom can one hear a dissenting voice that challenges the ideas thrown to the class. According to Freire, “This is the ‘banking” concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposit” (Freire, p.318). There is very limited interaction between students and teachers.
In reaction Freire said, “Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students” (Freire, p.319). In other words equality must also be demonstrated in the classroom and not just in the political realms.
However, Freire made it clear that “Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other” (Freire, p.320). Aside from the lack of creativity and the inability to inspire the students to go beyond the syllabus, this type of teaching sends a negative message. Freire contends that this system mirrors the inner-workings of an oppressive society (Freire, p.320).
This means using techniques to develop docile minds and perpetuate an environment of conformity and mediocrity. Think of North Korea, Taliban controlled Afghanistan and it is evident that authority figures can produce students that cannot learn beyond what was taught within the four walls of the classroom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In societies wherein democratic ideals are not part of the norm then this problem is multiplied in a significant manner and produces a society that cannot break free from the shackles of poverty and backward thinking. If Freire is absolutely correct then he can prove that the conventional method of teaching is not productive.
There are many writers and educators who support this view. This is especially true in Third World societies were the evidence of oppression requires no imagination to understand. According to one scathing remark, “Perhaps we should not be surprised that education end up like banking … after all, once the IMF (International Monetary Fund) has squeezed national education budgets across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, it is the World Bank that steps in and offer loans to help fill the gap” (Archer, p.29).
It is a cycle of defeat because money that was loaned to these countries were not put to good use. It seems that the World Bank is part of a scheme to make these countries utterly dependent on loans.
Freire was correct when he said that students must not be viewed as mere repositories of information. If students are treated this way then they will behave like a banking institution, meaning that they are like inanimate objects unable to interact and understand concepts taught them and appreciate them to the point that they can use it to enhance their lives and the people around them.
Freire added, “The banking approach to adult education, for example will never propose to students that they critically consider reality” (Freire, p.320). The most important thing is that no new knowledge is created and obviously this is not good.
The evolution of mankind as a species requires breakthroughs in the science and the arts. There is indeed a need to develop a kind of system that allow students be more creative, to help them develop the skills for problem solving and not just a mode of behaviour adept in the art of memorising data without even knowing how to utilise it to create a better world.
The alternative solution is labelled “problem-posing education” (Freire, p.323). In this system students are made more aware, making them more conscious about the issues and the problems that surround them. According to one commentary, “Through critical, dialogical investigation, participants begin to understand their world in a depth hitherto unknown to them: that which was once hidden, submerged or only superficially perceived begins to ‘stand out’ in sharp relief from other elements of awareness” (Roberts, p.295).
We will write a custom Essay on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is in sharp contrast to the teaching style that was criticised by Freire. More importantly, learning is facilitated through dialogue characterised by a symbiotic relationship wherein teachers and students learn from each other.
The only problem of this view is that there are fundamental truths that has to be learned before one can develop the higher cognitive abilities personified by philosophers, inventors, scientists, and creative designers. Moreover, there is the need to establish a learning environment for the purpose of learning fundamental skills and not necessarily the discovery of new knowledge. In this context the narration and “banking” type of teaching methodology has found its purpose.
This can be seen in learning basic skills such as carpentry, typing, baking, weaving etc. It is foolish to let students learn on their own when it is obvious that knowledge had been sifted and clarified through the ages so that no one has to go back to the drawing board and learn how to make a chocolate cake once again. The teacher simply has to make a deposit into the hearts and minds of students or the apprentices willing to learn the basics of a particular trade.
Another problematic issue when it comes to Freire’s ideas can be understood in the context of the recipient. The application of the “problem-posing education” methodology seems only practical when it is used on adult literacy education (Gottesman, p.391). The problem comes to the fore when scholars applied Freire’s theory to K-12 schooling systems (Gottesman, p.391). This simply reinforces the previous discussion that revealed the impracticality of the “problem-posing” technique when used in certain learning environments.
Nevertheless, it must be made clear that Freire tried to delve into issues much bigger than education, “One should certainly look to Friere for guidance and inspiration in thinking about how society can build movements for radical social change” (Gottesman, p.393). This is one of the most important lessons that can be gleaned from Freire’s writings.
The importance of adopting a middle-ground approach between these two types of teaching system can be seen in the study of very complex ideas and concepts. There is a need to have a “banking” system for the sake of having a voice of authority that serves as a useful guide to learning.
On the other hand the “problem-posing” method is also important because in studying complex ideas the learning process has to be left open and not made rigid by those who believe that they are the only “authority” when it comes to a particular subject matter.
Take for example the study of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. This is a topic that requires a great deal of mastery and dedication in the study of physics, astronomy, and mathematics. It would be senseless for a teacher to allow a student with zero knowledge about astrophysics give a lecture in front of a class full of physics majors. With this kind of topic, there is a need for an authoritative voice to lay down the foundation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If this is not done then the student will waste time chasing after non-related ideas. In other words useless experimentation and duplicate research is eliminated. A competent teacher can therefore guide the students to areas of study that requires further investigation and increases their knowledge by carefully depositing ideas relevant to the topic.
However, allowing the teacher to dominate the discussion is not the best way to go all the way in attempting to learn more about Einstein’s theory. Thus, the teacher has to maintain an open mind and after depositing a great deal of information about the subject, the teacher must then use the “problem-posing” technique proposed by Freire. There must be a two-way communication between student and teacher in order to facilitate learning and more importantly to initiate an action that will hopefully lead to the discovery of new knowledge.
Freire has a point in his criticism of conventional modes of teaching. He was quick to point out the link between oppressive societies and the teaching techniques used in most schools. He said that students have to be more aware about the world and the significance of the concepts and ideas that were taught them.
However, his ideas have limitations because it seems only applicable to adult literacy education and not in learning environment suited for primary schools. It is therefore important to learn how to navigate between the two streams of thought.
Works Cited Archer, David. “Education for liberation.” Adults Learning 18.9 (2007): 28-29. EBSCO. Web.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006.
Gottesman, Isaac. “Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education.” Educational Studies 46.4 (2010): 376-399. EBSCO. Web.
Roberts, Peter. “Structure, direction and rigour in liberating education.” Oxford Review of Education 22.3 (1996): 295-316. EBSCO. Web.
The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book Report online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh
Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled
Introduction To comprehend history, a person has to go beyond the timeliness of trade, names and periods of wars and other significant events, for people who make history are the ones who lived it. Hence, Elizabeth Marsh in her book, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh, gives any enthusiastic reader a moving history of colonialism, trade and transnational during the 18th century.
The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh links the story with a universal curve of history and illustrates the forces shaping it. For instance, she illustrates how common belief of royal Morocco and Britain wedged the nature of Marsh internment and the ability of British women to engage native womenfolk as domestic workers underwrote the former achieving broader autonomies in India than back home in their native lands.
Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh Elizabeth was born in 1735 in England to mixed-race parents. During her teenage years, she made extensive travels across the world. Her first trip was to England, her father’s birthplace. According to Colley (2008), her father was a prominent ship carpenter whereas her mother was from Creole ancestry widow. Through these travels, she was enthused by growths than the cosmic popularity of men.
Elizabeth Was betrothed to James Crisp, an apt business person of indeterminate affluences, she used a considerably longer time travelling and living independently. During 1756 on her way to Morocco, a ship she had boarded was attacked by Moroccan seafarers. She was forcefully taken to Marrakesh, and imprisoned by the Sidi Muhammad, the acting Sultan. Elizabeth’s arrest was motivated by political interests. Besides, it appears the element of sexual lust was a determination of the then Sultan, Sidi Mohamed to take her as a hostage.
However, Elizabeth was set free; physically unscathed. However, her honor was compromised, prompting marriage to her fellow expedition colleague. Colley (2008) asserts that, Elizabeth’s details of her involvements made a pioneer woman to write and produce about Maghreb in English. Consequently, she is the first pioneer woman to have made extensive trip in Southern and Eastern India. As a woman of diverse frontiers, she spends much of her life in Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, Menorca and London.
Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled The marriage of Elizabeth was made up of many challenges. Though her husband was a risk taker, this either did not solve anything. Thus, travelling was envisioned as an option to calm her from her marriage. One of the most places she travelled was India. Colley (2008) illustrates that Elizabeth arrived in Madras in 1771 with two children.
Travelling to India was necessitated by various factors. The first was bankruptcy. Her husband’s businesses had gone down hence what they had saved was too little to put up with life. Secondly, Elizabeth loved travelling thus; going to India was a sign of fulfilling her obligations. Lastly, Elizabeth was interested in land deals, India being a British colony, it was easy for her to acquire land and sell it to potential and wealthy buyers from Britain and other interested parties.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nechtman (2010) alleges that, India was an important region during this time. It was a trading center for British trader’s en-route the Middle East and larger part of Asia. They securely erected go-downs to protect their trading wares. To protect the go-downs, building of forts was enhanced,thus creating armies.
This chapter also made the British to disorganize the already established kingdoms with a view to securing an opportunity for colonization. Thus, this proved possible because the British accrued more power and wealth. The British to improve their security in the region, they trained the local Indians and offered them opportunities in the army.
The British colony also practiced slavery whereby they would seize Indians and forcefully supply them to other British colonies across the world. The slaves worked in rice, sugar and tobacco plantations. Moreover, trading activities in India were centered on East India Company; this was a large scale combined company with offices in India. The ships owned by this company primarily traded in textiles, tea and bullion with Bengal (Nechtman, 2010).
Besides trading activities, this region was a typical British colony. The British acquired raw materials such as cotton, foodstuffs and others and transported them to Britain where they were manufactured and returned back to India for sale. The British enjoyed these valuable undertakings thus they became a formidable power in Asia where they launched physical and economic threat to China during the opium wars. Besides, the senior Indian caste was compelled to embrace British culture and Christian way of life.
Elizabeth was one of the few women pioneers of Europeans descent to arrive in Madrasa. Her husband was an astute businessman who dealt in diverse business interests; however, his businesses slowly began to crumple. Thus, after a mortifying insolvency, there was urgency for a new life in Bengal, India.
In India, life began on a good note, however, along the way, things started to go awry. James Crisp, her husband, got a job with East India Company as a salt agent in 1777 after docking in India (Colley, 2008). He also increased his involvement in illegal business i.e. liquor, dried fish, and maritime trade of tea and anything which could earn money.
James had international business contacts which he and her spouse had overtime gathered during their travels across the world. James was a hard worker and thus in India, by the help of his wife, he strengthened his illegal trade. His business, however, did not last long because of global snags beyond his predictions, hence in 1767, he was a bankrupt man.
We will write a custom Report on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trouble did not forgive him either he was dismissed from his regular employment with East India Company after absconding his workresponsibilities. Marsh recognized the financial constraints they faced were engulfed in and thus to salvage her husband and family financial condition, she cleverly delivered a remark of a senior company official archived in an Indian office Library located in London (Colley, 2008). This was to indicate the notion of racial supremacy.
The note read that “a white European on Indian subcontinent, with no employment”. This was a terrible extremity to Elizabeth and her husband. However, the intervention design Elizabeth does not produce results as her husband dies in 1779 with much debt as asserted by (Colley, 2008).
According to Nechtman (2010), long before her husband death, their marriage had grown apart. This was as a result of exploration nature of Elizabeth. She had on several occasions left him and sort leisurely tours in eastern India with the unmarried men. Marsh’s analogy with the East India Company, and global trade allowed defining new dimension in India and wherever she explored.
Elizabeth highlights a streamlined design of Western supremacy and overseas belligerence. The instantaneous onset of globalization stirring her exploration in India guaranteed her evolution connections thus her philosophies were repetitively fashioned and refracted by the society and actions outside Europe as affirmed by Nechtman (2010).
According to Colley (2008), Elizabeth encompassed romanticism in her journeys across the world. She had a habit of having multiple affairs wherever she travelled. In Asia, Nechtman (2010) asserts that Elizabeth left her husband in Dhaka, and began a long journey in Southern part of India. She toured Palanquin, accompanied with an entourage of more than 40 coolies.
Elizabeth was also accompanied by a cryptic acquaintance with whom she is alleged to be a cousin. But in real sense this man was undoubtedly her lover. Consequently, Elizabeth was a flawed woman. To achieve fame and world recognition, she engaged her daughter in an unhappy marriage. She did less to help end the British illegal trade and slavery while in India. Her travel and exploration of India elucidates embracing the society diversity, geography, gender and class.
Conclusion The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh helps to bring out an amazing re-establishment of the 18th century of woman’s unbelievable and turbulent life. It is not only the history of Elizabeth, but to similar travelers of her time. The book also underwrites the pace in which the world is transforming.
Marsh experiences in places such as India, London, Menorca, Cape Town, Morocco and Gibraltar among the many places she travelled brought about developments in terms of economic, social and political well- being. Moreover, her lifetime led to the creation of new links being established across the countries, continents, empires, slavery, trade and navies; all these developments transformed and distorted her progress towards the people who happened to be close to her.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Colley, Linda. The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History, New York: Anchor Books, 2008
Nechtman, Tillman W. Nabobs: Empire and Identity in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010
Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management Essay (Article) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Article Summary Written by Kazaz and Serdar, Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms seeks to establish the policies that Turkish construction companies employ in strategic management. The research uses a questionnaire to collect relevant information from the companies. The research established many ideas that professionals need in strategic management.
The researchers define strategic management as the use of systematic approaches to lay down a course that an organization should follow and outlines benefits gained by managers for using it as a management tool. Besides, the researchers touch on crisis and risk management as well as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis and its usefulness in strategic management.
The research also compares construction companies based on planning. Finally, the research endeavors to distinguish between two interrelated management policies: project management and strategic management
Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management The researchers identify crisis and risk management as an important tool in strategic management. The measures managers should take during and after crisis include expenditure reduction; avoidance of credit debts and bank debts after one has paid beyond the interest; “shrinkage through retrenchments, avoidance of new projects and departmental closures; growth control and diversity in business” (Kazaz and Serdar, 192).
The SWOT analysis, which is a summary of key business issues and strategic position of the company, is an important tool for planning future actions.
Private companies are quick in planning since fund releases are quicker, unlike their counterparts in the public sector. For professionals to prosper in their work, they distinguish between project management and strategic management. Project management is a functional strategy that uses projects to implement the strategies while strategic planning involves use of preventive measures to avoid crises.
Works Cited Kazaz, Aynur, and Serdar, Ulubeyli. “Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms.” Journal of Management in Engineering 25.4 (2009):185-193.
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Regression analysis Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of regression
Other applications of regression
Introduction Regression analysis refers to a tool that is used in statistics to establish a relationship between variables, two or more. The aforementioned variables are quantitative, and they include the explanatory variable, also known as the independent variable, and the dependent variable. This relationship between the aforementioned variables is usually represented in form of an equation, or it can even be represented graphically.
The function of regression analysis is thus to establish a relationship between the variables using information available about the explanatory variable, and predict values of the dependent variable for decision making. It is therefore apparent that regression analysis is a very useful forecasting tool.
Types of regression There are two main types of regression. These are simple regression and multiple regression. In both simple and multiple regression, a regression model is constructed which is presumed to follow a certain distribution. Therefore, regression models can be developed with linear, exponential, or even logarithmic equations.
Simple regression This is the type of regression in which there is only one dependent variable and one independent variable. That is, the regression relationship is based on only tow variables. In this case, the explanatory variable is the only unknown in the right side of the regression equation. An example of a linear regression model for simple regression is:
Y ^ = bo b1X
Where Y is the dependent variable, X is the explanatory variable, and bo and b1 are constants. The constant bo and b1 are determined by using historical values of X and Y. This gives them values, and therefore, future values of Y can be determined if one has the value of X. To exemplify the applicability of simple regression, consider a case in which population is assumed to have a linear relationship with time. In this case, population can be represented by the variable Y, and time can be represented by the variable X.
Historical values of population can be used to get values for the constants, making predictions of future population possible. If the stated historical values are plotted, bo is given by the y-intercept of the graph, while the constant b1 is given by the gradient of the resultant line.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multiple regression Multiple regression is the regression in which there is more than one explanatory variable. An example of a linear regression model for multiple regression is:
Y = bo b1X1 b2X2
Where Y is the dependent variable, X1 and X2 are explanatory variables/predictor variables, and bo, b1 and b2 are constants. The aforementioned constants are determined as in the case of linear regression above, although in multiple regression, multiple predictor variables are used.
An example is a case in which population in a given year is assumed to be predicted by time, and number of births in the previous year. In such a case, Y will be the population, and either X1 or X2 will represent time or number of births in the previous year.
Such a variable, like the year, that make data to change, are known as dummy variables. Another example of a dummy variable is gender. Standard deviation, which is denoted by Syx, is calculated using the historical values of Y and X, and it represents the error of the regression equation, which is measured with a specific confidence level. Theoretically, it is wise to take large samples as they have less error. R 2, known as the true coefficient, is used to check the variability of the sample data with the regression line.
Other applications of regression Regression can be applied in a myriad of other situations. For instance, it is very common in businesses, where business indicators are predicted using business drivers. A good example of this is a case in which the sales of a business enterprise can be predicted using the amount of money invested in advertising. This is just a simple example. A real situation will have the sales volume being predicted by multiple variables by the use of the principles of multiple regression.
Death, Loss, and Grieving Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Death of a loved one within the family, a distant relative or someone in the society is an irreversible loss that leads to grieving. Due to the diversity of cultural religious beliefs, different people respond uniquely to death, which causes loss and subsequent grieving. Although death has been occurring since the creation of the world, it has confounded the meaning and the purpose of living, and it still scares everybody even today.
Death is a mystery that human beings strive to unravel because; unfortunately no one can predict or control its occurrence in humanity. The death of loved one is a great loss that one can experience in life and it takes the process of grieving to accept the fact that loss has actually occurred.
Attig argues that, “…human experiences of bereavement and grieving … recur throughout our lifetimes and serve as lenses through which we can see many meanings of death, human existence, suffering, the life of the deceased, the life of mourner, and the love” (2004, p.342). Human experiences due to the death and loss of loved ones have different perceptions and responses in the society; nevertheless, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross gave a typical model that explains five stages of grieving.
Human Experiences Death and loss are constant human experiences that people encounter in the course of life. The experiences surrounding death and loss of loved one depend on religious and cultural beliefs, which define the nature of life and death in the society. Without religious and cultural beliefs in the society, the death would still be a remote and mysterious incident that strikes human beings obliviously.
Research findings revealed that there is “…ethnic differences in the character of death attitudes, with American whites reporting greater fears of a protracted and painful dying process, whereas American blacks were more fearful about what transpired after death itself, including fears of being buried alive” (Neimeyer, 2004, p.10). Such disparity in ethnicity and beliefs determines the perception and understanding of death in the society. Death is a scary reality in that people are struggling to deny and run away from it.
Human beings face great challenges in understanding the nature of death and accepting its occurrence. Since death is a mystery that has instilled fears into humanity across all ages, discussions regarding death or news about death are scary for they remind people that they are going to die.
According to Attig, death has diverse meanings and “…an expansion of focus within the field to encompass consciousness of death across the lifespan and to foster a vision of our place in the universe to guide us in facing and integrating the certainty of death” (2004, p. 341). Therefore, expanding death phenomenon for people to understand its psychological intricacies would help humanity to attain meanings of life, suffering, and loss associated with death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When death occurs in the society, there are varied psychological and emotional reactions that the bereaved experience. These responses depend on the cultural and religious assumptions that form part of the grieving process.
Given that there are beliefs and assumptions regarding the process of grieving, Wortman and Silver argue that, “…depression is inevitable following loss; that distress is necessary, and failure to experience it is indicative of pathology; that it is necessary to ‘work through’ or process a loss; and that recovery and resolution are to be expected following loss” (1989, p. 349).
Therefore, for people to accept the reality of death and the loss that occur therein, they must pass through the process of grieving to receive psychological and emotional healing.
Grieving Process Grieving is the process of accepting and acknowledging the reality of death and the loss that has occurred due to death of a loved one in the society. This occurrence is the most crucial process that an individual must undergo for effective resolution of psychological and emotional conflicts associated with the loss.
Attig argues that, “…our lives are woven together with the lives of those we care about and love and we cannot change the event when one of them dies, bereavement challenges us to take constructive action in response” (2004, p.242).
The process of grieving is constructive response that enables the bereaved to come into terms with the loss and accept that the loss is real and irreversible, hence must continue with their normal lives in spite of the challenges. According to Kubler-Ross Model, denial precedes anger before someone enters into bargaining which leads to depression, but finally one accepts the truth and these are the five stages of grief that the bereaved must undergo during the grieving process.
Denying the fact that death of a loved one has occurred is the first stage of grieving that people experience. Friedman and James argue that, “in cases of sudden, unexpected deaths, it’s possible that upon receiving the news, a surviving family member may go into emotional shock, during which time they are in a suspended state, totally removed from events in the real world” (2008, p.39). At this stage, the shocking news of death triggers emotional and psychological responses that throw the bereaved family and friends in a state of disbelief.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the shocking news of death, the bereaved become defensive against reality of death by denying that they have lost the loved one. They perceive that they are in a dream and what they are experiencing is not reality. The experiences of denial and unbelief are short-lived after which reality dawns on the bereaved.
When the reality of death dawns on the bereaved, they become angry about the cause of death; this is the second stage of grieving. At this stage, individuals direct their anger to people who appear to be responsible for the death of their loved one. For example, if death occurred due to accident, the bereaved direct their blame to driver for careless driving, or if death occurred in hospital, they blame the doctors for medical negligence.
Grieving is not a passive response to death as Morrow argues that “…we don’t simply react passively or automatically to death and bereavement, …we engage with the loss, come to terms with our reactions to it, reshape our daily life patterns, and redirect our life stories in the light of what has happened” (2009, p.16). Thus, anger is an active response that tries to attribute and justify the cause of death.
The third stage of grieving involves bargaining where the bereaved consult the Supreme Being to bless the deceased and give them hope and strength to cope with the challenging times ahead.
At this stage, the bereaved come to terms with the reality of death, and since they are helpless about the loss of loved one, they only look upon the Supreme Being for comfort and encouragement. After bargaining, the bereaved enter the stage of depression where they experience loss of concentration, weakness, loss of appetite and irregular sleep patterns.
Wortman and Silver argue that, “it is widely assumed that a period of depression will occur once the person confronts the reality of his or her loss and that the person must ‘work through’ or process what has happened in order to recover successfully” (1989, p.351). In this the stage, resolution of psychological conflicts pertaining to death occurs and proper resolution is critical for healing to be successful.
Acceptance of the loss and reality of death is the fifth and the last stage of grieving. Grievers at this stage have undergone denial, anger, bargaining and depression stages, and have finally realized that death and the loss of loved one is a reality that happens in life. The bereaved at this stage begin to perceive death as part of humanity and develop positive perspective about life, which make them to live normal lives despite the great loss they have suffered.
Concerning acceptance, Attig argues that, “it is about opening ourselves to and making ourselves ready to welcome unexpected possibilities and to pursue meaning down unanticipated pathways” (2004, p.355). Thus, acceptance is about realizing the meaning of death as an inherent part of life that needs endurance as life goes on in the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Death is a mystery that still scares people because no one has ever unraveled its nature and occurrence in the society. Different cultures and religious beliefs have helped people in ascertaining the meaning of life and death, therefore shedding some light to the purpose of life and living. The diversity of beliefs concerning death determines the perception of life and subsequent grieving as a way of defining the nature of life.
Thus, life is very complex because death of the loved ones makes people undergo a long period of grieving in a bid to unravel the mystery of death, which causes irreversible loss. According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, grievers undergo five stage process of grieving in order to attain psychological and emotional healing.
References Attig, T. (2004). Meanings of Death Seen Through The Lens of Grieving. Death Studies, 28, 341-360.
Henry David Thoreau Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Henry David Thoreau was born in the year 1817 in Concord Massachusetts where he grew up. He graduated from Harvard University in 1837. Between 1835 and 1836, he was a teacher in Canton a school in Massachusetts. He contracted tuberculosis in 1835 and which finally caused his death in 1862.
David’s writings have contributed a lot to today’s literature. His works provided people with knowledge in some aspects of life, which are still valuable in today’s society. Based on the works that he did, Thoreau should be included in the modern literature. This is because his works are closely related to that of modern writers since he used the same styles that are being applied in today’s writings.
Discussion Thoreau wrote his first book “A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers” in 1849.The book was about a journey he had taken with his brother john from Massachusetts to New Hampshire. Unfortunately, the book failed to sell as he had anticipated and therefore in the end, he remained with many copies, which were a great loss to him both in terms of money used in printing and time he had put in to write.
The journey was divided into eight sections, the concord river and other seven sections showing activities of the week. The first section describes the flora, fauna and the location of the river. In his trip, they made use of a hand made boat, which they had designed. He gave description of the marine and plant life that he had came across in the sea. He carefully thought about matters of religion, nature and poetry.
He compared ancient gods in traditional religion with the modern religion based in the belief of Christ. In his book, he compared eastern and western ways of life. This work is important in modern literature because it makes use of metaphor an important stylistic device in writing modern literary works.
The book is actually not about a journey. The story is used to show changes in aspects such s region, which took place in England because of industrial revolution. Thoreau is against the occurrence of those changes because they contributed to changes in societal values (Thoreau 45).
In 1849, he wrote another essay entitled Civil disobedience. This book is about a particular night in 1849 when Thoreau was taken to jail because of his refusal to tax. He wanted the Mexican war to be ended as well as slavery and that is why he rejected to pay taxes. He taught people and wrote articles about the disadvantages of slavery as well as organizing for the release of then slaves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people were leading desperate lives because of slavery. He praised himself for being able to stand against negative changes in his life. One of his principles was that, individuals should reject the desires of the government if they are against their own desires. According to him, people should follow their interests.
His message inspired Mahatma Gandhi who mobilized Indians to fight against the Britain population, which had already occupied their land forcefully. Ideas of this book are still important in modern literature because they acted as an inspiration to the people, that they should not allow the government to oppress them. If people do not agree with the policies that the government passes, they should feel free to demonstrate.
The book teaches about individuals rights. Issues like high taxation rates and slavery should be abolished in societies. In addition to this, people should be ready to achieve their rights under whatever situation. Being jailed did not stop Thoreau since he did not surrender. Through his writings and teachings, his ideas influenced people. In them it way, works of modern literature should contain information, which passes important ideas to the people (Thoreau 145).
Walden an American book written by Thoreau was about declaration of his personal independence, the experiments that he did and spiritual discovery journey. The use of irony as a stylistic device is common in this book. The book contains his details over 2 years, between1845 and 1847.
He stayed alone in a cabin, which he had constructed near a Walden Pond in Concord owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson his friend and a teacher. He did not want to seclude himself from other people because he was oftenly visited and he too visited them. What he wanted was to isolate himself to get a better chance of learning and understanding the society. He wanted to live a simple life and be in a position to satisfy his own needs. He took two years, two, months and two days staying in a simple house (Thoreau 90).
He wanted to demonstrate the importance of living a simple life. He was in a position to cater for the four basic needs including food, clothing, shelter and fuel through the help of friends. Mr. Ralph and his wife employed him, which made it possible for him to build a small house.
He also planted crops in a small garden he had cleared. He managed his income well and he was in a position to cater for his expenses. This book is helpful for societies and people who do like the idea of civilization. Civilization involves adoption of modern changes (Krutch 60).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Henry David Thoreau specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example in the civilized nations, traditional religious systems have been replaced by modern religions like Christianity. Thoreau was very ironical because there is no way, in which he could have learned about the society, and yet he was living alone. In order to learn the society well, he should have stayed closely with the society he intended to study and interacted with people. Staying alone makes it hard for him to be self-sufficient.
He has to be assisted in some issues by other people. On the contrary, Thoreau disagrees with the notion that poverty makes people inferior. Poor people should make use of available resources, which will boost them economically. One does not need to be employed to be in a position to get his basic needs. This work is important in modern literature where unemployment cases are high. It is not a must that people get employed since self-employment is very useful in modern societies (Thoreau 106).
The Bedford hand written by Diana Hacker provides literature writers with the knowledge in writing good grammar in essays, citing documents and analyzing texts. The book is divided into several where samples of essays are given. The book contains samples of essays, which make use of the main citation styles in writing. These include MLA, APA, and Chicago. This book is of help in essay writing as it teaches people on good use of grammatical words.
For example, where and when to use “a” which is usually confused with the article “an’”, the first section teaches about the processes of writing. It highlights the process of exploring a topic effectively and creating a draft before the final, presentation of work. It is also about composition of good sentences and paragraphs. The design of the document depends on the style it uses. For example, the format of a letter is different from that of a resume. Ideas on how to write different essays are clearly elaborated.
Sentence structure is very important in writing (Krutch 66). For example, different ideas are joined together with a conjunction. Sentences should be neither too long nor too short. Phrases should be used properly in a sentence so as not to lose the meaning of the sentence. The largest part of the book is covered by grammatical usage in sentences. Verbs and pronouns, conjunctions should be properly used in a sentence.
The subject should agree with the verb in a good structured sentence .Other important sections include proper use of abbreviations, punctuation, numbers and capital letters. Knowledge of writing argumentative papers as well as evaluating arguments is conveyed in the book. Finally, the book has examples of citing articles, magazines and books in APA, MLA and Chicago (Hacker and Sommers 25).
Conclusion This book is very useful in writing modern literary works. Henry David Thoreau based his works on the above aspects. This made his works influential and famous. Based on the principles he used in writing, he should be included in the modern literary canon. Most of these topics are in use in the modern world. His works are interesting and they carry with them meaningful information just like any other literary work (Hacker and Sommers 25;Krutch 66).
Works Cited Hacker, Diana and Sommers, Nancy. The Bedford handbook. London: Bedford Books, 1998.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Henry David Thoreau by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Krutch, Wood. The modern temper: A study and a confession. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956.
Thoreau, David. Civil disobedience. Washington: Hayes Barton Press, 1964.
Thoreau, David. Walden. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1854.
Thoreau, David. A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers. London: Ticknor and Fields, 1868.
The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas Essay best college essay help
Communication plays an important role in people’s lives. For instance, Japanese people who suffered from the quake were terrified because they felt isolated without any communication (Fackler 2011, p.A11). Reportedly, people who were deprived of electronic means of communication relied on such means as announcements from loudspeakers, or sirens.
Admittedly, verbal and non-verbal communication is essential for every individual. It goes without saying that every situation requires specific ways of communication, otherwise the major aim of communication will not be achieved. Thus, even informal private communication should be effective, and this can be achieved if the major principles of effective communication are taken into account.
In the first place, it is necessary to point out the major communication objective. Basically, communication objectives “include the effective exchange of ideas and opinions” (Tonn 2010). People are sharing ideas in the workplace and in their personal life. For instance, the conversation between David Carr and A.O. Scott who commented upon Oscars ceremony can be regarded as a private conversation (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The interlocutors feel free.
It is important to note that both of them pertain to one culture (they are Americans) which simplifies their communication since no cultural barriers exist between them. In fact, culture plays a very important role in communication since culture shapes individuals’ values and beliefs which influence greatly people’s behavior, which in its turn is essential when communicating.
Witsel (2009, p. 170) also stresses that cultural differences influence the effectiveness of communication greatly and it is essential to take into account these cultural peculiarities when sending and receiving messages. The present conversation is free from issues concerning cultural differences.
The communication between Carr and Scott is effective since the interlocutors manage to share their ideas. They send their messages waiting for the feedback, and they get the feedback since the interlocutor is an active listener. Both, Carr and Scott, support or refute arguments of each other, which is a very effective technique when communicating (Ulrich 2009, p.583). It is necessary to point out that sometimes the interlocutors interrupt each other, so certain barriers or, so-called noise appear.
They do not listen to the speaker attentively because they start talking and articulating their ideas (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The noise can lead to miscomprehension and it can also lead to less effective communication (Witsel 2009, p.135). However, there are only two cases of interruption, so it does not prevent interlocutors from communicating their ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present dialogue is a valuable example of the significance of non-verbal communication. For instance, the interlocutors use illustrators, “gestures that go along with” speech (Witsel 2009, p.170).
Carr and Scott laugh and nod, they make direct eye contact and these non-verbal means of communication (which are “very positive messages in US culture”) create a friendly atmosphere which is favorable for communication (Witsel 2009, p.163). Thus, it is possible to state that the dialogue can be characterized by effective communication since the interlocutors share their ideas on certain topic in a friendly atmosphere.
In my opinion, the dialogue is effective because the interlocutors had an idea about certain peculiarities of effective communication. It does not necessarily mean that they were studying those effective means of communication, but the majority of verbal and non-verbal means they used are determined by culture.
Thus, as far as non-verbal communication is concerned, smiles, nods and laugh are signs of active listening in American culture. Both speakers make use of these non-verbal means. As for verbal communication the interlocutors conveyed their ideas in explicit way so that their receiver could easily understand the message and provide his feedback.
It is necessary to point out that the work of Witsel (2009) was a very valuable source of knowledge which enabled me to learn about communication theories and, what is more important about their application in the real life.
For example, found out about the importance of paying attention to such four factors as feedback, channel, type of communication, language source (Witsel 2009, p.135). The right choice of each element is beneficial for reaching the major aim of communication. Thus, it is essential not to confuse formal or informal communication since every type has certain rules to follow.
Nevertheless, I believe that information about non-verbal communication, revealed in Witsel’s work (2009) was of primary importance for me. I acknowledged that this type of communication plays a very important (and sometimes crucial) role when sharing ideas. Many non-verbal signs can lead to misunderstanding and failing communication.
We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, I now understand that before communication your ideas to some person or people it is essential to find out more about their cultural background. This is extremely important in the modern globalized world.
In conclusion, it is necessary to point out that communication theories help understand the major principles of communication and what is more important to reach communication aims. For instance, analyzing an example of informal conversation between two Americans, it is possible to identify the main principles of effective communication.
The example is quite valuable in terms of communication analysis since the dialogue reveals effective means of communicating ideas, used by the interlocutors and their drawbacks. Basically, I learnt much about verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Now I should admit that non-verbal communication have become essential in the modern globalized world since people from different countries should share ideas effectively and cultural differences can negatively influence communication.
Reference List Fackler, M 2011, “Quake Area Residents Turn to Old Means of Communication to Keep Informed”, The New York Times, 28 Mar. 2011, p. A11.
Oscars: Youthful Audience. The New York Times Video, video, The New York Times, .
Tonn, VL 2010, “Meanings, Images of Interpersonal Communication, and The Iching.” China Media Research vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 94-103, Expanded Academic ASAP.
Ulrich, B 2009, “Engaging in Crucial Conversations.” Nephrology Nursing Journal vol.35, iss.6 (2009): 583. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web.
Witsel, M (ed.) 2009, Communication in Organisations, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.
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George Orwell’s 1984: Winston custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Winston and Julia’s Relationship
Introduction Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) is a compelling novel regarding science fiction in the twentieth century. It is written by George Orwell, a renowned writer, and reflects on various aspects of the society at that time. It outlines some elements of how the state could use its power to dominate or influence the lives of people primarily through the aspect of cultural conditioning as the Party can manipulate and control the people through totalitarianism policies.
This can be seen clearly by how Winston Smith’s personality is manipulated to the extent that he is not only integrated into the Party’s image but also comes to adore Big Brother though involuntarily. According to the author, the novel is intended to enlighten society on the kind of society they should desire. This critical essay gives an insight into Winston and Julia’s relationship and its credibility.
Winston Smith and Julia’s Relationship Winston Smith belonged to the outside Party from Oceania, which represented America and England in reality. He, for an extended period, kept his feelings to himself until the latter due to fear of being punished as the state was ruthless. His rebellion against Big Brother results in his arrest and mistreatment. Julia, on the other hand, is a young, beautiful, and strong woman, a kind which does not in any way attract or interest Winston, and this makes him hate her so much.
However, Julia seems interested in Winston through her acts. At the end of it all, we find Winston and Julia being in love , though they were quite different regarding various aspects of life, most specifically the intellectual capabilities, although they were both rebellious of the Party. Their reasoning, perspectives, and inspirations were entirely parallel due to some differences in age, among other factors.
For example, Winston thought of how the future generations could have a much better life free from the influence of the Party as it was before the Party took over leadership, but Julia could not think of this since she did not know of life before the Party. Julia’s reasons for rebelling against Big Brother were different. She was rebellious just for the sake of being against the Party but nothing much. Their love story started in a very peculiar manner where Julia falls, and Winston offers to assist her just as he would do to any other person.
It was at this moment that Julia gets the advantage of airing what she had longed for a considerable time by giving him a note in which she had written that she loved him. Although Winston had been unreceptive towards women and particularly Julia, he was touched by the words in the note, and their love affair kicked off, although they kept the affair secret for a long time (Brodeur and Orwell 1995).
The love relationship between Winston and Julia in 1984 does not seem genuine and credible due to the circumstances that surround it. There appear that there is no complete love between them, and there is a lack of emotional connection, although they both have the desire to love one another, as one can see through their desire to stay together.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Winston and Julia being in love was founded much on the idea of companionship, absent in the Party’s society, rather than love. The political act of rebellion was the foundation of their affair, and passionate love was lacking.
The existence of the common idea of being against the Party is also a contributing factor towards their togetherness as they can easily confide in each other in their struggle to rebel against the Party and in so doing, avoid being lonely. The love relationship between Julia and Winston did not go far, and they eventually departed as they both betrayed each other, which could have been avoided if they truly loved one another.
They could even end up marrying each other (Katifer 2008). Winston Smith and Julia’s relationship is a good one and makes the novel fulfill its purpose. In the relationship, Julia teaches Winston the idea of love, and the love feeling is then manipulated and directed towards Big Brother.
The connection also brings out the human nature where there is usually a mixture of love, relationship, and betrayal. Loyalty and commitment are aspects that can be linked to the relationship between them, and this differentiates Winston and Julia’s relationship from those that have been influenced by the totalitarian state that was in power during their timeline (Amadae 2003).
Conclusion Winston Smith and Julia are the main characters of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The plot of the novel, aimed to demonstrate large-scale social contradictions, unfolds around a private story of Winston and Julia’s relationship. The essay makes an analysis of the credibility of this relationship. It is questionable due to the basis on which it is founded. Political rebellion is, however, clearly shown through their relationship, and the society at that time is well depicted. We find the two actors betraying each other even with the knowledge that their staying together would play a significant role in freeing themselves from Big Brother hence proving their rationale.
Reference List Amadae, S. M, 2003. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. The USA, University of Chicago Press.
Brodeur, K, and Orwell, G. 1995. George Orwell’s 1984. USA, Research
Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
“Is Iago purely evil, or is Othello incredibly gullible? How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting?”
Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragic play written at around 1603 by William Shakespeare, which addresses the encounters of Othello, the protagonist. Othello is a Venetian military general and who falls prey of Iago’s devious schemes, which are triggered by jealousy, deceit and quest for power (Hundley 4).
Shakespeare’s Iago is amoral character who drafts devious plans to lure others into his vengeance mission. Equivocally, I ago is a significant character who participates greatly in Othello’s misfortune. He is also accountable for Emilia, Roderigo and protagonist deaths. He contributes to plot development in the play in that he relates to other characters significantly.
His most important role is to accomplish the tragedy of Othello, which brings out the themes of hatred, envy and vengeance. In addition, he distinguishes Othello’s character and that of Desdemona to expose dramatic irony for the audience to be occupied (Kolin 8).
Is Iago purely evil? Yes. His inherent evilness is seen when Iago makes friends to hate each other by taking advantage of their trust toward him. To attain his mission, he uses their worries and anxieties to “make the net that shall emesh them all” (Shakespeare II. iii. 321-2). His evil motives are mostly a soliloquy that are never attained and becomes forgotten entirely. His scheme is initiated when he desires Cassio’s position of lieutenancy, which he wanted to be his.
He is envious of him and claims that he deserves and will fit into that position. Therefore, he plots a scheme to deceive, rob and eventually kill Cassio to fit in his lieutenant position. He aspires to replace Cassio’s work as a lieutenant by taking advantage of Desdemona’s naivety. He dishonors Cassio by inciting him to finish Roderigo and free him the lieutenant position when he states that “Cassio, I love thee, But nevermore be officer of mine” (Shakespeare II.iii.242-244). As a result Cassio was become unaware of the outcome.
Iago’s devious plans persist when he tactfully makes Othello to believe that his wife, Desdemona, is cheating on him with Cassio even without any evidence to show for it. Iago accomplishes this mission by ensuring that Othello’s thoughts concentrates on the fact that he is being cheated on, an aspect that leads to his tragedy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Othello instead fall into his scheme and his furry makes him hate his wife whom she doesn’t believe. Significantly, Iago awards Othello with the evil thought that he could kill his wife Desdemona, which will accomplish Iago’s vengeance mission (Hankey 5).
His devious plan is manifested when he claims that Iago had had an affair with Emilia, Iago’s life. To ascertain this fact, Othello points out that “And it is thought abroad that t’wixt my sheets/ He’s done my office” I know not if’t be true/ But I, for mere suspicion in that kind; / Will do as if for surety”(Shakespeare I.iii.381-385). Iago’s paranoia is tremendous to an extent that his insanity is portrayed when he deludes Othello to kill his own wife.
As if that is not enough, Iago robs his friend Roderigo. He uses the funds awarded to him by Roderigo to entice Desdemona. On noticing that Iago kept the money for himself, Roderigo makes threats to Iago and becomes furious about his actions. Unexpectedly, when Roderigo is informed of the scheme to entice Desdemona, his mind is eroded to forget about the money and instead, kill Cassio, whom Iago is envious of and is supposedly having an affair with Desdemona (Hankey 8).
These instances show that Iago has no conscious and therefore amoral, as depicted through his actions. He is deceptive to his wife and friends, which emphasize his evilness. He is tactful in carrying out his schemes, which however portrays his diabolical capability allowing him to erode his friends and his fife’s thoughts.
His intellectual ability is astonishing to the reader since he achieves and gets away with his devious schemes. He is able to win over other’s thoughts by targeting their desires through twisting, playing and eventually brainwashing their psychological power. These instances clearly portray Iago as having no conscience therefore, purely evil (Hundley 5).
Is Othello incredibly gullible? Yes. Othello on the other hand is a gullible character unlike Iago, who falls into the trap of Iago and falls into prey of his evil tactics. Othello’s character is dynamic having been a villain in the beginning and.
His jealousness is exposed after Iago deceives him to become vengeful and kill his wife. Othello angrily point out that “`Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her, damn her! Come go with me part. I will withdraw To furnish me with some swift means of death. For the fair devil. Now are the my lieutenant’” (Shakespeare I. iii. 122).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This susceptibility and jealousness causes his tragedy. Othello’s weaknesses is exposed by the allegedly wife’s infidelity which he takes as being unclean and disgusting. This is because he observes sex as a unifying force which bloats his paranoia. Iago’s quest to become powerful is manifest as he pursues to destroy Othello who is a Venetian military general since he is envious of his status. Iago in disbelieve wonders how easy it is to brainwash Othello and even appreciates how easy it was to do so (Kolin 203).
How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting? To start with, Othello falls short of knowledge on brewing power and is therefore doomed to fail. He is in the military as a general and therefore has authority over war such as the Turkish fleet, an aspect which should be reflected in his life but fails to (Vaughan 35).
Othello’s faults indicate that his tragic end is justifiable although he did not deserve it. Being a ‘god of war’ he should have done better than having his several flaws dictates his tragic end. By doing this Shakespeare achieves the reader’s sympathy towards the protagonist.
In addition, Othello lives in his own world since he has distinct race and culture since he is not conversant with traditions in Venetian women and even marries Desdemona irrespective of her father’s disapproval. Besides, He takes women as being holy or as being filthy based on their degree of fidelity. His naivety is reflected as he does not believe his wife since he has witnessed her deceive her father before, a deception that she allegedly transfers to the matrimonial bed.
Moreover, Othello has immature communication skills leave alone his expression of personal thoughts, aspects which exaggerate his inadequacy. He says to Brabantio and Duke that “Rude am I in my speech and little blessed with the soft phrase of peace (Shakespeare 1.ll. 81-82)….. And little of this great world can I speak, More than pertains to feats of broil and battle (Shakespeare 1. ll. 86-87).
He uses violence instead of persuasion when addressing women and murders his wife for a single unproved reason of infidelity. This indicate Othello is unable to multitask and has no flexibility of reason as he trusts Iago, since he has proven to be sincere and friendly as well as being loyal to Emilia His wife.
He does not conduct introspection to evaluate his inner self but believes Iago’s incitement and insinuations blindly, becomes emotional, which leads to his irrational thinking. His gullibility ignites jealous which overwhelms him and controls his actions. Eventually, Iago accomplishes his evil schemes of destroying Othello and his wife who were deeply in love.
In conclusion, Othello’s imperfections justifies his tragic end an aspect that Shakespeare implants in the reader to depict that Othello and his like are not the best people to lead the world due to their inherent imperfections. Although he defends the residents of Venice in war, through his victories and abilities, he emerges a tragic hero since he lacks a sound reason and falls into Iago’s plot. This guilt haunts him and ultimately drives him to commit suicide as he sees it as a means of sacrifice to pay for the death of his beloved wife.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Iago’s quest for power, vengeance is accelerated by jealousy and this does not benefit him in any way. As a result, Intellectual power is necessary to enable one to have a rational and an independent thought before carrying out an action. Othello’s predicament awards sympathy to the reader, which appears more real than fiction (Vaughan 5). Therefore, Iago is purely evil while Othello incredibly gullible since he falls prey of Iago’s devious plot.
Works Cited Hankey, Julie. Othello. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2005. Print.
Hundley, Sterling. Othello. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 2005. Print.
Kolin, Phillip. Othello: New Critical Essays. New York: Routledge. 2002. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Othello: By William Shakespeare. New York: MobileReference. 2008. Print.
Vaughan, Virginia. Othello: A Contextual History. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1996. Print.
Knowledge as perception or opinion Essay online essay help
Socrates was a Greek Athenian philosopher who was known for his contribution to western philosophy. His students, Xenophon and Plato, accounted for most of his work in some of their dialogues and writings.
He is credited for his contributions in ethics. In the dialogue, ‘Theaetetus’, Socrates gets into a serious discussion with a student of Protagoras on knowledge. A similar discussion is witnessed in Russell’s book ‘The Problem of Philosophy’. Protagoras defines his statement that ‘man is the measure of all things’ by arguing that truth is relative and depends on an individual.
To illustrate this he gives an example of a blowing wind where an individual can only feel the warmth in the wind if he or she has a temperature which is lower than that of the wind and vice versa (Burnyeat , 12). Similarly he uses this argument to defend his opinion on knowledge. According to Theaetetus, knowledge is perception, an opinion that is disputed by Socrates. Socrates puts it clear that knowledge is an opinion that is beyond stimulation of the senses.
Theaetetus, being a student of Protagoras, must have shared the same definition of knowledge with Protagoras. At the same time the theory of Protagoras has implications of perception being true. A large part of the conversation is about setting up definitions of knowledge and science.
The conversations move from lower to higher stages with three main clear issues of discussion. These issues are reasoning, opinion and perception and they are thoroughly examined. Socrates first removes the doubt and confusion that exists between types of knowledge and the idea of knowledge. Theaetetus defines knowledge by giving an example of knowledge. This quickly finds rejection by Socrates with the argument that it is not sufficient enough to define something by giving an example of that thing
He compares two sensations and argues that this has implications of a higher principle beyond knowledge. This principle resides in the mind meaning that knowledge is a true opinion. It is possible for an individual to be able to sense something that he or she does not know. While at the same time one can have the knowledge of something that he or she cannot feel or sense in any way.
For instance, according to Socrates’ arguments, you can know that a friend or anybody you recognize is standing next to you when you see them there. If you close your eyes immediately you cannot see them but you are able to know that they are still there meaning that knowledge is a mere opinion that is viable and true at the same time it is beyond sensation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Socrates expounds further on his position by asking Theaetetus if it is true that whenever we see or hear things we already know them. It is impossible to assume that someone can know a foreign language he has never heard before by hearing somebody else speaking it. Yes it is true that it is possible to hear the words but one cannot know what is being said (Burnyeat , 162b).
Socrates clearly disputes the definition of knowledge as perception. Since perception is as a result of stimulation of the senses, and the senses only give us the appearance of objects not there reality (Russell , 7), then it is wrong to consider perception to define knowledge. Similarly knowledge cannot be derived from our daily experiences because we experience through perception and feelings.
But however it has been agreed that experience to some sense can derive knowledge and at the same time, perception is not only the sensory stimulation or awareness of things (Russell , 4). Sometimes we could perceive divine things. There are several deceptions that can come as result of perception.
Russell in his book uses an example of a table and critically analyzes it in terms of the change in appearance as a result of change in condition. If the lighting condition is changed, the table changes its color. This creates distrust in what our perception, in this case the eye, tells us. All these changes in appearance with changes in condition may claim to be the reality. So we are uncertain of what exactly is real.
Protagoras explains knowledge as perception and expresses it alternatively as man being the measure of things meaning that all men judge what is. Knowledge depends with the individual and he explains his definition with an illustration of a cold wind that blows on an individual’s face.
The difference in perception of the coldness of the wind depends with the internal temperature of the individual. If Protagoras admits that all opinion judged by man to be true then any opinion against his own is also true. But however Socrates refuses to agree that the opinion of Protagoras to be true
He disputes the claim by saying that the word ‘is’ used in this statement implies ‘appears’ and ‘appears’ implies feeling. It is incorrect to refer to perception, appearance and feeling as being. Being is a phenomenon that exists beyond the natural sensation.
We will write a custom Essay on Knowledge as perception or opinion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It involves the mental and mind and knowledge is more than perception meaning there is no way that we could have a true opinion by relying on our feelings. We can only perceive using one means or instrument at a time. We cannot use our ears to see a color neither can we use our eyes to hear any sound. Perception is limited to the power used for perceiving but knowledge is beyond these instruments of perceiving.
The only sure thing that we can know we know is nothing, according to Socrates. He says that his wisdom is limited by his ignorance. He was of the opinion that wrong doing is as a result of ignorance and the people who do wrong are only doing it from ignorance. Personally such an opinion is incorrect.
Every action of human beings is not as a result of ignorance but choice. People make choice to do what they want whether wrong or good. Wrong actions are defined wrong because they are deficient of love. According to Socrates love seems to be that one thing that he consistently knows. He refers to love as the concept of loving wisdom. Socrates loved wisdom because he linked wisdom to philosophy.
Still on the dialogue of Protagoras, Socrates explains that all is motion and motions takes part in two forms: passion and action. From these two forms, infinite concepts and ideas are created and sense is given birth. The eye is designed to sense whiteness while objects are filled with the sense of whiteness.
The object gives birth to sensation of whiteness while the eye gives birth to whiteness. There is no other element that can produce a similar effect meaning that things are not, but instead they become. Hence there is no name that can really define something.
Socrates never used to refer to himself as a wise man in fact he says that he has no wisdom of his own and he is only offering the wisdom of men. His intention in the dialogue is to deliver Theodorus and Theaetetus of something. Personally, his explanation on the falseness of perception is very true and has a strong ground. Madness and dreaming are cases where perception does not hold. We spend a huge part of our lives a sleep and dreaming.
Dreaming not only occurs when we sleep but it is possible to day dream in full consciousness. It is also not verifiable if at this very instant we are dreaming or not dreaming. Mad men when they fantasize, do they having a true opinion or false opinion? There are different perceptions produced in every patient. Socrates explains this by illustrating that he may be sick or well. When he drinks his favorite wine when sick, it tastes different from the moment he drinks the wine when he is well. It actually tastes better when he is well.
To criticize Socrates’ arguments, it seems that he relies mostly on dispute rather than reason to put across his points. He seems to be attempting to trip opinions that he does not agree with. He fails to recognize that dispute and reasoning are not the same thing and there is a distinction between the tow.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Knowledge as perception or opinion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With reasoning, some one makes an effort to understand an opinion before beginning to identify errors made in that argument. Most of his explanations to dispute Protagoras were based on one aspect of sensation which is the sense of sight. Other critics of Socrates identified him as not as a proponent of philosophy but some one with bad intentions of undermining the society of Athens.
Socrates also had some good virtues that personally I tend to identify with. He believed that people should spend more time trying to develop their lives rather than accumulating material wealth which is absolutely useless. He always encouraged people to be focused on building friendship and truth in their communities. He ended up becoming a philosophical martyr because of sticking to his believes. In most of his teachings, he emphasized that virtue is the most expensive of everything.
Works Cited Burnyeat, Myles. The Teaetetus of Plato. Trans. Jane Levett. Hackett: Indianapolis, 1990.
Russell, Bertrand. The Problem of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press, 1912.
“Never Marry a Mexican”: Theme Analysis cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents How It Began
Sandra Cisneros: “Never Marry a Mexican” History of Creation
Long Way to the Insight
“Never Marry a Mexican”: Summary
Negative Mexican Stereotypes and Consequences
Never Marry a Mexican: Analysis
Sandra Cisneros’s women reflect the Mexican immigrant’s struggle to assimilate the parts of themselves that negative cultural stereotypes have taught them to hate. “Never Marry a Mexican” analysis shall be provided in this paper.
How It Began In 1954 author Sandra Cisneros was born in a low-income family of seven children, based in Chicago, Illinois. Her mother was Mexican American, and her father, a full Mexican. Cisneros grew up the only girl among six brothers and has described this experience as “being similar to having seven fathers” (Yudin
Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The origin of a Marriage Institution
Improper Family Set up
The Need for Correction
Introduction The issue of gay marriages and gay institutions has attracted much attention and arguments with each passing day strengthening and intensifying the arguments.With modernity and civilisation creeping in to the contemporary society,the current stance seems to be taking a new perspective.
Should we or should we not allow gay marriages as civil unions? This is the question that many people would like to get an answer for. This essay gives an argumentative approach to this question by discussing the current stance on the issue as well as reasons as to why gay marriages and unions should never be legalized.
Gay Marriage Gay marriage refers to the marital union between two males. Traditionally, the marriage institution consisted of only heterosexual unions but things have changed and with modernity and civilisation the issue of what constitutes a marriage has been questioned as more people strive to have the interpretation allow for marriage between people of the same sex.This issue carriesa lot of weight and significance in the society.
Statistics Diverse societies all over the world take this issue differently with some societies opting to fully support gay marriages as civil unions.Others have decided to remain neutral while others have taken a strong stand against the issue. A recent report by NCSL indicated the diversity of the issue of gay marriages and unions. The report presented the following conclusions:
States which license gay marriages areMassachusetts, Connecticut, California, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, District of Columbia; states which acknowledge gay unions include Rhode Island, New York, Maryland; states which support gaycivil unions include Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey; states which allow full spousal rights to domestic gay partnerships include California, Oregon, Nevada, Washington and states which allow limited spousal rights to domestic gay partnershipsinclude Hawaii, Maine, District of Columbia, Wisconsin. (NCSL 1)
These statistics are a clear indicator of what the society thinks about gay marriages and unions.It may be justified to respect the thoughts and feelings of other people based on the fact that we are all different and we view issues from different perspectives.A critical look at all the facts and perspectives of the marriage institution makes it apparent that gay marriage legalizationneed to be questioned or better still be discouraged and banned altogether.
The origin of a Marriage Institution The first question that we need to ask ourselves is, where exactly did marriage institution begin? Come to think of it, all the theories of creation, be it evolution or creation all depend on the structure of heterosexual relationships. Evolution would not have brought us to where we are withoutheterosexual concept.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creation theory from all religions and cultures began with male and female including animal and the plant kingdoms and through heterosexual relationships the world came to be what it is today. Why did creation or revolution not start with two men or two women? Glenn put it straight and strongly opposes this opinion (Glenn 4). The answer is simple; nature does not recognize gay marriages or unions, a fact indicating how unnatural gay marriages are and why they should never be legalized.
Do gay marriage supporters fully support the whole idea? Surprisingly they don’t. Suppose we all woke up one day and agreed in unison that all people get into gay marriages. Definitely that would mark the end of mankind and that is why gay marriage supporters want to have adoption rights; to adopt children from those who obey natural laws of nature or have multi sexual relationships.
Dulle has a strong argument against homosexual relationships “homosexual ‘families’ of whatever type are always and necessarily parasitic on heterosexual ones” (Dulle 1). And since they are parasitic, who would certainly want to be the victim of such parasitism? Definitely not me, and that is the reason why I will not support such parasitic gay unions (Dulle 1).
Improper Family Set up Imagine yourself being brought up in a gay set up where both parents are men.Seeing other kids cling passionately with love to their sweet mothers while all you have is two men in your life. How would you go through puberty and adolescent issues as a girl without having a natural motherly love to lean on during those trying moments?
The fact is that it would be a traumatic experience for children to grow up in such a family set up. It is argued that“the marital family is also the foremost setting for the education and socialization of children; children learn about the world and their place in it primarily from those who raise them” (Dulle 1). This is one big reason anyone should agree with me as to why gay marriages should never be legalized.
Proponents argue that the society defines marriage and as such its definition should change with the changes with time. What is wrong with such an argument? Logically speaking marriage is not defined by the societybut rather acknowledged as the basic building block of the society.
Marriageought to build a family intofamilies and the families in turn make a society. That is the reason why cultures, religions and legal structures do not recognize gay relationships. Ever seen a building made of stones alone or cement alone? Society made of men alone or women alone would not certainly be the best for you and that’s the reason why gay institutions should not be legalized (Newton 50).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is argued that legalizing the act will only bring to light what is usually done in the darkness. But does legalization make things right? I don’t think so. Just because you can now eat ash doesn’t make ash a new wonderful type of a delicacy. Ash will still remain ash however legal it might be and it will never benefit the body.
Likewise legalizing gay marriages will never make them right and on contrary it will only make matters worse by opening up avenues for experimentation which is so detrimental for the well-being of any society. Legal systems are societal protective mechanisms against any threats to its existence by encouraging good ethical behaviors and discouraging potential unethical behaviors such as gay marriages. That is the reason why legal systems should desist from supporting gay relationships (Newton 51).
Proponents argue that gay marriages promotes faithfulness by fulfilling ones desires the best way one may see appropriate. But we all have our own desires to do things some of which are not moral. It then becomes a moral question, whereby we have to exercise high degree of self-control for moral purposes.
If we allow gay marriages because they have that kind of sexual orientation then we should as well allow man animal,grownups versus children, brother sister marriages or more still legalize things that we feel in ourselves as good to us irrespective of whether they harm the society or not. We all have feelings some of which might not be the best for the social fabric but we suppress them and we still remain human and happy. To make the point even clear, the legal system ensures that we stick to that which is moral.
Hargrave shared the same sentiments “I don’t deny the reality of those desires, or their strength – heterosexuals feel them as well;for the social good, they should either control their desires, or satisfy them discreetly” (Hargrave 1). From this argument gay marriages then depict weakness and lack of goodwill to exercise self-control at least for the sake of respect of nature. You agree with me that legal systems should help them exercise self-control just like the rest of us by prohibiting gay unions.
The Need for Correction Proponents of gay marriages claim that gay people are born that way and that it is genetically entrenched in them. Research done to find proof of this claims concluded there is no such gene. To make it clear we all know there is no gene for killing, stealing, bestiality, pedophiles, rapists let alone gay people.
Same sex attraction is not genetic but rather a social behavior which according to Hargrave “is the behavior of persons with child and adolescent Gender Identity Disorder” (Hargrave 1).If a child develops rickets,it is not because of her own making or genetics do we then satisfy her need for quality life by implementing rickets sports and rickets lifestyle? Certainly not but on the contrary control the rickets and make the society rickets free. The same argument applies to gay people.
By understanding the root cause of this contentious issue and finding a permanent cure would be a celebrated achievement rather than trying effortlessly to accommodate this unnatural, unethical and uncultured behavior that we ourselves as a society have created by poor upbringing of our kids.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been argued that prevention is better than cure and as such we should never legalize gay marriages instead use the energy resources to treat the root cause by of course letting our children grow in the best society possible. It is evident that by a gay union cannot make up a family.
Gay marriages by default cannot have children that can be claimed to belong to the family biologically. As argued from above therefore such kind of marriages cannot sustain a society. It is worth noting that if suchkinds of practices are allowed to take gain strength in the society then there is a likelihood that after some considerate period of time the society will likely be affected with an issue of under population.
Conclusion Much debate, campaigns and arguments have taken sides. A closer look indicates that the society is divided across the board on whether to agree or disagree and to what extent. By a critical look at the issue and calculated argumentative thought it has become clear that gay marriage and unions should be phased out of the society and such acts should never be legalized.
Some of the reasons that were evident in the arguments were that gay relationships are against laws of nature, gay institutions are unnatural and parasitic hence only work to complicate family institution and furthermore gay marriage institutions were never the plan of God, nature or even evolution. Root cause of gay affiliations hasbeen attributed to adolescent gender identity disorder which needs to be addressed. These and other facts clearly validate the argument why gay marriage and gay unions should never be legalized.
Works Cited Dulle, Jason. An Argument against Same-Sex Marriage. Plain Site,2011. Web.
Glenn, Stanton. Marriage on Trial: The Case Against Same-sex Marriage and Parenting. London, U.K., 2010. Print.
Hargrave, Joe. A Secular Argument against Gay Marriage. American Catholic, 2010. Web.
NCSL. Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships. NCSL, 2011. Web.
Newton, David. Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. New York, NY: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.